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Sample records for arsenic exposure transforms

  1. Cryptic exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Rossy, Kathleen M; Janusz, Christopher A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity. PMID:16394429

  2. Cryptic exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Rossy, Kathleen M; Janusz, Christopher A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  3. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Stueckle, Todd A.; Lu, Yongju; Davis, Mary E.; Wang, Liying; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Holaskova, Ida; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a six month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-κB, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPARα/δ-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. PMID:22521957

  4. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stueckle, Todd A.; Lu, Yongju; Davis, Mary E.; Wang, Liying; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Holaskova, Ida; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2012-06-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a 6 month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-κB, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPARα/δ-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. Highlights: ► Chronic As{sub 2}O

  5. Effects of freshwater exposure to arsenic trioxide on the parr-smolt transformation of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.W.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; Mayer, F.L.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Gregory, S.V.; Yasutake, W.T.; Smith, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic (6 months) exposure to arsenic trioxide in fresh water on the Parr-smolt transformation of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were evaluated. Exposure to 300 μg As/L (as As2O3) appeared to delay the onset of the normal increase in plasma thyroxine concentration and cause a transient reduction of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Fish exposed to 300 μg As/L also migrated to the sea less successfully than did nonexposed smolts, but there were no effects on the survival and growth of smolts held in 28‰ salt water for 6 months.

  6. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  7. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  8. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  9. A study of the subchronic effects of arsenic exposure on the liver tissues of Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared technique.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Pl R M; Vijayasundaram, V; Prabu, S Milton

    2011-08-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to study the subchronic effects of arsenic exposure on the biochemical composition; mainly proteins of the liver tissues of Labeo rohita fingerlings by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique. The study was carried out using a Perkin Elmer-Spectrum Rx1 spectrometer. Because of arsenic exposure, significant reductions in the intensity as well as area of amide bands have been observed in the liver tissues. The decreased intensity of the amide bands could be interpreted as the result of alteration of the protein synthesis due to the high affinity of metal compounds towards different amino acid residues of proteins. Further, meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) treatment shows the recovery of the protein content in the liver tissues. To confirm that the changes observed are only due to the bio-accumulation of arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the liver tissues of Labeo rohita was determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). It is observed that the arsenic level in the control tissues is found to be below detectable limit, whereas the arsenic exposed liver shows an accumulation of 66.68 ± 0.43 μg/g and DMSA treatment reduces the arsenic content to 17.96 ± 0.19 μg/g. In conclusion, this study gives clear evidence that the use of FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful approach to achieve more insight into the protein alterations caused by arsenic.

  10. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franzblau, A.; Lilis, R. )

    1989-11-01

    Reports of acute arsenic poisoning arising from environmental exposure are rare. Two cases of acute arsenic intoxication resulting from ingestion of contaminated well water are described. These patients experienced a variety of problems: acute gastrointestinal symptoms, central and peripheral neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hepatic toxicity, and mild mucous membrane and cutaneous changes. Although located adjacent to an abandoned mine, the well water had been tested for microorganisms only and was found to be safe. Regulations for testing of water from private wells for fitness to drink are frequently nonexistent, or only mandate biologic tests for microorganisms. Well water, particularly in areas near mining activity, should be tested for metals.

  11. Arsenic Exposure and Toxicology: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael F.; Beck, Barbara D.; Chen, Yu; Lewis, Ari S.; Thomas, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The metalloid arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed in food, water, air, and soil. Arsenic has a long history of use as a homicidal agent, but in the past 100 years arsenic, has been used as a pesticide, a chemotherapeutic agent and a constituent of consumer products. In some areas of the world, high levels of arsenic are naturally present in drinking water and are a toxicological concern. There are several structural forms and oxidation states of arsenic because it forms alloys with metals and covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and other elements. Environmentally relevant forms of arsenic are inorganic and organic existing in the trivalent or pentavalent state. Metabolism of arsenic, catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase, is a sequential process of reduction from pentavalency to trivalency followed by oxidative methylation back to pentavalency. Trivalent arsenic is generally more toxicologically potent than pentavalent arsenic. Acute effects of arsenic range from gastrointestinal distress to death. Depending on the dose, chronic arsenic exposure may affect several major organ systems. A major concern of ingested arsenic is cancer, primarily of skin, bladder, and lung. The mode of action of arsenic for its disease endpoints is currently under study. Two key areas are the interaction of trivalent arsenicals with sulfur in proteins and the ability of arsenic to generate oxidative stress. With advances in technology and the recent development of animal models for arsenic carcinogenicity, understanding of the toxicology of arsenic will continue to improve. PMID:21750349

  12. Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Song, Ki-Hoon; Chung, Jin-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments. PMID:25284195

  13. Characterization of Roseomonas and Nocardioides spp. for arsenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Bagade, Aditi V; Bachate, Sachin P; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Giri, Ashok P; Kodam, Kisan M

    2016-11-15

    The metalloid arsenic predominantly exists in the arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. These two forms are respectively oxidized and reduced by microbial redox processes. This study was designed to bioprospect arsenic tolerating bacteria from Lonar lake and to characterize their arsenic redoxing ability. Screening of sixty-nine bacterial species isolated from Lonar lake led to identification of three arsenic-oxidizing and seven arsenic-reducing species. Arsenite oxidizing isolate Roseomonas sp. L-159a being closely related to Roseomonas cervicalis ATCC 49957 oxidized 2mM As(III) in 60h. Gene expression of large and small subunits of arsenite oxidase respectively showed 15- and 17-fold higher expression. Another isolate Nocardioides sp. L-37a formed a clade with Nocardioides ghangwensis JC2055, exhibited normal growth with different carbon sources and pH ranges. It reduced 2mM As(V) in 36h and showed constitutive expression of arsenate reductase which increased over 4-fold upon As(V) exposure. Genetic markers related to arsenic transformation were identified and characterized from the two isolates. Moderate resistance against the arsenicals was exhibited by the two isolates in the range of 1-5mM for As(III) and 1-200mM for As(V). Altogether we provide multiple evidences to indicate that Roseomonas sp. and Nocardioides sp. exhibited arsenic transformation ability. PMID:27498193

  14. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Gruber, Joann F; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A Jay; Baker, Emily R; Jackson, Brian P; Folt, Carol L; Karagas, Margaret R

    2011-12-20

    Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's home tap water for arsenic, which we combined with tap water consumption to estimate arsenic exposure through water. Women who reported rice intake (n = 73) consumed a median of 28.3 g/d, which is ∼0.5 cup of cooked rice each day. In general linear models adjusted for age and urinary dilution, both rice consumption (g, dry mass/d) and arsenic exposure through water (μg/d) were significantly associated with natural log-transformed total urinary arsenic (βrice = 0.009, βwater = 0.028, both P < 0.0001), as well as inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid (each P < 0.005). Based on total arsenic, consumption of 0.56 cup/d of cooked rice was comparable to drinking 1 L/d of 10 μg As/L water, the current US maximum contaminant limit. US rice consumption varies, averaging ∼0.5 cup/d, with Asian Americans consuming an average of >2 cups/d. Rice arsenic content and speciation also vary, with some strains predominated by dimethylarsinic acid, particularly those grown in the United States. Our findings along with others indicate that rice consumption should be considered when designing arsenic reduction strategies in the United States. PMID:22143778

  15. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  16. The arsenic exposure hypothesis for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Gong, Gordon; OʼBryant, Sid E

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has shown that arsenic exposure induces changes that coincide with most of the developmental, biochemical, pathologic, and clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD) and associated disorders. On the basis of this literature, we propose the Arsenic Exposure Hypothesis for AD that is inclusive of and cooperative with the existing hypotheses. Arsenic toxicity induces hyperphosphorylation of protein tau and overtranscription of the amyloid precursor protein, which are involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and brain amyloid plaques, consistent with the amyloid hypothesis of AD. Arsenic exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors, which is in agreement with the vascular hypothesis of AD. Arsenic exposure invokes brain inflammatory responses, which resonates with the inflammatory hypotheses of AD. Arsenic exposure has been linked to reduced memory and intellectual abilities in children and adolescents, which provides a biologic basis for the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis for AD. Arsenic and its metabolites generate free radicals causing oxidative stress and neuronal death, which fits the existing oxidative stress hypothesis. Taken together, the arsenic exposure hypothesis for AD provides a parsimonious testable hypothesis for the development and progression of this devastating disease at least for some subsets of individuals.

  17. Arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disorders: an overview.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Kaur, Jagdeep

    2009-12-01

    The incidence of arsenic toxicity has been observed in various countries including Taiwan, Bangladesh, India, Argentina, Australia, Chile, China, Hungary, Peru, Thailand, Mexico and United States of America. Arsenic is a ubiquitous element present in drinking water, and its exposure is associated with various cardiovascular disorders. Arsenic exposure plays a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial dysfunction as it inactivates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, leading to reduction in the generation and bioavailability of nitric oxide. In addition, the chronic arsenic exposure induces high oxidative stress, which may affect the structure and function of cardiovascular system. Further, the arsenic exposure has been noted to induce atherosclerosis by increasing the platelet aggregation and reducing fibrinolysis. Moreover, arsenic exposure may cause arrhythmia by increasing the QT interval and accelerating the cellular calcium overload. The chronic exposure to arsenic upregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule and vascular endothelial growth factor to induce cardiovascular pathogenesis. The present review critically discussed the detrimental role of arsenic in the cardiovascular system.

  18. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  19. Fatalities following skin exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Majid Cheraghali, A; Haghqoo, Soheila; Shalviri, Gloria; Shariati, Yaghoub R; Ghassemi, Maleehe; Khosravi, Shahram

    2007-12-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metal that can cause death following exposure. In an unusual event, seven patients unintentionally applied a 30% arsenic solution to their entire body instead of a benzyl benzoate solution to treat their scabies. Hours later they developed severe skin reactions, including bullae, and were admitted to the hospital with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disorders. Despite therapeutic interventions, three patients died and the rest were discharged from hospital with neurological sequelae. Toxicological analysis confirmed the presence of arsenic in the solution used by patients.

  20. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  1. ARE ALL ARSENIC EXPOSURES TOXIC? SUPPORTING REGIONAL RISK ASSESSMENTS THROUGH IMPROVED ARSENIC SPECIATION METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure assessments require the evaluation of the relative contribution of both media (water, food, etc.) and routes of exposure (ingestion, inhalation, dermal). For arsenic, the important media are predominately water and food and therefore, the route of concern for ...

  2. Association Between Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Plasma Levels of Cardiovascular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Wójcik, Oktawia; Parvez, Faruque; Rahaman, Ronald; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relation between arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (matrix metalloproteinase-9, myeloperoxidase, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, soluble E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)) using baseline data from 668 participants (age, >30 years) in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh (2007–2008). Both well water arsenic and urinary arsenic were positively associated with plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1. For every 1-unit increase in log-transformed well water arsenic (ln μg/L) and urinary arsenic (ln μg/g creatinine), plasma soluble VCAM-1 was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.03) and 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07) times greater, respectively. There was a significant interaction between arsenic exposure and higher body mass index, such that the increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and soluble VCAM-1 associated with arsenic exposure were stronger among people with higher body mass index. The findings indicate an effect of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that could be modified by body mass index and also suggest a potential mechanism underlying the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22534204

  3. Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Magellan, Kit; Barral-Fraga, Laura; Rovira, Marona; Srean, Pao; Urrea, Gemma; García-Berthou, Emili; Guasch, Helena

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters

  4. Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Magellan, Kit; Barral-Fraga, Laura; Rovira, Marona; Srean, Pao; Urrea, Gemma; García-Berthou, Emili; Guasch, Helena

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters

  5. Arsenic Toxicity to Juvenile Fish: Effects of Exposure Route, Arsenic Speciation, and Fish Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic toxicity to juvenile rainbow trout and fathead minnows was evaluated in 28-day tests using both dietborne and waterborne exposures, both inorganic and organic arsenic species, and both a live diet and an arsenic-spiked pellet diet. Effects of inorganic arsenic on rainbow...

  6. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous

  7. Population Based Exposure Assessment of Bioaccessible Arsenic in Carrots

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two predominant arsenic exposure routes are food and water. Estimating the risk from dietary exposures is complicated, owing to the chemical form dependent toxicity of arsenic and the diversity of arsenicals present in dietary matrices. Two aspects of assessing dietary expo...

  8. Mortality experience in relation to a measured arsenic trioxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Pinto, S S; Enterline, P E; Henderson, V; Varner, M O

    1977-08-01

    This report examines the mortality experience of 527 men who retired from a copper smelter where they were exposed to airborne arsenic trioxide. Urinary arsenic values of all plant employees were determined in 1973, and the relative arsenic exposure in the various departments of the plant were determined. The relationship of airborne arsenic concentrations to urinary arsenic values was studied in a separate experiment, and the feasibility of using urinary arsenic values as a measure of arsenic exposure was established. The mortality experience of the cohort under study showed them to have a mortality 12.2% higher than was found for males of the same area at the same ages and in the same time period. The excess mortality was due chiefly to respiratory cancer. When the deaths were classified by total lifetime arsenic exposure, the respiratory cancer mortality was linearly related to the amount of exposure. The 1973 figures for arsenic exposure underestimated the exposure of the cohort group by a factor of possibly 10. Evidence was obtained which suggests that after removal from arsenic exposure, the risk of lung cancer declines. Certain of the data which are presented suggests there may be a threshold value for airborne arsenic trioxide exposure below which no adverse effects may be expected.

  9. Arsenic levels in fingernails as a biological indicator of exposure to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Agahian, B.; Lee, J.S.; Nelson, J.H.; Johns, R.E. )

    1990-12-01

    The analysis of urine, blood, and hair has been used previously to monitor occupational exposure to arsenic (As). Although arsenic is normally present in human fingernails (usually as a result of dietary factors), this study evaluated the potential use of levels of arsenic in fingernails as a biological indicator of occupational exposure to this element. Air samples and fingernail clippings were obtained from individuals with no exposure and high, medium, and low exposure. A washing technique, previously developed to remove exogenous arsenic from hair, was modified to wash the fingernail samples collected in this study. It was demonstrated that 98% of exogenous arsenic was removed from these nails. A high correlation coefficient (r = 0.89) was observed in a comparison of the mean air arsenic concentrations of each exposure group with corresponding arsenic levels in fingernails. From the data collected, an equation was derived to estimate the air arsenic exposure level for a worker from the arsenic content of fingernails: air arsenic concentration (micrograms As/m3) = 1.79 x fingernail arsenic level (micrograms As/g nail)-5.9.

  10. p38α MAPK is required for arsenic-induced cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Gyum; Shi, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure has been reported to cause neoplastic transformation through the activation of PcG proteins. In the present study, we show that activation of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is required for arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation. Exposure of cells to 0.5 μM arsenic increased CRE and c-Fos promoter activities that were accompanied by increases in p38α MAPK and CREB phosphorylation and expression levels concurrently with AP-1 activation. Introduction of short hairpin (sh) RNA-p38α into BALB/c 3T3 cells markedly suppressed arsenic-induced colony formation compared with wildtype cells. CREB phosphorylation and AP-1 activation were decreased in p38α knockdown cells after arsenic treatment. Arsenic-induced AP-1 activation, measured as c-Fos and CRE promoter activities, and CREB phosphorylation were attenuated by p38 inhibition in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Thus, p38α MAPK activation is required for arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation mediated through CREB phosphorylation and AP-1 activation.

  11. Consequences of acute and chronic exposure to arsenic in children.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Rebecca L; Abernathy, Charles O; Thomas, David J

    2004-07-01

    Arsenic is a toxic chemical and may cause adverse health effects in children and adults. It is known to affect the nervous, gastrointestinal, and hematological systems and cause skin and internal cancers in people exposed to levels greater than 300 ppb in their drinking water. For most people, the major exposure to arsenic comes from food (8 to 14 microg inorganic arsenic per day), but when the arsenic level in water is elevated, drinking water becomes the predominant source of exposure. Because it is very difficult to limit arsenic exposure from food, it would be wise to limit arsenic exposure from those more controllable sources. Pediatricians should ascertain the levels of arsenic in drinking water of patients with high arsenic levels, using the supplier or, in the case of private wells, a professional water-testing laboratory assay. The Safe Drinking Water Act does not cover private wells or those water systems with less than 15 hook-ups or those that serve less than 25 people. Pediatricians should instruct parents to use prepared baby formulas or prepare them using water with the arsenic removed and to curtail playing time for younger children in places that have sand containing large amounts of arsenic. Such procedures will limit arsenic exposure to a minimum. PMID:15298311

  12. Human exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Anh, Duong Hong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Vietnam is an agricultural country with a population of about 88 million, with some 18 million inhabitants living in the Red River Delta in Northern Vietnam. The present study reports the chemical analyses of 68 water and 213 biological (human hair and urine) samples conducted to investigate arsenic contamination in tube well water and human arsenic exposure in four districts (Tu Liem, Dan Phuong, Ly Nhan, and Hoai Duc) in the Red River Delta. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in these areas were in the range of <1 to 632 μg/L, with severe contamination found in the communities Ly Nhan, Hoai Duc, and Dan Phuong. Arsenic concentrations were markedly lowered in water treated with sand filters, except for groundwater from Hoai Duc. Human hair samples had arsenic levels in the range of 0.07-7.51 μg/g, and among residents exposed to arsenic levels ≥50 μg/L, 64% of them had hair arsenic concentrations higher than 1 μg/g, which is a level that can cause skin lesions. Urinary arsenic concentrations were 4-435 μg/g creatinine. Concentrations of arsenic in hair and urine increased significantly with increasing arsenic content in drinking water, indicating that drinking water is a significant source of arsenic exposure for these residents. The percentage of inorganic arsenic (IA) in urine decreased with age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine. Significant co-interactions of age and arsenic exposure status were also detected for concentrations of arsenic in hair and the sum of IA, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine and %MMA. In summary, this study demonstrates that a considerable proportion of the Vietnamese population is exposed to arsenic levels of chronic toxicity, even if sand filters reduce exposure in many households. Health problems caused by arsenic ingestion through drinking water are increasingly reported in Vietnam.

  13. Effect of iron redox transformations on arsenic solid-phase associations in an arsenic-rich, ferruginous hydrothermal sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Kim M.; McBeth, Joyce M.; Charnock, John M.; Vaughan, David J.; Wincott, Paul L.; Polya, David A.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2013-02-01

    Well-constrained laboratory incubations of a ferruginous marine hydrothermal sediment from Santorini, Greece, were used to elucidate the effect of microbially induced redox transformations on arsenic speciation and mobility. Despite naturally high arsenic concentrations (˜400 mg/kg), the sediment has a low As:Fe ratio (1:1000 wt/wt). Acetate-amendment of sediment, extracted from the naturally-occurring suboxic-anoxic (Eh -60 to -138 mV) transition zone, promoted Fe(III) reduction, and increased the concentration of Fe(II) from ˜40% to ˜60% in the bulk sediment. Sulfate, which was present at lower concentrations, was also reduced. Phylogenetic 16S rRNA and dsr gene analysis suggested that Fe(III) and sulfate were reduced by bacteria related to Malonomonas rubra and Desulfosarcina variabilis, respectively. Arsenic remained predominantly as arsenic trioxide (As2O3) throughout the amendment experiment. However, the percentage of total arsenic present within poorly-crystalline iron oxides decreased from ˜69% to ˜32%, while the percentage incorporated within crystalline iron-containing minerals or sorbed to surfaces via inner-sphere complexes increased significantly (to 22% and 30%, respectively). Re-oxidation of the system with nitrate resulted in incomplete reduction of the nitrate pool, and partial re-association of arsenic with the poorly-crystalline iron fraction. Exposure to air led to virtually complete reversal of the arsenic partitioning, and oxidation of 71% As(III) to As(V). During aeration, oxidation of sediment-bound sulfur/sulfide occurred, alongside an observed ˜63% decrease in arsenic bound to this minor component. Analogous trends in arsenic-sediment associations were observed in the natural, unamended sediment depth-profile, whereby a greater proportion of arsenic (34% As(III), 66% As(V)) was bound within poorly-crystalline iron oxides at the sediment-water interface. Arsenic (96% As(III)) was increasingly incorporated within well

  14. Arsenic Exposure and Subclinical Endpoints of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Molinaro, Peter; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic evidence suggests that arsenic exposure from drinking water increases the production of reactive oxygen species and influences inflammatory responses and endothelial nitric oxide homeostasis. These arsenic-induced events may lead to endothelial dysfunction that increases the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We reviewed accumulating epidemiologic evidence that evaluated the association between arsenic exposure and intermediate markers and subclinical measures that predict future cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional studies have indicated positive associations between high or low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, QT interval prolongation, and circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction. The evidence is limited for other intermediate endpoints such as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, QT dispersion, and lipid profiles. Prospective studies are needed to enhance the causal inferences of arsenic's effects on subclinical endpoints of cardiovascular disease, especially at lower arsenic exposure levels. PMID:25013752

  15. [Health effects of exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic compounds].

    PubMed

    Szymańska, J A; Chmielnicka, J

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a review of references concerning health effects of environmental and occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds. Special attention is paid to epidemiological studies indicating a relationship between time and amount of arsenic absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract (drinking water, contaminated food, drugs) and an increase in skin cancer rate. Occupational and environmental exposure of humans to arsenic dust induces a higher risk of lung cancer.

  16. Placental arsenic concentrations in relation to both maternal and infant biomarkers of exposure in a US cohort

    PubMed Central

    Punshon, Tracy; Davis, Matthew A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Theiler, Shaleen K.; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson Brian, P.; Conway, David C.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic crosses the placenta and may have adverse consequences in utero and later in life. At present, little is known about arsenic concentrations in placenta and their relation to maternal and infant exposures particularly at common levels of exposure. We measured placenta arsenic in a US cohort potentially exposed via drinking water from private wells, and evaluated the relationships between placenta and maternal and infant biomarker arsenic concentrations. We measured total arsenic concentrations in placental samples from women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (N=766). We compared these data to maternal urinary arsenic (total arsenic and individual species) collected at approximately 24–28 week gestation, along with maternal post-partum toenails and infant toenails using non-parametric multivariate analysis of log10-transformed data. We also examined the association between placental arsenic and household drinking water arsenic. Placenta arsenic concentrations were related to arsenic concentrations in maternal urine (β 0.55, P value <0.0001), maternal (β 0.30, P value 0.0196) and infant toenails (β 0.40, P value 0.0293) and household drinking water (β 0.09, P value <0.0001). Thus, our data suggest that placenta arsenic concentrations reflect both maternal and infant exposures. PMID:25805251

  17. Placental arsenic concentrations in relation to both maternal and infant biomarkers of exposure in a US cohort.

    PubMed

    Punshon, Tracy; Davis, Matthew A; Marsit, Carmen J; Theiler, Shaleen K; Baker, Emily R; Jackson, Brian P; Conway, David C; Karagas, Margaret R

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic crosses the placenta and may have adverse consequences in utero and later in life. At present, little is known about arsenic concentrations in placenta and their relation to maternal and infant exposures particularly at common levels of exposure. We measured placenta arsenic in a US cohort potentially exposed via drinking water from private wells, and evaluated the relationships between placenta and maternal and infant biomarker arsenic concentrations. We measured total arsenic concentrations in placental samples from women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (N=766). We compared these data to maternal urinary arsenic (total arsenic and individual species) collected at approximately 24-28 week gestation, along with maternal post-partum toenails and infant toenails using non-parametric multivariate analysis of log10-transformed data. We also examined the association between placental arsenic and household drinking water arsenic. Placenta arsenic concentrations were related to arsenic concentrations in maternal urine (β 0.55, P value <0.0001), maternal (β 0.30, P value 0.0196) and infant toenails (β 0.40, P value 0.0293) and household drinking water (β 0.09, P value <0.0001). Thus, our data suggest that placenta arsenic concentrations reflect both maternal and infant exposures. PMID:25805251

  18. Human health risk assessment from arsenic exposures in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    High arsenic exposures, prevalent through dietary and non-dietary sources in Bangladesh, present a major health risk to the public. A quantitative human health risk assessment is described as a result of arsenic exposure through food and water intake, tea intake, accidental soil ingestion, and chewing of betel quid, while people meet their desirable dietary intake requirements throughout their lifetime. In evaluating the contribution of each intake pathway to average daily arsenic intake, the results show that food and water intake combined, makes up approximately 98% of the daily arsenic intake with the balance contributed to by intake pathways such as tea consumption, soil ingestion, and quid consumption. Under an exposure scenario where arsenic concentration in water is at the WHO guideline (0.01 mg/L), food intake is the major arsenic intake pathway ranging from 67% to 80% of the average daily arsenic intake. However, the contribution from food drops to a range of 29% to 45% for an exposure scenario where arsenic in water is at the Bangladesh standard (0.05 mg/L). The lifetime excess risk of cancer occurrence from chronic arsenic exposure, considering a population of 160 million people, based on an exposure scenario with 85 million people at the WHO guideline value and 75 million people at the Bangladesh standard, and assuming that 35 million people are associated with a heavy activity level, is estimated as 1.15 million cases.

  19. Infant toenails as a biomarker of in utero arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Li, Zhigang; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Brian P.; Lee, Joyce S.; Baker, Emily R.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that in utero and early-life exposure to arsenic may have detrimental effects on children, even at the low to moderate levels common in the United States and elsewhere. In a sample of 170 mother–infant pairs from New Hampshire, we determined infant exposure to in utero arsenic by evaluating infant toenails as a biomarker using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Infant toenail arsenic concentration correlated with maternal postpartum toenail concentrations (Spearman’s correlation coefficient 0.34). In adjusted linear models, a doubling of maternal toenail arsenic concentration was associated with a 53.8% increase in infant toenail arsenic concentration as compared with 20.4% for a doubling of maternal urine arsenic concentration. In a structural equation model, a doubling of the latent variable integrating maternal toenail and urine arsenic concentrations was associated with a 67.5% increase in infant toenail arsenic concentration. A similar correlation between infant and maternal postpartum toenail concentrations was observed in a validation cohort of 130 mother–infant pairs from Rhode Island. In utero exposure to arsenic occurs through maternal water and dietary sources, and infant toenails appear to be a reliable biomarker for estimating arsenic exposure during the critical window of gestation. PMID:24896769

  20. Arsenic Exposure and the Induction of Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Gil, Lionel; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid, that is, considered to be a human carcinogen. Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed through drinking water, with consequences ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies, such as skin and lung cancer. Despite well-known arsenic-related health effects, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood; however, the arsenic biotransformation process, which includes methylation changes, is thought to play a key role. This paper explores the relationship of arsenic exposure with cancer development and summarizes current knowledge of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to the neoplastic processes observed in arsenic exposed human populations. PMID:22174709

  1. Environmental arsenic exposure and microbiota in induced sputum.

    PubMed

    White, Allison G; Watts, George S; Lu, Zhenqiang; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Lutz, Eric A; Harber, Philip; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2014-02-21

    Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb) and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb). To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteriodetes (12%) were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%), Prevotellaceae (12%) and Veillonellacea (7%) being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota.

  2. Investigation of arsenic exposure from soil at a superfund site.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, D J; Millner, G C; Nye, A C; Simmons, H F

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if significant arsenic exposure was occurring at a Superfund site with elevated surface soil arsenic concentrations. A second objective was to determine the statistical relationship between the various methods of measuring arsenic exposure in humans. Random urine, 24-hr urine, hair, and fingernail samples were collected at the end of the workweek from 40 employees at an active pesticide manufacturing facility which had formerly produced arsenical pesticides. There was no indication of adverse health effects among the employees attributable to arsenic exposure. Mean urinary, hair, and fingernail concentrations of arsenic were well within normal values and indicated that significant arsenic exposure was not occurring among the employees. Random and 24-hr urine measurements were significantly correlated. Hair and fingernail results also were significantly correlated. Urine results did not correlate well with hair or fingernail results. Results of this study suggest that although there may be some individual variation, random and 24-hr urine arsenic results are not substantially different. For the purpose of screening for arsenic exposure, random urine samples may be an adequate and preferable test for those populations in equilibrium with their environment.

  3. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    PubMed Central

    White, Allison G.; Watts, George S.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Lutz, Eric A.; Harber, Philip; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb) and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb). To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteriodetes (12%) were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%), Prevotellaceae (12%) and Veillonellacea (7%) being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota. PMID:24566055

  4. [Tracing for arsenic exposure--a differentiation of arsenic compounds is essential for the health assessment].

    PubMed

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Ochsmann, Elke; Drexler, Hans; Göen, Thomas; Klotz, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous and harmful to health in occupation and environment. Arsenic exposure is measured through analysis of arsenic compounds in urine. The identification of several arsenic species is necessary to understand the hazardous potential of the arsenic compounds which differ highly in their toxicity. To estimate the extent of an occupational exposure to arsenic, arsenic species were evaluated for the first time by the working group "Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Material" of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area and Biologische Arbeitsstoffreferenzwerte (BAR) of 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (III), 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (V), 2 μg / L urine for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and 10 μg / L urine for dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were set. If the reference value for total arsenic is exceeded, a further differentiation of arsenic species now enables to estimate the individual health risks taking into account special influences such as seafood consumption.

  5. [Tracing for arsenic exposure--a differentiation of arsenic compounds is essential for the health assessment].

    PubMed

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Ochsmann, Elke; Drexler, Hans; Göen, Thomas; Klotz, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous and harmful to health in occupation and environment. Arsenic exposure is measured through analysis of arsenic compounds in urine. The identification of several arsenic species is necessary to understand the hazardous potential of the arsenic compounds which differ highly in their toxicity. To estimate the extent of an occupational exposure to arsenic, arsenic species were evaluated for the first time by the working group "Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Material" of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area and Biologische Arbeitsstoffreferenzwerte (BAR) of 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (III), 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (V), 2 μg / L urine for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and 10 μg / L urine for dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were set. If the reference value for total arsenic is exceeded, a further differentiation of arsenic species now enables to estimate the individual health risks taking into account special influences such as seafood consumption. PMID:26710207

  6. Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Joyce S.; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Kaetzel, Rhonda S.; Scrafford, Carolyn G.; Mink, Pamela J.; Barraj, Leila M.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Goodman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89–17.7 μg/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91–19.9 μg/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background. PMID:16330356

  7. Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Joyce S.; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Kaetzel, Rhonda; Scrafford, Carolyn; Mink, Pamela; Barraj, Leila M.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Goodman, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89?17.7 ?g/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91?19.9 ?g/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background.

  8. Evaluation of exposure to arsenic in residential soil.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Joyce S; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Kaetzel, Rhonda S; Scrafford, Carolyn G; Mink, Pamela J; Barraj, Leila M; Crecelius, Eric A; Goodman, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89-17.7 microg/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91-19.9 microg/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background.

  9. Arsenic exposure, smoking, and respiratory cancer in copper smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Welch, K; Higgins, I; Oh, M; Burchfiel, C

    1982-01-01

    A report by Lee and Fraumeni in 1969 linked exposure to arsenic and other contaminants to a threefold excess of respiratory cancer among 8,047 employees at the Anaconda copper smelter. We established vital status through December 1977 for a sample of 1,800 men from the original cohort. Average arsenic concentrations were estimated for each smelter department based on industrial hygiene measurements made from 1943 to 1965. Departments with similar concentrations were combined into four categories of exposure: 1) low (less than 100 micrograms/m3), 2) medium (100-499 micrograms/m3), 3) high (500-4,999 micrograms/m3) and 4) very high (greater than or equal to 5,000 micrograms/m3). Three indices of individual arsenic exposure were developed: time-weighted average, 30-day ceiling, and cumulative. Exposures to sulfur dioxide and asbestos were also examined. Smoking habits were obtained by questionnaire. Mortality was compared to that of men in the State of Montana using the modified lifetable method. A clear dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and respiratory cancer was demonstrated. Men in the highest exposure category had a sevenfold excess. Those in the low and medium categories had a risk close to that expected. Ceiling arsenic exposure appeared to be more important than did time-weighted average exposure. Sulfur dioxide and asbestos did not appear to be important in the excess of respiratory cancer, although sulfur dioxide and arsenic exposures could not be separated completely. Smoking did not appear to be as important as arsenic exposure. Our findings suggest that had men worked only in departments with low or medium arsenic exposures (i.e., less than 500 micrograms/m3) there would have been little excess respiratory cancer. Since the estimates of arsenic exposure were based on department averages rather than on concentrations for individual jobs, these results must be interpreted with caution.

  10. Silencing KRAS overexpression in arsenic-transformed prostate epithelial and stem cells partially mitigates malignant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ngalame, Ntube N O; Tokar, Erik J; Person, Rachel J; Waalkes, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen that likely targets the prostate. Chronic arsenic exposure malignantly transforms the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial line to chronic arsenic exposed-prostate epithelial (CAsE-PE) cells, and a derivative normal prostate stem cell (SC) line, WPE-stem to arsenic-cancer SCs (As-CSCs). The KRAS oncogene is highly overexpressed in CAsE-PE cells and activation precedes transformation, inferring mechanistic significance. As-CSCs also highly overexpress KRAS. Thus, we hypothesize KRAS activation is key in causing and maintaining an arsenic-induced malignant phenotype, and hence, KRAS knockdown (KD) may reverse this malignant phenotype. RNA interference using shRNAmirs to obtain KRAS KD was used in CAsE-PE and As-CSC cells. Cells analyzed 2 weeks post transduction showed KRAS protein decreased to 5% of control after KD, confirming stable KD. KRAS KD decreased phosphorylated ERK, indicating inhibition of RAS/ERK signaling, a proliferation/survival pathway activated with arsenic transformation. Secreted metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was increased by arsenic-induced malignant transformation, but KRAS KD from 4 weeks on decreased secreted MMP-9 activity by 50% in As-CSCs. Colony formation, a characteristic of cancer cells, was decreased in both KRAS KD transformants. KRAS KD also decreased the invasive capacity of both cell types. KRAS KD decreased proliferation in As-CSCs, consistent with loss of rapid tumor growth. Genes predicted to impact cell proliferation (eg, Cyclin D1, p16, and p21) changed accordingly in both KD cell types. Thus, KRAS silencing impacts aspects of arsenic-induced malignant phenotype, inducing loss of many typical cancer characteristics particularly in As-CSCs.

  11. Effect of acute and chronic arsenic exposure on growth, structure and virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Ramansu; Ghosh, Debabrata; Saha, Dhira Rani; Padhy, Pratap Kumar; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-02-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila being a ubiquitous bacterium is prone to arsenic exposure. The present study was designed to determine the role of arsenic on growth and virulence of A. hydrophila. Exposure to arsenic (1 mg L(-1) and 2 mg L(-1)) had no effect on growth but significantly inhibited the hemolytic and cytotoxic potential of exposed bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of membrane integrity and presence of condensed cytoplasm suggestive of acute stress in bacteria exposed to arsenic. Arsenic-adapted bacteria were developed by repeated sub-culturing in presence of arsenic. Arsenic-adaptation led to significant recovery in hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. The arsenic-adapted bacteria exhibited normal membrane integrity, decreased cytoplasmic condensation and possessed scattered polysome like structures in the cytoplasm. A positive correlation was observed between arsenic tolerance and resistance to several antimicrobials. Arsenic-adaptation failed to confer cross-protection to mercury and cadmium stress. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the expression of two new proteins of approximately 85 kDa and 79 kDa respectively in arsenic-adapted A. hydrophila. Plasmid-curing and transformation studies clearly indicate plasmid has no role on arsenic resistance trait of the bacteria. Our study, for the first time, reports a structure and function relationship of xenobiotics on bacteria.

  12. Swelling of vallate papillae of the tongue following arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, A F M; Ahmad, S Akhtar; Khan, Manzurul Haque; Sayed, M H Salim Ullah; Kabir, M Humayun

    2010-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out in some selected arsenic contaminated rural areas of Bangladesh to determine any clinical changes in oral cavity, among the arsenic exposed population through drinking water. Total 600 respondents (200 arsenicosis patients, 200 non-patients but having the history of taking arsenic contaminated water and another 200 arsenic non-exposed). 75.5% of arsenicosis patients had swelled vallate papillae whereas only 44.5% and 8.5% in case of arsenic exposure and non-exposure subjects respectively. The differences were found statistically significant (p < 0.001). This study suggests that there is a tendency of developing swelled vallate papillae among the arsenic exposed population.

  13. A critical review of arsenic exposures for Bangladeshi adults.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    Groundwater, the most important source of water for drinking, cooking, and irrigation in Bangladesh, is a significant contributor to the daily human intake of arsenic. Other arsenic intake pathways, established as relevant for Bangladeshi adults through this review, include consumption of contaminated edible plant parts and animal-origin food, inhalation of contaminated air, soil ingestion, betel quid chewing, and tobacco smoking. This review qualifies and quantifies these arsenic intake pathways through analysis of the range of arsenic levels observed in different food types, water, soil, and air in Bangladesh, and highlights the contributions of dietary intake variation and cooking method in influencing arsenic exposures. This study also highlights the potential of desirable dietary patterns and intakes in increasing arsenic exposure which is relevant to Bangladesh where nutritional deficiencies and lower-than-desirable dietary intakes continue to be a major concern.

  14. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin–vascular endothelial growth factor pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhishan; Humphries, Brock; Xiao, Hua; Jiang, Yiguo; Yang, Chengfeng

    2013-08-15

    Arsenic exposure represents a major health concern increasing cancer risks, yet the mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis has not been elucidated. We and others recently reported that cell malignant transformation by arsenic is accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of EMT in arsenic carcinogenesis is not well understood. Although previous studies showed that short term exposure of endothelial cells to arsenic stimulated angiogenesis, it remains to be determined whether cells that were malignantly transformed by long term arsenic exposure have a pro-angiogenic effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of arsenic-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells that underwent EMT on angiogenesis and the underlying mechanism. It was found that the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells strongly stimulated tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, enhanced angiogenesis was detected in mouse xenograft tumor tissues resulting from inoculation of arsenic-transformed cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that β-catenin was activated in arsenic-transformed cells up-regulating its target gene expression including angiogenic-stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Stably expressing microRNA-200b in arsenic-transformed cells that reversed EMT inhibited β-catenin activation, decreased VEGF expression and reduced tube formation by HUVECs. SiRNA knockdown β-catenin decreased VEGF expression. Adding a VEGF neutralizing antibody into the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells impaired tube formation by HUVECs. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of canonical Wnt ligands were not increased in arsenic-transformed cells. These findings suggest that EMT in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin–VEGF pathway. - Highlights: • Arsenic-transformed cells that underwent EMT displayed a pro

  15. Low-level arsenic exposure in wood processing plants.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Landrigan, P J; Crowley, S

    1980-01-01

    In October 1978, seven construction workers building a pier in Monterey, California, developed symptoms consistent with arsenic intoxication and had elevated urinary levels of arsenic. The wood used for the pier had been pressure-treated with an arsenic preservative. To evaluate the potential acute medical hazards of preserving wood with arsenic, we evaluated employees at three California plants where arsenic preservatives are mixed and applied to wood. Histories, physical examinations, and urine specimens for arsenic analysis were collected from 44 workers exposed to arsenic and from 37 controls in three woodworking plants where arsenic is not used. A comparison of the groups failed to show any significant differences in history or physical examination. Adjustment for age, length of employment, and smoking histories did not alter the pattern. Urinary arsenic concentration was found to increase with increased exposure. These results do not imply absence of chronic or delayed toxicity, nor do they preclude the presence of a more subtle toxicity such as nerve conduction deficits. The data indicate existence of an arsenic exposure hazard in wood processing.U

  16. Reactive oxygen species mediate arsenic induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis through Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in human colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhuo; Wang Xin; Cheng Senping; Sun Lijuan; Son, Young-Ok; Yao Hua; Li Wenqi; Budhraja, Amit; Li Li; Shelton, Brent J.; Tucker, Thomas; Arnold, Susanne M.; Shi Xianglin

    2011-10-15

    Long term exposure to arsenic can increase incidence of human cancers, such as skin, lung, and colon rectum. The mechanism of arsenic induced carcinogenesis is still unclear. It is generally believed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role in this process. In the present study, we investigate the possible linkage between ROS, {beta}-catenin and arsenic induced transformation and tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, DLD1 cells. Our results show that arsenic was able to activate p47{sup phox} and p67{sup phox}, two key proteins for activation of NADPH oxidase. Arsenic was also able to generate ROS in DLD1 cells. Arsenic increased {beta}-catenin expression level and its promoter activity. ROS played a major role in arsenic-induced {beta}-catenin activation. Treatment of DLD1 cells by arsenic enhanced both transformation and tumorigenesis of these cells. The tumor volumes of arsenic treated group were much larger than those without arsenic treatment. Addition of either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase reduced arsenic induced cell transformation and tumor formation. The results indicate that ROS are involved in arsenic induced cell transformation and tumor formation possible through Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD1 cells. - Highlights: > Arsenic activates NADPH oxidase and increases reactive oxygen species generation in DLD1 cells. > Arsenic increases {beta}-catenin expression. > Inhibition of ROS induced by arsenic reduce {beta}-catenin expression. > Arsenic increases cell transformation in DLD1 cells and tumorigenesis in nude mice. > Blockage of ROS decrease cell transformation and tumorigenesis induced by arsenic.

  17. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciaton of arsenic in water, food and urine are analytical capabilities which are an essential part in arsenic risk assessment. The cancer risk associated with arsenic has been the driving force in generating the analytical research in each of these matrices. This presentat...

  18. Arsenic Exposure and Toxicology: A Historical Perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metalloid arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed in food, water, air and soil. Arsenic has a long history of use as a homicidal agent, but in the past 100 years arsenic, in various forms, has also been used as a pesticide and a ch...

  19. CHURCHILL COUNTY, NEVADA ARSENIC STUDY: WATER CONSUMPTION AND EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is required to reevaluate the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic in 2006. To provide data for reducing uncertainties in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels (<200 g/l) of arsenic, a large scale biomarker st...

  20. Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water, Arsenic Methylation Capacity, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010–2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: −0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  1. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies.

  2. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes.

  3. Molecular interaction between arsenic hydrate microcrystals and the cell-surface endopeptidase CD10 (neprilysin) - a possible link to the development of renal and cutaneous malignancies upon occupational exposure to arsenic compounds?

    PubMed

    Gunia, Sven

    2010-07-01

    Arsenic poisoning has become a worldwide public health concern since arsenic is recognized as a human carcinogen although the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis related to arsenic exposure are not completely understood at present. In particular, the skin and the kidneys are prone to neoplastic transformation upon occupational exposure of the human body to inorganic arsenic compounds. The cell-surface endopeptidase CD10 is variably expressed in cutaneous and renal malignancies, and due to this expression profile, might theoretically be implicated in arsenic-induced skin and renal neoplasias. From the functional point of view, CD10 conveys important anti-tumorigenic effects brought about by the inactivation of neuropeptide growth factors implicated in cancer progression. Placing the focus on the structural composition of arsenic hydrate microcrystals encountered in the cellular microenvironment, the present hypothesis suggests so far neglected molecular interactions between arsenic microcrystals and membrane-bound CD10 to be implicated in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

  4. Arsenic Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease: An Updated Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Katherine; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas–Acien, Ana

    2012-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies, high-chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with cardiovascular disease, despite methodological limitations. At low-moderate arsenic levels, the evidence was inconclusive. Here, we update a previous systematic review (Am J Epidemiol 2005;162: 1037–49) examining the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. Eighteen studies published since 2005 were combined with 13 studies from the previous review. We calculated pooled relative risks by comparing the highest versus the lowest exposure category across studies. For high exposure (arsenic in drinking water > 50 μg/L), the pooled relative risks (95 % confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were 1.32 (95 % CI: 1.05–1.67), 1.89 (95 % CI: 1.33–2.69), 1.08 (95 % CI: 0.98–1.19), and 2.17 (95 % CI: 1.47–3.20), respectively. At low-moderate arsenic levels, the evidence was inconclusive. Our review strengthens the evidence for a causal association between high-chronic arsenic exposure and clinical cardiovascular endpoints. Additional high quality studies are needed at low-moderate arsenic levels. PMID:22968315

  5. Arsenic exposure and its impact on health in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Sancha, Ana María

    2006-06-01

    The problem of arsenic in Chile was reviewed. In Chile, the population is exposed to arsenic naturally via drinking-water and by air pollution resulted from mining activities. The sources of arsenic were identified to estimate the exposure of population to arsenic through air, water, and food. Health effects, particularly early effects, observed in children and adults, such as vascular diseases (premature cardiac infarct), respiratory illnesses (bronchiectasis), and skin lesions have been described. Chronic effects, such as lung and bladder cancers, were reported 20 years after peak exposure and persisted 27 years after mitigation measures for removing arsenic from drinking surface water were initiated. Although the effects of arsenic are similar in different ethnic and cultural groups (e.g. Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Bangladeshi, American, and Taiwanese), variations could be explained by age at exposure, the dose received, smoking, and nutrition. Since health effects were observed at arsenic levels of 50 microg/L in drinking-water, it is advised that Chile follows the World Health Organization's recommendation of 10 microg/L. The Chilean experience in removal of arsenic suggests that it is feasible to reach this level using the conventional coagulation process. PMID:17195557

  6. Arsenic exposure and its impact on health in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Sancha, Ana María

    2006-06-01

    The problem of arsenic in Chile was reviewed. In Chile, the population is exposed to arsenic naturally via drinking-water and by air pollution resulted from mining activities. The sources of arsenic were identified to estimate the exposure of population to arsenic through air, water, and food. Health effects, particularly early effects, observed in children and adults, such as vascular diseases (premature cardiac infarct), respiratory illnesses (bronchiectasis), and skin lesions have been described. Chronic effects, such as lung and bladder cancers, were reported 20 years after peak exposure and persisted 27 years after mitigation measures for removing arsenic from drinking surface water were initiated. Although the effects of arsenic are similar in different ethnic and cultural groups (e.g. Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Bangladeshi, American, and Taiwanese), variations could be explained by age at exposure, the dose received, smoking, and nutrition. Since health effects were observed at arsenic levels of 50 microg/L in drinking-water, it is advised that Chile follows the World Health Organization's recommendation of 10 microg/L. The Chilean experience in removal of arsenic suggests that it is feasible to reach this level using the conventional coagulation process.

  7. Urinary arsenic profile affects the risk of urothelial carcinoma even at low arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-M.; Huang, Y.-K.; Chung, C.-J.; Huang, Steven K.; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yang, M.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Hsueh, Y.-M. . E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw

    2007-01-15

    Arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC). To explore the association between individual risk and urinary arsenic profile in subjects without evident exposure, 177 UC cases and 313 age-matched controls were recruited between September 2002 and May 2004 for a case-control study. Urinary arsenic species including the following three categories, inorganic arsenic (As{sup III} + As{sup V}), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}), were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic methylation profile was assessed by percentages of various arsenic species in the sum of the three categories measured. The primary methylation index (PMI) was defined as the ratio between MMA{sup V} and inorganic arsenic. Secondary methylation index (SMI) was determined as the ratio between DMA{sup V} and MMA{sup V}. Smoking is associated with a significant risk of UC in a dose-dependent manner. After multivariate adjustment, UC cases had a significantly higher sum of all the urinary species measured, higher percent MMA{sup V}, lower percent DMA{sup V}, higher PMI and lower SMI values compared with controls. Smoking interacts with the urinary arsenic profile in modifying the UC risk. Differential carcinogenic effects of the urinary arsenic profile, however, were seen more prominently in non-smokers than in smokers, suggesting that smoking is not the only major environmental source of arsenic contamination since the UC risk differs in non-smokers. Subjects who have an unfavorable urinary arsenic profile have an increased UC risk even at low exposure levels.

  8. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting: “Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic”, held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13–15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 micrograms per liter (10 μg/L) in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry and educators at the local, state, national and international levels to: (1) Establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) Work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry and others; (3) Develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) Develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods, and (5) Develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies. PMID:26231509

  9. Environmental arsenic exposure and DNA methylation of the tumor suppressor gene p16 and the DNA repair gene MLH1: effect of arsenic metabolism and genotype.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Vahter, Marie; Concha, Gabriela; Broberg, Karin

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic is carcinogenic, possibly partly through epigenetic mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of arsenic exposure and metabolism on DNA methylation. Arsenic exposure and methylation efficiency in 202 women in the Argentinean Andes were assessed from concentrations of arsenic metabolites in urine (inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid [MMA], and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]), measured by HPLC-ICPMS. Methylation of CpGs of the tumor suppressor gene p16, the DNA repair gene MLH1, and the repetitive elements LINE1 was measured by PCR pyrosequencing of blood DNA. Genotyping (N = 172) for AS3MT was performed using Sequenom™, and gene expression (N = 90) using Illumina DirectHyb HumanHT-12 v3.0. Median arsenic concentration in urine was 230 μg L(-1) (range 10.1-1251). In linear regression analysis, log(2)-transformed urinary arsenic concentrations were positively associated with methylation of p16 (β = 0.14, P = 0.0028) and MLH1 (β = 0.28, P = 0.0011), but not with LINE1. Arsenic concentrations were of borderline significance negatively correlated with expression of p16 (r(s) = -0.20; P = 0.066)), but not with MLH1. The fraction of inorganic arsenic was positively (β = 0.026; P = 0.010) and DMA was negatively (β = -0.017, P = 0.043) associated with p16 methylation with no effect of MMA. Carriers of the slow-metabolizing AS3MT haplotype were associated with more p16 methylation (P = 0.022). Arsenic exposure was correlated with increased methylation, in blood, of genes encoding enzymes that suppress carcinogenesis, and the arsenic metabolism efficiency modified the degree of epigenetic alterations.

  10. Prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning among children in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Sohel, Nazmul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Yunus, Mohammad; Bhuiya, Abbas; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing concern regarding adverse effects of prenatal arsenic exposure on the neurodevelopment of children. We analyzed mortality data for children, who were born to 11,414 pregnant women between 2002 and 2004, with an average age of 5 years of follow-up. Individual drinking-water arsenic exposure during pregnancy was calculated using tubewell water arsenic concentration between last menstrual period and date of birth. There were 84 drowning deaths registered, with cause of death ascertained using verbal autopsy (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes X65-X70). The prenatal water arsenic exposure distribution was tertiled, and the risk of drowning mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning in children aged 1-5 years in the highest exposure tertile (HR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.03-2.94). This study showed that in utero arsenic exposure might be associated with excess mortality among children aged 1-5 years due to drowning.

  11. Association between Arsenic Exposure and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Tzu-Ching; Huang, Jhih-Wei; Guo, How-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the association between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus (DM) yielded inconsistent results. Epidemiologic data on the associations between arsenic exposures via inhalation and DM are limited. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of DM associated with arsenic exposure. We searched the related literature through a systematic approach and analyzed the data according to the exposure route (inhalation and ingestion). We used random-effect models to estimate the summary relative risks (RRs) for DM associated with arsenic exposure and used I2 statistics to assess the heterogeneity of studies. We identified 38 relevant studies, of which the 32 on the ingestion route showed a significant association between arsenic exposure and DM (RR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.27–1.93). Focusing on the 24 studies in which the diagnosis of DM was confirmed using laboratory tests or medical records, we found that the summary RR was 1.71 (95% CI 1.32–2.23), very close to the overall estimates. We concluded that ingested arsenic is associated with the development of DM, but the heterogeneity among the studies may affect the results. PMID:26000288

  12. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  13. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, Jose; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Razo, Luz M. del

    2007-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAs{sup III}, MAs{sup V}, DMAs{sup III}, DMAs{sup V}). This study examines the relationship between TGF-{alpha} concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-{alpha} in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-{alpha} levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p < 0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-{alpha} than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p = 0.003). These results suggest that TGF-{alpha} in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas.

  14. Evaluation of arsenic speciation in rainbow trout and fathead minnows from dietary exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of total arsenic and various arsenic species were measured in food and fish tissue samples from two dietary arsenic exposures to juvenile fish. For arsenic speciation, samples were extracted with 10% MeOH and analyzed by HPLC/ICPMS. Total arsenic concentration...

  15. Evaluation of urinary speciated arsenic in NHANES: Issues in interpretation in the context of potential inorganic arsenic exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) are among the commonly used biomarkers for inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure, but may also arise from seafood consumption and organoarsenical pesticide applications. We examined speciated urinary arsenic data from...

  16. Arsenic exposure and DNA methylation among elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Lambrou, Angeliki; Baccarelli, Andrea; Wright, Robert O.; Weisskopf, Marc; Bollati, Valentina; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Arsenic exposure has been linked to epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in in vitro and animal studies. This association has also been explored in highly exposed human populations, but studies among populations environmentally exposed to low arsenic levels are lacking. METHODS We evaluated the association between exposure to arsenic, measured in toenails, and blood DNA methylation in Alu and Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements in elderly men environmentally exposed to low levels of arsenic. We also explored potential effect modification by plasma folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12), and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). The study population was 581 participants from the Normative Aging Study in Boston, of whom 434, 140, and 7 had 1, 2, and 3 visits, respectively, between 1999-2002 and 2006-2007. We used mixed-effects models and included interaction terms to assess potential effect modification by nutritional factors. RESULTS There was a trend of increasing Alu and decreasing LINE-1 DNA methylation as arsenic exposure increased. In subjects with plasma folate below the median (< 14.1 ng/ml), arsenic was positively associated with Alu DNA methylation (β=0.08 [95% confidence interval = 0.03 to 0.13] for one interquartile range [0.06μg/g] increase in arsenic) while a negative association was observed in subjects with plasma folate above the median (β=-0.08 [-0.17 to 0.01]). CONCLUSIONS We found an association between arsenic exposure and DNA methylation in Alu repetitive elements that varied by folate level. This suggests a potential role for nutritional factors in arsenic toxicity. PMID:22833016

  17. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J.

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  18. Microbial transformation of elements: the case of arsenic and selenium.

    PubMed

    Stolz, J F; Basu, P; Oremland, R S

    2002-12-01

    Microbial activity is responsible for the transformation of at least one third of the elements in the periodic table. These transformations are the result of assimilatory, dissimilatory, or detoxification processes and form the cornerstones of many biogeochemical cycles. Arsenic and selenium are two elements whose roles in microbial ecology have only recently been recognized. Known as "essential toxins", they are required in trace amounts for growth and metabolism but are toxic at elevated concentrations. Arsenic is used as an osmolite in some marine organisms while selenium is required as selenocysteine (i.e. the twenty-first amino acid) or as a ligand to metal in some enzymes (e.g. FeNiSe hydrogenase). Arsenic resistance involves a small-molecular-weight arsenate reductase (ArsC). The use of arsenic and selenium oxyanions for energy is widespread in prokaryotes with representative organisms from the Crenarchaeota, thermophilic bacteria, low and high G+C gram-positive bacteria, and Proteobacteria. Recent studies have shown that both elements are actively cycled and play a significant role in carbon mineralization in certain environments. The occurrence of multiple mechanisms involving different enzymes for arsenic and selenium transformation indicates several different evolutionary pathways (e.g. convergence and lateral gene transfer) and underscores the environmental significance and selective impact in microbial evolution of these two elements.

  19. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil. PMID:17351814

  20. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil.

  1. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Cai, Yong

    2003-12-15

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) is the first reported arsenic hyperaccumulator. To investigate the arsenic tolerance mechanism in this plant, reversed-phase HPLC with postcolumn derivatization was used to analyze the thiols induced under arsenic exposure. A major thiol in the plant leaflets was found to be responsive to arsenic exposure. The arsenic-induced compound was purified on a large scale by combining covalent chromatography and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. About 2 mg of this compound was isolated from 1 kg of fresh leaflets. The purified arsenic-induced compound was characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A molecular ion (M + 1) of 540 and fragments were obtained, which indicated that the arsenic-induced thiol was a phytochelatin with two subunits (PC(2)). Compared to the classical methods for purification of phytochelatins, this new method is more specific, simple, and rapid and is suitable for purification of PCs in a large scale as well as sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis.

  2. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Cai, Yong

    2003-12-15

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) is the first reported arsenic hyperaccumulator. To investigate the arsenic tolerance mechanism in this plant, reversed-phase HPLC with postcolumn derivatization was used to analyze the thiols induced under arsenic exposure. A major thiol in the plant leaflets was found to be responsive to arsenic exposure. The arsenic-induced compound was purified on a large scale by combining covalent chromatography and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. About 2 mg of this compound was isolated from 1 kg of fresh leaflets. The purified arsenic-induced compound was characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A molecular ion (M + 1) of 540 and fragments were obtained, which indicated that the arsenic-induced thiol was a phytochelatin with two subunits (PC(2)). Compared to the classical methods for purification of phytochelatins, this new method is more specific, simple, and rapid and is suitable for purification of PCs in a large scale as well as sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:14670068

  3. Arsenic exposure and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Woo, Jeong-taek; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population.

  4. Arsenic exposure and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Woo, Jeong-taek; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

  5. Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

  6. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... mainly found in its less toxic organic form. Industrial processes Arsenic is used industrially as an alloying ... are also required to reduce occupational exposure from industrial processes. Education and community engagement are key factors ...

  7. Relations between exposure to arsenic, skin lesions, and glucosuria

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M.; Tondel, M.; Chowdhury, I. A.; Axelson, O.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to arsenic causes keratosis, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation and seemingly also diabetes mellitus, at least in subjects with skin lesions. Here we evaluate the relations of arsenical skin lesions and glucosuria as a proxy for diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Through existing measurements of arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh, wells with and without arsenic contamination were identified. Based on a questionnaire, 1595 subjects > or = 30 years of age were interviewed; 1481 had a history of drinking water contaminated with arsenic whereas 114 had not. Time weighted mean arsenic concentrations and mg-years/l of exposure to arsenic were estimated based on the history of consumption of well water and current arsenic concentrations. Urine samples from the study subjects were tested by means of a glucometric strip. People with positive tests were considered to be cases of glucosuria. RESULTS: A total of 430 (29%) of the exposed people were found to have skin lesions. Corresponding to drinking water with < 0.5, 0.5-1.0, and > 1.0 mg/l of arsenic, and with the 114 unexposed subjects as the reference, the prevalence ratios for glucosuria, as adjusted for age and sex, were 0.8, 1.4, and 1.4 for those without skin lesions, and 1.1, 2.2, and 2.6 for those with skin lesions. Taking exposure as < 1.0, 1.0-5.0, > 5.0-10.0 and > 10.0 mg- years/l of exposure to arsenic the prevalence ratios, similarly adjusted, were 0.4, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.7 for those without and 0.8, 1.7, 2.1, and 2.9 for those with skin lesions. All series of risk estimates were significant for trend, (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that skin lesions and diabetes mellitus, as here indicated by glucosuria, are largely independent effects of exposure to arsenic although glucosuria had some tendency to be associated with skin lesions. Importantly, however, glucosuria (diabetes mellitus) may occur independently of skin lesions.   PMID:10450246

  8. Arsenic Exposure to Killifish During Embryogenesis Alters Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Gaworecki, Kristen M.; Chapman, Robert W.; Neely, Marion G.; D’Amico, Angela R.; Bain, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated arsenic exposure in drinking water with adverse developmental outcomes such as stillbirths, spontaneous abortions, neonatal mortality, low birth weight, delays in the use of musculature, and altered locomotor activity. Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were used as a model to help to determine the mechanisms by which arsenic could impact development. Killifish embryos were exposed to three different sodium arsenite concentrations and were collected at 32 h post-fertilization (hpf), 42 hpf, 168 hpf, or < 24 h post-hatch. A killifish oligo microarray was developed and used to examine gene expression changes between control and 25-ppm arsenic-exposed hatchlings. With artificial neural network analysis of the transcriptomic data, accurate prediction of each group (control vs. arsenic-exposed embryos) was obtained using a small subset of only 332 genes. The genes differentially expressed include those involved in cell cycle, development, ubiquitination, and the musculature. Several of the genes involved in cell cycle regulation and muscle formation, such as fetuin B, cyclin D–binding protein 1, and CapZ, were differentially expressed in the embryos in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Examining muscle structure in the hatchlings showed that arsenic exposure during embryogenesis significantly reduces the average muscle fiber size, which is coupled with a significant 2.1- and 1.6-fold upregulation of skeletal myosin light and heavy chains, respectively. These findings collectively indicate that arsenic exposure during embryogenesis can initiate molecular changes that appear to lead to aberrant muscle formation. PMID:22058191

  9. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Coronado-González, José Antonio; Del Razo, Luz María; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2007-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values > or = 126 mg/100 ml (> or = 7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 microg/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

  10. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado-Gonzalez, Jose Antonio; Razo, Luz Maria del; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge . E-mail: jorgeep@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-07-15

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values {>=}126 mg/100 ml ({>=}7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 {mu}g/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

  11. A Case control study of cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of waterborne arsenic. Although the cardiovascular effects of high exposures to arsenic have been well documented, few individual level prospective studies have assessed cardiovascular risk at moderate exposures....

  12. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to high levels of arsenic has been reported to increase adverse birth outcomes including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birthweight. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints (term birthweight, preterm ...

  13. Persistent neuropathy and hyperkeratosis from distant arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Baker, Beth A; Topliff, Andrew R; Messing, Rita B; Durkin, Deborah; Johnson, Jean Small

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this case series is to assess long-term sequelae of arsenic exposure in a cohort acutely exposed to arsenic in drinking water from a well dug into a landfill containing arsenical pesticides. Ten of the 13 individuals (or next of kin) in the initial study agreed to participate in the follow-up study. Next of kin provided questionnaire data and released medical information on the three individuals who had died. The remaining seven cohort members were assessed by an interview, questionnaire, detailed physical examination and sensory nerve testing. Available medical records were obtained and reviewed. Sensory testing was performed using an automated electrodiagnostic sensory Nerve Conduction Threshold (sNCT) evaluation. Sensory complaints and electrodiagnostic findings consistent with polyneuropathy were found in a minority (3/7) of subjects 28 years after an acute toxic arsenic exposure. Two of the seven patients examined (1 of 3 with neuropathic findings) also had hyperkeratotic lesions consistent with arsenic toxicity and one of the patients had hyperpigmentation on their lower extremities possibly consistent with arsenic toxicity.

  14. Does arsenic exposure increase the risk for liver cancer?

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Ho, Shu-Chen; Wang, Li-Yu; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2004-10-01

    Arsenic has been well documented as the major risk factor for development of blackfoot disease (BFD), a unique peripheral vascular disease that was once endemic to the southwestern coast of Taiwan, where residents imbibed artesian well water containing high concentrations of arsenic for more than 50yr. Long-term arsenic exposure has also been reported to be associated with increased incidence of liver cancer in a dose-responsive manner. A tap-water supply system was implemented in the early 1960s in the BFD endemic areas. Artesian well water was no longer used for drinking and cooking after the mid-1970s. The objective of this study was to examine whether liver cancer mortality rates were altered after the consumption of high-arsenic artesian well water ceased and, if so, when the reduction occurred. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for liver cancer were calculated for the BFD endemic area for the years 1971-2000. Cumulative-sum techniques were used to detect the occurrence of changes in the SMRs. The study results show that mortality from liver cancer in females declined starting 9yr after the cessation of consumption of high-arsenic artesian well water. However, data show fluctuations in male liver cancer mortality rates. Based on the reversibility criterion, the association between arsenic exposure and liver cancer mortality is likely to be causal for females but not in males.

  15. Arsenic transformation predisposes human skin keratinocytes to UV-induced DNA damage yet enhances their survival apparently by diminishing oxidant response

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yang; Kojima, Chikara; Chignell, Colin; Mason, Ronald; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-09-15

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark of UV-induced skin cancer. In the current work, inorganic arsenite exposure (100 nM) did not induce ODD during the 30 weeks required for malignant transformation. Although acute UV-treatment (UVA, 25 J/cm{sup 2}) increased ODD in passage-matched control cells, once transformed by arsenic to As-TM cells, acute UV actually further increased ODD (> 50%). Despite enhanced ODD, As-TM cells were resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. The response of apoptotic factors and oxidative stress genes was strongly mitigated in As-TM cells after UV exposure including increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and reduced Caspase-3, Nrf2, and Keap1 expression. Several Nrf2-related genes (HO-1, GCLs, SOD) showed diminished responses in As-TM cells after UV exposure consistent with reduced oxidant stress response. UV-exposed As-TM cells showed increased expression of cyclin D1 (proliferation gene) and decreased p16 (tumor suppressor). UV exposure enhanced the malignant phenotype of As-TM cells. Thus, the co-carcinogenicity between UV and arsenic in skin cancer might involve adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure generally mitigating the oxidative stress response, allowing apoptotic by-pass after UV and enhanced cell survival even in the face of increased UV-induced oxidative stress and increased ODD. - Highlights: > Arsenic transformation adapted to UV-induced apoptosis. > Arsenic transformation diminished oxidant response. > Arsenic transformation enhanced UV-induced DNA damage.

  16. Arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) speciation during transformation of lepidocrocite to magnetite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuheng; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Brown, Gordon E

    2014-12-16

    Bioreduction of As(V) and As-bearing iron oxides is considered to be one of the key processes leading to arsenic pollution in groundwaters in South and Southeast Asia. Recent laboratory studies with simple aqueous media showed that secondary Fe(II)-bearing phases (e.g., magnetite and green rust), which commonly precipitate during bioreduction of iron oxides, captured arsenic species. The aim of the present study was to follow arsenic speciation during the abiotic Fe(II)-induced transformation of As(III)- and As(V)-doped lepidocrocite to magnetite, and to evaluate the influence of arsenic on the transformation kinetics and pathway. We found green rust formation is an intermediate phase in the transformation. Both As(III) and As(V) slowed the transformation, with the effect being greater for As(III) than for As(V). Prior to the formation of magnetite, As(III) adsorbed on both lepidocrocite and green rust, whereas As(V) associated exclusively with green rust, When magnetite precipitated, As(III) formed surface complexes on magnetite nanoparticles and As(V) is thought to have been incorporated into the magnetite structure. These processes dramatically lowered the availability of As in the anoxic systems studied. These results provide insights into the behavior of arsenic during magnetite precipitation in reducing environments. We also found that As(V) removal from solution was higher than As(III) removal following magnetite formation, which suggests that conversion of As(III) to As(V) is preferred when using As-magnetite precipitation to treat As-contaminated groundwaters.

  17. Arsenic exposures in Mississippi: A review of cases

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M.J.; Currier, M. )

    1991-04-01

    Arsenic poisonings occur in Mississippi despite public education campaigns to prevent poisonings in the home. We reviewed 44 Mississippi cases of arsenic exposures occurring from January 1986 to May 1990. We compared the epidemiologic differences between unintentional and intentional poisonings. Cases were found and characterized through the two toxicology laboratories and hospital records. Arsenic-based rodenticides were the arsenic source in 23 of the 44 exposures. Other sources were monosodium methylarsenate (4 cases), dodecyl ammonium methane arsonate (5 cases), and other compounds (12 cases). Of the 44 exposures, 27 were unintentional, 7 were suicide attempts, 6 were homicide attempts, and 4 were of unknown intent. Of the 27 unintentionally exposed patients, 19 were black and 14 were male; their median age was 3 years. Of the 13 intentionally poisoned persons, 9 were male and 10 were black, with a median age of 28 years. Six of the seven patients who attempted suicide were white; four of the six victims of attempted homicide were black. We recommend removal of remaining bottles of arsenic-based rodenticides from store shelves, and we urge practicing physicians to warn patients of the dangers of using such rodenticides.

  18. Arsenic exposures in Mississippi: a review of cases.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Currier, M

    1991-04-01

    Arsenic poisonings occur in Mississippi despite public education campaigns to prevent poisonings in the home. We reviewed 44 Mississippi cases of arsenic exposures occurring from January 1986 to May 1990. We compared the epidemiologic differences between unintentional and intentional poisonings. Cases were found and characterized through the two toxicology laboratories and hospital records. Arsenic-based rodenticides were the arsenic source in 23 of the 44 exposures. Other sources were monosodium methylarsenate (4 cases), dodecyl ammonium methane arsonate (5 cases), and other compounds (12 cases). Of the 44 exposures, 27 were unintentional, 7 were suicide attempts, 6 were homicide attempts, and 4 were of unknown intent. Of the 27 unintentionally exposed patients, 19 were black and 14 were male; their median age was 3 years. Of the 13 intentionally poisoned persons, 9 were male and 10 were black, with a median age of 28 years. Six of the seven patients who attempted suicide were white; four of the six victims of attempted homicide were black. We recommend removal of remaining bottles of arsenic-based rodenticides from store shelves, and we urge practicing physicians to warn patients of the dangers of using such rodenticides.

  19. Maternal Arsenic Exposure and Impaired Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Zota, Ami R.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Hopkins, Marianne R.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.

    2009-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence has shown an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in general populations exposed to arsenic, but little is known about exposures during pregnancy and the association with gestational diabetes (GD). Objectives We studied 532 women living proximate to the Tar Creek Superfund Site to investigate whether arsenic exposure is associated with impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Methods Blood glucose was measured between 24 and 28 weeks gestation after a 1-hr oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) as part of routine prenatal care. Blood and hair were collected at delivery and analyzed for arsenic using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with dynamic reaction cell. Results Arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 24.1 μg/L (ppb) (mean ± SD, 1.7 ±1.5) and 1.1 to 724.4 ng/g (ppb) (mean ± SD, 27.4 ± 61.6) in blood and hair, respectively. One-hour glucose levels ranged from 40 to 284 mg/dL (mean ± SD, 108.7 ± 29.5); impaired glucose tolerance was observed in 11.9% of women when using standard screening criterion (> 140 mg/dL). Adjusting for age, Native-American race, prepregnancy body mass index, Medicaid use, and marital status, women in the highest quartile of blood arsenic exposure had 2.8 higher odds of impaired GTT than women in the lowest quartile of exposure (95% confidence interval, 1.1–6.9) (p-trend = 0.008). Conclusions Among this population of pregnant women, arsenic exposure was associated with increased risk of impaired GTT at 24–28 weeks gestation and therefore may be associated with increased risk of GD. PMID:19654913

  20. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in soil increases urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations of residents living in old mining areas.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2004-03-01

    The short term human exposure studies conducted on populations exposed to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil have been inconsistent in demonstrating a relationship between environmental concentrations and exposure measures. In Australia there are many areas with very high arsenic concentrations in residential soil most typically associated with gold mining activities in rural areas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental arsenic and urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations in a population living in a gold mining area (soil arsenic concentrations between 9 and 9900 mg kg(-1)), and a control population with low arsenic levels in soil (between 1 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Risk factors for increased urinary arsenic concentrations were also explored. There was a weak but significant relationship between soil arsenic concentrations and inorganic urinary arsenic concentration with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.39. When participants with greater than 100 mg kg(-1) arsenic in residential soil were selected, the coefficient increased to 0.64. The geometric mean urinary inorganic arsenic concentration for the exposed group was 1.64 microg L(-1) (arsenic concentration of 2.46 microg L(-1). In a random effects linear regression model, soil arsenic concentration was the significant predictor of increased urinary arsenic concentrations. Season was shown to have a significant influence on urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other factors such as age, gender and hours of contact with soil may also be important risk factors. These results show that high concentrations of arsenic in soil can make a contribution to urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  1. Acute arsenic exposure treated with oral D-penicillamine

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.A.; Veltri, J.C.; Metcalf, T.J.

    1981-06-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is the arsenic compound most commonly implicated in acute toxic exposures. The toxicity of As2O3 is a function of the preparation's particle size and solubility. A 16-month-old female presented at a local emergency room with a history of acute ingestion of As2O3 obtained from a commonly available pesticide. Classic gastrointestinal symptoms of arsenic toxicity were exhibited shortly after ingestion; however, aggressive decontamination followed by early chelation therapy resulted in the cessation of toxic manifestations and an uneventful recovery. Oral chelation therapy with D-penicillamine has rarely been reported as an effective agent in the treatment of arsenic poisoning. The case reported herein is further documentation that D-penicillamine is effective in increasing the mobilization of arsenic. The authors also recommend that products containing arsenic compounds should not be used where children may come in contact with them until the Environmental Protection Agency's child resistant packaging regulations become effective.

  2. RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China
    Zhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford2
    1) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

  3. Does arsenic exposure increase the risk for prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chang, Chih-Ching; Chiu, Hui-Fen

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic has been well documented as the major risk factor for blackfoot disease (BFD), a unique peripheral vascular disease that was endemic to the southwestern coast of Taiwan, where residents consumed artesian well water containing high levels of arsenic for more than 50 yr. Chronic arsenic exposure was also reported to be associated with mortality attributed to prostate cancer in a dose-response relationship. A tap-water supply system was implemented in the early 1960s in the BFD-endemic areas in Taiwan. Artesian well water was no longer used for drinking and cooking after the mid-1970s. The objective of this study was to determine whether prostate cancer mortality decreased after the improvement of drinking-water supply system through elimination of arsenic ingestion from artesian well water. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for prostate cancer were calculated for the BFD-endemic area for the years 1971-2006. Results showed that mortality attributed to prostate cancer declined gradually after the improvement of drinking-water supply system. Based on the reversibility criterion, the association between arsenic exposure and development of prostate cancer is likely to be causal. PMID:18923998

  4. Does arsenic exposure increase the risk for prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chang, Chih-Ching; Chiu, Hui-Fen

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic has been well documented as the major risk factor for blackfoot disease (BFD), a unique peripheral vascular disease that was endemic to the southwestern coast of Taiwan, where residents consumed artesian well water containing high levels of arsenic for more than 50 yr. Chronic arsenic exposure was also reported to be associated with mortality attributed to prostate cancer in a dose-response relationship. A tap-water supply system was implemented in the early 1960s in the BFD-endemic areas in Taiwan. Artesian well water was no longer used for drinking and cooking after the mid-1970s. The objective of this study was to determine whether prostate cancer mortality decreased after the improvement of drinking-water supply system through elimination of arsenic ingestion from artesian well water. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for prostate cancer were calculated for the BFD-endemic area for the years 1971-2006. Results showed that mortality attributed to prostate cancer declined gradually after the improvement of drinking-water supply system. Based on the reversibility criterion, the association between arsenic exposure and development of prostate cancer is likely to be causal.

  5. Epigenetic mediated transcriptional activation of WNT5A participates in arsenical-associated malignant transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Taylor J.; Wozniak, Ryan J.; Eblin, Kylee E.; Wnek, Sean M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2009-02-15

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen with exposure associated with cancer of the lung, skin, and bladder. Many potential mechanisms have been implicated as playing a role in the process of arsenical-induced malignancy including the perturbation of signaling pathways and aberrant epigenetic regulation. We initiated studies to examine the role of a member of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway, WNT5A, in UROtsa cells and arsenite [URO-ASSC] and monomethylarsonous acid [URO-MSC] malignantly transformed variants. We present data herein that suggest that WNT5A is transcriptionally activated during arsenical-induced malignant transformation. This WNT5A transcriptional activation is correlated with the enrichment of permissive histone modifications and the reduction of repressive modifications in the WNT5A promoter region. The epigenetic activation of WNT5A expression and acetylation of its promoter remain after the removal of the arsenical, consistent with the maintenance of an anchorage independent growth phenotype in these cells. Additionally, treatment with epigenetic modifying drugs supports a functional role for these epigenetic marks in controlling gene expression. Reduction of WNT5A using lentiviral shRNA greatly attenuated the ability of these cells to grow in an anchorage independent fashion. Extension of our model into human bladder cancer cell lines indicates that each of the cell lines examined also express WNT5A. Taken together, these data suggest that the epigenetic remodeling of the WNT5A promoter is correlated with its transcriptional activation and this upregulation likely participates in arsenical-induced malignant transformation.

  6. Well water arsenic exposure, arsenic induced skin-lesions and self-reported morbidity in Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yajuan; Wade, Timothy J; Wu, Kegong; Li, Yanhong; Ning, Zhixiong; Le, X Chris; He, Xingzhou; Chen, Binfei; Feng, Yong; Mumford, Judy L

    2009-03-01

    Residents of the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia have been exposed to arsenic-contaminated well water for over 20 years, but relatively few studies have investigated health effects in this region. We surveyed one village to document exposure to arsenic and assess the prevalence of arsenic-associated skin lesions and self-reported morbidity. Five-percent (632) of the 12,334 residents surveyed had skin lesions characteristics of arsenic exposure. Skin lesions were strongly associated with well water arsenic and there was an elevated prevalence among residents with water arsenic exposures as low as 5 microg/L-10 microg/L. The presence of skin lesions was also associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease.

  7. Biological and Behavorial Factors Modify Biomarkers of Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Population**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although consumption of drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic is usually considered the primary exposure route, aggregate exposure to arsenic depends on direct consumption of water, use of water in food preparation, and the presence in arsenicals in foods. To gain in...

  8. On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pershagen, G; Wall, S; Taube, A; Linnman, L

    1981-12-01

    The interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and tobacco smoking and its relationship to lung cancer mortality among 228 deceased Swedish copper smelter workers was studied with the case-referent technique. Arsenic exposure was assessed via detailed company records, and information on smoking habits was gathered from the next of kin. The age standardized rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for arsenic-exposed nonsmokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational arsenic exposure in relation to nonarsenic-exposed nonsmokers. For arsenic-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect of the two exposures. Eighty-five percent of all deaths from long cancer among the smelter workers could be "explained" by arsenic exposure and/or smoking. The interaction between arsenic and smoking suggests that a strong preventive effect on lung cancer incidence could be obtained by decreasing either one of the exposures or by disaggregating them.

  9. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: EPIDEMIOOOGIC STUDIES OF LOW EXPOSURE IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because there is no animal model fully adequate to study the mechanisms of arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity; human epidemiological studies incorporating sensitive biomarkers for assessing exposure, cancer, noncancer effects and susceptibility of arsenic are needed to evalua...

  10. Biomarkers for assessing potential carcinogenic effects of chronic arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment. Chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water has been associated. with carcinogenic, cardiovascular, neurological and diabetic effects in humans and has been of great public health concern worldwide. In 2001, U.S. Environmental Protection ...

  11. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

  12. Arsenic Transport and Transformation Associated with MSMA Application on a Golf Course Green

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Schrlau, Jill E.; Snyder, Raymond; Snyder, George H.; Chen, Ming; Cisar, John L.; Cai, Yong

    2008-01-01

    The impact of extensively used arsenic-containing herbicides on groundwater beneath golf courses has become a topic of interest. Although currently used organoarsenicals are less toxic, their application into the environment may produce the more toxic inorganic arsenicals. The objective of this work was to understand the behavior of arsenic species in percolate water from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) applied golf course greens, as well as to determine the influences of root-zone media for United State Golf Association (USGA) putting green construction on arsenic retention and species conversion. The field test was established at the Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center (FLREC), University of Florida. Percolate water was collected after MSMA application for speciation and total arsenic analyses. The results showed that the substrate composition significantly influenced arsenic mobility and arsenic species transformation in the percolate water. In comparison to uncoated sands (S) and uncoated sands and peat (S + P), naturally coated sands and peat (NS + P) showed a higher capacity of preventing arsenic from leaching into percolate water, implying that the coatings of sands with clay reduce arsenic leaching. Arsenic species transformation occurred in soil, resulting in co-occurrence of four arsenic species, arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in percolate water. The results indicated that substrate composition can significantly affect both arsenic retention in soil and arsenic speciation in percolate water. The clay coatings on the soil particles and the addition of peat in the soil changed the arsenic bioavailability, which in turn controlled the microorganism-mediated arsenic transformation. To better explain and understand arsenic transformation and transport after applying MSMA in golf green, a conceptual model was proposed. PMID:15853401

  13. Health risk assessment for inhalation exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Fabiánová, E; Hettychová, L; Koppová, K; Hrubá, F; Marko, M; Maroni, M; Grech, G; Bencko, V

    2000-02-01

    Health risk assessment was used as the formal process to estimate the likelihood and magnitude of the health effects occurring in humans as a result of environmental and occupational exposure to polluting agents. This study was focused at estimating the human health risk of the general and working population living in the region polluted by arsenic for more than 40 years, from combustion of coal with high arsenic content in the power plant. The exposure to arsenic from inhalation was under investigation. A study period of 40 years (1973-1993) was chosen. The study period was defined taking into account, besides the availability of data, the temporal patterns of the technological processes and the trends over time of environmental concentrations. The results from the arsenic risk assessment study were used for the evaluation of the health risk for different population groups in the polluted areas and for different professions of workers exposed to As in a power plant. The results are applicable for the evaluation of risk in real conditions, for health surveillance and for remedial changes and a potential suggestion on technological improvement.

  14. Association between Arsenic Exposure and Diabetes Mellitus in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Sung, Tzu-Ching; Guo, How-Ran

    2014-01-01

    Whereas studies in Taiwan found associations between arsenic exposure from drinking water and diabetes mellitus (DM), studies in other countries yielded inconsistent results, and diet might be a confounder. We conducted a study in Cambodia, where people have non-Western style diet, to evaluate the association. We measured well water and urine samples and examined skin signs of arsenicosis to assess arsenic exposure and used questionnaires to collect data on potential risk factors. We performed a fingertip blood glucose test followed by measurement of hemoglobin A1c to assess DM. The 43-male and 99-female participants had an average age of 40.4 years. We found that participants with skin signs of arsenicosis had a higher level of arsenic in the drinking water (1101.1 versus 972.2 μg/L, P = 0.02). Drinking water with arsenic levels above the median (907.25 μg/L) was associated with a nearly twofold increase in the risk of DM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5–5.8), so was having skin sings of arsenicosis (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.5–5.6). The ORs did not reach statistical significance most likely because of the small case number. Therefore, further studies with larger study populations are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24949461

  15. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Shohreh F; Chen, Yu; Rees, Judy R; Zens, M Scot; Karagas, Margaret R

    2015-09-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality.

  16. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. Methods A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940–2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Results Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure–response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m3 Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20–25 years. Conclusions These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m3 Cd. PMID:22271639

  17. Factors associated with arsenicosis and arsenic exposure status in Nepal: implications from community based study.

    PubMed

    Maden, Narendra; Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Maharjan, Makhan; Shrestha, Shreekrishna

    2011-02-01

    A significant public health problem due to exposure to arsenic via groundwater in communities of lowland Terai region of Nepal has issued forth need to assess the exposure status and factors associated with arsenicosis. We observed arsenical dermal manifestations and collected and assessed total arsenic content in tubewell water, urine, and hair samples of study subjects at arsenic affected communities in Nawalparasi district of Nepal. The explanatory variables associated with arsenicosis were elevated arsenic in tubewell, male gender and increased age (P < 0.05). 67% (73/109) and 66% (77/117) of subjects exceeded the normal urinary and hair arsenic levels respectively. Among them 52% (57/109) and 47% (55/117) exceeded normal urinary and hair arsenic levels having no arsenical dermal manifestations. Males and symptomatic cases had significantly higher hair arsenic levels (P < 0.05). We also observed significant positive correlation of both urine and hair arsenic levels to tubewell arsenic levels (r = 0.27, 0.37, P < 0.01) and negative correlation of urine arsenic levels with the age of the subjects (r = -0.18, P = 0.06). We conclude that elucidating factors associated with arsenicosis could be of prime importance in intervention and preventive measures. In arsenic affected communities of Nepal exposure to arsenic is still a major problem despite mitigation efforts and the potential for sub-clinical effects in exposed population is high.

  18. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Chen, Yu; Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-09-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US.

  19. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic☆

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, José; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAsIII, MAsV, DMAsIII, DMAsV). This study examines the relationship between TGF-α concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-α in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-α concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-α levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-α concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p<0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-α than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p=0.003). These results suggest that TGF-α in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas. PMID:17267001

  20. Arsenic exposure and hepatitis E virus infection during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Kmush, Brittany; Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin; Gössler, Walter; Schulze, Kerry; Fairweather, DeLisa; Mehra, Sucheta; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Klein, Sabra L.; Li, Wei; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Merrill, Rebecca D.; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul; Labrique, Alain B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Arsenic has immunomodulatory properties and may have the potential to alter susceptibility to infection in humans. Objectives We aimed to assess the relation of arsenic exposure during pregnancy with immune function and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, defined as seroconversion during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods We assessed IgG seroconversion to HEV between 1st and 3rd trimester (TM) and 3 months postpartum (PP) among 1100 pregnancies in a multiple micronutrient supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. Forty women seroconverted to HEV and were matched with 40 non-seroconverting women (controls) by age, parity and intervention. We assessed urinary inorganic arsenic plus methylated species (∑As) (µg/L) at 1st and 3rd TM and plasma cytokines (pg/mL) at 1st and 3rd TM and 3 months PP. Results HEV seroconverters’ urinary ∑As was elevated throughout pregnancy. Non-seroconverters’ urinary ∑As was similar to HEV seroconverters at 1st TM but declined at 3rd TM. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of HEV seroconversion was 2.17 (1.07, 4.39) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in average-pregnancy urinary ∑As. Increased urinary ∑As was associated with increased concentrations of IL-2 during the 1st and 3rd TM and 3 months PP among HEV seroconverters but not non-seroconverters. Conclusions The relation of urinary arsenic during pregnancy with incident HEV seroconversion and with IL-2 levels among HEV-seroconverting pregnant women suggests arsenic exposure during pregnancy may enhance susceptibility to HEV infection. PMID:26186135

  1. Arsenic exposure in multiple environmental media in children near a smelter.

    PubMed

    Morse, D L; Harrington, J M; Housworth, J; Landrigan, P J; Kelter, A

    1979-04-01

    A nationwide survey of heavy-metal exposure in children living near primary nonferrous metal smelters demonstrated high urine arsenic levels in children living near a copper smelter in Ajo, Arizona. Airborne smelter emissions and drinking water were the apparent sources of exposure. To determine whether increased arsenic absorption had produced adverse health effects, we conducted an evaluation of 132 Ajo children 5 to 18 years old and compared results with those of 47 children from a comparison town with low arsenic exposure. Environmental testing showed that Ajo's municipal water supply contained arsenic in concentrations of 0.09 mg/l (the EPA standard is 0.05 mg/l); arsenic concentrations in dust averaged 342.2 microgram/g. Urine arsenic levels in Ajo children correlated positively with amount of tap-water consumed (r = .32, p less than. 0002) and with distance of residence from the smelter (r = .20, p less than .02). Tap-water drinkers had significantly higher urine arsenic levels than bottled water drinkers (t = 4.21 p less than .001). Mean urine arsenic levels were significantly higher for children in Ajo (4.75 microgram/100 ml) than for children in the comparison town (1.17 microgram/100 ml). Hair arsenic levels correlated poorly with arsenic exposure. Despite the study population's chronic exposure to elevated environmental levels of arsenic, no clinical or hematologic abnormalities attributable to arsenic were found. PMID:466981

  2. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and dyspnoea risk in Araihazar, Bangladesh: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pesola, Gene R; Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul

    2012-05-01

    Bangladesh has high well water arsenic exposure. Chronic arsenic ingestion may result in diseases that manifest as dyspnoea, although information is sparse. Baseline values were obtained from an arsenic study. Trained physicians ascertained data on dyspnoea among 11,746 subjects. Data were collected on demographic factors, including smoking, blood pressure and arsenic exposure. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals for the association between arsenic exposure and dyspnoea. The adjusted odds of having dyspnoea was 1.32-fold (95% CI 1.15-1.52) greater in those exposed to high well water arsenic concentrations (≥ 50 μg · L(-1)) compared with low-arsenic-exposed nonsmokers (p<0.01). A significant dose-response relationship was found for arsenic (as well as smoking) in relation to dyspnoea. In nonsmokers, the adjusted odds of having dyspnoea were 1.36, 1.96, 2.34 and 1.80-fold greater for arsenic concentrations of 7-38, 39-90, 91-178 and 179-864 μg · L(-1), respectively, compared with the reference arsenic concentration of <7 μg · L(-1) (p<0.01; Chi-squared test for trend). Arsenic exposure through well water is associated with dyspnoea, independently of smoking status. This study suggests that mandated well water testing for arsenic with reduction in exposure may significantly reduce diseases that manifest as dyspnoea, usually cardiac or pulmonary.

  3. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and dyspnoea risk in Araihazar, Bangladesh: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Pesola, Gene R.; Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh has high well water arsenic exposure. Chronic arsenic ingestion may result in diseases that manifest as dyspnoea, although information is sparse. Baseline values were obtained from an arsenic study. Trained physicians ascertained data on dyspnoea among 11,746 subjects. Data were collected on demographic factors, including smoking, blood pressure and arsenic exposure. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals for the association between arsenic exposure and dyspnoea. The adjusted odds of having dyspnoea was 1.32-fold (95% CI 1.15–1.52) greater in those exposed to high well water arsenic concentrations (≥50 μg·L−1) compared with low-arsenic-exposed nonsmokers (p<0.01). A significant dose–response relationship was found for arsenic (as well as smoking) in relation to dyspnoea. In nonsmokers, the adjusted odds of having dyspnoea were 1.36, 1.96, 2.34 and 1.80-fold greater for arsenic concentrations of 7–38, 39–90, 91–178 and 179–864 μg·L−1, respectively, compared with the reference arsenic concentration of <7 μg·L−1 (p<0.01; Chi-squared test for trend). Arsenic exposure through well water is associated with dyspnoea, independently of smoking status. This study suggests that mandated well water testing for arsenic with reduction in exposure may significantly reduce diseases that manifest as dyspnoea, usually cardiac or pulmonary. PMID:22088973

  4. Whole-house arsenic water treatment provided more effective arsenic exposure reduction than point-of-use water treatment at New Jersey homes with arsenic in well water.

    PubMed

    Spayd, Steven E; Robson, Mark G; Buckley, Brian T

    2015-02-01

    A comparison of the effectiveness of whole house (point-of-entry) and point-of-use arsenic water treatment systems in reducing arsenic exposure from well water was conducted. The non-randomized observational study recruited 49 subjects having elevated arsenic in their residential home well water in New Jersey. The subjects obtained either point-of-entry or point-of-use arsenic water treatment. Prior ingestion exposure to arsenic in well water was calculated by measuring arsenic concentrations in the well water and obtaining water-use histories for each subject, including years of residence with the current well and amount of water consumed from the well per day. A series of urine samples was collected from the subjects, some starting before water treatment was installed and continuing for at least nine months after treatment had begun. Urine samples were analyzed and speciated for inorganic-related arsenic concentrations. A two-phase clearance of inorganic-related arsenic from urine and the likelihood of a significant body burden from chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water were identified. After nine months of water treatment the adjusted mean of the urinary inorganic-related arsenic concentrations was significantly lower (p<0.0005) in the point-of-entry treatment group (2.5 μg/g creatinine) than in the point-of-use treatment group (7.2 μg/g creatinine). The results suggest that whole house arsenic water treatment systems provide a more effective reduction of arsenic exposure from well water than that obtained by point-of-use treatment.

  5. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  6. Well water arsenic exposure, arsenic induced skin-lesions and self-reported morbidity in Inner Mongolia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure from contaminated well water is a cause of skin and bladder cancer and linked to numerous other adverse health effects. Residents of the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia, China, have been exposed to arsenic-contaminated well water for over 20 years but few s...

  7. Maternal Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Methylation Efficiency, and Birth Outcomes in the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) Pregnancy Cohort in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Jessica E.; Bailey, Kathryn A.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Olshan, Andrew F.; Smeester, Lisa; Drobná, Zuzana; Herring, Amy H.; Stýblo, Miroslav; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) from drinking water is a global public health problem, yet much remains unknown about the extent of exposure in susceptible populations. Objectives: We aimed to establish the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) prospective pregnancy cohort in Gómez Palacio, Mexico, to better understand the effects of iAs exposure on pregnant women and their children. Methods: Two hundred pregnant women were recruited for this study. Concentrations of iAs in drinking water (DW-iAs) and maternal urinary concentrations of iAs and its monomethylated and dimethylated metabolites (MMAs and DMAs, respectively) were determined. Birth outcomes were analyzed for their relationship to DW-iAs and to the concentrations and proportions of maternal urinary arsenicals. Results: DW-iAs for the study subjects ranged from < 0.5 to 236 μg As/L. More than half of the women (53%) had DW-iAs that exceeded the World Health Organization’s recommended guideline of 10 μg As/L. DW-iAs was significantly associated with the sum of the urinary arsenicals (U-tAs). Maternal urinary concentrations of MMAs were negatively associated with newborn birth weight and gestational age. Maternal urinary concentrations of iAs were associated with lower mean gestational age and newborn length. Conclusions: Biomonitoring results demonstrate that pregnant women in Gómez Palacio are exposed to potentially harmful levels of DW-iAs. The data support a relationship between iAs metabolism in pregnant women and adverse birth outcomes. The results underscore the risks associated with iAs exposure in vulnerable populations. Citation: Laine JE, Bailey KA, Rubio-Andrade M, Olshan AF, Smeester L, Drobná Z, Herring AH, Stýblo M, García-Vargas GG, Fry RC. 2015. Maternal arsenic exposure, arsenic methylation efficiency, and birth outcomes in the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) pregnancy cohort in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 123:186–192; http://dx.doi.org/10

  8. Studies on arsenic transforming groundwater bacteria and their role in arsenic release from subsurface sediment.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Angana; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2014-01-01

    Ten different Gram-negative arsenic (As)-resistant and As-transforming bacteria isolated from As-rich groundwater of West Bengal were characterized to assess their role in As mobilization. 16S rRNA gene analysis confirmed the affiliation of these bacteria to genera Achromobacter, Brevundimonas, Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, and Pseudoxanthomonas. Along with superior As-resistance and As-transformation abilities, the isolates showed broad metabolic capacity in terms of utilizing a variety of electron donors and acceptors (including As) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Arsenic transformation studies performed under various conditions indicated highly efficient As(3+) oxidation or As(5+) reduction kinetics. Genes encoding As(3+) oxidase (aioA), cytosolic As(5+) reductase (arsC), and As(3+) efflux pump (arsB and acr3) were detected within the test isolates. Sequence analyses suggested that As homeostasis genes (particularly arsC, arsB, and acr3) were acquired by most of the bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. A strong correlation between As resistance phenotype and the presence of As(3+) transporter genes was observed. Microcosm study showed that bacterial strain having cytosolic As(5+) reductase property could play important role in mobilizing As (as As(3+)) from subsurface sediment. PMID:24764001

  9. Carcinogenic and systemic health effects associated with arsenic exposure--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Patlolla, Anita K; Centeno, Jose A

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic and arsenic containing compounds are human carcinogens. Exposure to arsenic occurs occupationally in several industries, including mining, pesticide, pharmaceutical, glass and microelectronics, as well as environmentally from both industrial and natural sources. Inhalation is the principal route of arsenic exposure in occupational settings, while ingestion of contaminated drinking water is the predominant source of significant environmental exposure globally. Drinking water contamination by arsenic remains a major public health problem. Acute and chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water has been reported in many countries of the world, where a large proportion of drinking water is contaminated with high concentrations of arsenic. General health effects that are associated with arsenic exposure include cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, developmental anomalies, neurologic and neurobehavioural disorders, diabetes, hearing loss, portal fibrosis, hematologic disorders (anemia, leukopenia and eosinophilia) and multiple cancers: significantly higher standardized mortality rates and cumulative mortality rates for cancers of the skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder, kidney, and colon in many areas of arsenic pollution. Although several epidemiological studies have documented the sources of exposure and the global impact of arsenic contamination, the mechanisms by which arsenic induces health effects, including cancer, are not well characterized. Further research is needed to provide a better understanding of the pathobiology of arsenic-induced diseases and to better define the toxicologic pathology of arsenic in various organ systems. In this review, we provide and discuss the underlying pathology and nature of arsenic-induced lesions. Such information is critical for understanding the magnitude of health effects associated with arsenic exposure throughout the world.

  10. PROTEOMIC PROFILING OF CULTURED HUMAN BLADDER CELLS AFTER TRIVALENT ARSENICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with human cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, liver, and skin. Inorganic arsenic is biotransformed in a stepwise manner via both a reduction and then an oxidative methylation step in which arsenic cycles between +5 and +3 oxidati...

  11. PROTEOMIC PROFILING OF CULTURED HUMAN BLADDER CELLS AFTER TRIVALENT ARSENICAL EXPOSURES (SOT 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with human cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, liver, and skin. Inorganic arsenic is biotransformed in a stepwise manner via both a reduction and then an oxidative methylation step in which arsenic cycles between +5 and +3 oxidati...

  12. PROTEOMIC PROFILING OF CULTURED HUMAN BLADDER CELLS AFTER TRIVALENT ARSENIC EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with human cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, liver, and skin. Inorganic arsenic is biotransformed in a stepwise manner via both a reduction and then an oxidative methylation step in which arsenic cycles between +5 and +3 oxidati...

  13. EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES FOR THE REMOVAL OF ARSENICALS FROM SEAFOOD EXPOSURE MATRICES WITH ICP-MS DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the existing arsenic dietary databases were developed from the analysis of total arsenic in water and dietary samples. These databases have been used to estimate arsenic exposure and in turn human health risk. However, these dietary databases are becoming obsolete as the ...

  14. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Person, Rachel J; Ngalame, Ntube N Olive; Makia, Ngome L; Bell, Matthew W; Waalkes, Michael P; Tokar, Erik J

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer.

  15. The die is cast - Arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for development and progression of disease in bo...

  16. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  17. Increased mortality associated with well-water arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wade, Timothy J; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Li, Yanhong; Ning, Zhixiong; Le, X Chris; Lu, Xiufen; Feng, Yong; He, Xingzhou; Mumford, Judy L

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a retrospective mortality study in an Inner Mongolian village exposed to well water contaminated by arsenic since the 1980s. Deaths occurring between January 1, 1997 and December 1, 2004 were classified according to underlying cause and water samples from household wells were tested for total arsenic. Heart disease mortality was associated with arsenic exposure, and the association strengthened with time exposed to the water source. Cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were associated with well-water arsenic exposure among those exposed 10-20 years. This is the first study to document increased arsenic-associated mortality in the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia.

  18. Increased mortality associated with well-water arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wade, Timothy J; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Li, Yanhong; Ning, Zhixiong; Le, X Chris; Lu, Xiufen; Feng, Yong; He, Xingzhou; Mumford, Judy L

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a retrospective mortality study in an Inner Mongolian village exposed to well water contaminated by arsenic since the 1980s. Deaths occurring between January 1, 1997 and December 1, 2004 were classified according to underlying cause and water samples from household wells were tested for total arsenic. Heart disease mortality was associated with arsenic exposure, and the association strengthened with time exposed to the water source. Cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were associated with well-water arsenic exposure among those exposed 10-20 years. This is the first study to document increased arsenic-associated mortality in the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia. PMID:19440436

  19. Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Alguacil, Juan; Lorca, Andres; Mendoza, Ramón; Gómez, Inmaculada; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Rohlman, Diane S; Lacasaña, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to metallic trace elements, including arsenic, because of their potential neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. This study assessed whether urinary arsenic (UA) levels are associated with attention performance and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children living in an area with high industrial and mining activities in Southwestern Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 children aged 6-9 years. Arsenic levels were determined in urine samples. Attention was measured by using 4 independent tools: a) tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) designed to measure attention function: Simple Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT); b) AULA Test, a virtual reality (VR)-based test that evaluates children's response to several stimuli in an environment simulating a classroom; c) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), administered to parents; and d) Teacher's Report Form (TRF), administered to teachers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between UA levels and attention performance scores. Higher UA levels were associated with an increased latency of response in RTT (β = 12.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-21.1) and SAT (β = 3.6; 95% CI: .4-6.8) as well as with worse performance on selective and focalized attention in the AULA test (β for impulsivity = .6; 95% CI: .1-1.1; β for inattention = .5; 95% CI: .03-1.0). A dose-response relationship was observed between UA levels and inattention and impulsivity scores. In contrast, results from the CBCL and TRF tests failed to show a significant association with UA levels. In conclusion, UA levels were associated with impaired attention/cognitive function, even at levels considered safe. These results provide

  20. Elk exposure to arsenic in geothermal watersheds of Yellowstone National Park, USA.

    PubMed

    Kocar, Benjamin D; Garrott, Robert A; Inskeep, William P

    2004-04-01

    Geothermal activity in Yellowstone National Park (WY, USA) (YNP) results in elevated levels of arsenic in surface waters, aquatic vegetation, and sediments in the Upper Madison River Basin. This study was conducted to determine concentrations of arsenic in the tissues, feces, and rumen contents of elk (Cervus elaphus) residing in the Madison-Firehole (MF) River basin, and to evaluate potential arsenic exposure pathways. Concentrations of total arsenic in MF elk were significantly higher than in control elk populations, and analysis of arsenic in surface waters, elk forage, sediments, and soils suggests that the predominant arsenic exposure pathways are forage species found in aquatic and riparian habitats. Analysis of arsenic species in selected plant and elk samples indicated that the ingested forms of arsenic are predominantly inorganic, while the appearance of dimethylarsonate in elk rumen and feces suggests that arsenic is subject to methylation reactions after ingestion, potentially contributing to arsenic detoxification. Arsenic:creatinine ratios of elk urine samples analyzed across three different winters increased during winter progression and were correlated with total snow water equivalent as an index of winter severity. Exposure to arsenic and other trace elements (fluorine) may contribute to the previously observed decreased life expectancy of MF elk relative to control populations.

  1. Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and QT-Interval Prolongation: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Eunus, Mahbub; McClintock, Tyler R.; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Islam, Tariqul; Ghosal, Anajan Kumar; Islam, Shahidul; Hasan, Rabiul; Levy, Diane; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure from drinking water has been associated with heart disease; however, underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Objective: We evaluated the association between a history of arsenic exposure from drinking water and the prolongation of heart rate–corrected QT (QTc), PR, and QRS intervals. Method: We conducted a study of 1,715 participants enrolled at baseline from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study. We assessed the relationship of arsenic exposure in well water and urine samples at baseline with parameters of electrocardiogram (ECG) performed during 2005–2010, 5.9 years on average since baseline. Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for QTc prolongation, defined as a QTc ≥ 450 msec in men and ≥ 460 msec in women, was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for a 1-SD increase in well-water arsenic (108.7 µg/L). The positive association appeared to be limited to women, with adjusted ORs of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.53) for a 1-SD increase in baseline well-water and urinary arsenic, respectively, compared with 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.33) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.49, 1.51) in men. There were no apparent associations of baseline well-water arsenic or urinary arsenic with PR or QRS prolongation in women or men. Conclusions: Long-term arsenic exposure from drinking water (average 95 µg/L; range, 0.1–790 µg/L) was associated with subsequent QT-interval prolongation in women. Future longitudinal studies with repeated ECG measurements would be valuable in assessing the influence of changes in exposure. PMID:23384555

  2. Synthesis and phase transformations involving scorodite, ferric arsenate and arsenical ferrihydrite: Implications for arsenic mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paktunc, Dogan; Dutrizac, John; Gertsman, Valery

    2008-06-01

    Scorodite, ferric arsenate and arsenical ferrihydrite are important arsenic carriers occurring in a wide range of environments and are also common precipitates used by metallurgical industries to control arsenic in effluents. Solubility and stability of these compounds are controversial because of the complexities in their identification and characterization in heterogeneous media. To provide insights into the formation of scorodite, ferric arsenate and ferrihydrite, series of synthesis experiments were carried out at 70 °C and pH 1, 2, 3 and 4.5 from 0.2 M Fe(SO 4) 1.5 solutions also containing 0.02-0.2 M Na 2HAsO 4. The precipitates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. Ferric arsenate, characterized by two broad diffuse peaks on the XRD pattern and having the structural formula of FeAsO 4·4-7H 2O, is a precursor to scorodite formation. As defined by As XAFS and Fe XAFS, the local structure of ferric arsenate is profoundly different than that of scorodite. It is postulated that the ferric arsenate structure is made of single chains of corner-sharing Fe(O,OH) 6 octahedra with bridging arsenate tetrahedra alternating along the chains. Scorodite was precipitated from solutions with Fe/As molar ratios of 1 over the pH range of 1-4.5. The pH strongly controls the kinetics of scorodite formation and its transformation from ferric arsenate. The scorodite crystallite size increased from 7 to 33 nm by ripening and aggregation. Precipitates, resulting from continuous synthesis at pH 4.5 from solutions having Fe/As molar ratios ranging from 1 to 4 and resembling the compounds referred to as ferric arsenate, arsenical ferrihydrite and As-rich hydrous ferric oxide in the literature, represent variable mixtures of ferric arsenate and ferrihydrite. When the Fe/As ratio increases, the proportion of ferrihydrite increases at the expense of ferric arsenate. Arsenate adsorption appears to retard

  3. Numerical Modeling of Arsenic Mobility during Reductive Iron-Mineral Transformations.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Joey; Prommer, Henning; Siade, Adam; Carr, Jackson; Berg, Michael; Davis, James A; Fendorf, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed to hazardous concentrations of arsenic from contaminated drinking water. Despite massive efforts toward understanding the extent and underlying geochemical processes of the problem, numerical modeling and reliable predictions of future arsenic behavior remain a significant challenge. One of the key knowledge gaps concerns a refined understanding of the mechanisms that underlie arsenic mobilization, particularly under the onset of anaerobic conditions, and the quantification of the factors that affect this process. In this study, we focus on the development and testing of appropriate conceptual and numerical model approaches to represent and quantify the reductive dissolution of iron oxides, the concomitant release of sorbed arsenic, and the role of iron-mineral transformations. The initial model development in this study was guided by data and hypothesized processes from a previously reported,1 well-controlled column experiment in which arsenic desorption from ferrihydrite coated sands by variable loads of organic carbon was investigated. Using the measured data as constraints, we provide a quantitative interpretation of the processes controlling arsenic mobility during the microbial reductive transformation of iron oxides. Our analysis suggests that the observed arsenic behavior is primarily controlled by a combination of reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite, arsenic incorporation into or co-precipitation with freshly transformed iron minerals, and partial arsenic redox transformations. PMID:26835553

  4. Numerical Modeling of Arsenic Mobility during Reductive Iron-Mineral Transformations.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Joey; Prommer, Henning; Siade, Adam; Carr, Jackson; Berg, Michael; Davis, James A; Fendorf, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed to hazardous concentrations of arsenic from contaminated drinking water. Despite massive efforts toward understanding the extent and underlying geochemical processes of the problem, numerical modeling and reliable predictions of future arsenic behavior remain a significant challenge. One of the key knowledge gaps concerns a refined understanding of the mechanisms that underlie arsenic mobilization, particularly under the onset of anaerobic conditions, and the quantification of the factors that affect this process. In this study, we focus on the development and testing of appropriate conceptual and numerical model approaches to represent and quantify the reductive dissolution of iron oxides, the concomitant release of sorbed arsenic, and the role of iron-mineral transformations. The initial model development in this study was guided by data and hypothesized processes from a previously reported,1 well-controlled column experiment in which arsenic desorption from ferrihydrite coated sands by variable loads of organic carbon was investigated. Using the measured data as constraints, we provide a quantitative interpretation of the processes controlling arsenic mobility during the microbial reductive transformation of iron oxides. Our analysis suggests that the observed arsenic behavior is primarily controlled by a combination of reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite, arsenic incorporation into or co-precipitation with freshly transformed iron minerals, and partial arsenic redox transformations.

  5. Occupational exposure to arsenic and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in a multinational European study.

    PubMed

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bloom, Michael S; Boscoe, Francis P; Carpenter, David O; Haase, Richard F; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Févotte, Joëlle; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Occupational studies show a high risk of lung cancer related to arsenic exposure by inhalation; however, only a few studies, and with conflicting results, previously examined a potential link between arsenic exposure at work and skin cancer. The aim of this study is to assess airborne arsenic exposures at the workplace and to quantify associations with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). The study sample consists of 618 incident cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls aged 30-79 years from Hungary, Romania and Slovakia. Exposures were evaluated by local experts using occupational histories. Information on host factors and other exposures was collected and used to adjust the associations of interest using multivariable logistic regression. The lifetime prevalence of exposure to work-related arsenic is 23.9% for cases and 15.5% for controls. No significant association between arsenic exposure in the workplace and NMSC was detected, although an increased adjusted odd ratio was observed for participants with higher cumulative lifetime workplace exposure to arsenic in dust and fumes compared to referents [odds ratios (OR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76-4.95]. There is evidence for modification of the workplace arsenic-NMSC association by work-related sunlight exposure in women, with a markedly increased adjusted OR in the presence of workplace sunlight exposure (OR = 10.22, 95% CI = 2.48-42.07). Workplace coexposure to arsenic and sunlight may thus pose an increased risk of NMSC.

  6. Arsenic drinking water exposure and urinary excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meza, Maria Mercedes; Kopplin, Michael J; Burgess, Jefferey L; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine arsenic exposure via drinking water and to characterize urinary arsenic excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2001 to May 2002. Study subjects were from the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, residents of four towns with different arsenic concentrations in their drinking water. Arsenic exposure was estimated through water intake over 24 h. Arsenic excretion was assessed in the first morning void urine. Total arsenic concentrations and their species arsenate (As V), arsenite (As III), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA) were determined by HPLC/ICP-MS. The town of Esperanza with the highest arsenic concentration in water had the highest daily mean intake of arsenic through drinking water, the mean value was 65.5 microg/day. Positive correlation between total arsenic intake by drinking water/day and the total arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) was found. Arsenic excreted in urine ranged from 18.9 to 93.8 microg/L. The people from Esperanza had the highest geometric mean value of arsenic in urine, 65.1 microg/L, and it was statistically significantly different from those of the other towns (P < 0.005). DMA was the major arsenic species in urine (47.7-67.1%), followed by inorganic arsenic (16.4-25.4%), and MMA (7.5-15%). In comparison with other reports the DMA and MMA distribution was low, 47.7-55.6% and 7.5-9.7%, respectively, in the urine from the Yaqui Valley population (except the town of Cocorit). The difference in the proportion of urinary arsenic metabolites in those towns may be due to genetic polymorphisms in the As methylating enzymes of these populations.

  7. Blood arsenic as a biomarker of arsenic exposure: results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Marni; Chen, Yu; Ahsan, Habibul; Slavkovich, Vesna; van Geen, Alexander; Parvez, Faruque; Graziano, Joseph

    2006-08-15

    Exposure to arsenic (As)-contaminated drinking water affects millions of people worldwide. Arsenic exposure is associated with skin lesions, skin, lung, kidney and liver cancers, neurologic and cardiovascular effects. Past studies involving biomarkers of As exposure have typically examined urinary As (UAs) (adjusted for urinary creatinine), hair or toenail As, but not blood As (BAs) since blood concentrations are exceedingly low and are not detectable by conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometric techniques. In a case-cohort analysis of 303 newly diagnosed cases of skin lesions, and 849 subcohort members randomly selected from 8092 participants in the health effects of as longitudinal study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh, we measured blood, urine and water As concentrations, and examined their associations with each other, and with the risk for skin lesions. BAs concentrations were highly correlated with creatinine-adjusted UAs concentrations (r=0.85) and with water As (WAs) (r=0.75). We observed consistent dose-response relationships between the risk of skin lesions and all the measures of As exposure. Rate ratios (RRs) for skin lesions by quintile of As exposure, adjusted for age and gender, revealed that the two highest quintiles were significantly related to an increased risk of skin lesions for each measure of exposure: BAs, UAs, WAs and a time-weighted water As variable. This prospective study confirms the increased risk of skin lesions in relation to As concentrations in blood, urine and water and also establishes that BAs is a useful biomarker of As exposure in this study population.

  8. Arsenic: bioaccessibility from seaweed and rice, dietary exposure calculations and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Esther F A; Janssen, Paul J C M; de Wit-Bos, Lianne

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor importance for the general population within the European Union. In Europe, arsenic in drinking water is on average low, but food products (e.g. rice and seaweed) are imported from all over the world including from regions with naturally high arsenic levels. Therefore, specific populations living in Europe could also have a high exposure to inorganic arsenic due to their consumption pattern. Current risk assessment is based on exposure via drinking water. For a good estimation of the risks of arsenic in food, it is important to investigate if the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from food is different from drinking water. The present study further explores the issue of European dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic via rice and seaweed and its associated health risks. The bioavailability of inorganic arsenic was measured in in vitro digestion experiments. The data indicate that the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic is similar for rice and seaweed compared with drinking water. The calculated dietary intake for specific European Union populations varied between 0.44 and 4.51 µg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹. The margins of exposure between the inorganic intake levels and the BMDL0.5 values as derived by JECFA are low. Decreasing the intake of inorganic arsenic via Hijiki seaweed could be achieved by setting legal limits similar to those set for rice by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in July 2014.

  9. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Fei; Wang, Qing-Qing; Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  10. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:26368803

  11. Children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated wooden decks and playground structures.

    PubMed

    Hemond, Harold F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2004-02-01

    CCA-treated wood is widely used in the fabrication of outdoor decks and playground equipment. Because arsenic can be removed from the surface of CCA-treated wood both by physical contact and by leaching, it is important to determine whether children who play on such structures may ingest arsenic in quantities sufficient to be of public health concern. Based on a review of existing studies, it is estimated that arsenic doses in amounts of tens of micrograms per day may be incurred by children having realistic levels of exposure to CCA-treated decks and playground structures. The most important exposure pathway appears to be oral ingestion of arsenic that is first dislodged from the wood by direct hand contact, then transferred to the mouth by children's hand-to-mouth activity. The next most important pathway appears to be dermal absorption of arsenic, while ingestion of soil that has become contaminated by leaching from CCA-treated structures appears to be of lesser importance, except possibly in the case of children with pica. Considerable uncertainty, however, is associated with quantitative estimates of children's arsenic exposure from CCA-treated wood. Priorities for refining estimates of arsenic dose include detailed studies of the hand-to-mouth transfer of arsenic, studies of the dermal and gastrointestinal absorption of dislodgeable arsenic, and studies in which doses of arsenic to children playing in contact with CCA-treated wood are directly determined by measurement of arsenic in their urine, hair, and nails.

  12. Arsenic exposure, urinary arsenic speciation, and peripheral vascular disease in blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Huang, Yung-Kai; Huang, Ya-Li; Chung, Chi-Jung; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2005-08-15

    Long-term exposure to ingested inorganic arsenic is associated with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in the blackfoot disease (BFD)-hyperendemic area in Taiwan. This study further examined the interaction between arsenic exposure and urinary arsenic speciation on the risk of PVD. A total of 479 (220 men and 259 women) adults residing in the BFD-hyperendemic area were studied. Doppler ultrasound was used to diagnose PVD. Arsenic exposure was estimated by an index of cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE). Urinary levels of total arsenic, inorganic arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were determined. Primary methylation index [PMI = MMA(V)/(As(III) + As(V))] and secondary methylation index (SMI = DMA(V)/MMA(V)) were calculated. The association between PVD and urinary arsenic parameters was evaluated with consideration of the interaction with CAE and the confounding effects of age, sex, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results showed that aging was associated with a diminishing capacity to methylate inorganic arsenic and women possessed a more efficient arsenic methylation capacity than men did. PVD risk increased with a higher CAE and a lower capacity to methylate arsenic to DMA(V). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for CAE of 0, 0.1-15.4, and >15.4 mg/L x year were 1.00, 3.41 (0.74-15.78), and 4.62 (0.96-22.21), respectively (P < 0.05, trend test); and for PMI < or = 1.77 and SMI > 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI > 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI < or = 6.93, and PMI < or = 1.77 and SMI < or = 6.93 were 1.00, 2.93 (0.90-9.52), 2.85 (1.05-7.73), and 3.60 (1.12-11.56), respectively (P < 0.05, trend test). It was concluded that individuals with a higher arsenic exposure and a lower capacity to methylate inorganic arsenic to DMA(V) have a higher risk of developing PVD in the BFD-hyperendemic area in Taiwan.

  13. Cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China: a case control study

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of arsenic exposure through drinking water. Increasingly, non-cancer effects such as cardiovascular disease have been associated with drinking water arsenic exposures. However, most studies have been conducted in...

  14. Probabilistic Modeling of Dietary Arsenic Exposure and Dose and Evaluation with 2003-2004 NHANES Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary exposure from food to toxic inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the general U.S. population has not been well studied. The goal of this research was to quantify dietary arsenic As exposure and analyze the major contributors to total As (tAs) and iAs. Another objective was to com...

  15. Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Angiogenesis in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells via the ROS/miR-199a-5p/HIF-1α/COX-2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Wang, Min; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Qiudan; Xu, Shaohua; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental and occupational exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern. Although it has been identified as a human carcinogen, the molecular mechanism underlying the arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is not well understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine the role and mechanisms of miRNAs in arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Methods: We utilized an in vitro model in which human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells were transformed through long-term exposure to arsenic. A human xenograft tumor model was established to assess tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Tube formation assay and chorioallantoic membranes assay were used to assess tumor angiogenesis. Results: We found that miR-199a-5p expression levels were more than 100-fold lower in arsenic-transformed cells than parental cells. Re-expression of miR-199a-5p impaired arsenic-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth through its direct targets HIF-1α and COX-2. We further showed that arsenic induced COX-2 expression through HIF-1 regulation at the transcriptional level. In addition, we demonstrated that reactive oxygen species are an upstream event of miR-199a-5p/ HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Conclusion: The findings establish critical roles of miR-199a-5p and its downstream targets HIF-1/COX-2 in arsenic-induced tumor growth and angiogenesis. Citation: He J, Wang M, Jiang Y, Chen Q, Xu S, Xu Q, Jiang BH, Liu LZ. 2014. Chronic arsenic exposure and angiogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells via the ROS/miR-199a-5p/HIF-1α/COX-2 Pathway. Environ Health Perspect 122:255–261; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307545 PMID:24413338

  16. Sulfidogenesis Controls on Ferrihydrite Transformation and Repartitioning of Sorbed Arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocar, B. D.; Fendorf, S.

    2007-12-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides are ubiquitous sorbents of arsenic (As) that undergo reductive dissolution and transformation upon reaction with dissolved sulfide. Here, we examine diverging pathways of solid phase iron (Fe) transformation during sulfate reduction in the presence of varying As loadings. Columns initially containing As(V)- ferrihydrite coated sand, inoculated with the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough), were eluted with artificial groundwater containing sulfate and lactate. Additionally, abiotic batch reaction experiments were conducted to examine Fe secondary products rapidly formed during sulfidization of As-loaded ferrihydrite. Rapid and consistent sulfate reduction coupled with lactate oxidation is observed within column solids possessing low As(V) surface coverage (10% of the adsorption maximum). Column experiments illustrated that at high As(V) surface coverage (50% of the adsorption maximum), sulfate reduction and lactate oxidation are initially slow but gradually increase over time, and all As(V) is reduced to As(III) by the end of experimentation. The dominant Fe solid-phase transformation products at low As coverage include amorphous FeS within the zone of sulfate reduction (near the inlet of the column) and magnetite downstream where Fe(II)aq concentrations exceed 1 mM. Arsenic(V) is reduced to As(III) and displaced from the zone of sulfidogenesis and Fe(III)s depletion. At higher As coverage, green rust carbonate, as opposed to magnetite, is a dominant Fe solid phase product. Independent of loading, As is strongly associated with magnetite and residual ferrihydrite, while being excluded from green rust and iron sulfide. Abiotic batch reactor experiments illustrate that As is readily released from ferrihydrite during sulfidization, and that low As loadings yield initial Fe secondary products of lepidocrocite and FeS, while high loadings inhibit rapid secondary Fe mineral formation. Our observations illustrate that

  17. ASSESSING MULTIMEDIA/MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC USING A MECHANISTIC SOURCE-TO-DOSE MODELING FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of case studies is presented focusing on multimedia/multipathway population exposures to arsenic, employing the Population Based Modeling approach of the MENTOR (Modeling Environment for Total Risks) framework. This framework considers currently five exposure routes: i...

  18. CD44v6 expression in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with chronic arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S.; Guo, S.; Guo, F.; Yang, Q.; Xiao, X.; Murata, M.; Ohnishi, S.; Kawanishi, S.; Ma, N.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a well-known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various types of human skin lesions, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in arsenic-associated carcinogenesis, we repeatedly exposed the human spontaneously immortalized skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell line to an environmentally relevant level of arsenic (0.05 ppm) in vitrofor 18 weeks. Following sodium arsenite administration, cell cycle, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), cell tumorigenicity, and expression of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53, were analyzed at different time points (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 passages). We found that a chronic exposure of HaCaT cells to a low level of arsenic induced a cancer stem-like phenotype. Furthermore, arsenictreated HaCaT cells also became tumorigenic in nude mice, their growth cycle was predominantly in G2/M and S phases. Relative to nontreated cells, they exhibited a higher growth rate and a significant increase in CFE. Western blot analysis found that arsenic was capable of increasing cell proliferation and sprouting of cancer stem-like phenotype. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that CD44v6 expression was upregulated in HaCaT cells exposed to a low level of arsenic during early stages of induction. The expression of CD44v6 in arsenic-treated cells was positively correlated with their cloning efficiency in soft agar (r=0.949, P=0.01). Likewise, the expressions of activating transcription factor NF-κB and p53 genes in the arsenic-treated HaCaT cells were significantly higher than that in non-treated cells. Higher expressions of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53 were also observed in tumor tissues isolated from Balb/c nude mice. The present results suggest that CD44v6 may be a biomarker of arsenicinduced neoplastic transformation in human skin cells, and that arsenic promotes malignant transformation in human skin lesions through a NF-κB signaling pathway

  19. Arsenic and manganese exposure and children's intellectual function.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Gail A; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Ahsan, Habibul; Levy, Diane; Kline, Jennie; van Geen, Alexander; Mey, Jacob; Slavkovich, Vesna; Siddique, Abu B; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H

    2011-08-01

    Recently, epidemiologic studies of developmental neurotoxicology have been challenged to increase focus on co-exposure to multiple toxicants. Earlier reports, including our own work in Bangladesh, have demonstrated independent associations between neurobehavioral function and exposure to both arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in school-aged children. Our earlier studies, however, were not designed to examine possible interactive effects of exposure to both As and Mn. To allow investigation of possible synergistic impact of simultaneous exposures, we recruited a new sample of 299 8-11 year old children, stratified by design on As (above and below 10 μg/L) and Mn (above and below 500 μg/L) concentrations of household wells. When adjusted only for each other, both As and Mn in whole blood (BAs; BMn) were significantly negatively related to most WISC-IV subscale scores. With further adjustment for socio-demographic features and ferritin, BMn remained significantly associated with reduced Perceptual Reasoning and Working Memory scores; associations for BAs, and for other subscales, were expectably negative, significantly for Verbal Comprehension. Urinary As (per gram creatinine) was significantly negatively associated with Verbal Comprehension scores, even with adjustment for BMn and other contributors. Mn by As interactions were not significant in adjusted or unadjusted models (all p's>0.25). Findings are consistent with other reports documenting adverse impact of both As and Mn exposure on child developmental outcomes, although associations appear muted at these relatively low exposure levels.

  20. Effects of in utero arsenic exposure on child immunity and morbidity in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Raqib, Rubhana; Ahmed, Sultan; Sultana, Rokeya; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Mondal, Dinesh; Hoque, A M Waheedul; Nermell, Barbro; Yunus, Mohammed; Roy, Shantonu; Persson, Lars Ake; Arifeen, Shams El; Moore, Sophie; Vahter, Marie

    2009-03-28

    Chronic exposure to arsenic, a potent carcinogen and toxicant, via drinking water is a worldwide public health problem. Because little is known about early-life effects of arsenic on immunity, we evaluated the impact of in utero exposure on infant immune parameters and morbidity in a pilot study. Pregnant women were enrolled at 6-10 weeks of gestation in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, extensively affected by arsenic contamination of tubewell water. Women (n=140) delivering at local clinics were included in the study. Anthropometry and morbidity data of the pregnant women and their children, as well as infant thymic size by sonography were collected. Maternal urine and breast milk were collected for immune marker and arsenic assessment. Maternal urinary arsenic during pregnancy showed significant negative correlation with interleukin-7 (IL-7) and lactoferrin (Ltf) in breast milk and child thymic index (TI). Urinary arsenic was also positively associated with fever and diarrhea during pregnancy and acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the infants. The effect of arsenic exposure on ARI was only evident in male children. The findings suggest that in utero arsenic exposure impaired child thymic development and enhanced morbidity, probably via immunosuppression. The effect seemed to be partially gender dependent. Arsenic exposure also affected breast milk content of trophic factors and maternal morbidity.

  1. Arsenic Exposure and Immunotoxicity: a Review Including the Possible Influence of Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Daniele; Gribaldo, Laura; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inorganic arsenic, a major environmental pollutant, exerts immunosuppressive effects in epidemiological, in vitro, and animal models. The mechanisms, however, remain unclear, and little is known about variation in susceptibilities due to age and sex. We performed a review of the experimental and epidemiologic evidence on the association of arsenic exposure and immune diseases. The majority of the studies described arsenic as a potent immunosuppressive compound, though others have reported an increase in allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting that arsenic may also act as an immune system stimulator, depending on the dose or timing of exposure. Limited information, due to either the high concentrations of arsenic used in in vitro studies or the use of non-human data for predicting human risks, is available from experimental studies. Moreover, although there is emerging evidence that health effects of arsenic manifest differently between men and women, we found limited information on sex differences on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic. In conclusion, preliminary data show that chronic early-life exposure to arsenic might impair immune responses, potentially leading to increased risk of infections and inflammatory-like diseases during childhood and in adulthood. Further investigation to evaluate effects of arsenic exposure on the developing immune system of both sexes, particularly in human cells and using concentrations relevant to human exposure, should be a research priority.

  2. The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in α-helical and random coil structures and an increase in β-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

  3. Arsenical neuropathy: residual effects following acute industrial exposure.

    PubMed

    Garb, L G; Hine, C H

    1977-08-01

    A case report is presented describing a worker who was splashed with arsenic acid in an industrial accident and subsequently developed symptoms of systemic arsenicalism and peripheral neuropathy. This is the only report, to the authors' knowledge, of a single episode of cutaneous absorption of arsenic resulting in peripheral neuropathy. Previous reports of arsenical neuropathy and rationale for BAL therapy early in the treatment of systemic arsenicalism are discussed.

  4. Arsenic Repartitioning during Biogenic Sulfidization and Transformation of Ferrihydrite

    SciTech Connect

    Kocar, B.; Borch, T; Fendorf, S

    2010-01-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides are strong sorbents of arsenic (As) that undergo reductive dissolution and transformation upon reaction with dissolved sulfide. Here we examine the transformation and dissolution of As-bearing ferrihydrite and subsequent As repartitioning amongst secondary phases during biotic sulfate reduction. Columns initially containing As(V)-ferrihydrite coated sand, inoculated with the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough), were eluted with artificial groundwater containing sulfate and lactate. Rapid and consistent sulfate reduction coupled with lactate oxidation is observed at low As(V) loading (10% of the adsorption maximum). The dominant Fe solid phase transformation products at low As loading include amorphous FeS within the zone of sulfate reduction (near the inlet of the column) and magnetite downstream where Fe(II){sub (aq)} concentrations increase; As is displaced from the zone of sulfidogenesis and Fe(III){sub (s)} depletion. At high As(V) loading (50% of the adsorption maximum), sulfate reduction and lactate oxidation are initially slow but gradually increase over time, and all As(V) is reduced to As(III) by the end of experimentation. With the higher As loading, green rust(s), as opposed to magnetite, is a dominant Fe solid phase product. Independent of loading, As is strongly associated with magnetite and residual ferrihydrite, while being excluded from green rust and iron sulfide. Our observations illustrate that sulfidogenesis occurring in proximity with Fe (hydr)oxides induce Fe solid phase transformation and changes in As partitioning; formation of As sulfide minerals, in particular, is inhibited by reactive Fe(III) or Fe(II) either through sulfide oxidation or complexation.

  5. Arsenic repartitioning during biogenic sulfidization and transformation of ferrihydrite

    SciTech Connect

    Kocar, Benjamin D.; Borch, Thomas; Fendorf, Scott

    2012-04-30

    Iron (hydr)oxides are strong sorbents of arsenic (As) that undergo reductive dissolution and transformation upon reaction with dissolved sulfide. Here we examine the transformation and dissolution of As-bearing ferrihydrite and subsequent As repartitioning amongst secondary phases during biotic sulfate reduction. Columns initially containing As(V)-ferrihydrite coated sand, inoculated with the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough), were eluted with artificial groundwater containing sulfate and lactate. Rapid and consistent sulfate reduction coupled with lactate oxidation is observed at low As(V) loading (10% of the adsorption maximum). The dominant Fe solid phase transformation products at low As loading include amorphous FeS within the zone of sulfate reduction (near the inlet of the column) and magnetite downstream where Fe(II)(aq) concentrations increase; As is displaced from the zone of sulfidogenesis and Fe(III)(s) depletion. At high As(V) loading (50% of the adsorption maximum), sulfate reduction and lactate oxidation are initially slow but gradually increase over time, and all As(V) is reduced to As(III) by the end of experimentation. With the higher As loading, green rust(s), as opposed to magnetite, is a dominant Fe solid phase product. Independent of loading, As is strongly associated with magnetite and residual ferrihydrite, while being excluded from green rust and iron sulfide. Our observations illustrate that sulfidogenesis occurring in proximity with Fe (hydr)oxides induce Fe solid phase transformation and changes in As partitioning; formation of As sulfide minerals, in particular, is inhibited by reactive Fe(III) or Fe(II) either through sulfide oxidation or complexation.

  6. Arsenic repartitioning during biogenic sulfidization and transformation of ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocar, Benjamin D.; Borch, Thomas; Fendorf, Scott

    2010-02-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides are strong sorbents of arsenic (As) that undergo reductive dissolution and transformation upon reaction with dissolved sulfide. Here we examine the transformation and dissolution of As-bearing ferrihydrite and subsequent As repartitioning amongst secondary phases during biotic sulfate reduction. Columns initially containing As(V)-ferrihydrite coated sand, inoculated with the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough), were eluted with artificial groundwater containing sulfate and lactate. Rapid and consistent sulfate reduction coupled with lactate oxidation is observed at low As(V) loading (10% of the adsorption maximum). The dominant Fe solid phase transformation products at low As loading include amorphous FeS within the zone of sulfate reduction (near the inlet of the column) and magnetite downstream where Fe(II) (aq) concentrations increase; As is displaced from the zone of sulfidogenesis and Fe(III) (s) depletion. At high As(V) loading (50% of the adsorption maximum), sulfate reduction and lactate oxidation are initially slow but gradually increase over time, and all As(V) is reduced to As(III) by the end of experimentation. With the higher As loading, green rust(s), as opposed to magnetite, is a dominant Fe solid phase product. Independent of loading, As is strongly associated with magnetite and residual ferrihydrite, while being excluded from green rust and iron sulfide. Our observations illustrate that sulfidogenesis occurring in proximity with Fe (hydr)oxides induce Fe solid phase transformation and changes in As partitioning; formation of As sulfide minerals, in particular, is inhibited by reactive Fe(III) or Fe(II) either through sulfide oxidation or complexation.

  7. Measured versus modeled dietary arsenic and relation to urinary arsenic excretion and total exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Hartz, Vern; Harris, Robin B.; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in food and water is a significant public health problem. Person-specific aggregate exposure is difficult to collect, and modeling based on limited food As residue databases is of uncertain reliability. Two, cross-sectional, population exposure studies—the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)-Arizona and the Arizona Border Survey (ABS)— had a total of 252 subjects with diet, water, and urinary As data. Total As was measured in 24-hour duplicate diet samples and modeled using 24-hour diet diaries in conjunction with several published food surveys of As. Two-stage regression was used to assess the effects of dietary As on urinary total As (uAs): 1) generalized linear mixed models of uAs above versus below the limit of detection (LOD); and 2) restricted models limited to those subjects with uAs > LOD, using bootstrap sampling and mixed models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, current smoking, and As intake from drinking and cooking water. In restricted models, measured and modeled estimates were significant predictors of uAs. Modeled dietary As based on Total Diet Study mean residues greatly underestimated dietary intake. In households with tap water As ≤ 10 ppb, over 93% of total As exposure was attributable to diet. PMID:23321855

  8. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H.; Beier, Juliane I.; Watson, Walter H.; Zhong, Hai; States, J. Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a '2-hit' paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet ({+-} arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  9. Neurosensory effects of chronic human exposure to arsenic associated with body burden and environmental measures.

    PubMed

    Otto, D; Xia, Y; Li, Y; Wu, K; He, L; Telech, J; Hundell, H; Prah, J; Mumford, J; Wade, T

    2007-03-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is known to produce a variety of health problems, including peripheral neuropathy. Auditory, visual and somatosensory impairment have been reported in Mongolian farmers living in the Yellow River Valley, where drinking water is contaminated by arsenic. In the present study, sensory tests, including pinprick and vibration thresholds, were administered to 320 residents with well-water arsenic levels, ranging from non-detectable to 690 microg/L. Vibration thresholds in the second and fifth fingers of both hands were measured using a vibrothesiometer. Drinking water, urine and toenail samples were obtained to assess arsenic exposure and body burden. Regression analyses indicated significant associations of pinprick scores and vibration thresholds with all arsenic measures. Vibration thresholds were more strongly associated with urinary than water or nail arsenic measures, but odds ratios for decreased pinprick sensitivity were highest for the water arsenic measure. Results of the current study indicate neurosensory effects of arsenic exposure at concentrations well below the 1000 microg/L drinking water level specified by NRC, and suggest that non-carcinogenic end-points, such as vibration thresholds, are useful in the risk assessment of exposure to arsenic in drinking water. PMID:17439919

  10. Elevated mortality from lung cancer associated with arsenic exposure for a limited duration.

    PubMed

    Nakadaira, Hiroto; Endoh, Kazuo; Katagiri, Mikio; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2002-03-01

    In 1959, arsenic poisoning was detected in the town of Nakajo in Japan. The cause was exposure to inorganic arsenic in well water during 1954 to 1959. To examine the long-term effects of limited-duration arsenic exposure, we conducted mortality and survival studies for patients with chronic arsenic exposure and for control subjects from 1959 to 1992. The ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths from lung cancer was significantly high (7:0.64) for male patients. The lung cancer mortality rate was elevated markedly in subgroups with higher clinical severities of symptoms. Small cell carcinoma was specific to the exposed patients. The cumulative change of survival declined significantly in the exposed patients compared with the controls. The decline disappeared when lung cancer deaths were treated as lost to follow-up. The results showed that a 5-year period of arsenic exposure was associated with risk of lung cancer.

  11. Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, R L; Hudgens, E; Le, X C; Schreinemachers, D; Thomas, D J

    1999-01-01

    Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first morning urine voids for up to 5 consecutive days. The study population was 56% male, and 44% was younger than 18 years of age. On one day of the study period, all voided urines were collected over a 24-hr period. Arsenic intake from drinking water was estimated from daily food diaries. Comparison between the concentration of As in individual urine voids with that in the 24-hr urine collection indicated that the concentration of As in urine was stable throughout the day. Comparison of the concentration of As in each first morning urine void over the 5-day study period indicated that there was little day-to-day variation in the concentration of As in urine. The concentration of As in drinking water was a better predictor of the concentration of As in urine than was the estimated intake of As from drinking water. The concentration of As in urine did not vary by gender. An age-dependent difference in the concentration of As in urine may be attributed to the higher As dosage rate per unit body weight in children than in adults. These findings suggest that the analysis of a small number of urine samples may be adequate to estimate an individual's exposure to InAs from drinking water and that the determination of the concentration of InAs in a drinking water supply may be a useful surrogate for estimating exposure to this metalloid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10417365

  12. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can ... Breathing sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood Living in an area with high levels of ...

  13. Prevalence of arsenic exposure in population of Ballia district from drinking water and its correlation with blood arsenic level.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Shashwat; Singh, Dharam

    2014-05-01

    An investigation was carried out to ascertain the effect of arsenic in the blocks of Ballia district in Uttar Pradesh in the upper and middle Ganga plain, India. Analysis of 100 drinking water samples revealed that arsenic concentration was below 10 μg l⁻¹ in 60% samples, 10-50 μg l⁻¹ in 6%, 100 μg l⁻¹ in 24% and 200 μg l⁻¹ in 10% samples, respectively. The arsenic concentration in drinking water ranged from 12.8 to 132.2 μg l⁻¹. The depth of source of drinking water (10-60 m) was also found with a mean of 36.12 ± 13.61 μg l⁻¹ arsenic concentration. Observations revealed that at depth ranging from 10 to 20 m, the mean level of arsenic concentration was 17.398 ± 21.796 μg l⁻¹, while at 21 to 40 m depth As level was 39.685 ± 40.832 μg l⁻¹ and at 41 to 60 m As level was 46.89 ± 52.80 μg l⁻¹, respectively. These observations revealed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.716, t = 4.215, P < 0.05) between depth and arsenic concentration in drinking water. The age of water sources were ranged from zero to 30 years. The study indicates that the older sources of drinking water showed higher chance of contamination. Results showed that group 21-30 years having maximum arsenic concentration with mean value of 52.57 ± 53.79 μg l⁻¹. Correlation analysis also showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.801, t = 5.66, P < 0.05) between age of drinking water sources and their respective arsenic concentration (μg l⁻¹). Arsenic concentration in blood with mean value 0.226 ± 0.177 μg dl⁻¹ significantly increased as compared to control. The blood arsenic content correlated significantly (r = 0.6823, t = 3.93, P < 0.05) with drinking water arsenic level and exposure time (r = 0.545, t = 3.101 & *P < 0.05) for populations residing in Ballia districts. Observations and correlation analysis revealed that individuals having depth of drinking water sources 20-30 m were less affected with arsenic exposure.

  14. Cumulative exposure to arsenic and its relationship to respiratory cancer among copper smelter employees.

    PubMed

    Lee-Feldstein, A

    1986-04-01

    To explore the role of arsenic as a human carcinogen, the respiratory cancer mortality experience (1938 to 1977) of 8,045 while male smelter employees in Montana was examined relative to cumulative exposure to arsenic trioxide and was compared with that of the white male population of the same region. Exposure to arsenic was estimated for various work areas from industrial hygiene reports of average concentrations present in the smelter. Respiratory cancer mortality was analyzed further by time period of first employment and maximum lifetime exposure to arsenic trioxide. When exposure was estimated with arithmetic means of measured concentrations among men first employed prior to 1925, respiratory cancer mortality increased linearly with increasing cumulative exposure group, ranging from two to nine times expected; among those first employed in the period 1925 to 1947 it also increased linearly with increasing cumulative exposure group.

  15. Arsenic exposure, smoking, and lung cancer in smelter workers--a case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Jaerup, L.P.; Pershagen, G. )

    1991-09-15

    A cohort of 3,916 Swedish copper smelter workers employed for at least 3 months between 1928 and 1967 was followed up through 1981. Arsenic exposure was estimated for different time periods at each workplace within the smelter. Detailed job records were linked to the exposure matrix, thus forming individual cumulative arsenic exposure measures for each smelter worker. Smoking history was collected for 107 lung cancer cases and 214 controls from the cohort. Lung cancer risks were positively related to cumulative arsenic exposure with smoking standardized relative risks ranging from 0.7 to 8.7 in different exposure groups. A negative confounding by smoking was suggested in the higher exposure categories. The interaction between arsenic and smoking for the risk of developing lung cancer was intermediate between additive and multiplicative and appeared less pronounced among heavy smokers.

  16. Arsenic Exposure within the Korean Community (United States) Based on Dietary Behavior and Arsenic Levels in Hair, Urine, Air, and Water

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Bill; Tsuchiya, Ami; Kalman, David A.; Dills, Russell; Burbacher, Thomas M.; White, Jim W.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Mariën, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Background Determining arsenic exposure in groups based on geographic location, dietary behaviors, or lifestyles is important, as even moderate exposures may lead to health concerns. Objectives/Methods The Korean community in Washington State, represents a group warranting investigation, as they consume foods (e.g., shellfish, rice, finfish, and seaweed) known to contain arsenic. As part of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study, we examined the arsenic levels in hair and urine along with the diets of 108 women of childbearing age from within this community. Arsenic levels in indoor air and drinking water were also investigated, and shellfish commonly consumed were collected and analyzed for total and speciated arsenic. Results The six shellfish species analyzed (n = 667) contain total arsenic (range, 1–5 μg/g) but are a small source of inorganic arsenic (range, 0.01–0.12 μg/g). Six percent of the individuals may have elevated urinary inorganic arsenic levels (> 10 μg/L) due to diet. Seaweed, rice, shellfish, and finfish are principal sources for total arsenic intake/excretion based on mass balance estimates. Rice consumption (163 g/person/day) may be a significant source of inorganic arsenic. Air and water are not significant sources of exposure. Hair is a poor biometric for examining arsenic levels at low to moderate exposures. Conclusions We conclude that a portion of this community may have dietary inorganic arsenic exposure resulting in urine levels exceeding 10 μg/L. Although their exposure is below that associated with populations exposed to high levels of arsenic from drinking water (> 100 μg/L), their exposure may be among the highest in the United States. PMID:19440504

  17. Urinary arsenic profiles reveal exposures to inorganic arsenic from private drinking water supplies in Cornwall, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, D. R. S.; Watts, M. J.; Hamilton, E. M.; Ander, E. L.; Close, R. M.; Exley, K. S.; Crabbe, H.; Leonardi, G. S.; Fletcher, T.; Polya, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    Private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, South West England exceeded the current WHO guidance value and UK prescribed concentration or value (PCV) for arsenic of 10 μg/L in 5% of properties surveyed (n = 497). In this follow-up study, the first of its kind in the UK, volunteers (n = 207) from 127 households who used their PWS for drinking, provided urine and drinking water samples for total As determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary As speciation by high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS). Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L were found in the PWS of 10% of the volunteers. Unadjusted total urinary As concentrations were poorly correlated (Spearman’s ρ = 0.36 (P < 0.001)) with PWS As largely due to the use of spot urine samples and the dominance of arsenobetaine (AB) from seafood sources. However, the osmolality adjusted sum, U-AsIMM, of urinary inorganic As species, arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV), and their metabolites, methylarsonate (MA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA), was found to strongly correlate (Spearman’s ρ: 0.62 (P < 0.001)) with PWS As, indicating private water supplies as the dominant source of inorganic As exposure in the study population of PWS users.

  18. Urinary arsenic profiles reveal exposures to inorganic arsenic from private drinking water supplies in Cornwall, UK

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, D. R. S.; Watts, M. J.; Hamilton, E. M.; Ander, E. L.; Close, R. M.; Exley, K. S.; Crabbe, H.; Leonardi, G. S.; Fletcher, T.; Polya, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, South West England exceeded the current WHO guidance value and UK prescribed concentration or value (PCV) for arsenic of 10 μg/L in 5% of properties surveyed (n = 497). In this follow-up study, the first of its kind in the UK, volunteers (n = 207) from 127 households who used their PWS for drinking, provided urine and drinking water samples for total As determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary As speciation by high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS). Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L were found in the PWS of 10% of the volunteers. Unadjusted total urinary As concentrations were poorly correlated (Spearman’s ρ = 0.36 (P < 0.001)) with PWS As largely due to the use of spot urine samples and the dominance of arsenobetaine (AB) from seafood sources. However, the osmolality adjusted sum, U-AsIMM, of urinary inorganic As species, arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV), and their metabolites, methylarsonate (MA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA), was found to strongly correlate (Spearman’s ρ: 0.62 (P < 0.001)) with PWS As, indicating private water supplies as the dominant source of inorganic As exposure in the study population of PWS users. PMID:27156998

  19. Arsenic exposure in pregnancy: a population-based study in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Vahter, Marie E; Li, Li; Nermell, Barbro; Rahman, Anisur; El Arifeen, Shams; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Persson, Lars Ake; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the exposure of pregnant women to arsenic in Matlab, Bangladesh, an area with highly-elevated concentrations of arsenic in tubewells, by measuring concentrations of arsenic in urine. In a defined administrative area, all new pregnancies were identified by urine test in gestational week 6-8, and women were asked to participate in the assessment of arsenic exposure. Urine for analysis of arsenic was collected immediately and in gestational week 30. In total, 3,426 pregnant women provided urine samples during January 2002-March 2003. There was a considerable variation in urinary concentrations of arsenic (total range 1-1,470 microg/L, adjusted to specific gravity 1.012 g/mL), with an overall median concentration of 80 microg/L (25th and 75th percentiles were 37 and 208 microg/L respectively). Similar concentrations were found in gestational week 30, indicating no trend of decreasing exposure, despite the initiation of mitigation activities in the area. Arsenic exposure was negatively associated with socioeconomic classes and achieved educational level. There were marked geographical variations in exposure. The results emphasize the urgent need for efficient mitigation activities and investigations of arsenic-related reproductive effects.

  20. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-H.; Hsiao, C.K.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsu, L.-I; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, S.-Y.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Wu, M.-M.; Chen, C.-J.

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality.

  1. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate; Chen, Chi-Ling; Hsu, Lin-I; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality.

  2. Variation in arsenic speciation and concentration in paddy rice related to dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Williams, P N; Price, A H; Raab, A; Hossain, S A; Feldmann, J; Meharg, A A

    2005-08-01

    Ingestion of drinking water is not the only elevated source of arsenic to the diet in the Bengal Delta. Even at background levels, the arsenic in rice contributes considerably to arsenic ingestion in subsistence rice diets. We set out to survey As speciation in different rice varieties from different parts of the globe to understand the contribution of rice to arsenic exposure. Pot experiments were utilized to ascertain whether growing rice on As contaminated soil affected speciation and whether genetic variation accounted for uptake and speciation. USA long grain rice had the highest mean arsenic level in the grain at 0.26 microg As g(-1) (n = 7), and the highest grain arsenic value of the survey at 0.40 microg As g(-1). The mean arsenic level of Bangladeshi rice was 0.13 microg As g(-1) (n = 15). The main As species detected in the rice extract were AsIII, DMAV, and AsV. In European, Bangladeshi, and Indian rice 64 +/- 1% (n = 7), 80 +/- 3% (n = 11), and 81 +/- 4% (n = 15), respectively, of the recovered arsenic was found to be inorganic. In contrast, DMAV was the predominant species in rice from the USA, with only 42 +/- 5% (n = 12) of the arsenic being inorganic. Pot experiments show that the proportions of DMAV in the grain are significantly dependent on rice cultivar (p = 0.026) and that plant nutrient status is effected by arsenic exposure. PMID:16124284

  3. Assessment of Prenatal Exposure to Arsenic in Tenerife Island

    PubMed Central

    Vall, Oriol; Gómez-Culebras, Mario; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Joya, Xavier; Velez, Dinoraz; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Eva; Puig, Carme

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Increasing awareness of the potential chronic health effects of arsenic (As) at low exposure levels has motivated efforts to better understand impaired child development during pregnancy by biomarkers of exposure. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prenatal exposure to As by analysis of an alternative matrix (meconium), to examine its effects on neonatal outcomes and investigate the association with maternal lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy. Methods A transversal descriptive study was conducted in Tenerife (Spain). A total of 96 mother-child pairs participated in the study. A questionnaire on sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy was administered the day after the delivery. Analysis of total As in meconium was performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. Results Total As was detected in 37 (38.5%) meconium samples. The univariate logistic regression model indicates that prenatal exposure to As was associated with a low intake of eggs per week (OR 0.56; CI (95%): 0.34–0.94) during pregnancy. Conversely, frequent intake of vegetables was associated with prenatal As exposure (OR: 1.19; CI (95%): 1.01–1.41) and frequent intake of processed meat (as bacon, Frankfurt’s sausage, and hamburger) shows a trend to As prenatal exposure (OR: 8.54; CI (95%): 0.80–90.89). The adjusted multivariate logistic regression model indicates that only frequent intake of vegetables maintains the association (OR: 1.31; CI (95%): 1.02–1.68). Conclusion The studied population presented a low As exposure and was not associated with neonatal effects. Maternal consumption of vegetables during pregnancy was associated with detectable meconium As levels; however the concentration detected in meconium was too low to be considered a major public health concern in this geographical area. PMID:23209747

  4. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  5. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James

    2009-05-21

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

  6. Intervention trial to assess arsenic exposure from food crops in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Milton, Abul H; Smith, Wayne T; Ng, Jack C; Sim, Malcolm; Dear, Keith; Caldwell, Bruce K

    2004-04-01

    The authors assessed the contribution of food irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water to human exposure to arsenic in Bangladesh. An intervention trial was conducted in a village in the Jessore District of Bangladesh, where irrigation water had been field-tested in March 2000 and was found to contain arsenic with concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 microg/l. In May 2000, a random sample of 63 households was selected from the village, and 1 eligible person from each household was recruited to the study and randomized to an intervention or control group. The intervention group received food purchased from a village where irrigation water was found to contain < 10 microg/l arsenic. The control group received food purchased from markets in the study village, where irrigation water was found to contain > 100 microg/l arsenic. Pre- and postintervention urine samples were collected for urinary arsenic speciation assays. Preintervention, the mean urinary total arsenic concentrations were 139.25 microg/l and 129.15 microg/l for the intervention and control groups, respectively. These concentrations did not change significantly following intervention. Arsenic concentrations in samples of selected raw and cooked foods from the low-contamination area did not contain less arsenic than samples from the high-contamination area. Further studies to investigate the arsenic content of food grown in areas with high and low arsenic contamination of irrigation water are recommended.

  7. Contamination of groundwater and risk assessment for arsenic exposure in Ha Nam province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Anh; Bang, Sunbaek; Viet, Pham Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2009-04-01

    The characteristics of arsenic-contaminated groundwater and the potential risks from the groundwater were investigated. Arsenic contamination in groundwater was found in four villages (Vinh Tru, Bo De, Hoa Hau, Nhan Dao) in Ha Nam province in northern Vietnam. Since the groundwater had been used as one of the main drinking water sources in these regions, groundwater and hair samples were collected in the villages. The concentrations of arsenic in the three villages (Vinh Tru, Bo De, Hoa Hau) significantly exceeded the Vietnamese drinking water standard for arsenic (10 microg/L) with average concentrations of 348, 211, and 325 microg/L, respectively. According to the results of the arsenic speciation testing, the predominant arsenic species in the groundwater existed as arsenite [As(III)]. Elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and ammonium were also found in the groundwater. Although more than 90% of the arsenic was removed by sand filtration systems used in this region, arsenic concentrations of most treated groundwater were still higher than the drinking water standard. A significant positive correlation was found between the arsenic concentrations in the treated groundwater and in female human hair. The risk assessment for arsenic through drinking water pathways shows both potential chronic and carcinogenic risks to the local community. More than 40% of the people consuming treated groundwater are at chronic risk for arsenic exposure.

  8. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kempson, Ivan M; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James

    2009-05-01

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 microg g(-1). The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

  9. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H2O2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O2(-)) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The present study has also shown that the arsenic-transformed cells acquired apoptosis resistance. The inhibition of catalase to increase ROS level restored apoptosis capability of arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells, further showing that ROS levels are low in these cells. The apoptosis resistance due to the low ROS levels may increase cells proliferation, providing a favorable environment for tumorigenesis

  10. Cytotoxicity patterns of arsenic trioxide exposure on HaCaT keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Udensi, Udensi K; Graham-Evans, Barbara E; Rogers, Christian; Isokpehi, Raphael D

    2011-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, and abnormalities of the skin are the most common outcomes of long-term, low-dose, chronic arsenic exposure. If the balance between keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and death is perturbed, pathologic changes of the epidermis may result, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and certain forms of ichthyosis. Therefore, research investigations using in vitro human epidermal cells could help elucidate cellular and molecular processes in keratinocytes affected by arsenic. Data from such investigations could also provide the basis for developing cosmetic intervention for skin diseases caused by arsenic. Methods The viability of HaCaT keratinocyte cultures with or without prior exposure to low-dose arsenic trioxide was compared for varying concentrations of arsenic trioxide over a time course of 14 days because in untreated control cultures, approximately 2 weeks is required to complete cell differentiation. Long-term cultures were established by culturing HaCaT cells on collagen IV, and cells were subsequently exposed to 0 parts per million (ppm), 1 ppm, 5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, 10 ppm, and 15 ppm of arsenic trioxide. The percentages of viable cells as well as DNA damage after exposure were determined on Day 2, Day 5, Day 8, and Day 14. Results Using both statistical and visual analytics approaches for data analysis, we have observed a biphasic response at a 5 ppm dose with cell viability peaking on Day 8 in both chronic and acute exposures. Further, a low dose of 1 ppm arsenic trioxide enhanced HaCaT keratinocyte proliferation, whereas doses above 7.5 ppm inhibited growth. Conclusion The time course profiling of arsenic trioxide cytotoxicity using long-term HaCaT keratinocyte cultures presents an approach to modeling the human epidermal cellular responses to varying doses of arsenic trioxide treatment or exposure. A low dose of arsenic trioxide appears to aid cell growth but concomitantly disrupts the DNA

  11. Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic Is Associated with Increased Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Longer Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Syeda S.; Xu, YiYi; Engström, Karin; Li, Huiqi; Tallving, Pia; Nermell, Barbro; Boemo, Analia; Parada, Luis A.; Peñaloza, Lidia G.; Concha, Gabriela; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity. Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N = 264, 89% females) and one in Chaco (N = 169, 75% females). We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] in urine (U-As) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5–95 percentile: 21–537) μg/L in Andes and 80 (5–95 percentile: 15–1637) μg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity) in Chaco (β = 0.027 per 100 μg/L, p = 0.0085; adjusted for age and sex), but not in Andes (β = 0.025, p = 0.24). U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β = 0.016, p = 0.0066) and Andes (β = 0.0075, p = 0.029). In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer.

  12. Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic Is Associated with Increased Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Longer Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Syeda S.; Xu, YiYi; Engström, Karin; Li, Huiqi; Tallving, Pia; Nermell, Barbro; Boemo, Analia; Parada, Luis A.; Peñaloza, Lidia G.; Concha, Gabriela; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity. Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N = 264, 89% females) and one in Chaco (N = 169, 75% females). We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] in urine (U-As) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5–95 percentile: 21–537) μg/L in Andes and 80 (5–95 percentile: 15–1637) μg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity) in Chaco (β = 0.027 per 100 μg/L, p = 0.0085; adjusted for age and sex), but not in Andes (β = 0.025, p = 0.24). U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β = 0.016, p = 0.0066) and Andes (β = 0.0075, p = 0.029). In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer. PMID:27597942

  13. Toenail arsenic concentrations, GSTT1 gene polymorphisms, and arsenic exposure from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kile, Molly L; Houseman, E Andres; Rodrigues, Ema; Smith, Thomas J; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Su, Li; Christiani, David C

    2005-10-01

    Toenail arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of inorganic As (As(in)) exposure in a population residing in an As-endemic region of Bangladesh. Drinking water and toenail samples were collected from 48 families (n = 223) every 3 months for 2 years and analyzed for As using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Drinking water collected 3, 6, and 9 months before each toenail sample collection was combined into a weighted lagged exposure variable. The contribution of each water sample to the measured toenail As concentration was estimated using maximum likelihood that accounted for fluctuations in drinking water exposure and toenail growth. The best model attributed 69%, 14%, and 17% of the toenail As content to drinking water exposures that occurred 3, 6, and 9 months before toenail collection [95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.46-0.97, 0.00-0.31, and 0.03-0.35, respectively]. Generalized additive mixed models using penalized regression splines were employed to model the data. Below a drinking water concentration of 2 mug As/L, no relationship between drinking water As and toenail As concentrations was observed. Above this concentration, toenail As content increased in a dose-dependent fashion as drinking water As increased. Age was a significant effect modifier of drinking water As exposure on toenail As (beta = 0.01; 95% CI, 0.002-0.02). Individuals possessing GSTT1-null genotypes had significantly more As in their toenails in contrast to GSTT1 wild-type individuals (beta = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06-0.2). Therefore, it seems that GSTT1 modifies the relationship between As(in) exposure and toenail As(in) content.

  14. Arsenic transformation and mobilization from minerals by the arsenite oxidizing strain WAO

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhine, E.D.; Onesios, K.M.; Serfes, M.E.; Reinfelder, J.R.; Young, L.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of arsenic concentrations in New Jersey well water from the Newark Basin showed up to 15% of the wells exceed 10 ??g L-1, with a maximum of 215 ??g L-1. In some geologic settings in the basin, this mobile arsenic could be from the weathering of pyrite (FeS2) found in black shale that contains up to 4% arsenic by weight. We hypothesized that under oxic conditions at circumneutral pH, the microbially mediated oxidation of sulfide in the pyrite lattice would lead to the release of pyrite-bound arsenic. Moreover, the oxidation of aqueous As(III) to As(V) by aerobic microorganisms could further enhance arsenic mobilization from the solid phase. Enrichment cultures under aerobic, As(III)-oxidizing conditions were established under circumneutral pH with weathered black shale from the Newark Basin as the inoculum source. Strain WAO, an autotrophic inorganic-sulfur and As(III)-oxidizer, was isolated and phylogenetically and physiologically characterized. Arsenic mobilization studies from arsenopyrite (FeAsS) mineral, conducted with strain WAO at circumneutral pH, showed microbially enhanced mobilization of arsenic and complete oxidation of released arsenic and sulfur to stoichiometric amounts of arsenate and sulfate. In addition, WAO preferentially colonized pyrite on the surface of arsenic-bearing, black shale thick sections. These findings support the hypothesis that microorganisms can directly mobilize and transform arsenic bound in mineral form at circumneutral pH and suggest that the microbial mobilization of arsenic into groundwater may be important in other arsenic-impacted aquifers. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  15. COMPARISON OF THE URINARY METABOLITES OF RATS, MICE, AND HUMANS AFTER ORAL ARSENIC EXPOSURE FOCUSING ON THIOARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary metabolites of arsenic are useful as biomarkers of exposure because ingested arsenic is excreted primarily in urine1. Complete urinary arsenic speciation can provide insight into possible metabolic pathways as well as potential exposure sources. The pattern of excreted me...

  16. AS 2008: Arsenic exposure a nd health effects in Inner Mongolia: studies on cardiac, diabetes and cancer-related effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water has been of great public health concern world wide. Arsenic exposure has been associated with human cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate health effects of arsenic and to asses...

  17. Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10 ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0 ppb) and Southern (329.0 ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200 m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1 ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source.

  18. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Gordon; Basom, Janet; Mattevada, Sravan; Onger, Frederick

    2015-04-15

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population.

  19. ARSENICALS IN MATERNAL AND FETAL MOUSE TISSUES AFTER GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ARSENITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of pregnant C3H/HeNCR mice to 42.5- or 85-ppm of arsenic as sodium arsenite in drinking water between days 8 to 18 of gestation markedly increases tumor incidence in their offspring. In the work reported here, distribution of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites, methy...

  20. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  1. Effects of low arsenic concentration exposure on freshwater fish in the presence of fluvial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Bonet, Berta; Guasch, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element and its carcinogenic effect on living organisms is well known. However, predicting real effects in the environment requires an ecological approach since toxicity is influenced by many environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if environmentally-realistic arsenic exposure causes toxicity to fish. An experiment with four different treatments (control (C), biofilm (B), arsenic (+As) and biofilm with arsenic (B+As)) was conducted and each one included sediment to enhance environmental realism, allowing the testing of the interactive effects of biofilm and arsenic on the toxicity to fish. Average arsenic exposure to Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) was 40.5 ± 7.5 μg/L for +As treatment and 34.4 ± 1.4 μg/L for B+As treatment for 56 days. Fish were affected directly and indirectly by this low arsenic concentration since exposure did not only affect fish but also the function of periphytic biofilms. Arsenic effects on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of mosquitofish were ameliorated in the presence of biofilms at the beginning of exposure (day 9). Moreover, fish weight gaining was only affected in the treatment without biofilm. After longer exposure (56 days), effects of exposure were clearly seen. Fish showed a marked increase in the catalase (CAT) activity in the liver but the interactive influence of biofilms was not further observed since the arsenic-affected biofilm had lost its role in water purification. Our results highlight the interest and application of incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems in ecotoxicology and support the use of criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for arsenic lower than 150 μg/L and closer to the water quality criteria to protect aquatic life recommended by the Canadian government which is 5 μg As/L.

  2. Effects of low arsenic concentration exposure on freshwater fish in the presence of fluvial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Bonet, Berta; Guasch, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element and its carcinogenic effect on living organisms is well known. However, predicting real effects in the environment requires an ecological approach since toxicity is influenced by many environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if environmentally-realistic arsenic exposure causes toxicity to fish. An experiment with four different treatments (control (C), biofilm (B), arsenic (+As) and biofilm with arsenic (B+As)) was conducted and each one included sediment to enhance environmental realism, allowing the testing of the interactive effects of biofilm and arsenic on the toxicity to fish. Average arsenic exposure to Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) was 40.5 ± 7.5 μg/L for +As treatment and 34.4 ± 1.4 μg/L for B+As treatment for 56 days. Fish were affected directly and indirectly by this low arsenic concentration since exposure did not only affect fish but also the function of periphytic biofilms. Arsenic effects on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of mosquitofish were ameliorated in the presence of biofilms at the beginning of exposure (day 9). Moreover, fish weight gaining was only affected in the treatment without biofilm. After longer exposure (56 days), effects of exposure were clearly seen. Fish showed a marked increase in the catalase (CAT) activity in the liver but the interactive influence of biofilms was not further observed since the arsenic-affected biofilm had lost its role in water purification. Our results highlight the interest and application of incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems in ecotoxicology and support the use of criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for arsenic lower than 150 μg/L and closer to the water quality criteria to protect aquatic life recommended by the Canadian government which is 5 μg As/L. PMID:26657392

  3. Assessing arsenic exposure in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems to mitigate well water contamination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Paulu, Chris; Simones, Thomas L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Backer, Lorraine C

    2016-02-15

    There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from <10 μg/L to 640 μg/L. Urine samples, water samples, daily diet and bathing diaries, and household dietary and water use habit surveys were collected. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between urinary arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p ≤ 0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were <40 μg/L, untreated water arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500 μg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure.

  4. Assessing arsenic exposure in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems to mitigate well water contamination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Paulu, Chris; Simones, Thomas L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Backer, Lorraine C

    2016-02-15

    There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from <10 μg/L to 640 μg/L. Urine samples, water samples, daily diet and bathing diaries, and household dietary and water use habit surveys were collected. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between urinary arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p ≤ 0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were <40 μg/L, untreated water arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500 μg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure

  5. Water arsenic exposure and children's intellectual function in Araihazar, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Gail A; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Factor-Litvak, Pam; van Geen, Alexander; Slavkovich, Vesna; LoIacono, Nancy J; Cheng, Zhongqi; Hussain, Iftikhar; Momotaj, Hassina; Graziano, Joseph H

    2004-09-01

    Exposure to arsenic has long been known to have neurologic consequences in adults, but to date there are no well-controlled studies in children. We report results of a cross-sectional investigation of intellectual function in 201 children 10 years of age whose parents participate in our ongoing prospective cohort study examining health effects of As exposure in 12,000 residents of Araihazar, Bangladesh. Water As and manganese concentrations of tube wells at each child's home were obtained by surveying all wells in the study region. Children and mothers came to our field clinic, where children received a medical examination in which weight, height, and head circumference were measured. Children's intellectual function on tests drawn from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, version III, was assessed by summing weighted items across domains to create Verbal, Performance, and Full-Scale raw scores. Children provided urine specimens for measuring urinary As and creatinine and were asked to provide blood samples for measuring blood lead and hemoglobin concentrations. Exposure to As from drinking water was associated with reduced intellectual function after adjustment for sociodemographic covariates and water Mn. Water As was associated with reduced intellectual function, in a dose-response manner, such that children with water As levels > 50 microg/L achieved significantly lower Performance and Full-Scale scores than did children with water As levels < 5.5 microg/L. The association was generally stronger for well-water As than for urinary As.

  6. Subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Arteel, Gavin E; Guo, Luping; Schlierf, Thomas; Beier, Juliane I; Kaiser, J Phillip; Chen, Theresa S; Liu, Marsha; Conklin, Daniel J; Miller, Heather L; von Montfort, Claudia; States, J Christopher

    2008-01-15

    Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a serious health concern in the US. Whereas studies have identified arsenic alone as an independent risk factor for liver disease, concentrations of arsenic required to damage this organ are generally higher than found in the US water supply. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that arsenic (at subhepatotoxic doses) may also sensitize the liver to a second hepatotoxin. To test this hypothesis, the effect of chronic exposure to arsenic on liver damage caused by acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined in mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice (4-6 weeks) were exposed to arsenic (49 ppm as sodium arsenite in drinking water). After 7 months of exposure, animals were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg i.p.) and sacrificed 24 h later. Arsenic alone caused no overt hepatotoxicity, as determined by plasma enzymes and histology. In contrast, arsenic exposure dramatically enhanced liver damage caused by LPS, increasing the number and size of necroinflammatory foci. This effect of arsenic was coupled with increases in indices of oxidative stress (4-HNE adducts, depletion of GSH and methionine pools). The number of apoptotic (TUNEL) hepatocytes was similar in the LPS and arsenic/LPS groups. In contrast, arsenic pre-exposure blunted the increase in proliferating (PCNA) hepatocytes caused by LPS; this change in the balance between cell death and proliferation was coupled with a robust loss of liver weight in the arsenic/LPS compared to the LPS alone group. The impairment of proliferation after LPS caused by arsenic was also coupled with alterations in the expression of key mediators of cell cycle progression (p27, p21, CDK6 and Cyclin D1). Taken together, these results suggest that arsenic, at doses that are not overtly hepatotoxic per se, significantly enhances LPS-induced liver injury. These results further suggest that arsenic levels in the drinking water may be a risk modifier for the development of chronic liver diseases.

  7. Subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Arteel, Gavin E. Guo, Luping; Schlierf, Thomas; Beier, Juliane I.; Kaiser, J. Phillip; Chen, Theresa S.; Liu, Marsha; Conklin, Daniel J.; Miller, Heather L.; Montfort, Claudia von; States, J. Christopher

    2008-01-15

    Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a serious health concern in the US. Whereas studies have identified arsenic alone as an independent risk factor for liver disease, concentrations of arsenic required to damage this organ are generally higher than found in the US water supply. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that arsenic (at subhepatotoxic doses) may also sensitize the liver to a second hepatotoxin. To test this hypothesis, the effect of chronic exposure to arsenic on liver damage caused by acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined in mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice (4-6 weeks) were exposed to arsenic (49 ppm as sodium arsenite in drinking water). After 7 months of exposure, animals were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg i.p.) and sacrificed 24 h later. Arsenic alone caused no overt hepatotoxicity, as determined by plasma enzymes and histology. In contrast, arsenic exposure dramatically enhanced liver damage caused by LPS, increasing the number and size of necroinflammatory foci. This effect of arsenic was coupled with increases in indices of oxidative stress (4-HNE adducts, depletion of GSH and methionine pools). The number of apoptotic (TUNEL) hepatocytes was similar in the LPS and arsenic/LPS groups. In contrast, arsenic pre-exposure blunted the increase in proliferating (PCNA) hepatocytes caused by LPS; this change in the balance between cell death and proliferation was coupled with a robust loss of liver weight in the arsenic/LPS compared to the LPS alone group. The impairment of proliferation after LPS caused by arsenic was also coupled with alterations in the expression of key mediators of cell cycle progression (p27, p21, CDK6 and Cyclin D1). Taken together, these results suggest that arsenic, at doses that are not overtly hepatotoxic per se, significantly enhances LPS-induced liver injury. These results further suggest that arsenic levels in the drinking water may be a risk modifier for the development of chronic liver diseases.

  8. Considerations when using longitudinal cohort studies to assess dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and chronic health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Tsuji, Joyce S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal cohort studies could provide some evidence to evaluate associations of dietary patterns related to inorganic arsenic exposure with risk of arsenic-related diseases. However, currently available data from longitudinal cohort studies limit causal analyses regarding the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and health outcomes. Any conclusions should therefore be viewed with knowledge of the analytical and methodological limitations.

  9. Oral exposure to inorganic arsenic: evaluation of its carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher-Wolz, Ulrike; Dieter, Hermann H; Klein, Dominik; Schneider, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic, which is extensively metabolised in humans into even more toxic methylated arsenicals, is a potent carcinogen, causing tumours of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, and other organs. It also induces a number of non-cancer effects. Consumption of drinking water highly contaminated by arsenic causes serious health problems in some countries in southeastern Asia, and arsenic poses problems for drinking-water safety world-wide. Existing risk assessments are based on epidemiological studies from regions with high exposure concentrations (in the mg/L range). It is a matter of debate whether these findings are useful at predicting arsenic-induced effects at low concentrations. In recent years numerous epidemiological studies on cancer and non-cancer effects of inorganic arsenic have been published. This work aims at reviewing recent toxicological and epidemiological data on inorganic arsenic with emphasis on effects at low exposure concentrations. Information obtained from epidemiological studies is supplemented with mechanistic data from in vitro and in vivo studies. Various modes of action for arsenic carcinogenicity are discussed. The information gathered was used to evaluate the reliability of existing cancer-risk assessments and to improve current assessments of non-cancer health effects. A tolerable daily dose, based on epidemiological studies on arsenic-induced skin disorders, is presented.

  10. Environmental arsenic exposure of children around a former copper smelter site.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y H; Bornschein, R L; Grote, J; Menrath, W; Roda, S

    1997-01-01

    Arsenic residues in the communities surrounding former smelters remain a public health concern, especially for infants and children. To evaluate environmental exposure among these children, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the vicinity of a former copper smelter in Anaconda, Montana. A total of 414 children less than 72 months old were recruited. First morning voided urine samples and environmental samples were collected for arsenic measurements. The geometric mean of speciated urinary arsenic was 8.6 microg/liter (GSD = 1.7, N = 289). Average arsenic levels of different types of soil ranged from 121 to 236 microg/g and were significantly related to proximity and wind direction to the smelter site. The same significant relationship was observed for interior dust arsenic. Speciated urinary arsenic was found to be significantly related to soil arsenic in bare areas in residential yards (P < 0.0005). In general, elevated excretion of arsenic was demonstrable and warranted parents' attention to reduce exposure of their children to environmental arsenic. PMID:9012374

  11. High exposure to inorganic arsenic by food: the need for risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Damm, Georg; Foth, Heidi; Freyberger, Alexius; Gebel, Thomas; Golka, Klaus; Röhl, Claudia; Schupp, Thomas; Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Hengstler, Jan Georg

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that occurs ubiquitously in soil and water. Based on epidemiological studies, a benchmark dose (lower/higher bound estimate) between 0.3 and 8 μg/kg bw/day was estimated to cause a 1 % increased risk of lung, skin and bladder cancer. A recently published study by EFSA on dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population reported 95th percentiles (lower bound min to upper bound max) for different age groups in the same range as the benchmark dose. For toddlers, a highly exposed group, the highest values ranged between 0.61 and 2.09 µg arsenic/kg bw/day. For all other age classes, the margin of exposure is also small. This scenario calls for regulatory action to reduce arsenic exposure. One priority measure should be to reduce arsenic in food categories that contribute most to exposure. In the EFSA study the food categories 'milk and dairy products,' 'drinking water' and 'food for infants' represent major sources of inorganic arsenic for infants and also rice is an important source. Long-term strategies are required to reduce inorganic arsenic in these food groups. The reduced consumption of rice and rice products which has been recommended may be helpful for a minority of individuals consuming unusually high amounts of rice. However, it is only of limited value for the general European population, because the food categories 'grain-based processed products (non rice-based)' or 'milk and dairy products' contribute more to the exposure with inorganic arsenic than the food category 'rice.' A balanced regulatory activity focusing on the most relevant food categories is required. In conclusion, exposure to inorganic arsenic represents a risk to the health of the European population, particularly to young children. Regulatory measures to reduce exposure are urgently required. PMID:26586021

  12. High exposure to inorganic arsenic by food: the need for risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Damm, Georg; Foth, Heidi; Freyberger, Alexius; Gebel, Thomas; Golka, Klaus; Röhl, Claudia; Schupp, Thomas; Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Hengstler, Jan Georg

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that occurs ubiquitously in soil and water. Based on epidemiological studies, a benchmark dose (lower/higher bound estimate) between 0.3 and 8 μg/kg bw/day was estimated to cause a 1 % increased risk of lung, skin and bladder cancer. A recently published study by EFSA on dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population reported 95th percentiles (lower bound min to upper bound max) for different age groups in the same range as the benchmark dose. For toddlers, a highly exposed group, the highest values ranged between 0.61 and 2.09 µg arsenic/kg bw/day. For all other age classes, the margin of exposure is also small. This scenario calls for regulatory action to reduce arsenic exposure. One priority measure should be to reduce arsenic in food categories that contribute most to exposure. In the EFSA study the food categories 'milk and dairy products,' 'drinking water' and 'food for infants' represent major sources of inorganic arsenic for infants and also rice is an important source. Long-term strategies are required to reduce inorganic arsenic in these food groups. The reduced consumption of rice and rice products which has been recommended may be helpful for a minority of individuals consuming unusually high amounts of rice. However, it is only of limited value for the general European population, because the food categories 'grain-based processed products (non rice-based)' or 'milk and dairy products' contribute more to the exposure with inorganic arsenic than the food category 'rice.' A balanced regulatory activity focusing on the most relevant food categories is required. In conclusion, exposure to inorganic arsenic represents a risk to the health of the European population, particularly to young children. Regulatory measures to reduce exposure are urgently required.

  13. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H; Beier, Juliane I; Watson, Walter H; Zhong, Hai; States, J Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a '2-hit' paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet (± arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations.

  14. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H.; Beier, Juliane I.; Watson, Walter H.; Zhong, Hai; States, J. Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a '2-hit' paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet (± arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. PMID:21983427

  15. Arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Sharrett, A Richey; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Schwartz, Brian S; Nachman, Keeve E; Burke, Thomas A; Guallar, Eliseo

    2005-12-01

    Arsenic exposure is a likely cause of blackfoot disease and a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis. The authors performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence on the association between arsenic and cardiovascular outcomes. The search period was January 1966 through April 2005. Thirteen studies conducted in general populations (eight in high-arsenic areas in Taiwan, five in other countries) and 16 studies conducted in occupational populations were identified. Exposure was assessed ecologically in most studies. In Taiwan, relative risks comparing the highest arsenic exposure category with the lowest ranged from 1.59 to 4.90 for coronary disease, from 1.19 to 2.69 for stroke, and from 1.66 to 4.28 for peripheral arterial disease. In other general populations, relative risks ranged from 0.84 to 1.54 for coronary disease, from 0.69 to 1.53 for stroke, and from 0.61 to 1.58 for peripheral arterial disease. In occupational populations, relative risks ranged from 0.40 to 2.14 for coronary disease mortality and from 0.30 to 1.33 for stroke mortality. Methodologic limitations, however, limited interpretation of the moderate-to-strong associations between high arsenic exposure and cardiovascular outcomes in Taiwan. In other populations or in occupational settings, the evidence was inconclusive. Because of the high prevalence of arsenic exposure, carefully performed studies of arsenic and cardiovascular outcomes should be a research priority.

  16. Dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and the serum enzymes for liver function tests in the individuals exposed to arsenic: a cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure has been shown to cause liver damage. However, serum hepatic enzyme activity as recognized on liver function tests (LFTs) showing a dose-response relationship with arsenic exposure has not yet been clearly documented. The aim of our study was to investigate the dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and major serum enzyme marker activity associated with LFTs in the population living in arsenic-endemic areas in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 200 residents living in arsenic-endemic areas in Bangladesh were selected as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study subjects were stratified into quartile groups as follows, based on concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water, as well as in subjects' hair and nails: lowest, low, medium and high. The serum hepatic enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were then assayed. Results Arsenic concentrations in the subjects' hair and nails were positively correlated with arsenic levels in the drinking water. As regards the exposure-response relationship with arsenic in the drinking water, the respective activities of ALP, AST and ALT were found to be significantly increased in the high-exposure groups compared to the lowest-exposure groups before and after adjustments were made for different covariates. With internal exposure markers (arsenic in hair and nails), the ALP, AST and ALT activity profiles assumed a similar shape of dose-response relationship, with very few differences seen in the higher groups compared to the lowest group, most likely due to the temporalities of exposure metrics. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that arsenic concentrations in the drinking water were strongly correlated with arsenic concentrations in the subjects' hair and nails. Further, this study revealed a

  17. Vascular dysfunction in patients with chronic arsenosis can be reversed by reduction of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jingbo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sun, Guifan; Yoshida, Takahiko; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Wataru; Iso, Hiroyasu; Cui, Renzhe; Waalkes, Michael P; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2005-03-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure causes vascular diseases associated with systematic dysfunction of endogenous nitric oxide. Replacement of heavily arsenic-contaminated drinking water with low-arsenic water is a potential intervention strategy for arsenosis, although the reversibility of arsenic intoxication has not established. In the present study, we examined urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine 3 ,5 -monophosphate (cGMP), a second messenger of the vasoactive effects of nitric oxide, and signs and symptoms for peripheral vascular function in 54 arsenosis patients before and after they were supplied with low-arsenic drinking water in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia, China. The arsenosis patients showed a marked decrease in urinary excretion of cGMP (mean +/- SEM: male, 37.0 +/- 6.1; female, 37.2 +/- 5.4 nmol/mmol creatinine), and a 13-month period of consuming low-arsenic drinking water reversed this trend (male, 68.0 +/- 5.6; female, 70.6 +/- 3.0 nmol/mmol creatinine) and improved peripheral vascular response to cold stress. Our intervention study indicates that peripheral vascular disease in arsenosis patients can be reversed by exposure cessation and has important implications for the public health approach to arsenic exposure. PMID:15743725

  18. Vascular dysfunction in patients with chronic arsenosis can be reversed by reduction of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jingbo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sun, Guifan; Yoshida, Takahiko; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Wataru; Iso, Hiroyasu; Cui, Renzhe; Waalkes, Michael P; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2005-03-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure causes vascular diseases associated with systematic dysfunction of endogenous nitric oxide. Replacement of heavily arsenic-contaminated drinking water with low-arsenic water is a potential intervention strategy for arsenosis, although the reversibility of arsenic intoxication has not established. In the present study, we examined urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine 3 ,5 -monophosphate (cGMP), a second messenger of the vasoactive effects of nitric oxide, and signs and symptoms for peripheral vascular function in 54 arsenosis patients before and after they were supplied with low-arsenic drinking water in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia, China. The arsenosis patients showed a marked decrease in urinary excretion of cGMP (mean +/- SEM: male, 37.0 +/- 6.1; female, 37.2 +/- 5.4 nmol/mmol creatinine), and a 13-month period of consuming low-arsenic drinking water reversed this trend (male, 68.0 +/- 5.6; female, 70.6 +/- 3.0 nmol/mmol creatinine) and improved peripheral vascular response to cold stress. Our intervention study indicates that peripheral vascular disease in arsenosis patients can be reversed by exposure cessation and has important implications for the public health approach to arsenic exposure.

  19. Environmental arsenic exposure of schoolchildren in a former tin mining and smelting community of southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vitayavirasak, Banjong; Rakwong, Kittiya; Chatchawej, Warangkana

    2005-01-01

    Risk behavior and environmental sources of exposure to arsenic for 10-year-old schoolchildren were studied in a high exposure area and a low exposure area of Ron Phibun Subdistrict, Ron Phibun District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province and compared to those in a control area. Arsenic concentrations of surface soil, ambient air and drinking water to which subjects in the high exposure group, the low exposure group and the control group were exposed, were significantly different (p < 0.05). Similarly, urinary concentrations of total arsenic and the sum of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites were significantly higher in the study groups than the control group. The arsenic content of locally grown agricultural produce was small with the exception of freshwater snails (Sinotaia ingallsiana). Drinking water and surface soil were found to be the main sources of exposure. The exposure was mediated by the subjects' risk behavior, such as playing with soil and no hand-washing before eating. The estimated cancer risk from arsenic for the schoolchildren in the study area was between 10(-5)-10(-6) which meant that their risk of developing cancer was probable. Measures to reduce the cancer risk are recommended. PMID:16184078

  20. Environmental arsenic exposure of schoolchildren in a former tin mining and smelting community of southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vitayavirasak, Banjong; Rakwong, Kittiya; Chatchawej, Warangkana

    2005-01-01

    Risk behavior and environmental sources of exposure to arsenic for 10-year-old schoolchildren were studied in a high exposure area and a low exposure area of Ron Phibun Subdistrict, Ron Phibun District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province and compared to those in a control area. Arsenic concentrations of surface soil, ambient air and drinking water to which subjects in the high exposure group, the low exposure group and the control group were exposed, were significantly different (p < 0.05). Similarly, urinary concentrations of total arsenic and the sum of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites were significantly higher in the study groups than the control group. The arsenic content of locally grown agricultural produce was small with the exception of freshwater snails (Sinotaia ingallsiana). Drinking water and surface soil were found to be the main sources of exposure. The exposure was mediated by the subjects' risk behavior, such as playing with soil and no hand-washing before eating. The estimated cancer risk from arsenic for the schoolchildren in the study area was between 10(-5)-10(-6) which meant that their risk of developing cancer was probable. Measures to reduce the cancer risk are recommended.

  1. NEUROSENSORY EFFECTS OF CHRONIC HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC ASSOCIATED WITH BODY BURDEN AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is known to produce a variety of health problems including peripheral neuropathy. Auditory, visual and somatosensory impairments have been reported in Mongolian farmers living in the Yellow River Valley where drinking water is contami...

  2. Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Jackson, Brian P.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Punshon, Tracy; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that concentrations of arsenic in breast milk are relatively low even in areas with high drinking-water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations. Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population. Methods: We measured arsenic in home tap water (n = 874), urine from 6-week-old infants (n = 72), and breast milk from mothers (n = 9) enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using data from a 3-day food diary, we compared urinary arsenic across infant feeding types and developed predictive exposure models to estimate daily arsenic intake from breast milk and formula. Results: Urinary arsenic concentrations were generally low (median, 0.17 μg/L; maximum, 2.9 μg/L) but 7.5 times higher for infants fed exclusively with formula than for infants fed exclusively with breast milk (β = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.83; p < 0.0001, adjusted for specific gravity). Similarly, the median estimated daily arsenic intake by NHBCS infants was 5.5 times higher for formula-fed infants (0.22 μg/kg/day) than for breastfed infants (0.04 μg/kg/day). Given median arsenic concentrations measured in NHBCS tap water and previously published for formula powder, formula powder was estimated to account for ~ 70% of median exposure among formula-fed NHBCS infants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that breastfed infants have lower arsenic exposure than formula-fed infants, and that both formula powder and drinking water can be sources of exposure for U.S. infants. Citation: Carignan CC, Cottingham KL, Jackson BP, Farzan SF, Gandolfi AJ, Punshon T, Folt CL, Karagas MR. 2015. Estimated exposure to arsenic in breastfed and formula-fed infants in a United States cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:500–506;

  3. Arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.): human exposure through food chain.

    PubMed

    Azizur Rahman, M; Hasegawa, H; Mahfuzur Rahman, M; Mazid Miah, M A; Tasmin, A

    2008-02-01

    Although human exposure to arsenic is thought to be caused mainly through arsenic-contaminated underground drinking water, the use of this water for irrigation enhances the possibility of arsenic uptake into crop plants. Rice is the staple food grain in Bangladesh. Arsenic content in straw, grain and husk of rice is especially important since paddy fields are extensively irrigated with underground water having high level of arsenic concentration. However, straw and husk are widely used as cattle feed. Arsenic concentration in rice grain was 0.5+/-0.02 mg kg(-1) with the highest concentrations being in grains grown on soil treated with 40 mg As kg(-1) soil. With the average rice consumption between 400 and 650 g/day by typical adults in the arsenic-affected areas of Bangladesh, the intake of arsenic through rice stood at 0.20-0.35 mg/day. With a daily consumption of 4 L drinking water, arsenic intake through drinking water stands at 0.2mg/day. Moreover, when the rice plant was grown in 60 mg of As kg(-1) soil, arsenic concentrations in rice straw were 20.6+/-0.52 at panicle initiation stage and 23.7+/-0.44 at maturity stage, whereas it was 1.6+/-0.20 mg kg(-1) in husk. Cattle drink a considerable amount of water. So alike human beings, arsenic gets deposited into cattle body through rice straw and husk as well as from drinking water which in turn finds a route into the human body. Arsenic intake in human body from rice and cattle could be potentially important and it exists in addition to that from drinking water. Therefore, a hypothesis has been put forward elucidating the possible food chain pathways through which arsenic may enter into human body. PMID:17346792

  4. Assessment of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic based on urinary concentrations and speciation of arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, J G; Johnson, L R

    1990-01-01

    An analytical speciation method, capable of separating inorganic arsenic (As (V), As (III] and its methylated metabolites (MMAA, DMAA) from common, inert, dietary organoarsenicals, was applied to the determination of arsenic in urine from a variety of workers occupationally exposed to inorganic arsenic compounds. Mean urinary arsenic (As (V) + As (III) + MMAA + DMAA) concentrations ranged from 4.4 micrograms/g creatinine for controls to less than 10 micrograms/g for those in the electronics industry, 47.9 micrograms/g for timber treatment workers applying arsenical wood preservatives, 79.4 micrograms/g for a group of glassworkers using arsenic trioxide, and 245 micrograms/g for chemical workers engaged in manufacturing and handling inorganic arsenicals. The maximum recorded concentration was 956 micrograms/g. For the most exposed groups, the ranges in the average urinary arsenic speciation pattern were 1-6% As (V), 11-14% As (III), 14-18% MMAA, and 63-70% DMAA. The highly raised urinary arsenic concentrations for the chemical workers, in particular, and some glassworkers are shown to correspond to possible atmospheric concentrations in the workplace and intakes in excess of, or close to, recommended and statutory limits and those associated with inorganic arsenic related diseases. PMID:2357455

  5. Redox transformations of arsenic oxyanions in periphyton communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulp, T.R.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton (Cladophora sp.) samples from a suburban stream lacking detectable dissolved As were able to reduce added As(V) to As(III) when incubated under anoxic conditions and, conversely, oxidized added As(III) to As(V) with aerobic incubation. Both types of activity were abolished in autoclaved controls, thereby demonstrating its biological nature. The reduction of As(V) was inhibited by chloramphenicol, indicating that it required the synthesis of new protein. Nitrate also inhibited As(V) reduction, primarily because it served as a preferred electron acceptor to which the periphyton community was already adapted. However, part of the inhibition was also caused by microbial reoxidation of As(III) linked to nitrate. Addition of [ 14C]glucose to anoxic samples resulted in the production of 14CO2, suggesting that the observed As(V) reduction was a respiratory process coupled to the oxidation of organic matter. The population density of As(V)-reducing bacteria within the periphyton increased with time and with the amount of As(V) added, reaching values as high as ???106 cells ml-1 at the end of the incubation. This indicated that dissimilatory As(V) reduction in these populations was linked to growth. However, As(V)-respiring bacteria were found to be present, albeit at lower numbers (???102 ml-1), in freshly sampled periphyton. These results demonstrate the presence of a bacterial population within the periphyton communities that is capable of two key arsenic redox transformations that were previously studied in As-contaminated environments, which suggests that these processes are widely distributed in nature. This assumption was reinforced by experiments with estuarine samples of Cladophora sericea in which we detected a similar capacity for anaerobic As(V) reduction and aerobic As(III) oxidation.

  6. Arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes: results from the 2007–2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Feseke, S. K.; St-Laurent, J.; Anassour-Sidi, E.; Ayotte, P.; Bouchard, M.; Levallois, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Inorganic arsenic and its metabolites are considered dangerous to human health. Although several studies have reported associations between low-level arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus in the United States and Mexico, this association has not been studied in the Canadian population. We evaluated the association between arsenic exposure, as measured by total arsenic concentration in urine, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in 3151 adult participants in Cycle 1 (2007–2009) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Methods: All participants were tested to determine blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Urine analysis was also performed to measure total arsenic. In addition, participants answered a detailed questionnaire about their lifestyle and medical history. We assessed the association between urinary arsenic levels and T2D and prediabetes using multivariate logistic regression while adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Total urinary arsenic concentration was positively associated with the prevalence of T2D and prediabetes: adjusted odds ratios were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.12–2.95) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.03–4.05), respectively, when comparing the highest (fourth) urinary arsenic concentration quartile with the lowest (first) quartile. Total urinary arsenic was also associated with glycated hemoglobin levels in people with untreated diabetes. Conclusion: We found significant associations between arsenic exposure and the prevalence of T2D and prediabetes in the Canadian population. Causal inference is limited due to the cross-sectional design of the study and the absence of long-term exposure assessment. PMID:26083521

  7. Lung Cancer in a U.S. Population with Low to Moderate Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Onega, Tracy; Rigas, James R.; Jackson, Brian P.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Duell, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the carcinogenic potential of arsenic in areas with low to moderate concentrations of arsenic (< 100 μg/L) in drinking water. Objectives We examined associations between arsenic and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case–control study of primary incident lung cancer was conducted in 10 counties in two U.S. states, New Hampshire and Vermont. The study included 223 lung cancer cases and 238 controls, each of whom provided toenail clippings for arsenic exposure measurement by inductively coupled–plasma mass spectrometry. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) of the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer using unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking pack-years, education, body mass index, fish servings per week, and toenail selenium level). Results Arsenic exposure was associated with small-cell and squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung [OR = 2.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00–7.57] for toenail arsenic concentration ≥ 0.114 μg/g, versus < 0.05 μg/g. A history of lung disease (bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or fibrosis) was positively associated with lung cancer (OR = 2.86; 95% CI, 1.39–5.91). We also observed an elevated risk of lung cancer among participants with a history of lung disease and toenail arsenic ≥ 0.05 μg/g (OR = 4.78; 95% CI, 1.87–12.2) than among individuals with low toenail arsenic and no history of lung disease. Conclusion Although this study supports the possibility of an increased risk of specific lung cancer histologic types at lower levels of arsenic exposure, we recommend large-scale population-based studies. PMID:20049123

  8. Health effect levels for risk assessment of childhood exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Joyce S; Benson, Robert; Schoof, Rosalind A; Hook, Gene C

    2004-04-01

    Health risks to children from chemicals in soil and consumer products have become a regulatory focus in the U.S. This study reviews short-term health effect levels for arsenic exposure in young children (i.e., 0-6 years old). Acute health effects are described mostly in adults in case reports of arsenic poisoning from water or food and in studies of medicinal arsenic treatment. Several epidemiological studies report health effects from subchronic arsenic exposure in children primarily from drinking water in developing countries. Acute health effects typically include gastrointestinal, neurological, and skin effects, and in a few cases facial edema and cardiac arrhythmia. Dermatoses are most consistently reported in both adults and children with subchronic exposure. With low exposure, the prevalence and severity of disease generally increases with age (i.e., length of exposure) and arsenic dose. The available data collectively indicate a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level around 0.05mg/kg-day for both acute and subchronic exposure. At low doses, children do not appear to be more sensitive than adults on a dose-per-body-weight basis, although data for acute exposures are limited and uncertainties exist for quantifying potential neurological or vascular effects at low-level subchronic exposures. Based on these data, possible reference levels for acute and subchronic exposure in young children are 0.015 and 0.005mg/kg-day, respectively.

  9. Biologically based modeling of multimedia, multipathway, multiroute population exposures to arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Yang, Yu-Ching; Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie G.; Mccurdy, Thomas; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an integrated, biologically based, source-to-dose assessment framework for modeling multimedia/multipathway/multiroute exposures to arsenic. Case studies demonstrating this framework are presented for three US counties (Hunderton County, NJ; Pima County, AZ; and Franklin County, OH), representing substantially different conditions of exposure. The approach taken utilizes the Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk studies (MENTOR) in an implementation that incorporates and extends the approach pioneered by Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS), in conjunction with a number of available databases, including NATA, NHEXAS, CSFII, and CHAD, and extends modeling techniques that have been developed in recent years. Model results indicate that, in most cases, the food intake pathway is the dominant contributor to total exposure and dose to arsenic. Model predictions are evaluated qualitatively by comparing distributions of predicted total arsenic amounts in urine with those derived using biomarker measurements from the NHEXAS — Region V study: the population distributions of urinary total arsenic levels calculated through MENTOR and from the NHEXAS measurements are in general qualitative agreement. Observed differences are due to various factors, such as interindividual variation in arsenic metabolism in humans, that are not fully accounted for in the current model implementation but can be incorporated in the future, in the open framework of MENTOR. The present study demonstrates that integrated source-to-dose modeling for arsenic can not only provide estimates of the relative contributions of multipathway exposure routes to the total exposure estimates, but can also estimate internal target tissue doses for speciated organic and inorganic arsenic, which can eventually be used to improve evaluation of health risks associated with exposures to arsenic from multiple sources, routes, and pathways. PMID:18073786

  10. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity.

  11. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  12. Urinary porphyrins as biomarkers for arsenic exposure among susceptible populations in Guizhou Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Zhai, C.; Maddalena, R.; Liu, F.; Moore, M.R.

    2005-08-07

    Coal from some areas in Guizhou Province contains elevated levels of arsenic. This has caused arsenicosis in individuals who use arsenic-contaminated coal for the purposes of heating, cooking and drying of food in poorly ventilated dwellings. The population at risk has been estimated to be approximately 200,000 people. We analyzed the porphyrin excretion profile using a HPLC method in urine samples collected from 113 villagers who lived in Xing Ren district, a coal-borne arsenicosis endemic area and from 30 villagers from Xing Yi where arsenicosis is not prevalent. Urinary porphyrins were higher in the arsenic exposed group than those in the control group. The correlation between urinary arsenic and porphyrin concentrations demonstrated the effect of arsenic on heme biosynthesis resulting in increased porphyrin excretion. Both uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin III showed significant increases in the excretion profile of the younger age ({lt} 20 years) arsenic-exposed group, suggesting that porphyrins could be used as early warning biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure in humans. Greater increases of urinary arsenic and porphyrins in women, children and older age groups who spend much of their time indoors suggest that they might be at a higher risk. Whether elevated porphyrins could predict adverse health effects associated with both cancer and non-cancer end-points in chronically arsenic-exposed populations need further investigation.

  13. Modeling the probability of arsenic in groundwater in New England as a tool for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Joseph D; Nolan, Bernard T; Nuckols, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Robinson, Gilpin R; Baris, Dalsu; Hayes, Laura; Karagas, Margaret; Bress, William; Silverman, Debra T; Lubin, Jay H

    2006-06-01

    We developed a process-based model to predict the probability of arsenic exceeding 5 microg/L in drinking water wells in New England bedrock aquifers. The model is being used for exposure assessment in an epidemiologic study of bladder cancer. One important study hypothesis that may explain increased bladder cancer risk is elevated concentrations of inorganic arsenic in drinking water. In eastern New England, 20-30% of private wells exceed the arsenic drinking water standard of 10 micrograms per liter. Our predictive model significantly improves the understanding of factors associated with arsenic contamination in New England. Specific rock types, high arsenic concentrations in stream sediments, geochemical factors related to areas of Pleistocene marine inundation and proximity to intrusive granitic plutons, and hydrologic and landscape variables relating to groundwater residence time increase the probability of arsenic occurrence in groundwater. Previous studies suggest that arsenic in bedrock groundwater may be partly from past arsenical pesticide use. Variables representing historic agricultural inputs do not improve the model, indicating that this source does not significantly contribute to current arsenic concentrations. Due to the complexity of the fractured bedrock aquifers in the region, well depth and related variables also are not significant predictors.

  14. Modeling the probability of arsenic in groundwater in New England as a tool for exposure assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, J.D.; Nolan, B.T.; Nuckols, J.R.; Cantor, K.P.; Robinson, G.R.; Baris, D.; Hayes, L.; Karagas, M.; Bress, W.; Silverman, D.T.; Lubin, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a process-based model to predict the probability of arsenic exceeding 5 ??g/L in drinking water wells in New England bedrock aquifers. The model is being used for exposure assessment in an epidemiologic study of bladder cancer. One important study hypothesis that may explain increased bladder cancer risk is elevated concentrations of inorganic arsenic in drinking water. In eastern New England, 20-30% of private wells exceed the arsenic drinking water standard of 10 micrograms per liter. Our predictive model significantly improves the understanding of factors associated with arsenic contamination in New England. Specific rock types, high arsenic concentrations in stream sediments, geochemical factors related to areas of Pleistocene marine inundation and proximity to intrusive granitic plutons, and hydrologic and landscape variables relating to groundwater residence time increase the probability of arsenic occurrence in groundwater. Previous studies suggest that arsenic in bedrock groundwater may be partly from past arsenical pesticide use. Variables representing historic agricultural inputs do not improve the model, indicating that this source does not significantly contribute to current arsenic concentrations. Due to the complexity of the fractured bedrock aquifers in the region, well depth and related variables also are not significant predictors. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  15. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Slavkovich, Vesna; Kalra, Tara; Argos, Maria; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease and to assess whether cigarette smoking influences the association. Design Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in drinking water from wells and urine. Setting General population in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Participants 11 746 men and women who provided urine samples in 2000 and were followed up for an average of 6.6 years. Main outcome measure Death from cardiovascular disease. Results 198 people died from diseases of circulatory system, accounting for 43% of total mortality in the population. The mortality rate for cardiovascular disease was 214.3 per 100 000 person years in people drinking water containing <12.0 µg/L arsenic, compared with 271.1 per 100 000 person years in people drinking water with ≥12.0 µg/L arsenic. There was a dose-response relation between exposure to arsenic in well water assessed at baseline and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and other heart disease; the hazard ratios in increasing quarters of arsenic concentration in well water (0.1-12.0, 12.1-62.0, 62.1-148.0, and 148.1-864.0 µg/L) were 1.00 (reference), 1.22 (0.65 to 2.32), 1.35 (0.71 to 2.57), and 1.92 (1.07 to 3.43) (P=0.0019 for trend), respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders including age, sex, smoking status, educational attainment, body mass index (BMI), and changes in urinary arsenic concentration since baseline. Similar associations were observed when baseline total urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable and for mortality from ischaemic heart disease specifically. The data indicate a significant synergistic interaction between arsenic exposure and cigarette smoking in mortality from ischaemic heart disease and other heart disease. In particular, the hazard ratio for the joint effect of a moderate level of arsenic exposure (middle third of well arsenic concentration 25.3-114.0 µg/L, mean 63.5 µg/L) and

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Arsenic Exposure via Drinking-water in Northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Gabriela; Nermell, Barbro

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the spatial, temporal and inter-individual variations in exposure to arsenic via drinking-water in Northern Argentina, based on measurements of arsenic in water, urine, and hair. Arsenic concentrations in drinking-water varied markedly among locations, from <1 to about 200 μg/L. Over a 10-year period, water from the same source in San Antonio de los Cobres fluctuated within 140 and 220 μg/L, with no trend of decreasing concentration. Arsenic concentrations in women's urine (3–900 μg/L, specific weight 1.018 g/mL) highly correlated with concentrations in water on a group level, but showed marked variations between individuals. Arsenic concentrations in hair (range 20–1,500 μg/kg) rather poorly correlated with urinary arsenic, possibly due to external contamination. Thus, arsenic concentration in urine seems to be a better marker of individual arsenic exposure than concentrations in drinking-water and hair. PMID:17366773

  17. Exposure to arsenic via drinking water induces 5-hydroxymethylcytosine alteration in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Mu, Xiaoli; Xu, Weipan; Martin, Francis L; Alamdar, Ambreen; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic exposure has been implicated to alter DNA methylation process in vitro and in vivo, but it remains obscure whether it disrupts DNA demethylation process, which is pivotal for epigenetic regulation. The objective of this descriptive study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic exposure and 5-methylcytosine (5mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) alterations in various organs. In this study, we exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats to sodium arsenite (0.5, 2 or 10 ppm) via drinking water for 8 weeks. Spleen accumulated 2- to 3-fold higher arsenic levels than liver and heart. Lower arsenic levels were observed in the kidney, pancreas and lung. No significant arsenic-induced global 5mC alterations were observed in the majority of investigated organs. However, arsenic induced organ-specific alterations of 5hmC and/or 5hmC/5mC in some investigated organs, i.e. lung, heart, kidney, pancreas and spleen. Our observations suggest that 5hmC is a more sensitive biomarker of arsenic-induced impacts on epigenetic processes than 5mC. Moreover, demethylation via hydroxylation of 5mC appears to play a central role in the toxic mechanism of arsenic.

  18. Paraoxonase 1 activity in subchronic low-level inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Olusegun K; Wusu, Adedoja D; Ogunrinola, Olufunmilayo O; Abam, Esther O; Babayemi, David O; Dosumu, Oluwatosin A; Onunkwor, Okechukwu B; Balogun, Elizabeth A; Odukoya, Olusegun O; Ademuyiwa, Oladipo

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidences indicate close association between inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water and cardiovascular diseases. While the exact mechanism of this arsenic-mediated increase in cardiovascular risk factors remains enigmatic, epidemiological studies indicate a role for paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases, rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (trivalent; 50, 100, and 150 ppm As) and sodium arsenate (pentavalent; 100, 150, and 200 ppm As) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. PON1 activity towards paraoxon (PONase) and phenylacetate (AREase) in plasma, lipoproteins, hepatic, and brain microsomal fractions were determined. Inhibition of PONase and AREase in plasma and HDL characterized the effects of the two arsenicals. While the trivalent arsenite inhibited PONase by 33% (plasma) and 46% (HDL), respectively, the pentavalent arsenate inhibited the enzyme by 41 and 34%, respectively. AREase activity was inhibited by 52 and 48% by arsenite, whereas the inhibition amounted to 72 and 67%, respectively by arsenate. The pattern of inhibition in plasma and HDL indicates that arsenite induced a dose-dependent inhibition of PONase whereas arsenate induced a dose-dependent inhibition of AREase. In the VLDL + LDL, arsenate inhibited PONase and AREase while arsenite inhibited PONase. In the hepatic and brain microsomal fractions, only the PONase enzyme was inhibited by the two arsenicals. The inhibition was more pronounced in the hepatic microsomes where a 70% inhibition was observed at the highest dose of pentavalent arsenic. Microsomal cholesterol was increased by the two arsenicals resulting in increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratios. Our findings indicate that decreased PON1 activity observed in arsenic exposure may be an incipient biochemical event in the cardiovascular effects of arsenic. Modulation of PON1 activity by arsenic may also be

  19. Paraoxonase 1 activity in subchronic low-level inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Olusegun K; Wusu, Adedoja D; Ogunrinola, Olufunmilayo O; Abam, Esther O; Babayemi, David O; Dosumu, Oluwatosin A; Onunkwor, Okechukwu B; Balogun, Elizabeth A; Odukoya, Olusegun O; Ademuyiwa, Oladipo

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidences indicate close association between inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water and cardiovascular diseases. While the exact mechanism of this arsenic-mediated increase in cardiovascular risk factors remains enigmatic, epidemiological studies indicate a role for paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases, rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (trivalent; 50, 100, and 150 ppm As) and sodium arsenate (pentavalent; 100, 150, and 200 ppm As) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. PON1 activity towards paraoxon (PONase) and phenylacetate (AREase) in plasma, lipoproteins, hepatic, and brain microsomal fractions were determined. Inhibition of PONase and AREase in plasma and HDL characterized the effects of the two arsenicals. While the trivalent arsenite inhibited PONase by 33% (plasma) and 46% (HDL), respectively, the pentavalent arsenate inhibited the enzyme by 41 and 34%, respectively. AREase activity was inhibited by 52 and 48% by arsenite, whereas the inhibition amounted to 72 and 67%, respectively by arsenate. The pattern of inhibition in plasma and HDL indicates that arsenite induced a dose-dependent inhibition of PONase whereas arsenate induced a dose-dependent inhibition of AREase. In the VLDL + LDL, arsenate inhibited PONase and AREase while arsenite inhibited PONase. In the hepatic and brain microsomal fractions, only the PONase enzyme was inhibited by the two arsenicals. The inhibition was more pronounced in the hepatic microsomes where a 70% inhibition was observed at the highest dose of pentavalent arsenic. Microsomal cholesterol was increased by the two arsenicals resulting in increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratios. Our findings indicate that decreased PON1 activity observed in arsenic exposure may be an incipient biochemical event in the cardiovascular effects of arsenic. Modulation of PON1 activity by arsenic may also be

  20. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.

  1. Arsenic exposure causes epigenetic dysregulation of IL-8 expression leading to proneoplastic changes in kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Radha Dutt; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Khan, Hafizurrahman; Kumar, Anoop; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-08-19

    Prolonged arsenic exposure has been shown to cause several detrimental effects in adults. However its effects following prenatal exposure are not well defined at the epigenetic level, particularly in terms of changes which may predispose an individual to adult malignancies. In this work, we have studied the effect of arsenic exposure on renal system using human embryonic kidney cells and prenatally exposed animals and identified Interleukin-8(IL-8) and its homologue (CINC-1) as mediators of arsenic induced renal toxicity. We further show that embryonic kidney cells are more responsive to arsenic leading to higher induction of IL-8 as compared to adult cells due to DNA methylation and histone acetylation (H3 acetylation) changes in the IL-8 promoter. Through bisulfite analysis of the IL-8 promoter, we have also identified an arsenic modulated CpG site at -168 bases upstream of transcription start site. This CpG is associated with C/EBP and CREB binding sites in the IL-8 promoter and its demethylation by arsenic coupled with increased H3 histone acetylation and CBP/P300 recruitment could lead to induction of IL-8. Our study shows how epigenetic modulation of IL-8 by arsenic could contribute to increased cell migratory and proliferative capabilities, cell cycle dysregulation and renal toxicity.

  2. Arsenic exposure causes epigenetic dysregulation of IL-8 expression leading to proneoplastic changes in kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Radha Dutt; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Khan, Hafizurrahman; Kumar, Anoop; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-08-19

    Prolonged arsenic exposure has been shown to cause several detrimental effects in adults. However its effects following prenatal exposure are not well defined at the epigenetic level, particularly in terms of changes which may predispose an individual to adult malignancies. In this work, we have studied the effect of arsenic exposure on renal system using human embryonic kidney cells and prenatally exposed animals and identified Interleukin-8(IL-8) and its homologue (CINC-1) as mediators of arsenic induced renal toxicity. We further show that embryonic kidney cells are more responsive to arsenic leading to higher induction of IL-8 as compared to adult cells due to DNA methylation and histone acetylation (H3 acetylation) changes in the IL-8 promoter. Through bisulfite analysis of the IL-8 promoter, we have also identified an arsenic modulated CpG site at -168 bases upstream of transcription start site. This CpG is associated with C/EBP and CREB binding sites in the IL-8 promoter and its demethylation by arsenic coupled with increased H3 histone acetylation and CBP/P300 recruitment could lead to induction of IL-8. Our study shows how epigenetic modulation of IL-8 by arsenic could contribute to increased cell migratory and proliferative capabilities, cell cycle dysregulation and renal toxicity. PMID:26008221

  3. Toxicological responses in Laeonereis acuta (annelida, polychaeta) after arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Sandrini, Juliana Z; Cravo, Marlize Ferreira; Piedras, Fernanda R; Moraes, Tarsila B; Fattorini, Daniele; Notti, Alessandra; Regoli, Francesco; Geracitano, Laura A; Marins, Luis F F; Monserrat, José M

    2007-05-01

    Several environmental pollutants, including metals, can induce oxidative stress. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of arsenic (As(III), as As(2)O(3)) on the antioxidant responses in the polychaete Laeonereis acuta. Worms were exposed to two environmentally relevant concentrations of As, including the highest previously allowed by Brazilian legislation (50 microg As/l). A control group was kept in saline water (10 per thousand) without added metal. It was observed that: (1) a peak concentration of lipid peroxide was registered after 2 days of exposure to 50 microg As/l (61+/-3.2 nmol CHP/g wet weight) compared to the control group (43+/-4.5 nmol CHP/g wet weight), together with a lowering of the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (-47 and -48%, at 50 or 500 microg As/l respectively) and a higher superoxide dismutase activity (+305% at 50 microg As/l with respect to the control group); (2) a lower conjugation capacity through glutathione-S-transferase activity was observed after 7 days of exposure to 50 microg As/l (-48% compared to the control group); (3) a significant increase in As concentration was verified after 1 week of exposure to both As concentrations (50 and 500 microg/l); (4) worms exposed to As showed a limited accumulation of related methylated As species and the levels of non-toxic As species like arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) remained unchanged during the exposure period when compared with the controls. Overall, it can be concluded that As interfered in the antioxidant defense system of L. acuta, even at low concentrations (50 microg/l) that Brazilian legislation previously considered safe. The fact that worms exposed to As showed high levels of methylated As species indicates the methylation capability of L. acuta, although the high levels of inorganic As suggest that not all the administered As(III) (as As(2)O(3)) is completely removed or biotransformed after 7 days of exposure.

  4. Arsenic Exposure and Glucose Intolerance/Insulin Resistance in Estrogen-Deficient Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Fa; Yang, Ching-Yao; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Wang, Ching-Chia; Huang, Kuo-How; Wu, Chin-Ching; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported that the prevalence of diabetes in women > 40 years of age, especially those in the postmenopausal phase, was higher than in men in areas with high levels of arsenic in drinking water. The detailed effect of arsenic on glucose metabolism/homeostasis in the postmenopausal condition is still unclear. Objectives We investigated the effects of arsenic at doses relevant to human exposure from drinking water on blood glucose regulation in estrogen-deficient female mice. Methods Adult female mice who underwent ovariectomy or sham surgery were exposed to drinking water contaminated with arsenic trioxide (0.05 or 0.5 ppm) in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol supplementation for 2–6 weeks. Assays related to glucose metabolism were performed. Results Exposure of sham mice to arsenic significantly increased blood glucose, decreased plasma insulin, and impaired glucose tolerance, but did not induce insulin resistance. Blood glucose and insulin were higher, and glucose intolerance, insulin intolerance, and insulin resistance were increased in arsenic-treated ovariectomized mice compared with arsenic-treated sham mice. Furthermore, liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression was increased and liver glycogen content was decreased in arsenic-treated ovariectomized mice compared with arsenic-treated sham mice. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets isolated from arsenic-treated ovariectomized mice was also significantly decreased. Arsenic treatment significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels in sham and ovariectomized mice. Altered glucose metabolism/homeostasis in arsenic-treated ovariectomized mice was reversed by 17β-estradiol supplementation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that estrogen deficiency plays an important role in arsenic-altered glucose metabolism/homeostasis in females. Citation Huang CF, Yang CY, Chan DC, Wang CC, Huang KH, Wu CC, Tsai KS, Yang RS, Liu SH. 2015. Arsenic

  5. Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Water Is Associated with Longer Telomeres in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a strong carcinogen, possibly by interaction with the telomere length. The aim of the study was to evaluate how chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water as well as the arsenic metabolism efficiency affect the individual telomere length and the expression of telomere-related genes. Two hundred two women with a wide range in exposure to arsenic via drinking water (3.5–200 μg/L) were recruited. Concentrations of arsenic metabolites in urine [inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were measured. The relative telomere length in blood was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Genotyping (N = 172) for eight SNPs in AS3MT and gene expression of telomere-related genes (in blood; N = 90) were performed. Urinary arsenic (sum of metabolites) was positively associated with telomere length (β = 0.65 × 10–4, 95% CI = 0.031 × 10–4–1.3 × 10–4, adjusted for age and BMI). Individuals with above median fractions of iAs and MMA showed significantly longer telomeres by increasing urinary arsenic (β = 1.0 × 10–4, 95% CI = 0.21 × 10–4–1.8 × 10–4 at high % iAs; β = 0.88 × 10–4 95% CI = 0.12 × 10–4–1.6 × 10–4 at high % MMA) than those below the median (p = 0.80 and 0.44, respectively). Similarly, carriers of the slow and more toxic metabolizing AS3MT haplotype showed stronger positive associations between arsenic exposure and telomere length, as compared to noncarriers (interaction urinary arsenic and haplotype p = 0.025). Urinary arsenic was positively correlated with the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT, Spearman r = 0.22, p = 0.037), but no association was found between TERT expression and telomere length. Arsenic in drinking water influences the telomere length, and this may be a mechanism for its carcinogenicity. A faster and less toxic arsenic metabolism diminishes arsenic-related telomere elongation. PMID:22917110

  6. Arsenic exposure through drinking water is associated with longer telomeres in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiqi; Engström, Karin; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-11-19

    Inorganic arsenic is a strong carcinogen, possibly by interaction with the telomere length. The aim of the study was to evaluate how chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water as well as the arsenic metabolism efficiency affect the individual telomere length and the expression of telomere-related genes. Two hundred two women with a wide range in exposure to arsenic via drinking water (3.5-200 μg/L) were recruited. Concentrations of arsenic metabolites in urine [inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were measured. The relative telomere length in blood was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Genotyping (N = 172) for eight SNPs in AS3MT and gene expression of telomere-related genes (in blood; N = 90) were performed. Urinary arsenic (sum of metabolites) was positively associated with telomere length (β = 0.65 × 10(-4), 95% CI = 0.031 × 10(-4)-1.3 × 10(-4), adjusted for age and BMI). Individuals with above median fractions of iAs and MMA showed significantly longer telomeres by increasing urinary arsenic (β = 1.0 × 10(-4), 95% CI = 0.21 × 10(-4)-1.8 × 10(-4) at high % iAs; β = 0.88 × 10(-4) 95% CI = 0.12 × 10(-4)-1.6 × 10(-4) at high % MMA) than those below the median (p = 0.80 and 0.44, respectively). Similarly, carriers of the slow and more toxic metabolizing AS3MT haplotype showed stronger positive associations between arsenic exposure and telomere length, as compared to noncarriers (interaction urinary arsenic and haplotype p = 0.025). Urinary arsenic was positively correlated with the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT, Spearman r = 0.22, p = 0.037), but no association was found between TERT expression and telomere length. Arsenic in drinking water influences the telomere length, and this may be a mechanism for its carcinogenicity. A faster and less toxic arsenic metabolism diminishes arsenic-related telomere elongation.

  7. Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhixiong; Lobdell, Danelle T; Kwok, Richard K; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhang, Shiying; Ma, Chenglong; Riediker, Michael; Mumford, Judy L

    2007-08-01

    In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 microg of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 microg of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 microg of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 microg of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 microg of As/L (14,500 above 50 microg of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 microg of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region.

  8. ASSESSING ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND SKIN HYPERKERATOSIS IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen. The inorganic forms, especially arsenite (As+3), are believed to be the most toxic species. Methylation is often considered to be the
    detoxification pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. The ground water in Ba
    Men, Inner Mo...

  9. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  10. HEALTH RISKS FROM CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER: FINDINGS FROM THE CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS DATA IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies have reported a large number of arsenicism cases in the Mongolia Autonomous Region of China due to drinking arsenic-contaminated water with concentrations up to 1.8 mg/L. However, the endemic health risks from chronic exposure to arsenic in this population have not...

  11. Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, T W; Suchenwirth, R H; Bolten, C; Dunkelberg, H H

    1998-01-01

    Part of the northern Palatinate region in Germany is characterized by elevated levels of arsenic and antimony in the soil due to the presence of ore sources and former mining activities. In a biomonitoring study, 218 residents were investigated for a putative increased intake of these elements. Seventy-six nonexposed subjects in a rural region in south lower Saxony were chosen as the reference group. Urine and scalp hair samples were obtained as surrogates to determine the internal exposures to arsenic and antimony. The analyses were performed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry except for arsenic in urine, which was determined by the hydride technique. This method does not detect organoarsenicals from seafood, which are not toxicologically relevant. In the northern Palatinate subjects, slightly elevated arsenic contents in urine and scalp hair (presumably not hazardous) could be correlated with an increased arsenic content in the soil. On the other hand, the results did not show a correlation between the antimony contents in the soil of the housing area and those in urine and hair. Except for antimony in scalp hair, age tended to be associated with internal exposures to arsenic and antimony in both study groups. Consumption of seafood had a slight impact on the level of urinary arsenic, which is indicative of the presence of low quantities of inorganic arsenicals and dimethylarsinic acid in seafood. The arsenic and antimony contents in scalp hair were positively correlated with the 24-hr arsenic excretion in urine. However, antimony in scalp hair was not correlated with seafood consumption as was arsenic in scalp hair and in urine. This indicated the existence of unidentified common pathways of exposure contributing to the alimentary body burden. Short time peaks in the 24-hr excretion of arsenic in urine, which could not be assigned to a high consumption of seafood, were detected for six study participants. This suggests that additional factors

  12. The Role of Arsenic Speciation in Dietary Exposure Assessment and the Need to Include Bioaccessibility and Biotransformation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical form specific exposure assessment for arsenic has long been identified as a source of uncertainty in estimating the risk associated with the aggregate exposure for a population. Some speciation based assessments document occurrence within an exposure route; however, the...

  13. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: I. BIOMARKERS FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: I. Biomarkers for Assessing Exposure and Effects

    Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Mike Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Rebecca Calderon, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effect...

  14. Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Plasma Levels of Soluble Cell Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Santella, Regina M.; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Verret, Wendy J.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of cardiovascular disease risk factors and appropriate biomarkers in populations exposed to a wide range of arsenic levels are a public health research priority. Objective We investigated the relationship between inorganic arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), both markers of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation, in an arsenic-exposed population in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Methods The study participants included 115 individuals with arsenic-related skin lesions participating in a 2 × 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Arsenic exposure status and plasma levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were assessed at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. Results Baseline well arsenic, a long-term measure of arsenic exposure, was positively associated with baseline levels of both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and with changes in the two markers over time. At baseline, for every 1-μg/L increase in well arsenic there was an increase of 0.10 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.00–0.20] and 0.33 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.15–0.51) in plasma sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, respectively. Every 1-μg/L increase in well arsenic was associated with a rise of 0.11 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.01–0.22) and 0.17 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.00–0.35) in sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 from baseline to follow-up, respectively, in spite of recent changes in urinary arsenic as well as vitamin E and selenium supplementation during the study period. Conclusions The findings indicate an effect of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on vascular inflammation that persists over time and also suggest a potential mechanism underlying the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:17938729

  15. Transcriptomic Responses During Early Development Following Arsenic Exposure in Western Clawed Frogs, Silurana tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Koch, Iris; Gibson, Laura A; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Button, Mark; Caumette, Guilhem; Reimer, Kenneth J; Cullen, William R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic compounds are widespread environmental contaminants and exposure elicits serious health issues, including early developmental anomalies. Depending on the oxidation state, the intermediates of arsenic metabolism interfere with a range of subcellular events, but the fundamental molecular events that lead to speciation-dependent arsenic toxicity are not fully elucidated. This study therefore assesses the impact of arsenic exposure on early development by measuring speciation and gene expression profiles in the developing Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) larvae following the environmental relevant 0.5 and 1 ppm arsenate exposure. Using HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenate, dimethylarsenic acid, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and tetramethylarsonium ion were detected. Microarray and pathway analyses were utilized to characterize the comprehensive transcriptomic responses to arsenic exposure. Clustering analysis of expression data showed distinct gene expression patterns in arsenate treated groups when compared with the control. Pathway enrichment revealed common biological themes enriched in both treatments, including cell signal transduction, cell survival, and developmental pathways. Moreover, the 0.5 ppm exposure led to the enrichment of pathways and biological processes involved in arsenic intake or efflux, as well as histone remodeling. These compensatory responses are hypothesized to be responsible for maintaining an in-body arsenic level comparable to control animals. With no appreciable changes observed in malformation and mortality between control and exposed larvae, this is the first study to suggest that the underlying transcriptomic regulations related to signal transduction, cell survival, developmental pathways, and histone remodeling may contribute to maintaining ongoing development while coping with the potential arsenic toxicity in S. tropicalis during early development. PMID:26427749

  16. Perturbation of Defense Pathways by Low-Dose Arsenic Exposure in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Griffin, Nina E.; Planchart, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to arsenic is a critical risk factor in the complex interplay among genetics, the environment, and human disease. Despite the potential for in utero exposure, the mechanism of arsenic action on vertebrate development and disease is unknown. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify genes and gene networks perturbed by arsenic during development in order to enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms of arsenic action. Methods We exposed zebrafish embryos at 0.25–1.25 hr postfertilization to 10 or 100 ppb arsenic for 24 or 48 hr. We then used total RNA to interrogate genome microarrays and to test levels of gene expression changes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Computational analysis was used to identify gene expression networks perturbed by arsenic during vertebrate development. Results We identified a set of 99 genes that responded to low levels of arsenic. Nineteen of these genes were predicted to function in a common regulatory network that was significantly associated with immune response and cancer (p < 10−41). Arsenic-mediated expression changes were validated by QPCR. Conclusions In this study we demonstrated that arsenic significantly down-regulates expression levels of multiple genes potentially critical for regulating the establishment of an immune response. The data also provide molecular evidence consistent with phenotypic observations reported in other model systems. Additional mechanistic studies will help explain molecular events regulating early stages of the immune system and long-term consequences of arsenic-mediated perturbation of this system during development. PMID:19590694

  17. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas.

    PubMed

    Gong, Gordon; Basom, Janet; Mattevada, Sravan; Onger, Frederick

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2-22µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas.

  18. Pathways of human exposure to arsenic in a community surrounding a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Polissar, L.; Lowry-Coble, K.; Kalman, D.A.; Hughes, J.P.; van Belle, G.; Covert, D.S.; Burbacher, T.M.; Bolgiano, D.; Mottet, N.K. )

    1990-10-01

    Several studies have found elevated levels of urinary arsenic among residents living near a copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington. To assess pathways of exposure to arsenic from the smelter, biological and environmental samples were collected longitudinally from 121 households up to 8 miles from the smelter. The concentration of inorganic and methylated arsenic compounds in spot urine samples was used as the primary measure of exposure to environmental arsenic. Urinary concentration of arsenic dropped off to a constant background level within one-half mile of the smelter in contrast to environmental concentrations, which decreased more steadily with increasing distance. Among all age-sex-specific groups in all areas, only children ages 0-6 living within one-half mile of the smelter had elevated levels of arsenic in urine. A separate analysis of data for these children suggests that hand-to-mouth activity was the primary source of exposure. Inhalation of ambient air and resuspension of contaminated soil were not important sources of exposure for children or adults.

  19. In utero arsenic exposure in mice and early life susceptibility to cancer.

    PubMed

    Garry, Michael R; Santamaria, Annette B; Williams, Amy L; DeSesso, John M

    2015-10-01

    In its review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's toxicological review of inorganic arsenic (iAs), the National Academy of Sciences identified carcinogenic endpoints among the highest priority health effects of concern and stated the need to consider evidence that early life exposures may increase the risk of adverse health effects. Recent studies in mice suggest that in utero exposure to arsenic increases susceptibility to cancer later in life. These data are striking in light of the general lack of evidence for carcinogenicity in rodents exposed to iAs. To evaluate the transplacental carcinogenic potential of iAs, a detailed analysis of the toxicology literature evaluating the role of in utero arsenic exposure in carcinogenesis was conducted. Bladder, lung, and skin tumors, which are the tumor types most consistently reported in humans exposed to high arsenic levels, were not consistently increased in mouse studies. There was also a lack of concordance across studies for other tumor types not typically reported in humans. Therefore, we considered methodological and other critical issues that may have contributed to variable results and we suggest additional studies to address these issues. It was concluded that the available data do not provide evidence of a causal link between in utero arsenic exposure and cancer or indicate early life-stage susceptibility to arsenic-induced cancer, particularly at environmentally relevant doses.

  20. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V.; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Graziano, Joseph H.; and others

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  1. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Chen, Yu

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may

  2. Role of Soil-derived Dissolved Substances in Arsenic Transport and Transformation in Laboratory Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhangrong; Cai, Yong; Liu, Guangliang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Snyder, George H.; Cisar, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved substances derived from soil may interact with both soil surfaces and with arsenic and subsequently influence arsenic mobility and species transformation. The purpose of this study was to investigate arsenic transport and transformation in porous media with a specific focus on the impact of soil-derived dissolved substances, mainly consisting of inorganic colloids and dissolved organic matter (DOM), on these processes. Arsenic transport and transformation through columns, which were packed with uncoated sand (UC) or naturally coated sand (NC) and fed with arsenate (AsV) or monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) spiked influents, were investigated in the presence or absence of soil-derived dissolved substances. The presence of soil-derived inorganic colloids and/or DOM clearly enhanced As transport through the column, with the fraction of As leached out of column (referring to the total amount added) being increased from 23 to 46% (UC) and 21 to 50% (NC) in AsV experiments while 46 to 64% (UC) and 28 to 63% (NC) in MMA experiments. The association of arsenic with DOM and the competitive adsorption between arsenic and DOM could account for, at least partly, the enhanced As movement. Distinct species transformation of As during transport through soil columns was observed. When AsV was the initial species spiked in the influent solutions, only arsenite (AsIII) was detected in the effluents for UC columns; while both AsIII (dominant) and AsV were present for NC columns, with AsIII being the dominant species. When MMA was initially spiked in the influent solutions, all method detectable As species, AsIII, AsV, MMA, and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) were present in the effluents for both soil columns. These results indicate that risk assessment associated with As contamination, particularly due to previous organoarsenical pesticide applications, should take into account the role of soil-derived dissolved substances in promoting As transport and As species transformation

  3. Role of soil-derived dissolved substances in arsenic transport and transformation in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangrong; Cai, Yong; Liu, Guangliang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Snyder, George H; Cisar, John L

    2008-11-15

    Dissolved substances derived from soil may interact with both soil surfaces and with arsenic and subsequently influence arsenic mobility and species transformation. The purpose of this study was to investigate arsenic transport and transformation in porous media with a specific focus on the impact of soil-derived dissolved substances, mainly consisting of inorganic colloids and dissolved organic matter (DOM), on these processes. Arsenic transport and transformation through columns, which were packed with uncoated sand (UC) or naturally coated sand (NC) and fed with arsenate (AsV) or monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) spiked influents, were investigated in the presence or absence of soil-derived dissolved substances. The presence of soil-derived inorganic colloids and/or DOM clearly enhanced As transport through the column, with the fraction of As leached out of column (referring to the total amount added) being increased from 23 to 46% (UC) and 21 to 50% (NC) in AsV experiments while 46 to 64% (UC) and 28 to 63% (NC) in MMA experiments. The association of arsenic with DOM and the competitive adsorption between arsenic and DOM could account for, at least partly, the enhanced As movement. Distinct species transformation of As during transport through soil columns was observed. When AsV was the initial species spiked in the influent solutions, only arsenite (AsIII) was detected in the effluents for UC columns; while both AsIII (dominant) and AsV were present for NC columns, with AsIII being the dominant species. When MMA was initially spiked in the influent solutions, all method detectable As species, AsIII, AsV, MMA, and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) were present in the effluents for both soil columns. These results indicate that risk assessment associated with As contamination, particularly due to previous organoarsenical pesticide applications, should take into account the role of soil-derived dissolved substances in promoting As transport and As species transformation.

  4. Arsenic exposure from drinking-water and carotid artery intima-medial thickness in healthy young adults in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Hakim, Mohammad Enamul; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Rahman, Atiar M; Ahsan, Habibul

    2006-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked high levels (>200 microg/L) of chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking-water with elevated risks of several vascular diseases. In this pilot study, the association between low-level arsenic exposure and carotid artery intimal-medial thickness (IMT) was evaluated among 66 healthy, normotensive, relatively young individuals (mean age 35 years) participating in the ongoing Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. Participants with a higher carotid IMT (>0.75 mm) in general had higher levels of past chronic exposure of arsenic than those with a lower carotid IMT (< or = 0.75 mm). Although the differences in average arsenic exposure between the two groups were not statistically significant, the findings suggest a possible association between low-level arsenic exposure from drinking-water and carotid atherosclerosis, warranting the need for larger studies. PMID:17195567

  5. Arsenic exposure from drinking-water and carotid artery intima-medial thickness in healthy young adults in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Hakim, Mohammad Enamul; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Rahman, Atiar M; Ahsan, Habibul

    2006-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked high levels (>200 microg/L) of chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking-water with elevated risks of several vascular diseases. In this pilot study, the association between low-level arsenic exposure and carotid artery intimal-medial thickness (IMT) was evaluated among 66 healthy, normotensive, relatively young individuals (mean age 35 years) participating in the ongoing Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. Participants with a higher carotid IMT (>0.75 mm) in general had higher levels of past chronic exposure of arsenic than those with a lower carotid IMT (< or = 0.75 mm). Although the differences in average arsenic exposure between the two groups were not statistically significant, the findings suggest a possible association between low-level arsenic exposure from drinking-water and carotid atherosclerosis, warranting the need for larger studies.

  6. Estimating Effects of Arsenic Exposure During Pregnancy on Perinatal Outcomes in a Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Andres; Rodrigues, Ema; Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Dobson, Christine; Golam, Mostofa; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudar; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship between arsenic and birth weight is not well understood. The objective was to evaluate the causal relationship between prenatal arsenic exposure and birth weight considering the potential mediation effects of gestational age and maternal weight gain during pregnancy using structural equation models. Methods: A prospectively enrolled cohort of pregnant women was recruited in Bangladesh from 2008 to 2011. Arsenic was measured in personal drinking water at the time of enrollment (gestational age <16 weeks, N = 1,140) and in toenails collected ≤1 month postpartum (N = 624) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Structural equation models estimated the direct and indirect effects of arsenic on birth weight with gestational age and maternal weight gain considered as mediating variables. Results: Every unit increase in natural log water arsenic was indirectly associated with decreased birth weight (β = −19.17 g, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −24.64, −13.69) after adjusting for other risk factors. This association was mediated entirely through gestational age (β = −17.37 g, 95% CI: −22.77, −11.98) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy (β = −1.80 g, 95% CI: −3.72, 0.13). When exposure was modeled using toenail arsenic concentrations, similar results were observed. Every increase in natural log toenail arsenic was indirectly associated with decreased birth weight (β = −15.72 g, 95% CI: −24.52, −6.91) which was mediated through gestational age (β = −13.59 g, 95% CI: −22.10, −5.07) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy (β = −2.13 g, 95% CI: −5.24, 0.96). Conclusion: Arsenic exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight. The effect of arsenic on birth weight appears to be mediated mainly through decreasing gestational age and to a lesser extent by lower maternal weight gain during pregnancy. PMID:26583609

  7. Association between Multi-level Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Skin Lesions in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Ye, Xiaolei; Liu, Jun; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is one of the most important toxicants in the environment. In Inner Mongolia of China, 300,000 residents are believed to be drinking water containing >50μg/liter. Skin lesions have been known as the most common consequences resulting from chronic exposure to arsenic. To clarify the prevalence of arsenic-induced skin lesions, it is important to assess the impact of this problem among the target population, and to make future planning. We evaluated the association between multi-levels inorganic arsenic exposure from drinking water and skin lesions in an arsenic-affected area in Inner Mongolia, China. One hundred nine and 32 subjects in high (>50μg/liter) and low (<50μg/liter) arsenic-affected villages were recruited and had the detailed physical examination with special emphasis on arsenic-related skin lesions. Arsenic exposure was measured for each participant with respect to iAs concentration of primary well and the duration using the well. Arsenic-induced skin lesions including keratosis, pigmentation, and/or depigmentation were diagnosed in 56 and 3 subjects in the two villages, respectively. Logistic regression was conducted to calculate odd ratios of skin lesions associated with arsenic exposure with adjustments for sex, age group, smoking and duration of exposure. A consistent dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure level and skin lesion risk was observed. Compared to those with iAs concentration <50μg/liter, the adjusted odds ratios of skin lesions for the subjects with 51–99, 100–149 and >150μg/liter were 33.3% (OR =15.50, 95% CI: 1.53–248.70), 46.7% (OR =16.10, 95% CI: 3.73–69.63) and 55.7% (OR= 25.70, 95% CI: 6.43–102.87), respectively. Duration of using well was not associated with increased risk of skin lesions in this population; (OR =1.68, 95% CI: 0.40–6.91 for 6–15 years, OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 0.58–9.14 for over 15 years) compared with the duration of less than 5 years. PMID:16968972

  8. Arsenic exposure accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Petia P; Hulderman, Tracy; Harki, Dan; Luster, Michael I

    2003-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between elevated arsenic levels in drinking water and an increased risk of atherosclerosis and vascular diseases. The studies presented here were performed to evaluate the atherogenic potential of arsenic using a well-established and controlled animal model of human atherosclerosis, mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (ApoE), and in vitro systems including primary human vascular cells. Wild-type and ApoE-deficient mice were exposed to 20 or 100 microg/mL sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks. As assessed morphometrically, the size of grossly discernible lesions covering the intimal area of aorta were increased significantly in arsenic-treated ApoE-deficient mice compared with nontreated transgenic mice. This effect was not associated with increased levels of serum cholesterol but was accompanied by an accumulation of arsenic in the vessel wall. Introduction of cocoa butter into the diet for 2 weeks resulted in higher serum cholesterol levels and only slight increases in the lesion size in control or arsenic-exposed ApoE-deficient mice. There were no lesions observed in the wild-type C57BL6 mice, resistant to atherosclerosis, whether they received arsenic or control drinking water. In vitro studies, including primary aorta endothelial or smooth muscle cells, were conducted to evaluate whether arsenic induces cellular mechanisms relevant to atherogenesis such as endothelial dysfunction, lipid oxidation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Arsenic treatment does not modulate endothelial cell-mediated lipid oxidation or smooth muscle cell proliferation but induced the expression of genes coding inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-8. Induction of endothelial inflammatory activity may play a role in arsenic-related vascular effects.

  9. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Xi, Shuhua; Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p < 0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex.

  10. Arsenic Exposure at Low-to-Moderate Levels and Skin Lesions, Arsenic Metabolism, Neurological Functions, and Biomarkers for Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases: Review of Recent Findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35–75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 µg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10–300 µg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominately at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 µg/L, mean 99 µg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention. PMID:19371619

  11. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: Review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2009-09-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 {mu}g/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 {mu}g/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominately at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 {mu}g/L, mean 99 {mu}g/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention.

  12. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2009-09-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (>300 microg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 microg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominantly at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 microg/L, mean 99 microg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention. PMID:19371619

  13. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2009-09-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (>300 microg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 microg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominantly at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 microg/L, mean 99 microg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention.

  14. Enrichment of arsenic transforming and resistant heterotrophic bacteria from sediments of two salt lakes in Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Lara, José; Escudero González, Lorena; Ferrero, Marcela; Chong Díaz, Guillermo; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    Microbial populations are involved in the arsenic biogeochemical cycle in catalyzing arsenic transformations and playing indirect roles. To investigate which ecotypes among the diverse microbial communities could have a role in cycling arsenic in salt lakes in Northern Chile and to obtain clues to facilitate their isolation in pure culture, sediment samples from Salar de Ascotán and Salar de Atacama were cultured in diluted LB medium amended with NaCl and arsenic, at different incubation conditions. The samples and the cultures were analyzed by nucleic acid extraction, fingerprinting analysis, and sequencing. Microbial reduction of As was evidenced in all the enrichments carried out in anaerobiosis. The results revealed that the incubation factors were more important for determining the microbial community structure than arsenic species and concentrations. The predominant microorganisms in enrichments from both sediments belonged to the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla, but most of the bacterial ecotypes were confined to only one system. The occurrence of an active arsenic biogeochemical cycle was suggested in the system with the highest arsenic content that included populations compatible with microorganisms able to transform arsenic for energy conservation, accumulate arsenic, produce H(2), H(2)S and acetic acid (potential sources of electrons for arsenic reduction) and tolerate high arsenic levels. PMID:22555750

  15. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mRNA expression are altered by perinatal arsenic exposure in mice and restored by brief exposure to enrichment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a common and pervasive environmental contaminant found in drinking water in varying concentrations depending on region. Exposure to arsenic induces behavioral and cognitive deficits in both human populations and in rodent models. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for the allotment of arsenic in drinking water is in the parts-per-billion range, yet our lab has shown that 50 ppb arsenic exposure during development can have far-reaching consequences into adulthood, including deficits in learning and memory, which have been linked to altered adult neurogenesis. Given that the morphological impact of developmental arsenic exposure on the hippocampus is unknown, we sought to evaluate proliferation and differentiation of adult neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus after 50 ppb arsenic exposure throughout the perinatal period of development in mice (equivalent to all three trimesters in humans) using a BrdU pulse-chase assay. Proliferation of the neural progenitor population was decreased by 13% in arsenic-exposed mice, but was not significant. However, the number of differentiated cells was significantly decreased by 41% in arsenic-exposed mice compared to controls. Brief, daily exposure to environmental enrichment significantly increased proliferation and differentiation in both control and arsenic-exposed animals. Expression levels of 31% of neurogenesis-related genes including those involved in Alzheimer's disease, apoptosis, axonogenesis, growth, Notch signaling, and transcription factors were altered after arsenic exposure and restored after enrichment. Using a concentration previously considered safe by the EPA, perinatal arsenic exposure altered hippocampal morphology and gene expression, but did not inhibit the cellular neurogenic response to enrichment. It is possible that behavioral deficits observed during adulthood in animals exposed to arsenic during development derive from the lack of differentiated neural progenitor cells

  16. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and mRNA Expression are Altered by Perinatal Arsenic Exposure in Mice and Restored by Brief Exposure to Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Christina R.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a common and pervasive environmental contaminant found in drinking water in varying concentrations depending on region. Exposure to arsenic induces behavioral and cognitive deficits in both human populations and in rodent models. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for the allotment of arsenic in drinking water is in the parts-per-billion range, yet our lab has shown that 50 ppb arsenic exposure during development can have far-reaching consequences into adulthood, including deficits in learning and memory, which have been linked to altered adult neurogenesis. Given that the morphological impact of developmental arsenic exposure on the hippocampus is unknown, we sought to evaluate proliferation and differentiation of adult neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus after 50 ppb arsenic exposure throughout the perinatal period of development in mice (equivalent to all three trimesters in humans) using a BrdU pulse-chase assay. Proliferation of the neural progenitor population was decreased by 13% in arsenic-exposed mice, but was not significant. However, the number of differentiated cells was significantly decreased by 41% in arsenic-exposed mice compared to controls. Brief, daily exposure to environmental enrichment significantly increased proliferation and differentiation in both control and arsenic-exposed animals. Expression levels of 31% of neurogenesis-related genes including those involved in Alzheimer’s disease, apoptosis, axonogenesis, growth, Notch signaling, and transcription factors were altered after arsenic exposure and restored after enrichment. Using a concentration previously considered safe by the EPA, perinatal arsenic exposure altered hippocampal morphology and gene expression, but did not inhibit the cellular neurogenic response to enrichment. It is possible that behavioral deficits observed during adulthood in animals exposed to arsenic during development derive from the lack of differentiated neural progenitor

  17. A prospective study of arsenic exposure from drinking water and incidence of skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Argos, Maria; Kalra, Tara; Pierce, Brandon L; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Hasan, Khaled; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Rathouz, Paul J; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-07-15

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide. The authors aimed to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesion incidence among participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). The analyses used data on 10,182 adults free of skin lesions at baseline through the third biennial follow-up of the cohort (2000-2009). Discrete-time hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident skin lesions. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for incident skin lesions comparing 10.1-50.0, 50.1-100.0, 100.1-200.0, and ≥200.1 μg/L with ≤10.0 μg/L of well water arsenic exposure were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.49), 1.69 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.14), 1.97 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.46), and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.40, 3.71), respectively (P(trend) = 0.0001). Results were similar for the other measures of arsenic exposure, and the increased risks remained unchanged with changes in exposure in recent years. Dose-dependent associations were more pronounced in females, but the incidence of skin lesions was greater in males and older individuals. Chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water was associated with increased incidence of skin lesions, even at low levels of arsenic exposure (<100 μg/L).

  18. A Prospective Study of Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Incidence of Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Kalra, Tara; Pierce, Brandon L.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Hasan, Khaled; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide. The authors aimed to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesion incidence among participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). The analyses used data on 10,182 adults free of skin lesions at baseline through the third biennial follow-up of the cohort (2000–2009). Discrete-time hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident skin lesions. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for incident skin lesions comparing 10.1–50.0, 50.1–100.0, 100.1–200.0, and ≥200.1 μg/L with ≤10.0 μg/L of well water arsenic exposure were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.49), 1.69 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.14), 1.97 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.46), and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.40, 3.71), respectively (Ptrend = 0.0001). Results were similar for the other measures of arsenic exposure, and the increased risks remained unchanged with changes in exposure in recent years. Dose-dependent associations were more pronounced in females, but the incidence of skin lesions was greater in males and older individuals. Chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water was associated with increased incidence of skin lesions, even at low levels of arsenic exposure (<100 μg/L). PMID:21576319

  19. Chronic arsenic exposure and risk of infant mortality in two areas of Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Browning, S R; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Ferreccio, C; Peralta, C; Gibb, H

    2000-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with a range of neurologic, vascular, dermatologic, and carcinogenic effects. However, limited research has been directed at the association of arsenic exposure and human reproductive health outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the trends in infant mortality between two geographic locations in Chile: Antofagasta, which has a well-documented history of arsenic exposure from naturally contaminated water, and Valparaíso, a comparable low-exposure city. The arsenic concentration in Antofagasta's public drinking water supply rose substantially in 1958 with the introduction of a new water source, and remained elevated until 1970. We used a retrospective study design to examine time and location patterns in infant mortality between 1950 and 1996, using univariate statistics, graphical techniques, and Poisson regression analysis. Results of the study document the general declines in late fetal and infant mortality over the study period in both locations. The data also indicate an elevation of the late fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates for Antofagasta, relative to Valparaíso, for specific time periods, which generally coincide with the period of highest arsenic concentration in the drinking water of Antofagasta. Poisson regression analysis yielded an elevated and significant association between arsenic exposure and late fetal mortality [rate ratio (RR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-1.9], neonatal mortality (RR = 1.53; CI, 1.4-1.7), and postneonatal mortality (RR = 1.26; CI, 1.2-1.3) after adjustment for location and calendar time. The findings from this investigation may support a role for arsenic exposure in increasing the risk of late fetal and infant mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10903622

  20. Why Does Exposure to Arsenic from Drinking Groundwater in Asian Megadeltas Continue to be High?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geen, A.; Ahmed, K. M.; Ahmed, E. B.; Choudhury, I.; Mozumder, M. R. H.; Bostick, B. C.; Mailloux, B. J.; Knappett, P. S.; Schlosser, P.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pumped from a significant fraction of the millions of shallow tubewells installed, mostly privately, across S/SE Asia exceed the WHO guideline value of 10 ug/L by a factor of 10 to 100. The resulting exposure has been linked to cancers and cardio-vascular disease in adults and inhibited intellectual function in children. In Bangladesh, the most affected country, the impact of early mitigation efforts relying on water treatment has been limited by the cost and logistics of maintenance. A simpler approach based on switching human consumption to low-arsenic wells has proved to be more resilient although it remains far from sufficiently adopted. A decade ago, there was concern that low-arsenic wells might become contaminated upon use. Observations and modeling have since shown that groundwater arsenic concentrations are likely to rise only in certain hydrogeologically vulnerable areas and then only gradually. Our recently completed blanket-testing campaign of 50,000 wells in 300 villages of Bangladesh has shown that, instead, a leading cause of current exposure is that households have continued to install wells and typically have nowhere to turn for a reliable arsenic test. The same campaign has shown that another reason for continued exposure is that deeper wells that are low in arsenic and whose installation has been subsidized by the Bangladesh government are not located to maximize public access. The geographic clustering of these deep wells suggests that, all too often, their location is decided on the basis of political allegiance rather than need. Such obstacles to lowering arsenic exposure might be overcome with more widespread testing and the public posting of maps of test results also showing where deep wells have been installed. We will show that obtaining and sharing such information has been greatly facilitated by a reliable field-kit for arsenic and the increasing use of smartphones in Bangladesh.

  1. Sub-chronic exposure to arsenic and dichlorvos on erythrocyte antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Flora, S J S

    2015-03-01

    The effect of combined exposure to arsenic (25 ppm in drinking water) and dichlorvos (2.5 mg kg1, orally) for 56 days on biochemical variables, indicative of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme system and AChE activity in erythrocytes of rats, were examined. While arsenic caused a significant increase in AChE, DDVP produced marked depletion. Combined exposure to arsenic and DDVP produced no additional decrease in AChE activity, which was comparable to DDVP. Arsenic and DDVP also increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), suggesting free radical generation. Interestingly, glutathione linked enzymes (GSH, GPx, GST and GR) significantly increased on arsenic and DDVP exposure. SOD activity also increased significantly in the individually exposed groups, while catalase activity remained unchanged. Blood arsenic level increased significantly on coexposure to arsenic alone and with DDVP exposed group. However, arsenic content in co-exposed group depleted marginally as compared to arsenic alone group, indicating possible arsenic redistribution. It might be concluded from the study that the combined exposure to arsenic and DDVP may lead to synergistic effects on certain biochemical indicators of oxidative stress like ROS, GSH and SOD, suggesting a more pronounced induction of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes.

  2. Cancer incidence and soil arsenic exposure in a historical gold mining area in Victoria, Australia: a geospatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Dora Claire; Dowling, Kim; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2012-01-01

    Soil and mine waste around historical gold mining sites may have elevated arsenic concentrations. Recent evidence suggests some systemic arsenic absorption by residents in the goldfields region of Victoria, Australia. Victorian Cancer Registry and geochemical data were accessed for an ecological geographical correlation study, 1984-2003. Spatial empirical Bayes smoothing was applied when estimating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancers in 61 statistical local areas. The derived soil arsenic exposure metric ranged from 1.4 to 1857 mg/kg. Spatial autoregressive modelling detected increases in smoothed SIRs for all cancers of 0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.02-0.08) and 0.04 (0.01-0.07) per 2.7-fold increase in the natural log-transformed exposure metric for males and females, respectively, in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas; for melanoma in males (0.05 (0.01-0.08) adjusted for disadvantage) and females (0.05 (0.02-0.09) in disadvantaged areas). Excess risks were estimated for all cancers (relative risk 1.21 (95% CI, 1.15-1.27) and 1.08 (1.03-1.14)), and melanoma (1.52 (1.25-1.85) and 1.29 (1.08-1.55)), for males and females, respectively, in disadvantaged areas in the highest quintile of the exposure metric relative to the lowest. Our findings suggest small but significant increases in past cancer risk associated with increasing soil arsenic in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas and demonstrate the robustness of this geospatial approach.

  3. Genetic variations associated with interindividual sensitivity in the response to arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Marcos, Ricard

    2008-08-01

    People are exposed to arsenic compounds environmentally, occupationally or therapeutically. In some areas, where arsenic is present in high proportions in the drinking water, this exposure represents an important health concern. Chronic exposure to arsenic leads to hyperkeratosis and loss of skin pigmentation, as well as to significant increases of different types of cancer in skin, lung, bladder and liver; in addition, other pathologies, such as vascular diseases, hepatotoxicity and diabetes, have also been related to arsenic exposure. Since high interindividual variability is observed among people exposed to equivalent doses, genetic susceptibility factors have been postulated to be involved. When inorganic arsenic enters into the body it undergoes metabolic conversion, in a process where methylation plays a crucial role. Trivalent forms, both inorganic and organic, are the most toxic and genotoxic and, for this reason, metabolic variations owing to variant alleles in genes involved in such a process have been the aim of several studies. Genes involved in other mechanisms, such as antioxidant defense and DNA-repair lesions, among others, have also been the subject of association studies. A survey of those studies related to individual susceptibility is summarized here. Results with genes involved in folate one-carbon metabolism and in arsenic transport across the cell membrane provide promising data for future studies.

  4. Arsenic exposure in pregnant mice disrupts placental vasculogenesis and causes spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    He, Wenjie; Greenwell, Robert J; Brooks, Diane M; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Beall, Howard D; Coffin, J Douglas

    2007-09-01

    Arsenic is an abundant toxicant in ground water and soil around areas with extractive industries. Human epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure is linked to developmental defects and miscarriage. The placenta is known to utilize vasculogenesis to develop its circulation. The hypothesis tested here states the following: arsenic exposure causes placental dysmorphogenesis and defective placental vasculogenesis resulting in placental insufficiency and subsequent spontaneous abortion. To test this hypothesis, pregnant mice were exposed to sodium arsenite (AsIII) through drinking water from conception through weanling stages. Neonatal assessment of birth rates, pup weights, and litter sizes in arsenic exposed and control mothers revealed that AsIII-exposed mothers had only 40% the fecundity of controls. Preterm analysis at E12.5 revealed a loss of fecundity at E12.5 from either 20 ppm or greater exposures to AsIII. There was no loss of fecundity at E7.5 suggesting that spontaneous abortion occurs during placentation. Histomorphometry on E12.5 placentae from arsenic-exposed mice revealed placental dysplasia especially in the vasculature. These results suggest that arsenic toxicity is causative for mammalian spontaneous abortion by virtue of aberrant placental vasculogenesis and placental insufficiency. PMID:17569693

  5. Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Zhixiong; Lobdell, Danelle T.; Kwok, Richard K. Liu Zhiyi; Zhang Shiying; Ma Chenglong; Riediker, Michael; Mumford, Judy L.

    2007-08-01

    In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 {mu}g of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 {mu}g of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 {mu}g of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 {mu}g of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 {mu}g of As/L (14,500 above 50 {mu}g of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 {mu}g of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region.

  6. Microbial transformations of arsenic: Mobilization from glauconitic sediments to water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mumford, Adam C.; Barringer, Julia L.; Benzel, William M.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Young, L.Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the Inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey, arsenic (As) is released from glauconitic sediment to carbon- and nutrient-rich shallow groundwater. This As-rich groundwater discharges to a major area stream. We hypothesize that microbes play an active role in the mobilization of As from glauconitic subsurface sediments into groundwater in the Inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey. We have examined the potential impact of microbial activity on the mobilization of arsenic from subsurface sediments into the groundwater at a site on Crosswicks Creek in southern New Jersey. The As contents of sediments 33–90 cm below the streambed were found to range from 15 to 26.4 mg/kg, with siderite forming at depth. Groundwater beneath the streambed contains As at concentrations up to 89 μg/L. Microcosms developed from site sediments released 23 μg/L of As, and active microbial reduction of As(V) was observed in microcosms developed from site groundwater. DNA extracted from site sediments was amplified with primers for the 16S rRNA gene and the arsenate respiratory reductase gene, arrA, and indicated the presence of a diverse anaerobic microbial community, as well as the presence of potential arsenic-reducing bacteria. In addition, high iron (Fe) concentrations in groundwater and the presence of iron-reducing microbial genera suggests that Fe reduction in minerals may provide an additional mechanism for release of associated As, while arsenic-reducing microorganisms may serve to enhance the mobility of As in groundwater at this site.

  7. Metallothionein blocks oxidative DNA damage induced by acute inorganic arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Wei Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-02-01

    We studied how protein metallothionein (MT) impacts arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage (ODD) using cells that poorly express MT (MT-I/II double knockout embryonic cells; called MT-null cells) and wild-type (WT) MT competent cells. Arsenic (as NaAsO{sub 2}) was less cytolethal over 24 h in WT cells (LC{sub 50} = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM; mean ± SEM) than in MT-null cells (LC{sub 50} = 5.6 ± 1.2 μM). ODD was measured by the immuno-spin trapping method. Arsenic (1 or 5 μM; 24 h) induced much less ODD in WT cells (121% and 141% of control, respectively) than in MT-null cells (202% and 260%). In WT cells arsenic caused concentration-dependent increases in MT expression (transcript and protein), and in the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is required to induce the MT gene. In contrast, basal MT levels were not detectable in MT-null cells and unaltered by arsenic exposure. Transfection of MT-I gene into the MT-null cells markedly reduced arsenic-induced ODD levels. The transport genes, Abcc1 and Abcc2 were increased by arsenic in WT cells but either showed no or very limited increases in MT-null cells. Arsenic caused increases in oxidant stress defense genes HO-1 and GSTα2 in both WT and MT-null cells, but to much higher levels in WT cells. WT cells appear more adept at activating metal transport systems and oxidant response genes, although the role of MT in these responses is unclear. Overall, MT protects against arsenic-induced ODD in MT competent cells by potential sequestration of scavenging oxidant radicals and/or arsenic. - Highlights: • Metallothionein blocks arsenic toxicity. • Metallothionein reduces arsenic-induced DNA damage. • Metallothionein may bind arsenic or radicals produced by arsenic.

  8. Transformation and Mobilization of Arsenic in the Historic Cobalt Mining Camp, Ontario, Canada.

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong,J.; Beauchemin, S.; Hossain, F.; Gould, D.

    2007-01-01

    More than eight decades of silver mining in the Cobalt mining camp of northern Ontario, Canada, have left large volumes of As-bearing mine wastes widely distributed in and along watercourses in the Cobalt area. Metal leaching from these mine wastes has led to the contamination of the area drainage with dissolved As concentrations at least an order of magnitude higher than the Canadian drinking water criterion of 0.025 mg l{sup -1}. To clarify the transformation and mobilization of arsenic in the historic mining camp, a portion of an extensive wetland located in northeast Cobalt and partially filled with historic tailings has been sampled for detailed characterization, chemical analysis and extraction tests. Field deployment of anionic exchange membranes, As sorption isotherm and desorption analyses in conjunction with chemical and mineralogical analyses indicate that: (1) the submerged tailings are likely a source instead of a sink of arsenic to the local streams; and (2) Al-minerals are the main sorbents for As with significant P competing for the available sorbing sites. Subjecting selected samples to a laboratory redox experiment complemented with X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses confirms that changes in arsenic speciation readily occur with changes in redox conditions in the surface sediments, resulting in rapid mobilization of arsenic. Preliminary enumeration of iron- and sulfur-reducing bacteria at selected sites coupled with scanning electron microscopic analyses show that microbial sulfate reduction occurs locally in the wetland, possibly leading to co-precipitation of arsenic as a sulfide in associated with framboidal pyrite. Further detailed study of the bacteria responsible for the arsenic transformation in conjunction with arsenic speciation analysis is recommended.

  9. Arsenic Exposure and Impaired Lung Function. Findings from a Large Population-based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Yunus, Mahbub; Olopade, Christopher; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Akter, Mahmud M.; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Exposure to arsenic through drinking water has been linked to respiratory symptoms, obstructive lung diseases, and mortality from respiratory diseases. Limited evidence for the deleterious effects on lung function exists among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. Objectives: To determine the deleterious effects on lung function that exist among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. Methods: In 950 individuals who presented with any respiratory symptom among a population-based cohort of 20,033 adults, we evaluated the association between arsenic exposure, measured by well water and urinary arsenic concentrations measured at baseline, and post-bronchodilator–administered pulmonary function assessed during follow-up. Measurements and Main Results: For every one SD increase in baseline water arsenic exposure, we observed a lower level of FEV1 (−46.5 ml; P < 0.0005) and FVC (−53.1 ml; P < 0.01) in regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, socioeconomic status, betel nut use, and arsenical skin lesions status. Similar inverse relationships were observed between baseline urinary arsenic and FEV1 (−48.3 ml; P < 0.005) and FVC (−55.2 ml; P < 0.01) in adjusted models. Our analyses also demonstrated a dose-related decrease in lung function with increasing levels of baseline water and urinary arsenic. This association remained significant in never-smokers and individuals without skin lesions, and was stronger in male smokers. Among male smokers and individuals with skin lesions, every one SD increase in water arsenic was related to a significant reduction of FEV1 (−74.4 ml, P < 0.01; and −116.1 ml, P < 0.05) and FVC (−72.8 ml, P = 0.02; and −146.9 ml, P = 0.004), respectively. Conclusions: This large population-based study confirms that arsenic exposure is associated with impaired lung function and the deleterious effect is evident at low- to moderate-dose range. PMID:23848239

  10. Association between chronic exposure to arsenic and slow nerve conduction velocity among adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung-Pin; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Wu, Meei-Maan; The, Hee-Wen; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2006-06-01

    The association between chronic exposure to arsenic and peripheral neuropathy has been controversial in previous studies, which may be due to the influence of factors, such as age, gender, chronic diseases, occupational injuries, and arsenic exposure. To clarify the question of this association, a cross-sectional study was designed. In total, 130 junior high school students aged 12-14 years were included and examined for the motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of peripheral nerves in their right-upper and lower limbs. Concentrations of arsenic in well-water and history of drinking well-water were retrieved from a baseline database created in 1991. After adjustment for gender and height, a significant odds ratio of 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-7.5) was observed for the development of slow nerve conduction velocity of the sural sensory action potential (SAP) among the study subjects with a cumulative arsenic dosage of>100.0 mg. In addition, a borderline statistical significance with odds ratio of 7.8 (95% CI 1.001-69.5) for the development of slow nerve conduction velocity of sural SAP was also observed among the study subjects who drank well-water containing arsenic concentrations of >50.0 microg/L and with a cumulative arsenic dosage of >100.0 mg. The study found that chronic exposure to arsenic might induce peripheral neuropathy. It also found that the slowing of the nerve conduction velocity of sural SAP might be an early marker of chronic arsenic neuropathy.

  11. In utero and early childhood exposure to arsenic decreases lung function in children

    PubMed Central

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gonzalez-Cortes, Tania; Olivas-Calderon, Edgar; Lantz, R. Clark; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Background The lung is a target organ for adverse health outcomes following exposure to arsenic. Several studies have reported a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases in subjects highly exposed to arsenic through drinking water, however, most studies to date has been performed in exposed adults, with little information on respiratory effects in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between urinary levels of arsenic and its metabolites with lung function in children exposed in utero and in early childhood to high arsenic levels through drinking water. Methods A total of 358 healthy children were included in our study. Individual exposure was assessed based on urinary concentration of inorganic arsenic. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Results Participants were exposed since pregnancy until early childhood to an average water As concentration of 152.13 μg/L. The mean urinary arsenic level registered in the studied subjects was 141.2 μg/L and only 16.7% had a urinary concentration below the national concern level. Forced vital capacity was significantly decreased in the studied population and it was negatively associated with the percent of inorganic arsenic. More than 57% of the subjects had a restrictive spirometric pattern. The urinary As level was higher in those children with restrictive lung patterns when compared with the levels registered in subjects with normal spirometric patterns. Conclusion Exposure to arsenic through drinking water during in utero and early life was associated with a decrease in FVC and with a restrictive spirometric pattern in the children evaluated. PMID:25131850

  12. Hypertension in chronic arsenic exposure: A case control study in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Guha Mazumder, Debendra; Purkayastha, Ishanikar; Ghose, Aloke; Mistry, Goutom; Saha, Chandan; Nandy, Ashoke K; Das, Arabinda; Majumdar, Kunal K

    2012-01-01

    Various systemic manifestations are reported to be caused by chronic arsenic exposure in the population living in the Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. This study from West Bengal assesses the likelihood of occurrence of hypertension (HTN) in individuals resident in an area of high groundwater contamination with arsenic (Nadia district) compared to those from a non-contaminated area (Hoogly district) in West Bengal, India. Two hundred and eight study participants (Group 1) were recruited from a cross-sectional study in six villages in the Nadia district and 100 controls (Group 2) from a village in the Hoogly district. The two groups were evenly matched in regard to age and sex. History taking and clinical examination including blood pressure measurement were undertaken in each participant. Water samples from current and previous drinking water sources and hair and urine samples from each participant were collected for estimation of arsenic. The present study shows evidence of increased association of HTN in individuals resident in arsenic endemic region compared to those from a non-endemic region in West Bengal. There were increased odds ratios for HTN [Adjusted Odds Ratio, OR, 2.87 (95 %CI = 1.26-4.83)] in Group- 1 participants compared to Group- 2 people. Within Group 1, there was no difference in prevalence of HTN between those with and without skin lesion. There was a dose-effect relationship seen with increasing cumulative arsenic exposure and arsenic level in hair and HTN in participants living in arsenic endemic region.The findings reported here support an association between arsenic exposure and HTN. More work is needed to characterize the link further.

  13. Long-term arsenic exposure and ischemic heart disease in arseniasis-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Chong, Choon-Khim; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Tseng, Ching-Chung; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2003-01-31

    The association between long-term arsenic exposure and peripheral vascular disease has been well documented in our previous epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether long-term arsenic exposure could be associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD). A total of 462 subjects living in the blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages along the southwestern coast of Taiwan and characterized by long-term arsenic exposure from drinking artesian well water was studied. The subjects were recruited from an epidemiologic cohort who participated in a health examination. IHD was diagnosed by coding the resting electrocardiograms with the Minnesota code. History of arsenic exposure was estimated through information obtained from a personal interview according to a structured questionnaire and the arsenic content in artesian well water of the villages. Cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) was calculated as the sum of the products multiplying the arsenic concentration in artesian well water (mg/l) by the duration of drinking the water (years) in consecutive periods of living in the different villages. Among the subjects, 78 cases (16.9%) were diagnosed as having IHD. The prevalence rates of IHD for the age groups of 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and >/=60 years were 4.9, 7.5, 16.8, and 30.7%, respectively (P<0.001). For those with CAE of 0, 0.1-14.9 and >/=15 mg/l-years, the prevalence rates of IHD were 5.2, 10.9 and 24.1%, respectively (P<0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for IHD were 1.60 (0.48, 5.34), and 3.60 (1.11, 11.65), respectively, for those with CAE of 0.1-14.9 and >/=15.0 mg/l-years, when compared with those lacking drinking water exposure to arsenic after multivariate adjustment. It is concluded that IHD in the arseniasis-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan was associated with long-term arsenic exposure.

  14. Diet and toenail arsenic concentrations in a New Hampshire population with arsenic-containing water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited data exist on the contribution of dietary sources of arsenic to an individual’s total exposure, particularly in populations with exposure via drinking water. Here, the association between diet and toenail arsenic concentrations (a long-term biomarker of exposure) was evaluated for individuals with measured household tap water arsenic. Foods known to be high in arsenic, including rice and seafood, were of particular interest. Methods Associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of 120 individual diet items were quantified using general linear models that also accounted for household tap water arsenic and potentially confounding factors (e.g., age, caloric intake, sex, smoking) (n = 852). As part of the analysis, we assessed whether associations between log-transformed toenail arsenic and each diet item differed between subjects with household drinking water arsenic concentrations <1 μg/L versus ≥1 μg/L. Results As expected, toenail arsenic concentrations increased with household water arsenic concentrations. Among the foods known to be high in arsenic, no clear relationship between toenail arsenic and rice consumption was detected, but there was a positive association with consumption of dark meat fish, a category that includes tuna steaks, mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish. Positive associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of white wine, beer, and Brussels sprouts were also observed; these and most other associations were not modified by exposure via water. However, consumption of two foods cooked in water, beans/lentils and cooked oatmeal, was more strongly related to toenail arsenic among those with arsenic-containing drinking water (≥1 μg/L). Conclusions This study suggests that diet can be an important contributor to total arsenic exposure in U.S. populations regardless of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Thus, dietary exposure to arsenic in the US warrants consideration as a potential

  15. Arsenic Exposure and Cancer Mortality in a US-based Prospective Cohort: the Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Pollán, Marina; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara; Farley, John; Yeh, Jeunliang; Best, Lyle G.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background Inorganic arsenic, a carcinogen at high exposure levels, is a major global health problem. Prospective studies on carcinogenic effects at low-moderate arsenic levels are lacking. Methods We evaluated the association between baseline arsenic exposure and cancer mortality in 3,932 American Indians 45–74 years from Arizona, Oklahoma and North/South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989–1991 and were followed through 2008. We estimated inorganic arsenic exposure as the sum of inorganic and methylated species in urine. Cancer deaths (386 overall, 78 lung, 34 liver, 18 prostate, 26 kidney, 24 esophagus/stomach, 25 pancreas, 32 colon/rectal, 26 breast, 40 lymphatic/hematopoietic) were assessed by mortality surveillance reviews. We hypothesized an association with lung, liver, prostate and kidney cancer. Results Median (interquartile range) urine concentration for inorganic plus methylated arsenic species was 9.7 (5.8–15.6) μg/g creatinine. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) comparing the 80th versus 20th percentiles of arsenic were 1.14 (0.92–1.41) for overall cancer, 1.56 (1.02–2.39) for lung cancer, 1.34 (0.66, 2.72) for liver cancer, 3.30 (1.28–8.48) for prostate cancer, and 0.44 (0.14, 1.14) for kidney cancer. The corresponding hazard ratios were 2.46 (1.09–5.58) for pancreatic cancer, and 0.46 (0.22–0.96) for lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. Arsenic was not associated with cancers of the esophagus and stomach, colon and rectum, and breast. Conclusions Low to moderate exposure to inorganic arsenic was prospectively associated with increased mortality for cancers of the lung, prostate and pancreas. Impact These findings support the role of low-moderate arsenic exposure in lung, prostate and pancreas cancer development and can inform arsenic risk assessment. PMID:23800676

  16. Intra-specific variability in the response of maize to arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Requejo, Raquel; Tena, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    The response of maize (Zea mays L.) to inorganic arsenic exposure was studied, at the seedling stage under hydroponic conditions, preliminarily in sixteen lines (fourteen hybrids and two inbred lines) and then, more deeply, in six of these lines, selected by showing contrasting differences in their sensitivity to the metalloid. The results indicated that (i) maize is rather tolerant to arsenic toxicity, (ii) arsenite is more phytotoxic than arsenate, (iii) roots are less sensitive than shoots to the metalloid, (iv) a great accumulation of non-protein thiols (probably phytochelatins), without substantial effect on the glutathione content, is produced in roots but not in shoots of arsenic-exposed plants and (v) maize is able to accumulate high levels of arsenic in roots with very low translocation to shoots. The study, thus, suggests that maize, for its very low rate of acropetal transport of arsenic from roots to shoots, may be a safe crop in relation to the risk of entry of metalloid in the food chain and, for being an important bioenergy crop capable of expressing high levels of arsenic tolerance and accumulation in roots, may represent an interesting opportunity for the exploitation of agricultural useless arsenic contaminated lands.

  17. A Dose-Response Study of Arsenic Exposure and Markers of Oxidative Damage in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Kristin N.; Liu, Xinhua; Hall, Megan N.; Ilievski, Vesna; Oka, Julie; Calancie, Larissa; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Siddique, Abu; Alam, Shafiul; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.; Gamble, Mary V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and markers of oxidative damage in Bangladeshi adults. Methods We recruited 378 participants drinking from wells assigned to five water arsenic exposure categories; the distribution of subjects was as follows: 1) <10 μg/L (n=76); 2) 10–100 μg/L (n=104); 3) 101–200 μg/L (n=86); 4) 201–300 μg/L (n=67); and 5) > 300 μg/L (n=45). Arsenic concentrations were measured in well water, as well as in urine and blood. Urinary 8-oxo-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and plasma protein carbonyls were measured to assess oxidative damage. Results None of our measures of arsenic exposure were significantly associated with protein carbonyl or 8-oxo-dG levels. Conclusions We found no evidence to support a significant relationship between chronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water and biomarkers of oxidative damage among Bangladeshi adults. PMID:24854259

  18. Prolonged environmental exposure of arsenic through drinking water on the risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Bing; Xi, Shuhua; Zheng, Quanmei; Lv, Xiuqiang; Sun, Guifan

    2013-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to inorganic arsenic has been a severe environmental public health issue worldwide in the recent decades. Increasing evidence has suggested a possible role of prolonged arsenic exposure through drinking water in the development of arsenic-induced chronic noncancer diseases, among which hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are the focus of concern. Although exposure to high levels of arsenic has been reported to be associated with excess risk of hypertension or T2D in a dose-dependent manner, the association has yet to be established, especially low-level exposure. This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the potential association between prolonged environmental arsenic exposure through drinking water and the prevalence of hypertension and T2D in Inner Mongolia, China, with emphasis on the assessment of low-level exposure. In this study (a total of 669 men and women), we found that the blood pressure levels were significantly correlated with cumulative arsenic exposure and that the systolic blood pressure of the subjects with arsenic exposure>50 μg/L was significantly higher than those of the subjects with <10 and 10-50 μg/L exposure. Significant prevalence of hypertension was found in the subjects of the >50 μg/L group both before and after adjustment for confounders. In addition, a significant negative relationship was found between urinary arsenic percentage of dimethylated arsenic (DMA%) and the prevalence of hypertension in the >50 μg/L group. However, low-level arsenic exposure (10-50 μg/L) was not statistically associated with hypertension. No significant difference of blood glucose was found among the groups with different arsenic exposure levels. No statistical association was found between arsenic exposure and T2D. Our findings suggested that prolonged arsenic exposure might play a role in the development of hypertension; however, only high-level arsenic was associated with the risk of hypertension. Our findings also

  19. Chronic exposure of arsenic via drinking water and its adverse health impacts on humans.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ng, Jack C; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    Worldwide chronic arsenic (As) toxicity has become a human health threat. Arsenic exposure to humans mainly occurs from the ingestion of As contaminated water and food. This communication presents a review of current research conducted on the adverse health effects on humans exposed to As-contaminated water. Chronic exposure of As via drinking water causes various types of skin lesions such as melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Other manifestations include neurological effects, obstetric problems, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory system and of blood vessels including cardiovascular, and cancers typically involving the skin, lung, and bladder. The skin seems to be quite susceptible to the effects of As. Arsenic-induced skin lesions seem to be the most common and initial symptoms of arsenicosis. More systematic studies are needed to determine the link between As exposure and its related cancer and noncancer end points.

  20. Total arsenic concentrations in toenails quantified by two techniques provide a useful biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M. . E-mail: adair.blakely@epa.gov; Hudgens, Edward E.; Schmitt, Michael T.; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Thomas, David J.

    2006-06-15

    Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 years old, had lived in the area for more than 20 years, and were exposed to a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water (3-2100ppb). Concentrations of TAs in blood, urine, and toenails determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) ranged from below detection to 0.03, 0.76, and 12ppm, respectively; TAs in blood rarely exceeded the limit of detection. For comparison, TAs in toenails determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) ranged from below detection to 16ppm. Significant (P<0.0001) positive regressions were seen between the TAs concentration in toenails and in drinking water (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3557 HG-AFS, adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3922 NAA); TAs concentrations in urine were not described by drinking water As (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.0170, P=0.1369). Analyses of TAs in toenails by HGAFS and NAA yielded highly concordant estimates (r=0.7977, P<0.0001). These results suggest that toenails are a better biomarker of chronic As exposure than urine in the current study, because the sequestration of As in toenails provides an integration of exposure over time that does not occur in urine.

  1. Synergistic effect of polymorphisms of paraoxonase gene cluster and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ya-Tang; Li, Wan-Fen; Chen, Chien-Jen; Prineas, Ronald J; Chen, Wei J; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Shu-Li

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic has been linked to increased prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the long-term impact of arsenic exposure remains unclear. Human paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme which hydrolyzes oxidized lipids and is thought to be protective against atherosclerosis, but evidence remains limited to case-control studies. Only recently have genes encoding enzymes responsible for arsenic metabolism, such as AS3MT and GSTO, been cloned and characterized. This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic interaction of genetic factors and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality. A total of 216 residents from three tap water implemented villages of previous arseniasis-hyperendemic regions in Taiwan were prospectively followed for an average of 8 years. For each resident, a 12-lead conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and coded by Minnesota Code standard criteria. Eight functional polymorphisms of PON1, PON2, AS3MT, GSTO1, and GSTO2 were examined for genetic susceptibility to ECG abnormality. Among 42 incident cases with ECG deterioration identified among 121 baseline-normal subjects, arsenic exposure was significantly correlated with incidence of ECG abnormality. In addition, polymorphisms in two paraoxonase genes were also found associated with the incidence of ECG abnormality. A haplotype R-C-S constituted by polymorphisms of PON1 Q192R, -108C/T and PON2 C311S was linked to the increased risk. Subjects exposed to high levels of As (cumulative As exposure >14.7 ppm-year or drinking artesian well water >21 years) and carrying the R-C-S haplotype had significantly increased risks for ECG abnormality over those with only one risk factor. Results of this study showed a long-term arsenic effect on ECG abnormality and significant gene-gene and gene-environment interactions linked to the incidence of CVD. This finding might have important implications for a novel and potentially useful

  2. Synergistic effect of polymorphisms of paraoxonase gene cluster and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Y.-T.; Li, W.-F.; Chen, C.-J.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Chen, Wei J.; Zhang Zhuming; Sun, C.-W.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic has been linked to increased prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the long-term impact of arsenic exposure remains unclear. Human paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme which hydrolyzes oxidized lipids and is thought to be protective against atherosclerosis, but evidence remains limited to case-control studies. Only recently have genes encoding enzymes responsible for arsenic metabolism, such as AS3MT and GSTO, been cloned and characterized. This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic interaction of genetic factors and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality. A total of 216 residents from three tap water implemented villages of previous arseniasis-hyperendemic regions in Taiwan were prospectively followed for an average of 8 years. For each resident, a 12-lead conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and coded by Minnesota Code standard criteria. Eight functional polymorphisms of PON1, PON2, AS3MT, GSTO1, and GSTO2 were examined for genetic susceptibility to ECG abnormality. Among 42 incident cases with ECG deterioration identified among 121 baseline-normal subjects, arsenic exposure was significantly correlated with incidence of ECG abnormality. In addition, polymorphisms in two paraoxonase genes were also found associated with the incidence of ECG abnormality. A haplotype R-C-S constituted by polymorphisms of PON1 Q192R, -108C/T and PON2 C311S was linked to the increased risk. Subjects exposed to high levels of As (cumulative As exposure > 14.7 ppm-year or drinking artesian well water > 21 years) and carrying the R-C-S haplotype had significantly increased risks for ECG abnormality over those with only one risk factor. Results of this study showed a long-term arsenic effect on ECG abnormality and significant gene-gene and gene-environment interactions linked to the incidence of CVD. This finding might have important implications for a novel and potentially useful

  3. Does arsenic exposure increase the risk of development of peripheral vascular diseases in humans?

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2006-10-01

    Arsenic has been well documented as a major risk factor in the development of blackfoot disease (BFD), a unique peripheral vascular disease (PVD) endemic to the southwestern coast of Taiwan, where residents imbibed artesian well water containing excessive amounts of arsenic for more than 50 yr. Long-term arsenic exposure was also reported to be associated with mortality attributed to PVD. A tap-water supply system was implemented in the early 1960s in the BFD endemic areas. Artesian well water was no longer used for drinking and cooking after the mid-1970s. The objective of this study was to examine whether mortality attributed to PVD decreased after the consumption of artesian well water containing high concentrations of arsenic ceased and, if so, when the reduction occurred. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for PVD were calculated for the BFD endemic area for the years 1971-2003. Cumulative-sum techniques were used to detect the occurrence of changes in the SMRs. Data showed that mortality due to PVD declined gradually for approximately 25 to 27 yr following cessation of consumption of this arsenic artesian well water. Based on the reversibility criterion, the association between arsenic exposure and PVD-attributed mortality is likely to be causal.

  4. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    PubMed

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (<63μm), 5.71 (6.55)ppb for tap water, 14.0 (2.01)μg/L for specific gravity-corrected total urinary arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas.

  5. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    PubMed

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (<63μm), 5.71 (6.55)ppb for tap water, 14.0 (2.01)μg/L for specific gravity-corrected total urinary arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas. PMID:26803211

  6. Effects of arsenic trioxide inhalation exposure on pulmonary antibacterial defenses in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Aranyi, C.; Bradof, J.N.; O'Shea, W.J.; Graham, J.A.; Miller, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of single and multiple (5 and 20) 3-h inhalation exposures to aerosols of arsenic trioxide on the pulmonary defense system of mice were investigated. Arsenic trioxide mist was generated from an aqueous solution and dried to produce particulate aerosols of 0. 4 micron mass median aerodynamic diameter. Aerosol mass concentration ranged from 125 to 1000 micrograms As/m3. Effects of the exposures were evaluated by determination of changes in susceptibility to experimentally induced streptococcal aerosol infection and in pulmonary bactericidal activity to /sup 35/S-labeled Klebsiella pneumoniae. Significant increases in mortality due to the infectious challenge and decreases in bactericidal activity were seen after single 3-h exposures to 270, 500, and 940 micrograms As/m3. Similarly, 5 or 20 multiple 3-h exposures to 500 micrograms As/m3 produced consistently significant increases in mortality and decreases in pulmonary bactericidal activity. At 125 or 250 micrograms As/m3, a decrease in bactericidal activity was seen only after 20 exposures to 250 micrograms/m3. Results from earlier studies with an arsenic-containing copper smelter dust were compared to these data. The possibility of the development of adaptation during multiple exposures to arsenic trioxide is also considered.

  7. The Broad Scope of Health Effects from Chronic Arsenic Exposure: Update on a Worldwide Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth; Ahsan, Habibul; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Graziano, Joseph H.; Thompson, Claudia; Suk, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concerns for arsenic exposure are not limited to toxic waste sites and massive poisoning events. Chronic exposure continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of persons. Objectives: We reviewed recent information on worldwide concerns for arsenic exposures and public health to heighten awareness of the current scope of arsenic exposure and health outcomes and the importance of reducing exposure, particularly during pregnancy and early life. Methods: We synthesized the large body of current research pertaining to arsenic exposure and health outcomes with an emphasis on recent publications. Discussion: Locations of high arsenic exposure via drinking water span from Bangladesh, Chile, and Taiwan to the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water is 10 µg/L; however, concentrations of > 3,000 µg/L have been found in wells in the United States. In addition, exposure through diet is of growing concern. Knowledge of the scope of arsenic-associated health effects has broadened; arsenic leaves essentially no bodily system untouched. Arsenic is a known carcinogen associated with skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and liver cancer. Dermatological, developmental, neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, and endocrine effects are also evident. Most remarkably, early-life exposure may be related to increased risks for several types of cancer and other diseases during adulthood. Conclusions: These data call for heightened awareness of arsenic-related pathologies in broader contexts than previously perceived. Testing foods and drinking water for arsenic, including individual private wells, should be a top priority to reduce exposure, particularly for pregnant women and children, given the potential for life-long effects of developmental exposure. PMID:23458756

  8. The health effects of exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water: a review by global geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Haiyun; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water has been a vigorously studied and debated subject. However, the existing literature does not allow for a thorough examination of the potential regional discrepancies that may arise among arsenic-related health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated review of the literature on arsenic exposure and commonly discussed health effects according to global geographical distribution. This geographically segmented approach helps uncover the discrepancies in the health effects of arsenic. For instance, women are more susceptible than men to a few types of cancer in Taiwan, but not in other countries. Although skin cancer and arsenic exposure correlations have been discovered in Chile, Argentina, the United States, and Taiwan, no evident association was found in mainland China. We then propose several globally applicable recommendations to prevent and treat the further spread of arsenic poisoning and suggestions of future study designs and decision-making. PMID:25365079

  9. The health effects of exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water: a review by global geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Haiyun; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water has been a vigorously studied and debated subject. However, the existing literature does not allow for a thorough examination of the potential regional discrepancies that may arise among arsenic-related health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated review of the literature on arsenic exposure and commonly discussed health effects according to global geographical distribution. This geographically segmented approach helps uncover the discrepancies in the health effects of arsenic. For instance, women are more susceptible than men to a few types of cancer in Taiwan, but not in other countries. Although skin cancer and arsenic exposure correlations have been discovered in Chile, Argentina, the United States, and Taiwan, no evident association was found in mainland China. We then propose several globally applicable recommendations to prevent and treat the further spread of arsenic poisoning and suggestions of future study designs and decision-making.

  10. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN HEALTHY WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extremely high exposure levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower exposure levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on ...

  11. The Relative Importance of Waterborne and Dietborne Arsenic Exposure on Survival and Growth of Juvenile Rainbow Trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated toxicity to rainbow trout fed oligochaetes contaminated with arsenic via waterborne exposure. While this demonstrated the potential hazard of dietborne exposure, it did not address the relative and combined potency of waterborne and d...

  12. Arsenic exposure disrupts epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, Katharine J.; Holloway, Adele; Cook, Anthony L.; Chin, Suyin P.; Snow, Elizabeth T.

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin which increases skin cancer risk for exposed populations worldwide; however the underlying biomolecular mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is complex and poorly defined. Recent investigations show that histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase activity is impaired, and epigenetic patterns of gene regulation are consistently altered in cancers associated with arsenic exposure. Expression of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 is altered in solid tumours and haematological malignancies; however its role in arsenic-induced pathology is unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of arsenic on epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 and its targeting microRNA, miR-34a in primary human keratinocytes. Acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) increased in keratinocytes exposed to 0.5 μM arsenite [As(III)]; and this was associated with chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a promoter. Moreover, although SIRT1 protein initially increased in these As(III)-exposed cells, after 24 days expression was not significantly different from untreated controls. Extended exposure to low-dose As(III) (0.5 μM; > 5 weeks) compromised the pattern of CpG methylation at SIRT1 and miR-34a gene promoters, and this was associated with altered expression for both genes. We have found that arsenic alters epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 expression via structural reorganisation of chromatin at the miR-34a gene promoter in the initial 24 h of exposure; and over time, through shifts in miR-34a and SIRT1 gene methylation. Taken together, this investigation demonstrates that arsenic produces cumulative disruptions to epigenetic regulation of miR-34a expression, and this is associated with impaired coordination of SIRT1 functional activity. - Highlights: • Submicromolar arsenic concentrations disrupt SIRT1 activity and expression in human keratinocytes. • Arsenic-induced chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a gene promoter is associated with hyperacetylation

  13. Differential oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat brain regions and blood following chronic arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Mishra, D; Flora, S J S

    2008-05-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning caused by contaminated drinking water is a wide spread and worldwide problem particularly in India and Bangladesh. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for arsenic toxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was planned 1) to evaluate if chronic exposure to arsenic leads to oxidative stress in blood and brain - parts of male Wistar rats and 2) to evaluate which brain region of the exposed animals was more sensitive to oxidative injury. Male Wistar rats were exposed to arsenic (50A ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water) for 10A months. The brain was dissected into five major parts, pons medulla, corpus striatum, cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. A number of biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress were studied in blood and different brain regions. Single-strand DNA damage using comet assay was also assessed in lymphocytes. We observed a significant increase in blood and brain ROS levels accompanied by the depletion of GSH/GSSG ratio and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in different brain regions of arsenic-exposed rats. Chronic arsenic exposure also caused significant single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes as depicted by comet with a tail in arsenic-exposed cells compared with the control cells. On the basis of results, we concluded that the cortex region of the brain was more sensitive to oxidative injury compared with the other regions studied. The present study, thus, leads us to suggest that arsenic induces differential oxidative stress in brain regions with cortex followed by hippocampus and causes single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes.

  14. Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Longitudinal Change in Blood Pressure among HEALS Cohort Participants

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jieying; Liu, Mengling; Parvez, Faruque; Wang, Binhuan; Wu, Fen; Eunus, Mahbub; Bangalore, Sripal; Newman, Jonathan D.; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; Bryan, Molly Scannell; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Hayes, Richard B.; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between arsenic exposure and prevalence of high blood pressure; however, studies examining the relationship of arsenic exposure with longitudinal changes in blood pressure are lacking. Method We evaluated associations of arsenic exposure in relation to longitudinal change in blood pressure in 10,853 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Arsenic was measured in well water and in urine samples at baseline and in urine samples every 2 years after baseline. Mixed-effect models were used to estimate the association of baseline well and urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic with annual change in blood pressure during follow-up (median, 6.7 years). Result In the HEALS population, the median water arsenic concentration at baseline was 62 μg/L. Individuals in the highest quartile of baseline water arsenic or urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic had a greater annual increase in systolic blood pressure compared with those in the reference group (β = 0.48 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.61, and β = 0.43 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.56 for water arsenic and urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic, respectively) in fully adjusted models. Likewise, individuals in the highest quartile of baseline arsenic exposure had a greater annual increase in diastolic blood pressure for water arsenic and urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic, (β = 0.39 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.49, and β = 0.45 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.55, respectively) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Conclusion Our findings suggest that long-term arsenic exposure may accelerate age-related increases in blood pressure. These findings may help explain associations between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. Citation Jiang J, Liu M, Parvez F, Wang B, Wu F, Eunus M, Bangalore S, Newman JD, Ahmed A, Islam T, Rakibuz-Zaman M, Hasan R, Sarwar G, Levy D, Slavkovich V, Argos M, Scannell Bryan M, Farzan SF, Hayes RB, Graziano JH

  15. The effects of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on the neurobehavioral development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Song-Yen; Chou, Hung-Yi; The, Hee-Wen; Chen, Chao-Meei; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2003-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the possible influence on the development of cognitive function among adolescents due to long-term arsenic exposure. Forty-nine junior school students drinking arsenic-containing well water and 60 controls matched with age, sex, education, body height, body weight, body mass index, and socioeconomic status were compared. The former was divided into two groups: high and low exposure, with mean cumulative arsenic levels of 520629.0+/-605824.2 and 13782.2+/-12886.0 ppm, respectively. Four neurobehavioral tests including continuous performance test (CPT), symbol digit (SD), pattern memory (PM) and switching attention (SA) were applied. A strong correlation between age and education caused collinearity in the multiple regression model (r=0.84, P<0.0001). Only education and sex, excluding age, were entered into the model as covariates. Pattern memory and switching attention were significantly affected by long-term cumulative exposure to arsenic after adjusting for education and sex. It is suggested that the arsenic levels in the well water may be monitored extensively, but if there is no intervention, then neurobehavioral function will not be protected. Limitations of the current study require replication of this effect in other studies to confirm this conclusion.

  16. Inorganic arsenic exposure affects pain behavior and inflammatory response in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre-Banuelos, Patricia; Escudero-Lourdes, Claudia; Sanchez-Pena, Luz Carmen; Del Razo, Luz Maria; Perez-Urizar, Jose

    2008-06-15

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) contamination of drinking water is a worldwide problem associated with an increased risk for the development of various types of cancer and noncancerous damage. In vitro studies have suggested that iAs can modulate the activity of macrophages producing an over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and resulting in an increase in prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) concentrations in endothelial cells. These effects may lead to an in vivo enhancement of inflammatory and pain responses. Our aim was to determine the effect of a single dose of arsenic or subchronic exposure to arsenic on pain behavior and tissue inflammation in rats. Rats were given a single dose of sodium arsenite (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) or submitted to subchronic exposure to arsenic added to the drinking water for 4 weeks (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppm). Inflammatory pain was assessed by using the formalin and tail-flick tests, while inflammation was evaluated with the carrageenan model. Arsenite did not induce pain or significant inflammation by itself. In contrast, arsenite in both single dose administration and subchronic exposure increased not only the inflammatory process and the underlying hyperalgesic pain, but also induced a decrease in the pain threshold. Alterations in pain processing were dependent on the arsenic dose and the length of exposure, and the underlying mechanism involved an increased release of local PGE{sub 2}. These results suggest that inorganic arsenic exposure enhances pain perception and exacerbates the pathological state of inflammatory diseases.

  17. Sequence of exposure to cadmium and arsenic determines the extent of toxic effects in male Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Hochadel, J F; Waalkes, M P

    1997-01-15

    Arsenic and cadmium are both priority hazardous substances and human carcinogens. Although there is the potential for simultaneous exposure to both metals, the interactions of cadmium and arsenic are not well defined. We examined the toxicity of these metals when given alone or in alternating sequence to adult male Fischer rats. In the first study, a non-toxic dose of arsenic (22.5 micromol NaAsO2/kg, s.c.) was given 24 h before cadmium (10, 20, or 30 micromol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) and toxicity was assessed 24 h later. Arsenic pretreatment markedly reduced mortality in rats given the high dose of cadmium (9 survivors/10 treated) compared to rats given cadmium alone (2/10). Arsenic pretreatment also reduced cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, as indicated by serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) activity, and markedly reduced cadmium-induced testicular hemorrhagic necrosis. Arsenic pretreatment produced an 8-fold increase in hepatic levels of metallothionein (MT), a metal-binding protein often associated with cadmium tolerance. In the second study, a non-toxic dose of cadmium (3 micromol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) was given 24 h before arsenic (68, 79, 84, or 90 micro/mol NaAsO2/kg. s.c.) and toxicity was assessed 24 h later. Cadmium pretreatment did not alter the lethality of the high dose of arsenic and had no effect on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Although cadmium pretreatment had no effect on arsenic toxicity, it produced large increases in hepatic MT (26-fold) before the arsenic challenge and greatly enhanced MT induction after the challenge. Thus, even though both arsenic and cadmium induce MT synthesis, only arsenic pretreatment protects against cadmium intoxication, and cadmium pretreatment does not effect arsenic toxicity. Thus, toxic interactions of arsenic and cadmium appear to depend on the sequence of exposure.

  18. Sequence of exposure to cadmium and arsenic determines the extent of toxic effects in male Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Hochadel, J F; Waalkes, M P

    1997-01-15

    Arsenic and cadmium are both priority hazardous substances and human carcinogens. Although there is the potential for simultaneous exposure to both metals, the interactions of cadmium and arsenic are not well defined. We examined the toxicity of these metals when given alone or in alternating sequence to adult male Fischer rats. In the first study, a non-toxic dose of arsenic (22.5 micromol NaAsO2/kg, s.c.) was given 24 h before cadmium (10, 20, or 30 micromol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) and toxicity was assessed 24 h later. Arsenic pretreatment markedly reduced mortality in rats given the high dose of cadmium (9 survivors/10 treated) compared to rats given cadmium alone (2/10). Arsenic pretreatment also reduced cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, as indicated by serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) activity, and markedly reduced cadmium-induced testicular hemorrhagic necrosis. Arsenic pretreatment produced an 8-fold increase in hepatic levels of metallothionein (MT), a metal-binding protein often associated with cadmium tolerance. In the second study, a non-toxic dose of cadmium (3 micromol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) was given 24 h before arsenic (68, 79, 84, or 90 micro/mol NaAsO2/kg. s.c.) and toxicity was assessed 24 h later. Cadmium pretreatment did not alter the lethality of the high dose of arsenic and had no effect on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Although cadmium pretreatment had no effect on arsenic toxicity, it produced large increases in hepatic MT (26-fold) before the arsenic challenge and greatly enhanced MT induction after the challenge. Thus, even though both arsenic and cadmium induce MT synthesis, only arsenic pretreatment protects against cadmium intoxication, and cadmium pretreatment does not effect arsenic toxicity. Thus, toxic interactions of arsenic and cadmium appear to depend on the sequence of exposure. PMID:9020510

  19. CONSEQUENCES OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a toxic chemical and may cause adverse health effects in children and adults. It is known to affect the nervous, gastrointestinal, and hematological systems and cause skin and internal cancers in people exposed to levels greater than 300 ppb in their drinking water. Fo...

  20. APPLICATION OF PROTEOMIC METHODS TO ARSENIC EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, is introduced to drinking water through the leaching of soil and the result of anthropogenic sources such as industrial effluents and combustion of fossil fuels. It also occurs naturally in ground water sources in some geographic areas. Chro...

  1. Dose-Responsive Gene Expression Changes in Juvenile and Adult Mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus) After Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Horacio O.; Hu, Jianjun; Gaworecki, Kristen M.; Roling, Jonathan A.; Baldwin, William S.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Bain, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated arsenic's effects on mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus), while also examining what role that gender or exposure age might play. Adult male and female mummichogs were exposed to 172ppb, 575ppb, or 1,720ppb arsenic as sodium arsenite for 10 days immediately prior to spawning. No differences were noted in the number or viability of eggs between the groups, but there was a significant increase in deformities in 1,720ppb arsenic exposure group. Total RNA from adult livers or 6-week old juveniles was used to probe custom macroarrays for changes in gene expression. In females, 3% of the genes were commonly differentially expressed in the 172 and 575ppb exposure groups compared to controls. In the males, between 1.1-3% of the differentially expressed genes were in common between the exposure groups. Several genes, including apolipoprotein and serum amyloid precursor were commonly expressed in either a dose-responsive manner or were dose-specific, but consistent across genders. These patterns of regulation were confirmed by QPCR. These findings will provide us with a better understanding of the effects of dose, gender, and exposure age on the response to arsenic. PMID:20451245

  2. Association between In Utero arsenic exposure, placental gene expression, and infant birth weight: a US birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies and animal models suggest that in utero arsenic exposure affects fetal health, with a negative association between maternal arsenic ingestion and infant birth weight often observed. However, the molecular mechanisms for this association remain elusive. In the present study, we aimed to increase our understanding of the impact of low-dose arsenic exposure on fetal health by identifying possible arsenic-associated fetal tissue biomarkers in a cohort of pregnant women exposed to arsenic at low levels. Methods Arsenic concentrations were determined from the urine samples of a cohort of 133 pregnant women from New Hampshire. Placental tissue samples collected from enrollees were homogenized and profiled for gene expression across a panel of candidate genes, including known arsenic regulated targets and genes involved in arsenic transport, metabolism, or disease susceptibility. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to examine the relationship of candidate gene expression with arsenic exposure or with birth weight of the baby. Results Placental expression of the arsenic transporter AQP9 was positively associated with maternal urinary arsenic levels during pregnancy (coefficient estimate: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.05 – 0.45). Placental expression of AQP9 related to expression of the phospholipase ENPP2 which was positively associated with infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09 – 0.47). A structural equation model indicated that these genes may mediate arsenic’s effect on infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: -0.009; 95% confidence interval: -0.032 – -0.001; 10,000 replications for bootstrapping). Conclusions We identified the expression of AQP9 as a potential fetal biomarker for arsenic exposure. Further, we identified a positive association between the placental expression of phospholipase ENPP2 and infant birth weight. These findings suggest a path by which arsenic may affect

  3. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma: report of a case involving environmental arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M H; Chien, R N; Hsieh, S Y; Hung, C F; Chen, T C; Sheen, I S

    1998-12-01

    Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor with a rapidly fatal course. It has become a subject of interest because of its intimate relationship with environmental carcinogens, such as thorium dioxide (Thorotrast), vinyl chloride monomer, and arsenic. We describe a case of a chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carrier, with a 20-year history of environmental exposure to arsenical-containing agricultural herbicides and bactericides, who developed a hepatic angiosarcoma. He died due to rupture of the hepatic angiosarcoma with acute hemoperitoneum 9 weeks after initial diagnosis. This is a rare case of primary hepatic sarcoma, especially in Taiwan where hepatocellular carcinoma is endemic. This case not only serves to give more evidence of the relationship between hepatic angiosarcoma and arsenical exposure, but also demonstrates the key point in the differential diagnosis of liver tumors. Increased familiarity with this disease will facilitate correct diagnosis and help to improve management of the condition in the future.

  4. Serum metabolomics reveals that arsenic exposure disrupted lipid and amino acid metabolism in rats: a step forward in understanding chronic arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Mu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Qingyu; Alamdar, Ambreen; Tian, Meiping; Liu, Liangpo; Shen, Heqing

    2015-03-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water threatens public health worldwide. Although its multiorgan toxicity has been reported, the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on the metabolic network remains obscure. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5, 2 or 10 ppm sodium arsenite for three months. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach was utilized to unveil the global metabolic response to chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Distinct serum metabolome profiles were found to be associated with the doses. Eighteen differential metabolites were identified, and most of them showed dose-dependent responses to arsenic exposure. Metabolic abnormalities mainly involved lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism. The metabolic alterations were further confirmed by hepatic gene expression. Expressions of cpt2, lcat, cact, crot and mtr were significantly elevated in high dose groups. This study provides novel evidence to support the association between arsenic exposure and metabolic disruption, and it contributes to understanding the mechanism of chronic arsenic toxicity.

  5. Serum metabolomics reveals that arsenic exposure disrupted lipid and amino acid metabolism in rats: a step forward in understanding chronic arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Mu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Qingyu; Alamdar, Ambreen; Tian, Meiping; Liu, Liangpo; Shen, Heqing

    2015-03-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water threatens public health worldwide. Although its multiorgan toxicity has been reported, the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on the metabolic network remains obscure. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5, 2 or 10 ppm sodium arsenite for three months. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach was utilized to unveil the global metabolic response to chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Distinct serum metabolome profiles were found to be associated with the doses. Eighteen differential metabolites were identified, and most of them showed dose-dependent responses to arsenic exposure. Metabolic abnormalities mainly involved lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism. The metabolic alterations were further confirmed by hepatic gene expression. Expressions of cpt2, lcat, cact, crot and mtr were significantly elevated in high dose groups. This study provides novel evidence to support the association between arsenic exposure and metabolic disruption, and it contributes to understanding the mechanism of chronic arsenic toxicity. PMID:25697676

  6. Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Pregnancy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Jiang, Jieying; Liu, Mengling; Baker, Emily; Korrick, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inorganic arsenic exposure has been related to the risk of increased blood pressure based largely on cross-sectional studies conducted in highly exposed populations. Pregnancy is a period of particular vulnerability to environmental insults. However, little is known about the cardiovascular impacts of arsenic exposure during pregnancy. Objectives We evaluated the association between prenatal arsenic exposure and maternal blood pressure over the course of pregnancy in a U.S. population. Methods The New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study in which > 10% of participant household wells exceed the arsenic maximum contaminant level of 10 μg/L established by the U.S. EPA. Total urinary arsenic measured at 24–28 weeks gestation was measured and used as a biomarker of exposure during pregnancy in 514 pregnant women, 18–45 years of age, who used a private well in their household. Outcomes were repeated blood pressure measurements (systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure) recorded during pregnancy. Results Using linear mixed effects models, we estimated that, on average, each 5-μg/L increase in urinary arsenic was associated with a 0.15-mmHg (95% CI: 0.02, 0.29; p = 0.022) increase in systolic blood pressure per month and a 0.14-mmHg (95% CI: 0.02, 0.25; p = 0.021) increase in pulse pressure per month over the course of pregnancy. Conclusions In our U.S. cohort of pregnant women, arsenic exposure was associated with greater increases in blood pressure over the course of pregnancy. These findings may have important implications because even modest increases in blood pressure impact cardiovascular disease risk. Citation Farzan SF, Chen Y, Wu F, Jiang J, Liu M, Baker E, Korrick SA, Karagas MR. 2015. Blood pressure changes in relation to arsenic exposure in a U.S. pregnancy cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:999–1006; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408472 PMID:25793356

  7. Drinking-Water Arsenic Exposure Modulates Gene Expression in Human Lymphocytes from a U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Angeline S.; Jewell, David A.; Mason, Rebecca A.; Whitfield, Michael L.; Moore, Jason H.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure impairs development and can lead to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The mechanism underlying these effects remains unknown. Primarily because of geologic sources of contamination, drinking-water arsenic levels are above the current recommended maximum contaminant level of 10 μg/L in the northeastern, western, and north central regions of the United States. Objectives We investigated the effects of arsenic exposure, defined by internal biomarkers at levels relevant to the United States and similarly exposed populations, on gene expression. Methods We conducted separate Affymetrix microarray-based genomewide analyses of expression patterns. Peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from 21 controls interviewed (1999–2002) as part of a case–control study in New Hampshire were selected based on high- versus low-level arsenic exposure levels. Results The biologic functions of the transcripts that showed statistically significant abundance differences between high- and low-arsenic exposure groups included an overrepresentation of genes involved in defense response, immune function, cell growth, apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle, T-cell receptor signaling pathway, and diabetes. Notably, the high-arsenic exposure group exhibited higher levels of several killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors that inhibit natural killer cell activity. Conclusions These findings define biologic changes that occur with chronic arsenic exposure in humans and provide leads and potential targets for understanding and monitoring the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced diseases. PMID:18414638

  8. Genetic identification of arsenate reductase and arsenite oxidase in redox transformations carried out by arsenic metabolising prokaryotes - A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nisha; Jagadevan, Sheeja

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in water is a cause of major concern to human population worldwide, especially in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are the two common forms in which arsenic exists in soil and groundwater, the former being more mobile and toxic. A large number of arsenic metabolising microorganisms play a crucial role in microbial transformation of arsenic between its different states, thus playing a key role in remediation of arsenic contaminated water. This review focuses on advances in biochemical, molecular and genomic developments in the field of arsenic metabolising bacteria - covering recent developments in the understanding of structure of arsenate reductase and arsenite oxidase enzymes, their gene and operon structures and their mechanism of action. The genetic and molecular studies of these microbes and their proteins may lead to evolution of successful strategies for effective implementation of bioremediation programs. PMID:27565307

  9. Genetic identification of arsenate reductase and arsenite oxidase in redox transformations carried out by arsenic metabolising prokaryotes - A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nisha; Jagadevan, Sheeja

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in water is a cause of major concern to human population worldwide, especially in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are the two common forms in which arsenic exists in soil and groundwater, the former being more mobile and toxic. A large number of arsenic metabolising microorganisms play a crucial role in microbial transformation of arsenic between its different states, thus playing a key role in remediation of arsenic contaminated water. This review focuses on advances in biochemical, molecular and genomic developments in the field of arsenic metabolising bacteria - covering recent developments in the understanding of structure of arsenate reductase and arsenite oxidase enzymes, their gene and operon structures and their mechanism of action. The genetic and molecular studies of these microbes and their proteins may lead to evolution of successful strategies for effective implementation of bioremediation programs.

  10. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic.

  11. Subacute arsenic exposure through drinking water reduces the pharmacodynamic effects of ketoprofen in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Wasif; Prawez, Shahid; Chanderashekara, H H; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Sankar, Palanisamy; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the modulatory role of the groundwater contaminant arsenic on the pharmacodynamic responses of the nonsteroidal analgesic-antipyretic drug ketoprofen and the major pro-inflammatory mediators linked to the mechanism of ketoprofen's therapeutic effects. Rats were pre-exposed to sodium arsenite (0.4, 4 and 40 ppm) through drinking water for 28 days. The pharmacological effects of orally administered ketoprofen (5 mg/kg) were evaluated the following day. Pain, inflammation and pyretic responses were, respectively, assessed through formalin-induced nociception, carrageenan-induced inflammation and lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia. Arsenic inhibited ketoprofen's analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. Further, arsenic enhanced cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 activities and tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and prostaglandin-E(2) production in hind paw muscle. These results suggest a functional antagonism of ketoprofen by arsenic. This may relate to arsenic-mediated local release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, which causes cyclooxygenase induction and consequent prostaglandin-E(2) release. In conclusion, subacute exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic through drinking water may aggravate pain, inflammation and pyrexia and thereby, may reduce the therapeutic efficacy of ketoprofen.

  12. Association between arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant and urinary arsenic concentrations in Prievidza District, Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Ranft, Ulrich; Miskovic, Peter; Pesch, Beate; Jakubis, Pavel; Fabianova, Elenora; Keegan, Tom; Hergemöller, Andre; Jakubis, Marian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To assess the arsenic exposure of a population living in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high arsenic emission in the Prievidza District, Slovakia, 548 spot urine samples were speciated for inorganic As (Asinorg), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and their sum (Assum). The urine samples were collected from the population of a case-control study on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). A total of 411 samples with complete As speciations and sufficient urine quality and without fish consumption were used for statistical analysis. Although current environmental As exposure and urinary As concentrations were low (median As in soil within 5 km distance to the power plant, 41 micro g/g; median urinary Assum, 5.8 microg/L), there was a significant but weak association between As in soil and urinary Assum(r = 0.21, p < 0.01). We performed a multivariate regression analysis to calculate adjusted regression coefficients for environmental As exposure and other determinants of urinary As. Persons living in the vicinity of the plant had 27% higher Assum values (p < 0.01), based on elevated concentrations of the methylated species. A 32% increase of MMA occurred among subjects who consumed homegrown food (p < 0.001). NMSC cases had significantly higher levels of Assum, DMA, and Asinorg. The methylation index Asinorg/(MMA + DMA) was about 20% lower among cases (p < 0.05) and in men (p < 0.05) compared with controls and females, respectively. PMID:12782488

  13. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Tyler R; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend<0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04-1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15-1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19-1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27-1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (-10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80-1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by >47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94-1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10-1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and >41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. PMID:24486435

  14. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Tyler R; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend<0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04-1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15-1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19-1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27-1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (-10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80-1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by >47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94-1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10-1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and >41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As.

  15. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and urothelial carcinoma risk in low arsenic exposure area

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.-J.; Huang, C.-J.; Pu, Y.-S.; Su, C.-T.; Huang, Y.-K.; Chen, Y.-T.; Hsueh, Y.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen and is known to cause oxidative stress in cultured cells and animals. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the levels of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the arsenic profile, and urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urinary 8-OHdG was measured by using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The urinary species of inorganic arsenic and their metabolites were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). This study showed that the mean urinary concentration of total arsenics was significantly higher, at 37.67 {+-} 2.98 {mu}g/g creatinine, for UC patients than for healthy controls of 21.10 {+-} 0.79 {mu}g/g creatinine (p < 0.01). Urinary 8-OHdG levels correlated with urinary total arsenic concentrations (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). There were significantly higher 8-OHdG levels, of 7.48 {+-} 0.97 ng/mg creatinine in UC patients, compared to healthy controls of 5.95 {+-} 0.21 ng/mg creatinine. Furthermore, female UC patients had higher 8-OHdG levels of 9.22 {+-} 0.75 than those of males at 5.76 {+-} 0.25 ng/mg creatinine (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that high urinary 8-OHdG levels were associated with increased total arsenic concentrations, inorganic arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsenate (DMA) as well as the primary methylation index (PMI) even after adjusting for age, gender, and UC status. The results suggest that oxidative DNA damage was associated with arsenic exposure, even at low urinary level of arsenic.

  16. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Brender, Jean D. . E-mail: jdbrender@aol.com; Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Gilani, Zunera; Stinchcomb, David; Moody, Karen; Henry, Judy; Hendricks, Katherine

    2006-05-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are neurotoxins, and some studies suggest that these elements might also be teratogens. Using a case-control study design, we investigated the relation between exposure to these heavy metals and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring of Mexican-American women living in 1 of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. A total of 184 case-women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 225 control-women with normal live births were interviewed about their environmental and occupational exposures during the periconceptional period. Biologic samples for blood lead and urinary arsenic, cadmium, and mercury were also obtained for a subset of these women. Overall, the median levels of these biomarkers for heavy metal exposure did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between case- and control-women. However, among women in the highest income group, case-women were nine times more likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-57) than control-women to have a urinary mercury >=5.62{mu}g/L. Case-women were 4.2 times more likely (95% CI 1.1-16) to report burning treated wood during the periconceptional period than control-women. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for maternal and paternal occupational exposures to arsenic and mercury, but the 95% CIs were consistent with unity. The 95% CIs of the ORs were also consistent with unity for higher levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in drinking water and among women who lived within 2 miles at the time of conception to industrial facilities with reported emissions of any of these heavy metals. Our findings suggest that maternal exposures to arsenic, cadmium, or lead are probably not significant risk factors for NTDs in offspring. However, the elevated urinary mercury levels found in this population and exposures to the combustion of treated wood may warrant further investigation.

  17. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    PubMed

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-01

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among > or = 15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  18. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    SciTech Connect

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  19. Simultaneous exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury from Indian ethnic remedies.

    PubMed

    Sheerin, N S; Monk, P N; Aslam, M; Thurston, H

    1994-01-01

    We report the case of an Asian woman who was exposed to toxic levels of lead, arsenic and mercury through the use of Indian ethnic remedies, and who suffered symptomatic lead poisoning. We know of no other case of exposure to such a combination of heavy metals from this source. We believe that control of the dispensing of these compounds is essential.

  20. LACK OF DNA SINGLE STRAND BREAKS IN A LUNG EPITHELIAL CELL LINE AFTER EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (As) is a carcinogen whose most important target organs include the skin and lungs. Exposure can occur via water ingestion, or inhalation, as As is a by-product of fossil fuel combustion and other industrial activities. The carcinogenic mechanism of action for As remains ...

  1. Soil-Root Processes Responsible for Arsenic Uptake in Rice: A Route of Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is causing the largest mass poisoning in history, but we are only beginning to understand the extent of human exposure through contaminated food. Although second to drinking water in terms of human exposure, the consumption of As-laden food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily As exposure especially for populations already exposed through drinking water. Arsenic contamination of soils and groundwater is widespread In South and Southeast Asia, which is also one of the largest rice-growing regions of the world. As the demand for food has increased, so too has the use of irrigation practices to meet food demand, and much of this is via water contaminated with arsenic. In order to accurately predict human exposure to arsenic through rice consumption, we must first understand the processes that affect As dynamics in the rhizosphere and thus uptake by rice. Here, we examine As cycling in the rhizosphere, As distribution on and uptake by rice roots, the influence of Fe dynamics on As uptake, and mitigation strategies to reduce concentrations of As in rice grains.

  2. ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Richard Kwok1, Pauline Mendola1 Zhixiong Ning2, Zhiyi Liu2 and Judy Mumford1

    1) Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA, R...

  3. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS

    Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Pauline Mendola, Ph.D. Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency; Yajua...

  4. PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN RELATION TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN BAMEN, INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes in Relation to Drinking Water Arsenic Exposure in BaMen, Inner Mongolia, China
    Danelle T. Lobdell, Zhixiong Ning, Richard K. Kwok, Judy Mumford, Zhi Yi Liu, Pauline Mendola

    Introduction: Close to 40 million people worldwide are exposed t...

  5. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND MINING COMMUNITIES FROM NHEXAS ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the context of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), metals were evaluated in the air, soil, dust, water, food, beverages, and urine of a single respondent. Potential doses were calculated for five metals including arsenic. In this paper, we seek to val...

  6. Effects of microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial community on arsenic mobility in arsenic-rich deep aquifer sediments.

    PubMed

    Das, Suvendu; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Elevated concentration of arsenic (As) prevailed in deep aquifers of Chianan Plain, Taiwan. Arsenic release in relation to microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial communities in deep aquifer sediments of Budai, southwestern Taiwan were investigated using microcosm experiments and substrate amendments over 90 days of anaerobic incubation. The results revealed that As reduction was independent of Fe reduction and a modest rate of sedimentary As release into aqueous phase occurred at the expense of the native organic carbon. Addition of lactate resulted in a parallel increase in As(III) (3.7-fold), Fe(II) (6.2-fold) and Mn (3.5 fold) in aqueous phase compared to un-amended slurries and the enrichment of sequences related to mostly Bacillus, Flavisolibacter, and Geobacter spp, suggesting the important role of these bacteria in As enrichment through reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe and Mn minerals. The increase in phosphate-extractable As in solid phase with concomitant rise in As in aqueous phase over the course of incubation further attested to the importance of reductive dissolution in promoting As release. Furthermore, the increase in arrA gene abundance with addition of labile carbon suggests that dissimilatory As reduction also may contribute to As enrichment in the water of the deep aquifer of Budai.

  7. Transformation of arsenic in the presence of cow dung and arsenic sludge disposal and management strategy in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Jalil, Md. Abdul; Ali, M. Ashraf

    2014-10-01

    With increasing use of arsenic (As) removal units for treatment of As-contaminated groundwater in rural Bangladesh, concerns have been raised regarding safe disposal of the As-rich wastes from such units and possible contamination of the environment. In the absence of any clear guideline for safe disposal of wastes generated from As removal units, the wastes are usually disposed of in the open environment, often on cow dung beds in the backyard. Short term (up to 6 weeks) batch experiments performed in this study suggest that bio-chemical (e.g., bio-methylation) processes in the presence of only fresh cow dung may lead to a significant removal of As, both from aqueous solution and As-rich treatment wastes. Arsenic removal appears to increase with decreasing As to cow dung weight ratio. This study also suggests that arsenate transforms to arsenite before removal from aqueous As solution in the presence of cow dung. In most cases majority of As removal takes place during first few days. Removal of As under cap-open (to facilitate aerobic condition) and cap-closed conditions (to facilitate aerobic condition) were found to be similar. No significant variation was observed in the removal As from aqueous solution and from treatment wastes (As bound to iron solids). This study concludes that disposal of As-rich treatment wastes to cow dung pits could be an effective option of As sludge disposal and management in rural areas of Bangladesh.

  8. Effects of microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial community on arsenic mobility in arsenic-rich deep aquifer sediments.

    PubMed

    Das, Suvendu; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Elevated concentration of arsenic (As) prevailed in deep aquifers of Chianan Plain, Taiwan. Arsenic release in relation to microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial communities in deep aquifer sediments of Budai, southwestern Taiwan were investigated using microcosm experiments and substrate amendments over 90 days of anaerobic incubation. The results revealed that As reduction was independent of Fe reduction and a modest rate of sedimentary As release into aqueous phase occurred at the expense of the native organic carbon. Addition of lactate resulted in a parallel increase in As(III) (3.7-fold), Fe(II) (6.2-fold) and Mn (3.5 fold) in aqueous phase compared to un-amended slurries and the enrichment of sequences related to mostly Bacillus, Flavisolibacter, and Geobacter spp, suggesting the important role of these bacteria in As enrichment through reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe and Mn minerals. The increase in phosphate-extractable As in solid phase with concomitant rise in As in aqueous phase over the course of incubation further attested to the importance of reductive dissolution in promoting As release. Furthermore, the increase in arrA gene abundance with addition of labile carbon suggests that dissimilatory As reduction also may contribute to As enrichment in the water of the deep aquifer of Budai. PMID:26897570

  9. Arsenic Mobilization Is Enhanced by Thermal Transformation of Schwertmannite.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Scott G; Burton, Edward D; Moon, Ellen M

    2016-08-01

    Fires in iron-rich seasonal wetlands can thermally transform Fe(III) minerals and alter their crystallinity. However, the fate of As associated with thermally transformed Fe(III) minerals is unclear, as are the consequences for As mobilization during subsequent reflooding and reductive cycles. Here, we subject As(V)-coprecipitated schwertmannite to thermal transformation (200, 400, 600 and 800 °C) followed by biotic reductive incubation (150 d) and examine aqueous- and solid-phase speciation of As, Fe and S. Heating to >400 °C caused transformation of schwertmannite to a nanocrystalline hematite with greater surface area and smaller particle size. Higher temperatures also caused the initially structurally incorporated As to become progressively more exchangeable, increasing surface-complexed As (AsEx) by up to 60-fold, thereby triggering enhanced As mobilization during incubation (∼70-fold in the 800 °C treatment). Although more As was mobilized in biotic treatments than controls (∼3-20×), in both cases it was directly proportional to initial AsEx and mainly due to abiotic desorption. Higher transformation temperatures also drove divergent pathways of Fe and S biomineralization and led to more As(V) and SO4 reduction relative to Fe(III) reduction. This study reveals thermal transformation of schwertmannite can greatly increase As mobility and has major consequences for As/Fe/S speciation under reducing conditions. Further research is warranted to unravel the wider implications for water quality in natural wetlands.

  10. Arsenic Mobilization Is Enhanced by Thermal Transformation of Schwertmannite.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Scott G; Burton, Edward D; Moon, Ellen M

    2016-08-01

    Fires in iron-rich seasonal wetlands can thermally transform Fe(III) minerals and alter their crystallinity. However, the fate of As associated with thermally transformed Fe(III) minerals is unclear, as are the consequences for As mobilization during subsequent reflooding and reductive cycles. Here, we subject As(V)-coprecipitated schwertmannite to thermal transformation (200, 400, 600 and 800 °C) followed by biotic reductive incubation (150 d) and examine aqueous- and solid-phase speciation of As, Fe and S. Heating to >400 °C caused transformation of schwertmannite to a nanocrystalline hematite with greater surface area and smaller particle size. Higher temperatures also caused the initially structurally incorporated As to become progressively more exchangeable, increasing surface-complexed As (AsEx) by up to 60-fold, thereby triggering enhanced As mobilization during incubation (∼70-fold in the 800 °C treatment). Although more As was mobilized in biotic treatments than controls (∼3-20×), in both cases it was directly proportional to initial AsEx and mainly due to abiotic desorption. Higher transformation temperatures also drove divergent pathways of Fe and S biomineralization and led to more As(V) and SO4 reduction relative to Fe(III) reduction. This study reveals thermal transformation of schwertmannite can greatly increase As mobility and has major consequences for As/Fe/S speciation under reducing conditions. Further research is warranted to unravel the wider implications for water quality in natural wetlands. PMID:27403840

  11. Arsenic and ultraviolet radiation exposure: melanoma in a New Mexico non-Hispanic white population.

    PubMed

    Yager, Janice W; Erdei, Esther; Myers, Orrin; Siegel, Malcolm; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-06-01

    Cases of cutaneous melanoma and controls were enrolled in a New Mexico population-based study; subjects were administered questionnaires concerning ultraviolet (UV) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure. Historical iAs exposure was estimated. UV exposure estimates were also derived using geospatial methods. Drinking water samples were collected for iAs analysis. Blood samples were collected for DNA repair (Comet) and DNA repair gene polymorphism assays. Arsenic concentrations were determined in urine and toenail samples. UV exposures during the previous 90 days did not vary significantly between cases and controls. Mean (±SD) current home iAs drinking water was not significantly different for cases and controls [3.98 μg/L (±3.67) vs. 3.47 μg/L (±2.40)]. iAs exposure showed no effect on DNA repair or association with melanoma. Results did not corroborate a previously reported association between toenail As and melanoma risk. Arsenic biomarkers in urine and toenail were highly significantly correlated with iAs in drinking water. A UV-DNA repair interaction for UV exposure over the previous 7-90 days was shown; cases had higher DNA damage than controls at low UV values. This novel finding suggests that melanoma cases may be more sensitive to low-level UV exposure than are controls. A UV-APEX1 interaction was shown. Subjects with the homozygous rare APEX1 DNA repair gene allele had a higher risk of early melanoma diagnosis at low UV exposure compared with those with the homozygous wild type or the heterozygote. Notably, a UV-arsenic interaction on inhibition of DNA repair was not observed at iAs drinking water concentrations below 10 ppb (μg/L).

  12. Human exposure to arsenic through foodstuffs cultivated using arsenic contaminated groundwater in areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Alok C; Kar, Sandeep; Bhattacharya, Piyal; Santra, Subhas C

    2011-01-01

    The widespread incidence of chronic arsenicosis in the Bengal Delta has led to intensive research on arsenic (As) enrichment in groundwater as well as accumulation in foodstuffs, as there are potential health risks associated with exposure to As from both sources. This study deals with human As exposure through the drinking of groundwater, consumption of locally grown foodstuffs (e.g., crops and vegetables) and cooked food in Nadia district, West Bengal. Groundwater and foodstuffs were collected and analyzed with FI-HG-AAS to estimate the total As content. Urine samples collected from human subjects were analyzed to assess the As exposure. Two major crops, boro and aman rice, showed a considerable amount of As, with mean values of 194 and 156 μg kg(-1), respectively. Significant levels of As were also found in other common crops and vegetables cultivated in this area (for example, the mean As in Arum and radish was 780 and 674 μg kg(-1), respectively). Total intake of As from foodstuffs by adults (560 μg day(-1)) and children (393 μg day(-1)) in the area was found to be at alarming levels. Arsenic exposure was demonstrated by the presence of As in urine (ranging between 154 and 276 μg L(-1)), with overall As retention of 50-60 %. The results of this study further indicate the potential risk of As exposure to local inhabitants through the food chain which is associated with continuous consumption of As-contaminated foodstuffs. Therefore, more action needs to be taken to control the contamination pathways (such as the water-soil-crop system) to protect humans from continuous ingestion of As through foodstuffs.

  13. Human exposure to arsenic through foodstuffs cultivated using arsenic contaminated groundwater in areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Alok C; Kar, Sandeep; Bhattacharya, Piyal; Santra, Subhas C

    2011-01-01

    The widespread incidence of chronic arsenicosis in the Bengal Delta has led to intensive research on arsenic (As) enrichment in groundwater as well as accumulation in foodstuffs, as there are potential health risks associated with exposure to As from both sources. This study deals with human As exposure through the drinking of groundwater, consumption of locally grown foodstuffs (e.g., crops and vegetables) and cooked food in Nadia district, West Bengal. Groundwater and foodstuffs were collected and analyzed with FI-HG-AAS to estimate the total As content. Urine samples collected from human subjects were analyzed to assess the As exposure. Two major crops, boro and aman rice, showed a considerable amount of As, with mean values of 194 and 156 μg kg(-1), respectively. Significant levels of As were also found in other common crops and vegetables cultivated in this area (for example, the mean As in Arum and radish was 780 and 674 μg kg(-1), respectively). Total intake of As from foodstuffs by adults (560 μg day(-1)) and children (393 μg day(-1)) in the area was found to be at alarming levels. Arsenic exposure was demonstrated by the presence of As in urine (ranging between 154 and 276 μg L(-1)), with overall As retention of 50-60 %. The results of this study further indicate the potential risk of As exposure to local inhabitants through the food chain which is associated with continuous consumption of As-contaminated foodstuffs. Therefore, more action needs to be taken to control the contamination pathways (such as the water-soil-crop system) to protect humans from continuous ingestion of As through foodstuffs. PMID:21879858

  14. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents. PMID:27431456

  15. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents.

  16. Evidence for induction of oxidative stress caused by chronic exposure of Chinese residents to arsenic contained in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Jingbo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Yoshito; Sun, Guifan; Yoshida, Takahiko; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Hopenhayn-Rich, Claudia; Shimojo, Nobuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of experimental animals or cultured cells to arsenic induces oxidative stress, but, to date, no examination of this phenomenon in humans has been reported. In this study we conducted a cross-sectional study in Wuyuan, Inner Mongolia, China, to explore the relationship between chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water and oxidative stress in humans. Thirty-three inhabitants who had been drinking tube-well water with high concentrations of inorganic arsenic (mean value = 0.41 mg/L) for about 18 years constituted the high-exposure group, and 10 residents who lived nearby but were exposed to much lower concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water (mean value = 0.02 mg/L) were selected as the low-exposure comparison group. Results of the present study indicated that although the activity for superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood did not differ significantly between the two groups, the mean serum level of lipid peroxides (LPO) was significantly higher among the high-exposed compared with the low-exposed group. Elevated serum LPO concentrations were correlated with blood levels of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. In addition, they showed an inverse correlation with nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels in whole blood. The subjects in the high-arsenic-exposure group had mean blood NPSH levels 57.6% lower than those in the low-exposure group. Blood NPSH levels were inversely correlated with the concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in blood and with the ratio of monomethylarsenic to inorganic arsenic. These results provide evidence that chronic exposure to arsenic from drinking water in humans results in induction of oxidative stress, as indicated by the reduction in NPSH and the increase in LPO. Some possible mechanisms for the arsenic-induced oxidative stress are discussed. PMID:11940449

  17. Prenatal arsenic exposure alters the programming of the glucocorticoid signaling system during embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Katharine E.; Labrecque, Matthew T.; Solomon, Benjamin R.; Ali, Abdulmehdi; Allan, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    The glucocorticoid system, which plays a critical role in a host of cellular functions including mood disorders and learning and memory, has been reported to be disrupted by arsenic. In previous work we have developed and characterized a prenatal moderate arsenic exposure (50 ppb) model and identified several deficits in learning and memory and mood disorders, as well as alterations within the glucocorticoid receptor signaling system in the adolescent mouse. In these present studies we assessed the effects of arsenic on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) pathway in both the placenta and the fetal brain in response at two critical periods, embryonic days 14 and 18. The focus of these studies was on the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2) which play a key role in glucorticoid synthesis, as well as the expression and set point of the GR negative feedback regulation. Negative feedback regulation is established early in development. At E14 we found arsenic exposure significantly decreased expression of both protein and message in brain of GR and the 11β-HSD1, while 11β-HSD2 enzyme protein levels were increased but mRNA levels were decreased in the brain. These changes in brain protein continued into the E18 time point, but mRNA levels were no longer significantly altered. Placental HSD11B2 mRNA was not altered by arsenic treatment but protein levels were elevated at E14. GR placental protein levels were decreased at E18 in the arsenic exposed condition. This suggests that arsenic exposure may alter GR expression levels as a consequence of a prolonged developmental imbalance between 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 protein expression despite decreased 11HSDB2 mRNA. The suppression of GR and the failure to turn down 11β-HSD2 protein expression during fetal development may lead to an altered set point for GR signaling throughout adulthood. To our knowledge, these studies are the first to demonstrate that gestational exposure to moderate levels of

  18. Low-level environmental arsenic exposure correlates with unexplained male infertility risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Weipan; Huang, Qingyu; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Xia, Yankai; Zhang, Weibing; Shen, Heqing

    2016-11-15

    Humans are exposed to arsenic via drinking water, dietary intake and inhaled particulates. Endemic chronic arsenic exposure related reproductive toxicity is well documented, but the effect of low-level general environmental arsenic exposure on unexplained male infertility (UMI) remains unclear. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between non-geogenic environmental arsenic exposure and UMI risk. One hundred and one infertile men with normal semen as cases and sixty one fertile men as controls were recruited. Five urinary arsenic species: pentavalent arsenate (Asi(V)), trivalent arsenite (Asi(III)), methylated to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), arsenobetaine (AsB) were quantitatively measured by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). To assess the semen quality, semen volume, sperm concentration, total motility, and progressive motility were measured. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences of arsenic species and index between the case and the control group; we observed that concentrations of Asi(V), AsB, MMA(V), DMA(V), total inorganic As and total As were significantly higher in the cases than the controls. The urine Asi(V) level increased more than twenty folds in case group. Moreover, higher redox index (Asi(V)/Asi(III)) and lower primary arsenic methylation index (PMI=MMA(V)/Asi) were observed for case group. Furthermore, through the logistic regression analysis, we observed that the urine Asi(V) level and PMI were most significantly associated with UMI risk among the observations. Specifically, in comparison to the first quartile, the subjects with higher Asi(V) levels were more likely to exhibit UMI with increasing adjusted odds ratios (AORs) (adjusted by age, body mass index, drinking status and smoking status) of 8.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.59-27.17], 13.12 (95% CI, 3.44-50.12) and 36.51 (95% CI, 8

  19. Association between Lifetime Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water and Coronary Heart Disease in Colorado Residents

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Tim; Hokanson, John E.; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Zerbe, Gary O.; Marshall, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease (CHD), have been associated with ingestion of drinking water with high levels of inorganic arsenic (> 1,000 μg/L). However, associations have been inconclusive in populations with lower levels (< 100 μg/L) of inorganic arsenic exposure. Objectives: We conducted a case-cohort study based on individual estimates of lifetime arsenic exposure to examine the relationship between chronic low-level arsenic exposure and risk of CHD. Methods: This study included 555 participants with 96 CHD events diagnosed between 1984 and 1998 for which individual lifetime arsenic exposure estimates were determined using data from structured interviews and secondary data sources to determine lifetime residence, which was linked to a geospatial model of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. These lifetime arsenic exposure estimates were correlated with historically collected urinary arsenic concentrations. A Cox proportional-hazards model with time-dependent CHD risk factors was used to assess the association between time-weighted average (TWA) lifetime exposure to low-level inorganic arsenic in drinking water and incident CHD. Results: We estimated a positive association between low-level inorganic arsenic exposure and CHD risk [hazard ratio (HR): = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.78] per 15 μg/L while adjusting for age, sex, first-degree family history of CHD, and serum low-density lipoprotein levels. The risk of CHD increased monotonically with increasing TWAs for inorganic arsenic exposure in water relative to < 20 μg/L (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.6, 2.2 for 20–30 μg/L; HR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.0 for 30–45 μg/L; and HR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.1 for 45–88 μg/L). Conclusions: Lifetime exposure to low-level inorganic arsenic in drinking water was associated with increased risk for CHD in this population. Citation: James KA, Byers T, Hokanson JE, Meliker JR, Zerbe GO, Marshall JA. 2015. Association between lifetime exposure to

  20. Determination of arsenic in urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Dang, T M; Tran, Q T; Vu, K V

    1999-09-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method was successfully applied to analysis of urine for arsenic (As) as a measure of biological monitoring of occupational exposure to As in Vietnam. The application of the method to urine samples from 75 non-exposed control urbanites (after 2-day abstinence from sea foods) gave a reference level of 62.4 +/- 11.6 microg/l (as mean +/- S.D.), from which the upper limit of the normal value (74 microg/l as mean +/- 1 S.D.) and the acceptable limit (100 microg/l as mean +/- 3S.D.) were deduced. Further application to urine samples from 147 workers occupationally exposed to As in Bacthai Non-ferrous Metallurgic Corporation showed significantly elevated levels of As in urine, with mean +/- S.D. of 78.5 +/- 20.2 microg/l. Improvement of working conditions to reduce As exposure resulted in substantial reduction in the ratio of those with urinary As at the level in excess of the acceptable limit. The practical importance of total arsenic determination in urine after 2-day sea food abstinence is discussed in connection with current conditions in analytical laboratories in Vietnam.

  1. Crystal Chemical Company, arsenic exposure study, Houston, Texas, Region 6. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    A human exposure study was conducted to determine if adults or children living near an abandoned arsenic production site frequented the on-site or off-site contaminated areas, to measure recent exposure to arsenic through analysis of urine samples, and to determine if activity or time spent at the contaminated site was correlated with arsenic levels in urine. In the study the difference in urine arsenic levels by areas that residents frequented was not statistically significant; all group means by area frequented were less than 50 microg/g creatinine. Although the Crystal Chemical Company Superfund site is a potential health hazard to anyone going on-site or playing in the dirt or runoff adjacent to the site, results of the study did not indicate unusual exposure among residents in the nearest apartment complex, with the exception of three children. The survey also served as a means of alerting the residents to stay away from the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas.

  2. NEUROSENSORY EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: II. VIBROTACTILE AND VISUAL FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to assess the effects of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on visual and vibrotactile function in residents of the BaMen region of Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic was measured by hydride generation atomic fluorescence. 321 participants were divided in...

  3. Association between Hypertension and Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Drinking Water: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Khan, Ismail; Attia, John; Hassan, Sheikh Mohammad Nazmul; McEvoy, Mark; D’Este, Catherine; Azim, Syed; Akhter, Ayesha; Akter, Shahnaz; Shahidullah, Sheikh Mohammad; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure and its association with hypertension in adults are inconclusive and this cross-sectional study investigated the association. The study was conducted between January and July 2009 among 1,004 participants from 1,682 eligible women and men aged ≥30 years living in rural Bangladesh who had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (systolic hypertension) and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg (diastolic hypertension). Pulse pressure was calculated by deducting diastolic from systolic pressure and considered to be increased when the difference was ≥55 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.1–8.3%). After adjustment for other factors, no excess risk of hypertension was observed for arsenic exposure >50μg/L or to that of arsenic exposure as quartiles or as duration. Arsenic concentration as quartiles and >50 μg/L did show a strong relationship with increased pulse pressure (adjusted OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.46–8.57), as did arsenic exposure for ≥10 years (adjusted OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 1.41–19.51). Arsenic as quartiles showed a dose response relationship with increased pulse pressure. Our study suggests an association between higher drinking water arsenic or duration and pulse pressure, but not hypertension. PMID:23222207

  4. Elevated ERCC-1 Gene Expression in blood cells associated with exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Inner Mongolia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with human cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate arsenic effects on a DNA nucleotide excision repair gene, ERCC1, expression in human blood cells. Material and Methods: Water and toe nail samples were coll...

  5. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae--a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Rikke V; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens J

    2013-05-01

    The content of total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 16 dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae purchased on the Danish market. The dietary supplements originated from various regions, including Asia, Europe and USA. The contents of total and inorganic arsenic was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively, were in the range of 0.58 to 5.0 mgkg(-1) and 0.03 to 3.2 mg kg(-1), respectively, with a ratio between inorganic arsenic and total arsenic ranging between 5 and 100%. Consumption of the recommended dose of the individual dietary supplement would lead to an exposure to inorganic arsenic within the range of 0.07 to 13 μg day(-1). Such exposure from dietary supplements would in worst case constitute 62.4% of the range of benchmark dose lower confidence limit values (BMDL01 at 0.3 to 8 μg kg bw(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)) put down by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2009, for cancers of the lung, skin and bladder, as well as skin lesions. Hence, the results demonstrate that consumption of certain dietary supplements could contribute significantly to the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic at levels close to the toxicological limits established by EFSA.

  6. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae--a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Rikke V; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens J

    2013-05-01

    The content of total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 16 dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae purchased on the Danish market. The dietary supplements originated from various regions, including Asia, Europe and USA. The contents of total and inorganic arsenic was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively, were in the range of 0.58 to 5.0 mgkg(-1) and 0.03 to 3.2 mg kg(-1), respectively, with a ratio between inorganic arsenic and total arsenic ranging between 5 and 100%. Consumption of the recommended dose of the individual dietary supplement would lead to an exposure to inorganic arsenic within the range of 0.07 to 13 μg day(-1). Such exposure from dietary supplements would in worst case constitute 62.4% of the range of benchmark dose lower confidence limit values (BMDL01 at 0.3 to 8 μg kg bw(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)) put down by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2009, for cancers of the lung, skin and bladder, as well as skin lesions. Hence, the results demonstrate that consumption of certain dietary supplements could contribute significantly to the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic at levels close to the toxicological limits established by EFSA. PMID:23436171

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma and multiple Bowen's disease: incidental association or possible relationship to inorganic arsenic exposure?

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Y; Murakami, S; Ohtsuka, H; Miyauchi, S; Shinmori, H; Hashimoto, K

    1997-05-01

    An 81-year-old Japanese male was referred to our clinic in 1991 with multiple Bowen's disease. The associated hyperpigmentation of the trunk and extremities and palmoplantar keratotic nodules indicated that he had suffered from chronic arsenic poisoning. Interestingly, he was a native of Namikata in Ehime, Japan, where many residents have suffered from multiple Bowen's disease with internal malignancy. Arsenic exposure was strongly suspected. Two years later, Merkel cell carcinoma developed on the dorsum of his right hand, where Bowen's disease lesions were absent. Metastasis of this Merkel cell carcinoma led to his eventual death one year later. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Merkel cell carcinoma associated with multiple Bowen's disease. Chronic arsenic poisoning may be responsible for the association of these two rare skin neoplasms.

  8. Test of environmental exposure to arsenic and hearing changes in exposed children.

    PubMed

    Bencko, V; Symon, K

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic determination was carried out on hair, urine, and blood samples taken from groups of 10-year-old boys, each numbering 20 to 25 individuals, residing in a region polluted by arsenic. In all the examined materials considerably elevated concentrations of arsenic were found. The relation of the observed levels of arsenic to the distance of the place of residence up to a distance of more than 30 km from the source of the emissions was studied. On the basis of the results obtained, the most advantageous material for estimation of nonoccupational exposure to arsenic seems to be hair, in spite of some problems with the decontamination procedure involved. Considerable variability among individual arsenic values in the hair makes group examination a necessity. Hearing changes were analyzed in a group of 56 10-year old children residing near a power plant burning local coal of high arsenic content. The results of both audiometric and clinical examination were compared with those of control group numbering 51 children of the same age living outside the polluted area. The highly standardized audiometric and clinical examination were completed with a questionnaire analysis concerning the personal medical histories of the children. The obtained data were elaborated statistically by means of the chi(2)- test. In the case of air conduction, important hearing losses were found at frequencies of 125, 250 and 8000 Hz, especially at the lowest frequency range. Significant degrees of hearing loss were found in bone conduction as well as in the corresponding ranges of frequencies. The high statistical significance of the hearing impairments found points to very low probability of their being only an "accidental" finding. The possibility of toxic damage to the ear cannot yet be excluded.

  9. Effects of low-level arsenic exposure on the developmental toxicity of anilofos in rats.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Manoj; Wangikar, P B; Sarkar, S N; Rao, G S; Kumar, Dinesh; Dwivedi, P; Malik, J K

    2007-01-01

    In view of the increased use of anilofos for crop protection and ever increasing arsenic levels in drinking water in many countries, the coexistence of arsenic and anilofos in the environment is a reality and simultaneous exposure of humans and animals to these contaminants could be potentially hazardous. The aim of the present study was to examine whether coexposure to arsenic at the groundwater contamination level could alter the embryofetal toxicity of anilofos in rat model. Anilofos (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and sodium arsenite (1 mg arsenic kg(-1) day(-1)) were administered by gavage either individually or in combination to the pregnant rats from day 6 to day 15 of gestation. Arsenic did not produce any significant effects either on maternal or fetal parameters at the given dose. Anilofos alone significantly decreased maternal weight gain, feed and water intakes, gravid uterine weights, number of live fetuses and fetal body weights and increased resorptions. There were increased incidences of gross, skeletal and visceral anomalies in the fetuses of anilofos-treated group. The main skeletal abnormality was increased intercostal space, while the visceral anomaly was an interventricular septal defect. Treatment with the combination of arsenic and anilofos significantly enhanced the fetal changes with much greater magnitude compared with the effects produced by anilofos alone. Anomalies such as midfacial cleft, exencephaly and anophthalmia were seen only in the fetuses of the combination group. The results show that anilofos interferes with embryofetal development and coexposure with arsenic at environmentally realistic concentrations produces additive or synergistic effects on the developmental toxicity of anilofos in rats.

  10. Exposure to non‐arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    van Balen, E; Font, R; Cavallé, N; Font, L; Garcia‐Villanueva, M; Benavente, Y; Brennan, P; de Sanjose, S

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. Methods This is a multicentre case control study conducted in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in four hospitals between 1998–2002. Hospital controls were frequency matched to the cases by sex, age, and centre. All subjects were interviewed about jobs ever held in lifetime for at least one year and the exposures in those jobs were recorded. The risk of lymphomas among subjects ever having had a job as a farmer was compared with all other occupations. Farmers were analysed according to the type of farming job performed: crop farming, animal farming, and general farming. Occupational exposure was summarised into 15 main categories: organic dust, radiation, contact with animals, PAH, non‐arsenic pesticides (carbamates, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, triazines and triazoles, phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran), arsenic pesticides, contact with meat, contact with children, solvents, asbestos, soldering fumes, organic colourants, polychlorinated biphenyls, ethylene oxide, and hair dyes. Results Although farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, farmers exposed to non‐arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2). This increased risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.8). Risk was highest for exposure to non‐arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). Conclusions Long term exposure to non‐arsenic pesticides may induce lymphomagenesis among farmers. PMID:16757510

  11. Drinking water arsenic in northern Chile: high cancer risks 40 years after exposure cessation

    PubMed Central

    Steinmaus, Craig M.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Romo, Johanna Acevedo; Yuan, Yan; Cortes, Sandra; Marshall, Guillermo; Moore, Lee E.; Balmes, John R.; Liaw, Jane; Golden, Todd; Smith, Allan H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. In the largest city in northern Chile (Antofagasta) >250,000 people were exposed to high arsenic drinking water concentrations from 1958 until 1970 when a water treatment plant was installed. Because of its unique geology, limited water sources, and good historical records, lifetime exposure and long-term latency patterns can be assessed in this area with better accuracy than in other arsenic-exposed areas worldwide. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study in northern Chile from October 2007 to December 2010 involving 232 lung and 306 bladder cancer cases and 640 age- and gender-matched controls, with detailed information on past exposure and potential confounders, including smoking and occupation. Results Bladder cancer odds ratios for quartiles of average arsenic concentrations in water before 1971 (<11, 11–90, 91–335, and >335 µg/L) were 1.00, 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 2.37), 3.87 (2.25 to 6.64), and 6.50 (3.69 to 11.43), respectively. Corresponding lung cancer odds ratios were 1.00, 1.27 (0.81 to 1.98), 2.00 (1.24 to 3.24), and 4.32 (2.60 to 7.17). Bladder and lung cancer odds ratios in those highly exposed in Antofagasta during 1958–70 but not thereafter were 6.88 (3.84 to 12.32) and 4.35 (2.57 to 7.36), respectively. Conclusions The lung and bladder cancer risks that we found up to 40 years after high exposures have ended are very high. Impact Our findings suggest that prevention, treatment, and other mortality reduction efforts in arsenic-exposed countries will be needed for decades after exposure cessation. PMID:23355602

  12. [Portal hypertension and chronic arsenic exposure. A differential diagnostic challenge].

    PubMed

    Meran, J; Creutzig, A; Specht, S; Schürmeyer, T; Brunner, G; Ranke, C; Fabel, H

    1989-12-31

    We are reporting on a 62 year old female patient with portal hypertension (splenomegaly, esophageal varicosis) without signs of liver cirrhosis, who was hospitalized for sclerotherapy of her esophageal varices. Physical examination showed up palmar- and plantar hyperkeratosis and Morbus Bowen or basalioma-like skin lesions++. Anamnestic evaluation revealed, that the patient's psoriasis had been treated with arsenic for many years. This kind of treatment may have induced intraluminal proliferation and obliteration of the portal vein's endothelium, thus being the etiologic factor responsible for noncirrhotic portal hypertension in this patient.

  13. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility to the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima-medial thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = -5.1 μm, 95% CI = -31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = -3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. PMID:24593923

  14. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = -5.1 μm, 95% CI = -31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = -3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings.

  15. No Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Ahsan, Habibul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Peltier, Gretchen Loeffler; Gluskin, Rebecca T.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Xinhua; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water at levels < 300 μg/L and the risk of diabetes mellitus remains a controversial topic. Method We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using baseline data from 11,319 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to evaluate the associations of well water arsenic and total urinary arsenic concentration and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucosuria. We also assessed the concentrations of well water arsenic, total urinary arsenic, and urinary arsenic metabolites in relation to blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in subsets of the study population. Results More than 90% of the cohort members were exposed to drinking water with arsenic concentration < 300 μg/L. We found no association between arsenic exposure and the prevalence of diabetes. The adjusted odds ratios for diabetes were 1.00 (referent), 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90–2.02], 1.24 (0.82–1.87), 0.96 (0.62–1.49), and 1.11 (0.73–1.69) in relation to quintiles of time-weighted water arsenic concentrations of 0.1–8, 8–41, 41–91, 92–176, and ≥ 177 μg/L, respectively, and 1.00 (referent), 1.29 (0.87–1.91), 1.05 (0.69–1.59), 0.94 (0.61–1.44), and 0.93 (0.59–1.45) in relation to quintiles of urinary arsenic concentrations of 1–36, 37–66, 67–114, 115–204, and ≥ 205 μg/L, respectively. We observed no association between arsenic exposure and prevalence of glucosuria and no evidence of an association between well water arsenic, total urinary arsenic, or the composition of urinary arsenic metabolites and HbA1c level. Conclusions Our findings do not support an association of arsenic exposure from drinking water and a significantly increased risk of diabetes mellitus in the range of levels observed. Further prospective studies would be valuable in confirming the findings. PMID:20813654

  16. Arsenic exposure, urinary arsenic speciation, and the incidence of urothelial carcinoma: a twelve-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Kai; Huang, Ya-Li; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Hsu, Ling-I; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2008-10-01

    The risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) and urinary arsenic speciation have been evaluated in a few case-control studies; however, the association has not been verified in a prospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to examine the association between urinary arsenic speciation and the incidence of UC in a cohort study. A total of 1,078 residents of southwestern Taiwan were followed for an average of 12 years. A high-performance liquid chromatography/hydride generator and an atomic absorption spectrometry were used to measure urinary arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). The incidence of UC was estimated by examining the National Cancer Registry of Taiwan between January 1985 and December 2001. There were 37 newly diagnosed cases of UC during a follow-up period of 11,655 person-years. Significantly higher percentages of MMA(V) and lower percentages of DMA(V) existed among the patients with UC than among the healthy residents. After adjustment for age, gender, educational level, and smoking status, the percentage of urinary DMA(V) was shown to have an inverse association with the risk of UC, having a relative risk (RR) of the tertile strata of 1.0, 0.3, and 0.3, respectively (p < 0.05 for the trend test). The RR (95% confidence interval) of residents with a cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) of >/=20 mg/l-year and a higher percentage of MMA(V) or a CAE of > or =20 mg/l-year and a lower percentage of DMA(V) was 3.7 (1.2-11.6) or 4.2 (1.3-13.4) compared to residents with a CAE of <20 mg/l-year and a lower percentage of MMA(V) or a CAE of <20 mg/l-year and a higher percentage of DMA(V )respectively. There was a significant association between inefficient arsenic methylation and the development of UC in the residents in the high CAE exposure strata in an area of southwestern Taiwan endemic for arseniasis.

  17. Transcriptional Modulation of the ERK1/2 MAPK and NF-kB pathways in Human Urothelial cells after trivalent arsenical exposure: Implications for urinary bladder cancer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposure to drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with an increased risk ofurinary bladder (DB) cancers in humans. Rodent models administered particular arsenicals have indicated urothelial necrosis followed by regenerative proliferation i...

  18. [Influence of flooding on form transformation of soil arsenic].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xi-bai; He, Qiu-hong; Li, Lian-fang; Bai, Ling-yu

    2010-11-01

    An incubation test was conducted to study the dynamics of exogenously supplied dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and As(V) in soil under flooding. With the increasing time of incubation, the exogenously supplied DMA and MMA were mainly transformed into As(V), and the As(V) concentration increased, being significantly higher after incubated for 150 days, compared with that after incubated for 1 day. The exogenously supplied DMA was demethylated into As(V) within 30 days, accompanied by a little As(III), while the transformation rate of exogenously supplied MMA was rather slow within 60 days, accompanied by a little As(III) and DMA. The exogenously supplied As(V) decreased with increasing time of incubation, and its form had less change except that a little As(III) occurred. PMID:21361030

  19. Association between type 2 diabetes and chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water: A cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to high level of inorganic arsenic in drinking water has been associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Most research has been ecological in nature and has focused on high levels of arsenic exposure with few studies directly measuring arsenic levels in drinking water as an index of arsenic exposure. The effect of low to moderate levels of arsenic exposure on diabetes risk is largely unknown thus our study is adding further knowledge over previous works. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 1004 consenting women and men from 1682 eligible participants yielding a participation rate of 60%. These participants are aged >30 years and were living in Bangladesh and had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. T2D cases were diagnosed using glucometer following the new diagnostic criteria (Fasting Blood Glucose > 126 mg/dl) from the WHO guideline (WHO 2006), or a self-reported physician diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Association between T2D and chronic arsenic exposure was estimated by multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, education, Body Mass Index (BMI) and family history of T2D. Results A total of 1004 individuals participated in the study. The prevalence of T2D was 9% (95% CI 7-11%). After adjustment for diabetes risk factors, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes was observed for arsenic exposure over 50 μg/L with those in the highest category having almost double the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR=1.9 ; 95% CI 1.1-3.5). For most levels of arsenic exposure, the risk estimates are higher with longer exposure; a dose–response pattern was also observed. Conclusions These findings suggest an association between chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and T2D. Risks are generally higher with longer duration of arsenic exposure. The risk of T2D is highest among those who were exposed to the highest concentration of arsenic for more than 10 years. PMID:22676249

  20. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population. PMID:25410308

  1. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population.

  2. Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of the Varicella Zoster Virus in the United States: NHANES (2003–2004 and 2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Andres; Smit, Ellen; Houseman, E. Andres; Kerkvliet, Nancy I.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Arsenic is an immunotoxicant. Clinical reports observe the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in people who have recovered from arsenic poisoning and in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia that have been treated with arsenic trioxide. Objective We evaluated the association between arsenic and the seroprevalence of VZV IgG antibody in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Methods We analyzed data from 3,348 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2009–2010 pooled survey cycles. Participants were eligible if they were 6–49 years of age with information on both VZV IgG and urinary arsenic concentrations. We used two measures of total urinary arsenic (TUA): TUA1 was defined as the sum of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, and TUA2 was defined as total urinary arsenic minus arsenobetaine and arsenocholine. Results The overall weighted seronegative prevalence of VZV was 2.2% for the pooled NHANES sample. The geometric means of TUA1 and TUA2 were 6.57 μg/L and 5.64 μg/L, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, race, income, creatinine, and survey cycle, odds ratios for a negative VZV IgG result in association with 1-unit increases in natural log-transformed (ln)-TUA1 and ln-TUA2 were 1.87 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.44) and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.97), respectively. Conclusions In this cross-sectional analysis, urinary arsenic was inversely associated with VZV IgG seroprevalence in the U.S. population. This finding is in accordance with clinical observations of zoster virus reactivation from high doses of arsenic. Additional studies are needed to confirm the association and evaluate causal mechanisms. Citation Cardenas A, Smit E, Houseman EA, Kerkvliet NI, Bethel JW, Kile ML. 2015. Arsenic exposure and prevalence of the varicella zoster virus in the United States: NHANES (2003–2004 and 2009–2010). Environ Health Perspect 123:590–596;

  3. Persistent Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh Despite Major Mitigation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee; Hamadani, Jena; Grandér, Margaretha; Tofail, Fahmida; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Kippler, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Elevated arsenic levels in tube-well water in Bangladesh have prompted extensive mitigation projects. We evaluated the effectiveness of long-term mitigation efforts by longitudinally measuring arsenic exposure in pregnant women and their children, the most susceptible population groups. Methods. The study was nested in a population-based nutrition intervention in Matlab, Bangladesh. Mother–child pairs (n = 1951) were followed from 2001 to 2003, beginning in early gestation and continuing to 5 years postpartum. We measured arsenic concentrations in urine (U-As) of the 5-year-old children by using high-performance liquid chromatography online with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and compared them with earlier childhood U-As and maternal U-As during pregnancy. Results. Children had elevated U-As at 5 years old (median = 51 μg/L, 5th–95th percentiles = 16–355 μg/L), and U-As distribution was similar to that observed in the mothers during gestation. Children's U-As at 5 years old significantly correlated with their U-As at 1.5 years old and to maternal U-As during early and late gestation. Conclusions. Despite major mitigation efforts, arsenic exposure remains highly elevated in rural Bangladesh. Further mitigation strategies are required and must be rigorously evaluated for long-term efficacy. PMID:21778503

  4. Childhood cancer incidence and arsenic exposure in drinking water in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee E; Lu, Meng; Smith, Allan H

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water causes cancer in adults; however, the carcinogenic potential in children remains unknown. A recent leukemia cluster in Churchill County, Nevada, where arsenic levels in water supplies are relatively high, has prompted concern. The authors investigated the incidence of childhood cancer between 1979 and 1999 in all 17 Nevada counties, grouped by low (i.e., < 10 microg/l), medium (10-25 microg/l), and high (35-90 microg/l) population-weighted arsenic levels in public drinking water supplies. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for all childhood cancers combined were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94, 1.06), 0.72 (95% CI = 0.43, 1.12), and 1.25 (95% CI = 0.91, 1.69) for low-, medium-, and high-exposure counties, respectively. There was no relationship between arsenic levels in water and childhood leukemia (SIRs = 1.02, 0.61, and 0.86, respectively [95% CIIs = 0.90, 1.15; 0.12, 1.79; and 0.37, 1.70, respectively]). For all childhood cancers, excluding leukemias, the SIRs were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.92, 1.07), 0.82 (95% CI = 0.42, 1.22), and 1.37 (0.92, 1.83), respectively. The excess in 5- to 9-yr-old children and 10- to 14-yr-old children was in bone cancers, and the excess in 15- to 19-yr-old young adults was primarily in lymphomas. The findings in this study are reassuring in that leukemia risks were not increased at the concentrations of arsenic in water found in this study. Nonetheless, the results raise the possibility that there are increased risks for nonleukemic childhood cancers that require confirmation in other studies, particularly those in which higher exposures are addressed.

  5. Bhas 42 cell transformation activity of cigarette smoke condensate is modulated by selenium and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Gu; Pant, Kamala; Bruce, Shannon W; Gairola, C Gary

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health risk worldwide. Development of newer tobacco products requires the use of quantitative toxicological assays. Recently, v-Ha-ras transfected BALB/c3T3 (Bhas 42) cell transformation assay was established that simulates the two-stage animal tumorigenesis model and measures tumor initiating and promoting activities of chemicals. The present study was performed to assess the feasibility of using this Bhas 42 cell transformation assay to determine the initiation and promotion activities of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and its water soluble fraction. Further, the modulating effects of selenium and arsenic on cigarette smoke-induced cell transformation were investigated. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water extracts of CSC (CSC-D and CSC-W, respectively) were tested at concentrations of 2.5-40 µg mL(-1) in the initiation or promotion assay formats. Initiation protocol of the Bhas 42 assay showed a 3.5-fold increase in transformed foci at 40 µg mL(-1) of CSC-D but not CSC-W. The promotion phase of the assay yielded a robust dose response with CSC-D (2.5-40 µg mL(-1)) and CSC-W (20-40 µg mL(-1)). Preincubation of cells with selenium (100 nM) significantly reduced CSC-induced increase in cell transformation in initiation assay. Co-treatment of cells with a sub-toxic dose of arsenic significantly enhanced cell transformation activity of CSC-D in promotion assay. The results suggest a presence of both water soluble and insoluble tumor promoters in CSC, a role of oxidative stress in CSC-induced cell transformation, and usefulness of Bhas 42 cell transformation assay in comparing tobacco product toxicities and in studying the mechanisms of tobacco carcinogenesis.

  6. Gene expression profiles in peripheral lymphocytes by arsenic exposure and skin lesion status in a Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Argos, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Parvez, Faruque; Jasmine, Farzana; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Ahsan, Habibul

    2006-07-01

    Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed to arsenic through their drinking water. In this study, the effect of arsenic exposure and arsenical skin lesion status on genome-wide gene expression patterns was evaluated using RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study. Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) arrays were used to measure the expression of approximately 22,000 transcripts. Our primary statistical analysis involved identifying differentially expressed genes between participants with and without arsenical skin lesions based on the significance analysis of microarrays statistic with an a priori defined 1% false discovery rate to minimize false positives. To better characterize differential expression, we also conducted Gene Ontology and pathway comparisons in addition to the gene-specific analyses. Four-hundred sixty-eight genes were differentially expressed between these two groups, from which 312 differentially expressed genes were identified by restricting the analysis to female never-smokers. We also explored possible differential gene expression by arsenic exposure levels among individuals without manifest arsenical skin lesions; however, no differentially expressed genes could be identified from this comparison. Our findings show that microarray-based gene expression analysis is a powerful method to characterize the molecular profile of arsenic exposure and arsenic-induced diseases. Genes identified from this analysis may provide insights into the underlying processes of arsenic-induced disease and represent potential targets for chemoprevention studies to reduce arsenic-induced skin cancer in this population.

  7. Elevated Human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression in blood cells associated with chronic and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure is associated with human cancer. Telomerase containing the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of chromosomes, delay senescence and promoting cell proliferation leading to tumorigenesis. OBJECTIVE:...

  8. DEVELOPING A TECHNICAL BASIS FOR REDUCING RISK FROM ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN WATER RESOURCES ACROSS THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful prevention of public exposure to arsenic in ground-water resources impacted by natural sources or contaminated sites is dependent on scientifically-based strategies for site remediation and water resource management. Research within the National Risk Management Resear...

  9. Biotransformation and detoxification of inorganic arsenic in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua after waterborne and dietborne exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-06-30

    Arsenic (As) is a major hazardous metalloid in many aquatic environments. This study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species [As(III) and As(V)] in a marine juvenile grunt Terapon jarbua following waterborne and dietborne exposures for 10d. The fish were fed As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 50, 150, and 500μg As(III) and As(V)/g (dry weight), and their transformation and growth responses were compared to those exposed to 100μg/L waterborne As(III) and As(V). Within the 10d exposure period, waterborne and dietborne inorganic As exposure had no significant effect on the fish growth performance. The bioaccumulation of As was very low and not proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentration. We demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne and waterborne phases were rapidly biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB, 89-97%). After exposure to inorganic As, T. jarbua developed correspondingly detoxified strategies, such as the reduction of As(V) to As(III) followed by methylation to less toxic organic forms, as well as the synthesis of metal-binding proteins such as metallothionein-like proteins. This study elucidated that As(III) and As(V) had little potential toxicity on marine fish.

  10. Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Development in India: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sushmita; Mandal, Rakesh; Rabidas, Vidya Nand; Verma, Neena; Pandey, Krishna; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar; Kesari, Sreekant; Kumar, Ashish; Purkait, Bidyut; Lal, Chandra Sekhar; Das, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients. Methods In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort. Trained physicians, unaware of arsenic exposure, interviewed them and collected relevant data in a questionnaire format. All probable water sources were identified around the patient’s house and water was collected for evaluation of arsenic concentration. A GIS-based village-level digital database of PKDL cases and arsenic concentration in groundwater was developed and individual point location of PKDL cases were overlaid on an integrated GIS map. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess odds ratios (ORs) for association between arsenic exposure and PKDL development. Results Out of the 429 water samples tested, 403 had arsenic content of over 10 μg/L, with highest level of 432 μg/L among the seven study villages. Multivariate adjusted ORs for risk of PKDL development in comparison of arsenic concentrations of 10.1–200 μg/L and 200.1–432.0 μg/L were 1.85 (1.13–3.03) and 2.31 (1.39–3.8) respectively. Interestingly, similar results were found for daily dose of arsenic and total arsenic concentration in urine sample of the individual. The multivariate-adjusted OR for comparison of high baseline arsenic exposure to low baseline arsenic exposure of the individuals in the study cohort was 1.66 (95% CI 1.02–2.7; p = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings indicate the need to consider environmental factors, like long time arsenic exposure, as an additional influence on treated VL patients towards risk of PKDL development in Bihar. PMID:27776123

  11. MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Mehta, Ashish; Yadav, Abhishek; Binukumar, B.K.; Gill, Kiran Dip; Flora, Swaran J.S.

    2011-11-15

    Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality. Arsenic induced free radicals generated are known to cause cellular apoptosis through mitochondrial driven pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenic interactions with various complexes of the electron transport chain and attempted to evaluate if there was any complex preference of arsenic that could trigger apoptosis. We also evaluated if chelation with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) could reverse these detrimental effects. Our results indicate that arsenic exposure induced free radical generation in rat neuronal cells, which diminished mitochondrial potential and enzyme activities of all the complexes of the electron transport chain. Moreover, these complexes showed differential responses towards arsenic. These early events along with diminished ATP levels could be co-related with the later events of cytosolic migration of cytochrome c, altered bax/bcl{sub 2} ratio, and increased caspase 3 activity. Although MiADMSA could reverse most of these arsenic-induced altered variables to various extents, DNA damage remained unaffected. Our study for the first time demonstrates the differential effect of arsenic on the complexes leading to deficits in bioenergetics leading to apoptosis in rat brain. However, more in depth studies are warranted for better understanding of arsenic interactions with the mitochondria. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic impairs mitochondrial energy metabolism leading to neuronal apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic differentially affects mitochondrial complexes, I - III and IV being more sensitive than complex II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic-induced apoptosis initiates through ROS generation or impaired [Ca{sup 2+}]i homeostasis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiADMSA reverses arsenic toxicity via intracellular arsenic- chelation, antioxidant

  12. In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water impairs early life lung mechanics in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a significant environmental issue affecting millions of people around the world. Exposure to arsenic during foetal development has been shown to impair somatic growth and increase the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine if in utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water is capable of altering lung growth and postnatal lung mechanics. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 10 (current World Health Organisation (WHO) maximum contaminant level) or 100μg/L arsenic from gestational day 8 to birth. Birth outcomes and somatic growth were monitored. Plethysmography and the forced oscillation technique were used to collect measurements of lung volume, lung mechanics, pressure-volume curves and the volume dependence of lung mechanics in male and female offspring at two, four, six and eight weeks of age. Results In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water resulted in low birth weight and impaired parenchymal lung mechanics during infancy. Male offspring were more susceptible to the effects of arsenic on growth and lung mechanics than females. All alterations to lung mechanics following in utero arsenic exposure were recovered by adulthood. Conclusions Exposure to arsenic at the current WHO maximum contaminant level in utero impaired somatic growth and the development of the lungs resulting in alterations to lung mechanics during infancy. Deficits in growth and lung development in early life may contribute to the increased susceptibility of developing chronic respiratory disease in arsenic exposed human populations. PMID:23419080

  13. Morphologic and growth responses in Chironomus tentans to arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, E A; Wold, L; Moore, B C; Schaumloffel, J; Dasgupta, N

    2006-11-01

    Laboratory bioassays consisting of sediments spiked with three concentrations (30, 130, and 260 microg g-1 As dry wt) of arsenic (As+3) were used to assess morphologic responses and growth in Chironomus tentans larvae. Chironomid larvae were raised in contaminated sediments from egg stage to emergence, and mouthpart abnormalities, larval length, and larval head width were used as end points to determine differences between metal-spiked and control specimens. C. tentans exhibited significantly higher mouthpart deformity proportions, smaller body sizes, smaller head widths, and slower development than control larvae. Our results demonstrate a dose-response relationship between As and mentum deformities in C. tentans. However, the proportion of deformed larvae did not increase with time in the treatment tanks. Results demonstrate that As induces mouthpart abnormalities at various concentrations. This research provides more support for the use of chironomid abnormalities as a tool for the assessment of heavy-metal pollution in aquatic systems. PMID:16998632

  14. Arsenic exposure and adverse health effects: a review of recent findings from arsenic and health studies in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Mohammad; Sohel, Nazmul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2011-09-01

    The recent discovery of large-scale arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has raised much concern in Bangladesh. Reliable estimates of the magnitude of As exposure and related health problems have not been comprehensively investigated in Bangladesh. A large population-based study on As and health consequences in Matlab (AsMat) was done in Matlab field site where International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh has maintained a health and demographic surveillance system registering prospectively all vital events. Taking advantage of the health and demographic surveillance system and collecting data on detailed individual level As exposure using water and urine samples, AsMat investigated the morbidity and mortality associated with As exposure. Reviews of findings to date suggest the adverse effects of As exposure on the risk of skin lesions, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, chronic disease, and all-cause infant and adult disease mortality. Future studies of clinical endpoints will enhance our knowledge gaps and will give directions for disease prevention and mitigations.

  15. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; and others

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  16. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V.; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7,843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (−10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by >47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and >41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by short-term changes in drinking water As. PMID:24486435

  17. Considerations in deriving quantitative cancer criteria for inorganic arsenic exposure via inhalation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ari S; Beyer, Leslie A; Zu, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation unit risk (IUR) that currently exists in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Integrated Risk Information System was developed in 1984 based on studies examining the relationship between respiratory cancer and arsenic exposure in copper smelters from two US locations: the copper smelter in Anaconda, Montana, and the American Smelting And Refining COmpany (ASARCO) smelter in Tacoma, Washington. Since US EPA last conducted its assessment, additional data have become available from epidemiology and mechanistic studies. In addition, the California Air Resources Board, Texas Commission of Environmental Quality, and Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety have all conducted new risk assessments. All three analyses, which calculated IURs based on respiratory/lung cancer mortality, generated IURs that are lower (i.e., less restrictive) than the current US EPA value of 4.3×10(-3) (μg/m(3))(-1). The IURs developed by these agencies, which vary more than 20-fold, are based on somewhat different studies and use different methodologies to address uncertainties in the underlying datasets. Despite these differences, all were developed based on a cumulative exposure metric assuming a low-dose linear dose-response relationship. In this paper, we contrast and compare the analyses conducted by these agencies and critically evaluate strengths and limitations inherent in the data and methodologies used to develop quantitative risk estimates. In addition, we consider how these data could be best used to assess risk at much lower levels of arsenic in air, such as those experienced by the general public. Given that the mode of action for arsenic supports a threshold effect, and epidemiological evidence suggests that the arsenic concentration in air is a reliable predictor of lung/respiratory cancer risk, we developed a quantitative cancer risk analysis using a nonlinear threshold model. Applying a nonlinear model to occupational data, we

  18. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  19. Association of arsenic exposure during pregnancy with fetal loss and infant death: a cohort study in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Vahter, Marie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Golam Mustafa, Abu Haider Mohammad; Wahed, Mohammad Abdul; Yunus, Mohammed; Persson, Lars-Ake

    2007-06-15

    The authors evaluated the effect of arsenic exposure on fetal and infant survival in a cohort of 29,134 pregnancies identified by the health and demographic surveillance system in Matlab, Bangladesh, in 1991-2000. Arsenic exposure, reflected by drinking water history and analysis of arsenic concentrations in tube-well water used by women during pregnancy, was assessed in a separate survey conducted in 2002-2003. Data on vital events, including pregnancy outcome and infant mortality, were collected by monthly surveillance at the household level. The risk of fetal loss and infant death in relation to arsenic exposure was estimated by a Cox proportional hazards model. Drinking tube-well water with more than 50 microg of arsenic per liter during pregnancy significantly increased the risks of fetal loss (relative risk = 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.25) and infant death (relative risk = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.32). There was a significant dose response of arsenic exposure to risk of infant death (p = 0.02). Women of reproductive age should urgently be prioritized for mitigation activities where drinking water is contaminated by arsenic.

  20. Influence of glutathione chemical effectors in the response of maize to arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Requejo, Raquel; Tena, Manuel

    2012-05-01

    To support the key role of glutathione (GSH) in the mechanisms of tolerance and accumulation of arsenic in plants, this work examines the impact of several effectors of GSH synthesis or action in the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to arsenic. Maize was exposed in hydroponics to iso-toxic rates of 150 μM arsenate or 75 μM arsenite for 9 days and GSH effectors, flurazole (an herbicide safener), l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a known inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis), and dimercaptosuccinate (DMS) and dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) (two thiols able to displace GSH from arsenite-GSH complexes) were assayed. The main responses of plants to arsenic exposure consisted of a biomass reduction (fresh weight basis) of about 50%, an increase of non-protein thiol (NPTs) levels (especially in the GSH precursor γ-glutamylcysteine and the phytochelatins PC₂ and PC₃) in roots, with little effect in shoots, and an accumulation of between 600 and 1000 ppm of As (dry weight basis) in roots with very little translocation to shoots. Growth inhibition caused by arsenic was partially or completely reversed in plants co-treated with flurazole and arsenate or arsenite, respectively, highly exacerbated in plants co-treated with BSO, and not modified in plants co-treated with DMS or DMPS. These responses correlated well with an increase of both NPTs levels in roots and glutathione transferase activity in roots and shoots due to flurazole treatment, the decrease of NPTs levels in roots caused by BSO and the lack of effect on NPT levels caused by both DMS and DMPS. Regarding to arsenic accumulation in roots, it was not modified by flurazole, highly reduced by BSO, and increased between 2.5- and 4.0-fold by DMS and DMPS. Therefore, tolerance and accumulation of arsenic by maize could be manipulated pharmacologically by chemical effectors of GSH.

  1. Association of Environmental Arsenic Exposure, Genetic Polymorphisms of Susceptible Genes, and Skin Cancers in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ling-I; Wu, Meei-Maan; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Yeh; Yang, Tse-Yen; Hsiao, Bo-Yu; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in the capability of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation may be correlated with individual susceptibility to arsenic-related skin cancers. We hypothesized that glutathione S-transferase (GST M1, T1, and P1), reactive oxygen species (ROS) related metabolic genes (NQO1, EPHX1, and HO-1), and DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XPD, hOGG1, and ATM) together may play a role in arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis. We conducted a case-control study consisting of 70 pathologically confirmed skin cancer patients and 210 age and gender matched participants with genotyping of 12 selected polymorphisms. The skin cancer risks were estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using logistic regression. EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTT1 null genotypes were associated with skin cancer risk (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.01–8.83; OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.99–4.27; OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.00–3.02, resp.). However, none of these polymorphisms showed significant association after considering arsenic exposure status. Individuals carrying three risk polymorphisms of EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTs presented a 400% increased skin cancer risk when compared to those with less than or equal to one polymorphism. In conclusion, GSTs, EPHX1, and XPD are potential genetic factors for arsenic-induced skin cancers. The roles of these genes for arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis need to be further evaluated. PMID:26295053

  2. [Nervous system disorders induced by occupational exposure to arsenic and its inorganic compounds: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Sińczuk-Walczak, Halina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the effect of arsenic (As) and its inorganic compounds on the nervous system. In humans, inhalation exposure mostly occurs in occupational conditions. In the occupational environment, the most extensive exposure to this element is observed in the copper industry. Chronic As poisoning is manifested by skin and mucous membrane lesions, impairment of the nervous system in the form of disorders of psychic functions and polyneuropathies, retrobulbar neuritis, disorders of peripheral circulation and the risk for Raynaud's syndrome. Arsenic-induced polyneuropathy is usually a very serious and chronic disease. A complete recovery is observed in only 15-20% of patients. As-induced encephalopathy is an irreversible process. PMID:20187500

  3. [Nervous system disorders induced by occupational exposure to arsenic and its inorganic compounds: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Sińczuk-Walczak, Halina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the effect of arsenic (As) and its inorganic compounds on the nervous system. In humans, inhalation exposure mostly occurs in occupational conditions. In the occupational environment, the most extensive exposure to this element is observed in the copper industry. Chronic As poisoning is manifested by skin and mucous membrane lesions, impairment of the nervous system in the form of disorders of psychic functions and polyneuropathies, retrobulbar neuritis, disorders of peripheral circulation and the risk for Raynaud's syndrome. Arsenic-induced polyneuropathy is usually a very serious and chronic disease. A complete recovery is observed in only 15-20% of patients. As-induced encephalopathy is an irreversible process.

  4. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and proteinuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Pesola, Gene R; Gamble, Mary V; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteinuria has been recognized as a marker for an increased risk of chronic renal disease. It is unclear whether arsenic (As) exposure from drinking water is associated with proteinuria. Methods We evaluated the association between As exposure from drinking water and proteinuria in 11 122 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Proteinuria was detected by urinary dipstick tests at baseline and at 2-year intervals. As exposure variables included baseline well As and changes in urinary As during follow-up modelled as time-dependent variables in the analyses. Results At baseline, well As was positively related to prevalence of proteinuria; prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for proteinuria in increasing quintiles of well As (≤7, 8–39, 40–91, 92–179 and 180–864 µg/l) were 1.00 (ref), POR 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–1.27], POR 1.23 (95% CI 0.97–1.57), POR 1.50 (95% CI 1.18–1.89) and POR 1.59 (95% CI 1.26–2.00) (P for trend <0.01). Hazard ratios for incidence of proteinuria were POR 0.83 (95% CI 0.67–1.03) and POR 0.91 (95% CI 0.74–1.12) for participants with a decreasing level of >70 and 17–70 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, and were POR 1.17 (95% CI 0.97–1.42) and POR 1.42 (95% CI 1.16–1.73) for participants with an increasing level of 16–68 and >68 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, compared with the group with relatively little changes in urinary As as the reference group (urinary As −16 to 15 µg/l). Conclusion The findings suggest that there are adverse effects of As exposure on the risk of proteinuria and the effects are modifiable by recent changes in As exposure. PMID:21343184

  5. Genotoxicity of inorganic arsenic exposure: Micronuclei frequencies in exfoliated human oral mucosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsebatt, M.E.; Guzman, P.; Salazar, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    Micronuclei (MN) can be formed by acentric chromosome fragments or whole lagging chromosomes. When used in vivo, this assay can potentially detect the clastogenic effect of an exposure. MN are easier to score than chromosome aberrations although both biomarkers of effect are useful tools in risk estimation. We investigated the frequency of MN in exfoliated cells from the oral mucosa in 25-30 volunteers lifetime exposed to approximately 400 {mu}g/L of arsenic in their drinking water. A group of individuals with similar composition with respect to sex, age, and socioeconomic status, but with As levels in the drinking water between 29-32 {mu}g/L, was used as controls. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires and by determining the levels of arsenic in urine and water samples. Oral mucosa cells were collected scraping the mucosa with a premoistened wooden spatula and smeared on microscope slides. Feulgen stained samples were scored blind on slides. The frequency of MN in oral mucosa cells was 0.05% in controls and 0.25% in exposed individuals. Exposed males showed higher frequencies of MN than exposed females. Smoking habits did not account for the observed differences. These results demonstrate that buccal mucosa cells are a target tissue in inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water. Several studies have also reported elevated frequencies of MN in oral mucosa cells from individuals exposed to substances or factors associated with increased cancer risk, which makes this non-invasive technique appropriate and sensitive to monitor human exposure to carcinogens such as inorganic arsenic.

  6. Exposure of Soil Microbial Communities to Chromium and Arsenic Alters Their Diversity and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Fariha Z.; Rehman, Yasir; Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; McInerney, Michael J.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways. PMID:22768219

  7. Urinary and Dietary Analysis of 18,470 Bangladeshis Reveal a Correlation of Rice Consumption with Arsenic Exposure and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Hall, Megan N.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Pierce, Brandon; Cao, Hongyuan; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavcovich, Vesna; Gamble, Mary; Haris, Parvez I.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    Background We utilized data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to evaluate the association of steamed rice consumption with urinary total arsenic concentration and arsenical skin lesions in the overall study cohort (N=18,470) and in a subset with available urinary arsenic metabolite data (N=4,517). Methods General linear models with standardized beta coefficients were used to estimate associations between steamed rice consumption and urinary total arsenic concentration and urinary arsenic metabolites. Logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between rice intake and prevalent skin lesions at baseline. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate discrete time (HRs) ratios and their 95% CIs for the associations between rice intake and incident skin lesions. Results Steamed rice consumption was positively associated with creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic (β=0.041, 95% CI: 0.032-0.051) and urinary total arsenic with statistical adjustment for creatinine in the model (β=0.043, 95% CI: 0.032-0.053). Additionally, we observed a significant trend in skin lesion prevalence (P-trend=0.007) and a moderate trend in skin lesion incidence (P-trend=0.07) associated with increased intake of steamed rice. Conclusions This study suggests that rice intake may be a source of arsenic exposure beyond drinking water. PMID:24260455

  8. Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Birth Outcomes among a Population Residing near a Mining-Related Superfund Site

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Birgit Claus; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Hopkins, Marianne R.; Jim, Rebecca; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Christiani, David C.; Coull, Brent A.; Bellinger, David C.; Wright, Robert O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data exist on prenatal arsenic exposure and fetal growth, particularly in the context of co-exposure to other toxic metals. Objective: We examined whether prenatal arsenic exposure predicts birth outcomes among a rural U.S. population, while adjusting for exposure to lead and manganese. Methods: We collected maternal and umbilical cord blood samples at delivery from 622 mother–infant pairs residing near a mining-related Superfund site in Northeast Oklahoma. Whole blood arsenic, lead, and manganese were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We modeled associations between arsenic concentrations and birth weight, gestational age, head circumference, and birth weight for gestational age. Results: Median (25th–75th percentile) maternal and umbilical cord blood metal concentrations, respectively, were as follows: arsenic, 1.4 (1.0–2.3) and 2.4 (1.8–3.3) μg/L; lead, 0.6 (0.4–0.9) and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) μg/dL; manganese, 22.7 (18.8–29.3) and 41.7 (32.2–50.4) μg/L. We estimated negative associations between maternal blood arsenic concentrations and birth outcomes. In multivariable regression models adjusted for lead and manganese, an interquartile range increase in maternal blood arsenic was associated with –77.5 g (95% CI: –127.8, –27.3) birth weight, –0.13 weeks (95% CI: –0.27, 0.01) gestation, –0.22 cm (95% CI: –0.42, –0.03) head circumference, and –0.14 (95% CI: –0.24, –0.04) birth weight for gestational age z-score units. Interactions between arsenic concentrations and lead or manganese were not statistically significant. Conclusions: In a population with environmental exposure levels similar to the U.S. general population, maternal blood arsenic was negatively associated with fetal growth. Given the potential for relatively common fetal and early childhood arsenic exposures, our finding that prenatal arsenic can adversely affect birth outcomes is of considerable public health

  9. Arsenicals produce stable progressive changes in DNA methylation patterns that are linked to malignant transformation of immortalized urothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Taylor J.; Novak, Petr; Wnek, Shawn M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2009-12-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation participates in carcinogenesis and is a molecular hallmark of a tumor cell. Tumor cells generally exhibit a redistribution of DNA methylation resulting in global hypomethylation with regional hypermethylation; however, the speed in which these changes emerge has not been fully elucidated and may depend on the temporal location of the cell in the path from normal, finite lifespan to malignant transformation. We used a model of arsenical-induced malignant transformation of immortalized human urothelial cells and DNA methylation microarrays to examine the extent and temporal nature of changes in DNA methylation that occur during the transition from immortal to malignantly transformed. Our data presented herein suggest that during arsenical-induced malignant transformation, aberrant DNA methylation occurs non-randomly, progresses gradually at hundreds of gene promoters, and alters expression of the associated gene, and these changes are coincident with the acquisition of malignant properties, such as anchorage independent growth and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. The DNA methylation changes appear stable, since malignantly transformed cells removed from the transforming arsenical exhibited no reversion in DNA methylation levels, associated gene expression, or malignant phenotype. These data suggest that arsenicals act as epimutagens and directly link their ability to induce malignant transformation to their actions on the epigenome.

  10. Microbial transformations of arsenic in the environment: From soda lakes to aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that supports a surprising range of biogeochemical transformations. The biochemical basis of these microbial interactions is described, with an emphasis on energy-yielding redox biotransformations that cycle between the As5+ and As3+ oxidation states. The subsequent impact of As3+-oxidising and As 5+-reducing prokaryotes on the chemistry of selected environments is also described, focusing on soda lakes with naturally high concentrations of the metalloid and on Southeast Asian aquifer sediments, where the microbial reduction of sorbed As5+ and subsequent mobilisation of As 3+ into water abstracted for drinking and irrigation threaten the lives of millions.

  11. Inorganic arsenic and respiratory health, from early life exposure to sex-specific effects: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Tiffany R; Perzanowski, Matthew; Graziano, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the diverse body of epidemiologic research accrued on inorganic arsenic exposure and respiratory health effects. Twenty-nine articles were identified that examined the relationship between inorganic arsenic exposure and respiratory outcomes (i.e. lung function, symptoms, acute respiratory infections, chronic non-malignant lung diseases, and non-malignant lung disease mortality). There was strong evidence of a general association between arsenic and non-malignant respiratory illness, including consistent evidence on lung function impairment, acute respiratory tract infections, respiratory symptoms, and non-malignant lung disease mortality. Overall, early life exposure (i.e. in utero and/or early-childhood) had a marked effect throughout the lifespan. This review also identified some research gaps, including limited evidence at lower levels of exposure (water arsenic <100μg/L), mixed evidence of sex differences, and some uncertainty on arsenic and any single non-malignant respiratory disease or pathological process. Common limitations, including potential publication bias; non-comparability of outcome measures across included articles; incomplete exposure histories; and limited confounder control attenuated the cumulative strength of the evidence as it relates to US populations. This systematic review provides a comprehensive assessment of the epidemiologic evidence and should be used to guide future research on arsenic's detrimental effects on respiratory health.

  12. Arsenic exposure through drinking water increases the risk of liver and cardiovascular diseases in the population of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a natural drinking water contaminant affecting 26 million people in West Bengal, India. Chronic arsenic exposure causes cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, neuropathies and ocular diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess bioindicators of hepatocellular injury as indicated by the levels of liver enzymes, to determine the auto immune status, as indicated by the amounts of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies in their serum, and to predict cardiovascular risk in the arsenic exposed population. Methods Effect of chronic arsenic exposure on liver was determined by liver function tests. Autoimmune status was measured by measuring ANA and anti-dsDNA in serum. Inflammatory cytokines associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, IL6, IL8 and MCP-1 were determined. Results Our results indicated that serum levels of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and ANA were increased in the arsenic exposed population. Serum levels of IL6 and IL8 also increased in the arsenic exposed group. Conclusions Chronic arsenic exposure causes liver injury, increases the serum levels of autoimmune markers and imparts increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:22883023

  13. Lead, arsenic and manganese metal mixture exposures: focus on biomarkers of effect

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, VL; Mateus, ML; Batoréu, MC; Aschner, M; Marreilha dos Santos, AP

    2015-01-01

    Summary The increasing exposure of human populations to excessive levels of metals continues to represent a matter of public health concern. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed for the detection of adverse health effects induced by lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn); however, these studies have relied on exposures to each single metal, which fails to replicate real-life exposure scenarios. These 3 metals are commonly detected in different environmental, occupational and food contexts and they share common neurotoxic effects, which are progressive and once clinically apparent may be irreversible. Thus, chronic exposure to low levels of a mixture of these metals represents an additive risk of toxicity. Building upon their shared mechanisms of toxicity, such as oxidative stress, interference with neurotransmitters and effects on hematopoietic system, we address putative biomarkers, which may be assist in assessing onset of neurological diseases associated with exposure to this metal mixture. PMID:25693681

  14. Arsenic-contaminated cold-spring water in mountainous areas of Hui County, Northwest China: a new source of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2011-11-15

    Although pump-well is the primary drinking water source in rural areas of China, there are still 8.4% of villages reliant on cold-spring. In this study, a survey of arsenic concentration in cold-springs and pump-wells was carried out in Hui County, Northwest China. A total of 352 drinking water samples, including 177 cold-springs and 175 pump-wells, were collected. The maximum arsenic concentrations in cold-springs and pump-wells were 0.482 mg/L and 0.067 mg/L, respectively. We found that 15.8% (28) of total cold-springs and 1.1% (2) of total pump-wells had arsenic concentrations exceeding the maximum allowable concentration of arsenic in drinking water of rural China (0.05 mg/L). Our findings show that 5 cold spring-contaminated villages are located in the mountainous areas of Hui County and 2224 inhabitants may be at risk of high arsenic exposure. This paper indicates that arsenic contamination of cold-springs may be more serious than expected in mountainous areas of Northwest China and extensive surveys and epidemiological studies should be carried out to investigate the potential contaminated areas and affected population.

  15. The risk of arsenic induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi men and women is affected by arsenic metabolism and the age at first exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2008-07-01

    It is known that a high fraction of methylarsonate (MA) in urine is a risk modifying factor for several arsenic induced health effects, including skin lesions, and that men are more susceptible for developing skin lesions than women. Thus, we aimed at elucidating the interaction between gender and arsenic metabolism for the risk of developing skin lesions. This study is part of a population-based case-referent study concerning the risk for skin lesions in relation to arsenic exposure via drinking water carried out in Matlab, a rural area 53km south-east of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly selected 526 from 1579 referents and all 504 cases for analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine using HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). The present study confirm previous studies, with the risk for skin lesions being almost three times higher in the highest tertile of %MA (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.2, p < 0.001) compared to the lowest tertile. The present study is the first to show that the well documented higher risk for men to develop arsenic-related skin lesions compared to women is mainly explained by the less efficient methylation of arsenic, as defined by a higher fraction of MA and lower fraction of DMA in the urine, among men. Our previously documented lower risk for skin lesions in individuals exposed since infancy, or before, was found to be independent of the observed arsenic methylation efficiency. Thus, it can be speculated that this is due to a programming effect of arsenic in utero.

  16. Acetylated H4K16 by MYST1 protects UROtsa cells from arsenic toxicity and is decreased following chronic arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, William Jaime; Ren, Xuefeng; Chu, Feixia; Aleshin, Maria; Wintz, Henri; Burlingame, Alma; Smith, Martyn Thomas; Vulpe, Chris Dillon; Zhang Luoping

    2009-12-15

    Arsenic, a human carcinogen that is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, is commonly found in drinking water. An important mechanism by which arsenic is thought to be carcinogenic is through the induction of epigenetic changes that lead to aberrant gene expression. Previously, we reported that the SAS2 gene is required for optimal growth of yeast in the presence of arsenite (As{sup III}). Yeast Sas2p is orthologous to human MYST1, a histone 4 lysine 16 (H4K16) acetyltransferase. Here, we show that H4K16 acetylation is necessary for the resistance of yeast to As{sup III} through the modulation of chromatin state. We further explored the role of MYST1 and H4K16 acetylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis in human bladder epithelial cells. The expression of MYST1 was knocked down in UROtsa cells, a model of bladder epithelium that has been used to study arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Silencing of MYST1 reduced acetylation of H4K16 and induced sensitivity to As{sup III} and to its more toxic metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) at doses relevant to high environmental human exposures. In addition, both As{sup III} and MMA{sup III} treatments decreased global H4K16 acetylation levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This indicates that acetylated H4K16 is required for resistance to arsenic and that a reduction in its levels as a consequence of arsenic exposure may contribute to toxicity in UROtsa cells. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role for the MYST1 gene in human sensitivity to arsenic.

  17. Acetylated H4K16 by MYST1 protects UROtsa cells from arsenic toxicity and is decreased following chronic arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Jo, William Jaime; Ren, Xuefeng; Chu, Feixia; Aleshin, Maria; Wintz, Henri; Burlingame, Alma; Smith, Martyn Thomas; Vulpe, Chris Dillon; Zhang, Luoping

    2009-12-15

    Arsenic, a human carcinogen that is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, is commonly found in drinking water. An important mechanism by which arsenic is thought to be carcinogenic is through the induction of epigenetic changes that lead to aberrant gene expression. Previously, we reported that the SAS2 gene is required for optimal growth of yeast in the presence of arsenite (As(III)). Yeast Sas2p is orthologous to human MYST1, a histone 4 lysine 16 (H4K16) acetyltransferase. Here, we show that H4K16 acetylation is necessary for the resistance of yeast to As(III) through the modulation of chromatin state. We further explored the role of MYST1 and H4K16 acetylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis in human bladder epithelial cells. The expression of MYST1 was knocked down in UROtsa cells, a model of bladder epithelium that has been used to study arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Silencing of MYST1 reduced acetylation of H4K16 and induced sensitivity to As(III) and to its more toxic metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) at doses relevant to high environmental human exposures. In addition, both As(III) and MMA(III) treatments decreased global H4K16 acetylation levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This indicates that acetylated H4K16 is required for resistance to arsenic and that a reduction in its levels as a consequence of arsenic exposure may contribute to toxicity in UROtsa cells. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role for the MYST1 gene in human sensitivity to arsenic.

  18. Acetylated H4K16 by MYST1 Protects UROtsa Cells from the Carcinogen Arsenic and is Decreased Following Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jo, William Jaime; Ren, Xuefeng; Chu, Feixia; Aleshin, Maria; Wintz, Henri; Burlingame, Alma; Smith, Martyn Thomas; Vulpe, Chris Dillon; Zhang, Luoping

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic, a human carcinogen that is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, is commonly found in drinking water. An important mechanism by which arsenic is thought to be carcinogenic is through the induction of epigenetic changes that lead to aberrant gene expression. Previously, we reported that the SAS2 gene is required for optimal growth of yeast in the presence of arsenite (AsIII). Yeast Sas2p is orthologous to human MYST1, a histone 4 lysine 16 (H4K16) acetyltransferase. Here, we show that H4K16 acetylation is necessary for the resistance of yeast to AsIII through the modulation of chromatin. The role of MYST1 and H4K16 acetylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis was further explored in human bladder epithelial cells. The expression of MYST1 was knocked down in UROtsa cells, a model of bladder epithelium that has been used to study arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Silencing of MYST1 reduced acetylation of H4K16, and induced sensitivity to AsIII and to its more toxic metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) at doses relevant to high environmental human exposures. In addition, both AsIII and MMAIII treatments decreased global H4K16 acetylation levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This indicates that acetylated H4K16 is required for resistance to