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Sample records for arsenic promotes centrosome

  1. Arsenic promotes centrosome abnormalities and cell colony formation in p53 compromised human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Weiting; Lin Pinpin; Cheng, T.-S.; Yu, H.-S.; Chang, Louis W.

    2007-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus, an interaction between arsenic and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. p53 dysfunction or mutation in lung epithelial cells was frequently observed in cigarette smokers. Our present study was to explore the differential effects by arsenic on H1355 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with mutation in p53), BEAS-2B (immortalized lung epithelial cell with functional p53) and pifithrin-{alpha}-treated BEAS-2B cells (p53-inhibited cells). These cells were treated with different doses of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 {mu}M) for 48 h. A greater reduction in cell viability was observed in the BEAS-2B cells vs. p53 compromised cells (H1355 or p53-inhibited BEAS-2B). Similar observation was also made on 7-day cell survival (growth) study. TUNEL analysis confirmed that there was indeed a significantly reduced arsenite-induced apoptosis found in p53-compromised cells. Centrosomal abnormality has been attributed to eventual chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. In our present study, reduced p21 and Gadd45a expressions and increased centrosomal abnormality (atopic and multiple centrosomes) were observed in both arsenite-treated H1355 and p53-inhibited BEAS-2B cells as compared with similarly treated BEAS-2B cells. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells co-treated with pifithrin-{alpha} and 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that arsenic would act specifically on p53 compromised cells (either with p53 dysfunction or inhibited) to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenic, especially under the condition of p53 dysfunction.

  2. Nek5 promotes centrosome integrity in interphase and loss of centrosome cohesion in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Navdeep K.; Pelletier, Laurence; Morrison, Ciaran G.

    2015-01-01

    Nek5 is a poorly characterized member of the NIMA-related kinase family, other members of which play roles in cell cycle progression and primary cilia function. Here, we show that Nek5, similar to Nek2, localizes to the proximal ends of centrioles. Depletion of Nek5 or overexpression of kinase-inactive Nek5 caused unscheduled separation of centrosomes in interphase, a phenotype also observed upon overexpression of active Nek2. However, separated centrosomes that resulted from Nek5 depletion remained relatively close together, exhibited excess recruitment of the centrosome linker protein rootletin, and had reduced levels of Nek2. In addition, Nek5 depletion led to loss of PCM components, including γ-tubulin, pericentrin, and Cdk5Rap2, with centrosomes exhibiting reduced microtubule nucleation. Upon mitotic entry, Nek5-depleted cells inappropriately retained centrosome linker components and exhibited delayed centrosome separation and defective chromosome segregation. Hence, Nek5 is required for the loss of centrosome linker proteins and enhanced microtubule nucleation that lead to timely centrosome separation and bipolar spindle formation in mitosis. PMID:25963817

  3. Centrosome Amplification Is Sufficient to Promote Spontaneous Tumorigenesis in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michelle S; Bakker, Bjorn; Boeckx, Bram; Moyett, Julia; Lu, James; Vitre, Benjamin; Spierings, Diana C; Lansdorp, Peter M; Cleveland, Don W; Lambrechts, Diether; Foijer, Floris; Holland, Andrew J

    2017-02-06

    Centrosome amplification is a common feature of human tumors, but whether this is a cause or a consequence of cancer remains unclear. Here, we test the consequence of centrosome amplification by creating mice in which centrosome number can be chronically increased in the absence of additional genetic defects. We show that increasing centrosome number elevated tumor initiation in a mouse model of intestinal neoplasia. Most importantly, we demonstrate that supernumerary centrosomes are sufficient to drive aneuploidy and the development of spontaneous tumors in multiple tissues. Tumors arising from centrosome amplification exhibit frequent mitotic errors and possess complex karyotypes, recapitulating a common feature of human cancer. Together, our data support a direct causal relationship among centrosome amplification, genomic instability, and tumor development.

  4. Dynein Transmits Polarized Actomyosin Cortical Flows to Promote Centrosome Separation.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Alessandro; Nédélec, François; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-03-08

    The two centrosomes present at the onset of mitosis must separate in a timely and accurate fashion to ensure proper bipolar spindle assembly. The minus-end-directed motor dynein plays a pivotal role in centrosome separation, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, particularly regarding how dynein coordinates this process in space and time. We addressed these questions in the one-cell C. elegans embryo, using a combination of 3D time-lapse microscopy and computational modeling. Our analysis reveals that centrosome separation is powered by the joint action of dynein at the nuclear envelope and at the cell cortex. Strikingly, we demonstrate that dynein at the cell cortex acts as a force-transmitting device that harnesses polarized actomyosin cortical flows initiated by the centrosomes earlier in the cell cycle. This mechanism elegantly couples cell polarization with centrosome separation, thus ensuring faithful cell division.

  5. Centriolar satellites assemble centrosomal microcephaly proteins to recruit CDK2 and promote centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Kodani, Andrew; Yu, Timothy W; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Jayaraman, Divya; Johnson, Tasha L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Sztriha, Lāszló; Partlow, Jennifer N; Kim, Hanjun; Krup, Alexis L; Dammermann, Alexander; Krogan, Nevan J; Walsh, Christopher A; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2015-08-22

    Primary microcephaly (MCPH) associated proteins CDK5RAP2, CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 colocalize at the centrosome. We found that they interact to promote centriole duplication and form a hierarchy in which each is required to localize another to the centrosome, with CDK5RAP2 at the apex, and CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 at sequentially lower positions. MCPH proteins interact with distinct centriolar satellite proteins; CDK5RAP2 interacts with SPAG5 and CEP72, CEP152 with CEP131, WDR62 with MOONRAKER, and CEP63 with CEP90 and CCDC14. These satellite proteins localize their cognate MCPH interactors to centrosomes and also promote centriole duplication. Consistent with a role for satellites in microcephaly, homozygous mutations in one satellite gene, CEP90, may cause MCPH. The satellite proteins, with the exception of CCDC14, and MCPH proteins promote centriole duplication by recruiting CDK2 to the centrosome. Thus, centriolar satellites build a MCPH complex critical for human neurodevelopment that promotes CDK2 centrosomal localization and centriole duplication.

  6. Centriolar satellites assemble centrosomal microcephaly proteins to recruit CDK2 and promote centriole duplication

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Andrew; Yu, Timothy W; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Jayaraman, Divya; Johnson, Tasha L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Sztriha, Lāszló; Partlow, Jennifer N; Kim, Hanjun; Krup, Alexis L; Dammermann, Alexander; Krogan, Nevan J; Walsh, Christopher A; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Primary microcephaly (MCPH) associated proteins CDK5RAP2, CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 colocalize at the centrosome. We found that they interact to promote centriole duplication and form a hierarchy in which each is required to localize another to the centrosome, with CDK5RAP2 at the apex, and CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 at sequentially lower positions. MCPH proteins interact with distinct centriolar satellite proteins; CDK5RAP2 interacts with SPAG5 and CEP72, CEP152 with CEP131, WDR62 with MOONRAKER, and CEP63 with CEP90 and CCDC14. These satellite proteins localize their cognate MCPH interactors to centrosomes and also promote centriole duplication. Consistent with a role for satellites in microcephaly, homozygous mutations in one satellite gene, CEP90, may cause MCPH. The satellite proteins, with the exception of CCDC14, and MCPH proteins promote centriole duplication by recruiting CDK2 to the centrosome. Thus, centriolar satellites build a MCPH complex critical for human neurodevelopment that promotes CDK2 centrosomal localization and centriole duplication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07519.001 PMID:26297806

  7. Induction of Aneuploidy, Centrosome Abnormality, Multipolar Spindle, and Multipolar Division in Cultured Mammalian Cells Exposed to an Arsenic Metabolite, Dimethylarsinate.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Toxicological studies of arsenic compounds were conducted in cultured mammalian cells to investigate the effects of glutathione (GSH) depletion. Dimethylarsinate DMA(V) was not cytotoxic in cells depleted of GSH, but was found to be cytotoxic when GSH was present outside the cells. The results suggested that a reactive form of DMA(V) was generated through interaction with GSH. Dimethylarsine iodide DMI(III) was used as a model compound of DMA(III), and the biological effects were investigated. DMI(III) was about 10000 times more toxic to the cells than DMA(V). Chromosome structural aberrations and numerical changes, such as aneuploidy, were induced by DMI(III). DMA(V) induced multiple foci of the centrosome protein, γ-tubulin, which were colocalized with multipolar spindles in mitotic cells. The multiple foci coalesced into a single dot on disruption of the microtubules (MT). However, reorganization of the MT caused multiple foci of γ-tubulin, suggesting that the induction of centrosome abnormalities by DMA(V) required intact MT. Inhibition of the MT-dependent motor, kinesin, prevented formation of multiple foci of γ-tubulin, which pointed to the involvement of the MT-dependent mitotic motor, kinesin, in the maintenance of centrosome abnormalities. DMI(III) caused abnormal cytokinesis (multipolar division). In addition, DMI(III) caused morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Consideration of the overall process following the centrosome abnormalities caused by DMA(V) suggested a mode of cytotoxicity in which the mitotic centrosome is a critical target.

  8. Phosphorylation of the centrosomal protein, Cep169, by Cdk1 promotes its dissociation from centrosomes in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoko; Taniyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Sayori; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-25

    Cep169 is a centrosomal protein conserved among vertebrates. In our previous reports, we showed that mammalian Cep169 interacts and collaborates with CDK5RAP2 to regulate microtubule (MT) dynamics and stabilization. Although Cep169 is required for MT regulation, its precise cellular function remains largely elusive. Here we show that Cep169 associates with centrosomes during interphase, but dissociates from these structures from the onset of mitosis, although CDK5RAP2 (Cep215) is continuously located at the centrosomes throughout cell cycle. Interestingly, treatment with purvalanol A, a Cdk1 inhibitor, nearly completely blocked the dissociation of Cep169 from centrosomes during mitosis. In addition, mass spectrometry analyses identified 7 phosphorylated residues of Cep169 corresponding to consensus phosphorylation sequence for Cdk1. These data suggest that the dissociation of Cep169 from centrosomes is controlled by Cdk1/Cyclin B during mitosis, and that Cep169 might regulate MT dynamics of mitotic spindle.

  9. Ensconsin/Map7 promotes microtubule growth and centrosome separation in Drosophila neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gallaud, Emmanuel; Caous, Renaud; Pascal, Aude; Bazile, Franck; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Huet, Sébastien; Poirier, Guy G.; Chrétien, Denis; Richard-Parpaillon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic spindle is crucial to achieve segregation of sister chromatids. To identify new mitotic spindle assembly regulators, we isolated 855 microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) from Drosophila melanogaster mitotic or interphasic embryos. Using RNAi, we screened 96 poorly characterized genes in the Drosophila central nervous system to establish their possible role during spindle assembly. We found that Ensconsin/MAP7 mutant neuroblasts display shorter metaphase spindles, a defect caused by a reduced microtubule polymerization rate and enhanced by centrosome ablation. In agreement with a direct effect in regulating spindle length, Ensconsin overexpression triggered an increase in spindle length in S2 cells, whereas purified Ensconsin stimulated microtubule polymerization in vitro. Interestingly, ensc-null mutant flies also display defective centrosome separation and positioning during interphase, a phenotype also detected in kinesin-1 mutants. Collectively, our results suggest that Ensconsin cooperates with its binding partner Kinesin-1 during interphase to trigger centrosome separation. In addition, Ensconsin promotes microtubule polymerization during mitosis to control spindle length independent of Kinesin-1. PMID:24687279

  10. Ensconsin/Map7 promotes microtubule growth and centrosome separation in Drosophila neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gallaud, Emmanuel; Caous, Renaud; Pascal, Aude; Bazile, Franck; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Huet, Sébastien; Poirier, Guy G; Chrétien, Denis; Richard-Parpaillon, Laurent; Giet, Régis

    2014-03-31

    The mitotic spindle is crucial to achieve segregation of sister chromatids. To identify new mitotic spindle assembly regulators, we isolated 855 microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) from Drosophila melanogaster mitotic or interphasic embryos. Using RNAi, we screened 96 poorly characterized genes in the Drosophila central nervous system to establish their possible role during spindle assembly. We found that Ensconsin/MAP7 mutant neuroblasts display shorter metaphase spindles, a defect caused by a reduced microtubule polymerization rate and enhanced by centrosome ablation. In agreement with a direct effect in regulating spindle length, Ensconsin overexpression triggered an increase in spindle length in S2 cells, whereas purified Ensconsin stimulated microtubule polymerization in vitro. Interestingly, ensc-null mutant flies also display defective centrosome separation and positioning during interphase, a phenotype also detected in kinesin-1 mutants. Collectively, our results suggest that Ensconsin cooperates with its binding partner Kinesin-1 during interphase to trigger centrosome separation. In addition, Ensconsin promotes microtubule polymerization during mitosis to control spindle length independent of Kinesin-1.

  11. HSP70 colocalizes with PLK1 at the centrosome and disturbs spindle dynamics in cells arrested in mitosis by arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Lai, Kuo-Chu; Kuo, Hsiao-Hui; Chow, Lu-Ping; Yih, Ling-Huei; Lee, Te-Chang

    2014-09-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been shown to be a substrate of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and it prevents cells arrested in mitosis by arsenic trioxide (ATO) from dying. Here, we report that HSP70 participates in ATO-induced spindle elongation, which interferes with mitosis progression. Our results demonstrate that HSP70 and PLK1 colocalize at the centrosome in ATO-arrested mitotic cells. HSP70 located at the centrosome was found to be phosphorylated by PLK1 at Ser⁶³¹ and Ser⁶³³. Moreover, unlike wild-type HSP70 (HSP70(wt)) and its phosphomimetic mutant (HSP70(SS631,633DD)), a phosphorylation-resistant mutant of HSP70 (HSP70(SS631,633AA)) failed to localize at the centrosome. ATO-induced spindle elongation was abolished in cells overexpressing HSP70(SS631,633AA). Conversely, mitotic spindles in cells ectopically expressing HSP70(SS631,633DD) were more resistant to nocodazole-induced depolymerization than in those expressing HSP70(wt) or HSP70(SS631,633AA). In addition, inhibition of PLK1 significantly reduced HSP70 phosphorylation and induced early onset of apoptosis in ATO-arrested mitotic cells. Taken together, our results indicate that PLK1-mediated phosphorylation and centrosomal localization of HSP70 may interfere with spindle dynamics and prevent apoptosis of ATO-arrested mitotic cells.

  12. Cdk1 phosphorylates the Rac activator Tiam1 to activate centrosomal Pak and promote mitotic spindle formation

    PubMed Central

    Whalley, Helen J.; Porter, Andrew P.; Diamantopoulou, Zoi; White, Gavin R. M.; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Malliri, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Centrosome separation is critical for bipolar spindle formation and the accurate segregation of chromosomes during mammalian cell mitosis. Kinesin-5 (Eg5) is a microtubule motor essential for centrosome separation, and Tiam1 and its substrate Rac antagonize Eg5-dependent centrosome separation in early mitosis promoting efficient chromosome congression. Here we identify S1466 of Tiam1 as a novel Cdk1 site whose phosphorylation is required for the mitotic function of Tiam1. We find that this phosphorylation of Tiam1 is required for the activation of group I p21-activated kinases (Paks) on centrosomes in prophase. Further, we show that both Pak1 and Pak2 counteract centrosome separation in a kinase-dependent manner and demonstrate that they act downstream of Tiam1. We also show that depletion of Pak1/2 allows cells to escape monopolar arrest by Eg5 inhibition, highlighting the potential importance of this signalling pathway for the development of Eg5 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics. PMID:26078008

  13. Cdk1 phosphorylates the Rac activator Tiam1 to activate centrosomal Pak and promote mitotic spindle formation.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Helen J; Porter, Andrew P; Diamantopoulou, Zoi; White, Gavin R M; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Malliri, Angeliki

    2015-06-16

    Centrosome separation is critical for bipolar spindle formation and the accurate segregation of chromosomes during mammalian cell mitosis. Kinesin-5 (Eg5) is a microtubule motor essential for centrosome separation, and Tiam1 and its substrate Rac antagonize Eg5-dependent centrosome separation in early mitosis promoting efficient chromosome congression. Here we identify S1466 of Tiam1 as a novel Cdk1 site whose phosphorylation is required for the mitotic function of Tiam1. We find that this phosphorylation of Tiam1 is required for the activation of group I p21-activated kinases (Paks) on centrosomes in prophase. Further, we show that both Pak1 and Pak2 counteract centrosome separation in a kinase-dependent manner and demonstrate that they act downstream of Tiam1. We also show that depletion of Pak1/2 allows cells to escape monopolar arrest by Eg5 inhibition, highlighting the potential importance of this signalling pathway for the development of Eg5 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics.

  14. Tumor-Derived Factors and Reduced p53 Promote Endothelial Cell Centrosome Over-Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhixian; Mouillesseaux, Kevin P.; Kushner, Erich J.; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% of tumor endothelial cells have over-duplicated (>2) centrosomes, which may contribute to abnormal vessel function and drug resistance. Elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A induce excess centrosomes in endothelial cells, but how other features of the tumor environment affect centrosome over-duplication is not known. To test this, we treated endothelial cells with tumor-derived factors, hypoxia, or reduced p53, and assessed centrosome numbers. We found that hypoxia and elevated levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2, 6 and 7 induced excess centrosomes in endothelial cells through BMPR1A and likely via SMAD signaling. In contrast, inflammatory mediators IL-8 and lipopolysaccharide did not induce excess centrosomes. Finally, down-regulation in endothelial cells of p53, a critical regulator of DNA damage and proliferation, caused centrosome over-duplication. Our findings suggest that some tumor-derived factors and genetic changes in endothelial cells contribute to excess centrosomes in tumor endothelial cells. PMID:27977771

  15. Differential Methylation of the Arsenic (III) Methyltransferase Promoter According to Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Matthew O.; Tang, Wan-yee; Shang, Yan; Pollak, Jonathan; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Guallar, Eliseo; Cole, Shelley A.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is methylated in the body by arsenic (III) methyltransferase. Arsenic methylation is thought to play a role in arsenic-related epigenetic phenomena including aberrant DNA and histone methylation. However, it is unclear whether the promoter of the AS3MT gene, which codes for arsenic (III) methyltransferase, is differentially methylated as a function of arsenic exposure. In this study we evaluated AS3MT promoter methylation according to exposure, assessed by urinary arsenic excretion in a stratified random sample of 48 participants from the Strong Heart Study who had urine arsenic measured at baseline and DNA available from 1989–1991 and 1998–1999. For this study, all data are from the 1989–1991 visit. We measured AS3MT promoter methylation at its 48 CpG loci by bisulphite sequencing. We compared mean % methylation at each CpG locus by arsenic exposure group using linear regression adjusted for study centre, age and sex. A hypomethylated region in the AS3MT promoter was associated with higher arsenic exposure. In vitro, arsenic induced AS3MT promoter hypomethylation and it increased AS3MT expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These findings may suggest that arsenic exposure influences the epigenetic regulation of a major arsenic metabolism gene. PMID:24154821

  16. INF2 promotes the formation of detyrosinated microtubules necessary for centrosome reorientation in T cells

    PubMed Central

    Andrés-Delgado, Laura; Antón, Olga M.; Bartolini, Francesca; Ruiz-Sáenz, Ana; Correas, Isabel; Gundersen, Gregg G.

    2012-01-01

    T cell antigen receptor–proximal signaling components, Rho-family GTPases, and formin proteins DIA1 and FMNL1 have been implicated in centrosome reorientation to the immunological synapse of T lymphocytes. However, the role of these molecules in the reorientation process is not yet defined. Here we find that a subset of microtubules became rapidly stabilized and that their α-tubulin subunit posttranslationally detyrosinated after engagement of the T cell receptor. Formation of stabilized, detyrosinated microtubules required the formin INF2, which was also found to be essential for centrosome reorientation, but it occurred independently of T cell receptor–induced massive tyrosine phosphorylation. The FH2 domain, which was mapped as the INF2 region involved in centrosome repositioning, was able to mediate the formation of stable, detyrosinated microtubules and to restore centrosome translocation in DIA1-, FMNL1-, Rac1-, and Cdc42-deficient cells. Further experiments indicated that microtubule stabilization was required for centrosome polarization. Our work identifies INF2 and stable, detyrosinated microtubules as central players in centrosome reorientation in T cells. PMID:22986496

  17. Centrosomal protein of 192 kDa (Cep192) promotes centrosome-driven spindle assembly by engaging in organelle-specific Aurora A activation

    PubMed Central

    Joukov, Vladimir; De Nicolo, Arcangela; Rodriguez, Alison; Walter, Johannes C.; Livingston, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Centrosomes are primary microtubule (MT)-organizing centers (MTOCs). During mitosis, they dramatically increase their size and MT-nucleating activity and participate in spindle assembly from spindle poles. These events require the serine/threonine kinase, Aurora A (AurA), and the centrosomal protein of 192 kDa (Cep192)/spindle defective 2 (Spd-2), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We have found that Cep192, unlike targeting protein for Xklp2 (TPX2), a known MT-localizing AurA activator, is an AurA cofactor in centrosome-driven spindle assembly. Cep192, through a direct interaction, targets AurA to mitotic centrosomes where the locally accumulating AurA forms homodimers or oligomers. The dimerization of endogenous AurA, in the presence of bound Cep192, triggers potent kinase activation that, in turn, drives MT assembly. Depletion of Cep192 or specific interference with AurA-Cep192 binding did not prevent AurA oligomerization on MTs but abrogated AurA recruitment to centrosomes and its activation by either sperm nuclei or anti-AurA antibody (αAurA)-induced dimerization. In these settings, MT assembly by both centrosomes and αAurA-coated beads was also abolished or severely compromised. Hence, Cep192 activates AurA by a mechanism different from that previously described for TPX2. The Cep192-mediated mechanism maximizes AurA activity at centrosomes and appears essential for the function of these organelles as MTOCs. PMID:21097701

  18. Localized products of futile cycle/lrmp promote centrosome-nucleus attachment in the zebrafish zygote

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Robin Emily; Pelegri, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Background The centrosome has a well-established role as a microtubule organizer during mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition, it facilitates the union of parental haploid genomes following fertilization by nucleating a microtubule aster along which the female pronucleus migrates towards the male pronucleus. Stable associations between the sperm aster and the pronuclei are essential during this directed movement. Results Our studies reveal that the zebrafish gene futile cycle (fue) is required in the zygote for male pronucleus-centrosome attachment and female pronuclear migration. We show that fue encodes a novel, maternally-provided long form of lymphoid-restricted membrane protein (lrmp), a vertebrate-specific gene of unknown function. Both maternal lrmp mRNA and protein are highly localized in the zygote, in a largely overlapping pattern at nuclear membranes, centrosomes, and spindles. Truncated Lrmp-EGFP fusion proteins identified subcellular targeting signals in the C-terminus of Lrmp, however endogenous mRNA localization is likely important to ensure strict spatial expression of the protein. Localization of both Lrmp protein and lrmp RNA is defective in fue mutant embryos, indicating that correct targeting of lrmp gene products is dependent on Lrmp function. Conclusions Lrmp is a conserved vertebrate gene whose maternally-inherited products are essential for nucleus-centrosome attachment and pronuclear congression during fertilization. Precise subcellular localization of lrmp products also suggests a requirement for strict spatiotemporal regulation of their function in the early embryo. PMID:22542100

  19. Localized products of futile cycle/lrmp promote centrosome-nucleus attachment in the zebrafish zygote.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Robin E; Pelegri, Francisco

    2012-05-22

    The centrosome has a well-established role as a microtubule organizer during mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition, it facilitates the union of parental haploid genomes following fertilization by nucleating a microtubule aster along which the female pronucleus migrates toward the male pronucleus. Stable associations between the sperm aster and the pronuclei are essential during this directed movement. Our studies reveal that the zebrafish gene futile cycle (fue) is required in the zygote for male pronucleus-centrosome attachment and female pronuclear migration. We show that fue encodes a novel, maternally-provided long form of lymphoid-restricted membrane protein (lrmp), a vertebrate-specific gene of unknown function. Both maternal lrmp messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein are highly localized in the zygote, in a largely overlapping pattern at nuclear membranes, centrosomes, and spindles. Truncated Lrmp-EGFP fusion proteins identified subcellular targeting signals in the C terminus of Lrmp; however, endogenous mRNA localization is likely important to ensure strict spatial expression of the protein. Localization of both Lrmp protein and lrmp RNA is defective in fue mutant embryos, indicating that correct targeting of lrmp gene products is dependent on Lrmp function. Lrmp is a conserved vertebrate gene whose maternally inherited products are essential for nucleus-centrosome attachment and pronuclear congression during fertilization. Precise subcellular localization of lrmp products also suggests a requirement for strict spatiotemporal regulation of their function in the early embryo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic centrosome amplification without tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vitre, Benjamin; Holland, Andrew J.; Kulukian, Anita; Shoshani, Ofer; Hirai, Maretoshi; Wang, Yin; Maldonado, Marcus; Cho, Thomas; Boubaker, Jihane; Swing, Deborah A.; Tessarollo, Lino; Evans, Sylvia M.; Fuchs, Elaine; Cleveland, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Centrosomes are microtubule-organizing centers that facilitate bipolar mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. Recognizing that centrosome amplification is a common feature of aneuploid cancer cells, we tested whether supernumerary centrosomes are sufficient to drive tumor development. To do this, we constructed and analyzed mice in which centrosome amplification can be induced by a Cre-recombinase–mediated increase in expression of Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4). Elevated Plk4 in mouse fibroblasts produced supernumerary centrosomes and enhanced the expected mitotic errors, but proliferation continued only after inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor. Increasing Plk4 levels in mice with functional p53 produced centrosome amplification in liver and skin, but this did not promote spontaneous tumor development in these tissues or enhance the growth of chemically induced skin tumors. In the absence of p53, Plk4 overexpression generated widespread centrosome amplification, but did not drive additional tumors or affect development of the fatal thymic lymphomas that arise in animals lacking p53. We conclude that, independent of p53 status, supernumerary centrosomes are not sufficient to drive tumor formation. PMID:26578792

  1. CEP63 deficiency promotes p53-dependent microcephaly and reveals a role for the centrosome in meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Marjanović, Marko; Sánchez-Huertas, Carlos; Terré, Berta; Gómez, Rocío; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Pacheco, Sarai; Knobel, Philip A; Martínez-Marchal, Ana; Aivio, Suvi; Palenzuela, Lluís; Wolfrum, Uwe; McKinnon, Peter J; Suja, José A; Roig, Ignasi; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Lüders, Jens; Stracker, Travis H

    2015-07-09

    CEP63 is a centrosomal protein that facilitates centriole duplication and is regulated by the DNA damage response. Mutations in CEP63 cause Seckel syndrome, a human disease characterized by microcephaly and dwarfism. Here we demonstrate that Cep63-deficient mice recapitulate Seckel syndrome pathology. The attrition of neural progenitor cells involves p53-dependent cell death, and brain size is rescued by the deletion of p53. Cell death is not the result of an aberrant DNA damage response but is triggered by centrosome-based mitotic errors. In addition, Cep63 loss severely impairs meiotic recombination, leading to profound male infertility. Cep63-deficient spermatocytes display numerical and structural centrosome aberrations, chromosome entanglements and defective telomere clustering, suggesting that a reduction in centrosome-mediated chromosome movements underlies recombination failure. Our results provide novel insight into the molecular pathology of microcephaly and establish a role for the centrosome in meiotic recombination.

  2. CEP63 deficiency promotes p53-dependent microcephaly and reveals a role for the centrosome in meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Marko; Sánchez-Huertas, Carlos; Terré, Berta; Gómez, Rocío; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Pacheco, Sarai; Knobel, Philip A.; Martínez-Marchal, Ana; Aivio, Suvi; Palenzuela, Lluís; Wolfrum, Uwe; McKinnon, Peter J.; Suja, José A.; Roig, Ignasi; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Lüders, Jens; Stracker, Travis H.

    2015-01-01

    CEP63 is a centrosomal protein that facilitates centriole duplication and is regulated by the DNA damage response. Mutations in CEP63 cause Seckel syndrome, a human disease characterized by microcephaly and dwarfism. Here we demonstrate that Cep63 deficient mice recapitulate Seckel syndrome pathology. The attrition of neural progenitor cells involves p53-dependent cell death and brain size is rescued by the deletion of p53. Cell death is not the result of an aberrant DNA damage response but is triggered by centrosome-based mitotic errors. In addition, Cep63 loss severely impairs meiotic recombination, leading to profound male infertility. Cep63 deficient spermatocytes display numerical and structural centrosome aberrations, chromosome entanglements and defective telomere clustering, suggesting that a reduction in centrosome-mediated chromosome movements underlies recombination failure. Our results provide novel insight into the molecular pathology of microcephaly and establish a role for the centrosome in meiotic recombination. PMID:26158450

  3. A p27Kip1 mutant that does not inhibit CDK activity promotes centrosome amplification and micronucleation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S S; Ma, L; Bagui, T K; Forinash, K D; Pledger, W J

    2012-08-30

    Mitotic catastrophe occurs when cells enter mitosis with damaged DNA or excess centrosomes. Cells overexpressing the centrosome protein CP110 or depleted of cyclin F, which targets CP110 for destruction, have more than two centrosomes and undergo mitotic catastrophe. Our studies show centrosome reduplication and mitotic catastrophe in osteosarcoma cells inducibly expressing a p27Kip1 mutant (termed p27K) that binds cyclins but not cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). p27K inhibited cell proliferation but not CDK activity or cell cycle progression. It did not induce apoptosis; however, cells expressing p27K had more than two centrosomes and, indicative of mitotic catastrophe, irregularly shaped nuclei or multiple micronuclei. p27K interacted with cyclin F in vivo (as did endogenous p27Kip1) and displaced cyclin F from CP110. Depletion of CP110 rescued p27K-expressing cells from centrosome reduplication and mitotic catastrophe. Collectively, our data show that p27Kip1 can perturb mitosis and suggest that it does so by sequestering cyclin F, which prevents its interaction with and the subsequent degradation of CP110, ultimately resulting in centrosome reduplication, mitotic catastrophe and abrogation of cell proliferation.

  4. Preventing the degradation of mps1 at centrosomes is sufficient to cause centrosome reduplication in human cells.

    PubMed

    Kasbek, Christopher; Yang, Ching-Hui; Yusof, Adlina Mohd; Chapman, Heather M; Winey, Mark; Fisk, Harold A

    2007-11-01

    Supernumerary centrosomes promote the assembly of abnormal mitotic spindles in many human tumors. In human cells, overexpression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)2 partner cyclin A during a prolonged S phase produces extra centrosomes, called centrosome reduplication. Cdk2 activity protects the Mps1 protein kinase from proteasome-mediated degradation, and we demonstrate here that Mps1 mediates cyclin A-dependent centrosome reduplication. Overexpression of cyclin A or a brief proteasome inhibition increases the centrosomal levels of Mps1, whereas depletion of Cdk2 leads to the proteasome-dependent loss of Mps1 from centrosomes only. When a Cdk2 phosphorylation site within Mps1 (T468) is mutated to alanine, Mps1 cannot accumulate at centrosomes or participate in centrosome duplication. In contrast, phosphomimetic mutations at T468 or deletion of the region surrounding T468 prevent the proteasome-dependent removal of Mps1 from centrosomes in the absence of Cdk2 activity. Moreover, cyclin A-dependent centrosome reduplication requires Mps1, and these stabilizing Mps1 mutations cause centrosome reduplication, bypassing cyclin A. Together, our data demonstrate that the region surrounding T468 contains a motif that regulates the accumulation of Mps1 at centrosomes. We suggest that phosphorylation of T468 attenuates the degradation of Mps1 at centrosomes and that preventing this degradation is necessary and sufficient to cause centrosome reduplication in human cells.

  5. Sequential activities of Dynein, Mud and Asp in centrosome-spindle coupling maintain centrosome number upon mitosis.

    PubMed

    Bosveld, Floris; Ainslie, Anna; Bellaïche, Yohanns

    2017-09-01

    Centrosomes nucleate microtubules and are tightly coupled to the bipolar spindle to ensure genome integrity, cell division orientation and centrosome segregation. While the mechanisms of centrosome-dependent microtubule nucleation and bipolar spindle assembly have been the focus of numerous works, less is known on the mechanisms ensuring the centrosome-spindle coupling. The conserved NuMA protein (Mud in Drosophila) is best known for its role in spindle orientation. Here we analyzed the role of Mud and two of its interactors, Asp and Dynein, in the regulation of centrosome numbers in Drosophila epithelial cells. We found that Dynein and Mud mainly initiate centrosome-spindle coupling prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) by promoting correct centrosome positioning or separation, while Asp acts largely independently of Dynein and Mud to maintain centrosome-spindle coupling. Failure in the centrosome-spindle coupling leads to mis-segregation of the two centrosomes into one daughter cell resulting in cells with supernumerary centrosomes during subsequent divisions. Together, we propose that Dynein, Mud and Asp sequentially operate during the cell cycle to ensure efficient centrosome-spindle coupling in mitosis preventing centrosome mis-segregation to maintain centrosome number. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Arsenite promotes centrosome abnormalities under a p53 compromised status induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, W.-T.; Yu, H.-S.; Lin Pinpin; Chang, Louis W.

    2010-02-15

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus an interaction between arsenite and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of a tobacco-specific carcinogen 4- (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone, NNK) and arsenite on lung cell transformation. BEAS-2B, an immortalized human lung epithelial cell line, was selected to test the centrosomal abnormalities and colony formation by NNK and arsenite. We found that NNK, alone, could enhance BEAS-2B cell growth at 1-5 muM. Under NNK exposure, arsenite was able to increase centrosomal abnormality as compared with NNK or arsenite treatment alone. NNK treatment could also reduce arsenite-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, these cellular effects were found to be correlated with p53 dysfunction. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells cotreated with NNK and arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that NNK could provide a p53 compromised status. Arsenite would act specifically on this p53 compromised status to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenite under tobacco-specific carcinogen co-exposure.

  7. Excess centrosomes disrupt endothelial cell migration via centrosome scattering.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Erich J; Ferro, Luke S; Liu, Jie-Yu; Durrant, Jessica R; Rogers, Stephen L; Dudley, Andrew C; Bautch, Victoria L

    2014-07-21

    Supernumerary centrosomes contribute to spindle defects and aneuploidy at mitosis, but the effects of excess centrosomes during interphase are poorly understood. In this paper, we show that interphase endothelial cells with even one extra centrosome exhibit a cascade of defects, resulting in disrupted cell migration and abnormal blood vessel sprouting. Endothelial cells with supernumerary centrosomes had increased centrosome scattering and reduced microtubule (MT) nucleation capacity that correlated with decreased Golgi integrity and randomized vesicle trafficking, and ablation of excess centrosomes partially rescued these parameters. Mechanistically, tumor endothelial cells with supernumerary centrosomes had less centrosome-localized γ-tubulin, and Plk1 blockade prevented MT growth, whereas overexpression rescued centrosome γ-tubulin levels and centrosome dynamics. These data support a model whereby centrosome-MT interactions during interphase are important for centrosome clustering and cell polarity and further suggest that disruption of interphase cell behavior by supernumerary centrosomes contributes to pathology independent of mitotic effects. © 2014 Kushner et al.

  8. The Centrosome-Specific Phosphorylation of Cnn by Polo/Plk1 Drives Cnn Scaffold Assembly and Centrosome Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Conduit, Paul T.; Feng, Zhe; Richens, Jennifer H.; Baumbach, Janina; Wainman, Alan; Bakshi, Suruchi D.; Dobbelaere, Jeroen; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M.; Raff, Jordan W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Centrosomes are important cell organizers. They consist of a pair of centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM) that expands dramatically during mitosis—a process termed centrosome maturation. How centrosomes mature remains mysterious. Here, we identify a domain in Drosophila Cnn that appears to be phosphorylated by Polo/Plk1 specifically at centrosomes during mitosis. The phosphorylation promotes the assembly of a Cnn scaffold around the centrioles that is in constant flux, with Cnn molecules recruited continuously around the centrioles as the scaffold spreads slowly outward. Mutations that block Cnn phosphorylation strongly inhibit scaffold assembly and centrosome maturation, whereas phosphomimicking mutations allow Cnn to multimerize in vitro and to spontaneously form cytoplasmic scaffolds in vivo that organize microtubules independently of centrosomes. We conclude that Polo/Plk1 initiates the phosphorylation-dependent assembly of a Cnn scaffold around centrioles that is essential for efficient centrosome maturation in flies. PMID:24656740

  9. A CEP215–HSET complex links centrosomes with spindle poles and drives centrosome clustering in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chavali, Pavithra L.; Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Barr, Alexis R.; Tátrai, Péter; Taylor, Chris; Papachristou, Evaggelia K.; Woods, C. Geoffrey; Chavali, Sreenivas; Gergely, Fanni

    2016-01-01

    Numerical centrosome aberrations underlie certain developmental abnormalities and may promote cancer. A cell maintains normal centrosome numbers by coupling centrosome duplication with segregation, which is achieved through sustained association of each centrosome with a mitotic spindle pole. Although the microcephaly- and primordial dwarfism-linked centrosomal protein CEP215 has been implicated in this process, the molecular mechanism responsible remains unclear. Here, using proteomic profiling, we identify the minus end-directed microtubule motor protein HSET as a direct binding partner of CEP215. Targeted deletion of the HSET-binding domain of CEP215 in vertebrate cells causes centrosome detachment and results in HSET depletion at centrosomes, a phenotype also observed in CEP215-deficient patient-derived cells. Moreover, in cancer cells with centrosome amplification, the CEP215–HSET complex promotes the clustering of extra centrosomes into pseudo-bipolar spindles, thereby ensuring viable cell division. Therefore, stabilization of the centrosome–spindle pole interface by the CEP215–HSET complex could promote survival of cancer cells containing supernumerary centrosomes. PMID:26987684

  10. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can ... Breathing sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood Living in an area with high levels of ...

  11. Excess centrosomes disrupt endothelial cell migration via centrosome scattering

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Erich J.; Ferro, Luke S.; Liu, Jie-Yu; Durrant, Jessica R.; Rogers, Stephen L.; Dudley, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary centrosomes contribute to spindle defects and aneuploidy at mitosis, but the effects of excess centrosomes during interphase are poorly understood. In this paper, we show that interphase endothelial cells with even one extra centrosome exhibit a cascade of defects, resulting in disrupted cell migration and abnormal blood vessel sprouting. Endothelial cells with supernumerary centrosomes had increased centrosome scattering and reduced microtubule (MT) nucleation capacity that correlated with decreased Golgi integrity and randomized vesicle trafficking, and ablation of excess centrosomes partially rescued these parameters. Mechanistically, tumor endothelial cells with supernumerary centrosomes had less centrosome-localized γ-tubulin, and Plk1 blockade prevented MT growth, whereas overexpression rescued centrosome γ-tubulin levels and centrosome dynamics. These data support a model whereby centrosome–MT interactions during interphase are important for centrosome clustering and cell polarity and further suggest that disruption of interphase cell behavior by supernumerary centrosomes contributes to pathology independent of mitotic effects. PMID:25049273

  12. Centrosome localization determines neuronal polarity.

    PubMed

    de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Pollarolo, Giulia; Da Silva, Jorge Santos; Camoletto, Paola G; Feiguin, Fabian; Dotti, Carlos G

    2005-08-04

    Neuronal polarization occurs shortly after mitosis. In neurons differentiating in vitro, axon formation follows the segregation of growth-promoting activities to only one of the multiple neurites that form after mitosis. It is unresolved whether such spatial restriction makes use of an intrinsic program, like during C. elegans embryo polarization, or is extrinsic and cue-mediated, as in migratory cells. Here we show that in hippocampal neurons in vitro, the axon consistently arises from the neurite that develops first after mitosis. Centrosomes, the Golgi apparatus and endosomes cluster together close to the area where the first neurite will form, which is in turn opposite from the plane of the last mitotic division. We show that the polarized activities of these organelles are necessary and sufficient for neuronal polarization: (1) polarized microtubule polymerization and membrane transport precedes first neurite formation, (2) neurons with more than one centrosome sprout more than one axon and (3) suppression of centrosome-mediated functions precludes polarization. We conclude that asymmetric centrosome-mediated dynamics in the early post-mitotic stage instruct neuronal polarity, implying that pre-mitotic mechanisms with a role in division orientation may in turn participate in this event.

  13. The centrosome is an actin-organizing center

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Francesca; Gaillard, Jérémie; Guérin, Christophe; Couté, Yohann; Sillibourne, James; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and actin filaments are the two main cytoskeleton networks supporting intracellular architecture and cell polarity. The centrosome nucleates and anchors microtubules and is therefore considered to be the main microtubule-organizing center. However, recurring, yet unexplained, observations have pointed towards a connection between the centrosome and actin filaments. Here we have used isolated centrosomes to demonstrate that the centrosome can directly promote actin filament assembly. A cloud of centrosome-associated actin filaments could be identified in living cells as well. Actin-filament nucleation at the centrosome was mediated by the nucleation promoting factor WASH in combination with the Arp2/3 complex. Pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1) appeared to modulate the centrosomal actin network by regulating Arp2/3 complex and WASH recruitment to the centrosome. Hence our results reveal an additional facet of the centrosome as an intracellular organizer and provide mechanistic insights into how the centrosome can function as an actin filament-organizing center. PMID:26655833

  14. The centrosome is an actin-organizing centre.

    PubMed

    Farina, Francesca; Gaillard, Jérémie; Guérin, Christophe; Couté, Yohann; Sillibourne, James; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and actin filaments are the two main cytoskeleton networks supporting intracellular architecture and cell polarity. The centrosome nucleates and anchors microtubules and is therefore considered to be the main microtubule-organizing centre. However, recurring, yet unexplained, observations have pointed towards a connection between the centrosome and actin filaments. Here we have used isolated centrosomes to demonstrate that the centrosome can directly promote actin-filament assembly. A cloud of centrosome-associated actin filaments could be identified in living cells as well. Actin-filament nucleation at the centrosome was mediated by the nucleation-promoting factor WASH in combination with the Arp2/3 complex. Pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1) seemed to modulate the centrosomal actin network by regulating Arp2/3 complex and WASH recruitment to the centrosome. Hence, our results reveal an additional facet of the centrosome as an intracellular organizer and provide mechanistic insights into how the centrosome can function as an actin-filament-organizing centre.

  15. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... lesions and skin cancer are the most characteristic effects. Drinking-water and food The greatest threat to public health from arsenic originates from contaminated groundwater. Inorganic arsenic ...

  16. Interphase centrosome organization by the PLP-Cnn scaffold is required for centrosome function

    PubMed Central

    Lerit, Dorothy A.; Jordan, Holly A.; Poulton, John S.; Fagerstrom, Carey J.; Galletta, Brian J.; Peifer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Pericentriolar material (PCM) mediates the microtubule (MT) nucleation and anchoring activity of centrosomes. A scaffold organized by Centrosomin (Cnn) serves to ensure proper PCM architecture and functional changes in centrosome activity with each cell cycle. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that spatially restrict and temporally coordinate centrosome scaffold formation. Focusing on the mitotic-to-interphase transition in Drosophila melanogaster embryos, we show that the elaboration of the interphase Cnn scaffold defines a major structural rearrangement of the centrosome. We identify an unprecedented role for Pericentrin-like protein (PLP), which localizes to the tips of extended Cnn flares, to maintain robust interphase centrosome activity and promote the formation of interphase MT asters required for normal nuclear spacing, centrosome segregation, and compartmentalization of the syncytial embryo. Our data reveal that Cnn and PLP directly interact at two defined sites to coordinate the cell cycle–dependent rearrangement and scaffolding activity of the centrosome to permit normal centrosome organization, cell division, and embryonic viability. PMID:26150390

  17. Oncogene-like induction of cellular invasion from centrosome amplification

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Susana A.; Picone, Remigio; Burute, Mithila; Dagher, Regina; Su, Ying; Leung, Cheuk T.; Polyak, Kornelia; Brugge, Joan S.; Thery, Manuel; Pellman, David

    2014-01-01

    Centrosome amplification has long been recognized as a feature of human tumors, however its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear1. Centrosome amplification is poorly tolerated by non-transformed cells, and, in the absence of selection, extra centrosomes are spontaneously lost2. Thus, the high frequency of centrosome amplification, particularly in more aggressive tumors3, raises the possibility that extra centrosomes could, in some contexts, confer advantageous characteristics that promote tumor progression. Using a three-dimensional model system and other approaches to culture human mammary epithelial cells, we find that centrosome amplification triggers cell invasion. This invasive behavior is similar to that induced by overexpression of the breast cancer oncogene ErbB24 and indeed enhances invasiveness triggered by ErbB2. We show that, through increased centrosomal microtubule nucleation, centrosome amplification increases Rac1 activity, which disrupts normal cell-cell adhesion and promotes invasion. These findings demonstrate that centrosome amplification, a structural alteration of the cytoskeleton, can promote features of malignant transformation. PMID:24739973

  18. Arsenic Biotransformation as a Cancer Promoting Factor by Inducing DNA Damage and Disruption of Repair Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Adonis, Marta; Gil, Lionel; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water poses a major global health concern. Populations exposed to high concentrations of arsenic-contaminated drinking water suffer serious health consequences, including alarming cancer incidence and death rates. Arsenic is biotransformed through sequential addition of methyl groups, acquired from s-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Metabolism of arsenic generates a variety of genotoxic and cytotoxic species, damaging DNA directly and indirectly, through the generation of reactive oxidative species and induction of DNA adducts, strand breaks and cross links, and inhibition of the DNA repair process itself. Since SAM is the methyl group donor used by DNA methyltransferases to maintain normal epigenetic patterns in all human cells, arsenic is also postulated to affect maintenance of normal DNA methylation patterns, chromatin structure, and genomic stability. The biological processes underlying the cancer promoting factors of arsenic metabolism, related to DNA damage and repair, will be discussed here. PMID:22091411

  19. DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification occurs via excessive formation of centriolar satellites.

    PubMed

    Löffler, H; Fechter, A; Liu, F Y; Poppelreuther, S; Krämer, A

    2013-06-13

    Centrosome amplification is a frequent phenomenon in malignancies and may facilitate tumorigenesis by promoting chromosomal instability. On the other hand, a centrosome inactivation checkpoint comprising centrosome amplification leading to elimination of cells by mitotic catastrophe has been described in response to DNA damage by ionizing radiation or cytostatic drugs. So far, the exact nature of DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification, which might be overduplication or fragmentation of existing centrosomes, has been controversial. To solve this controversy, we have established a method to distinguish between these two possibilities using A549 cells expressing photoconvertible CETN2-Dendra2. In response to various DNA-damaging treatments, centrosome amplification but not fragmentation was observed. Moreover, centrosome amplification was preceded by excessive formation of centrin-containing centriolar satellites, which were identified as de novo-generated atypical centrin dots staining positive for centriolar satellite markers but negative or only weakly positive for other established centrosomal markers, and which could be verified as centriolar satellites using immunogold electron microscopy. In line with this notion, disruption of dynein-mediated recruitment of centrosomal proteins via centriolar satellites suppressed centrosome amplification after DNA damage, and excessive formation of centriolar satellites could be inhibited by interference with Chk1, a known mediator of centrosome amplification in response to DNA damage. In conclusion, we provide a model in which a Chk1-mediated DNA damage checkpoint induces excessive formation of centriolar satellites constituting assembly platforms for centrosomal proteins, which subsequently leads to centrosome amplification.

  20. Low level arsenic promotes progressive inflammatory angiogenesis and liver blood vessel remodeling in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Adam C.; Stolz, Donna B.; Vin, Harina; Ross, Mark A.; Soucy, Nicole V.; Klei, Linda R.; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2007-08-01

    The vascular effects of arsenic in drinking water are global health concerns contributing to human disease worldwide. Arsenic targets the endothelial cells lining blood vessels, and endothelial cell activation or dysfunction may underlie the pathogenesis of both arsenic-induced vascular diseases and arsenic-enhanced tumorigenesis. The purpose of the current studies was to demonstrate that exposing mice to drinking water containing environmentally relevant levels of arsenic promoted endothelial cell dysfunction and pathologic vascular remodeling. Increased angiogenesis, neovascularization, and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in Matrigel plugs implanted in C57BL/6 mice following 5-week exposures to 5-500 ppb arsenic [Soucy, N.V., Mayka, D., Klei, L.R., Nemec, A.A., Bauer, J.A., Barchowsky, A., 2005. Neovascularization and angiogenic gene expression following chronic arsenic exposure in mice. Cardiovasc.Toxicol 5, 29-42]. Therefore, functional in vivo effects of arsenic on endothelial cell function and vessel remodeling in an endogenous vascular bed were investigated in the liver. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) became progressively defenestrated and underwent capillarization to decrease vessel porosity following exposure to 250 ppb arsenic for 2 weeks. Sinusoidal expression of PECAM-1 and laminin-1 proteins, a hallmark of capillarization, was also increased by 2 weeks of exposure. LSEC caveolin-1 protein and caveolae expression were induced after 2 weeks of exposure indicating a compensatory change. Likewise, CD45/CD68-positive inflammatory cells did not accumulate in the livers until after LSEC porosity was decreased, indicating that inflammation is a consequence and not a cause of the arsenic-induced LSEC phenotype. The data demonstrate that the liver vasculature is an early target of pathogenic arsenic effects and that the mouse liver vasculature is a sensitive model for investigating vascular health effects of arsenic.

  1. Low level arsenic promotes progressive inflammatory angiogenesis and liver blood vessel remodeling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Adam C.; Stolz, Donna B.; Vin, Harina; Ross, Mark A.; Soucy, Nicole V.; Klei, Linda R.; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    The vascular effects of arsenic in drinking water are global health concerns contributing to human disease worldwide. Arsenic targets the endothelial cells lining blood vessels and endothelial cell activation or dysfunction may underlie the pathogenesis of both arsenic-induced vascular diseases and arsenic-enhanced tumorigenesis. The purpose of the current studies was to demonstrate that exposing mice to drinking water containing environmentally relevant levels of arsenic promoted endothelial cell dysfunction and pathologic vascular remodeling. Increased angiogenesis, neovascularization, and inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in Matrigel plugs implanted in C57BL/6 mice following 5 week exposures to 5-500 ppb arsenic (Soucy et al., 2005). Therefore, functional in vivo effects of arsenic on endothelial cell function and vessel remodeling in an endogenous vascular bed were investigated in the liver. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) became progressively defenestrated and underwent capillarization to decrease vessel porosity following exposure to 250 ppb arsenic for 2 weeks. Sinusoidal expression of PECAM-1 and laminin-1 proteins, a hallmark of capillarization, was also increased by 2 weeks of exposure. LSEC caveolin-1 protein and caveolae expression were induced after 2 weeks of exposure indicating a compensatory change. Likewise, CD45/CD68 positive inflammatory cells did not accumulate in the livers until after LSEC porosity was decreased; indicating that inflammation is a consequence and not a cause of the arsenic-induced LSEC phenotype. The data demonstrate that the liver vasculature is an early target of pathogenic arsenic effects and that the mouse liver vasculature is a sensitive model for investigating vascular health effects of arsenic. PMID:17123562

  2. Centrosome-intrinsic mechanisms modulate centrosome integrity during fever.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Zimmerman, Wendy; Ivshina, Maria; Doxsey, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The centrosome is critical for cell division, ciliogenesis, membrane trafficking, and immunological synapse function. The immunological synapse is part of the immune response, which is often accompanied by fever/heat stress (HS). Here we provide evidence that HS causes deconstruction of all centrosome substructures primarily through degradation by centrosome-associated proteasomes. This renders the centrosome nonfunctional. Heat-activated degradation is centrosome selective, as other nonmembranous organelles (midbody, kinetochore) and membrane-bounded organelles (mitochondria) remain largely intact. Heat-induced centrosome inactivation was rescued by targeting Hsp70 to the centrosome. In contrast, Hsp70 excluded from the centrosome via targeting to membranes failed to rescue, as did chaperone inactivation. This indicates that there is a balance between degradation and chaperone rescue at the centrosome after HS. This novel mechanism of centrosome regulation during fever contributes to immunological synapse formation. Heat-induced centrosome inactivation is a physiologically relevant event, as centrosomes in leukocytes of febrile patients are disrupted. © 2015 Vertii et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... As a preservative in pressure-treated lumber In pesticides As a preservative in animal hides As an ... dust. Arsenic was a common ingredient in many pesticides and herbicides in the past. People who made, ...

  4. Excess centrosomes perturb dynamic endothelial cell repolarization during blood vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Erich J.; Ferro, Luke S.; Yu, Zhixian; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel formation requires dynamic movements of endothelial cells (ECs) within sprouts. The cytoskeleton regulates migratory polarity, and centrosomes organize the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, it is not well understood how excess centrosomes, commonly found in tumor stromal cells, affect microtubule dynamics and interphase cell polarity. Here we find that ECs dynamically repolarize during sprouting angiogenesis, and excess centrosomes block repolarization and reduce migration and sprouting. ECs with excess centrosomes initially had more centrosome-derived microtubules but, paradoxically, fewer steady-state microtubules. ECs with excess centrosomes had elevated Rac1 activity, and repolarization was rescued by blockade of Rac1 or actomyosin blockers, consistent with Rac1 activity promoting cortical retrograde actin flow and actomyosin contractility, which precludes cortical microtubule engagement necessary for dynamic repolarization. Thus normal centrosome numbers are required for dynamic repolarization and migration of sprouting ECs that contribute to blood vessel formation. PMID:27099371

  5. Arsenic induces structural and compositional colonic microbiome change and promotes host nitrogen and amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dheer, Rishu; Patterson, Jena; Dudash, Mark; Stachler, Elyse N; Bibby, Kyle J; Stolz, Donna B; Shiva, Sruti; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L; Barchowsky, Aaron; Stolz, John F

    2015-12-15

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer and non-cancer diseases. However, mechanisms for chronic arsenic-induced pathogenesis, especially in response to lower exposure levels, are unclear. In addition, the importance of health impacts from xeniobiotic-promoted microbiome changes is just being realized and effects of arsenic on the microbiome with relation to disease promotion are unknown. To investigate impact of arsenic exposure on both microbiome and host metabolism, the stucture and composition of colonic microbiota, their metabolic phenotype, and host tissue and plasma metabolite levels were compared in mice exposed for 2, 5, or 10weeks to 0, 10 (low) or 250 (high) ppb arsenite (As(III)). Genotyping of colonic bacteria revealed time and arsenic concentration dependent shifts in community composition, particularly the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, relative to those seen in the time-matched controls. Arsenic-induced erosion of bacterial biofilms adjacent to the mucosal lining and changes in the diversity and abundance of morphologically distinct species indicated changes in microbial community structure. Bacterical spores increased in abundance and intracellular inclusions decreased with high dose arsenic. Interestingly, expression of arsenate reductase (arsA) and the As(III) exporter arsB, remained unchanged, while the dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nrfA) gene expression increased. In keeping with the change in nitrogen metabolism, colonic and liver nitrite and nitrate levels and ratios changed with time. In addition, there was a concomitant increase in pathogenic arginine metabolites in the mouse circulation. These data suggest that arsenic exposure impacts the microbiome and microbiome/host nitrogen metabolism to support disease enhancing pathogenic phenotypes.

  6. Arsenic induces structural and compositional colonic microbiome change and promotes host nitrogen and amino acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dheer, Rishu; Patterson, Jena; Dudash, Mark; Stachler, Elyse N.; Bibby, Kyle J.; Stolz, Donna B.; Shiva, Sruti; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Stolz, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer and non-cancer diseases. However, mechanisms for chronic arsenic-induced pathogeneis, especially in response to lower exposure levels, are unclear. In addition, the importance of health impacts from xeniobiotic-promoted microbiome changes is just being realized and effects of arsenic on the microbiome with relation to disease promotion are unknown. To investigate impact of arsenic exposure on both microbiome and host metabolism, the stucture and composition of colonic microbiota, their metabolic phenotype, and host tissue and plasma metabolite levels were compared in mice exposed for 2, 5, or 10 weeks to 0, 10 (low) or 250 (high) ppb arsenite (As(III)). Genotyping of colonic bacteria revealed time and arsenic concentration dependent shifts in community composition, particularly the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, relative to those seen in the time-matched controls. Arsenic-induced erosion of bacterial biofilms adjacent to the mucosal lining and changes in the diversity and abundance of morphologically distinct species indicated changes in microbial community structure. Bacterical spores increased in abundance and intracellular inclusions decreased with high dose arsenic. Interestingly, expression of arsenate reductase (arsA) and the As(III) exporter arsB, remained unchanged, while the dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nrfA) gene expression increased. In keeping with the change in nitrogen metabolism, colonic and liver nitrite and nitrate levels and ratios changed with time. In addition, there was a concomitant increase in pathogenic arginine metabolites in the mouse circulation. These data suggest that arsenic exposure impacts the microbiome and microbiome/host nitrogen metabolism to support disease enhancing pathogenic phenotypes. PMID:26529668

  7. A centrosomal localization signal in cyclin E required for Cdk2-independent S phase entry.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yutaka; Maller, James L

    2004-10-29

    Excess cyclin E-Cdk2 accelerates entry into S phase of the cell cycle and promotes polyploidy, which may contribute to genomic instability in cancer cells. We identified 20 amino acids in cyclin E as a centrosomal localization signal (CLS) essential for both centrosomal targeting and promoting DNA synthesis. Expressed wild-type, but not mutant, CLS peptides localized on the centrosome, prevented endogenous cyclin E and cyclin A from localizing to the centrosome, and inhibited DNA synthesis. Ectopic cyclin E localized to the centrosome and accelerated S phase entry even with mutations that abolish Cdk2 binding, but not with a mutation in the CLS. These results suggest that cyclin E has a modular centrosomal-targeting domain essential for promoting S phase entry in a Cdk2-independent manner.

  8. Arsenic Inhibits DNA Mismatch Repair by Promoting EGFR Expression and PCNA Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Dan; Ortega, Janice; Kim, Christine; Huang, Jian; Gu, Liya; Li, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Both genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals can act as carcinogens. However, while genotoxic compounds lead directly to mutations that promote unregulated cell growth, the mechanism by which non-genotoxic carcinogens lead to cellular transformation is poorly understood. Using a model non-genotoxic carcinogen, arsenic, we show here that exposure to arsenic inhibits mismatch repair (MMR) in human cells, possibly through its ability to stimulate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA). HeLa cells exposed to exogenous arsenic demonstrate a dose- and time-dependent increase in the levels of EGFR and tyrosine 211-phosphorylated PCNA. Cell extracts derived from arsenic-treated HeLa cells are defective in MMR, and unphosphorylated recombinant PCNA restores normal MMR activity to these extracts. These results suggest a model in which arsenic induces expression of EGFR, which in turn phosphorylates PCNA, and phosphorylated PCNA then inhibits MMR, leading to increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis. This study suggests a putative novel mechanism of action for arsenic and other non-genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:25907674

  9. Imaging Centrosomes in Fly Testes

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Marcus L.; Blachon, Stephanie; Chim, Yiu-Cheung Frederick; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2013-01-01

    Centrosomes are conserved microtubule-based organelles whose structure and function change dramatically throughout the cell cycle and cell differentiation. Centrosomes are essential to determine the cell division axis during mitosis and to nucleate cilia during interphase. The identity of the proteins that mediate these dynamic changes remains only partially known, and the function of many of the proteins that have been implicated in these processes is still rudimentary. Recent work has shown that Drosophila spermatogenesis provides a powerful system to identify new proteins critical for centrosome function and formation as well as to gain insight into the particular function of known players in centrosome-related processes. Drosophila is an established genetic model organism where mutants in centrosomal genes can be readily obtained and easily analyzed. Furthermore, recent advances in the sensitivity and resolution of light microscopy and the development of robust genetically tagged centrosomal markers have transformed the ability to use Drosophila testes as a simple and accessible model system to study centrosomes. This paper describes the use of genetically-tagged centrosomal markers to perform genetic screens for new centrosomal mutants and to gain insight into the specific function of newly identified genes. PMID:24084634

  10. Interaction between ROCK II and nucleophosmin/B23 in the regulation of centrosome duplication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiyong; Kanai, Masayuki; Kawamura, Kenji; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Ye, Keqiang; Fukasawa, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM)/B23 has been implicated in the regulation of centrosome duplication. NPM/B23 localizes between two centrioles in the unduplicated centrosome. Upon phosphorylation on Thr(199) by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/cyclin E, the majority of centrosomal NPM/B23 dissociates from centrosomes, but some NPM/B23 phosphorylated on Thr(199) remains at centrosomes. It has been shown that Thr(199) phosphorylation of NPM/B23 is critical for the physical separation of the paired centrioles, an initial event of the centrosome duplication process. Here, we identified ROCK II kinase, an effector of Rho small GTPase, as a protein that localizes to centrosomes and physically interacts with NPM/B23. Expression of the constitutively active form of ROCK II promotes centrosome duplication, while down-regulation of ROCK II expression results in the suppression of centrosome duplication, especially delaying the initiation of centrosome duplication during the cell cycle. Moreover, ROCK II regulates centrosome duplication in its kinase and centrosome localization activity-dependent manner. We further found that ROCK II kinase activity is significantly enhanced by binding to NPM/B23 and that NPM/B23 acquires a higher binding affinity to ROCK II upon phosphorylation on Thr(199). Moreover, physical interaction between ROCK II and NPM/B23 in vivo occurs in association with CDK2/cyclin E activation and the emergence of Thr(199)-phosphorylated NPM/B23. All these findings point to ROCK II as the effector of the CDK2/cyclin E-NPM/B23 pathway in the regulation of centrosome duplication.

  11. Tert-butylhydroquinone as a phenolic activator of Nrf2 antagonizes arsenic-induced oxidative cytotoxicity but promotes arsenic methylation and detoxication in human hepatocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxu; Liu, Dan; Xing, Xiaoyue; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Shuo; Nie, Huifang; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Oxidative stress plays crucial roles in exerting a variety of damages upon arsenic exposure. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcriptional regulator protecting cells and tissues from oxidative injuries. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a well-known synthetic Nrf2 inducer, could protect human hepatocytes against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative injuries. Our results showed that 5 and 25 μmol/l tBHQ pretreatment suppressed the arsenic-induced hepatocellular cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, and hepatic lipid peroxidation, while relieved the arsenic-induced disturbances of intracellular glutathione balance. In addition, we also observed that tBHQ treatment promoted the arsenic biomethylation process and upregulated Nrf2-regulated downstream heme oxygenase-1 and NADPH: quinine oxidoreductase 1 mRNA expressions. Collectively, we suspected that Nrf2 signaling pathway may be involved in the protective effects of tBHQ against arsenic invasion in hepatocytes. These data suggest that phenolic Nrf2 inducers, such as tBHQ, represent novel therapeutic or dietary candidates for the population at high risk of arsenic poisoning.

  12. Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16–293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20–222% and 34–760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

  13. Arsenic-induced Aurora-A activation contributes to chromosome instability and tumorigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin-Han; Tseng, Ya-Shih; Yang, Chao-Chun; Kao, Yu-Ting; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic may cause serious environmental pollution and is a serious industrial problem. Depending on the dosage, arsenic may trigger the cells undergoing either proliferation or apoptosis-related cell death. Because of lack of the proper animal model to study arsenic induced tumorigenesis, the accurate risk level of arsenic exposure has not been determined. Arsenic shows genotoxic effect on human beings who uptake water contaminated by arsenic. Chromosome aberration is frequently detected in arsenic exposure-related diseases and is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased DNA repairing activity, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Aurora-A is a mitotic kinase, over-expression of Aurora-A leads to centrosome amplification, chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We revealed that Aurora-A is over-expressed in the skin and bladder cancer patients from blackfoot-disease endemic areas. Our cell line studies reveal that arsenic exposure between 0.5 μM and 1 μM for 2-7 days are able to induce Aurora-A expression and activation based on promoter activity, RNA and protein analysis. Aurora-A overexpression further increases the frequency of unsymmetrical chromosome segregation through centrosome amplification followed by cell population accumulated at S phase in immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) and uroepithelial cells (E7). Furthermore, Aurora-A over-expression was sustained for 1-4 weeks by chronic treatment of immortalized bladder and skin cells with NaAsO2. Aurora-A promoter methylation and gene amplification was not detected in the long-term arsenic treated E7 cells. Furthermore, the expression level of E2F1 transcription factor (E2F1) is increased in the presence of arsenic, and arsenic-related Aurora-A over-expression is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1. We further demonstrated that overexpression of Aurora-A and mutant Ha-ras or Aurora-A and mutant p53 may act additively to trigger arsenic-related bladder and skin cancer

  14. ATX-2, the C. elegans Ortholog of Human Ataxin-2, Regulates Centrosome Size and Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Stubenvoll, Michael D.; Medley, Jeffrey C.; Irwin, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Centrosomes are critical sites for orchestrating microtubule dynamics, and exhibit dynamic changes in size during the cell cycle. As cells progress to mitosis, centrosomes recruit more microtubules (MT) to form mitotic bipolar spindles that ensure proper chromosome segregation. We report a new role for ATX-2, a C. elegans ortholog of Human Ataxin-2, in regulating centrosome size and MT dynamics. ATX-2, an RNA-binding protein, forms a complex with SZY-20 in an RNA-independent fashion. Depleting ATX-2 results in embryonic lethality and cytokinesis failure, and restores centrosome duplication to zyg-1 mutants. In this pathway, SZY-20 promotes ATX-2 abundance, which inversely correlates with centrosome size. Centrosomes depleted of ATX-2 exhibit elevated levels of centrosome factors (ZYG-1, SPD-5, γ-Tubulin), increasing MT nucleating activity but impeding MT growth. We show that ATX-2 influences MT behavior through γ-Tubulin at the centrosome. Our data suggest that RNA-binding proteins play an active role in controlling MT dynamics and provide insight into the control of proper centrosome size and MT dynamics. PMID:27689799

  15. Computer simulations reveal mechanisms that organize nuclear dynein forces to separate centrosomes.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Alessandro; Gönczy, Pierre

    2017-07-12

    Centrosome separation along the surface of the nucleus at the onset of mitosis is critical for bipolar spindle assembly. Dynein anchored on the nuclear envelope is known to be important for centrosome separation, but it is unclear how nuclear dynein forces are organized in an anisotropic manner to promote the movement of centrosomes away from each other. Here, we use computational simulations of C. elegans embryos to address this fundamental question, testing three potential mechanisms by which nuclear dynein may act. First, our analysis shows that expansion of the nuclear volume per se does not generate forces driving centrosome separation. Second, we uncover that steric interactions between microtubules and centrosomes contribute to robust onset of nuclear dynein-mediated centrosome separation. Third, we find that the initial position of centrosomes, between nucleus and cell cortex at the embryo posterior, is a key determinant in organizing microtubule aster asymmetry to power nuclear dynein-dependent separation. Overall, our work reveals that accurate initial centrosome position, together with steric interactions, ensure proper anisotropic organization of nuclear dynein forces to separate centrosomes, thus ensuring robust bipolar spindle assembly. © 2017 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  16. Curcumin attenuates arsenic-induced hepatic injuries and oxidative stress in experimental mice through activation of Nrf2 pathway, promotion of arsenic methylation and urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xin; Dong, Dandan; Liu, Dan; Li, Xin; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in inorganic arsenic poisoning. Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound with impressive antioxidant properties. What's more, curcumin is recently proved to exert its chemopreventive effects partly through the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2 related) factor 2 (Nrf2) and its antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. In vivo, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative injuries. Our results showed that arsenic-induced elevation of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, augmentation of hepatic malonaldehyde (MDA), as well as the reduction of blood and hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, were all consistently relieved by curcumin. We also observed the involvement of curcumin in promoting arsenic methylation and urinary elimination in vivo. Furthermore, both the hepatic Nrf2 protein and two typically recognized Nrf2 downstream genes, NADP(H) quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were consistently up-regulated in curcumin-treated mice. Our study confirmed the antagonistic roles of curcumin to counteract inorganic arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in vivo, and suggested that the potent Nrf2 activation capability might be valuable for the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic intoxication. This provides a potential useful chemopreventive dietary component for human populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Arsenic Promotes NF-Kb-Mediated Fibroblast Dysfunction and Matrix Remodeling to Impair Muscle Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changqing; Ferrari, Ricardo; Beezhold, Kevin; Stearns-Reider, Kristen; D’Amore, Antonio; Haschak, Martin; Stolz, Donna; Robbins, Paul D.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a global health hazard that impacts over 140 million individuals worldwide. Epidemiological studies reveal prominent muscle dysfunction and mobility declines following arsenic exposure; yet, mechanisms underlying such declines are unknown. The objective of this study was to test the novel hypothesis that arsenic drives a maladaptive fibroblast phenotype to promote pathogenic myomatrix remodeling and compromise the muscle stem (satellite) cell (MuSC) niche. Mice were exposed to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic in drinking water before receiving a local muscle injury. Arsenic-exposed muscles displayed pathogenic matrix remodeling, defective myofiber regeneration and impaired functional recovery, relative to controls. When naïve human MuSCs were seeded onto three-dimensional decellularized muscle constructs derived from arsenic-exposed muscles, cells displayed an increased fibrogenic conversion and decreased myogenicity, compared with cells seeded onto control constructs. Consistent with myomatrix alterations, fibroblasts isolated from arsenic-exposed muscle displayed sustained expression of matrix remodeling genes, the majority of which were mediated by NF-κB. Inhibition of NF-κB during arsenic exposure preserved normal myofiber structure and functional recovery after injury, suggesting that NF-κB signaling serves as an important mechanism of action for the deleterious effects of arsenic on tissue healing. Taken together, the results from this study implicate myomatrix biophysical and/or biochemical characteristics as culprits in arsenic-induced MuSC dysfunction and impaired muscle regeneration. It is anticipated that these findings may aid in the development of strategies to prevent or revert the effects of arsenic on tissue healing and, more broadly, provide insight into the influence of the native myomatrix on stem cell behavior. PMID:26537186

  18. Arsenic treatment increase Aurora-A overexpression through E2F1 activation in bladder cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Ting; Wu, Chin-Han; Wu, Shan-Ying; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Tseng, Ya-Shih

    2017-04-18

    Arsenic is a widely distributed metalloid compound that has biphasic effects on cultured cells. In large doses, arsenic can be toxic enough to trigger cell death. In smaller amounts, non-toxic doses may promote cell proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. Aberration of chromosome is frequently detected in epithelial cells and lymphocytes of individuals from arsenic contaminated areas. Overexpression of Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase, results in chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We have reported that low concentration (≦1 μM) of arsenic treatment increases Aurora-A expression in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells. However, how arsenic induces carcinogenesis through Aurora-A activation remaining unclear. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining, MTT assay, and flow cytometry assay were conducted to determine cell proliferation. Messenger RNA and protein expression levels of Aurora-A were detected by reverse transcriptional-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Centrosome of cells was observed by immunofluorescent staining. The transcription factor of Aurora-A was investigated by promoter activity, chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and small interfering RNA (shRNA) assays. Mouse model was utilized to confirm the relationship between arsenic and Aurora-A. We reveal that low dosage of arsenic treatment increased cell proliferation is associated with accumulated cell population at S phase. We also detected increased Aurora-A expression at mRNA and protein levels in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells exposed to low doses of arsenic. Arsenic-treated cells displayed increased multiple centrosome which is resulted from overexpressed Aurora-A. Furthermore, the transcription factor, E2F1, is responsible for Aurora-A overexpression after arsenic treatment. We further disclosed that Aurora-A expression and cell proliferation were increased in bladder and uterus tissues of the BALB/c mice after long-term arsenic (1 mg/L) exposure for 2 months. We

  19. Centrosome Dysfunction Contributes to Chromosome Instability, Chromoanagenesis, and Genome Reprograming in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pihan, German A.

    2013-01-01

    The unique ability of centrosomes to nucleate and organize microtubules makes them unrivaled conductors of important interphase processes, such as intracellular payload traffic, cell polarity, cell locomotion, and organization of the immunologic synapse. But it is in mitosis that centrosomes loom large, for they orchestrate, with clockmaker’s precision, the assembly and functioning of the mitotic spindle, ensuring the equal partitioning of the replicated genome into daughter cells. Centrosome dysfunction is inextricably linked to aneuploidy and chromosome instability, both hallmarks of cancer cells. Several aspects of centrosome function in normal and cancer cells have been molecularly characterized during the last two decades, greatly enhancing our mechanistic understanding of this tiny organelle. Whether centrosome defects alone can cause cancer, remains unanswered. Until recently, the aggregate of the evidence had suggested that centrosome dysfunction, by deregulating the fidelity of chromosome segregation, promotes and accelerates the characteristic Darwinian evolution of the cancer genome enabled by increased mutational load and/or decreased DNA repair. Very recent experimental work has shown that missegregated chromosomes resulting from centrosome dysfunction may experience extensive DNA damage, suggesting additional dimensions to the role of centrosomes in cancer. Centrosome dysfunction is particularly prevalent in tumors in which the genome has undergone extensive structural rearrangements and chromosome domain reshuffling. Ongoing gene reshuffling reprograms the genome for continuous growth, survival, and evasion of the immune system. Manipulation of molecular networks controlling centrosome function may soon become a viable target for specific therapeutic intervention in cancer, particularly since normal cells, which lack centrosome alterations, may be spared the toxicity of such therapies. PMID:24282781

  20. Arsenic-resistant bacteria associated with roots of the wild Cirsium arvense (L.) plant from an arsenic polluted soil, and screening of potential plant growth-promoting characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cavalca, Lucia; Zanchi, Raffaella; Corsini, Anna; Colombo, Milena; Romagnoli, Cristina; Canzi, Enrica; Andreoni, Vincenza

    2010-04-01

    A rhizobacterial community, associated with the roots of wild thistle Cirsium arvense (L.) growing in an arsenic polluted soil, was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis in conjunction with cultivation-based methods. In the bulk, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane fractions of the soil, the qualitative picture obtained by FISH analysis of the main phylogenetic bacterial groups was similar and was predominantly comprised of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. The arsenic-resistant isolates belonged to 13 genera, the most abundant being those of Bacillus, Achromobacter, Brevundimonas, Microbacterium, and Ochrobactrum. Most bacteria grew in the presence of high arsenic concentrations (over 100mM arsenate and 10mM arsenite). Most strains possessed the ArsC, ArsB and ACR3 genes homologous to arsenate reductase and to the two classes of arsenite efflux pumps, respectively, peculiar to the ars operon of the arsenic detoxification system. ArsB and ACR3 were present simultaneously in highly resistant strains. An inconsistency between 16S rRNA phylogenetic affiliations and the arsenate reductase sequences of the strains was observed, indicating possible horizontal transfer of arsenic resistance genes in the soil bacterial community. Several isolates were able to reduce arsenate and to oxidise arsenite. In particular, Ancylobacter dichloromethanicum strain As3-1b possessed both characteristics, and arsenite oxidation occurred in the strain also under chemoautotrophic conditions. Some rhizobacteria produced siderophores, indole acetic acid and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, thus possessing potential plant growth-promoting traits.

  1. Loss of KLF14 triggers centrosome amplification and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangjian; Sun, Lianhui; Shan, Peipei; Zhang, Xianying; Huan, Jinliang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Dali; Wang, Tingting; Wei, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gu, Xiaoyang; Yao, Liangfang; Xuan, Yang; Hou, Zhaoyuan; Cui, Yongping; Cao, Liu; Li, Xiaotao; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Chuangui

    2015-01-01

    Centrosome amplification is frequent in cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that disruption of the Kruppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) gene in mice causes centrosome amplification, aneuploidy and spontaneous tumorigenesis. Molecularly, KLF14 functions as a transcriptional repressor of Plk4, a polo-like kinase whose overexpression induces centrosome overduplication. Transient knockdown of KLF14 is sufficient to induce Plk4-directed centrosome amplification. Clinically, KLF14 transcription is significantly downregulated, whereas Plk4 transcription is upregulated in multiple types of cancers, and there exists an inverse correlation between KLF14 and Plk4 protein expression in human breast and colon cancers. Moreover, KLF14 depletion promotes AOM/DSS-induced colon tumorigenesis. Our findings reveal that KLF14 reduction serves as a mechanism leading to centrosome amplification and tumorigenesis. On the other hand, forced expression of KLF14 leads to mitotic catastrophe. Collectively, our findings identify KLF14 as a tumour suppressor and highlight its potential as biomarker and therapeutic target for cancer. PMID:26439168

  2. Morgana/chp-1, a ROCK inhibitor involved in centrosome duplication and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Roberta; Palumbo, Valeria; Di Savino, Augusta; Velasco, Silvia; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Sportoletti, Paolo; Micale, Lucia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Palumbo, Gioacchino; Hirsch, Emilio; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Gatti, Maurizio; Tarone, Guido; Brancaccio, Mara

    2010-03-16

    Centrosome abnormalities lead to genomic instability and are a common feature of many cancer cells. Here we show that mutations in morgana/chp-1 result in centrosome amplification and lethality in both Drosophila and mouse, and that the fly centrosome phenotype is fully rescued by the human ortholog of morgana. In mouse cells, morgana forms a complex with Hsp90 and ROCK I and II, and directly binds ROCK II. Morgana downregulation promotes the interaction between ROCK II and nucleophosmin (NPM), leading to an increased ROCK II kinase activity, which results in centrosome amplification. Morgana(+/-) primary cells and mice display an increased susceptibility to neoplastic transformation. In addition, tumor tissue array histochemical analysis revealed that morgana is underexpressed in a large fraction of breast and lung human cancers. Thus, morgana/chp-1 appears to prevent both centrosome amplification and tumorigenesis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic promotes angiogenesis in vitro via a heme oxygenase-1-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Dan; Wang Xin; Chang Qingshan; Hitron, Andrew; Zhang Zhuo; Xu Mei; Chen Gang; Luo Jia; Jiang Binghua; Fang Jing; Shi Xianglin

    2010-05-01

    Angiogenesis and vessel remodeling are fundamental to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases caused by environmental arsenic exposure, including tumorigenesis and cardiovascular diseases. Arsenic (AsIII) has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms accounting for arsenic-induced angiogenesis are not clear. The present study investigates the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in sodium arsenite-mediated angiogenesis in vitro. Transwell assay, three-dimensional Matrigel assay, RT-PCR, ELISA and immunoblotting were used to determine cell migration, vascular tube formation, mRNA and protein expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assay were applied to examine the DNA binding with protein and HO-1 transcriptional activity. Here, we report that low concentrations of arsenite (0.1-1 muM) stimulated cell migration and vascular tube formation in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). Arsenite induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Knock down of HO-1 expression decreased arsenite-induced VEGF expression, cell migration, and tube formation. We showed that arsenite promoted dissociation of Bach1 (a transcriptional repressor) from the HO-1 enhancers and increased Nrf2 binding to these elements. Site directed mutagenesis assay identified that Bach1 cysteine residues 557 and 574 were essential for the induction of HO-1 gene in response to arsenite. These findings demonstrate a role for HO-1 in arsenite-mediated angiogenesis in vitro.

  4. Meeting report - building a centrosome.

    PubMed

    Baffet, Alexandre D; Martin, Carol-Anne; Scarfone, Ilaria; Daly, Owen M; David, Ahuvit; Tibelius, Alexandra; Lattao, Ramona; Hussain, Muhammad S; Woodruff, Jeffrey B

    2013-08-01

    Located in the 16th century Wiston House in West Sussex, UK, the 'Building a Centrosome' Workshop was organised by The Company of Biologists and chaired by Fanni Gergely and David Glover (University of Cambridge). Held in March 2013, the Workshop gathered together many of the leaders in the field of centrosome biology, as well as postdocs and students who were given the opportunity to meet and interact with many of the scientists who inspired their early careers. The diverse range of speakers provided a multi-disciplinary forum for the exchange of ideas, and gave fresh impetus to tackling outstanding questions related to centrosome biology. Here, we provide an overview of the meeting and highlight the main themes that were discussed.

  5. Effect of applying an arsenic-resistant and plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium to enhance soil arsenic phytoremediation by Populus deltoides LH05-17.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Xiong, D; Zhao, P; Yu, X; Tu, B; Wang, G

    2011-11-01

    Bioremediation of highly arsenic (As)-contaminated soil is difficult because As is very toxic for plants and micro-organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate soil arsenic removal effects using poplar in combination with the inoculation of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). A rhizobacterium D14 was isolated and identified within Agrobacterium radiobacter. This strain was highly resistant to arsenic and produced indole acetic acid and siderophore. Greenhouse pot bioremediation experiments were performed for 5 months using poplar (Populus deltoides LH05-17) grown on As-amended soils, inoculated with strain D14. The results showed that P. deltoides was an efficient arsenic accumulator; however, high As concentrations (150 and 300 mg kg(-1)) inhibited its growth. With the bacterial inoculation, in the 300 mg kg(-1) As-amended soils, 54% As in the soil was removed, which was higher than the uninoculated treatments (43%), and As concentrations in roots, stems and leaves were significantly increased by 229, 113 and 291%, respectively. In addition, the As translocation ratio [(stems + leaves)/roots = 0·8] was significantly higher than the uninoculated treatments (0·5). About 45% As was translocated from roots to the above-ground tissues. The plant height and dry weight of roots, stems and leaves were all enhanced; the contents of chlorophyll and soluble sugar, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were all increased; and the content of a toxic compound malondialdehyde was decreased. The results indicated that the inoculation of strain D14 could contribute to the increase in the As tolerance of P. deltoides, promotion of the growth, increase in the uptake efficiency and enhancement of As translocation. The use of P. deltoides in combination with the inoculation of strain D14 provides a potential application for efficient soil arsenic bioremediation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ©2011 The Society for Applied

  6. Brevundimonas diminuta mediated alleviation of arsenic toxicity and plant growth promotion in Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Marwa, Naina; Mishra, Shashank K; Mishra, Jyoti; Verma, Praveen C; Rathaur, Sushma; Singh, Nandita

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid adversely affects plant growth in polluted areas. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of improving phytostablization of arsenic through application of new isolated strain Brevundimonas diminuta (NBRI012) in rice plant [Oryza sativa (L.) Var. Sarju 52] at two different concentrations [10ppm (low toxic) and 50ppm (high toxic)] of As. The plant growth promoting traits of bacterial strains revealed the inherent ability of siderophores, phosphate solubilisation, indole acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase production which may be associated with increased biomass, chlorophyll and MDA content of rice and thereby promoting plant growth. The study also revealed the As accumulation property of NBRI012 strain which could play an important role in As removal from contaminated soil. Furthermore, NBRI012 inoculation significantly restored the hampered root epidermal and cortical cell growth of rice plant and root hair elimination. Altogether our study highlights the multifarious role of B. diminuta in mediating stress tolerance and modulating translocation of As in edible part of rice plant.

  7. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  8. Centrosome number is controlled by a centrosome-intrinsic block to reduplication.

    PubMed

    Wong, Connie; Stearns, Tim

    2003-06-01

    The centrosome duplicates once in S phase. To determine whether there is a block in centrosome reduplication, we used a cell fusion assay to compare the duplication potential of unduplicated G1 centrosomes and recently duplicated G2 centrosomes. By fusing cells in different cell cycle stages, we found that G2 centrosomes were unable to reduplicate in a cellular environment that supports centrosome duplication. Furthermore, G2 cytoplasm did not inhibit centrosome duplication in fused cells, indicating that the block to reduplication is intrinsic to the centrosomes rather than the cytoplasm. To test the underlying mechanism, we created mononucleate G1 cells with two centrosomes by fusing cells with enucleated cytoplasts. Both centrosomes duplicated, indicating that the block is not controlled by centrosome:nucleus ratio. We also found that human primary cells have tight control over centrosome number during prolonged S-phase arrest and that this control is partially abrogated in transformed cells. This suggests a link between the control of centrosome duplication and maintenance of genomic stability.

  9. Evolutionary problems in centrosome and centriole biology.

    PubMed

    Ross, L; Normark, B B

    2015-05-01

    Centrosomes have been an enigma to evolutionary biologists. Either they have been the subject of ill-founded speculation or they have been ignored. Here, we highlight evolutionary paradoxes and problems of centrosome and centriole evolution and seek to understand them in the light of recent advances in centrosome biology. Most evolutionary accounts of centrosome evolution have been based on the hypothesis that centrosomes are replicators, independent of the nucleus and cytoplasm. It is now clear, however, that this hypothesis is not tenable. Instead, centrosomes are formed de novo each cell division, with the presence of an old centrosome regulating, but not essential for, the assembly of a new one. Centrosomes are the microtubule-organizing centres of cells. They can potentially affect sensory and motor characters (as the basal body of cilia), as well as the movements of chromosomes during cell division. This latter role does not seem essential, however, except in male meiosis, and the reasons for this remain unclear. Although the centrosome is absent in some taxa, when it is present, its structure is extraordinarily conserved: in most taxa across eukaryotes, it does not appear to evolve at all. And yet a few insect groups display spectacular hypertrophy of the centrioles. We discuss how this might relate to the unusual reproductive system found in these insects. Finally, we discuss why the fate of centrosomes in sperm and early embryos might differ between different groups of animals.

  10. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin-vascular endothelial growth factor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhishan; Humphries, Brock; Xiao, Hua; Jiang, Yiguo; Yang, Chengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic exposure represents a major health concern increasing cancer risks, yet the mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis has not been elucidated. We and others recently reported that cell malignant transformation by arsenic is accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of EMT in arsenic carcinogenesis is not well understood. Although previous studies showed that short term exposure of endothelial cells to arsenic stimulated angiogenesis, it remains to be determined whether cells that were malignantly transformed by long term arsenic exposure have a pro-angiogenic effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of arsenic-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells that underwent EMT on angiogenesis and the underlying mechanism. It was found that the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells strongly stimulated tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, enhanced angiogenesis was detected in mouse xenograft tumor tissues resulting from inoculation of arsenic-transformed cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that β-catenin was activated in arsenic-transformed cells up-regulating its target gene expression including angiogenic-stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Stably expressing microRNA-200b in arsenic-transformed cells that reversed EMT inhibited β-catenin activation, decreased VEGF expression and reduced tube formation by HUVECs. SiRNA knockdown β-catenin decreased VEGF expression. Adding a VEGF neutralizing antibody into the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells impaired tube formation by HUVECs. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of canonical Wnt ligands were not increased in arsenic-transformed cells. These findings suggest that EMT in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin-VEGF pathway. PMID:23643801

  11. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin–vascular endothelial growth factor pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhishan; Humphries, Brock; Xiao, Hua; Jiang, Yiguo; Yang, Chengfeng

    2013-08-15

    Arsenic exposure represents a major health concern increasing cancer risks, yet the mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis has not been elucidated. We and others recently reported that cell malignant transformation by arsenic is accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of EMT in arsenic carcinogenesis is not well understood. Although previous studies showed that short term exposure of endothelial cells to arsenic stimulated angiogenesis, it remains to be determined whether cells that were malignantly transformed by long term arsenic exposure have a pro-angiogenic effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of arsenic-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells that underwent EMT on angiogenesis and the underlying mechanism. It was found that the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells strongly stimulated tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, enhanced angiogenesis was detected in mouse xenograft tumor tissues resulting from inoculation of arsenic-transformed cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that β-catenin was activated in arsenic-transformed cells up-regulating its target gene expression including angiogenic-stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Stably expressing microRNA-200b in arsenic-transformed cells that reversed EMT inhibited β-catenin activation, decreased VEGF expression and reduced tube formation by HUVECs. SiRNA knockdown β-catenin decreased VEGF expression. Adding a VEGF neutralizing antibody into the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells impaired tube formation by HUVECs. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of canonical Wnt ligands were not increased in arsenic-transformed cells. These findings suggest that EMT in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin–VEGF pathway. - Highlights: • Arsenic-transformed cells that underwent EMT displayed a pro

  12. Exploring the evolutionary history of centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Azimzadeh, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The centrosome is the main organizer of the microtubule cytoskeleton in animals, higher fungi and several other eukaryotic lineages. Centrosomes are usually located at the centre of cell in tight association with the nuclear envelope and duplicate at each cell cycle. Despite a great structural diversity between the different types of centrosomes, they are functionally equivalent and share at least some of their molecular components. In this paper, we explore the evolutionary origin of the different centrosomes, in an attempt to understand whether they are derived from an ancestral centrosome or evolved independently from the motile apparatus of distinct flagellated ancestors. We then discuss the evolution of centrosome structure and function within the animal lineage. PMID:25047607

  13. The mammalian centrosome and its functional significance

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Primarily known for its role as major microtubule organizing center, the centrosome is increasingly being recognized for its functional significance in key cell cycle regulating events. We are now at the beginning of understanding the centrosome’s functional complexities and its major impact on directing complex interactions and signal transduction cascades important for cell cycle regulation. The centrosome orchestrates entry into mitosis, anaphase onset, cytokinesis, G1/S transition, and monitors DNA damage. Recently, the centrosome has also been recognized as major docking station where regulatory complexes accumulate including kinases and phosphatases as well as numerous other cell cycle regulators that utilize the centrosome as platform to coordinate multiple cell cycle-specific functions. Vesicles that are translocated along microtubules to and away from centrosomes may also carry enzymes or substrates that use centrosomes as main docking station. The centrosome’s role in various diseases has been recognized and a wealth of data has been accumulated linking dysfunctional centrosomes to cancer, Alstrom syndrome, various neurological disorders, and others. Centrosome abnormalities and dysfunctions have been associated with several types of infertility. The present review highlights the centrosome’s significant roles in cell cycle events in somatic and reproductive cells and discusses centrosome abnormalities and implications in disease. PMID:18437411

  14. Evidence of arsenic release promoted by disinfection by-products within drinking-water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Botsaris, George; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Kalyvas, Harris; Costa, Costas N

    2014-02-15

    Changes in disinfectant type could trigger a cascade of reactions releasing pipe-anchored metals/metalloids into finished water. However, the effect of pre-formed disinfection by-products on the release of sorbed contaminants (arsenic-As in particular) from drinking water distribution system pipe scales remains unexplored. A bench-scale study using a factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the independent and interaction effects of trihalomethanes (TTHM) and haloacetic acids (HAA) on arsenic (As) release from either scales-only or scale-biofilm conglomerates (SBC) both anchored on asbestos/cement pipe coupons. A model biofilm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was allowed to grow on select pipe coupons prior experimentation. Either TTHM or HAA individual dosing did not promote As release from either scales only or SBC, detecting <6 μg AsL(-1) in finished water. In the case of scales-only coupons, the combination of the highest spike level of TTHM and HAA significantly (p<0.001) increased dissolved and total As concentrations to levels up to 16 and 95 μg L(-1), respectively. Similar treatments in the presence of biofilm (SBC) resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in dissolved and total recoverable As up to 20 and 47 μg L(-1), respectively, exceeding the regulatory As limit. Whether or not, our laboratory-based results truly represent mechanisms operating in disinfected finished water in pipe networks remains to be investigated in the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Arsenic in private well water part 2 of 3: Who benefits the most from traditional testing promotion?

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Sara V; Spayd, Steven E; Procopio, Nicholas A; Chillrud, Steven N; Ross, James; Braman, Stuart; Zheng, Yan

    2016-08-15

    Arsenic, a toxic element naturally found in groundwater, is a public health concern for households drinking from wells. Private well water is not regulated to meet the federal drinking water arsenic Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10μg/L, or the more protective 5μg/L New Jersey (NJ) state MCL. In the absence of consistent private well regulation, public health efforts have relied on promoting testing in affected communities to various degrees of success. Few interventions publish results, and more often focus on the outcome of tested wells rather than who completed a test, and more importantly, who did not. Through our survey of randomly selected addresses (n=670) in 17 NJ towns we find higher rates of arsenic testing in areas with a history of testing promotion. However, we also see a stronger correlation of testing behavior with income and education in high promotion areas, suggesting that community engagement activities may be exacerbating socioeconomic status (SES) testing disparities. Well owners with a bachelor's degree had ten times greater odds of participating in our direct mail testing intervention than those with less education when tests cost $40. After all households (n=255) were offered free tests to overcome many of the usual testing barriers - awareness, convenience, and cost - only 47% participated and those who chose to return water samples were of higher income and education than those who did not. Our findings highlight that while efforts to promote and provide arsenic testing succeed in testing more wells, community testing interventions risk increasing SES disparities if those with more education and resources are more likely to take advantage of testing programs. Therefore, testing interventions can benefit by better targeting socially vulnerable populations in an effort to overcome SES-patterned self-selection when individuals are left alone with the responsibility of managing their drinking water quality.

  16. Centrosome loss in the evolution of planarians.

    PubMed

    Azimzadeh, Juliette; Wong, Mei Lie; Downhour, Diane Miller; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro; Marshall, Wallace F

    2012-01-27

    The centrosome, a cytoplasmic organelle formed by cylinder-shaped centrioles surrounded by a microtubule-organizing matrix, is a hallmark of animal cells. The centrosome is conserved and essential for the development of all animal species described so far. Here, we show that planarians, and possibly other flatworms, lack centrosomes. In planarians, centrioles are only assembled in terminally differentiating ciliated cells through the acentriolar pathway to trigger the assembly of cilia. We identified a large set of conserved proteins required for centriole assembly in animals and note centrosome protein families that are missing from the planarian genome. Our study uncovers the molecular architecture and evolution of the animal centrosome and emphasizes the plasticity of animal cell biology and development.

  17. Precocious centriole disengagement and centrosome fragmentation induced by mitotic delay.

    PubMed

    Karki, Menuka; Keyhaninejad, Neda; Shuster, Charles B

    2017-06-13

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays mitotic progression until all sister chromatid pairs achieve bi-orientation, and while the SAC can maintain mitotic arrest for extended periods, moderate delays in mitotic progression have significant effects on the resulting daughter cells. Here we show that when retinal-pigmented epithelial (RPE1) cells experience mitotic delay, there is a time-dependent increase in centrosome fragmentation and centriole disengagement. While most cells with disengaged centrioles maintain spindle bipolarity, clustering of disengaged centrioles requires the kinesin-14, HSET. Centrosome fragmentation and precocious centriole disengagement depend on separase and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activity, which also triggers the acquisition of distal appendage markers on daughter centrioles and the loss of procentriolar markers. Together, these results suggest that moderate delays in mitotic progression trigger the initiation of centriole licensing through centriole disengagement, at which point the ability to maintain spindle bipolarity becomes a function of HSET-mediated spindle pole clustering.

  18. Sperm Centrosomes: Kiss Your Asterless Goodbye, for Fertility's Sake.

    PubMed

    Schatten, Gerald; Stearns, Tim

    2015-12-21

    Centrosomes are reduced to their cores in sperm. Emerging molecular explanations for centrosome construction have now helped to elucidate the mechanism of their destruction in sperm. Since centrosome inaccuracies cause aneuploidies responsible for cancers, birth defects and infertility, this new insight into centrosome behavior has broad implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Centrosomal Linker and Microtubules Provide Dual Levels of Spatial Coordination of Centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Marko; Hata, Shoji; Neuner, Annett; Schiebel, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    The centrosome is the principal microtubule organizing center in most animal cells. It consists of a pair of centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material. The centrosome, like DNA, duplicates exactly once per cell cycle. During interphase duplicated centrosomes remain closely linked by a proteinaceous linker. This centrosomal linker is composed of rootletin filaments that are anchored to the centrioles via the protein C-Nap1. At the onset of mitosis the linker is dissolved by Nek2A kinase to support the formation of the bipolar mitotic spindle. The importance of the centrosomal linker for cell function during interphase awaits characterization. Here we assessed the phenotype of human RPE1 C-Nap1 knockout (KO) cells. The absence of the linker led to a modest increase in the average centrosome separation from 1 to 2.5 μm. This small impact on the degree of separation is indicative of a second level of spatial organization of centrosomes. Microtubule depolymerisation or stabilization in C-Nap1 KO cells dramatically increased the inter-centrosomal separation (> 8 μm). Thus, microtubules position centrosomes relatively close to one another in the absence of linker function. C-Nap1 KO cells had a Golgi organization defect with a two-fold expansion of the area occupied by the Golgi. When the centrosomes of C-Nap1 KO cells showed considerable separation, two spatially distinct Golgi stacks could be observed. Furthermore, migration of C-Nap1 KO cells was slower than their wild type RPE1 counterparts. These data show that the spatial organization of centrosomes is modulated by a combination of centrosomal cohesion and microtubule forces. Furthermore a modest increase in centrosome separation has major impact on Golgi organization and cell migration. PMID:26001056

  20. Effective rhizoinoculation and biofilm formation by arsenic immobilizing halophilic plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) isolated from mangrove rhizosphere: A step towards arsenic rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Ivy; Bhattacharyya, Chandrima; Mukherji, Shayantan; Dey, Dhritiman; Sarkar, Somesh Chandra; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal Kumar; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti

    2017-08-25

    Arsenic (As) uptake by plants is largely influenced by the presence of microbial consortia and their interactions with As. In the coastal region of Bengal deltaic plain of Eastern India, the As-contaminated groundwater is frequently used for irrigation purposes resulting in an elevated level of soil As in agricultural lands. The health hazards associated with As necessitates development of cost-effective remediation strategies to reclaim contaminated agricultural lands. Among the available technologies developed in recent times, bioremediation using bacteria has been found to be the most propitious. In this study, two As-resistant halophilic bacterial strains Kocuria flava AB402 and Bacillus vietnamensis AB403 were isolated, identified and characterized from mangrove rhizosphere of Sundarban. The isolates, AB402 and AB403, could tolerate 35mM and 20mM of arsenite, respectively. The effect of As on the exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, biofilm formation, and root association was evaluated for both the bacterial strains. Arsenic adsorption on the cell surfaces and intracellular accumulation in both the bacterial strains were promising under culture conditions. Moreover, both the strains when used as inoculum, not only promoted the growth of rice seedlings but also decreased As uptake and accumulation in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Cep85 – a new antagonist of Nek2A that is involved in the regulation of centrosome disjunction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Canhe; Tian, Fang; Lu, Lin; Wang, Yun; Xiao, Zhe; Yu, Chengtao; Yu, Xianwen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nek2 has been implicated in centrosome disjunction at the onset of mitosis to promote bipolar spindle formation, and hyperactivation of Nek2 leads to the premature centrosome separation. Its activity, therefore, needs to be strictly regulated. In this study, we report that Cep85, an uncharacterized centrosomal protein, acts as a binding partner of Nek2A. It colocalizes with isoform A of Nek2 (Nek2A) at centrosomes and forms a granule meshwork enveloping the proximal ends of centrioles. Opposite to the effects of Nek2A, overexpression of Cep85 in conjunction with inhibition of the motor protein Eg5 (also known as KIF11) leads to the failure of centrosome disjunction. By contrast, depletion of Cep85 results in the precocious centrosome separation. We also define the Nek2A binding and centrosome localization domains within Cep85. Although the Nek2A-binding domain alone is sufficient to inhibit Nek2A kinase activity in vitro, both domains are indispensable for full suppression of centrosome disjunction in cells. Thus, we propose that Cep85 is a bona fide Nek2A-binding partner that surrounds the proximal ends of centrioles where it cooperates with PP1γ (also known as PPP1CC) to antagonize Nek2A activity in order to maintain the centrosome integrity in interphase in mammalian cells. PMID:26220856

  2. Cleavage of the SUN-domain protein Mps3 at its N-terminus regulates centrosome disjunction in budding yeast meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Bailey A.; Han, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    Centrosomes organize microtubules and are essential for spindle formation and chromosome segregation during cell division. Duplicated centrosomes are physically linked, but how this linkage is dissolved remains unclear. Yeast centrosomes are tethered by a nuclear-envelope-attached structure called the half-bridge, whose components have mammalian homologues. We report here that cleavage of the half-bridge protein Mps3 promotes accurate centrosome disjunction in budding yeast. Mps3 is a single-pass SUN-domain protein anchored at the inner nuclear membrane and concentrated at the nuclear side of the half-bridge. Using the unique feature in yeast meiosis that centrosomes are linked for hours before their separation, we have revealed that Mps3 is cleaved at its nucleus-localized N-terminal domain, the process of which is regulated by its phosphorylation at serine 70. Cleavage of Mps3 takes place at the yeast centrosome and requires proteasome activity. We show that noncleavable Mps3 (Mps3-nc) inhibits centrosome separation during yeast meiosis. In addition, overexpression of mps3-nc in vegetative yeast cells also inhibits centrosome separation and is lethal. Our findings provide a genetic mechanism for the regulation of SUN-domain protein-mediated activities, including centrosome separation, by irreversible protein cleavage at the nuclear periphery. PMID:28609436

  3. A centrosomal Cdc20-APC pathway controls dendrite morphogenesis in postmitotic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert H.; Puram, Sidharth V.; Bilimoria, Parizad M.; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Keough, Samantha; Wong, Michael; Rowitch, David; Bonni, Azad

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC) recruits the coactivator Cdc20 to drive mitosis in cycling cells. However, the nonmitotic functions of Cdc20-APC have remained unexplored. We report that Cdc20-APC plays an essential role in dendrite morphogenesis in postmitotic neurons. Knockdown of Cdc20 in cerebellar slices and in postnatal rats in vivo profoundly impairs the formation of granule neuron dendrite arbors in the cerebellar cortex. Remarkably, Cdc20 is enriched at the centrosome in neurons, and the centrosomal localization is critical for Cdc20-dependent dendrite development. We also find that the centrosome-associated protein histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) promotes the polyubiquitination of Cdc20, stimulates the activity of centrosomal Cdc20-APC, and drives the differentiation of dendrites. These findings define a novel postmitotic function for Cdc20-APC in the morphogenesis of dendrites in the mammalian brain. The identification of a centrosomal Cdc20-APC ubiquitin signaling pathway holds important implications for diverse biological processes including neuronal connectivity and plasticity. PMID:19167333

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of arsenic screening promotion in private wells: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Jolianne; Gagnon, Fabien; Michaud, Cécile; Boivin, Sonia

    2011-12-01

    The Eastern Townships (ETR) is a region in Québec (Canada) where the soil is naturally rich in arsenic (As). About a third of the people in the ETR obtain their water from a private well. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare two campaigns designed to promote As screening in well water: a mass-media campaign (MMC) followed or not by a community-based intervention (CBI). The MMC is based on a press release issued for the ETR, along with a leaflet on As made available on the Internet, and in strategic places. The CBI, formulated according to the factors of the Precede-Proceed model, was aimed at mobilizing local authorities and small media. It targets only one municipality; the intervention community (IC). Using a separate pre-post samples design, two population-based cross-sectional (pre-CBI and post-CBI) surveys were conducted by phone at 6-month intervals, by means of random samples. The samples counted, for the IC and the ETR, respectively, 87 and 156 well owners in pre-CBI, and 106 and 190 in post-CBI. The results in post-CBI showed that the proportion of well owners who had their water test increased by four times in the IC after (16% p = 0.004). When adjusting for age and gender among all the post-CBI respondents, As screening is related with intervention status (exposed to MMC and CBI; p ≤ 0.001) and on previous microbiological water analysis behavior (p ≤ 0.05), but is not related to knowledge. This study demonstrates the superiority of a community-based campaign over a MMC when environmental health is concerned.

  5. The Centrosome and Its Duplication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jingyan; Hagan, Iain M.; Glover, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The centrosome was discovered in the late 19th century when mitosis was first described. Long recognized as a key organelle of the spindle pole, its core component, the centriole, was realized more than 50 or so years later also to comprise the basal body of the cilium. Here, we chart the more recent acquisition of a molecular understanding of centrosome structure and function. The strategies for gaining such knowledge were quickly developed in the yeasts to decipher the structure and function of their distinctive spindle pole bodies. Only within the past decade have studies with model eukaryotes and cultured cells brought a similar degree of sophistication to our understanding of the centrosome duplication cycle and the multiple roles of this organelle and its component parts in cell division and signaling. Now as we begin to understand these functions in the context of development, the way is being opened up for studies of the roles of centrosomes in human disease. PMID:25646378

  6. The centrosome and its duplication cycle.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingyan; Hagan, Iain M; Glover, David M

    2015-02-02

    The centrosome was discovered in the late 19th century when mitosis was first described. Long recognized as a key organelle of the spindle pole, its core component, the centriole, was realized more than 50 or so years later also to comprise the basal body of the cilium. Here, we chart the more recent acquisition of a molecular understanding of centrosome structure and function. The strategies for gaining such knowledge were quickly developed in the yeasts to decipher the structure and function of their distinctive spindle pole bodies. Only within the past decade have studies with model eukaryotes and cultured cells brought a similar degree of sophistication to our understanding of the centrosome duplication cycle and the multiple roles of this organelle and its component parts in cell division and signaling. Now as we begin to understand these functions in the context of development, the way is being opened up for studies of the roles of centrosomes in human disease.

  7. The Centrosome, a Multitalented Renaissance Organelle.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    The centrosome acts as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) from the G1 to G2 phases of the cell cycle; it can mature into a spindle pole during mitosis and/or transition into a cilium by elongating microtubules (MTs) from the basal body on cell differentiation or cell cycle arrest. New studies hint that the centrosome functions in more than MT organization. For instance, it has recently been shown that a specific substructure of the centrosome-the mother centriole appendages-are required for the recycling of endosomes back to the plasma membrane. This alone could have important implications for a renaissance in our understanding of the development of primary cilia, endosome recycling, and the immune response. Here, we review newly identified roles for the centrosome in directing membrane traffic, the immunological synapse, and the stress response.

  8. Association of TCTP with Centrosome and Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Jaglarz, Mariusz K.; Bazile, Franck; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Polanski, Zbigniew; Chesnel, Franck; Borsuk, Ewa; Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z.

    2012-01-01

    Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein (TCTP) associates with microtubules (MT), however, the details of this association are unknown. Here we analyze the relationship of TCTP with MTs and centrosomes in Xenopus laevis and mammalian cells using immunofluorescence, tagged TCTP expression and immunoelectron microscopy. We show that TCTP associates both with MTs and centrosomes at spindle poles when detected by species-specific antibodies and by Myc-XlTCTP expression in Xenopus and mammalian cells. However, when the antibodies against XlTCTP were used in mammalian cells, TCTP was detected exclusively in the centrosomes. These results suggest that a distinct pool of TCTP may be specific for, and associate with, the centrosomes. Double labelling for TCTP and γ-tubulin with immuno-gold electron microscopy in Xenopus laevis oogonia shows localization of TCTP at the periphery of the γ-tubulin-containing pericentriolar material (PCM) enveloping the centriole. TCTP localizes in the close vicinity of, but not directly on the MTs in Xenopus ovary suggesting that this association requires unidentified linker proteins. Thus, we show for the first time: (1) the association of TCTP with centrosomes, (2) peripheral localization of TCTP in relation to the centriole and the γ-tubulin-containing PCM within the centrosome, and (3) the indirect association of TCTP with MTs. PMID:22655198

  9. The cyclin A centrosomal localization sequence recruits MCM5 and Orc1 to regulate centrosome reduplication.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Rebecca L; Pascreau, Gaetan; Maller, James L

    2010-08-15

    Centrosomes are the major microtubule-organizing centers in animal cells and regulate formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle. Aberrant centrosome number causes chromosome mis-segregation, and has been implicated in genomic instability and tumor development. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for the DNA replication factors MCM5 and Orc1 in preventing centrosome reduplication. Cyclin A-Cdk2 localizes on centrosomes by means of a modular centrosomal localization sequence (CLS) that is distinct from that of cyclin E. Here, we show that cyclin A interacts with both MCM5 and Orc1 in a CLS-dependent but Cdk-independent manner. Although the MRAIL hydrophobic patch is contained within the cyclin A CLS, binding of both MCM5 and Orc1 to cyclin A does not require a wild-type hydrophobic patch. The same domain in MCM5 that mediates interaction with cyclin E also binds cyclin A, resulting in centrosomal localization of MCM5. Finally, unlike its function in DNA synthesis, MCM5-mediated inhibition of centrosome reduplication in S-phase-arrested CHO cells does not require binding to other MCM family members. These results suggest that cyclins E and A sequentially prevent centrosome reduplication throughout interphase by recruitment of DNA replication factors such as MCM5 and Orc1.

  10. GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis related to arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a strong stimulus of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in experimental studies in response to oxidative stress caused by a stimulus. A functional GT-repeat polymorphism in the HO-1 gene promoter was inversely correlated to the development of coronary artery disease in diabetics and development of restenosis following angioplasty in patients. The role of this potential vascular protective factor in carotid atherosclerosis remains unclear. We previously reported a graded association of arsenic exposure in drinking water with an increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HO-1 genetic polymorphism and the risk of atherosclerosis related to arsenic. Methods Three-hundred and sixty-seven participants with an indication of carotid atherosclerosis and an additional 420 participants without the indication, which served as the controls, from two arsenic exposure areas in Taiwan, a low arsenic-exposed Lanyang cohort and a high arsenic-exposed LMN cohort, were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was evaluated using a duplex ultrasonographic assessment of the extracranial carotid arteries. Allelic variants of (GT)n repeats in the 5'-flanking region of the HO-1 gene were identified and grouped into a short (S) allele (< 27 repeats) and long (L) allele (≥ 27 repeats). The association of atherosclerosis and the HO-1 genetic variants was assessed by a logistic regression analysis, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Results Analysis results showed that arsenic's effect on carotid atherosclerosis differed between carriers of the class S allele (OR 1.39; 95% CI 0.86-2.25; p = 0.181) and non-carriers (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.03-6.82; p = 0.044) in the high-exposure LMN cohort. At arsenic exposure levels exceeding 750 μg/L, difference in OR estimates between class S allele carriers and non-carriers was borderline significant (p = 0.051). In contrast, no such results were found in the low-exposure Lanyang

  11. Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Van Geen, Alexander; Ahsan, Habibul; Horneman, Allan H.; Dhar, Ratan K.; Zheng, Yan; Hussain, Iftikhhar; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Gelman, Andrew; Stute, Martin; Simpson, H. James; Wallace, Sean; Small, Christopher; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Loiacono, Nancy J.; Becker, Marck; Cheng, Zhongqi; Momotaj, Hassina; Shahnewaz, Mohammad; Seddique, Ashraf Ali; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To survey tube wells and households in Araihazar upazila, Bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. METHODS: Water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tube wells serving a population of 55000, the position of each well being determined to within +/- 30 m using Global Positioning System receivers. Arsenic concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. In addition, groundwater samples collected every 2 weeks for an entire year from six tube wells were analysed for arsenic by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: Half of the wells surveyed in Araihazar had been installed in the previous 5 years; 94% were privately owned. Only about 48% of the surveyed wells supplied water with an arsenic content below 50 micro g/l, the current Bangladesh standard for drinking-water. Similar to other regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, the distribution of arsenic in Araihazar is spatially highly variable (range: 5-860 micro g/l) and therefore difficult to predict. Because of this variability, however, close to 90% of the inhabitants live within 100 m of a safe well. Monitoring of six tube wells currently meeting the 50 micro g/l standard showed no indication of a seasonal cycle in arsenic concentrations coupled to the hydrological cycle. This suggests that well-switching is a viable option in Araihazar, at least for the short term. CONCLUSIONS: Well-switching should be more systematically encouraged in Araihazar and many other parts of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Social barriers to well-switching need to be better understood and, if possible, overcome. PMID:12378292

  12. Centrin 3 is an inhibitor of centrosomal Mps1 and antagonizes centrin 2 function

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Dwitiya B.; Majumder, Shubhra; Perkins, Jennifer L.; Yang, Ching-Hui; Eyers, Patrick A.; Fisk, Harold A.

    2015-01-01

    Centrins are a family of small, calcium-binding proteins with diverse cellular functions that play an important role in centrosome biology. We previously identified centrin 2 and centrin 3 (Cetn2 and Cetn3) as substrates of the protein kinase Mps1. However, although Mps1 phosphorylation sites control the function of Cetn2 in centriole assembly and promote centriole overproduction, Cetn2 and Cetn3 are not functionally interchangeable, and we show here that Cetn3 is both a biochemical inhibitor of Mps1 catalytic activity and a biological inhibitor of centrosome duplication. In vitro, Cetn3 inhibits Mps1 autophosphorylation at Thr-676, a known site of T-loop autoactivation, and interferes with Mps1-dependent phosphorylation of Cetn2. The cellular overexpression of Cetn3 attenuates the incorporation of Cetn2 into centrioles and centrosome reduplication, whereas depletion of Cetn3 generates extra centrioles. Finally, overexpression of Cetn3 reduces Mps1 Thr-676 phosphorylation at centrosomes, and mimicking Mps1-dependent phosphorylation of Cetn2 bypasses the inhibitory effect of Cetn3, suggesting that the biological effects of Cetn3 are due to the inhibition of Mps1 function at centrosomes. PMID:26354417

  13. Pten regulates spindle pole movement through Dlg1-mediated recruitment of Eg5 to centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    van Ree, Janine H.; Nam, Hyun-Ja; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Kanakkanthara, Arun; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (Pten) suppresses neoplastic growth by negatively regulating PI(3)K signalling through its phosphatase activity1. To gain insight into the actions of non-catalytic Pten domains in normal physiological processes and tumorigenesis2,3, we engineered mice lacking the PDZ-binding domain (PDZ-BD). Here, we show that the PDZ-BD regulates centrosome movement and that its heterozygous or homozygous deletion promotes aneuploidy and tumour formation. We found that Pten is recruited to pre-mitotic centrosomes in a Plk1-dependent fashion to create a docking site for protein complexes containing the PDZ-domain-containing protein Dlg1 (also known as Sap97) and Eg5 (also known as Kif11), a kinesin essential for centrosome movement and bipolar spindle formation4. Docking of Dlg1–Eg5 complexes to Pten depended on Eg5 phosphorylation by the Nek9–Nek6 mitotic kinase cascade and Cdk1. PDZ-BD deletion or Dlg1 ablation impaired loading of Eg5 onto centrosomes and spindle pole motility, yielding asymmetrical spindles that are prone to chromosome missegregation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Pten, through the Dlg1-binding ability of its PDZ-BD, accumulates phosphorylated Eg5 at duplicated centrosomes to establish symmetrical bipolar spindles that properly segregate chromosomes, and suggest that this function contributes to tumour suppression. PMID:27240320

  14. TBCCD1, a new centrosomal protein, is required for centrosome and Golgi apparatus positioning.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, João; Nolasco, Sofia; Nascimento, Rute; Lopez Fanarraga, Mónica; Zabala, Juan Carlos; Soares, Helena

    2010-03-01

    In animal cells the centrosome is positioned at the cell centre in close association with the nucleus. The mechanisms responsible for this are not completely understood. Here, we report the first characterization of human TBCC-domain containing 1 (TBCCD1), a protein related to tubulin cofactor C. TBCCD1 localizes at the centrosome and at the spindle midzone, midbody and basal bodies of primary and motile cilia. Knockdown of TBCCD1 in RPE-1 cells caused the dissociation of the centrosome from the nucleus and disorganization of the Golgi apparatus. TBCCD1-depleted cells are larger, less efficient in primary cilia assembly and their migration is slower in wound-healing assays. However, the major microtubule-nucleating activity of the centrosome is not affected by TBCCD1 silencing. We propose that TBCCD1 is a key regulator of centrosome positioning and consequently of internal cell organization.

  15. TBCCD1, a new centrosomal protein, is required for centrosome and Golgi apparatus positioning

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, João; Nolasco, Sofia; Nascimento, Rute; Fanarraga, Mónica Lopez; Zabala, Juan Carlos; Soares, Helena

    2010-01-01

    In animal cells the centrosome is positioned at the cell centre in close association with the nucleus. The mechanisms responsible for this are not completely understood. Here, we report the first characterization of human TBCC-domain containing 1 (TBCCD1), a protein related to tubulin cofactor C. TBCCD1 localizes at the centrosome and at the spindle midzone, midbody and basal bodies of primary and motile cilia. Knockdown of TBCCD1 in RPE-1 cells caused the dissociation of the centrosome from the nucleus and disorganization of the Golgi apparatus. TBCCD1-depleted cells are larger, less efficient in primary cilia assembly and their migration is slower in wound-healing assays. However, the major microtubule-nucleating activity of the centrosome is not affected by TBCCD1 silencing. We propose that TBCCD1 is a key regulator of centrosome positioning and consequently of internal cell organization. PMID:20168327

  16. CP91 is a component of the Dictyostelium centrosome involved in centrosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Putzler, Sascha; Meyer, Irene; Gräf, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The Dictyostelium centrosome is a model for acentriolar centrosomes and it consists of a three-layered core structure surrounded by a corona harboring microtubule nucleation complexes. Its core structure duplicates once per cell cycle at the G2/M transition. Through proteomic analysis of isolated centrosomes we have identified CP91, a 91-kDa coiled coil protein that was localized at the centrosomal core structure. While GFP-CP91 showed almost no mobility in FRAP experiments during interphase, both GFP-CP91 and endogenous CP91 dissociated during mitosis and were absent from spindle poles from late prophase to anaphase. Since this behavior correlates with the disappearance of the central layer upon centrosome duplication, CP91 is a putative component of this layer. When expressed as GFP-fusions, CP91 fragments corresponding to the central coiled coil domain and the preceding N-terminal part (GFP-CP91cc and GFP-CP91N, respectively) also localized to the centrosome but did not show the mitotic redistribution of the full length protein suggesting a regulatory role of the C-terminal domain. Expression of all GFP-fusion proteins suppressed expression of endogenous CP91 and elicited supernumerary centrosomes. This was also very prominent upon depletion of CP91 by RNAi. Additionally, CP91-RNAi cells exhibited heavily increased ploidy due to severe defects in chromosome segregation along with increased cell size and defects in the abscission process during cytokinesis. Our results indicate that CP91 is a central centrosomal core component required for centrosomal integrity, proper centrosome biogenesis and, independently, for abscission during cytokinesis.

  17. Activation of maternal centrosomes in unfertilized sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Walter, M.; Biessmann, H.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    Centrosomes are undetectable in unfertilized sea urchin eggs, and normally the sperm introduces the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) at fertilization. However, artificial activation or parthenogenesis triggers microtubule assembly in the unfertilized egg, and this study explores the reappearance and behavior of the maternal centrosome. During activation with A23187 or ammonia, microtubules appear first at the cortex; centrosomal antigen is detected diffusely throughout the entire cytoplasm. Later, the centrosome becomes more distinct and organizes a radial microtubule shell, and eventually a compact centrosome at the egg center organizes a monaster. In these activated eggs, centrosomes undergo cycles of compaction and decompaction in synchrony with the chromatin, which also undergoes cycles of condensation and decondensation. Parthenogenetic activation with heavy water (50% D2O) or the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol (10 microM) induces numerous centrosomal foci in the unfertilized sea urchin egg. Within 15 min after incubation in D2O, numerous fine centrosomal foci are detected, and they organize a connected network of numerous asters which fill the entire egg. Taxol induces over 100 centrosomal foci by 15 min after treatment, which organize a corresponding number of asters. The centrosomal material in either D2O- or taxol-treated eggs aggregates with time to form fewer but denser foci, resulting in fewer and larger asters. Fertilization of eggs pretreated with either D2O or taxol shows that the paternal centrosome is dominant over the maternal centrosome. The centrosomal material gradually becomes associated with the enlarged sperm aster. These experiments demonstrate that maternal centrosomal material is present in the unfertilized egg, likely as dispersed undetectable material, which can be activated without paternal contributions. At fertilization, paternal centrosomes become dominant over the maternal centrosomal material.

  18. Activation of maternal centrosomes in unfertilized sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Walter, M.; Biessmann, H.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    Centrosomes are undetectable in unfertilized sea urchin eggs, and normally the sperm introduces the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) at fertilization. However, artificial activation or parthenogenesis triggers microtubule assembly in the unfertilized egg, and this study explores the reappearance and behavior of the maternal centrosome. During activation with A23187 or ammonia, microtubules appear first at the cortex; centrosomal antigen is detected diffusely throughout the entire cytoplasm. Later, the centrosome becomes more distinct and organizes a radial microtubule shell, and eventually a compact centrosome at the egg center organizes a monaster. In these activated eggs, centrosomes undergo cycles of compaction and decompaction in synchrony with the chromatin, which also undergoes cycles of condensation and decondensation. Parthenogenetic activation with heavy water (50% D2O) or the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol (10 microM) induces numerous centrosomal foci in the unfertilized sea urchin egg. Within 15 min after incubation in D2O, numerous fine centrosomal foci are detected, and they organize a connected network of numerous asters which fill the entire egg. Taxol induces over 100 centrosomal foci by 15 min after treatment, which organize a corresponding number of asters. The centrosomal material in either D2O- or taxol-treated eggs aggregates with time to form fewer but denser foci, resulting in fewer and larger asters. Fertilization of eggs pretreated with either D2O or taxol shows that the paternal centrosome is dominant over the maternal centrosome. The centrosomal material gradually becomes associated with the enlarged sperm aster. These experiments demonstrate that maternal centrosomal material is present in the unfertilized egg, likely as dispersed undetectable material, which can be activated without paternal contributions. At fertilization, paternal centrosomes become dominant over the maternal centrosomal material.

  19. The centrosome-Golgi apparatus nexus.

    PubMed

    Rios, Rosa M

    2014-09-05

    A shared feature among all microtubule (MT)-dependent processes is the requirement for MTs to be organized in arrays of defined geometry. At a fundamental level, this is achieved by precisely controlling the timing and localization of the nucleation events that give rise to new MTs. To this end, MT nucleation is restricted to specific subcellular sites called MT-organizing centres. The primary MT-organizing centre in proliferating animal cells is the centrosome. However, the discovery of MT nucleation capacity of the Golgi apparatus (GA) has substantially changed our understanding of MT network organization in interphase cells. Interestingly, MT nucleation at the Golgi apparently relies on multiprotein complexes, similar to those present at the centrosome, that assemble at the cis-face of the organelle. In this process, AKAP450 plays a central role, acting as a scaffold to recruit other centrosomal proteins important for MT generation. MT arrays derived from either the centrosome or the GA differ in their geometry, probably reflecting their different, yet complementary, functions. Here, I review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MT nucleation at the GA and how Golgi- and centrosome-based MT arrays work in concert to ensure the formation of a pericentrosomal polarized continuous Golgi ribbon structure, a critical feature for cell polarity in mammalian cells. In addition, I comment on the important role of the Golgi-nucleated MTs in organizing specialized MT arrays that serve specific functions in terminally differentiated cells.

  20. The Centrosomal Protein C-Nap1 Is Required for Cell Cycle–Regulated Centrosome Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Thibault; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Tanaka, Kayoko; Fry, Andrew M.; Nigg, Erich A.

    2000-01-01

    Duplicating centrosomes are paired during interphase, but are separated at the onset of mitosis. Although the mechanisms controlling centrosome cohesion and separation are important for centrosome function throughout the cell cycle, they remain poorly understood. Recently, we have proposed that C-Nap1, a novel centrosomal protein, is part of a structure linking parental centrioles in a cell cycle–regulated manner. To test this model, we have performed a detailed structure–function analysis on C-Nap1. We demonstrate that antibody-mediated interference with C-Nap1 function causes centrosome splitting, regardless of the cell cycle phase. Splitting occurs between parental centrioles and is not dependent on the presence of an intact microtubule or microfilament network. Centrosome splitting can also be induced by overexpression of truncated C-Nap1 mutants, but not full-length protein. Antibodies raised against different domains of C-Nap1 prove that this protein dissociates from spindle poles during mitosis, but reaccumulates at centrosomes at the end of cell division. Use of the same antibodies in immunoelectron microscopy shows that C-Nap1 is confined to the proximal end domains of centrioles, indicating that a putative linker structure must contain additional proteins. We conclude that C-Nap1 is a key component of a dynamic, cell cycle–regulated structure that mediates centriole–centriole cohesion. PMID:11076968

  1. The Seckel syndrome and centrosomal protein Ninein localizes asymmetrically to stem cell centrosomes but is not required for normal development, behavior, or DNA damage response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yiming; Mennella, Vito; Marks, Steven; Wildonger, Jill; Elnagdi, Esraa; Agard, David; Megraw, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Ninein (Nin) is a centrosomal protein whose gene is mutated in Seckel syndrome (SCKL, MIM 210600), an inherited recessive disease that results in primordial dwarfism, cognitive deficiencies, and increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress. Nin regulates neural stem cell self-renewal, interkinetic nuclear migration, and microtubule assembly in mammals. Nin is evolutionarily conserved, yet its role in cell division and development has not been investigated in a model organism. Here we characterize the single Nin orthologue in Drosophila. Drosophila Nin localizes to the periphery of the centrosome but not at centriolar structures as in mammals. However, Nin shares the property of its mammalian orthologue of promoting microtubule assembly. In neural and germline stem cells, Nin localizes asymmetrically to the younger (daughter) centrosome, yet it is not required for the asymmetric division of stem cells. In wing epithelia and muscle, Nin localizes to noncentrosomal microtubule-organizing centers. Surprisingly, loss of nin expression from a nin mutant does not significantly affect embryonic and brain development, fertility, or locomotor performance of mutant flies or their survival upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Although it is not essential, our data suggest that Nin plays a supportive role in centrosomal and extracentrosomal microtubule organization and asymmetric stem cell division. PMID:27053665

  2. A cluster-based randomized controlled trial promoting community participation in arsenic mitigation efforts in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reduce arsenic (As) exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of training community members to perform water arsenic (WAs) testing and provide As education compared to sending representatives from outside communities to conduct these tasks. Methods We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs testing. In a second set of 10 villages an outside representative performed these tasks. Results Overall, 53% of respondents using As contaminated wells, relative to the Bangladesh As standard of 50 μg/L, at baseline switched after receiving the intervention. Further, when there was less than 60% arsenic contaminated wells in a village, the classification used by the Bangladeshi and UNICEF, 74% of study households in the community tester villages, and 72% of households in the outside tester villages reported switching to an As safe drinking water source . Switching was more common in the outside-tester (63%) versus community-tester villages (44%). However, after adjusting for the availability of arsenic safe drinking water sources, well switching did not differ significantly by type of As tester (Odds ratio =0.86[95% confidence interval 0.42-1.77). At follow-up, among those using As contaminated wells who switched to safe wells, average urinary As concentrations significantly decreased. Conclusion The overall intervention was effective in reducing As exposure provided there were As-safe drinking water sources available. However, there was not a significant difference observed in the ability of the community and outside testers to encourage study households to use As-safe water sources. The findings of this study suggest that As education and WAs testing programs provided by As testers, irrespective of their residence, could be used as an effective, low cost approach to reduce As

  3. The 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 functions in the spindle position checkpoint by breaking Bfa1 asymmetry at yeast centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Micoogullari, Yagmur; Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Palani, Saravanan; Pereira, Gislene

    2014-07-15

    In addition to their well-known role in microtubule organization, centrosomes function as signaling platforms and regulate cell cycle events. An important example of such a function is the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) of budding yeast. SPOC is a surveillance mechanism that ensures alignment of the mitotic spindle along the cell polarity axis. Upon spindle misalignment, phosphorylation of the SPOC component Bfa1 by Kin4 kinase engages the SPOC by changing the centrosome localization of Bfa1 from asymmetric (one centrosome) to symmetric (both centrosomes). Here we show that, unexpectedly, Kin4 alone is unable to break Bfa1 asymmetry at yeast centrosomes. Instead, phosphorylation of Bfa1 by Kin4 creates a docking site on Bfa1 for the 14-3-3 family protein Bmh1, which in turn weakens Bfa1-centrosome association and promotes symmetric Bfa1 localization. Consistently, BMH1-null cells are SPOC deficient. Our work thus identifies Bmh1 as a new SPOC component and refines the molecular mechanism that breaks Bfa1 centrosome asymmetry upon SPOC activation.

  4. The 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 functions in the spindle position checkpoint by breaking Bfa1 asymmetry at yeast centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Micoogullari, Yagmur; Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Palani, Saravanan; Pereira, Gislene

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their well-known role in microtubule organization, centrosomes function as signaling platforms and regulate cell cycle events. An important example of such a function is the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) of budding yeast. SPOC is a surveillance mechanism that ensures alignment of the mitotic spindle along the cell polarity axis. Upon spindle misalignment, phosphorylation of the SPOC component Bfa1 by Kin4 kinase engages the SPOC by changing the centrosome localization of Bfa1 from asymmetric (one centrosome) to symmetric (both centrosomes). Here we show that, unexpectedly, Kin4 alone is unable to break Bfa1 asymmetry at yeast centrosomes. Instead, phosphorylation of Bfa1 by Kin4 creates a docking site on Bfa1 for the 14-3-3 family protein Bmh1, which in turn weakens Bfa1–centrosome association and promotes symmetric Bfa1 localization. Consistently, BMH1-null cells are SPOC deficient. Our work thus identifies Bmh1 as a new SPOC component and refines the molecular mechanism that breaks Bfa1 centrosome asymmetry upon SPOC activation. PMID:24850890

  5. Centrosome – a promising anti-cancer target

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Rivera, Yainyrette; Saavedra, Harold I

    2016-01-01

    The centrosome, an organelle discovered >100 years ago, is the main microtubule-organizing center in mammalian organisms. The centrosome is composed of a pair of centrioles surrounded by the pericentriolar material (PMC) and plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle transitions (G1-S, G2-M, and metaphase-anaphase), ensuring the normality of cell division. Hundreds of proteins found in the centrosome exert a variety of roles, including microtubule dynamics, nucleation, and kinetochore–microtubule attachments that allow correct chromosome alignment and segregation. Errors in these processes lead to structural (shape, size, number, position, and composition), functional (abnormal microtubule nucleation and disorganized spindles), and numerical (centrosome amplification [CA]) centrosome aberrations causing aneuploidy and genomic instability. Compelling data demonstrate that centrosomes are implicated in cancer, because there are important oncogenic and tumor suppressor proteins that are localized in this organelle and drive centrosome aberrations. Centrosome defects have been found in pre-neoplasias and tumors from breast, ovaries, prostate, head and neck, lung, liver, and bladder among many others. Several drugs/compounds against centrosomal proteins have shown promising results. Other drugs have higher toxicity with modest or no benefits, and there are more recently developed agents being tested in clinical trials. All of this emerging evidence suggests that targeting centrosome aberrations may be a future avenue for therapeutic intervention in cancer research. PMID:28008224

  6. Amplified centrosomes may underlie aggressive disease course in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Karuna; Ogden, Angela; Reid, Michelle D; Rida, Padmashree CG; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Centrosome amplification (CA), the presence of centrosomes that are abnormally numerous or enlarged, is a well-established driver of tumor initiation and progression associated with poor prognosis across a diversity of malignancies. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) carries one of the most dismal prognoses of all cancer types. A majority of these tumors are characterized by numerical and structural centrosomal aberrations, but it is unknown how CA contributes to the disease and patient outcomes. In this study, we sought to determine whether CA was associated with worse clinical outcomes, poor prognostic indicators, markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and ethnicity in PDAC. We also evaluated whether CA could precipitate more aggressive phenotypes in a panel of cultured PDAC cell lines. Using publicly available microarray data, we found that increased expression of genes whose dysregulation promotes CA was associated with worse overall survival and increased EMT marker expression in PDAC. Quantitative analysis of centrosomal profiles in PDAC cell lines and tissue sections uncovered varying levels of CA, and the expression of CA markers was associated with the expression of EMT markers. We induced CA in PDAC cells and found that CA empowered them with enhanced invasive and migratory capabilities. In addition, we discovered that PDACs from African American (AA) patients exhibited a greater extent of both numerical and structural CA than PDACs from European American (EA) patients. Taken together, these findings suggest that CA may fuel a more aggressive disease course in PDAC patients. PMID:26151406

  7. Arsenic Promotes Ubiquitinylation and Lysosomal Degradation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Chloride Channels in Human Airway Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Coutermarsh, Bonita A.; Barnaby, Roxanna L.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic exposure significantly increases respiratory bacterial infections and reduces the ability of the innate immune system to eliminate bacterial infections. Recently, we observed in the gill of killifish, an environmental model organism, that arsenic exposure induced the ubiquitinylation and degradation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel that is essential for the mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens in humans. Accordingly, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that low dose arsenic exposure reduces the abundance and function of CFTR in human airway epithelial cells. Arsenic induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in multiubiquitinylated CFTR, which led to its lysosomal degradation, and a decrease in CFTR-mediated chloride secretion. Although arsenic had no effect on the abundance or activity of USP10, a deubiquitinylating enzyme, siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, abolished the arsenic-stimulated degradation of CFTR. Arsenic enhanced the degradation of CFTR by increasing phosphorylated c-Cbl, which increased its interaction with CFTR, and subsequent ubiquitinylation of CFTR. Because epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic increases the incidence of respiratory infections, this study suggests that one potential mechanism of this effect involves arsenic-induced ubiquitinylation and degradation of CFTR, which decreases chloride secretion and airway surface liquid volume, effects that would be proposed to reduce mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens. PMID:22467879

  8. Arsenic promotes ubiquitinylation and lysosomal degradation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bomberger, Jennifer M; Coutermarsh, Bonita A; Barnaby, Roxanna L; Stanton, Bruce A

    2012-05-18

    Arsenic exposure significantly increases respiratory bacterial infections and reduces the ability of the innate immune system to eliminate bacterial infections. Recently, we observed in the gill of killifish, an environmental model organism, that arsenic exposure induced the ubiquitinylation and degradation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel that is essential for the mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens in humans. Accordingly, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that low dose arsenic exposure reduces the abundance and function of CFTR in human airway epithelial cells. Arsenic induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in multiubiquitinylated CFTR, which led to its lysosomal degradation, and a decrease in CFTR-mediated chloride secretion. Although arsenic had no effect on the abundance or activity of USP10, a deubiquitinylating enzyme, siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, abolished the arsenic-stimulated degradation of CFTR. Arsenic enhanced the degradation of CFTR by increasing phosphorylated c-Cbl, which increased its interaction with CFTR, and subsequent ubiquitinylation of CFTR. Because epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic increases the incidence of respiratory infections, this study suggests that one potential mechanism of this effect involves arsenic-induced ubiquitinylation and degradation of CFTR, which decreases chloride secretion and airway surface liquid volume, effects that would be proposed to reduce mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens.

  9. Centrosome amplification induces high grade features and is prognostic of worse outcomes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Denu, Ryan A; Zasadil, Lauren M; Kanugh, Craig; Laffin, Jennifer; Weaver, Beth A; Burkard, Mark E

    2016-01-29

    causes of CA in cancer, although PCM fragmentation may be a secondary cause. CA promotes high-risk breast cancer in part by inducing high-grade features. These findings highlight the importance of centrosome aberrations in the biology of human breast cancer.

  10. The centrosome and asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric stem cell division is a mechanism widely employed by the cell to maintain tissue homeostasis, resulting in the production of one stem cell and one differentiating cell. However, asymmetric cell division is not limited to stem cells and is widely observed even in unicellular organisms as well as in cells that make up highly complex tissues. In asymmetric cell division, cells must organize their intracellular components along the axis of asymmetry (sometimes in the context of extracellular architecture). Recent studies have described cell asymmetry in many cell types and in many cases such asymmetry involves the centrosome (or spindle pole body in yeast) as the center of cytoskeleton organization. In this review, I summarize recent discoveries in cellular polarity that lead to an asymmetric outcome, with a focus on centrosome function. PMID:19458491

  11. Microtubule nucleation and release from the neuronal centrosome

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have proposed that microtubules (MTs) destined for axons and dendrites are nucleated at the centrosome within the cell body of the neuron, and are then released for translocation into these neurites (Baas, P. W., and H. C. Joshi. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 119:171-178). In the present study, we have tested the capacity of the neuronal centrosome to act as a generator of MTs for relocation into other regions of the neuron. In cultured sympathetic neurons undergoing active axonal outgrowth, MTs are present throughout the cell body including the region around the centrosome, but very few (< 10) are directly attached to the centrosome. These results indicate either that the neuronal centrosome is relatively inactive with regard to MT nucleation, or that most of the MTs nucleated at the centrosome are rapidly released. Treatment for 6 h with 10 micrograms/ml nocodazole results in the depolymerization of greater than 97% of the MT polymer in the cell body. Within 5 min after removal of the drug, hundreds of MTs have assembled in the region of the centrosome, and most of these MTs are clearly attached to the centrosome. A portion of the MTs are not attached to the centrosome, but are aligned side-by-side with the attached MTs, suggesting that the unattached MTs were released from the centrosome after nucleation. In addition, unattached MTs are present in the cell body at decreasing levels with increasing distance from the centrosome. By 30 min, the MT array of the cell body is indistinguishable from that of controls. The number of MTs attached to the centrosome is once again diminished to fewer than 10, suggesting that the hundreds of MTs nucleated from the centrosome after 5 min were subsequently released and translocated away from the centrosome. These results indicate that the neuronal centrosome is a highly potent MT- nucleating structure, and provide strong indirect evidence that MTs nucleated from the centrosome are released for translocation into other regions of the

  12. Centrosomes are autocatalytic droplets of pericentriolar material organized by centrioles

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, David; Decker, Markus; Jaensch, Steffen; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes are highly dynamic, spherical organelles without a membrane. Their physical nature and their assembly are not understood. Using the concept of phase separation, we propose a theoretical description of centrosomes as liquid droplets. In our model, centrosome material occurs in a form soluble in the cytosol and a form that tends to undergo phase separation from the cytosol. We show that an autocatalytic chemical transition between these forms accounts for the temporal evolution observed in experiments. Interestingly, the nucleation of centrosomes can be controlled by an enzymatic activity of the centrioles, which are present at the core of all centrosomes. This nonequilibrium feature also allows for multiple stable centrosomes, a situation that is unstable in equilibrium phase separation. Our theory explains the growth dynamics of centrosomes for all cell sizes down to the eight-cell stage of the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, and it also accounts for data acquired in experiments with aberrant numbers of centrosomes and altered cell volumes. Furthermore, the model can describe unequal centrosome sizes observed in cells with perturbed centrioles. We also propose an interpretation of the molecular details of the involved proteins in the case of C. elegans. Our example suggests a general picture of the organization of membraneless organelles. PMID:24979791

  13. CEP proteins: the knights of centrosome dynasty.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ambuj; Rajendran, Vidya; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Purohit, Rituraj

    2013-10-01

    Centrosome forms the backbone of cell cycle progression mechanism. Recent debates have occurred regarding the essentiality of centrosome in cell cycle regulation. CEP family protein is the active component of centrosome and plays a vital role in centriole biogenesis and cell cycle progression control. A total of 31 proteins have been categorized into CEP family protein category and many more are under candidate evaluation. Furthermore, by the recent advancements in genomics and proteomics researches, several new CEP proteins have also been characterized. Here we have summarized the importance of CEP family proteins and their regulation mechanism involved in proper cell cycle progression. Further, we have reviewed the detailed molecular mechanism behind the associated pathological phenotypes and the possible therapeutic approaches. Proteins such as CEP57, CEP63, CEP152, CEP164, and CEP215 have been extensively studied with a detailed description of their molecular mechanisms, which are among the primary targets for drug discovery. Moreover, CEP27, CEP55, CEP70, CEP110, CEP120, CEP135, CEP192, CEP250, CEP290, and CEP350 also seem promising for future drug discovery approaches. Since the overview implicates that the overall researches on CEP proteins are not yet able to present significant details required for effective therapeutics development, thus, it is timely to discuss the importance of future investigations in this field.

  14. Long-term arsenic exposure induces histone H3 Lys9 dimethylation without altering DNA methylation in the promoter region of p16(INK4a) and down-regulates its expression in the liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Nohara, Keiko

    2013-09-01

    Long-term exposure of humans to high concentrations of arsenic is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Previous studies have suggested that arsenic exposure promotes tumorigenesis by inducing changes in the expression of tumor-related genes by dysregulating DNA methylation at tumor-related gene loci. However, the causal relationships between epigenetic changes and both arsenic exposure and tumorigenesis are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether arsenic can change the expression of tumor-related genes by inducing epigenetic modifications before tumorigenesis. We did so by investigating the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on representative epigenetic modifications, DNA methylation and histone modifications, in the tumor-free normal liver of C57Bl/6 mice. We focused on the tumor-related genes, p16(INK4a) , RASSF1A, Ha-ras and ER-α as target genes, because their expression and promoter methylation status in mice have been reported to be affected by long-term arsenic exposure. The results showed that long-term arsenic exposure induced a significant decrease in expression of p16(INK4a) associated with an increase in level of dimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), a transcription-suppressive histone modification, in the promoter region, but that DNA methylation of the promoter region was unaffected. The results also showed a significant increase in recruitment of H3K9 histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoter after arsenic exposure. These findings suggest that long-term arsenic exposure may induce down-regulation of p16(INK4a) by targeting recruitment of G9a and H3K9 dimethylation without altering DNA methylation before tumorigenesis in the liver. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Filamin A phosphorylation by Akt promotes cell migration in response to arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingzhi; Lu, Yongju; Stemmer, Paul M.; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    We had previously reported that trivalent arsenic (As3+), a well-known environmental carcinogen, induces phosphorylation of several putative Akt substrates. In the present report, we characterized one of these substrates by immunoprecipitation and proteomics analysis. The results indicate that a cytoskeleton remodeling protein, filamin A, with a molecular weight around 280 kDa, is phosphorylated by Akt in HEK-293 cells treated with As3+, which was also confirmed in human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B cells. Additional biochemical and biological studies revealed that serine 2152 (S2152) of filamin A is phosphorylated by activated Akt in the cells treated with As3+. To further confirm the importance of Akt-dependent filamin A S2152 phosphorylation in As3+-induced cell migration, we over-expressed either wild type filamin A or the mutated filamin A in which the S2152 was substituted with alanine (S2152A). The capability of cell migration was reduced significantly in the cells expressing the mutated filamin A (S2152A). Clinically, we found that increased expression of filamin A predicts poorer overall survival of the lung cancer patients with adenocarcinoma. Thus, these data suggest that Akt dependent filamin A phosphorylation is one of the key events in mediating As3+-induced carcinogenesis. Antagonizing Akt signaling can ameliorate As3+-induced filamin A phosphorylation and cell migration, which may serve as a molecular targeting strategy for malignancies associated with environmental As3+ exposure. PMID:25944616

  16. Filamin A phosphorylation by Akt promotes cell migration in response to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingzhi; Lu, Yongju; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Fei

    2015-05-20

    We had previously reported that trivalent arsenic (As(3+)), a well-known environmental carcinogen, induces phosphorylation of several putative Akt substrates. In the present report, we characterized one of these substrates by immunoprecipitation and proteomics analysis. The results indicate that a cytoskeleton remodeling protein, filamin A, with a molecular weight around 280 kDa, is phosphorylated by Akt in HEK-293 cells treated with As(3+), which was also confirmed in human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B cells. Additional biochemical and biological studies revealed that serine 2152 (S2152) of filamin A is phosphorylated by activated Akt in the cells treated with As(3+). To further confirm the importance of Akt-dependent filamin A S2152 phosphorylation in As(3+)-induced cell migration, we over-expressed either wild type filamin A or the mutated filamin A in which the S2152 was substituted with alanine (S2152A). The capability of cell migration was reduced significantly in the cells expressing the mutated filamin A (S2152A). Clinically, we found that increased expression of filamin A predicts poorer overall survival of the lung cancer patients with adenocarcinoma. Thus, these data suggest that Akt dependent filamin A phosphorylation is one of the key events in mediating As(3+)-induced carcinogenesis. Antagonizing Akt signaling can ameliorate As(3+)-induced filamin A phosphorylation and cell migration, which may serve as a molecular targeting strategy for malignancies associated with environmental As(3+) exposure.

  17. A fraction of Crm1 locates at centrosomes by its CRIME domain and regulates the centrosomal localization of pericentrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinying; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2009-07-03

    Crm1 plays a role in exporting proteins containing nuclear export signals (NESs) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Some proteins that are capable of interacting with Ran/Crm1 were reported to be localized at centrosomes and to function as centrosome checkpoints. But it remains unclear how Crm1 locates at centrosomes. In this study, we found that a fraction of Crm1 is located at centrosomes through its N-terminal CRM1, importin beta etc. (CRIME) domain, which is responsible for interacting with RanGTP, suggesting that Crm1 might target to centrosomes through binding centrosomal RanGTP. Moreover, overexpression of the CRIME domain, which is free of NES binding domain, resulted in the dissociation of pericentrin and gamma-tubulin complex from centrosomes and the disruption of microtubule nucleation. Deficiency of Crm1 provoked by RNAi also decreased the spindle poles localization of pericentrin and gamma-tubulin complex, coupled with mitotic defects. Since pericentrin was sensitive to Crm1 specific inhibitor leptomycin B, we propose that the centrosomal Crm1 might interact with pericentrin and regulate the localization and function of pericentrin at centrosomes.

  18. A fraction of Crm1 locates at centrosomes by its CRIME domain and regulates the centrosomal localization of pericentrin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qinying; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2009-07-03

    Crm1 plays a role in exporting proteins containing nuclear export signals (NESs) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Some proteins that are capable of interacting with Ran/Crm1 were reported to be localized at centrosomes and to function as centrosome checkpoints. But it remains unclear how Crm1 locates at centrosomes. In this study, we found that a fraction of Crm1 is located at centrosomes through its N-terminal CRM1, importin {beta} etc. (CRIME) domain, which is responsible for interacting with RanGTP, suggesting that Crm1 might target to centrosomes through binding centrosomal RanGTP. Moreover, overexpression of the CRIME domain, which is free of NES binding domain, resulted in the dissociation of pericentrin and {gamma}-tubulin complex from centrosomes and the disruption of microtubule nucleation. Deficiency of Crm1 provoked by RNAi also decreased the spindle poles localization of pericentrin and {gamma}-tubulin complex, coupled with mitotic defects. Since pericentrin was sensitive to Crm1 specific inhibitor leptomycin B, we propose that the centrosomal Crm1 might interact with pericentrin and regulate the localization and function of pericentrin at centrosomes.

  19. Effect of arsenic on tolerance mechanisms of two plant growth-promoting bacteria used as biological inoculants.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Ana L; Talano, Melina A; Wevar Oller, Ana L; Medina, María I; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial ability to colonize the rhizosphere of plants in arsenic (As) contaminated soils is highly important for symbiotic and free-living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) used as inoculants, since they can contribute to enhance plant As tolerance and limit metalloid uptake by plants. The aim of this work was to study the effect of As on growth, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, biofilm formation and motility of two strains used as soybean inoculants, Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109 and Azospirillum brasilense Az39. The metabolism of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) and their removal and/or possible accumulation were also evaluated. The behavior of both bacteria under As treatment was compared and discussed in relation to their potential for colonizing plant rhizosphere with high content of the metalloid. B. japonicum E109 growth was reduced with As(III) concentration from 10 μM while A. brasilense Az39 showed a reduction of growth with As(III) from 500 μM. EPS and biofilm production increased significantly under 25 μM As(III) for both strains. Moreover, this was more notorious for Azospirillum under 500 μM As(III), where motility was seriously affected. Both bacterial strains showed a similar ability to reduce As(V). However, Azospirillum was able to oxidize more As(III) (around 53%) than Bradyrhizobium (17%). In addition, both strains accumulated As in cell biomass. The behavior of Azospirillum under As treatments suggests that this strain would be able to colonize efficiently As contaminated soils. In this way, inoculation with A. brasilense Az39 would positively contribute to promoting growth of different plant species under As treatment.

  20. Towards a molecular architecture of the centrosome in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Morlon-Guyot, Juliette; Francia, Maria E; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Daher, Wassim

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. The pathogenicity of this unicellular parasite is tightly linked to its ability to efficiently proliferate within its host. Tachyzoites, the fast dividing form of the parasite, divide by endodyogeny. This process involves a single round of DNA replication, closed nuclear mitosis, and assembly of two daughter cells within a mother. The successful completion of endodyogeny relies on the temporal and spatial coordination of a plethora of simultaneous events. It has been shown that the Toxoplasma centrosome serves as signaling hub which nucleates spindle microtubules during mitosis and organizes the scaffolding of daughter cells components during cytokinesis. In addition, the centrosome is essential for inheriting both the apicoplast (a chloroplast-like organelle) and the Golgi apparatus. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that the T. gondii centrosome diverges in protein composition, structure and organization from its counterparts in higher eukaryotes making it an attractive source of potentially druggable targets. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on T. gondii centrosomal proteins and extend the putative centrosomal protein repertoire by in silico identification of mammalian centrosomal protein orthologs. We propose a working model for the organization and architecture of the centrosome in Toxoplasma parasites. Experimental validation of our proposed model will uncover how each predicted protein translates into the biology of centrosome, cytokinesis, karyokinesis, and organelle inheritance in Toxoplasma parasites.

  1. Apicomplexan cell cycle flexibility: centrosome controls the clutch

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The centrosome serves as a central hub coordinating multiple cellular events in eukaryotes. A recent study in Toxoplasma gondii revealed a unique bipartite structure of the centrosome, which coordinates the nuclear cycle (S-phase and mitosis) and budding cycle (cytokinesis) of the parasite, and deciphers the principle behind flexible apicomplexan cell division modes. PMID:25899747

  2. Centrosomes are autocatalytic droplets of pericentriolar material organized by centrioles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Decker, Markus; Jaensch, Steffen; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2014-03-01

    We propose a physical description of the centrosome, a membrane-less organelle involved in cell division. In our model, centrosome material occurs in a soluble form in the cytosol and a form that tends to undergo phase separation from the cytosol. We find that an autocatalytic chemical transition between these forms accounts for the temporal evolution observed in experiments. Interestingly, the nucleation of centrosomes can be controlled by an enzymatic activity of the centrioles, which are present at the core of all centrosomes. This non-equilibrium feature also allows for multiple stable centrosomes, a situation which is unstable in equilibrium phase separation. Our theory explains the growth dynamics of centrosomes for all cell sizes down to the eight-cell stage of the C. elegans embryo. It also accounts for data acquired in experiments with aberrant numbers of centrosomes and altered cell volumes. Furthermore, our model can describe unequal centrosome sizes observed in cells with disturbed centrioles. Our example suggests a general picture of the organization of membrane-less organelles.

  3. Novel centrosomal protein reveals the presence of multiple centrosomes in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) bnbn binucleated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Woods, C M; Zhu, J; Coleman, T; Bloom, S E; Lazarides, E

    1995-02-01

    The phenotype of the bnbn hemolytic anemia mutation in the domestic turkey is manifested as binucleation specifically in the definitive erythrocyte lineage, most likely as the consequence of anomolous centrosomal activity (Bloom et al., 1970; Searle and Bloom, 1979). Here we have identified in turkey two variants of the novel, centrosomally-associated erythroid-specific protein p23. One variant is Ca(2+)-sensitive and is highly homologous to its chick counterpart (Zhu et al., 1995, accompanying paper). The other, p21 is a truncated form resulting from a 62 amino acid deletion from the 3' end and a 40 amino acid insertion at the 5' end, and appears to lack Ca(2+)-sensitivity. These proteins are localized at the marginal band, centrosomes and nuclear membrane of differentiated erythrocytes. Anti-p23/p21 immunofluorescence revealed the presence of multiple centrosomes in bnbn erythrocytes. We therefore undertook a detailed genetic analysis to determine whether the p21 variant represented the bn mutation. Initial tests of normal BnBn and mutant bnbn individuals suggested that the p23/p21 proteins might be encoded by the Bn/bn genes. However, further genetic tests demonstrated independent segregation for these two genetic loci. Thus, these proteins are encoded by the heretofore undescribed genes, p23/p21, mapping to an autosomal locus in the turkey genome.

  4. Promotion of arsenic phytoextraction efficiency in the fern Pteris vittata by the inoculation of As-resistant bacteria: a soil bioremediation perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lampis, Silvia; Santi, Chiara; Ciurli, Adriana; Andreolli, Marco; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of arsenic phytoextraction by the fern Pteris vittata growing in arsenic-contaminated soil, with or without the addition of selected rhizobacteria isolated from the polluted site. The bacterial strains were selected for arsenic resistance, the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite, and the ability to promote plant growth. P. vittata plants were cultivated for 4 months in a contaminated substrate consisting of arsenopyrite cinders and mature compost. Four different experimental conditions were tested: (i) non-inoculated plants; (ii) plants inoculated with the siderophore-producing and arsenate-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. P1III2 and Delftia sp. P2III5 (A); (iii) plants inoculated with the siderophore and indoleacetic acid-producing bacteria Bacillus sp. MPV12, Variovorax sp. P4III4, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. P4V6 (B), and (iv) plants inoculated with all five bacterial strains (AB). The presence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria increased plant biomass by up to 45% and increased As removal efficiency from 13% without bacteria to 35% in the presence of the mixed inoculum. Molecular analysis confirmed the persistence of the introduced bacterial strains in the soil and resulted in a significant impact on the structure of the bacterial community. PMID:25741356

  5. Cold-treated centrosome: isolation of centrosomes from mitotic sea urchin eggs, production of an anticentrosomal antibody, and novel ultrastructural imaging.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Coffe, C; Coffe, G; Schatten, H; Mazia, D; Schatten, G

    1996-01-01

    A novel isolation of centrosomes is described and it was used to both generate a centrosome-specific monoclonal antibody and to image with high-resolution low-voltage scanning electron microscopy the surface details of the isolated centrosome. At first mitotic prometaphase, sea urchin zygotes are chilled on ice overnight. While most of the microtubules disassemble, the mitotic centrosomes collapse into aggregated masses. These centrosomes have been isolated, and used to generate a monoclonal antibody, designated 4D2, which is reactive with interphase and mitotic centrosomes. 4D2 staining of centrosomes is similar, but not identical, to that of other centrosomal antibodies like Ah6 and 5051. Centrosomal material is detected as a compact sphere after cold treatment; upon recovery the sphere expands and undergoes the shape changes previously described [Mazia et al., 1987: J. Cell Biol. 105:206a] to eventually reorganize a normal mitotic apparatus.

  6. The PIDDosome activates p53 in response to supernumerary centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Luca L.; Schuler, Fabian; Sladky, Valentina; Haschka, Manuel D.; Soratroi, Claudia; Eiterer, Lisa; Demetz, Egon; Weiss, Guenter; Geley, Stephan; Nigg, Erich A.; Villunger, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Centrosomes, the main microtubule-organizing centers in animal cells, are replicated exactly once during the cell division cycle to form the poles of the mitotic spindle. Supernumerary centrosomes can lead to aberrant cell division and have been causally linked to chromosomal instability and cancer. Here, we report that an increase in the number of mature centrosomes, generated by disrupting cytokinesis or forcing centrosome overduplication, triggers the activation of the PIDDosome multiprotein complex, leading to Caspase-2-mediated MDM2 cleavage, p53 stabilization, and p21-dependent cell cycle arrest. This pathway also restrains the extent of developmentally scheduled polyploidization by regulating p53 levels in hepatocytes during liver organogenesis. Taken together, the PIDDosome acts as a first barrier, engaging p53 to halt the proliferation of cells carrying more than one mature centrosome to maintain genome integrity. PMID:28130345

  7. GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with cardiovascular mortality risk in an arsenic-exposed population in northeastern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meei-Maan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Lee, Te-Chang; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2010-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease and mortality in humans. A functional GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene promoter is inversely correlated with the development of coronary artery disease and restenosis after clinical angioplasty. The relationship of HO-1 genotype with arsenic-associated cardiovascular disease has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the HO-1 GT-repeat polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality in an arsenic-exposed population. A total of 504 study participants were followed up for a median of 10.7 years for occurrence of cardiovascular deaths (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Cardiovascular risk factors and DNA samples for determination of HO-1 GT repeats were obtained at recruitment. GT repeats variants were grouped into the S (< 27 repeats) or L allele ({>=} 27 repeats). Relative mortality risk was estimated using Cox regression analysis, adjusted for competing risk of cancer and other causes. For the L/L, L/S, and S/S genotype groups, the crude mortalities for cardiovascular disease were 8.42, 3.10, and 2.85 cases/1000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors and competing risk of cancer and other causes, carriers with class S allele (L/S or S/S genotypes) had a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-carriers (L/L genotype) [OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.90]. In contrast, no significant association was observed between HO-1 genotype and cancer mortality or mortality from other causes. Shorter (GT)n repeats in the HO-1 gene promoter may confer protective effects against cardiovascular mortality related to arsenic exposure.

  8. Behavior of centrosomes during fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide; Schatten, Gerald; Balczon, Ron; Simerly, Calvin; Mazia, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of centrosomes during the stages of fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs was monitored in an immunofluorescence microscope, using autoimmune centrosomal antiserum derived from a patient with scleroderma to label the centrosomal material. These observations showed that centrosomes reproduce during the interphase and aggregate and separate during cell mitosis. Results supported the hypothesis of Mazia (1984), who proposed that centrosomes are 'flexible bodies'. It was also found that, while the sea urchin centrosomes are paternally inherited as was initially proposed by Bovery (1904), the mouse centrosomes are of maternal origin.

  9. Behavior of centrosomes during fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide; Schatten, Gerald; Balczon, Ron; Simerly, Calvin; Mazia, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of centrosomes during the stages of fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs was monitored in an immunofluorescence microscope, using autoimmune centrosomal antiserum derived from a patient with scleroderma to label the centrosomal material. These observations showed that centrosomes reproduce during the interphase and aggregate and separate during cell mitosis. Results supported the hypothesis of Mazia (1984), who proposed that centrosomes are 'flexible bodies'. It was also found that, while the sea urchin centrosomes are paternally inherited as was initially proposed by Bovery (1904), the mouse centrosomes are of maternal origin.

  10. Centrosome centering and decentering by microtubule network rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Letort, Gaëlle; Nedelec, Francois; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The centrosome is positioned at the cell center by pushing and pulling forces transmitted by microtubules (MTs). Centrosome decentering is often considered to result from asymmetric, cortical pulling forces exerted in particular by molecular motors on MTs and controlled by external cues affecting the cell cortex locally. Here we used numerical simulations to investigate the possibility that it could equally result from the redistribution of pushing forces due to a reorientation of MTs. We first showed that MT gliding along cell edges and pivoting around the centrosome regulate MT rearrangement and thereby direct the spatial distribution of pushing forces, whereas the number, dynamics, and stiffness of MTs determine the magnitude of these forces. By modulating these parameters, we identified different regimes, involving both pushing and pulling forces, characterized by robust centrosome centering, robust off-centering, or “reactive” positioning. In the last-named conditions, weak asymmetric cues can induce a misbalance of pushing and pulling forces, resulting in an abrupt transition from a centered to an off-centered position. Taken together, these results point to the central role played by the configuration of the MTs on the distribution of pushing forces that position the centrosome. We suggest that asymmetric external cues should not be seen as direct driver of centrosome decentering and cell polarization but instead as inducers of an effective reorganization of the MT network, fostering centrosome motion to the cell periphery. PMID:27440925

  11. Centrosome centering and decentering by microtubule network rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Letort, Gaëlle; Nedelec, Francois; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2016-09-15

    The centrosome is positioned at the cell center by pushing and pulling forces transmitted by microtubules (MTs). Centrosome decentering is often considered to result from asymmetric, cortical pulling forces exerted in particular by molecular motors on MTs and controlled by external cues affecting the cell cortex locally. Here we used numerical simulations to investigate the possibility that it could equally result from the redistribution of pushing forces due to a reorientation of MTs. We first showed that MT gliding along cell edges and pivoting around the centrosome regulate MT rearrangement and thereby direct the spatial distribution of pushing forces, whereas the number, dynamics, and stiffness of MTs determine the magnitude of these forces. By modulating these parameters, we identified different regimes, involving both pushing and pulling forces, characterized by robust centrosome centering, robust off-centering, or "reactive" positioning. In the last-named conditions, weak asymmetric cues can induce a misbalance of pushing and pulling forces, resulting in an abrupt transition from a centered to an off-centered position. Taken together, these results point to the central role played by the configuration of the MTs on the distribution of pushing forces that position the centrosome. We suggest that asymmetric external cues should not be seen as direct driver of centrosome decentering and cell polarization but instead as inducers of an effective reorganization of the MT network, fostering centrosome motion to the cell periphery.

  12. Centrosome-Dependent Bypass of the DNA Damage Checkpoint by the Polo Kinase Cdc5.

    PubMed

    Ratsima, Hery; Serrano, Diego; Pascariu, Mirela; D'Amours, Damien

    2016-02-16

    Cell-cycle checkpoints are essential feedback mechanisms that promote genome integrity. However, in the face of unrepairable DNA lesions, bypass mechanisms can suppress checkpoint activity and allow cells to resume proliferation. The molecular mechanisms underlying this biological response are currently not understood. Taking advantage of unique separation-of-function mutants, we show that the Polo-like kinase (PLK) Cdc5 uses a phosphopriming-based interaction mechanism to suppress G2/M checkpoint arrest by targeting Polo kinase activity to centrosomes. We also show that key subunits of the evolutionarily conserved RSC complex are critical downstream effectors of Cdc5 activity in checkpoint suppression. Importantly, the lethality and checkpoint defects associated with loss of Cdc5 Polo box activity can be fully rescued by artificially anchoring Cdc5 kinase domain to yeast centrosomes. Collectively, our results highlight a previously unappreciated role for centrosomes as key signaling centers for the suppression of cell-cycle arrest induced by persistent or unrepairable DNA damage.

  13. The centrosomal deubiquitylase USP21 regulates Gli1 transcriptional activity and stability

    PubMed Central

    Heride, Claire; Rigden, Daniel J.; Bertsoulaki, Erithelgi; Cucchi, Danilo; De Smaele, Enrico; Clague, Michael J.; Urbé, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT USP21 is a centrosome-associated deubiquitylase (DUB) that has been implicated in the formation of primary cilia – crucial organelles for the regulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in vertebrates. Here, we identify KCTD6 – a cullin-3 E3-ligase substrate adapter that has been previously linked to Hh signaling – as well as Gli1, the key transcription factor responsible for Hh signal amplification, as new interacting partners of USP21. We identify a cryptic structured protein interaction domain in KCTD6, which is predicted to have a similar fold to Smr domains. Importantly, we show that both depletion and overexpression of catalytically active USP21 suppress Gli1-dependent transcription. Gli proteins are negatively regulated through protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation. We provide evidence that USP21 recruits and stabilises Gli1 at the centrosome where it promotes its phosphorylation by PKA. By revealing an intriguing functional pairing between a spatially restricted deubiquitylase and a kinase, our study highlights the centrosome as an important hub for signal coordination. PMID:27621083

  14. Physical association between a novel plasma-membrane structure and centrosome orients cell division

    PubMed Central

    Negishi, Takefumi; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi; Ueno, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    In the last mitotic division of the epidermal lineage in the ascidian embryo, the cells divide stereotypically along the anterior-posterior axis. During interphase, we found that a unique membrane structure invaginates from the posterior to the centre of the cell, in a microtubule-dependent manner. The invagination projects toward centrioles on the apical side of the nucleus and associates with one of them. Further, a cilium forms on the posterior side of the cell and its basal body remains associated with the invagination. A laser ablation experiment suggests that the invagination is under tensile force and promotes the posterior positioning of the centrosome. Finally, we showed that the orientation of the invaginations is coupled with the polarized dynamics of centrosome movements and the orientation of cell division. Based on these findings, we propose a model whereby this novel membrane structure orchestrates centrosome positioning and thus the orientation of cell division axis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16550.001 PMID:27502556

  15. Inhibition of Cdk2 activity decreases Aurora-A kinase centrosomal localization and prevents centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Leontovich, Alexey A; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Veroux, Massimiliano; Tallarita, Tiziano; Billadeau, Daniel; McCubrey, James; Ingle, James; Galanis, Evanthia; D'Assoro, Antonino B

    2013-05-01

    Centrosome amplification plays a key role in the origin of chromosomal instability (CIN) during cancer development and progression. In this study, MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines harboring abrogated p53 function (vMCF-7DNp53) were employed to investigate the relationship between induction of genotoxic stress, activation of cyclin-A/Cdk2 and Aurora-A oncogenic signalings and development of centrosome amplification. Introduction of genotoxic stress in the vMCF-7DNp53 cell line by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) induced centrosome amplification that was mechanistically linked to Aurora-A kinase activity. In cells carrying defective p53, the development of centrosome amplification also occurred following treatment with another DNA damaging agent, methotrexate. Importantly, we demonstrated that Aurora-A kinase-induced centrosome amplification was mediated by Cdk2 kinase since molecular inhibition of Cdk2 activity by SU9516 suppressed Aurora-A centrosomal localization and consequent centrosome amplification. In addition, we employed vMCF-7DRaf-1 cells that display high levels of endogenous cyclin-A and demonstrated that molecular targeting of Aurora-A by Alisertib reduces cyclin-A expression. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a novel positive feed-back loop between cyclin-A/Cdk2 and Aurora-A pathways in the development of centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells. They also provide the translational rationale for targeting 'druggable cell cycle regulators' as an innovative therapeutic strategy to inhibit centrosome amplification and CIN in breast tumors resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs.

  16. Besnoitia besnoiti and Toxoplasma gondii: two apicomplexan strategies to manipulate the host cell centrosome and Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Rita; Nolasco, Sofia; Gonçalves, João; Cortes, Helder C; Leitão, Alexandre; Soares, Helena

    2014-09-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti and Toxoplasma gondii are two closely related parasites that interact with the host cell microtubule cytoskeleton during host cell invasion. Here we studied the relationship between the ability of these parasites to invade and to recruit the host cell centrosome and the Golgi apparatus. We observed that T. gondii recruits the host cell centrosome towards the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), whereas B. besnoiti does not. Notably, both parasites recruit the host Golgi apparatus to the PV but its organization is affected in different ways. We also investigated the impact of depleting and over-expressing the host centrosomal protein TBCCD1, involved in centrosome positioning and Golgi apparatus integrity, on the ability of these parasites to invade and replicate. Toxoplasma gondii replication rate decreases in cells over-expressing TBCCD1 but not in TBCCD1-depleted cells; while for B. besnoiti no differences were found. However, B. besnoiti promotes a reorganization of the Golgi ribbon previously fragmented by TBCCD1 depletion. These results suggest that successful establishment of PVs in the host cell requires modulation of the Golgi apparatus which probably involves modifications in microtubule cytoskeleton organization and dynamics. These differences in how T. gondii and B. besnoiti interact with their host cells may indicate different evolutionary paths.

  17. Targeting of Fzr/Cdh1 for timely activation of the APC/C at the centrosome during mitotic exit

    PubMed Central

    Meghini, Francesco; Martins, Torcato; Tait, Xavier; Fujimitsu, Kazuyuki; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Glover, David M.; Kimata, Yuu

    2016-01-01

    A multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), regulates critical cellular processes including the cell cycle. To accomplish its diverse functions, APC/C activity must be precisely regulated in time and space. The interphase APC/C activator Fizzy-related (Fzr or Cdh1) is localized at centrosomes in animal cells. However, neither the mechanism of its localization nor its importance is clear. Here we identify the centrosome component Spd2 as a major partner of Fzr in Drosophila. The localization of Fzr to the centriole during interphase depends on direct interaction with Spd2. By generating Spd2 mutants unable to bind Fzr, we show that centrosomal localization of Fzr is essential for optimal APC/C activation towards its centrosomal substrate Aurora A. Finally, we show that Spd2 is also a novel APC/CFzr substrate. Our study is the first to demonstrate the critical importance of distinct subcellular pools of APC/C activators in the spatiotemporal control of APC/C activity. PMID:27558644

  18. Centrosome dynamics as a source of chromosomal instability

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyun-Ja; Naylor, Ryan; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate segregation of duplicated chromosomes between two daughter cells depends on bi-polar spindle formation, a metaphase state in which sister kinetochores are attached to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles. To ensure bi-orientation, cells possess surveillance systems that safeguard against microtubule-kinetochore attachment defects, including the spindle assembly checkpoint and the error correction machinery. However, recent developments have identified centrosome dynamics – that is, centrosome disjunction and poleward movement of duplicated centrosomes – as a central target for deregulation of bi-orientation in cancer cells. Here we review novel insights into the mechanisms that underlie centrosome dynamics and discuss how these mechanisms are perturbed in cancer cells to drive chromosome missegregation and advance neoplastic transformation. PMID:25455111

  19. Merlin/ERM proteins establish cortical asymmetry and centrosome position

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Alan M.; DuBoff, Brian; Casaletto, Jessica B.; Gladden, Andrew B.; McClatchey, Andrea I.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to generate asymmetry at the cell cortex underlies cell polarization and asymmetric cell division. Here we demonstrate a novel role for the tumor suppressor Merlin and closely related ERM proteins (Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin) in generating cortical asymmetry in the absence of external cues. Our data reveal that Merlin functions to restrict the cortical distribution of the actin regulator Ezrin, which in turn positions the interphase centrosome in single epithelial cells and three-dimensional organotypic cultures. In the absence of Merlin, ectopic cortical Ezrin yields mispositioned centrosomes, misoriented spindles, and aberrant epithelial architecture. Furthermore, in tumor cells with centrosome amplification, the failure to restrict cortical Ezrin abolishes centrosome clustering, yielding multipolar mitoses. These data uncover fundamental roles for Merlin/ERM proteins in spatiotemporally organizing the cell cortex and suggest that Merlin's role in restricting cortical Ezrin may contribute to tumorigenesis by disrupting cell polarity, spindle orientation, and, potentially, genome stability. PMID:23249734

  20. Inactivation of E2F3 results in centrosome amplification.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Harold I; Maiti, Baidehi; Timmers, Cynthia; Altura, Rachel; Tokuyama, Yukari; Fukasawa, Kenji; Leone, Gustavo

    2003-04-01

    The E2F family of transcription factors is critical for the control of cell cycle progression. We now show that the specific inactivation of E2F3 in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) results in a disruption of the centrosome duplication cycle. Loss of E2F3, but not E2F1, E2F2, E2F4, or E2F5 results in unregulated cyclin E-dependent kinase activity, defects in nucleophosmin B association with centrosomes, and premature centriole separation and duplication. Consequently, this defect leads to centrosome amplification, mitotic spindle defects, and aneuploidy. Our findings implicate the E2F3 transcription factor as an important link that orchestrates DNA and centrosome duplication cycles, ensuring the faithful transmission of genetic material to daughter cells.

  1. Centrosome maturation requires YB-1 to regulate dynamic instability of microtubules for nucleus reassembly

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Asaka, Masamitsu N.; Matsumoto, Ken; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule formation from the centrosome increases dramatically at the onset of mitosis. This process is termed centrosome maturation. However, regulatory mechanisms of microtubule assembly from the centrosome in response to the centrosome maturation are largely unknown. Here we found that YB-1, a cellular cancer susceptibility protein, is required for the centrosome maturation. Phosphorylated YB-1 accumulated in the centrosome at mitotic phase. By YB-1 knockdown, microtubules were found detached from the centrosome at telophase and an abnormal nuclear shape called nuclear lobulation was found due to defective reassembly of nuclear envelope by mis-localization of non-centrosomal microtubules. In conclusion, we propose that YB-1 is important for the assembly of centrosomal microtubule array for temporal and spatial regulation of microtubules. PMID:25740062

  2. Arsenic Methyltransferase

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metalloid arsenic enters the environment by natural processes (volcanic activity, weathering of rocks) and by human activity (mining, smelting, herbicides and pesticides). Although arsenic has been exploited for homicidal and suicidal purposes since antiquity, its significan...

  3. Arsenic Methyltransferase

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metalloid arsenic enters the environment by natural processes (volcanic activity, weathering of rocks) and by human activity (mining, smelting, herbicides and pesticides). Although arsenic has been exploited for homicidal and suicidal purposes since antiquity, its significan...

  4. ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

  5. The nucleoporin Nup205/NPP-3 is lost near centrosomes at mitotic onset and can modulate the timing of this process in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hachet, Virginie; Busso, Coralie; Toya, Mika; Sugimoto, Asako; Askjaer, Peter; Gönczy, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of mitosis in time and space is critical for proper cell division. We conducted an RNA interference–based modifier screen to identify novel regulators of mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Of particular interest, this screen revealed that the Nup205 nucleoporin NPP-3 can negatively modulate the timing of mitotic onset. Furthermore, we discovered that NPP-3 and nucleoporins that are associated with it are lost from the nuclear envelope (NE) in the vicinity of centrosomes at the onset of mitosis. We demonstrate that centrosomes are both necessary and sufficient for NPP-3 local loss, which also requires the activity of the Aurora-A kinase AIR-1. Our findings taken together support a model in which centrosomes and AIR-1 promote timely onset of mitosis by locally removing NPP-3 and associated nucleoporins from the NE. PMID:22740626

  6. Cargo Transport by Cytoplasmic Dynein Can Center Embryonic Centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Longoria, Rafael A.; Shubeita, George T.

    2013-01-01

    To complete meiosis II in animal cells, the male DNA material needs to meet the female DNA material contained in the female pronucleus at the egg center, but it is not known how the male pronucleus, deposited by the sperm at the periphery of the cell, finds the cell center in large eggs. Pronucleus centering is an active process that appears to involve microtubules and molecular motors. For small and medium-sized cells, the force required to move the centrosome can arise from either microtubule pushing on the cortex, or cortically-attached dynein pulling on microtubules. However, in large cells, such as the fertilized Xenopus laevis embryo, where microtubules are too long to support pushing forces or they do not reach all boundaries before centrosome centering begins, a different force generating mechanism must exist. Here, we present a centrosome positioning model in which the cytosolic drag experienced by cargoes hauled by cytoplasmic dynein on the sperm aster microtubules can move the centrosome towards the cell’s center. We find that small, fast cargoes (diameter ∼100 nm, cargo velocity ∼2 µm/s) are sufficient to move the centrosome in the geometry of the Xenopus laevis embryo within the experimentally observed length and time scales. PMID:23840877

  7. Regulation of the cell cycle and centrosome biology by deubiquitylases.

    PubMed

    Darling, Sarah; Fielding, Andrew B; Sabat-Pośpiech, Dorota; Prior, Ian A; Coulson, Judy M

    2017-09-12

    Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitylation is increasingly recognised as a highly complex code that contributes to the regulation of diverse cellular processes. In humans, a family of almost 100 deubiquitylase enzymes (DUBs) are assigned to six subfamilies and many of these DUBs can remove ubiquitin from proteins to reverse signals. Roles for individual DUBs have been delineated within specific cellular processes, including many that are dysregulated in diseases, particularly cancer. As potentially druggable enzymes, disease-associated DUBs are of increasing interest as pharmaceutical targets. The biology, structure and regulation of DUBs have been extensively reviewed elsewhere, so here we focus specifically on roles of DUBs in regulating cell cycle processes in mammalian cells. Over a quarter of all DUBs, representing four different families, have been shown to play roles either in the unidirectional progression of the cell cycle through specific checkpoints, or in the DNA damage response and repair pathways. We catalogue these roles and discuss specific examples. Centrosomes are the major microtubule nucleating centres within a cell and play a key role in forming the bipolar mitotic spindle required to accurately divide genetic material between daughter cells during cell division. To enable this mitotic role, centrosomes undergo a complex replication cycle that is intimately linked to the cell division cycle. Here, we also catalogue and discuss DUBs that have been linked to centrosome replication or function, including centrosome clustering, a mitotic survival strategy unique to cancer cells with supernumerary centrosomes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (<0.1 %) of the total arsenic present in soils or rice paddies is released via volatilization. Additionally, past studies often have not monitored arsenic release in the aqueous phase. Two main pathways for microbial arsenic volatilization are known and include methylation of arsenic during methanogenesis and methylation by arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase. In this study, we compare the roles of these two pathways in arsenic volatilization and aqueous mobilization through mesocosm experiments with cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization

  9. Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, W L; White, D R

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  10. Cyclin B1–Cdk1 Activation Continues after Centrosome Separation to Control Mitotic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Arne; van Zon, Wouter; Karlsson Rosenthal, Christina; Wolthuis, Rob M. F

    2007-01-01

    Activation of cyclin B1–cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), triggered by a positive feedback loop at the end of G2, is the key event that initiates mitotic entry. In metaphase, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome–dependent destruction of cyclin B1 inactivates Cdk1 again, allowing mitotic exit and cell division. Several models describe Cdk1 activation kinetics in mitosis, but experimental data on how the activation proceeds in mitotic cells have largely been lacking. We use a novel approach to determine the temporal development of cyclin B1–Cdk1 activity in single cells. By quantifying both dephosphorylation of Cdk1 and phosphorylation of the Cdk1 target anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome 3, we disclose how cyclin B1–Cdk1 continues to be activated after centrosome separation. Importantly, we discovered that cytoplasmic cyclin B1–Cdk1 activity can be maintained even when cyclin B1 translocates to the nucleus in prophase. These experimental data are fitted into a model describing cyclin B1–Cdk1 activation in human cells, revealing a striking resemblance to a bistable circuit. In line with the observed kinetics, cyclin B1–Cdk1 levels required to enter mitosis are lower than the amount of cyclin B1–Cdk1 needed for mitotic progression. We propose that gradually increasing cyclin B1–Cdk1 activity after centrosome separation is critical to coordinate mitotic progression. PMID:17472438

  11. Dialogue between centrosomal entrance and exit scaffold pathways regulates mitotic commitment

    PubMed Central

    Grallert, Agnes; Connolly, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    The fission yeast scaffold molecule Sid4 anchors the septum initiation network to the spindle pole body (SPB, centrosome equivalent) to control mitotic exit events. A second SPB-associated scaffold, Cut12, promotes SPB-associated Cdk1–cyclin B to drive mitotic commitment. Signals emanating from each scaffold have been assumed to operate independently to promote two distinct outcomes. We now find that signals from Sid4 contribute to the Cut12 mitotic commitment switch. Specifically, phosphorylation of Sid4 by NIMAFin1 reduces Sid4 affinity for its SPB anchor, Ppc89, while also enhancing Sid4’s affinity for casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ). The resulting phosphorylation of Sid4 by the newly docked CK1δ recruits Chk2Cds1 to Sid4. Chk2Cds1 then expels the Cdk1–cyclin B antagonistic phosphatase Flp1/Clp1 from the SPB. Flp1/Clp1 departure can then support mitotic commitment when Cdk1–cyclin B activation at the SPB is compromised by reduction of Cut12 function. Such integration of signals emanating from neighboring scaffolds shows how centrosomes/SPBs can integrate inputs from multiple pathways to control cell fate. PMID:28774892

  12. Identification of conserved, centrosome-targeting ASH domains in TRAPPII complex subunits and TRAPPC8

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assembly of primary cilia relies on vesicular trafficking towards the cilium base and intraflagellar transport (IFT) between the base and distal tip of the cilium. Recent studies have identified several key regulators of these processes, including Rab GTPases such as Rab8 and Rab11, the Rab8 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabin8, and the transport protein particle (TRAPP) components TRAPPC3, -C9, and -C10, which physically interact with each other and function together with Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins in ciliary membrane biogenesis. However, despite recent advances, the exact molecular mechanisms by which these proteins interact and target to the basal body to promote ciliogenesis are not fully understood. Results We surveyed the human proteome for novel ASPM, SPD-2, Hydin (ASH) domain-containing proteins. We identified the TRAPP complex subunits TRAPPC8, -9, -10, -11, and -13 as novel ASH domain-containing proteins. In addition to a C-terminal ASH domain region, we predict that the N-terminus of TRAPPC8, -9, -10, and -11, as well as their yeast counterparts, consists of an α-solenoid bearing stretches of multiple tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeats. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis of cultured mammalian cells revealed that exogenously expressed ASH domains, as well as endogenous TRAPPC8, localize to the centrosome/basal body. Further, depletion of TRAPPC8 impaired ciliogenesis and GFP-Rabin8 centrosome targeting. Conclusions Our results suggest that ASH domains confer targeting to the centrosome and cilia, and that TRAPPC8 has cilia-related functions. Further, we propose that the yeast TRAPPII complex and its mammalian counterpart are evolutionarily related to the bacterial periplasmic trafficking chaperone PapD of the usher pili assembly machinery. PMID:25018876

  13. Polar expeditions--provisioning the centrosome for mitosis.

    PubMed

    Blagden, Sarah P; Glover, David M

    2003-06-01

    It is now clear that both centrioles and their surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM) are capable of self-assembly. Whereas centrioles are normally duplicated during G1-S phase, PCM components may be loaded onto centrosomes in both a microtubule-dependent and -independent manner at all stages of the cell cycle. Centrosomes enlarge dramatically after mitotic entry, when both Aurora A and Polo-like kinases cooperate to recruit additional gamma-tubulin ring complexes and microtubule-associated proteins to assist spindle formation.

  14. Critical Importance of Protein 4.1 in Centrosome and Mitotic Spindle Aberrations in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    centrosome duplication because centrosomes have reduplicated but have not sufficiently matured (which occurs at G2 of the cell cycle) to acquire 4.1R. Due...centrosomes in these breast cancer cells is unlicensed centrosome reduplication , a process known to occur during S phase. Furthermore, the fact that 4.1R is

  15. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    . Phytochelatins bind diverse thiol-reactive elements like As(III) and are synthesized from amino acids in a three-step enzymatic pathway utilizing three enzymes: ECS = gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase; GS = GSH synthetase; and PS = phytochelatin synthase. We cloned each of the genes that encode these enzymes and used at least two different plant promoters to express them in transgenic Arabidopsis. We have shown that all three confer significant resistance to arsenic and allow rapid growth on a concentration of arsenic (300 micromolar) that kills wild-type seeds and plants.

  16. Dynamics of centrosome translocation and microtubule organization in neocortical neurons during distinct modes of polarization.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akira; Sato, Toshiyuki; Ando, Ryota; Noguchi, Namiko; Masaoka, Makoto; Miyata, Takaki

    2014-05-01

    Neuronal migration and process formation require cytoskeletal organization and remodeling. Recent studies suggest that centrosome translocation is involved in initial axon outgrowth, while the role of centrosomal positioning is not clear. Here, we examine relations between centrosomal positioning, axonogenesis, and microtubule (MT) polarization in multipolar and bipolar neocortical neurons. We monitored dynamic movements of centrosomes and MT plus ends in migratory neurons in embryonic mouse cerebral slices. In locomoting bipolar neurons, the centrosome oriented toward the pia-directed leading process. Bipolar neurons displayed dense MT plus end dynamics in leading processes, while trailing processes showed clear bidirectional MTs. In migrating multipolar neurons, new processes emerged irrespective of centrosome localization, followed by centrosome reorientations toward the dominant process. Anterograde movements of MT plus ends occurred in growing processes and retrograde movements were observed after retraction of the distal tip. In multipolar neurons, axon formed by tangential extension of a dominant process and the centrosome oriented toward the growing axon, while in locomoting neurons, an axon formed opposite to the direction of migration and the centrosome localized to the base of the leading process. Our data suggest that MT organization may alter centrosomal localization and that centrosomal positioning does not necessarily direct process formation.

  17. Rootletin prevents Cep68 from VHL-mediated proteasomal degradation to maintain centrosome cohesion.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huilong; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Weixiao; Zhang, Dachuan; Li, Wei; Yuan, Li

    2017-04-01

    Centrosome cohesion, mostly regarded as a proteinaceous linker between parental centrioles, ensures the interphase centrosome(s) to function as a single microtubule-organizing center. Maintenance of centrosome cohesion counts on a number of centrosomal linker proteins because depletion of any of those leads to premature centrosome separation in interphase, termed centrosome splitting. However, the underlying mechanisms of the dependence are unknown. Here, we show that absence of Rootletin triggers the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein (VHL)-mediated proteasomal degradation of Cep68 and, in turn, results in centrosome splitting. The VHL E3 ligase complex ubiquitinates Cep68 in vitro and in vivo. Co-silencing of Rootletin and VHL reverts Cep68 loss and centrosome splitting. Expression of a stable mutant of Cep68, either diminishing its polyubiquitylation or eliminating binding to β-domain of VHL, also suppresses centrosome splitting provoked by Rootletin depletion. We propose that the archetypal linker protein Rootletin maintains centrosome cohesion in part through inhibition of VHL-mediated Cep68 degradation.

  18. 14-3-3γ Prevents Centrosome Amplification and Neoplastic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Sehgal, Lalit; Bose, Arunabha; Gulvady, Anushree; Senapati, Parijat; Thorat, Rahul; Basu, Srikanta; Bhatt, Khyati; Hosing, Amol S.; Balyan, Renu; Borde, Lalit; Kundu, Tapas K.; Dalal, Sorab N.

    2016-01-01

    More than 80% of malignant tumors show centrosome amplification and clustering. Centrosome amplification results from aberrations in the centrosome duplication cycle, which is strictly coordinated with DNA-replication-cycle. However, the relationship between cell-cycle regulators and centrosome duplicating factors is not well understood. This report demonstrates that 14-3-3γ localizes to the centrosome and 14-3-3γ loss leads to centrosome amplification. Loss of 14-3-3γ results in the phosphorylation of NPM1 at Thr-199, causing early centriole disjunction and centrosome hyper-duplication. The centrosome amplification led to aneuploidy and increased tumor formation in mice. Importantly, an increase in passage of the 14-3-3γ-knockdown cells led to an increase in the number of cells containing clustered centrosomes leading to the generation of pseudo-bipolar spindles. The increase in pseudo-bipolar spindles was reversed and an increase in the number of multi-polar spindles was observed upon expression of a constitutively active 14-3-3-binding-defective-mutant of cdc25C (S216A) in the 14-3-3γ knockdown cells. The increase in multi-polar spindle formation was associated with decreased cell viability and a decrease in tumor growth. Our findings uncover the molecular basis of regulation of centrosome duplication by 14-3-3γ and inhibition of tumor growth by premature activation of the mitotic program and the disruption of centrosome clustering. PMID:27253419

  19. Centrosome docking at the immunological synapse is controlled by Lck signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tsun, Andy; Qureshi, Ihjaaz; Stinchcombe, Jane C.; Jenkins, Misty R.; de la Roche, Maike; Kleczkowska, Joanna; Zamoyska, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Docking of the centrosome at the plasma membrane directs lytic granules to the immunological synapse. To identify signals controlling centrosome docking at the synapse, we have studied cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in which expression of the T cell receptor–activated tyrosine kinase Lck is ablated. In the absence of Lck, the centrosome is able to translocate around the nucleus toward the immunological synapse but is unable to dock at the plasma membrane. Lytic granules fail to polarize and release their contents, and target cells are not killed. In CTLs deficient in both Lck and the related tyrosine kinase Fyn, centrosome translocation is impaired, and the centrosome remains on the distal side of the nucleus relative to the synapse. These results show that repositioning of the centrosome in CTLs involves at least two distinct steps, with Lck signaling required for the centrosome to dock at the plasma membrane. PMID:21339332

  20. Centrosomal AKAP350 and CIP4 act in concert to define the polarized localization of the centrosome and Golgi in migratory cells

    PubMed Central

    Tonucci, Facundo M.; Hidalgo, Florencia; Ferretti, Anabela; Almada, Evangelina; Favre, Cristián; Goldenring, James R.; Kaverina, Irina; Kierbel, Arlinet; Larocca, M. Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The acquisition of a migratory phenotype is central in processes as diverse as embryo differentiation and tumor metastasis. An early event in this phenomenon is the generation of a nucleus–centrosome–Golgi back-to-front axis. AKAP350 (also known as AKAP9) is a Golgi and centrosome scaffold protein that is involved in microtubule nucleation. AKAP350 interacts with CIP4 (also known as TRIP10), a cdc42 effector that regulates actin dynamics. The present study aimed to characterize the participation of centrosomal AKAP350 in the acquisition of migratory polarity, and the involvement of CIP4 in the pathway. The decrease in total or in centrosomal AKAP350 led to decreased formation of the nucleus–centrosome–Golgi axis and defective cell migration. CIP4 localized at the centrosome, which was enhanced in migratory cells, but inhibited in cells with decreased centrosomal AKAP350. A decrease in the CIP4 expression or inhibition of the CIP4–AKAP350 interaction also led to defective cell polarization. Centrosome positioning, but not nuclear movement, was affected by loss of CIP4 or AKAP350 function. Our results support a model in which AKAP350 recruits CIP4 to the centrosome, providing a centrosomal scaffold to integrate microtubule and actin dynamics, thus enabling centrosome polarization and ensuring cell migration directionality. PMID:26208639

  1. Arsenic sulfide promotes apoptosis in retinoid acid resistant human acute promyelocytic leukemic NB4-R1 cells through downregulation of SET protein.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuwang; Liu, Yanfeng; He, Pengcheng; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Naicen; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Shi, Lili; Zhu, Huachao; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4) is an arsenic compound with anti-tumor activity, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) that are resistant to retinoic acid (RA). Although recent studies revealed that the therapeutic action of As4S4 is closely associated with the induction of cellular apoptosis, the exact molecular mechanism of action of As4S4 in RA-resistant APL remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that As4S4-induced apoptosis was accompanied by reduced mRNA and protein expression of SET gene in RA-resistant NB4-R1 cells. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of SET gene further promoted As4S4-induced apoptosis, while SET over-expression inhibited it, suggesting that As4S4 induces apoptosis through the reduction of SET protein in NB4-R1 cells. We also demonstrated that the knockdown of SET gene resulted in the upregulation of protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) expression and the downregulation of promyelocytic leukemia and retinoic acid receptor α fusion gene (PML-RARα) expression, which were enhanced by As4S4 treatments. By contrast, over-expression of SET gene resulted in PP2A downregulation and PML-RARα upregulation, which were abolished by As4S4 pretreatment. Since PP2A is a pro-apoptotic factor and PMLRARα is an anti-apoptotic factor, our results suggest that As4S4-induced apoptosis in NB4-R1 cells is through the downregulation of SET protein expression, which in turn increases PP2A and reduces PML-RARα expressions to lead to cell apoptosis.

  2. Microtubule release from the centrosome in migrating cells

    PubMed Central

    Abal, Miguel; Piel, Matthieu; Bouckson-Castaing, Veronique; Mogensen, Mette; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Bornens, Michel

    2002-01-01

    In migrating cells, force production relies essentially on a polarized actomyosin system, whereas the spatial regulation of actomyosin contraction and substrate contact turnover involves a complex cooperation between the microtubule (MT) and the actin filament networks (Goode, B.L., D.G. Drubin, and G. Barnes. 2000. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol., 12:63–71). Targeting and capture of MT plus ends at the cell periphery has been described, but whether or not the minus ends of these MTs are anchored at the centrosome is not known. Here, we show that release of short MTs from the centrosome is frequent in migrating cells and that their transport toward the cell periphery is blocked when dynein activity is impaired. We further show that MT release, but not MT nucleation or polymerization dynamics, is abolished by overexpression of the centrosomal MT-anchoring protein ninein. In addition, a dramatic inhibition of cell migration was observed; but, contrary to cells treated by drugs inhibiting MT dynamics, polarized membrane ruffling activity was not affected in ninein overexpressing cells. We thus propose that the balance between MT minus-end capture and release from the centrosome is critical for efficient cell migration. PMID:12473683

  3. Centrosome misorientation reduces stem cell division during aging

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Türkel, Nezaket; Hemati, Nahid; Fuller, Margaret T.; Hunt, Alan J.; Yamashita, Yukiko M.

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining tissue homeostasis. A decline in stem cell function has been proposed to contribute to tissue aging, although the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we show that changes in the stem cell orientation with respect to the niche during aging contribute to the decline in spermatogenesis in Drosophila male germ line. Throughout the cell cycle, centrosomes in germ line stem cells (GSCs) are oriented within their niche and ensures asymmetric division. We found that GSCs containing misoriented centrosomes accumulate with age and that these GSCs are arrested or delayed in the cell cycle. The cell cycle arrest is transient, and GSCs appear to re-enter cell cycle upon correction of centrosome orientation. Based on these findings, we propose that cell cycle arrest associated with centrosome misorientation functions as a mechanism to ensure asymmetric stem cell division, and that the inability of stem cells to maintain correct orientation during aging contributes to the decline in spermatogenesis. We further show that some of misoriented GSCs likely originate from dedifferentiation of spermatogonia. PMID:18923395

  4. A Role for Centrin 3 in Centrosome Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Middendorp, Sandrine; Küntziger, Thomas; Abraham, Yann; Holmes, Simon; Bordes, Nicole; Paintrand, Michel; Paoletti, Anne; Bornens, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Centrosome reproduction by duplication is essential for the bipolarity of cell division, but the molecular basis of this process is still unknown. Mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC31 gene prevent the duplication of the spindle pole body (SPB). The product of this gene belongs to the calmodulin super-family and is concentrated at the half bridge of the SPB. We present a functional analysis of HsCEN3, a human centrin gene closely related to the CDC31 gene. Tran- sient overexpression of wild-type or mutant forms of HsCen3p in human cells demonstrates that centriole localization depends on a functional fourth EF-hand, but does not produce mitotic phenotype. However, injection of recombinant HsCen3p or of RNA encoding HsCen3p in one blastomere of two-cell stage Xenopus laevis embryos resulted in undercleavage and inhibition of centrosome duplication. Furthermore, HsCEN3 does not complement mutations or deletion of CDC31 in S. cerevisiae, but specifically blocks SPB duplication, indicating that the human protein acts as a dominant negative mutant of CDC31. Several lines of evidence indicate that HsCen3p acts by titrating Cdc31p-binding protein(s). Our results demonstrate that, in spite of the large differences in centrosome structure among widely divergent species, the centrosome pathway of reproduction is conserved. PMID:10662768

  5. Centrosome Amplification: A Potential Marker of Breast Cancer Agressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    231 cell line following genotoxic stress by using a potent cdk inhibitor, Roscovitine . The novelty of these results consist in showing for the...the G1/S checkpoint. Furthermore, addition of roscovitine , a potent cdk inhibitor, to genotoxic agents inhibited centrosome amplification by

  6. A Clinical Overview of Centrosome Amplification in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jason Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The turn of the 21st century had witnessed a surge of interest in the centrosome and its causal relation to human cancer development - a postulate that has existed for almost a century. Centrosome amplification (CA) is frequently detected in a growing list of human cancers, both solid and haematological, and is a candidate "hallmark" of cancer cells. Several lines of evidence support the progressive involvement of CA in the transition from early to advanced stages of carcinogenesis, being also found in pre-neoplastic lesions and even in histopathologically-normal tissue. CA constitutes the major mechanism leading to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, via the formation of multipolar spindles and chromosomal missegregation. Clinically, CA may translate to a greater risk for initiation of malignant transformation, tumour progression, chemoresistance and ultimately, poor patient prognosis. As mechanisms underlying CA are progressively being unravelled, the centrosome has emerged as a novel candidate target for cancer treatment. This Review summarizes mainly the clinical studies performed to date focusing on the mechanisms underlying CA in human neoplasia, and highlights the potential utility of centrosomes in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of human cancers. PMID:22043171

  7. A clinical overview of centrosome amplification in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The turn of the 21st century had witnessed a surge of interest in the centrosome and its causal relation to human cancer development - a postulate that has existed for almost a century. Centrosome amplification (CA) is frequently detected in a growing list of human cancers, both solid and haematological, and is a candidate "hallmark" of cancer cells. Several lines of evidence support the progressive involvement of CA in the transition from early to advanced stages of carcinogenesis, being also found in pre-neoplastic lesions and even in histopathologically-normal tissue. CA constitutes the major mechanism leading to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, via the formation of multipolar spindles and chromosomal missegregation. Clinically, CA may translate to a greater risk for initiation of malignant transformation, tumour progression, chemoresistance and ultimately, poor patient prognosis. As mechanisms underlying CA are progressively being unravelled, the centrosome has emerged as a novel candidate target for cancer treatment. This Review summarizes mainly the clinical studies performed to date focusing on the mechanisms underlying CA in human neoplasia, and highlights the potential utility of centrosomes in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of human cancers.

  8. Aurora-A recruitment and centrosomal maturation are regulated by a Golgi-activated pool of Src during G2

    PubMed Central

    Barretta, Maria Luisa; Spano, Daniela; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Scaloni, Andrea; Corda, Daniela; Colanzi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is composed of stacks of cisternae laterally connected by tubules to form a ribbon-like structure. At the onset of mitosis, the Golgi ribbon is broken down into discrete stacks, which then undergo further fragmentation. This ribbon cleavage is required for G2/M transition, which thus indicates that a ‘Golgi mitotic checkpoint' couples Golgi inheritance with cell cycle transition. We previously showed that the Golgi-checkpoint regulates the centrosomal recruitment of the mitotic kinase Aurora-A; however, how the Golgi unlinking regulates this recruitment was unknown. Here we show that, in G2, Aurora-A recruitment is promoted by activated Src at the Golgi. Our data provide evidence that Src and Aurora-A interact upon Golgi ribbon fragmentation; Src phosphorylates Aurora-A at tyrosine 148 and this specific phosphorylation is required for Aurora-A localization at the centrosomes. This process, pivotal for centrosome maturation, is a fundamental prerequisite for proper spindle formation and chromosome segregation. PMID:27242098

  9. Liver is a target of arsenic carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P

    2008-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic is clearly a human carcinogen causing tumors of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, and possibly liver (IARC, 2004). At the time of construction of this monograph, the evidence for arsenic as a hepatocarcinogen in humans was considered controversial and in rodents considered insufficient. However, recent data has accumulated indicating hepatocarcinogenicity of arsenic. This forum reevaluates epidemiology studies, rodent studies together with in vitro models, and focuses on the liver as a target organ of arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic angiosarcoma, have been frequently associated with environmental or medicinal exposure to arsenicals. Preneoplastic lesions, including hepatomegaly, hepatoportal sclerosis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis often occur after chronic arsenic exposure. Recent work in mice clearly shows that exposure to inorganic arsenic during gestation induces tumors, including hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma, in offspring when they reach adulthood. In rats, the methylated arsenicals, dimethylarsinic acid promotes diethylnitrosamine-initiated liver tumors, whereas trimethylarsine oxide induces liver adenomas. Chronic exposure of rat liver epithelial cells to low concentrations of inorganic arsenic induces malignant transformation, producing aggressive, undifferentiated epithelial tumors when inoculated into the Nude mice. There are a variety of potential mechanisms for arsenical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, such as oxidative DNA damage, impaired DNA damage repair, acquired apoptotic tolerance, hyperproliferation, altered DNA methylation, and aberrant estrogen signaling. Some of these mechanisms may be liver specific/selective. Overall, accumulating evidence clearly indicates that the liver could be an important target of arsenic carcinogenesis.

  10. The role of centrosomal Nlp in the control of mitotic progression and tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Zhan, Q

    2011-01-01

    The human centrosomal ninein-like protein (Nlp) is a new member of the γ-tubulin complexes binding proteins (GTBPs) that is essential for proper execution of various mitotic events. The primary function of Nlp is to promote microtubule nucleation that contributes to centrosome maturation, spindle formation and chromosome segregation. Its subcellular localisation and protein stability are regulated by several crucial mitotic kinases, such as Plk1, Nek2, Cdc2 and Aurora B. Several lines of evidence have linked Nlp to human cancer. Deregulation of Nlp in cell models results in aberrant spindle, chromosomal missegregation and multinulei, and induces chromosomal instability and renders cells tumourigenic. Overexpression of Nlp induces anchorage-independent growth and immortalised primary cell transformation. In addition, we first demonstrate that the expression of Nlp is elevated primarily due to NLP gene amplification in human breast cancer and lung carcinoma. Consistently, transgenic mice overexpressing Nlp display spontaneous tumours in breast, ovary and testicle, and show rapid onset of radiation-induced lymphoma, indicating that Nlp is involved in tumourigenesis. This review summarises our current knowledge of physiological roles of Nlp, with an emphasis on its potentials in tumourigenesis. PMID:21505454

  11. Contribution of spermatozoal centrosomes to the microtubule-organizing centre in Antarctic minke whale ( Balaenoptera bonaerensis ).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Amemiya, Kazue; Takeuchi, Kana; Tsujioka, Tomomi; Tominaga, Keiichiro; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fukui, Yutaka; Hochi, Shinichi

    2006-02-01

    Using an interspecies microinsemination assay with bovine oocytes, it was examined whether centrosomes of Antarctic minke whale spermatozoa function as the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC). Bull and rat spermatozoa were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes were subjected to immunostaining against alpha-tubulin 4-6 h after intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of 5 mM dithiothreitol-treated spermatozoa. Aster formation occurred from whale spermatozoa (33%) and bull spermatozoa (33%), but very little from rat spermatozoa (3%). Activation treatment for the microinseminated oocytes with 7% ethanol + 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine resulted in a similar proportion of oocytes forming a whale sperm aster (35% vs 27% in the non-treated group; 4 h after ICSI) but a significantly larger aster (ratio of aster diameter to oocyte diameter, 0.57 vs 0.30 in the non-treated group). These results indicate that the centrosome introduced into bovine oocytes by whale spermatozoa contributes to the MTOC and that assembly of the microtubule network is promoted by oocyte activation.

  12. Centrosomal amplification and aneuploidy induced by the antiretroviral drug AZT in hamster and human cells

    PubMed Central

    Borojerdi, Jennifer P.; Ming, Jessica; Cooch, Catherine; Ward, Yvona; Semino-Mora, Cristina; Yu, Mia; Braun, Hannan M.; Taylor, Barbara J.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Olivero, Ofelia A.

    2009-01-01

    The centrosome directs chromosomal migration by a complex process of tubulin-chromatin binding. In this contribution centrosomal abnormalities, including centrosomal amplification, were explored in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and Normal Human Mammary Epithelial (NHMEC) cells exposed to the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine, AZT). Centrosomal amplification/fragmentation was observed in both cell types and kinetochore positive micronuclei were found in AZT-exposed CHO cells in correlation with dose. Normal human mammary epithelial cell (NMHEC), strain M99005, previously identified as a strain that incorporates high levels of AZT into DNA (High incorporator, HI), showed greater centrosomal amplification when compared with a second strain, NHMEC M98040, which did not incorporate AZT into DNA (Low incorporator, LI). Additionally, an abnormal tubulin distribution was observed in AZT-exposed HI cells bearing multiple centrosomes. Immunofluorescent staining of human cells with Aurora A, a kinase involved in the maturation of the centrosome, confirmed the induction of centrosomal amplification and revealed multipolar mitotic figures. Flow cytometric studies revealed that cells bearing abnormal numbers of centrosomes and abnormal tubulin distribution had similar S-phase percentages suggesting that cells bearing unbalanced chromosomal segregation could divide. Therefore, AZT induces genomic instability and clastogenicity as well as alterations in proteins involved in centrosomal activation, all of which may contribute to the carcinogenic properties of this compound. PMID:19427513

  13. Dishevelled is a NEK2 kinase substrate controlling dynamics of centrosomal linker proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cervenka, Igor; Valnohova, Jana; Bernatik, Ondrej; Harnos, Jakub; Radsetoulal, Matej; Sedova, Katerina; Hanakova, Katerina; Potesil, David; Sedlackova, Miroslava; Salasova, Alena; Steinhart, Zachary; Angers, Stephane; Schulte, Gunnar; Hampl, Ales; Zdrahal, Zbynek; Bryja, Vitezslav

    2016-01-01

    Dishevelled (DVL) is a key scaffolding protein and a branching point in Wnt signaling pathways. Here, we present conclusive evidence that DVL regulates the centrosomal cycle. We demonstrate that DVL dishevelled and axin (DIX) domain, but not DIX domain-mediated multimerization, is essential for DVL’s centrosomal localization. DVL accumulates during the cell cycle and associates with NIMA-related kinase 2 (NEK2), which is able to phosphorylate DVL at a multitude of residues, as detected by a set of novel phospho-specific antibodies. This creates interfaces for efficient binding to CDK5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 (CDK5RAP2) and centrosomal Nek2-associated protein 1 (C-NAP1), two proteins of the centrosomal linker. Displacement of DVL from the centrosome and its release into the cytoplasm on NEK2 phosphorylation is coupled to the removal of linker proteins, an event necessary for centrosomal separation and proper formation of the mitotic spindle. Lack of DVL prevents NEK2-controlled dissolution of loose centrosomal linker and subsequent centrosomal separation. Increased DVL levels, in contrast, sequester centrosomal NEK2 and mimic monopolar spindle defects induced by a dominant negative version of this kinase. Our study thus uncovers molecular crosstalk between centrosome and Wnt signaling. PMID:27486244

  14. Centrosome motility is essential for initial axon formation in the neocortex.

    PubMed

    de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Meletis, Konstantinos; Ge, Xuecai; Rei, Damien; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2010-08-04

    The mechanisms underlying the normal development of neuronal morphology remain a fundamental question in neurobiology. Studies in cultured neurons have suggested that the position of the centrosome and the Golgi may predict the site of axon outgrowth. During neuronal migration in the developing cortex, however, the centrosome and Golgi are oriented toward the cortical plate at a time when axons grow toward the ventricular zone. In the current work, we use in situ live imaging to demonstrate that the centrosome and the accompanying polarized cytoplasm exhibit apical translocation in newborn cortical neurons preceding initial axon outgrowth. Disruption of centrosomal activity or downregulation of the centriolar satellite protein PCM-1 affects axon formation. We further show that downregulation of the centrosomal protein Cep120 impairs microtubule organization, resulting in increased centrosome motility. Decreased centrosome motility resulting from microtubule stabilization causes an aberrant centrosomal localization, leading to misplaced axonal outgrowth. Our results reveal the dynamic nature of the centrosome in developing cortical neurons, and implicate centrosome translocation and microtubule organization during the multipolar stage as important determinants of axon formation.

  15. Centrosome amplification and overexpression of aurora A are early events in rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, Thea M; Adigun, Yetunde E; Zhong, Ling; Gay, Jason; Medina, Daniel; Brinkley, William R

    2002-07-15

    The cells of many solid tumors have been found to contain supernumerary centrosomes, a condition known as centrosome amplification. Centrosome amplification, accompanied by the overexpression of an associated kinase, Aurora A (AurA), has been implicated in mechanisms leading to mitotic spindle aberrations, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. Using a well-established rat mammary model favorable for experimental carcinogenesis, we analyzed centrosome amplification as a cellular marker for early stages of transformation and its regulation by the kinase ratAurA. Parity or treatment with estrogen and progesterone conferred resistance to tumorigenesis, as well as to overexpression of ratAurA and to centrosome amplification. ratAurA, cloned from a rat mammary gland cDNA library, is a bona fide Ser/Thr kinase, and sequence comparison demonstrated high homology to members of the entire AurA kinase family. Using immunocytochemical localization with confocal microscopy, we found ratAurA to be localized at the centrosome in normal and neoplastic tissues of the rat mammary gland. Normal ductal epithelium and stromal cells displayed an expected complement of one to two centrosomes/cell, whereas comparable cells in methylnitrosourea-treated animals displayed significantly elevated centrosome numbers. In tumors, 46% of cells showed more than two centrosomes/cell, and ratAurA expression levels coincided with higher centrosome numbers. Both centrosome numbers and ratAurA expression were permanently elevated. Centrosome amplification was found to occur at a very early, premalignant stage prior to detectable lesions after treatment with methylnitrosourea, a condition that was not detected in mammary glands of rats made refractory to the carcinogen via pregnancy or estrogen and progesterone treatment. Our results indicate that hormones influence kinase expression, and progesterone had the major effect on ratAurA expression levels. Cumulatively, these results suggest that rat

  16. Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Na, Hyun-Jin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of aged Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of oxidative stressed Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be responsible for abnormal ISC polyploid cells. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be a useful marker for aging stem cells. - Abstract: Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-γ-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo.

  17. Arsenic trioxide promotes mitochondrial DNA mutation and cell apoptosis in primary APL cells and NB4 cell line.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ran; Zhou, Jin; Sui, Meng; Li, ZhiYong; Feng, GuoSheng; Yang, BaoFeng

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. The NB4 cell line was treated with 2.0 micromol/L As(2)O(3) in vitro, and the primary APL cells were treated with 2.0 micromol/L As(2)O(3) in vitro and 0.16 mg kg(-1) d(-1) As(2)O(3) in vivo. The mitochondrial DNA of all the cells above was amplified by PCR, directly sequenced and analyzed by Sequence Navigatore and Factura software. The apoptosis rates were assayed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial DNA mutation in the D-loop region was found in NB4 and APL cells before As(2)O(3) use, but the mutation spots were remarkably increased after As(2)O(3) treatment, which was positively correlated to the rates of cellular apoptosis, the correlation coefficient: r (NB4-As2O3)=0.973818, and r (APL-As2O3)=0.934703. The mutation types include transition, transversion, codon insertion or deletion, and the mutation spots in all samples were not constant and regular. It is revealed that As(2)O(3) aggravates mtDNA mutation in the D-loop region of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mitochondrial DNA might be one of the targets of As(2)O(3) in APL treatment.

  18. Arsenic Trioxide Activate Transcription of Heme Oxygenase-1 by Promoting Nuclear Translocation of NFE2L2.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhen; Zhong, Lingzhi; Mou, Yan; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Haiying; Wang, Yang; Xia, Jianxin; Li, Ronggui; Wang, Zonggui

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that induced expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO). The present study was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of HO-1 that occurs after exposure of MG63 cells to ATO. First, using RT-QPCT and Western-blot, we found that ATO strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in these human osteosarcoma cells. Then by analyzing HO-1 mRNA of MG63 cells exposed to ATO in the presence and absence of a transcription inhibitor Actinomycin-D (Act-D), we demonstrated that ATO activates HO-1 expression in MG63 cells by regulating the transcription of the gene. Finally, through the analysis of the NFE2L2 protein levels among the total cellular and nuclear proteins by Western-blot and Immunocytochemical staning, we determined that ATO enhanced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as Nrf2. From these results we have concluded that transcription activation of HO-1 resulting from the nuclear translocation of NFE2L2 is the underlying molecular mechanism for its high induction, which, in turn, is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma cells to ATO treatment.

  19. A Novel Bipartite Centrosome Coordinates the Apicomplexan Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Suvorova, Elena S.; Francia, Maria; Striepen, Boris; White, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites can change fundamental features of cell division during their life cycles, suspending cytokinesis when needed and changing proliferative scale in different hosts and tissues. The structural and molecular basis for this remarkable cell cycle flexibility is not fully understood, although the centrosome serves a key role in determining when and how much replication will occur. Here we describe the discovery of multiple replicating core complexes with distinct protein composition and function in the centrosome of Toxoplasma gondii. An outer core complex distal from the nucleus contains the TgCentrin1/TgSfi1 protein pair, along with the cartwheel protein TgSas-6 and a novel Aurora-related kinase, while an inner core closely aligned with the unique spindle pole (centrocone) holds distant orthologs of the CEP250/C-Nap protein family. This outer/inner spatial relationship of centrosome cores is maintained throughout the cell cycle. When in metaphase, the duplicated cores align to opposite sides of the kinetochores in a linear array. As parasites transition into S phase, the cores sequentially duplicate, outer core first and inner core second, ensuring that each daughter parasite inherits one copy of each type of centrosome core. A key serine/threonine kinase distantly related to the MAPK family is localized to the centrosome, where it restricts core duplication to once per cycle and ensures the proper formation of new daughter parasites. Genetic analysis of the outer core in a temperature-sensitive mutant demonstrated this core functions primarily in cytokinesis. An inhibition of ts-TgSfi1 function at high temperature caused the loss of outer cores and a severe block to budding, while at the same time the inner core amplified along with the unique spindle pole, indicating the inner core and spindle pole are independent and co-regulated. The discovery of a novel bipartite organization in the parasite centrosome that segregates the functions of

  20. Polymorphisms in the TNF-α and IL10 Gene Promoters and Risk of Arsenic-Induced Skin Lesions and Other Nondermatological Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Nilanjana; Nandy, Sujay; Kearns, James K.; Bandyopadhyay, Apurba K.; Das, Jayanta K.; Majumder, Papiya; Basu, Santanu; Banerjee, Saptarshi; Sau, Tanmoy Jyoti; States, J. Christopher; Giri, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    In West Bengal, India, at present, more than 26 million people are exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Among them, only 15–20% manifest arsenic-induced noncancerous, precancerous, and cancerous skin lesions, indicating that genetic variants play important role in arsenic susceptibility. Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with impairment of immune systems in the exposed individuals. Because cytokines are important immune mediators, alteration in expression of these gene products may lead to arsenic-specific disease manifestations. The aim of the present work was to investigate the association between the TNF-α−308G>A (rs1800629) and IL10 −3575T>A (rs1800890) polymorphisms and arsenic-induced dermatological and nondermatological health outcomes. A case-control study was conducted in West Bengal, India, involving 207 cases with arsenic-induced skin lesions and 190 controls without skin lesions having similar arsenic exposure. The polymorphisms were determined using conventional PCR-sequencing method. ELISA was done to determine the serum levels of the two cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL10). Associations between the polymorphisms studied and nondermatological health effects in the study subjects were determined from our epidemiological survey data. Individuals with GA/AA (−308 TNF-α) and TA/AA (−3575 IL10) genotypes were at higher risk of developing arsenic-induced skin lesions, ocular, and respiratory diseases. Also the −308 TNF A allele corresponded to a higher production of TNF-α, and −3575 IL10 A allele corresponded to a lower production of IL10. Thus, the polymorphisms studied impart significant risk toward development of arsenic-induced dermatological and nondermatological health effects in the chronically exposed population of West Bengal, India. PMID:21357384

  1. Biochar in Co-Contaminated Soil Manipulates Arsenic Solubility and Microbiological Community Structure, and Promotes Organochlorine Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Samuel J.; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Biggs, Patrick J.; Ganley, Austen R. D.; O’Sullivan, Justin M.; McManus, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of biochar on the water-soluble arsenic (As) concentration and the extent of organochlorine degradation in a co-contaminated historic sheep-dip soil during a 180-d glasshouse incubation experiment. Soil microbial activity, bacterial community and structure diversity were also investigated. Biochar made from willow feedstock (Salix sp) was pyrolysed at 350 or 550°C and added to soil at rates of 10 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1 (representing 30 t ha-1 and 60 t ha-1). The isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH (lindane), underwent 10-fold and 4-fold reductions in concentration as a function of biochar treatment. Biochar also resulted in a significant reduction in soil DDT levels (P < 0.01), and increased the DDE:DDT ratio. Soil microbial activity was significantly increased (P < 0.01) under all biochar treatments after 60 days of treatment compared to the control. 16S amplicon sequencing revealed that biochar-amended soil contained more members of the Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Dyadobacter and Pseudomonadaceae which are known bioremediators of hydrocarbons. We hypothesise that a recorded short-term reduction in the soluble As concentration due to biochar amendment allowed native soil microbial communities to overcome As-related stress. We propose that increased microbiological activity (dehydrogenase activity) due to biochar amendment was responsible for enhanced degradation of organochlorines in the soil. Biochar therefore partially overcame the co-contaminant effect of As, allowing for enhanced natural attenuation of organochlorines in soil. PMID:25923541

  2. Cell cycle progression and de novo centriole assembly after centrosomal removal in untransformed human cells

    PubMed Central

    Uetake, Yumi; Lončarek, Jadranka; Nordberg, Joshua J.; English, Christopher N.; La Terra, Sabrina; Khodjakov, Alexey; Sluder, Greenfield

    2007-01-01

    How centrosome removal or perturbations of centrosomal proteins leads to G1 arrest in untransformed mammalian cells has been a mystery. We use microsurgery and laser ablation to remove the centrosome from two types of normal human cells. First, we find that the cells assemble centrioles de novo after centrosome removal; thus, this phenomenon is not restricted to transformed cells. Second, normal cells can progress through G1 in its entirety without centrioles. Therefore, the centrosome is not a necessary, integral part of the mechanisms that drive the cell cycle through G1 into S phase. Third, we provide evidence that centrosome loss is, functionally, a stress that can act additively with other stresses to arrest cells in G1 in a p38-dependent fashion. PMID:17227892

  3. Inhibition of Proteasome Activity Impairs Centrosome-dependent Microtubule Nucleation and Organization

    PubMed Central

    Didier, Christine; Merdes, Andreas; Gairin, Jean-Edouard

    2008-01-01

    Centrosomes are dynamic organelles that consist of a pair of cylindrical centrioles, surrounded by pericentriolar material. The pericentriolar material contains factors that are involved in microtubule nucleation and organization, and its recruitment varies during the cell cycle. We report here that proteasome inhibition in HeLa cells induces the accumulation of several proteins at the pericentriolar material, including gamma-tubulin, GCP4, NEDD1, ninein, pericentrin, dynactin, and PCM-1. The effect of proteasome inhibition on centrosome proteins does not require intact microtubules and is reversed after removal of proteasome inhibitors. This accrual of centrosome proteins is paralleled by accumulation of ubiquitin in the same area and increased polyubiquitylation of nonsoluble gamma-tubulin. Cells that have accumulated centrosome proteins in response to proteasome inhibition are impaired in microtubule aster formation. Our data point toward a role of the proteasome in the turnover of centrosome proteins, to maintain proper centrosome function. PMID:18094058

  4. Inhibition of proteasome activity impairs centrosome-dependent microtubule nucleation and organization.

    PubMed

    Didier, Christine; Merdes, Andreas; Gairin, Jean-Edouard; Jabrane-Ferrat, Nabila

    2008-03-01

    Centrosomes are dynamic organelles that consist of a pair of cylindrical centrioles, surrounded by pericentriolar material. The pericentriolar material contains factors that are involved in microtubule nucleation and organization, and its recruitment varies during the cell cycle. We report here that proteasome inhibition in HeLa cells induces the accumulation of several proteins at the pericentriolar material, including gamma-tubulin, GCP4, NEDD1, ninein, pericentrin, dynactin, and PCM-1. The effect of proteasome inhibition on centrosome proteins does not require intact microtubules and is reversed after removal of proteasome inhibitors. This accrual of centrosome proteins is paralleled by accumulation of ubiquitin in the same area and increased polyubiquitylation of nonsoluble gamma-tubulin. Cells that have accumulated centrosome proteins in response to proteasome inhibition are impaired in microtubule aster formation. Our data point toward a role of the proteasome in the turnover of centrosome proteins, to maintain proper centrosome function.

  5. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin “clouds” are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10’s role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles. PMID:26235048

  6. The good, the bad and the ugly: the practical consequences of centrosome amplification.

    PubMed

    Sluder, Greenfield; Nordberg, Joshua J

    2004-02-01

    Centrosome amplification (the presence of more than two centrosomes at mitosis) is characteristic of many human cancers. Extra centrosomes can cause the assembly of multipolar spindles, which unequally distribute chromosomes to daughter cells; the resulting genetic imbalances may contribute to cellular transformation. However, this raises the question of how a population of cells with centrosome amplification can survive such chaotic mitoses without soon becoming non-viable as a result of chromosome loss. Recent observations indicate that a variety of mechanisms partially mute the practical consequences of centrosome amplification. Consequently, populations of cells propagate with good efficiency, despite centrosome amplification, yet have an elevated mitotic error rate that can fuel the evolution of the transformed state.

  7. Genotoxic and epigenetic mechanisms in arsenic carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Bustaffa, Elisa; Stoccoro, Andrea; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen with weak mutagenic properties that induces tumors through mechanisms not yet completely understood. People worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water, and epidemiological studies showed a high percentage of lung, bladder, liver, and kidney cancer in these populations. Several mechanisms by which arsenical compounds induce tumorigenesis were proposed including genotoxic damage and chromosomal abnormalities. Over the past decade, a growing body of evidence indicated that epigenetic modifications have a role in arsenic-inducing adverse effects on human health. The main epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation in gene promoter regions that regulate gene expression, histone tail modifications that regulate the accessibility of transcriptional machinery to genes, and microRNA activity (noncoding RNA able to modulate mRNA translation). The "double capacity" of arsenic to induce mutations and epimutations could be the main cause of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to better clarify the mechanisms of the initiation and/or the promotion of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis in order to understand the best way to perform an early diagnosis and a prompt prevention that is the key point for protecting arsenic-exposed population. Studies on arsenic-exposed population should be designed in order to examine more comprehensively the presence and consequences of these genetic/epigenetic alterations.

  8. Centrosome Hypertrophy Induced by p53 Mutations Leads to Tumor Aneuploidy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    microtubule organizing center in mammalian cells and establish the spindle poles during mitosis. Centrosome defects have been implicated in disease ...nearly one hundred years ago. More recently, centrosome defects have been implicated in disease and tumor progression. 3-13 Defects in centrosome...near the apical membrane and desmosomes (arrows) between their lateral membranes. A single centriole (arrowhead) is located at the apex next to a

  9. The Role of Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor Interaction with the Centrosome Protein Pericentrin in Prostate Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    forms the two poles of the mitotic spindle during cell division. Each centrosome is comprised of two microtubule barrels called centrioles. Our...oncogene in prostate cancer. Pericentrin is a centrosome protein involved in organizing mitotic spindles to ensure proper chromosome segregation...days after RNAi treatment we found cells that often lacked centrosomes at spindle poles. The cells accumulated in metaphase with monopolar spindles

  10. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This “licensing” ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of cyclical events at the meiosis I to meiosis I

  11. Emerging roles for tubulin folding cofactors at the centrosome

    PubMed Central

    Fanarraga, Mónica López; Carranza, Gerardo; Castaño, Raquel; Jiménez, Victoria; Villegas, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Despite its fundamental role in centrosome biology, procentriole formation, both in the canonical and in the de novo replication pathways, remains poorly understood, and the molecular components that are involved in human cells are not well established. We found that one of the tubulin cofactors, TBCD, is localized at centrosomes and the midbody, and is required for spindle organization, cell abscission, centriole formation and ciliogenesis. Our studies have established a molecular link between the centriole and the midbody, demonstrating that this cofactor is also necessary for microtubule retraction during cell abscission. TBCD is the first centriolar protein identified that plays a role in the assembly of both “centriolar rosettes” during early ciliogenesis, and at the procentriole budding site by S/G2, a discovery that directly implicates tubulin cofactors in the cell division, cell migration and cell signaling research fields. PMID:20798813

  12. Detection and quantification of microtubule detachment from centrosomes and spindle poles.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Anutosh; Yang, Hailing; Cabral, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Microtubule detachment from microtubule organizing centers is an important cellular process required for normal cell proliferation. When cells enter mitosis, microtubule turnover increases along with a concurrent increase in microtubule detachment. MCAK, a kinesin-related protein whose abundance is highest during the early stages of mitosis, has been shown to regulate microtubule detachment. Abnormal increases or decreases in the frequency of detachment interfere with spindle function and inhibit cell division. It has been shown that drugs able to promote microtubule assembly (e.g., paclitaxel, epothilones) prevent cell division by suppressing microtubule detachment from centrosomes. Conversely, cytotoxic concentrations of microtubule destabilizing drugs (e.g., vinblastine, nocodazole), tubulin mutations that cause paclitaxel resistance, and specific β-tubulin isotypes increase the frequency of microtubule detachment. In this chapter, we describe a method to calculate the frequency of microtubule detachment by transfecting cells with EGFP-MAP4 and directly observing detachment by live cell imaging.

  13. Centrosome Amplification: A Potential Marker of Breast Cancer Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    potent cdk inhibitor, Roscovitine . The novelty of these results demonstrate for the first time a clear relationship between DNA damage, abrogation of...inhibitor roscovitine on expression of cell lines remained high, expression of cyclin A was key cell cycle regulators and centrosome hyperamplification...high expression and overexpression of cyclin A, together with roscovitine . Whole-cell lysate (20tig) was loaded in respectively (Figure 6). Therefore

  14. The DNA replication protein Cdc6 inhibits the microtubule-organizing activity of the centrosome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inyoung; Kim, Gwang Su; Bae, Jun Sung; Kim, Jaeyoun; Rhee, Kunsoo; Hwang, Deog Su

    2017-09-29

    The centrosome serves as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). The Cdc6 protein is a component of the pre-replicative complex and a licensing factor for the initiation of chromosome replication and localizes to centrosomes during the S and G2 phases of the cfell cycle of human cells. This cell cycle-dependent localization of Cdc6 to the centrosome motivated us to investigate whether Cdc6 negatively regulates MTOC activity and to determine the integral proteins that comprise the pericentriolar material (PCM). Time-lapse live-cell imaging of microtubule regrowth revealed that Cdc6 depletion increased microtubule nucleation at the centrosomes and that expression of Cdc6 in Cdc6-depleted cells reversed this effect. This increase and decrease in microtubule nucleation correlated with the centrosomal intensities of PCM proteins such as γ-tubulin, pericentrin, CDK5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 (CDK5RAP2), and centrosomal protein 192 (Cep192). The regulation of microtubule nucleation and the recruitment of PCM proteins to the centrosome required Cdc6 ATPase activity, as well as a centrosomal localization of Cdc6. These results suggest a novel function for Cdc6 in coordinating centrosome assembly and function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Centrosomes in the DNA damage response--the hub outside the centre.

    PubMed

    Mullee, Lisa I; Morrison, Ciaran G

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review how DNA damage affects the centrosome and how centrosomes communicate with the DNA damage response (DDR) apparatus. We discuss how several proteins of the DDR are found at centrosomes, including the ATM, ATR, CHK1 and CHK2 kinases, the BRCA1 ubiquitin ligase complex and several members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family. Stereotypical centrosome organisation, in which two centriole barrels are orthogonally arranged in a roughly toroidal pericentriolar material (PCM), is strongly affected by exposure to DNA-damaging agents. We describe the genetic dependencies and mechanisms for how the centrioles lose their close association, and the PCM both expands and distorts after DNA damage. Another consequence of genotoxic stress is that centrosomes undergo duplication outside the normal cell cycle stage, meaning that centrosome amplification is commonly seen after DNA damage. We discuss several potential mechanisms for how centrosome numbers become dysregulated after DNA damage and explore the links between the DDR and the PLK1- and separase-dependent mechanisms that drive centriole separation and reduplication. We also describe how centrosome components, such as centrin2, are directly involved in responding to DNA damage. This review outlines current questions on the involvement of centrosomes in the DDR.

  16. Abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi-Fan; OuYang, Qi; Dai, Can; Lu, Chang-Fu; Lin, Ge; Gong, Fei; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2016-05-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are common in human embryos. Previous studies have suggested links between centrosome number and chromosome abnormalities, but information regarding abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos is limited. We analyzed abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos and embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Following normal fertilization, supernumerary centrosomes were present at rates of 7.3% in two-pronucleus (2PN)-stage zygotes and 6.5% in first-cleavage zygotes. Supernumerary centrosomes were also detected in 24.4% of blastomeres from 60% of embryos derived from 2PN zygotes. Conversely, in mono- (1PN) and tri-pronucleus (3PN) zygotes, the frequency of abnormal centrosome number increased substantially at first cleavage. Rates in blastomeres of Day-3 embryos, however, were about the same between embryos derived from 1PN and 2PN zygotes, whereas abnormalities in centrosome number were higher in those from 3PN zygotes. By comparison, the rate of abnormal centrosome numbers in hESCs was 1.5-11.2%. Thus, abnormalities in centrosome number existed in human zygotes and cleaved embryos-especially those resulting from aberrant fertilization-but the frequency of such abnormalities was lower in hESCs derived from these embryos. These findings identify a source of the chromosomal instability in human embryos and hESCs, and highlight new safety issues for human assisted reproductive technology. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 392-404, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Chronic Exposure to Particulate Chromate Induces Premature Centrosome Separation and Centriole Disengagement in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Julieta; Holmes, Amie L.; Xie, Hong; Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a well-established human lung carcinogen. Lung tumors are characterized by structural and numerical chromosome instability. Centrosome amplification is a phenotype commonly found in solid tumors, including lung tumors, which strongly correlates with chromosome instability. Human lung cells exposed to Cr(VI) exhibit centrosome amplification but the underlying phenotypes and mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we further characterize the phenotypes of Cr(VI)-induced centrosome abnormalities. We show that Cr(VI)-induced centrosome amplification correlates with numerical chromosome instability. We also show chronic exposure to particulate Cr(VI) induces centrosomes with supernumerary centrioles and acentriolar centrosomes in human lung cells. Moreover, chronic exposure to particulate Cr(VI) affects the timing of important centriolar events. Specifically, chronic exposure to particulate Cr(VI) causes premature centriole disengagement in S and G2 phase cells. It also induces premature centrosome separation in interphase. Altogether, our data suggest that chronic exposure to particulate Cr(VI) targets the protein linkers that hold centrioles together. These centriolar linkers are important for key events of the centrosome cycle and their premature disruption might underlie Cr(VI)-induced centrosome amplification. PMID:26293554

  18. Centrosomal proteins and lactate dehydrogenase possess a common epitope in human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Gosti, F; Marty, M C; Courvalin, J C; Maunoury, R; Bornens, M

    1987-01-01

    A spontaneously arising rabbit anti-centrosome serum with strong human specificity, used to identify specific antigens in isolated centrosomes, was shown to react with several noncentrosomal proteins including a 36-kDa protein that appeared to be the major cellular antigen. To explore the immunological relationship between noncentrosomal and centrosomal antigens, immunoglobulins were affinity purified using the individual noncentrosomal antigens (from lymphoblastoma KE37 cells) and were tested for their capacity to bind to human centrosomes in situ and to proteins from isolated centrosomes. In this way, the 36-kDa antigen, an abundant cytosolic protein, was shown to share at least one antigenic determinant with high molecular weight centrosomal proteins. This antigen was further identified by mild proteolysis as the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. In all the analyzed human cell lines, the centrosomal staining in situ was correlated with a strong labeling of purified lactate dehydrogenase in immunoblots. Conversely, the absence of centrosomal staining in rodent cells was always correlated with the absence of lactate dehydrogenase labeling. These data suggest an evolutionary relationship between centrosomal proteins and this "housekeeping" enzyme. Images PMID:2434947

  19. Centlein mediates an interaction between C-Nap1 and Cep68 to maintain centrosome cohesion.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guoliang; Zhang, Dachuan; Yin, Huilong; Zheng, Lu; Bi, Xiaolin; Yuan, Li

    2014-04-15

    Centrosome cohesion, mostly regarded as a proteinaceous linker between parental centrioles, ensures that the interphase centrosome(s) function as a single microtubule-organizing center. Impairment of centrosome cohesion leads to the splitting of centrosomes. Although the list of cohesion proteins is growing, the precise composition and regulation of centrosome cohesion are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that the centriolar protein centlein (also known as CNTLN) localizes to the proximal ends of the centrioles and directly interacts with both C-Nap1 (also known as Cep250) and Cep68. Moreover, centlein complexes with C-Nap1 and Cep68 at the proximal ends of centrioles during interphase and functions as a molecular link between C-Nap1 and Cep68. Depletion of centlein impairs recruitment of Cep68 to the centrosomes and, in turn, results in centrosome splitting. Both centlein and Cep68 are novel Nek2A substrates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that centrosome cohesion is maintained by the newly identified complex of C-Nap1-centlein-Cep68.

  20. The centrosome-associated Aurora/Ipl-like kinase family.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, T M; Brinkley, B R

    2000-01-01

    Because of the well-known role of the centrosome and mitotic apparatus in genome partitioning in normal cells, defects in pathways essential for mitotic regulation are likely implicated in the cascade of events leading to aneuploidy and neoplasia. Exogenous overexpression of AIM-1, for example, produces multinuclearity in human cells and increased ploidy as well as aneuploidy (Tatsuka et al., 1998). Overexpression in colorectal tumor cell lines is thought to have a causal relationship with multinuclearity and increased ploidy. Cytokinesis error caused by AIM-1 overexpression is a major factor in the predisposition to cancer. As previously mentioned, the involvement of BTAK/aur2/AIK in centrosome amplification and its oncogenic activity are compelling. Aur2 has also been implicated in oncogenesis, and defects in kinetochore function leading to chromosome instability in human tumors should not be minimized (Farruggio et al., 1999). Further studies are needed to provide a clearer definition of how these kinetic proteins are linked and regulated in normal mitosis and cancer. Thus, Boveri appears to have been correct in formulating his early hypothesis that a defective mitotic apparatus and centrosome number were central and causative in chromosome missegregation and cancer. One hundred years later, at the onset of a new millennium and with light-years of advanced technology in our favor, we are just now beginning to piece together the enzymes, substrates, and signaling pathways that support and explain his long-ignored but prophetic claim.

  1. LEGOs® and legacies of centrioles and centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Schatten, Gerald; Simerly, Calvin

    2015-01-01

    Centriole construction, now revealed by crystallography, proteomics, and imaging to be a sophisticated assembly of interlocking bricks, resembles LEGOs—albeit centrioles have remarkable dynamic capabilities, including self-assembly and dis-assembly, kinases and post-translational modifications, self-replication, and still mysterious mechanisms for transmission through each cell cycle and via the gametes during development. Centrioles are created by core proteins that aggregate to form unique ninefold-symmetrical paracrystalline cylinders. The centrosome then coalesces as a cloud of pericentriolar material (PCM) around the centriole. Together they comprise the cell’s microtubule organizing center (MTOC), which governs the shape, functions, and dynamics of the cell’s microtubule (MT) arrays. This includes the meiotic and mitotic spindle apparatus for chromosome segregation, the accuracy of which is crucial for avoiding aneuploidies and resulting cancer, birth defects, or infertility. Centrioles’ replication and transmission mechanisms—and reduplication blocks—across cell cycles and generations, are only now becoming tractable to molecular analysis, which allows research to address questions about spindle assembly with neither centrioles nor centrosomes or de novo centriole formation. Here we discuss the latest insights into centriole and centrosome assembly and function and their transgenerational inheritance. PMID:26249334

  2. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Schatten, H; Walter, M; Mazia, D; Biessmann, H; Paweletz, N; Coffe, G; Schatten, G

    1987-12-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins (designated Ah6/5/9 and referred to herein as Ah6) is found to cross-react specifically with centrosomes in sea urchin eggs and with a 68-kDa antigen in eggs and isolated mitotic apparatus. When preparations stained with Ah6 are counterstained with a human autoimmune serum whose anti-centrosome activity has been established, the immunofluorescence images superimpose exactly. A more severe test of the specificity of the antibody demands that it display all of the stages of the centrosome cycle in the cell cycle: the flattening and spreading of the compact centrosomes followed by their division and the establishment of two compact poles. The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment allows observation of the stages of the centrosome cycle--separation, division, and bipolarization--while the chromosomes are arrested in metaphase. Mitosis is arrested in the presence of 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Chromosomes remain in a metaphase configuration while the centrosomes divide, producing four poles perpendicular to the original spindle axis. Microtubules are still present in the mitotic apparatus, as indicated by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. When 2-mercaptoethanol is removed, the chromosomes reorient to the poles of a tetrapolar (sometimes tripolar) mitotic apparatus. During the following cycle, the blastomeres form a monopolar mitotic apparatus. The observations of the centrosome cycle with the Ah6 antibody display very clearly all the stages that have been seen or deduced from work with other probes. The 68-kDa antigen that reacts with the Ah6 monoclonal antibody to Drosophila intermediate filament proteins must be a constant component of sea urchin centrosomes because it is present at all stages of the centrosome cycle.

  3. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Schatten, H; Walter, M; Mazia, D; Biessmann, H; Paweletz, N; Coffe, G; Schatten, G

    1987-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins (designated Ah6/5/9 and referred to herein as Ah6) is found to cross-react specifically with centrosomes in sea urchin eggs and with a 68-kDa antigen in eggs and isolated mitotic apparatus. When preparations stained with Ah6 are counterstained with a human autoimmune serum whose anti-centrosome activity has been established, the immunofluorescence images superimpose exactly. A more severe test of the specificity of the antibody demands that it display all of the stages of the centrosome cycle in the cell cycle: the flattening and spreading of the compact centrosomes followed by their division and the establishment of two compact poles. The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment allows observation of the stages of the centrosome cycle--separation, division, and bipolarization--while the chromosomes are arrested in metaphase. Mitosis is arrested in the presence of 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Chromosomes remain in a metaphase configuration while the centrosomes divide, producing four poles perpendicular to the original spindle axis. Microtubules are still present in the mitotic apparatus, as indicated by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. When 2-mercaptoethanol is removed, the chromosomes reorient to the poles of a tetrapolar (sometimes tripolar) mitotic apparatus. During the following cycle, the blastomeres form a monopolar mitotic apparatus. The observations of the centrosome cycle with the Ah6 antibody display very clearly all the stages that have been seen or deduced from work with other probes. The 68-kDa antigen that reacts with the Ah6 monoclonal antibody to Drosophila intermediate filament proteins must be a constant component of sea urchin centrosomes because it is present at all stages of the centrosome cycle. Images PMID:3120191

  4. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation.

  5. Actin and Arp2/3 localize at the centrosome of interphase cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Actin was detected at the centrosome with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. {yields} Centrosomal actin was found in interphase but not mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. {yields} Neither the anti-actin antibody C4 that binds to globular, monomer actin, nor the anti-actin antibody 2G2 that recognizes the nuclear conformation of actin detect actin at the centrosome. {yields} The Arp2/3 complex transiently localizes at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. -- Abstract: Although many actin binding proteins such as cortactin and the Arp2/3 activator WASH localize at the centrosome, the presence and conformation of actin at the centrosome has remained elusive. Here, we report the localization of actin at the centrosome in interphase but not in mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. Centrosomal actin was detected with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. In addition, we report the transient presence of the Arp2/3 complex at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. Overexpression of an Arp2/3 component resulted in expansion of the pericentriolar matrix and selective accumulation of the Arp2/3 component in the pericentriolar matrix. Altogether, we hypothesize that the centrosome transiently recruits Arp2/3 to perform processes such as centrosome separation prior to mitotic entry, whereas the observed constitutive centrosomal actin staining in interphase cells reinforces the current model of actin-based centrosome reorientation toward the leading edge in migrating cells.

  6. Intracellular organelles mediate cytoplasmic pulling force for centrosome centration in the Caenorhabditis elegans early embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Akatsuki

    2010-01-01

    The centrosome is generally maintained at the center of the cell. In animal cells, centrosome centration is powered by the pulling force of microtubules, which is dependent on cytoplasmic dynein. However, it is unclear how dynein brings the centrosome to the cell center, i.e., which structure inside the cell functions as a substrate to anchor dynein. Here, we provide evidence that a population of dynein, which is located on intracellular organelles and is responsible for organelle transport toward the centrosome, generates the force required for centrosome centration in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. By using the database of full-genome RNAi in C. elegans, we identified dyrb-1, a dynein light chain subunit, as a potential subunit involved in dynein anchoring for centrosome centration. DYRB-1 is required for organelle movement toward the minus end of the microtubules. The temporal correlation between centrosome centration and the net movement of organelle transport was found to be significant. Centrosome centration was impaired when Rab7 and RILP, which mediate the association between organelles and dynein in mammalian cells, were knocked down. These results indicate that minus end-directed transport of intracellular organelles along the microtubules is required for centrosome centration in C. elegans embryos. On the basis of this finding, we propose a model in which the reaction forces of organelle transport generated along microtubules act as a driving force that pulls the centrosomes toward the cell center. This is the first model, to our knowledge, providing a mechanical basis for cytoplasmic pulling force for centrosome centration. PMID:21173218

  7. Metabolic interrelationships between arsenic and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Levander, Orville A.

    1977-01-01

    In 1938, Moxon discovered that arsenic protected against selenium toxicity. Since that time it has been shown that this protective effect of arsenic against selenium poisoning can be demonstrated in many different animal species under a wide variety of conditions. Antagonistic effects between arsenic and selenium have also been noted in teratologic experiments. Early metabolic studies showed that arsenic inhibited the expiration of volatile selenium compounds by rats injected with acutely toxic doses of both elements. This was puzzling since pulmonary excretion had long been regarded as a means by which animals could rid themselves of excess selenium. However, later work demonstrated that arsenic increased the biliary excretion of selenium. Not only did arsenic stimulate the excretion of selenium in the bile, but selenium also stimulated the excretion of arsenic in the bile. This increased biliary excretion of selenium caused by arsenic provides a reasonable rationale for the ability of arsenic to counteract the toxicity of selenium, although the chemical mechanism by which arsenic does this is not certain. The most satisfactory explanation is that these two elements react in the liver to form a detoxication conjugate which is then excreted into the bile. This is consistent with the fact that both arsenic and selenium each increase the biliary excretion of the other. Several other metabolic interactions between arsenic and selenium have been demonstrated in vitro, but their physiological significance is not clear. Although arsenic decreased selenium toxicity under most conditions, there is a pronounced synergistic toxicity between arsenic and two methylated selenium metabolites, trimethylselenonium ion or dimethyl selenide. The ecological consequences of these synergisms are largely unexplored, although it is likely that selenium methylation occurs in the environment. All attempts to promote or prevent selenium deficiency diseases in animals by feeding arsenic have

  8. Arsenic-Redox Transformation and Plant Growth Promotion by Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris CS2 and Rhodopseudomonas faecalis SS5.

    PubMed

    Batool, Kanza; Tuz Zahra, Fatima; Rehman, Yasir

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known toxic metalloid found naturally and released by different industries, especially in developing countries. Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) are known for wastewater treatment and plant growth promoting abilities. As-resistant PNSB were isolated from a fish pond. Based on As-resistance and plant growth promoting attributes, 2 isolates CS2 and SS5 were selected and identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodopseudomonas faecalis, respectively, through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximum As(V) resistance shown by R. faecalis SS5 and R. palustris CS2 was up to 150 and 100 mM, respectively. R. palustris CS2 showed highest As(V) reduction up to 62.9% (6.29 ± 0.24 mM), while R. faecalis SS5 showed maximum As(III) oxidation up to 96% (4.8 ± 0.32 mM), respectively. Highest auxin production was observed by R. palustris CS2 and R. faecalis SS, up to 77.18 ± 3.7 and 76.67 ± 2.8 μg mL(-1), respectively. Effects of these PNSB were tested on the growth of Vigna mungo plants. A statistically significant increase in growth was observed in plants inoculated with isolates compared to uninoculated plants, both in presence and in absence of As. R. palustris CS2 treated plants showed 17% (28.1 ± 0.87 cm) increase in shoot length and 21.7% (7.07 ± 0.42 cm) increase in root length, whereas R. faecalis SS5 treated plants showed 12.8% (27.09 ± 0.81 cm) increase in shoot length and 18.8% (6.9 ± 0.34 cm) increase in root length as compared to the control plants. In presence of As, R. palustris CS2 increased shoot length up to 26.3% (21.0 ± 1.1 cm), while root length increased up to 31.3% (5.3 ± 0.4 cm), whereas R. faecalis SS5 inoculated plants showed 25% (20.7 ± 1.4 cm) increase in shoot length and 33.3% (5.4 ± 0.65 cm) increase in root length as compared to the control plants. Bacteria with such diverse abilities could be ideal for plant growth promotion in As-contaminated sites.

  9. Arsenic-Redox Transformation and Plant Growth Promotion by Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris CS2 and Rhodopseudomonas faecalis SS5

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Kanza; tuz Zahra, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known toxic metalloid found naturally and released by different industries, especially in developing countries. Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) are known for wastewater treatment and plant growth promoting abilities. As-resistant PNSB were isolated from a fish pond. Based on As-resistance and plant growth promoting attributes, 2 isolates CS2 and SS5 were selected and identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodopseudomonas faecalis, respectively, through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximum As(V) resistance shown by R. faecalis SS5 and R. palustris CS2 was up to 150 and 100 mM, respectively. R. palustris CS2 showed highest As(V) reduction up to 62.9% (6.29 ± 0.24 mM), while R. faecalis SS5 showed maximum As(III) oxidation up to 96% (4.8 ± 0.32 mM), respectively. Highest auxin production was observed by R. palustris CS2 and R. faecalis SS, up to 77.18 ± 3.7 and 76.67 ± 2.8 μg mL−1, respectively. Effects of these PNSB were tested on the growth of Vigna mungo plants. A statistically significant increase in growth was observed in plants inoculated with isolates compared to uninoculated plants, both in presence and in absence of As. R. palustris CS2 treated plants showed 17% (28.1 ± 0.87 cm) increase in shoot length and 21.7% (7.07 ± 0.42 cm) increase in root length, whereas R. faecalis SS5 treated plants showed 12.8% (27.09 ± 0.81 cm) increase in shoot length and 18.8% (6.9 ± 0.34 cm) increase in root length as compared to the control plants. In presence of As, R. palustris CS2 increased shoot length up to 26.3% (21.0 ± 1.1 cm), while root length increased up to 31.3% (5.3 ± 0.4 cm), whereas R. faecalis SS5 inoculated plants showed 25% (20.7 ± 1.4 cm) increase in shoot length and 33.3% (5.4 ± 0.65 cm) increase in root length as compared to the control plants. Bacteria with such diverse abilities could be ideal for plant growth promotion in As-contaminated sites. PMID:28386559

  10. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants Metals Arsenic Share ... of the Method used to Measure Arsenic in Foods Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Arsenic, ...

  11. Toxic Substances Portal- Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... plants combines with carbon and hydrogen to form organic arsenic compounds. Inorganic arsenic compounds are mainly used ... uses; it is still used in industrial applications. Organic arsenic compounds are used as pesticides, primarily on ...

  12. Cdc6 localizes to S- and G2-phase centrosomes in a cell cycle-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Gwang Su; Kang, Jeeheon; Bang, Sung Woong; Hwang, Deog Su

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Cdc6 protein is a component of the pre-replicative complex required for chromosomal replication initiation. • Cdc6 localized to centrosomes of S and G2 phases in a cell cycle-dependent manner. • The centrosomal localization was governed by centrosomal localization signal sequences of Cdc6. • Deletions or substitution mutations on the centrosomal localization signal interfered with centrosomal localization of the Cdc6 proteins. - Abstract: The Cdc6 protein has been primarily investigated as a component of the pre-replicative complex for the initiation of chromosome replication, which contributes to maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Here, we show that Cdc6 localized to the centrosomes during S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. The centrosomal localization was mediated by Cdc6 amino acid residues 311–366, which are conserved within other Cdc6 homologues and contains a putative nuclear export signal. Deletions or substitutions of the amino acid residues did not allow the proteins to localize to centrosomes. In contrast, DsRed tag fused to the amino acid residues localized to centrosomes. These results indicated that a centrosome localization signal is contained within amino acid residues 311–366. The cell cycle-dependent centrosomal localization of Cdc6 in S and G2 phases suggest a novel function of Cdc6 in centrosomes.

  13. Arsenic, inorganic

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Arsenic , inorganic ; CASRN 7440 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  14. The SCF ubiquitin ligase protein slimb regulates centrosome duplication in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, E J; Glover, D M; Hays, T S

    2000-09-21

    The duplication of the centrosome is a key event in the cell-division cycle. Although defects in centrosome duplication are thought to contribute to genomic instability [1-3] and are a hallmark of certain transformed cells and human cancer [4-6], the mechanism responsible for centrosome duplication is not understood. Recent experiments have established that centrosome duplication requires the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and cyclins E and A [7-9]. The stability of cyclin E is regulated by the ubiquitin ligase SCF, which is a protein complex composed of Skp1, Cdc53 (Cullin) and F-box proteins [10-12]. The Skp1 and Cullin components have been detected on mammalian centrosomes, and shown to be essential for centrosome duplication and separation in Xenopus [13]. Here, we report that Slimb, an F-box protein that targets proteins to the SCFcomplex [14,15], plays a role in limiting centrosome replication. We found that, in the fruit fly Drosophila, the hypomorphic mutation slimb(crd) causes the appearance of additional centrosomes and mitotic defects in mutant larval neuroblasts.

  15. Recruitment of the γ-Tubulin Ring Complex to Drosophila Salt-stripped Centrosome Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Michelle; Zheng, Yixian; Alberts, Bruce M.; Oegema, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Extracting isolated Drosophila centrosomes with 2 M KI generates salt-resistant scaffolds that lack the centrosomal proteins CP190, CP60, centrosomin, and γ-tubulin. To clarify the role of these proteins in microtubule nucleation by centrosomes and to identify additional centrosome components required for nucleation, we have developed an in vitro complementation assay for centrosome function. Centrosome aster formation is reconstituted when these inactive, salt-stripped centrosome scaffolds are supplemented with a soluble fraction of a Drosophila embryo extract. The CP60 and CP190 can be removed from this extract without effect, whereas removing the γ-tubulin destroys the complementing activity. Consistent with these results, we find no evidence that these three proteins form a complex together. Instead, γ-tubulin is found in two distinct protein complexes of 240,000 and ∼3,000,000 D. The larger complex, which is analogous to the Xenopus γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) (Zheng, Y., M.L. Wong, B. Alberts, and T. Mitchison. 1995. Nature. 378:578–583), is necessary but not sufficient for complementation. An additional factor found in the extract is required. These results provide the first evidence that the γTuRC is required for microtubule nucleation at the centrosome. PMID:9700165

  16. Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes and tethers them in a centrosome.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayachandran; Mennella, Vito; Blachon, Stephanie; Zhai, Bo; Smith, Andrew H; Megraw, Timothy L; Nicastro, Daniela; Gygi, Steven P; Agard, David A; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2011-06-21

    Centrosomes are conserved organelles that are essential for accurate cell division and cilium formation. A centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles surrounded by a protein network of pericentriolar material (PCM) that is essential for the centrosome's function. In this study, we show that Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes (named S-CAP), which include CNN, Asl and D-PLP, proteins that are all found in the centrosomes at the vicinity of the centriole. When Sas-4 is absent, nascent procentrioles are unstable and lack PCM, and functional centrosomes are not generated. When Sas-4 is mutated, so that it cannot form S-CAP complexes, centrosomes are present but with dramatically reduced levels of PCM. Finally, purified S-CAP complexes or recombinant Sas-4 can bind centrosomes stripped of PCM, whereas recombinant CNN or Asl cannot. In summary, PCM assembly begins in the cytosol where Sas-4 provides a scaffold for pre-assembled cytoplasmic complexes before tethering of the complexes in a centrosome.

  17. Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutations disrupt an Orc1 CDK inhibitory domain and cause centrosome reduplication.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Manzar; Stillman, Bruce

    2012-08-15

    Like DNA replication, centrosomes are licensed to duplicate once per cell division cycle to ensure genetic stability. In addition to regulating DNA replication, the Orc1 subunit of the human origin recognition complex controls centriole and centrosome copy number. Here we report that Orc1 harbors a PACT centrosome-targeting domain and a separate domain that differentially inhibits the protein kinase activities of Cyclin E-CDK2 and Cyclin A-CDK2. A cyclin-binding motif (Cy motif) is required for Orc1 to bind Cyclin A and inhibit Cyclin A-CDK2 kinase activity but has no effect on Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase activity. In contrast, Orc1 inhibition of Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase activity occurs by a different mechanism that is affected by Orc1 mutations identified in Meier-Gorlin syndrome patients. The cyclin/CDK2 kinase inhibitory domain of Orc1, when tethered to the PACT domain, localizes to centrosomes and blocks centrosome reduplication. Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutations that disrupt Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase inhibition also allow centrosome reduplication. Thus, Orc1 contains distinct domains that control centrosome copy number and DNA replication. We suggest that the Orc1 mutations present in some Meier-Gorlin syndrome patients contribute to the pronounced microcephaly and dwarfism observed in these individuals by altering centrosome duplication in addition to DNA replication defects.

  18. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte effector function is independent of nucleus–centrosome dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Lui-Roberts, Winnie W Y; Stinchcombe, Jane C; Ritter, Alex T; Akhmanova, Anna; Karakesisoglou, Iakowos; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill tumorigenic and virally infected cells by targeted secretion of lytic granule contents. The precise point at which secretion occurs is directed by the centrosome docking at the immunological synapse (IS). The centrosome is highly dynamic in CTLs, lagging behind the nucleus in the uropod of migrating CTLs, but translocating across the entire length of the cell to dock at the IS when a target cell is recognized. While in most cell types, the centrosome is always closely associated with the nuclear membrane, in CTLs, it often appears to be dissociated from the nucleus, both in migrating cells and when forming an IS. We asked whether this dissociation is required for CTL killing, by expressing GFP-BICD2-NT-nesprin-3, which tethers the centrosome to the nucleus irreversibly. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the centrosome polarized successfully to the central supramolecular activation complex (cSMAC) of the synapse in GFP-BICD2-NT-nesprin-3-expressing CTLs, with the centrosome and nucleus migrating together to the IS. CTLs in which the centrosome was “glued” to the nucleus were able to dock and release granules at the IS as effectively as mock-treated cells. These data demonstrate that CTL cytotoxicity is independent of centrosomal dissociation from the nuclear envelope. PMID:22736282

  19. One to only two: a short history of the centrosome and its duplication

    PubMed Central

    Sluder, Greenfield

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses some of the history of the fundamental, but not fully solved problem of how the centrosome duplicates from one to only two as the cell prepares for mitosis. We start with some of the early descriptions of the centrosome and the remarkably prescient but then controversial inferences drawn concerning its function in the cell. For more than 100 years, one of the most difficult issues for the concept of the centrosome has been to integrate observations that centrosomes appear to be important for spindle assembly in animal cells yet are not evident in higher plant cells and some animal cells. This stirred debate over the existence of centrosomes and their importance. A parallel debate concerned the role of the centrioles in organizing centrosomes. The relatively recent elucidation of bipolar spindle assembly around chromatin allows a re-examination of the role of centrioles in controlling centrosome duplication in animal cells. The problem of how centrosomes precisely double in preparation for mitosis in animal cells has now moved to the mystery of how only one procentriole is assembled at each mother centriole. PMID:25047609

  20. Sustained centrosome-cortical contact ensures robust polarization of the one-cell C. elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Saturno, Dominique M; Castanzo, Dominic T; Williams, Margaret; Parikh, Devayu A; Jaeger, Eva C; Lyczak, Rebecca

    2017-02-15

    In C. elegans, the anterior-posterior axis is established at the one-cell stage when the embryo polarizes along its long axis. One model suggests that a cue from the centrosome triggers symmetry breaking and is then dispensable for further steps in the process. In the absence of the initial centrosome cue, a redundant mechanism, reliant on the centrosome's microtubules, can polarize the cell. Despite this model, data from multiple sources suggest that direct centrosome-contact with the cortex may play a role in ensuring robust polarization. Some of this past work includes analysis of pam-1 mutants, which lack a functional puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase and have aberrant centrosome positioning and variable polarization defects. To better understand the role of centrosome dynamics in polarization, we looked in detail at centrosome behavior in relation to key polarity landmarks in pam-1 mutants as well as those lacking cortical flows. We provide evidence for a model in which sustained direct contact between the centrosome and the cortex acts to reinforce both the actomyosin and the microtubule-dependent pathways. This contact is necessary for polarization when flows are inhibited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Centrosomal MPF triggers the mitotic and morphogenetic switches of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Grallert, Agnes; Patel, Avinash; Tallada, Victor A; Chan, Kuan Yoow; Bagley, Steven; Krapp, Andrea; Simanis, Viesturs; Hagan, Iain M

    2013-01-01

    Activation of mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) drives mitotic commitment. In human cells active MPF appears first on centrosomes. We show that local activation of MPF on the equivalent organelle of fission yeast, the spindle pole body (SPB), promotes Polo kinase activity at the SPBs long before global MPF activation drives mitotic commitment. Artificially promoting MPF or Polo activity at various locations revealed that this local control of Plo1 activity on G2 phase SPBs dictates the timing of mitotic commitment. Cytokinesis of the rod-shaped fission yeast cell generates a naive, new, cell end. Growth is restricted to the experienced old end until a point in G2 phase called new end take off (NETO) when bipolar growth is triggered. NETO coincided with MPF activation of Plo1 on G2 phase SPBs (ref. 4). Both MPF and Polo activities were required for NETO and both induced NETO when ectopically activated at interphase SPBs. NETO promotion by MPF required polo. Thus, local MPF activation on G2 SPBs directs polo kinase to control at least two distinct and temporally separated, cell-cycle transitions at remote locations.

  2. Importance of the CEP215-pericentrin interaction for centrosome maturation during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongjae; Rhee, Kunsoo

    2014-01-01

    At the onset of mitosis, the centrosome undergoes maturation, which is characterized by a drastic expansion of the pericentriolar material (PCM) and a robust increase in microtubule-organizing activity. CEP215 is one of the major PCM components which accumulates at the centrosome during mitosis. The depletion phenotypes indicate that CEP215 is essential for centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle formation. Here, we performed a series of knockdown-rescue experiments to link the protein-protein interaction properties of CEP215 to its biological functions. The results showed that CEP215 and pericentrin, another major PCM component, is interdependent for their accumulation at the spindle poles during mitosis. As a result, The CEP215-pericentrin interaction is required for centrosome maturation and subsequent bipolar spindle formation during mitosis. On the other hand, CEP215 interaction with γ-tubulin is dispensable for centrosome maturation. Our results provide an insight how PCM components are assembled to form a spindle pole during mitosis.

  3. Sliding of centrosome-unattached microtubules defines key features of neuronal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Anand N.; Falnikar, Aditi; O’Toole, Eileen T.; Morphew, Mary K.; Hoenger, Andreas; Davidson, Michael W.; Yuan, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary models for neuronal migration are grounded in the view that virtually all functionally relevant microtubules (MTs) in migrating neurons are attached to the centrosome, which occupies a position between the nucleus and a short leading process. It is assumed that MTs do not undergo independent movements but rather transduce forces that enable movements of the centrosome and nucleus. The present results demonstrate that although this is mostly true, a small fraction of the MTs are centrosome-unattached, and this permits limited sliding of MTs. When this sliding is pharmacologically inhibited, the leading process becomes shorter, migration of the neuron deviates from its normal path, and the MTs within the leading process become buckled. Partial depletion of ninein, a protein that attaches MTs to the centrosome, leads to greater numbers of centrosome-unattached MTs as well as greater sliding of MTs. Concomitantly, the soma becomes less mobile and the leading process acquires an elongated morphology akin to an axon. PMID:27138250

  4. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Induces Centrosome Amplification and Aneuploid Mammary Tumors Independently of Alterations in p53 in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Milliken, Erin L.; Lozada, Kristen L.; Johnson, Emhonta; Landis, Melissa D.; Seachrist, Darcie D.; Whitten, Ira; Sutton, Amelia L.M.; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    Aneuploidy and genomic instability are common features of human cancers, including breast cancer; however, mechanisms by which such abnormalities develop are not understood. The exquisite dependence of the mammary gland on hormones for growth and development as well as hormonal contributions to breast cancer risk and progression suggest that tumorigenic mechanisms in the breast should be considered in the context of hormonal stimulation. We used transgenic mice that overexpress luteinizing hormone with subsequent ovarian hyperstimulation as a model to identify mechanisms involved in hormone-induced mammary cancer. Tumor pathology in these mice is highly variable, suggesting individual tumors undergo distinct initiating or promoting events. Supporting this notion, hormone-induced tumors display considerable chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, despite the presence of functional p53. The presence of extensive centrosome amplification in tumors and hyperplastic glands prior to tumor formation suggests that alterations in the ovarian hormonal milieu dysregulate the centrosome cycle in mammary epithelial cells, leading to aneuploidy and cancer. PMID:17891171

  5. Centrosome Defects, Genetic Instability and Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Images were taken every 2 min for 3-4 hr. A Perki- Couedel-Courteille, A., Janoueix-Lerosey, I., Langsley , G ., Bornens, nElmer spinning-disc confocal...abscission." Cell 123(1): 75-87. Mikule, K., Kaldis,P., et al. "Centrosome protein depletion activates a p53-,p38- dependent checkpoint that triggers G I...polycystin-2 and is required for primary cilia assembly", A. Jurczyck, A. Gromley, S. Redick, J. San Augustin, G . Witman, G . Pazour, and S. Doxsey, 6

  6. Centrosome-Based Mechanisms, Prognostics and Therapeutics in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    1,3 Charles Yeaman,2 Jack Rosa,1 Sambra Redick,1 Chun-Ting Chen,1 Stephanie Mirabelle,1 Minakshi Guha,1 James Sillibourne,1 and Stephen J. Doxsey1...lam p53/periA/B p53/GCP2 DNA BrdU siR NA : la m /p er iA /B % B rd U p os iti ve 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 la m /la m p5 3/ la m p5 3/ pe riA /B c...with pericentrin to regulate centrosome integrity James Sillibourne*, Manisha Sinah and Stephen Doxsey Program in Molecular

  7. Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2002-01-01

    Numerous aquifers worldwide carry soluble arsenic at concentrations greater than the World Health Organization--and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--recommended drinking water standard of 10 mg per liter. Sources include both natural (black shales, young sediments with low flushing rates, gold mineralization, and geothermal environments) and anthropogenic (mining activities, livestock feed additives, pesticides, and arsenic trioxide wastes and stockpiles). Increased solubility and mobility of arsenic is promoted by high pH (>8.5), competing oxyanions, and reducing conditions. In this Policy Forum, Nordstrom argues that human health risks from arsenic in ground water can be minimized by incorporating hydrogeochemical knowledge into water management decisions and by more careful monitoring for arsenic in geologically high-risk areas.

  8. Environmentally relevant concentration of arsenic trioxide and humic acid promoted tumor progression of human cervical cancer cells: In vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Lu, Fung-Jou; Ting, Hung-Chih; Chang, Horng-Rong

    2016-09-01

    In a previous study, treatment at higher concentrations of arsenic trioxide or co-exposure to arsenic trioxide and humic acid was found to be inhibited cell growth of cervical cancer cells (SiHa cells) by reactive oxygen species generation. However, treatment at lower concentrations slightly increased cell viability. Here, we investigate the enhancement of progression effects of environmentally relevant concentration of humic acid and arsenic trioxide in SiHa cell lines in vitro and in vivo by measuring cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and the carcinogenesis-related protein (MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF-A) expressions. SiHa cells treated with low concentrations of humic acid and arsenic trioxide alone or in co-exposure significantly increased reactive oxygen species, glutathione levels, cell proliferation, scratch wound-healing activities, migration abilities, and MMP-2 expression as compared to the untreated control. In vivo the tumor volume of either single drug (humic acid or arsenic trioxide) or combined drug-treated group was significantly larger than that of the control for an additional 45 days after tumor cell injection on the back of NOD/SCID mice. Levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF-A, also significantly increased compared to the control. Histopathologic effects of all tumor cells appeared round in cell shape with high mitosis, focal hyperkeratosis and epidermal hyperplasia in the skin, and some tumor growth in the muscle were observed. Our results may indicate that exposure to low concentrations of arsenic trioxide and humic acid is associated with the progression of cervical cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1121-1132, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Klp10A, a stem cell centrosome-enriched kinesin, balances asymmetries in Drosophila male germline stem cell division.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuie; Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2016-11-25

    Asymmetric stem cell division is often accompanied by stereotypical inheritance of the mother and daughter centrosomes. However, it remains unknown whether and how stem cell centrosomes are uniquely regulated and how this regulation may contribute to stem cell fate. Here we identify Klp10A, a microtubule-depolymerizing kinesin of the kinesin-13 family, as the first protein enriched in the stem cell centrosome in Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs). Depletion of klp10A results in abnormal elongation of the mother centrosomes in GSCs, suggesting the existence of a stem cell-specific centrosome regulation program. Concomitant with mother centrosome elongation, GSCs form asymmetric spindle, wherein the elongated mother centrosome organizes considerably larger half spindle than the other. This leads to asymmetric cell size, yielding a smaller differentiating daughter cell. We propose that klp10A functions to counteract undesirable asymmetries that may result as a by-product of achieving asymmetries essential for successful stem cell divisions.

  10. Interference with BRCA2, which localizes to the centrosome during S and early M phase, leads to abnormal nuclear division

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Akira; Han, Xiangzi; Saito, Hiroko; Taguchi, Keiko; Ohta, Yoshiyasu; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Miki, Yoshio; E-mail: miki.mgen@mri.tmd.ac.jp

    2007-03-30

    BRCA2 is responsible for familial breast and ovarian cancer, and its gene product is linked to DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. The BRCA2 protein exists mainly in the nucleus. Here, we show that BRCA2 has a centrosomal localization signal (CLS), localizes also to centrosomes during S and early M phases, and may regulate duplication and separation of the centrosomes. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the CLS peptides from BRCA2 (GFP-CLS) localizes to centrosomes and prevents endogenous BRCA2 from localizing to centrosomes. In addition, expression of GFP-CLS in cells leads to the abnormal duplication and positioning of centrosomes, resulting in the generation of multinuclear cells. These results thus implicate BRCA2 in the regulation of the centrosome cycle, and provide new insight into the aneuploid nature of many breast cancers.

  11. Aurora B Interaction of Centrosomal Nlp Regulates Cytokinesis*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Jin, Shunqian; Li, Jia; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-01-01

    Cytokinesis is a fundamental cellular process, which ensures equal abscission and fosters diploid progenies. Aberrant cytokinesis may result in genomic instability and cell transformation. However, the underlying regulatory machinery of cytokinesis is largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that Nlp (Ninein-like protein), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein that is required for centrosomes maturation at interphase and spindle formation in mitosis, also contributes to the accomplishment of cytokinesis. Through immunofluorescent analysis, Nlp is found to localize at midbody during cytokinesis. Depletion of endogenous Nlp triggers aborted division and subsequently leads to multinucleated phenotypes. Nlp can be recruited by Aurora B to the midbody apparatus via their physical association at the late stage of mitosis. Disruption of their interaction induces aborted cytokinesis. Importantly, Nlp is characterized as a novel substrate of Aurora B and can be phosphorylated by Aurora B. The specific phosphorylation sites are mapped at Ser-185, Ser-448, and Ser-585. The phosphorylation at Ser-448 and Ser-585 is likely required for Nlp association with Aurora B and localization at midbody. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation at Ser-185 is vital to Nlp protein stability. Disruptions of these phosphorylation sites abolish cytokinesis and lead to chromosomal instability. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that regulation of Nlp by Aurora B is critical for the completion of cytokinesis, providing novel insights into understanding the machinery of cell cycle progression. PMID:20864540

  12. Centrosomal Latency of Incoming Foamy Viruses in Resting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Giron, Marie Lou; Roingeard, Philippe; Clave, Emmanuel; Tobaly-Tapiero, Joelle; Bittoun, Patricia; Toubert, Antoine; de Thé, Hugues; Saïb, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Completion of early stages of retrovirus infection depends on the cell cycle. While gammaretroviruses require mitosis for proviral integration, lentiviruses are able to replicate in post-mitotic non-dividing cells. Resting cells such as naive resting T lymphocytes from peripheral blood cannot be productively infected by retroviruses, including lentiviruses, but the molecular basis of this restriction remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that in G0 resting cells (primary fibroblasts or peripheral T cells), incoming foamy retroviruses accumulate in close proximity to the centrosome, where they lie as structured and assembled capsids for several weeks. Under these settings, virus uncoating is impaired, but upon cell stimulation, Gag proteolysis and capsid disassembly occur, which allows viral infection to proceed. The data imply that foamy virus uncoating is the rate-limiting step for productive infection of primary G0 cells. Incoming foamy retroviruses can stably persist at the centrosome, awaiting cell stimulation to initiate capsid cleavage, nuclear import, and viral gene expression. PMID:17530924

  13. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  14. Force-balance model of suppression of multipolar division in cancer cells with extra centrosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Cancer cells often possess extra centrosomes which have the potential to cause cell death due to catastrophic multipolar division. Many cancer cells, however, are able to escape multipolar mitosis by clustering the extra centrosomes to form bipolar spindles. The mechanism of centrosome clustering is therefore of great interest to the development of anti-cancer drugs because the de-clustering of extra centrosomes provides an appealing way to eliminate cancer cells while keeping healthy cells intact. We present a physical model assuming 1) dynamic centrosomal microtubules interact with chromosomes by both pushing on chromosome arms and pulling along kinetochores; 2) these microtubules interact with force generators associated with actin/adhesion structures at the cell boundary; and 3) motors act on anti-parallel microtubules from different centrosomes. We find via computer simulations that chromosomes tend to aggregate near the cell center while centrosomes can be either clustered to form bipolar spindles or scattered to form multipolar spindles, depending on the strengths of relative forces, cell shape and adhesion geometry. The model predictions agree with data from cells plated on adhesive micropatterns and from biochemically or genetically perturbed cells. Furthermore, our model is able to explain various microtubule distributions in interphase cells on patterned substrates. This work was supported by NSF

  15. Chloroquine alleviates etoposide-induced centrosome amplification by inhibiting CDK2 in adrenocortical tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T-Y; Syu, J-S; Lin, T-C; Cheng, H-l; Lu, F-l; Wang, C-Y

    2015-01-01

    The antitumor drug etoposide (ETO) is widely used in treating several cancers, including adrenocortical tumor (ACT). However, when used at sublethal doses, tumor cells still survive and are more susceptible to the recurring tumor due to centrosome amplification. Here, we checked the effect of sublethal dose of ETO in ACT cells. Sublethal dose of ETO treatment did not induce cell death but arrested the ACT cells in G2/M phase. This resulted in centrosome amplification and aberrant mitotic spindle formation leading to genomic instability and cellular senescence. Under such conditions, Chk2, cyclin A/CDK2 and ERK1/2 were aberrantly activated. Pharmacological inactivation of Chk2, CDK2 or ERK1/2 or depletion of CDK2 or Chk2 inhibited the centrosome amplification in ETO-treated ACT cells. In addition, autophagy was activated by ETO and was required for ACT cell survival. Chloroquine, the autophagy inhibitor, reduced ACT cell growth and inhibited ETO-induced centrosome amplification. Chloroquine alleviated CDK2 and ERK, but not Chk2, activation and thus inhibited centrosome amplification in either ETO- or hydroxyurea-treated ACT cells. In addition, chloroquine also inhibited centrosome amplification in osteosarcoma U2OS cell lines when treated with ETO or hydroxyurea. In summary, we have demonstrated that chloroquine inhibited ACT cell growth and alleviated DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification by inhibiting CDK2 and ERK activity, thus preventing genomic instability and recurrence of ACT. PMID:26690546

  16. Cell cycle-dependent localization of CHK2 at centrosomes during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Centrosomes function primarily as microtubule-organizing centres and play a crucial role during mitosis by organizing the bipolar spindle. In addition to this function, centrosomes act as reaction centers where numerous key regulators meet to control cell cycle progression. One of these factors involved in genome stability, the checkpoint kinase CHK2, was shown to localize at centrosomes throughout the cell cycle. Results Here, we show that CHK2 only localizes to centrosomes during mitosis. Using wild-type and CHK2−/− HCT116 human colon cancer cells and human osteosarcoma U2OS cells depleted for CHK2 with small hairpin RNAs we show that several CHK2 antibodies are non-specific and cross-react with an unknown centrosomal protein(s) by immunofluorescence. To characterize the localization of CHK2, we generated cells expressing inducible GFP-CHK2 and Flag-CHK2 fusion proteins. We show that CHK2 localizes to the nucleus in interphase cells but that a fraction of CHK2 associates with the centrosomes in a Polo-like kinase 1-dependent manner during mitosis, from early mitotic stages until cytokinesis. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that a subpopulation of CHK2 localizes at the centrosomes in mitotic cells but not in interphase. These results are consistent with previous reports supporting a role for CHK2 in the bipolar spindle formation and the timely progression of mitosis. PMID:23680298

  17. Epidermal development, growth control, and homeostasis in the face of centrosome amplification.

    PubMed

    Kulukian, Anita; Holland, Andrew J; Vitre, Benjamin; Naik, Shruti; Cleveland, Don W; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-11-17

    As nucleators of the mitotic spindle and primary cilium, centrosomes play crucial roles in equal segregation of DNA content to daughter cells, coordination of growth and differentiation, and transduction of homeostatic cues. Whereas the majority of mammalian cells carry no more than two centrosomes per cell, exceptions to this rule apply in certain specialized tissues and in select disease states, including cancer. Centrosome amplification, or the condition of having more than two centrosomes per cell, has been suggested to contribute to instability of chromosomes, imbalance in asymmetric divisions, and reorganization of tissue architecture; however, the degree to which these conditions are a direct cause of or simply a consequence of human disease is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue by generating a mouse model inducing centrosome amplification in a naturally proliferative epithelial tissue by elevating Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) expression in the skin epidermis. By altering centrosome numbers, we observed multiciliated cells, spindle orientation errors, and chromosome segregation defects within developing epidermis. None of these defects was sufficient to impart a proliferative advantage within the tissue, however. Rather, impaired mitoses led to p53-mediated cell death and contributed to defective growth and stratification. Despite these abnormalities, mice remained viable and healthy, although epidermal cells with centrosome amplification were still appreciable. Moreover, these abnormalities were insufficient to disrupt homeostasis and initiate or enhance tumorigenesis, underscoring the powerful surveillance mechanisms in the skin.

  18. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  19. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice. PMID:26778863

  20. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  1. A FRET-based study reveals site-specific regulation of spindle position checkpoint proteins at yeast centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gryaznova, Yuliya; Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Malengo, Gabriele; Sourjik, Victor; Pereira, Gislene

    2016-01-01

    The spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) is a spindle pole body (SPB, equivalent of mammalian centrosome) associated surveillance mechanism that halts mitotic exit upon spindle mis-orientation. Here, we monitored the interaction between SPB proteins and the SPOC component Bfa1 by FRET microscopy. We show that Bfa1 binds to the scaffold-protein Nud1 and the γ-tubulin receptor Spc72. Spindle misalignment specifically disrupts Bfa1-Spc72 interaction by a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3-family protein Bmh1 and the MARK/PAR-kinase Kin4. Dissociation of Bfa1 from Spc72 prevents the inhibitory phosphorylation of Bfa1 by the polo-like kinase Cdc5. We propose Spc72 as a regulatory hub that coordinates the activity of Kin4 and Cdc5 towards Bfa1. In addition, analysis of spc72∆ cells shows that a mitotic-exit-promoting dominant signal, which is triggered upon elongation of the spindle into the bud, overrides the SPOC. Our data reinforce the importance of daughter-cell-associated factors and centrosome-based regulations in mitotic exit and SPOC control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14029.001 PMID:27159239

  2. A FRET-based study reveals site-specific regulation of spindle position checkpoint proteins at yeast centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Gryaznova, Yuliya; Koca Caydasi, Ayse; Malengo, Gabriele; Sourjik, Victor; Pereira, Gislene

    2016-05-09

    The spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) is a spindle pole body (SPB, equivalent of mammalian centrosome) associated surveillance mechanism that halts mitotic exit upon spindle mis-orientation. Here, we monitored the interaction between SPB proteins and the SPOC component Bfa1 by FRET microscopy. We show that Bfa1 binds to the scaffold-protein Nud1 and the γ-tubulin receptor Spc72. Spindle misalignment specifically disrupts Bfa1-Spc72 interaction by a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3-family protein Bmh1 and the MARK/PAR-kinase Kin4. Dissociation of Bfa1 from Spc72 prevents the inhibitory phosphorylation of Bfa1 by the polo-like kinase Cdc5. We propose Spc72 as a regulatory hub that coordinates the activity of Kin4 and Cdc5 towards Bfa1. In addition, analysis of spc72∆ cells shows that a mitotic-exit-promoting dominant signal, which is triggered upon elongation of the spindle into the bud, overrides the SPOC. Our data reinforce the importance of daughter-cell-associated factors and centrosome-based regulations in mitotic exit and SPOC control.

  3. Asymmetric Inheritance of Mother Versus Daughter Centrosome in Stem Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Mahowald, Anthony P.; Perlin, Julie R.; Fuller, Margaret T.

    2007-01-01

    Adult stem cells often divide asymmetrically to produce one self-renewed stem cell and one differentiating cell, thus maintaining both populations. The asymmetric outcome of stem cell divisions can be specified by an oriented spindle and local self-renewal signals from the stem cell niche. Here we show that developmentally programmed asymmetric behavior and inheritance of mother and daughter centrosomes underlies the stereotyped spindle orientation and asymmetric outcome of stem cell divisions in the Drosophila male germ line. The mother centrosome remains anchored near the niche while the daughter centrosome migrates to the opposite side of the cell before spindle formation. PMID:17255513

  4. Centrosomal protein CP110 controls maturation of the mother centriole during cilia biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sharda Prasad; Sharma, Neel Kamal; Liu, Chunqiao; Dong, Lijin; Li, Tiansen; Swaroop, Anand

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defects in cilia centrosomal genes cause pleiotropic clinical phenotypes, collectively called ciliopathies. Cilia biogenesis is initiated by the interaction of positive and negative regulators. Centriolar coiled coil protein 110 (CP110) caps the distal end of the mother centriole and is known to act as a suppressor to control the timing of ciliogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that CP110 promotes cilia formation in vivo, in contrast to findings in cultured cells. Cp110−/− mice die shortly after birth owing to organogenesis defects as in ciliopathies. Shh signaling is impaired in null embryos and primary cilia are reduced in multiple tissues. We show that CP110 is required for anchoring of basal bodies to the membrane during cilia formation. CP110 loss resulted in an abnormal distribution of core components of subdistal appendages (SDAs) and of recycling endosomes, which may be associated with premature extension of axonemal microtubules. Our data implicate CP110 in SDA assembly and ciliary vesicle docking, two requisite early steps in cilia formation. We suggest that CP110 has unique context-dependent functions, acting as both a suppressor and a promoter of ciliogenesis. PMID:26965371

  5. Transplacental arsenic carcinogenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Waalkes, Michael P. Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-08-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show that a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from days 8 to 18 of gestation, and the offspring were observed for up to 2 years. The doses used in all these studies were well tolerated by both the dam and offspring. In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood. Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct. In addition, prenatal arsenic plus postnatal exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in C3H mice produces excess lung tumors in both sexes and liver tumors in females. Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct. Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes. Overall this model has provided convincing evidence that arsenic is a transplacental carcinogen in mice with the ability to target tissues of potential human relevance, such as the urinary bladder, lung and liver. Transplacental carcinogenesis clearly occurs with other agents in humans

  6. Transplacental Arsenic Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation, and the offspring were observed for up to two years. The doses used in all these studies were well tolerated by both the dam and offspring. In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood. Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct. In addition, prenatal arsenic plus postnatal exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in C3H mice produces excess lung tumors in both sexes and liver tumors in females. Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct. Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes. Overall this model has provided convincing evidence that arsenic is a transplacental carcinogen in mice with the ability to target tissues of potential human relevance, such as the urinary bladder, lung and liver. Transplacental carcinogenesis clearly occurs with other agents in humans and

  7. THE CELLUAR METABOLISM OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the methylation of arsenic produces intermediates and terminal products that exceed inorganic arsenic in potency as enzyme inhibitors, cytotoxins, and genotoxins, the methylation of arsenic is properly regarded as an activation process. The methylation of arsenic is an e...

  8. THE CELLUAR METABOLISM OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the methylation of arsenic produces intermediates and terminal products that exceed inorganic arsenic in potency as enzyme inhibitors, cytotoxins, and genotoxins, the methylation of arsenic is properly regarded as an activation process. The methylation of arsenic is an e...

  9. Feasibility of Water Treatment Technologies for Arsenic and Fluoride Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-17

    1 Feasibility of Water Treatment Technologies for Arsenic and Fluoride Removal AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference 17 November 2004; Arsenic I...Brian C. Pickard, P.E., R.S. U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD Muhammad Bari, P.E. Chief...Technologies for Arsenic and Fluoride Removal 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  10. Centriole splitting caused by loss of the centrosomal linker protein C-NAP1 reduces centriolar satellite density and impedes centrosome amplification

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Anne-Marie; Stavenschi, Elena; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Gaboriau, David; Hoey, David A.; Morrison, Ciaran G.

    2017-01-01

    Duplication of the centrosomes is a tightly regulated process. Abnormal centrosome numbers can impair cell division and cause changes in how cells migrate. Duplicated centrosomes are held together by a proteinaceous linker made up of rootletin filaments anchored to the centrioles by C-NAP1. This linker is removed in a NEK2A kinase-dependent manner as mitosis begins. To explore C-NAP1 activities in regulating centrosome activities, we used genome editing to ablate it. C-NAP1–null cells were viable and had an increased frequency of premature centriole separation, accompanied by reduced density of the centriolar satellites, with reexpression of C-NAP1 rescuing both phenotypes. We found that the primary cilium, a signaling structure that arises from the mother centriole docked to the cell membrane, was intact in the absence of C-NAP1, although components of the ciliary rootlet were aberrantly localized away from the base of the cilium. C-NAP1–deficient cells were capable of signaling through the cilium, as determined by gene expression analysis after fluid flow–induced shear stress and the relocalization of components of the Hedgehog pathway. Centrosome amplification induced by DNA damage or by PLK4 or CDK2 overexpression was markedly reduced in the absence of C-NAP1. We conclude that centriole splitting reduces the local density of key centriolar precursors to impede overduplication. PMID:28100636

  11. Centriole splitting caused by loss of the centrosomal linker protein C-NAP1 reduces centriolar satellite density and impedes centrosome amplification.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Anne-Marie; Stavenschi, Elena; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Gaboriau, David; Hoey, David A; Morrison, Ciaran G

    2017-03-15

    Duplication of the centrosomes is a tightly regulated process. Abnormal centrosome numbers can impair cell division and cause changes in how cells migrate. Duplicated centrosomes are held together by a proteinaceous linker made up of rootletin filaments anchored to the centrioles by C-NAP1. This linker is removed in a NEK2A kinase-dependent manner as mitosis begins. To explore C-NAP1 activities in regulating centrosome activities, we used genome editing to ablate it. C-NAP1-null cells were viable and had an increased frequency of premature centriole separation, accompanied by reduced density of the centriolar satellites, with reexpression of C-NAP1 rescuing both phenotypes. We found that the primary cilium, a signaling structure that arises from the mother centriole docked to the cell membrane, was intact in the absence of C-NAP1, although components of the ciliary rootlet were aberrantly localized away from the base of the cilium. C-NAP1-deficient cells were capable of signaling through the cilium, as determined by gene expression analysis after fluid flow-induced shear stress and the relocalization of components of the Hedgehog pathway. Centrosome amplification induced by DNA damage or by PLK4 or CDK2 overexpression was markedly reduced in the absence of C-NAP1. We conclude that centriole splitting reduces the local density of key centriolar precursors to impede overduplication.

  12. Chem I Supplement: Arsenic and Old Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, Mickey

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of arsenic, the properties of arsenic, production and uses of arsenicals, arsenic in the environment; toxic levels of arsenic, arsenic in the human body, and the Marsh Test. (BT)

  13. Chem I Supplement: Arsenic and Old Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, Mickey

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of arsenic, the properties of arsenic, production and uses of arsenicals, arsenic in the environment; toxic levels of arsenic, arsenic in the human body, and the Marsh Test. (BT)

  14. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings.

  15. Cep76, a centrosomal protein that specifically restrains centriole reduplication.

    PubMed

    Tsang, William Y; Spektor, Alexander; Vijayakumar, Sangeetha; Bista, Bigyan R; Li, Ji; Sanchez, Irma; Duensing, Stefan; Dynlacht, Brian D

    2009-05-01

    Centrosomes duplicate only once per cell cycle, but the controls that govern this process are largely unknown. We have identified Cep76, a centriolar protein that interacts with CP110. Cep76 is expressed at low levels in G1 and is induced in S and G2 phase, during which point centrioles have already commenced duplication. Interestingly, depletion of Cep76 drives the accumulation of centriolar intermediates in certain types of cancer cells. Enforced Cep76 expression specifically inhibits centriole amplification in cells undergoing multiple rounds of duplication without preventing the formation of extra procentrioles from a parental template. Furthermore, elevated levels of Cep76 do not affect normal centriole duplication. Thus, Cep76 helps limit duplication to once per cell cycle. Our findings also point to mechanistic differences between normal duplication and aberrant centriole amplification, as well as distinctions between diverse modes of amplification.

  16. Drosophila parthenogenesis: A tool to decipher centrosomal vs acentrosomal spindle assembly pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2008-04-15

    Development of unfertilized eggs in the parthenogenetic strain K23-O-im of Drosophila mercatorum requires the stochastic interactions of self-assembled centrosomes with the female chromatin. In a portion of the unfertilized eggs that do not assemble centrosomes, microtubules organize a bipolar anastral mitotic spindle around the chromatin like the one formed during the first female meiosis, suggesting that similar pathways may be operative. In the cytoplasm of eggs in which centrosomes do form, monastral and biastral spindles are found. Analysis by laser scanning confocal microscopy suggests that these spindles are derived from the stochastic interaction of astral microtubules directly with kinetochore regions or indirectly with kinetochore microtubules. Our findings are consistent with the idea that mitotic spindle assembly requires both acentrosomal and centrosomal pathways, strengthening the hypothesis that astral microtubules can dictate the organization of the spindle by capturing kinetochore microtubules.

  17. Hierarchical assembly of centriole subdistal appendages via centrosome binding proteins CCDC120 and CCDC68

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ning; Xia, Yuqing; Zhang, Donghui; Wang, Song; Bao, Yitian; He, Runsheng; Teng, Junlin; Chen, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    In animal cells, the centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing centre where microtubules are nucleated and anchored. The centriole subdistal appendages (SDAs) are the key structures that anchor microtubules in interphase cells, but the composition and assembly mechanisms of SDAs are not well understood. Here, we reveal that centrosome-binding proteins, coiled-coil domain containing (CCDC) 120 and CCDC68 are two novel SDA components required for hierarchical SDA assembly in human cells. CCDC120 is anchored to SDAs by ODF2 and recruits CEP170 and Ninein to the centrosome through different coiled-coil domains at its N terminus. CCDC68 is a CEP170-interacting protein that competes with CCDC120 in recruiting CEP170 to SDAs. Furthermore, CCDC120 and CCDC68 are required for centrosome microtubule anchoring. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis for centriole SDA hierarchical assembly and microtubule anchoring in human interphase cells. PMID:28422092

  18. A Dynamic Protein Interaction Landscape of the Human Centrosome-Cilium Interface.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gagan D; Coyaud, Étienne; Gonçalves, João; Mojarad, Bahareh A; Liu, Yi; Wu, Qianzhu; Gheiratmand, Ladan; Comartin, David; Tkach, Johnny M; Cheung, Sally W T; Bashkurov, Mikhail; Hasegan, Monica; Knight, James D; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Schueler, Markus; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Moffat, Jason; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Raught, Brian; Pelletier, Laurence

    2015-12-03

    The centrosome is the primary microtubule organizing center of the cells and templates the formation of cilia, thereby operating at a nexus of critical cellular functions. Here, we use proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) to map the centrosome-cilium interface; with 58 bait proteins we generate a protein topology network comprising >7,000 interactions. Analysis of interaction profiles coupled with high resolution phenotypic profiling implicates a number of protein modules in centriole duplication, ciliogenesis, and centriolar satellite biogenesis and highlights extensive interplay between these processes. By monitoring dynamic changes in the centrosome-cilium protein interaction landscape during ciliogenesis, we also identify satellite proteins that support cilia formation. Systematic profiling of proximity interactions combined with functional analysis thus provides a rich resource for better understanding human centrosome and cilia biology. Similar strategies may be applied to other complex biological structures or pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hierarchical assembly of centriole subdistal appendages via centrosome binding proteins CCDC120 and CCDC68.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ning; Xia, Yuqing; Zhang, Donghui; Wang, Song; Bao, Yitian; He, Runsheng; Teng, Junlin; Chen, Jianguo

    2017-04-19

    In animal cells, the centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing centre where microtubules are nucleated and anchored. The centriole subdistal appendages (SDAs) are the key structures that anchor microtubules in interphase cells, but the composition and assembly mechanisms of SDAs are not well understood. Here, we reveal that centrosome-binding proteins, coiled-coil domain containing (CCDC) 120 and CCDC68 are two novel SDA components required for hierarchical SDA assembly in human cells. CCDC120 is anchored to SDAs by ODF2 and recruits CEP170 and Ninein to the centrosome through different coiled-coil domains at its N terminus. CCDC68 is a CEP170-interacting protein that competes with CCDC120 in recruiting CEP170 to SDAs. Furthermore, CCDC120 and CCDC68 are required for centrosome microtubule anchoring. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis for centriole SDA hierarchical assembly and microtubule anchoring in human interphase cells.

  20. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Hedrick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  1. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Hedrick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  2. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells.

    PubMed

    Schatten, H; Chakrabarti, A; Hedrick, J

    1999-08-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  3. Cyclin E in centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, Bradley J; Marzluff, William F; Sluder, Greenfield

    2008-12-01

    When protein synthesis is completely blocked from before fertilization, the sea urchin zygote arrests in first S phase and the paternal centrosome reduplicates multiple times. However, when protein synthesis is blocked starting in prophase of first mitosis, the zygote divides and the blastomeres arrest in a G1-like state. The centrosome inherited from this mitosis duplicates only once in each blastomere for reasons that are not understood. The late G1 rise in cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity initiates centrosome duplication in mammalian cells and its activity is needed for centrosome duplication in Xenopus egg extracts. Since the half-time for cyclin E turnover is normally approximately 1 h in sea urchin zygotes, the different behaviors of centrosomes during G1 and S phase arrests could be due to differential losses of cyclin E and its associated kinase activities at these two arrest points. To better understand the mechanisms that limit centrosome duplication, we characterize the levels of cyclin E and its associated kinase activity at the S phase and G1 arrest points. We first demonstrate that cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity is required for centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes. Next we find that cyclin E levels and cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activities are both constitutively and equivalently elevated during both the S phase and G1 arrests. This indicates that centrosome duplication during the G1 arrest is limited by a block to reduplication under conditions permissive for duplication. The cytoplasmic conditions of S phase, however, abrogate this block to reduplication.

  4. The Role of Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor Interaction with the Centrosome Protein Pericentrin in Prostate Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    demonstrated that MBd were found in a number of different cancer cell lines but rarely found in normal dividing, differentiating , or telomerase...immortalized cells (Fig. 1). MBds were also found in stem cells in many human and mouse tissues (e.g. the bulge of hair follicles, the spermatogonia layer of...that the two daughter cells can be differentiated based one the age of the centrosome ages (Fig. 4). Like DNA, the centrosome is replicated in a semi

  5. Activity of the AtMRP3 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants is increased by cadmium, nickel, arsenic, cobalt and lead but not by zinc and iron.

    PubMed

    Zientara, Katarzyna; Wawrzyńska, Anna; Lukomska, Jolanta; López-Moya, José Rafael; Liszewska, Frantz; Assunção, Ana G L; Aarts, Mark G M; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2009-02-05

    Characterization of the function, regulation and metal-specificity of metal transporters is one of the basic steps needed for the understanding of transport and accumulation of toxic metals and metalloids by plants. In this work GUS was used as a reporter for monitoring the activity of the promoter of the AtMRP3 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene encoding an ABC-transporter, expression of which is induced by heavy metals. The AtMRP3 promoter-GUS fusion expression cassette was introduced into the genome of two model plants, A. thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. The promoter induces GUS activity in the roots as well as in the shoots upon metal exposure. Similar responses of the AtMRP3 promoter to the presence of the selected metals was observed in both plant species. Cadmium, nickel, arsenic, cobalt and lead strongly activated the transcription of the reporter gene, while zinc and iron had no impact. The AtMRP3 promoter thus seems to be a useful new tool in designing plants that can be used for biomonitoring of environmental contaminations.

  6. The ecology of arsenic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid whose name conjures up images of murder. Nonetheless, certain prokaryotes use arsenic oxyanions for energy generation, either by oxidizing arsenite or by respiring arsenate. These microbes are phylogenetically diverse and occur in a wide range of habitats. Arsenic cycling may take place in the absence of oxygen and can contribute to organic matter oxidation. In aquifers, these microbial reactions may mobilize arsenic from the solid to the aqueous phase, resulting in contaminated drinking water. Here we review what is known about arsenic-metabolizing bacteria and their potential impact on speciation and mobilization of arsenic in nature.

  7. p53 Dependent Centrosome Clustering Prevents Multipolar Mitosis in Tetraploid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Qiyi; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yun; Ma, Tieliang; Zhang, Yingyin; Hou, Heli; Cooke, Howard J.; Yang, Da-Qing; Wu, Mian; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Background p53 abnormality and aneuploidy often coexist in human tumors, and tetraploidy is considered as an intermediate between normal diploidy and aneuploidy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how p53 influences the transformation from tetraploidy to aneuploidy. Principal Findings Live cell imaging was performed to determine the fates and mitotic behaviors of several human and mouse tetraploid cells with different p53 status, and centrosome and spindle immunostaining was used to investigate centrosome behaviors. We found that p53 dominant-negative mutation, point mutation, or knockout led to a 2∼ 33-fold increase of multipolar mitosis in N/TERT1, 3T3 and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), while mitotic entry and cell death were not significantly affected. In p53-/- tetraploid MEFs, the ability of centrosome clustering was compromised, while centrosome inactivation was not affected. Suppression of RhoA/ROCK activity by specific inhibitors in p53-/- tetraploid MEFs enhanced centrosome clustering, decreased multipolar mitosis from 38% to 20% and 16% for RhoA and ROCK, respectively, while expression of constitutively active RhoA in p53+/+ tetraploid 3T3 cells increased the frequency of multipolar mitosis from 15% to 35%. Conclusions p53 could not prevent tetraploid cells entering mitosis or induce tetraploid cell death. However, p53 abnormality impaired centrosome clustering and lead to multipolar mitosis in tetraploid cells by modulating the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. PMID:22076149

  8. Formation of bipolar spindles with two centrosomes in tetraploid cells established from normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Susumu; Seyama, Atsushi

    2012-09-01

    Tetraploid cells with unstable chromosomes frequently arise as an early step in tumorigenesis and lead to the formation of aneuploid cells. The mechanisms responsible for the chromosome instability of polyploid cells are not fully understood, although the supernumerary centrosomes in polyploid cells have been considered the major cause of chromosomal instability. The aim of this study was to examine the integrity of mitotic spindles and centrosomes in proliferative polyploid cells established from normal human fibroblasts. TIG-1 human fibroblasts were treated with demecolcine (DC) for 4 days to induce polyploidy, and the change in DNA content was monitored. Localization of centrosomes and mitotic spindles in polyploid mitotic cells was examined by immunohistochemistry and laser scanning cytometry. TIG-1 cells treated with DC became almost completely tetraploid at 2 weeks after treatment and grew at the same rate as untreated diploid cells. Most mitotic cells with 8C DNA content had only two centrosomes with bipolar spindles in established tetraploid cells, although they had four or more centrosomes with multipolar spindles at 3 days after DC treatment. The frequency of aneuploid cells increased as established tetraploid cells were propagated. These results indicate that tetraploid cells that form bipolar spindles with two centrosomes in mitosis can proliferate as diploid cells. These cells may serve as a useful model for studying the chromosome instability of polyploid cells.

  9. Characterization of centrosomal localization and dynamics of Cdc25C phosphatase in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Jérôme; Coopman, Peter; Morris, May C

    2008-07-01

    In mammalian cells, three Cdc25 phosphatases A, B, C coordinate cell cycle progression through activating dephosphorylation of Cyclin-dependent kinases. Whereas Cdc25B is believed to trigger entry into mitosis, Cdc25C is thought to act at a later stage of mitosis and in the nucleus. We report that a fraction of Cdc25C localises to centrosomes in a cell cycle-dependent fashion, as of late S phase and throughout G(2) and mitosis. Moreover, Cdc25C colocalises with Cyclin B1 at centrosomes in G(2) and in prophase and Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching experiments reveal that they are both in dynamic exchange between the centrosome and the cytoplasm. The centrosomal localisation of Cdc25C is essentially mediated by its catalytic C-terminal domain, but does not require catalytic activity. In fact phosphatase-dead and substrate-binding hotspot mutants of Cdc25C accumulate at centrosomes together with phosphoTyr15-Cdk1 and behave as dominant negative forms that impair entry into mitosis. Taken together, our data suggest an unexpected function for Cdc25C at the G(2)/M transition, in dephosphorylation of Cdk1. We propose that Cdc25C may participate in amplification of Cdk1-Cyclin B1 activity following initial activation by Cdc25B, and that this process is initiated at the centrosome, then further propagated throughout the cytoplasm thanks to the dynamic behavior of both Cdc25C and Cyclin B1.

  10. A Yeast Two-Hybrid approach for probing protein-protein interactions at the centrosome

    PubMed Central

    Galletta, Brian J.; Rusan, Nasser M.

    2016-01-01

    As a large, non-membrane bound organelle, the centrosome must rely heavily on protein-protein interactions to assemble itself in the cytoplasm and perform its functions as a microtubule-organizing center. Therefore, to understand how this organelle is built and functions, one must understand the protein-protein interactions made by each centrosome protein. Unfortunately, the highly interconnected nature of the centrosome, combined with its predicted unstructured, coil-rich proteins, has made the use of many standard approaches to studying protein-protein interactions very challenging. The yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) system is well suited for studying the centrosome and is an important complement to other biochemical approaches. In this chapter we describe how to carry out a directed Y2H screen to identify the direct interactions between a given centrosome protein and a library of others. Specifically, we detail using a bioinformatics based approach (structure prediction programs) to subdivide proteins and screen for interactions using an array-based Y2H approach. We also describe how to use the interaction information garnered from this screen to generate mutations to disrupt specific interactions using mutagenic-PCR and a “reverse” Y2H screen. Finally, we discuss how information from such a screen can be integrated into existing models of centrosome assembly and how it can initiate and guide extensive in vitro and in vivo experimentation to test these models. PMID:26175443

  11. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-08-10

    Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin "clouds" are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10's role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Plk1 target Kizuna stabilizes mitotic centrosomes to ensure spindle bipolarity.

    PubMed

    Oshimori, Naoki; Ohsugi, Miho; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2006-10-01

    Formation of a bipolar spindle is essential for faithful chromosome segregation at mitosis. Because centrosomes define spindle poles, defects in centrosome number and structural organization can lead to a loss of bipolarity. In addition, microtubule-mediated pulling and pushing forces acting on centrosomes and chromosomes are also important for bipolar spindle formation. Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a highly conserved Ser/Thr kinase that has essential roles in the formation of a bipolar spindle with focused poles. However, the mechanism by which Plk1 regulates spindle-pole formation is poorly understood. Here, we identify a novel centrosomal substrate of Plk1, Kizuna (Kiz), depletion of which causes fragmentation and dissociation of the pericentriolar material from centrioles at prometaphase, resulting in multipolar spindles. We demonstrate that Kiz is critical for establishing a robust mitotic centrosome architecture that can endure the forces that converge on the centrosomes during spindle formation, and suggest that Plk1 maintains the integrity of the spindle poles by phosphorylating Kiz.

  13. Coiled-Coil Proteins Facilitated the Functional Expansion of the Centrosome

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Hyman, Anthony A.; Beyer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Repurposing existing proteins for new cellular functions is recognized as a main mechanism of evolutionary innovation, but its role in organelle evolution is unclear. Here, we explore the mechanisms that led to the evolution of the centrosome, an ancestral eukaryotic organelle that expanded its functional repertoire through the course of evolution. We developed a refined sequence alignment technique that is more sensitive to coiled coil proteins, which are abundant in the centrosome. For proteins with high coiled-coil content, our algorithm identified 17% more reciprocal best hits than BLAST. Analyzing 108 eukaryotic genomes, we traced the evolutionary history of centrosome proteins. In order to assess how these proteins formed the centrosome and adopted new functions, we computationally emulated evolution by iteratively removing the most recently evolved proteins from the centrosomal protein interaction network. Coiled-coil proteins that first appeared in the animal–fungi ancestor act as scaffolds and recruit ancestral eukaryotic proteins such as kinases and phosphatases to the centrosome. This process created a signaling hub that is crucial for multicellular development. Our results demonstrate how ancient proteins can be co-opted to different cellular localizations, thereby becoming involved in novel functions. PMID:24901223

  14. A centrosome interactome provides insight into organelle assembly and reveals a non-duplication role for Plk4

    PubMed Central

    Galletta, Brian J.; Fagerstrom, Carey J.; Schoborg, Todd A.; McLamarrah, Tiffany A.; Ryniawec, John M.; Buster, Daniel W.; Slep, Kevin C.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Rusan, Nasser M.

    2016-01-01

    The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing centre of many cells, best known for its role in mitotic spindle organization. How the proteins of the centrosome are accurately assembled to carry out its many functions remains poorly understood. The non-membrane-bound nature of the centrosome dictates that protein–protein interactions drive its assembly and functions. To investigate this massive macromolecular organelle, we generated a ‘domain-level' centrosome interactome using direct protein–protein interaction data from a focused yeast two-hybrid screen. We then used biochemistry, cell biology and the model organism Drosophila to provide insight into the protein organization and kinase regulatory machinery required for centrosome assembly. Finally, we identified a novel role for Plk4, the master regulator of centriole duplication. We show that Plk4 phosphorylates Cep135 to properly position the essential centriole component Asterless. This interaction landscape affords a critical framework for research of normal and aberrant centrosomes. PMID:27558293

  15. Arsenic and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    States, J Christopher; Srivastava, Sanjay; Chen, Yu; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2009-02-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a worldwide health problem. Although arsenic-induced cancer has been widely studied, comparatively little attention has been paid to arsenic-induced vascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. In addition, studies suggest that susceptibility to arsenic-induced vascular disease may be modified by nutritional factors in addition to genetic factors. Recently, animal models for arsenic-induced atherosclerosis and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell dysfunction have been developed. Initial studies in these models show that arsenic exposure accelerates and exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Microarray studies of liver mRNA and micro-RNA abundance in mice exposed in utero suggest that a permanent state of stress is induced by the arsenic exposure. Furthermore, the livers of the arsenic-exposed mice have activated pathways involved in immune responses suggesting a pro-hyperinflammatory state. Arsenic exposure of mice after weaning shows a clear dose-response in the extent of disease exacerbation. In addition, increased inflammation in arterial wall is evident. In response to arsenic-stimulated oxidative signaling, liver sinusoidal endothelium differentiates into a continuous endothelium that limits nutrient exchange and waste elimination. Data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-derived superoxide or its derivatives are essential second messengers in the signaling pathway for arsenic-stimulated vessel remodeling. The recent findings provide future directions for research into the cardiovascular effects of arsenic exposure.

  16. Control of ciliogenesis by FOR20, a novel centrosome and pericentriolar satellite protein.

    PubMed

    Sedjaï, Fatima; Acquaviva, Claire; Chevrier, Véronique; Chauvin, Jean-Paul; Coppin, Emilie; Aouane, Aicha; Coulier, François; Tolun, Aslihan; Pierres, Michel; Birnbaum, Daniel; Rosnet, Olivier

    2010-07-15

    Cilia and flagella are evolutionary conserved organelles that generate fluid movement and locomotion, and play roles in chemosensation, mechanosensation and intracellular signalling. In complex organisms, cilia are highly diversified, which allows them to perform various functions; however, they retain a 9+0 or 9+2 microtubules structure connected to a basal body. Here, we describe FOR20 (FOP-related protein of 20 kDa), a previously uncharacterized and highly conserved protein that is required for normal formation of a primary cilium. FOR20 is found in PCM1-enriched pericentriolar satellites and centrosomes. FOR20 contains a Lis1-homology domain that promotes self-interaction and is required for its satellite localization. Inhibition of FOR20 expression in RPE1 cells decreases the percentage of ciliated cells and the length of the cilium on ciliated cells. It also modifies satellite distribution, as judged by PCM1 staining, and displaces PCM1 from a detergent-insoluble to a detergent-soluble fraction. The subcellular distribution of satellites is dependent on both microtubule integrity and molecular motor activities. Our results suggest that FOR20 could be involved in regulating the interaction of PCM1 satellites with microtubules and motors. The role of FOR20 in primary cilium formation could therefore be linked to its function in regulating pericentriolar satellites. A role for FOR20 at the basal body itself is also discussed.

  17. HURP permits MTOC sorting for robust meiotic spindle bipolarity, similar to extra centrosome clustering in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Manuel; Kolano, Agnieszka; Kwon, Mijung; Li, Chao-Chin; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Pellman, David; Brunet, Stéphane; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2010-12-27

    In contrast to somatic cells, formation of acentriolar meiotic spindles relies on the organization of microtubules (MTs) and MT-organizing centers (MTOCs) into a stable bipolar structure. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown. We show that this process is impaired in hepatoma up-regulated protein (Hurp) knockout mice, which are viable but female sterile, showing defective oocyte divisions. HURP accumulates on interpolar MTs in the vicinity of chromosomes via Kinesin-5 activity. By promoting MT stability in the spindle central domain, HURP allows efficient MTOC sorting into distinct poles, providing bipolarity establishment and maintenance. Our results support a new model for meiotic spindle assembly in which HURP ensures assembly of a central MT array, which serves as a scaffold for the genesis of a robust bipolar structure supporting efficient chromosome congression. Furthermore, HURP is also required for the clustering of extra centrosomes before division, arguing for a shared molecular requirement of MTOC sorting in mammalian meiosis and cancer cell division.

  18. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the white blood cells).Arsenic trioxide may cause a serious or life-threatening group of symptoms ... medications to treat the syndrome.Arsenic trioxide may cause QT prolongation (heart muscles take longer to recharge ...

  19. Arsenic Treatment Technology Demonstrations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s research for the new Arsenic Rule focused on the development and evaluation of innovative methods and cost-effective technologies for improving the assessment and control of arsenic contamination.

  20. Cryptic exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Rossy, Kathleen M; Janusz, Christopher A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  1. Fact Sheet on Arsenic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is found in combination with either inorganic or organic substances to form many different compounds. Inorganic arsenic compounds are found in soils, sediments, and groundwater.

  2. Metformin inhibits age-related centrosome amplification in Drosophila midgut stem cells through AKT/TOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyun-Jin; Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2015-07-01

    We delineated the mechanism regulating the inhibition of centrosome amplification by metformin in Drosophila intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Age-related changes in tissue-resident stem cells may be closely associated with tissue aging and age-related diseases, such as cancer. Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of cancers. Our recent work showed that Drosophila ISCs are an excellent model for stem cell studies evaluating age-related increase in centrosome amplification. Here, we showed that metformin, a recognized anti-cancer drug, inhibits age- and oxidative stress-induced centrosome amplification in ISCs. Furthermore, we revealed that this effect is mediated via down-regulation of AKT/target of rapamycin (TOR) activity, suggesting that metformin prevents centrosome amplification by inhibiting the TOR signaling pathway. Additionally, AKT/TOR signaling hyperactivation and metformin treatment indicated a strong correlation between DNA damage accumulation and centrosome amplification in ISCs, suggesting that DNA damage might mediate centrosome amplification. Our study reveals the beneficial and protective effects of metformin on centrosome amplification via AKT/TOR signaling modulation. We identified a new target for the inhibition of age- and oxidative stress-induced centrosome amplification. We propose that the Drosophila ISCs may be an excellent model system for in vivo studies evaluating the effects of anti-cancer drugs on tissue-resident stem cell aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Centrosome misorientation mediates slowing of the cell cycle under limited nutrient conditions in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, Therese M; Chiang, C-Y Ason; Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Roth, Caitlin E; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2012-04-01

    Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) divide asymmetrically, balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Although asymmetric stem cell division balances between self-renewal and differentiation, it does not dictate how frequently differentiating cells must be produced. In male GSCs, asymmetric GSC division is achieved by stereotyped positioning of the centrosome with respect to the stem cell niche. Recently we showed that the centrosome orientation checkpoint monitors the correct centrosome orientation to ensure an asymmetric outcome of the GSC division. When GSC centrosomes are not correctly oriented with respect to the niche, GSC cell cycle is arrested/delayed until the correct centrosome orientation is reacquired. Here we show that induction of centrosome misorientation upon culture in poor nutrient conditions mediates slowing of GSC cell proliferation via activation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint. Consistently, inactivation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint leads to lack of cell cycle slowdown even under poor nutrient conditions. We propose that centrosome misorientation serves as a mediator that transduces nutrient information into stem cell proliferation, providing a previously unappreciated mechanism of stem cell regulation in response to nutrient conditions.

  4. ARSENIC SOURCES AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research has identified a number of potential and current links between environmental arsenic releases and the management of operational and abandoned landfills. Many landfills will receive an increasing arsenic load due to the disposal of arsenic-bearing solid residuals ...

  5. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  7. ARSENIC SOURCES AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research has identified a number of potential and current links between environmental arsenic releases and the management of operational and abandoned landfills. Many landfills will receive an increasing arsenic load due to the disposal of arsenic-bearing solid residuals ...

  8. ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-the-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation also includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research st...

  9. Case studies--arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chou, C H Selene J; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2003-08-01

    Arsenic is found naturally in the environment. People may be exposed to arsenic by eating food, drinking water, breathing air, or by skin contact with soil or water that contains arsenic. In the U.S., the diet is a predominant source of exposure for the general population with smaller amounts coming from drinking water and air. Children may also be exposed to arsenic because of hand to mouth contact or eating dirt. In addition to the normal levels of arsenic in air, water, soil, and food, people could by exposed to higher levels in several ways such as in areas containing unusually high natural levels of arsenic in rocks which can lead to unusually high levels of arsenic in soil or water. People living in an area like this could take in elevated amounts of arsenic in drinking water. Workers in an occupation that involves arsenic production or use (for example, copper or lead smelting, wood treatment, pesticide application) could be exposed to elevated levels of arsenic at work. People who saw or sand arsenic-treated wood could inhale/ingest some of the sawdust which contains high levels of arsenic. Similarly, when pressure-treated wood is burned, high levels of arsenic could be released in the smoke. In agricultural areas where arsenic pesticides were used on crops the soil could contain high levels of arsenic. Some hazardous waste sites contain large quantities of arsenic. Arsenic ranks #1 on the ATSDR/EPA priority list of hazardous substances. Arsenic has been found in at least 1,014 current or former NPL sites. At the hazardous waster sites evaluated by ATSDR, exposure to arsenic in soil predominated over exposure to water, and no exposure to air had been recorded. However, there is no information on morbidity or mortality from exposure to arsenic in soil at hazardous waste sites. Exposure assessment, community and tribal involvement, and evaluation and surveillance of health effects are among the ATSDR future Superfund research program priority focus areas

  10. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  11. Redox controls on arsenic enrichment and release from aquifer sediments in central Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Michael V.; Guo, Xinxin; Gan, Yiqun; Benner, Shawn G.; Griffin, Aron M.; Gorski, Christopher A.; Wang, Yanxin; Fendorf, Scott

    2017-05-01

    More than 100 million people in Asia are presently exposed to groundwater with arsenic (As) concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization standard of 10 μg L-1. Arsenic contaminated groundwater within basins of the central portion of the Yangtze River has recently been reported, but the processes controlling arsenic concentrations have yet to be resolved. We examined the hydrologic and geochemical factors controlling arsenic within the Jianghan Plain, an inland sedimentary basin of the Yangtze River, where arsenic concentrations exhibit strong seasonal variability driven by surface and groundwater mixing (Schaefer et al., 2016). Hydrologic fluctuations alter redox conditions in the aquifer, leading to oscillations between arsenic/iron reduction and oxidation. Here we investigate the depth-distribution of solid and aqueous phase iron and arsenic species and, through a series of laboratory manipulations, constrain the biogeochemical processes controlling seasonal changes in groundwater arsenic concentrations. In sediment incubations from ∼20 m below the surface, where solid-phase arsenic concentrations exceed 100 mg kg-1, both unamended and glucose-amended sediment samples result in arsenic release to the aqueous phase. In situ carbon was capable of promoting As release in the sediment. In contrast, sediment batch incubations from other depths resulted in limited As release. Solid phase arsenic in the enriched zone was relatively oxidized but may become reduced over short time periods. In sediments below the As-enriched zone, glucose amendment resulted in arsenic reduction, but arsenic release to the aqueous phase was restricted by the subsequent formation of arsenic sulfide minerals. Buried sedimentary arsenic coupled with anaerobic microbial respiration of subsurface organic carbon within the Jianghan Plain aquifer leads to rapid release of As to groundwater. Arsenic release from sediments at ∼20 m depth is sufficient to explain arsenic concentrations

  12. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  13. Mustard gas surrogate, 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES), induces centrosome amplification and aneuploidy in human and mouse cells : 2-CEES induces centrosome amplification and chromosome instability.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Richard A; Behrens, Elizabeth; Zinn, Ashtyn; Duncheon, Christian; Lamkin, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    Mustard gas is a simple molecule with a deadly past. First used as a chemical weapon in World War I, its simple formulation has raised concerns over its use by terrorist organizations and unstable governments. Mustard gas is a powerful vesicant and alkylating agent that causes painful blisters on epithelial surfaces and increases the incidence of cancer in those exposed. The mechanism of mustard gas toxicity and tumorigenesis is not well understood but is thought to be mediated by its ability to induce oxidative stress and DNA damage. Interestingly, several proteins that have been shown to either be targets of mustard gas or mediate mustard gas toxicity have also been shown to regulate centrosome duplication. Centrosomes are small nonmembrane-bound organelles that direct the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis through the formation of the bipolar mitotic spindle. Cells with more or less than two centrosomes during mitosis can segregate their chromosomes unequally, resulting in chromosome instability, a common phenotype of cancer cells. In our studies, we show that subtoxic levels of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES), a mustard gas analog, induce centrosome amplification and chromosome instability in cells, which may hasten the mutation rate necessary for tumorigenesis. These data may explain why those exposed to mustard gas exhibit higher incidences of cancer than unexposed individuals of the same cohort.

  14. The arsenic-based cure of acute promyelocytic leukemia promotes cytoplasmic sequestration of PML and PML/RARA through inhibition of PML body recycling.

    PubMed

    Lång, Emma; Grudic, Amra; Pankiv, Serhiy; Bruserud, Oystein; Simonsen, Anne; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Bjørås, Magnar; Bøe, Stig Ove

    2012-07-26

    Arsenic in the form of arsenic trioxide (ATO) is used as a therapeutic drug for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The mechanism by which this agent cures this disease was previously shown to involve direct interactions between ATO and the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), as well as accelerated degradation of the APL-associated fusion oncoprotein PML/retinoic acid receptor α (RARA). Here we investigated the fate of PML-generated nuclear structures called PML bodies in ATO-treated cells. We found that ATO inhibits formation of progeny PML bodies while it stabilizes cytoplasmic precursor compartments, referred to as cytoplasmic assemblies of PML and nucleoporins (CyPNs), after cell division. This block in PML body recycling is readily detected at pharmacologic relevant ATO concentrations (0.02-0.5μM) that do not cause detectable cell-cycle defects, and it does not require modification of PML by SUMOylation. In addition, PML and PML/RARA carrying mutations previously identified in ATO-resistant APL patients are impeded in their ability to become sequestered within CyPNs. Thus, ATO may inhibit nuclear activities of PML and PML/RARA in postmitotic cells through CyPN-dependent cytoplasmic sequestration.

  15. The force-producing mechanism for centrosome separation during spindle formation in vertebrates is intrinsic to each aster

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    A popular hypothesis for centrosome separation during spindle formation and anaphase is that pushing forces are generated between interacting microtubules (MTs) of opposite polarity, derived from opposing centrosomes. However, this mechanism is not consistent with the observation that centrosomes in vertebrate cells continue to separate during prometaphase when their MT arrays no longer overlap (i.e., during anaphase-like prometaphase). To evaluate whether centrosome separation during prophase/prometaphase, anaphase-like prometaphase and anaphase is mediated by a common mechanism we compared their behavior in vivo at a high spatial and temporal resolution. We found that the two centrosomes possess a considerable degree of independence throughout all stages of separation, i.e., the direction and migration rate of one centrosome does not impart a predictable behavior to the other, and both exhibit frequent and rapid (4-6 microns/min) displacements toward random points within the cell including the other centrosome. The kinetic behavior of individual centrosomes as they separate to form the spindle is the same whether or not their MT arrays overlap. The characteristics examined include, e.g., total displacement per minute, the vectorial rate of motion toward and away from the other centrosome, the frequency of toward and away motion as well as motion not contributing to separation, and the rate contributed by each centrosome to the separation process. By contrast, when compared with prometaphase, anaphase centrosomes separated at significantly faster rates even though the average vectorial rate of motion away from the other centrosome was the same as in prophase/prometaphase. The difference in separation rates arises because anaphase centrosomes spend less time moving toward one another than in prophase/prometaphase, and at a significantly slower rate. From our data we conclude that the force for centrosome separation during vertebrate spindle formation is not

  16. Asymmetric centrosome behavior and the mechanisms of stem cell division

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Fuller, Margaret T.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of dividing cells to produce daughters with different fates is an important developmental mechanism conserved from bacteria to fungi, plants, and metazoan animals. Asymmetric outcomes of a cell division can be specified by two general mechanisms: asymmetric segregation of intrinsic fate determinants or asymmetric placement of daughter cells into microenvironments that provide extrinsic signals that direct cells to different states. For both, spindle orientation must be coordinated with the localization of intrinsic determinants or source of extrinsic signals to achieve the proper asymmetric outcome. Recent work on spindle orientation in Drosophila melanogaster male germline stem cells and neuroblasts has brought into sharp focus the key role of differential centrosome behavior in developmentally programmed asymmetric division (for reviews see Cabernard, C., and C.Q. Doe. 2007. Curr. Biol. 17:R465–R467; Gonzalez, C. 2007. Nat. Rev. Genet. 8:462–472). These findings provide new insights and suggest intriguing new models for how cells coordinate spindle orientation with their cellular microenvironment to regulate and direct cell fate decisions within tissues. PMID:18209101

  17. Axin localizes to mitotic spindles and centrosomes in mitotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Shi-Mun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Song, Ki-Joon; Kim, Sewoon; Seo, Eunjeong; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2009-04-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In addition, numerous recent studies have shown that various Wnt signaling components are involved in mitosis and chromosomal instability. However, the role of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, in mitosis has remained unclear. Using monoclonal antibodies against Axin, we found that Axin localizes to the centrosome and along mitotic spindles. This localization was suppressed by siRNA specific for Aurora A kinase and by Aurora kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, Axin over-expression altered the subcellular distribution of Plk1 and of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3{beta}) without producing any notable changes in cellular phenotype. In the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor, Axin over-expression induced the formation of cleavage furrow-like structures and of prominent astral microtubules lacking midbody formation in a subset of cells. Our results suggest that Axin modulates distribution of Axin-associated proteins such as Plk1 and GSK3{beta} in an expression level-dependent manner and these interactions affect the mitotic process, including cytokinesis under certain conditions, such as in the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor.

  18. Motility and centrosomal organization during sea urchin and mouse fertilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide; Schatten, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    It is noted that microfilaments are essential for incorporation of sperm in sea urchins and for pronuclear apposition in mice. The ability of sea urchin sperm to fertilize eggs is lowered by latrunculin, giving evidence that acrosomal microfilaments are of importance to the process of fertilization. Due to the uncertainty regarding the presence of microfilaments in various mammalian sperm, it is interesting that latrunculin does not noticeably affect the ability of mouse sperm to fertilize oocytes. The movements of the sperm and egg nuclei at the time of sea urchin fertilization are dependent on microtubules arranged into a radial monastral array (the sperm aster). In the mouse egg, microtubule activity is also required during pronuclear apposition, but they are arranged by a number of egg cytoplasmic sites. Results of the investigations show that both microtubules and microfilaments are necessary for the successful completion of fertilization in both mice and sea urchins, but at different stages. Also, it is demonstrated that centrosomes are contributed by the sperm in the process of sea urchin fertilization, but in mammals they may be inherited maternally.

  19. Cellular infrared detector appears to be contained in the centrosome.

    PubMed

    Albrecht-Buehler, G

    1994-01-01

    Previous experiments have suggested that 3T3 cells were able to extend pseudopodia toward latex particles up to 60 microns away from the cell body if the particles were irradiated by an infrared beam in the range of 700-900 nm [Albrecht-Buehler, 1991: J. Cell Biol. 114:493-502]. The present article reports that this response of cells to infrared light can be inhibited if the cell center is simultaneously irradiated with a beam of the same light. In marked contrast, the cells responded normally to the presence of infrared light scattering particles if the second beam irradiated other parts of the cell body. The results imply that the cellular mechanism of infrared detection is located at the cell center. The infrared sensing mechanism remains intact in enucleated cells and in cells which were incubated in monensin to vesiculate their Golgi apparatus and inhibit their Golgi functions. Accordingly, it is proposed that the centrosome which contains the centrioles is the only remaining candidate in the cell center for a cellular detection device for the direction of infrared signal sources. The results support an earlier suggestion that centrioles may be such detection devices [Albrecht-Buehler, 1981: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 1:237-245].

  20. Using sea urchin gametes and zygotes to investigate centrosome duplication.

    PubMed

    Sluder, Greenfield

    2016-01-01

    Centriole structure and function in the sea urchin zygote parallel those in mammalian somatic cells. Here, I briefly introduce the properties and attributes of the sea urchin system that make it an attractive platform for the study of centrosome and centriole duplication. These attributes apply to all echinoderms readily available from commercial suppliers: sea urchins, sand dollars, and starfish. I list some of the practical aspects of the system that make it a cost- and time-effective system for experimental work and then list properties that are a "tool kit" that can be used to conduct studies that would not be practical, or in some cases not possible, with mammalian somatic cells. Since centrioles organize and localize the pericentriolar material that nucleates the astral arrays of microtubules (Bobinnec et al. in J Cell Biol 143(6):1575-1589, 1998), the pattern of aster duplication over several cell cycles can be used as a reliable measure for centriole duplication (Sluder and Rieder in J Cell Biol 100(3):887-896, 1985). Descriptions of the methods my laboratory has used to handle and image echinoderm zygotes are reviewed in Sluder et al. (Methods Cell Biol 61:439-472, 1999). Also included is a bibliography of papers that describe additional methods.

  1. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  2. Arsenic cardiotoxicity: An overview.

    PubMed

    Alamolhodaei, Nafiseh Sadat; Shirani, Kobra; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic, a naturally ubiquitous element, is found in foods and environment. Cardiac dysfunction is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Arsenic exposure is associated with various cardiopathologic effects including ischemia, arrhythmia and heart failure. Possible mechanisms of arsenic cardiotoxicity include oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, apoptosis and functional changes of ion channels. Several evidences have shown that mitochondrial disruption, caspase activation, MAPK signaling and p53 are the pathways for arsenic induced apoptosis. Arsenic trioxide is an effective and potent antitumor agent used in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and produces dramatic remissions. As2O3 administration has major limitations such as T wave changes, QT prolongation and sudden death in humans. In this review, we discuss the underlying pathobiology of arsenic cardiotoxicity and provide information about cardiac health effects associated with some medicinal plants in arsenic toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  4. Arsenic geochemistry and health.

    PubMed

    Duker, Alfred A; Carranza, E J M; Hale, Martin

    2005-07-01

    Arsenic occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is widely distributed in the environment. Natural mineralization and activities of microorganisms enhance arsenic mobilization in the environment but human intervention has exacerbated arsenic contamination. Although arsenic is useful for industrial, agricultural, medicinal and other purposes, it exerts a toxic effect in a variety of organisms, including humans. Arsenic exposure may not only affect and disable organs of the body, especially the skin, but may also interfere with the proper functioning of the immune system. This paper, therefore, generally highlights the toxic effects of arsenic as well as its mobilization in the natural environment and possible controls. It also briefly attempts to outline the impact of arsenic on the immune system, whose alteration could lead to viral/bacterial infections.

  5. High LET Radiation Amplifies Centrosome Overduplication Through a Pathway of γ-Tubulin Monoubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Mikio; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation induces centrosome overduplication, leading to mitotic catastrophe and tumorigenesis. Because mitotic catastrophe is one of the major tumor cell killing factors in high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation therapy and long-term survivors from such treatment have a potential risk of secondary tumors, we investigated LET dependence of radiation-induced centrosome overduplication and the underlying mechanism. Methods and Materials: Carbon and iron ion beams (13-200 keV/μm) and γ-rays (0.5 keV/μm) were used as radiation sources. To count centrosomes after IR exposure, human U2OS and mouse NIH3T3 cells were immunostained with antibodies of γ-tubulin and centrin 2. Similarly, Nbs1-, Brca1-, Ku70-, and DNA-PKcs-deficient mouse cells and their counterpart wild-type cells were used for measurement of centrosome overduplication. Results: The number of excess centrosome-containing cells at interphase and the resulting multipolar spindle at mitosis were amplified with increased LET, reaching a maximum level of 100 keV/μm, followed by sharp decrease in frequency. Interestingly, Ku70 and DNA-PKcs deficiencies marginally affected the induction of centrosome overduplication, whereas the cell killings were significantly enhanced. This was in contrast to observation that high LET radiation significantly enhanced frequencies of centrosome overduplication in Nbs1- and Brca1-deficient cells. Because NBS1/BRCA1 is implicated in monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin, we subsequently tested whether it is affected by high LET radiation. As a result, monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin was abolished in 48 to 72 hours after exposure to high LET radiation, although γ-ray exposure slightly decreased it 48 hours postirradiation and was restored to a normal level at 72 hours. Conclusions: High LET radiation significantly reduces NBS1/BRCA1-mediated monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin and amplifies centrosome overduplication with a peak at 100 keV/μm. In contrast, Ku70 and DNA

  6. Small organelle, big responsibility: the role of centrosomes in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Pavithra L; Pütz, Monika; Gergely, Fanni

    2014-09-05

    The centrosome, a key microtubule organizing centre, is composed of centrioles, embedded in a protein-rich matrix. Centrosomes control the internal spatial organization of somatic cells, and as such contribute to cell division, cell polarity and migration. Upon exiting the cell cycle, most cell types in the human body convert their centrioles into basal bodies, which drive the assembly of primary cilia, involved in sensing and signal transduction at the cell surface. Centrosomal genes are targeted by mutations in numerous human developmental disorders, ranging from diseases exclusively affecting brain development, through global growth failure syndromes to diverse pathologies associated with ciliary malfunction. Despite our much-improved understanding of centrosome function in cellular processes, we know remarkably little of its role in the organismal context, especially in mammals. In this review, we examine how centrosome dysfunction impacts on complex physiological processes and speculate on the challenges we face when applying knowledge generated from in vitro and in vivo model systems to human development. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Laser irradiation of centrosomes in newt eosinophils: evidence of centriole role in motility

    SciTech Connect

    Koonce, M.P.; Cloney, R.A.; Berns, M.W.

    1984-06-01

    Newt eosinophils are motile granulated leukocytes that uniquely display a highly visible centrosomal area. Electron microscope and tubulin antibody fluorescence confirms the presence of centrioles, pericentriolar material, and radiating microtubules within this visible area. Actin antibodies intensely stain the advancing cell edges and tail but only weakly stain pseudopods being withdrawn into the cell. Randomly activated eosinophils follow a roughly consistent direction with an average rate of 22.5 ..mu..m/min. The position of the centrosome is always located between the trailing cell nucleus and advancing cell edge. If the cell extends more than one pseudopod, the one closest to or containing the centrosome is always the one in which motility continues. Laser irradiation of the visible centrosomal area resulted in rapid cell rounding. After several minutes following irradiation, most cells flattened and movement continued. However, postirradiation motility was uncoordinated and directionless, and the rate decreased to an average of 14.5 ..mu..m/min. Electron microscopy and tubulin immunofluorescence indicated that an initial disorganization of microtubules resulted from the laser microirradiations. After several minutes, organized microtubules reappeared, but the centrioles appeared increasingly damaged. The irregularities in motility due to irradiation are probably related to the damaged centrioles. The results presented in this paper suggest that the centrosome is an important structure in controlling the rate and direction of newt eosinophil motility.

  8. The polarity protein Pard3 is required for centrosome positioning during neurulation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Elim; Jayachandran, Pradeepa; Brewster, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Microtubules are essential regulators of cell polarity, architecture and motility. The organization of the microtubule network is context-specific. In non-polarized cells, microtubules are anchored to the centrosome and form radial arrays. In most epithelial cells, microtubules are noncentrosomal, align along the apico-basal axis and the centrosome templates a cilium. It follows that cells undergoing mesenchyme-to-epithelium transitions must reorganize their microtubule network extensively, yet little is understood about how this process is orchestrated. In particular, the pathways regulating the apical positioning of the centrosome are unknown, a central question given the role of cilia in fluid propulsion, sensation and signaling. In zebrafish, neural progenitors undergo progressive epithelialization during neurulation, and thus provide a convenient in vivo cellular context in which to address this question. We demonstrate here that the microtubule cytoskeleton gradually transitions from a radial to linear organization during neurulation and that microtubules function in conjunction with the polarity protein Pard3 to mediate centrosome positioning. Pard3 depletion results in hydrocephalus, a defect often associated with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid flow that has been linked to cilia defects. These findings thus bring to focus cellular events occurring during neurulation and reveal novel molecular mechanisms implicated in centrosome positioning. PMID:20138861

  9. Expression of the novel maternal centrosome assembly factor Wdr8 is required for vertebrate embryonic mitoses

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Daigo; Stemmer, Manuel; Thumberger, Thomas; Ruppert, Thomas; Bärenz, Felix; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Gruss, Oliver J.

    2017-01-01

    The assembly of the first centrosome occurs upon fertilisation when male centrioles recruit pericentriolar material (PCM) from the egg cytoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the proper assembly of centrosomes during early embryogenesis remain obscure. We identify Wdr8 as a novel maternally essential protein that is required for centrosome assembly during embryonic mitoses of medaka (Oryzias latipes). By CRISPR–Cas9-mediated knockout, maternal/zygotic Wdr8-null (m/zWdr8−/−) blastomeres exhibit severe defects in centrosome structure that lead to asymmetric division, multipolar mitotic spindles and chromosome alignment errors. Via its WD40 domains, Wdr8 interacts with the centriolar satellite protein SSX2IP. Combining targeted gene knockout and in vivo reconstitution of the maternally essential Wdr8–SSX2IP complex reveals an essential link between maternal centrosome proteins and the stability of the zygotic genome for accurate vertebrate embryogenesis. Our approach provides a way of distinguishing maternal from paternal effects in early embryos and should contribute to understanding molecular defects in human infertility. PMID:28098238

  10. Nucleophosmin/B23 activates Aurora A at the centrosome through phosphorylation of serine 89

    PubMed Central

    Reboutier, David; Troadec, Marie-Bérengère; Cremet, Jean-Yves; Fukasawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Aurora A (AurA) is a major mitotic protein kinase involved in centrosome maturation and spindle assembly. Nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM) is a pleiotropic nucleolar protein involved in a variety of cellular processes including centrosome maturation. In the present study, we report that NPM is a strong activator of AurA kinase activity. NPM and AurA coimmunoprecipitate and colocalize to centrosomes in G2 phase, where AurA becomes active. In contrast with previously characterized AurA activators, NPM does not trigger autophosphorylation of AurA on threonine 288. NPM induces phosphorylation of AurA on serine 89, and this phosphorylation is necessary for activation of AurA. These data were confirmed in vivo, as depletion of NPM by ribonucleic acid interference eliminated phosphorylation of CDC25B on S353 at the centrosome, indicating a local loss of AurA activity. Our data demonstrate that NPM is a strong activator of AurA kinase activity at the centrosome and support a novel mechanism of activation for AurA. PMID:22451695

  11. Centrosomes Enhance the Fidelity of Cytokinesis in Vertebrates and Are Required for Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Khodjakov, Alexey; Rieder, Conly L.

    2001-01-01

    When centrosomes are destroyed during prophase by laser microsurgery, vertebrate somatic cells form bipolar acentrosomal mitotic spindles (Khodjakov, A., R.W. Cole, B.R. Oakley, and C.L. Rieder. 2000. Curr. Biol. 10:59–67), but the fate of these cells is unknown. Here, we show that, although these cells lack the radial arrays of astral microtubules normally associated with each spindle pole, they undergo a normal anaphase and usually produce two acentrosomal daughter cells. Relative to controls, however, these cells exhibit a significantly higher (30–50%) failure rate in cytokinesis. This failure correlates with the inability of the spindle to properly reposition itself as the cell changes shape. Also, we destroyed just one centrosome during metaphase and followed the fate of the resultant acentrosomal and centrosomal daughter cells. Within 72 h, 100% of the centrosome-containing cells had either entered DNA synthesis or divided. By contrast, during this period, none of the acentrosomal cells had entered S phase. These data reveal that the primary role of the centrosome in somatic cells is not to form the spindle but instead to ensure cytokinesis and subsequent cell cycle progression. PMID:11285289

  12. Intensity-based signal separation algorithm for accuratequantification of clustered centrosomes in tissue sections

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, Markus C.; Maxell, Christopher A.; Kuper, Claudia K.; Brown, Erika T.; Parvin, Bahram; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen; Costes,Sylvain V.

    2006-03-08

    Centrosomes are small organelles that organize the mitoticspindle during cell division and are also involved in cell shape andpolarity. Within epithelial tumors, such as breast cancer, and somehematological tumors, centrosome abnormalities (CA) are common, occurearly in disease etiology, and correlate with chromosomal instability anddisease stage. In situ quantification of CA by optical microscopy ishampered by overlap and clustering of these organelles, which appear asfocal structures. CA has been frequently associated with Tp53 status inpremalignant lesions and tumors. Here we describe an approach toaccurately quantify centrosomes in tissue sections and tumors.Considering proliferation and baseline amplification rate the resultingpopulation based ratio of centrosomes per nucleus allow the approximationof the proportion of cells with CA. Using this technique we show that20-30 percent of cells have amplified centrosomes in Tp53 null mammarytumors. Combining fluorescence detection, deconvolution microscopy and amathematical algorithm applied to a maximum intensity projection we showthat this approach is superior to traditional investigator based visualanalysis or threshold-based techniques.

  13. ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE AND THE METHYLATION OF ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolic conversion of inorganic arsenic into methylated products is a multistep process that yields mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. In recent years, it has become apparent that formation of methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic is not necessarily a detoxification...

  14. ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE AND THE METHYLATION OF ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolic conversion of inorganic arsenic into methylated products is a multistep process that yields mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. In recent years, it has become apparent that formation of methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic is not necessarily a detoxification...

  15. Reduction and Coordination of Arsenic in Indian Mustard1

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Ingrid J.; Prince, Roger C.; George, Martin J.; Smith, Robert D.; George, Graham N.; Salt, David E.

    2000-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from AsIII-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element. PMID:10759512

  16. Electron Microscopy Structural Insights into CPAP Oligomeric Behavior: A Plausible Assembly Process of a Supramolecular Scaffold of the Centrosome

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Cabrera, Ana L.; Delgado, Sandra; Gil-Carton, David; Mortuza, Gulnahar B.; Montoya, Guillermo; Sorzano, Carlos O. S.; Tang, Tang K.; Carazo, Jose M.

    2017-01-01

    Centrosomal P4.1-associated protein (CPAP) is a cell cycle regulated protein fundamental for centrosome assembly and centriole elongation. In humans, the region between residues 897–1338 of CPAP mediates interactions with other proteins and includes a homodimerization domain. CPAP mutations cause primary autosomal recessive microcephaly and Seckel syndrome. Despite of the biological/clinical relevance of CPAP, its mechanistic behavior remains unclear and its C-terminus (the G-box/TCP domain) is the only part whose structure has been solved. This situation is perhaps due in part to the challenges that represent obtaining the protein in a soluble, homogeneous state for structural studies. Our work constitutes a systematic structural analysis on multiple oligomers of HsCPAP897−1338, using single-particle electron microscopy (EM) of negatively stained (NS) samples. Based on image classification into clearly different regular 3D maps (putatively corresponding to dimers and tetramers) and direct observation of individual images representing other complexes of HsCPAP897−1338 (i.e., putative flexible monomers and higher-order multimers), we report a dynamic oligomeric behavior of this protein, where different homo-oligomers coexist in variable proportions. We propose that dimerization of the putative homodimer forms a putative tetramer which could be the structural unit for the scaffold that either tethers the pericentriolar material to centrioles or promotes procentriole elongation. A coarse fitting of atomic models into the NS 3D maps at resolutions around 20 Å is performed only to complement our experimental data, allowing us to hypothesize on the oligomeric composition of the different complexes. In this way, the current EM work represents an initial step toward the structural characterization of different oligomers of CPAP, suggesting further insights to understand how this protein works, contributing to the elucidation of control mechanisms for centriole

  17. Tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S 4) promotes apoptosis in retinoid acid -resistant human acute promyelocytic leukemic NB4-R1 cells through downregulation of SET protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; He, Pengcheng; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Naicen; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Shi, Lili; Zhu, Huachao; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Mei

    2014-04-01

    Tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4) is an arsenic compound with antitumor activity, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) that are resistant to retinoic acid (RA). Although recent studies have revealed that the therapeutic action of As4S4 is closely associated with the induction of cellular apoptosis, the exact molecular mechanism underlying this action in RA-resistant APL remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that As4S4-induced apoptosis was accompanied by reduced mRNA and protein expression of SET gene in RA-resistant NB4-R1 cells. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of SET gene further promoted As4S4-induced apoptosis, while SET overexpression recovered the cell viability, suggesting that As4S4 induces apoptosis through the reduction of SET protein in NB4-R1 cells. We also observed that the knockdown of SET gene resulted in the upregulation of protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) expression and the downregulation of promyelocytic leukemia and retinoic acid receptor α fusion gene (PML-RARα) expression, which were enhanced by As4S4 treatments. By contrast, overexpression of SET gene resulted in PP2A downregulation and PML-RARα upregulation, which were abolished by As4S4 pretreatment. Since PP2A is a proapoptotic factor and PML-RARα is an antiapoptotic factor, our results suggest that As4S4-induced apoptosis in RA-resistant NB4-R1 cells is through the downregulation of SET protein expression, which, in turn, increases PP2A and reduces PML-RARα expressions to lead to cell apoptosis.

  18. Identification of an arsenic resistance and arsenic-sensing system in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2009-08-01

    Arsenic is commonly present in the natural environment and is also used as a feed additive for animal production. Poultry is a major reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne human pathogen causing gastroenteritis. It has been shown that Campylobacter isolates from poultry are highly resistant to arsenic compounds, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance have not been determined, and it is unclear if the acquired arsenic resistance affects the susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. to other antimicrobials. In this study, we identified a four-gene operon that contributes to arsenic resistance in Campylobacter. This operon encodes a putative membrane permease (ArsP), a transcriptional repressor (ArsR), an arsenate reductase (ArsC), and an efflux protein (Acr3). PCR analysis of various clinical C. jejuni isolates indicated a significant association of this operon with elevated resistance to arsenite and arsenate. Gene-specific mutagenesis confirmed the role of the ars operon in conferring arsenic resistance. It was further shown that this operon is subject to regulation by ArsR, which directly binds to the ars promoter and inhibits the transcription of the operon. Arsenite inhibits the binding of ArsR to the ars promoter DNA and induces the expression of the ars genes. Mutation of the ars genes did not affect the susceptibility of C. jejuni to commonly used antibiotics. These results identify the ars operon as an important mechanism for arsenic resistance and sensing in Campylobacter.

  19. Activation of Hedgehog signaling by the environmental toxicant arsenic may contribute to the etiology of arsenic induced tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Li, Hua; Kozul, Courtney D.; Black, Kendall E.; Singh, Samer; Gosse, Julie A.; DiRenzo, James; Martin, Kathleen A.; Wang, Baolin; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Robbins, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to the environmental toxicant arsenic, through both contaminated water and food, contributes to significant health problems worldwide. In particular, arsenic exposure is thought to function as a carcinogen for lung, skin and bladder cancer, via mechanisms that remain largely unknown. More recently, the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway has also been implicated in the progression and maintenance of these same cancers. Based on these similarities, we tested the hypothesis that arsenic may act in part through activating HH signaling. Here, we show that arsenic is able to activate HH signaling in a number of primary and established tissue culture cells, as well as in vivo. Arsenic activates HH signaling by decreasing the stability of the repressor form of GLI3, one of the transcription factors that ultimately regulate HH activity. We also show, using tumor samples from a cohort of bladder cancer patients, that high levels of arsenic exposure are associated with high levels of HH activity. Given the important role HH signaling plays in the maintenance and progression of a variety of tumors, including bladder cancer, these results suggest that arsenic exposure may in part promote cancer through the activation of HH signaling. Thus, we provide an important insight into the etiology of arsenic induced human carcinogenesis, which may be relevant to millions of people exposed to high levels of arsenic worldwide. PMID:20179202

  20. Excess free histone H3 localizes to centrosomes for proteasome-mediated degradation during mitosis in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Wike, Candice L; Graves, Hillary K; Wason, Arpit; Hawkins, Reva; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Schumacher, Jill; Tyler, Jessica K

    2016-08-17

    The cell tightly controls histone protein levels in order to achieve proper packaging of the genome into chromatin, while avoiding the deleterious consequences of excess free histones. Our accompanying study has shown that a histone modification that loosens the intrinsic structure of the nucleosome, phosphorylation of histone H3 on threonine 118 (H3 T118ph), exists on centromeres and chromosome arms during mitosis. Here, we show that H3 T118ph localizes to centrosomes in humans, flies, and worms during all stages of mitosis. H3 abundance at the centrosome increased upon proteasome inhibition, suggesting that excess free histone H3 localizes to centrosomes for degradation during mitosis. In agreement, we find ubiquitinated H3 specifically during mitosis and within purified centrosomes. These results suggest that targeting of histone H3 to the centrosome for proteasome-mediated degradation is a novel pathway for controlling histone supply, specifically during mitosis.

  1. Evidence for arsenic essentiality.

    PubMed

    Uthus, E O

    1992-06-01

    Although numerous studies with rats, hamsters, minipigs, goats and chicks have indicated that arsenic is an essential nutrient, the physiological role of arsenic is open to conjecture. Recent studies have suggested that arsenic has a physiological role that affects the formation of various metabolites of methionine metabolism including taurine and the polyamines. The concentration of plasma taurine is decreased in arsenic-deprived rats and hamsters. The hepatic concentration of polyamines and the specific activity of an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of spermidine and spermine, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, are also decreased in arsenic-deprived rats. Thus, evidence has been obtained which indicates that arsenic is of physiological importance, especially when methionine metabolism is stressed (e.g. pregnancy, lactation, methionine deficiency, vitamin B6 deprivation). Any possible nutritional requirement by humans can be estimated only by using data from animal studies. The arsenic requirement for growing chicks and rats has been suggested to be near 25 ng g(-1) diet. Thus, a possible human requirement is 12 μg day(-1). The reported arsenic content of diets from various parts of the world indicates that the average intake of arsenic is in the range of 12-40 μg. Fish, grain and cereal products contribute most arsenic to the diet.

  2. Tank binding kinase 1 is a centrosome-associated kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Smitha; Nguyen, Jonathan; Johnson, Joseph; Haura, Eric; Coppola, Domenico; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-12-10

    TANK Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) is a non-canonical IκB kinase that contributes to KRAS-driven lung cancer. Here we report that TBK1 plays essential roles in mammalian cell division. Specifically, levels of active phospho-TBK1 increase during mitosis and localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and midbody, and selective inhibition or silencing of TBK1 triggers defects in spindle assembly and prevents mitotic progression. TBK1 binds to the centrosomal protein CEP170 and to the mitotic apparatus protein NuMA, and both CEP170 and NuMA are TBK1 substrates. Further, TBK1 is necessary for CEP170 centrosomal localization and binding to the microtubule depolymerase Kif2b, and for NuMA binding to dynein. Finally, selective disruption of the TBK1-CEP170 complex augments microtubule stability and triggers defects in mitosis, suggesting that TBK1 functions as a mitotic kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis.

  3. Automated 3-D tracking of centrosomes in sequences of confocal image stacks.

    PubMed

    Kerekes, Ryan A; Gleason, Shaun S; Trivedi, Niraj; Solecki, David J

    2009-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of neuron migration, we propose a method for 3-D detection and tracking of centrosomes in time-lapse confocal image stacks of live neuron cells. We combine Laplacian-based blob detection, adaptive thresholding, and the extraction of scale and roundness features to find centrosome-like objects in each frame. We link these detections using the joint probabilistic data association filter (JPDAF) tracking algorithm with a Newtonian state-space model tailored to the motion characteristics of centrosomes in live neurons. We apply our algorithm to image sequences containing multiple cells, some of which had been treated with motion-inhibiting drugs. We provide qualitative results and quantitative comparisons to manual segmentation and tracking results showing that our average motion estimates agree to within 13% of those computed manually by neurobiologists.

  4. Centrosome-dependent asymmetric inheritance of the midbody ring in Drosophila germline stem cell division.

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Viktoria; Chen, Cuie; Chiang, C-Y Ason; Tiyaboonchai, Amita; Mayer, Michael; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2014-01-01

    Many stem cells, including Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), divide asymmetrically, producing one stem cell and one differentiating daughter. Cytokinesis is often asymmetric, in that only one daughter cell inherits the midbody ring (MR) upon completion of abscission even in apparently symmetrically dividing cells. However, whether the asymmetry in cytokinesis correlates with cell fate or has functional relevance has been poorly explored. Here we show that the MR is asymmetrically segregated during GSC divisions in a centrosome age-dependent manner: male GSCs, which inherit the mother centrosome, exclude the MR, whereas female GSCs, which we here show inherit the daughter centrosome, inherit the MR. We further show that stem cell identity correlates with the mode of MR inheritance. Together our data suggest that the MR does not inherently dictate stem cell identity, although its stereotypical inheritance is under the control of stemness and potentially provides a platform for asymmetric segregation of certain factors.

  5. Polarity Reversal by Centrosome Repositioning Primes Cell Scattering during Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Burute, Mithila; Prioux, Magali; Blin, Guillaume; Truchet, Sandrine; Letort, Gaëlle; Tseng, Qingzong; Bessy, Thomas; Lowell, Sally; Young, Joanne; Filhol-Cochet, Odile; Théry, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Summary During epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cells lining the tissue periphery break up their cohesion to migrate within the tissue. This dramatic reorganization involves a poorly characterized reorientation of the apico-basal polarity of static epithelial cells into the front-rear polarity of migrating mesenchymal cells. To investigate the spatial coordination of intracellular reorganization with morphological changes, we monitored centrosome positioning during EMT in vivo, in developing mouse embryos and mammary gland, and in vitro, in cultured 3D cell aggregates and micro-patterned cell doublets. In all conditions, centrosomes moved from their off-centered position next to intercellular junctions toward extra-cellular matrix adhesions on the opposite side of the nucleus, resulting in an effective internal polarity reversal. This move appeared supported by controlled microtubule network disassembly. Sequential release of cell confinement using dynamic micropatterns, and modulation of microtubule dynamics, confirmed that centrosome repositioning was responsible for further cell disengagement and scattering. PMID:28041907

  6. Structural centrosome aberrations favor proliferation by abrogating microtubule-dependent tissue integrity of breast epithelial mammospheres

    PubMed Central

    Schnerch, D; Nigg, E A

    2016-01-01

    Structural centrosome aberrations are frequently observed in early stage carcinomas, but their role in malignant transformation is poorly understood. Here, we examined the impact of overexpression of Ninein-like protein (Nlp) on the architecture of polarized epithelia in three-dimensional mammospheres. When Nlp was overexpressed to levels resembling those seen in human tumors, it formed striking centrosome-related bodies (CRBs), which sequestered Ninein and affected the kinetics of microtubule (MT) nucleation and release. In turn, the profound reorganization of the MT cytoskeleton resulted in mislocalization of several adhesion and junction proteins as well as the tumor suppressor Scribble, resulting in the disruption of epithelial polarity, cell-cell interactions and mammosphere architecture. Remarkably, cells harboring Nlp-CRBs displayed an enhanced proliferative response to epidermal growth factor. These results demonstrate that structural centrosome aberrations cause not only the disruption of epithelial polarity but also favor overproliferation, two phenotypes typically associated with human carcinomas. PMID:26364601

  7. Cep126 is required for pericentriolar satellite localisation to the centrosome and for primary cilium formation

    PubMed Central

    Bonavita, Raffaella; Walas, Dawid; Brown, Anna K; Luini, Alberto; Stephens, David J; Colanzi, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Background Information The centrosome is the primary microtubule-organising centre of animal cells and it has crucial roles in several fundamental cellular functions, including cell division, cell polarity, and intracellular transport. The mechanisms responsible for this are not completely understood. Results The poorly characterised protein CEP126 localises to the centrosome, pericentriolar satellites and the base of the primary cilium. Suppression of CEP126 expression results in dispersion of the pericentriolar satellites and disruption of the radial organisation of the microtubules, and induces disorganisation of the mitotic spindle. Moreover, CEP126 depletion or the transfection of a CEP126 truncation mutant in hTERT-RPE-1 and IMCD3 cells impairs the formation of the primary cilium. Conclusions We propose that CEP126 is a regulator of microtubule organisation at the centrosome that acts through modulation of the transport of pericentriolar satellites, and consequently, of the organisation of cell structure. PMID:24867236

  8. Automated 3-D Tracking of Centrosomes in Sequences of Confocal Image Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Kerekes, Ryan A; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj; Solecki, Dr. David

    2009-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of neuron migration, we propose a method for 3-D detection and tracking of centrosomes in time-lapse confocal image stacks of live neuron cells. We combine Laplacian-based blob detection, adaptive thresholding, and the extraction of scale and roundness features to find centrosome-like objects in each frame. We link these detections using the joint probabilistic data association filter (JPDAF) tracking algorithm with a Newtonian state-space model tailored to the motion characteristics of centrosomes in live neurons. We apply our algorithm to image sequences containing multiple cells, some of which had been treated with motion-inhibiting drugs. We provide qualitative results and quantitative comparisons to manual segmentation and tracking results showing that our motion estimates closely agree with those generated by neurobiology experts.

  9. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  10. Diagnosis of abnormal human fertilization status based on pronuclear origin and/or centrosome number.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yoshiteru; Iwata, Kyoko; Iba, Yumiko; Mio, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    Normally fertilized zygotes generally show two pronuclei (2PN) and the extrusion of the second polar body. Conventional in vitro fertilization (c-IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) often result in abnormal monopronuclear (1PN), tripronuclear (3PN), or other polypronuclear zygotes. In this study, we performed combined analyses of the methylation status of pronuclei (PN) and the number of centrosomes, to reveal the abnormal fertilization status in human zygotes. We used differences in DNA methylation status (5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC)) to discriminate between male and female PN in human zygotes. These results were also used to analyze the centrosome number to indicate how many sperm entered into the oocyte. Immunofluorescent analysis shows that all of the normal 2PN zygotes had one 5mC/5hmC double-positive PN and one 5mC-positive PN, whereas a parthenogenetically activated oocyte had only 5mC staining of the PN. All of the zygotes derived from ICSI (1PN, 3PN) had two centrosomes as did all of the 2PN zygotes derived from c-IVF. Of the 1PN zygotes derived from c-IVF, more than 50 % had staining for both 5mC and 5hmC in a single PN, and one or two centrosomes, indicating fertilization by a single sperm. Meanwhile, most of 3PN zygotes derived from c-IVF had a 5mC-positive PN and two 5mC/5hmC double-positive PNs, and had four or five centrosomes, suggesting polyspermy. We have established a reliable method to identify the PN origin based on the epigenetic status of the genome and have complemented these results by counting the centrosomes of zygotes.

  11. Conserved TCP domain of Sas-4/CPAP is essential for pericentriolar material tethering during centrosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangdong; Gooi, Li Ming; Wason, Arpit; Gabriel, Elke; Mehrjardi, Narges Zare; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Xingrun; Debec, Alain; Basiri, Marcus L; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Poser, Ina; Saric, Tomo; Hyman, Anthony A; Li, Haitao; Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2014-01-21

    Pericentriolar material (PCM) recruitment to centrioles forms a key step in centrosome biogenesis. Deregulation of this process leads to centrosome aberrations causing disorders, one of which is autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), a neurodevelopmental disorder where brain size is reduced. During PCM recruitment, the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4/CPAP/MCPH6, known to play a role in centriole formation, acts as a scaffold for cytoplasmic PCM complexes to bind and then tethers them to centrioles to form functional centrosomes. To understand Sas-4's tethering role, we determined the crystal structure of its T complex protein 10 (TCP) domain displaying a solvent-exposed single-layer of β-sheets fold. This unique feature of the TCP domain suggests that it could provide an "extended surface-like" platform to tether the Sas-4-PCM scaffold to a centriole. Functional studies in Drosophila, human cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells were used to test this hypothesis, where point mutations within the 9-10th β-strands (β9-10 mutants including a MCPH-associated mutation) perturbed PCM tethering while allowing Sas-4/CPAP to scaffold cytoplasmic PCM complexes. Specifically, the Sas-4 β9-10 mutants displayed perturbed interactions with Ana2, a centrosome duplication factor, and Bld-10, a centriole microtubule-binding protein, suggesting a role for the β9-10 surface in mediating protein-protein interactions for efficient Sas-4-PCM scaffold centriole tethering. Hence, we provide possible insights into how centrosomal protein defects result in human MCPH and how Sas-4 proteins act as a vehicle to tether PCM complexes to centrioles independent of its well-known role in centriole duplication.

  12. Time-lapse recording of centrosomes and other organelles in Drosophila neuroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pampalona, Judit; Januschke, Jens; Sampaio, Paula; Gonzalez, Cayetano

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila larval neuroblasts (NBs) are an excellent model for asymmetric division and cell cycle studies in general. For decades, visualizing relevant structures like centrosomes, chromosomes, or the mitotic spindle relied exclusively on immunofluorescence on fix samples. More recently, improvements on sensitivity and acquisition speed of different confocal systems have made it possible to acquire time-resolved images of combined fluorescent reporters from single larval NBs. Here, we provide protocols to visualize centrosomes and other organelles from both primary cultures of isolated single NBs and ex vivo, whole-mounted larval brains.

  13. Function of donor cell centrosome in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Zhisheng; Zhang Gang; Meng Xiaoqian; Zhang Yanling; Chen Dayuan; Schatten, Heide; Sun Qingyuan . E-mail: sunqy1@yahoo.com

    2005-05-15

    Centrosomes, the main microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most animal cells, are important for many cellular activities such as assembly of the mitotic spindle, establishment of cell polarity, and cell movement. In nuclear transfer (NT), MTOCs that are located at the poles of the meiotic spindle are removed from the recipient oocyte, while the centrosome of the donor cell is introduced. We used mouse MII oocytes as recipients, mouse fibroblasts, rat fibroblasts, or pig granulosa cells as donor cells to construct intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in order to observe centrosome dynamics and functions. Three antibodies against centrin, {gamma}-tubulin, and NuMA, respectively, were used to stain the centrosome. Centrin was not detected either at the poles of transient spindles or at the poles of first mitotic spindles. {gamma}-tubulin translocated into the two poles of the transient spindles, while no accumulated {gamma}-tubulin aggregates were detected in the area adjacent to the two pseudo-pronuclei. At first mitotic metaphase, {gamma}-tubulin was translocated to the spindle poles. The distribution of {gamma}-tubulin was similar in mouse intraspecies and rat-mouse interspecies embryos. The NuMA antibody that we used can recognize porcine but not murine NuMA protein, so it was used to trace the NuMA protein of donor cell in reconstructed embryos. In the pig-mouse interspecies reconstructed embryos, NuMA concentrated between the disarrayed chromosomes soon after activation and translocated to the transient spindle poles. NuMA then immigrated into pseudo-pronuclei. After pseudo-pronuclear envelope breakdown, NuMA was located between the chromosomes and then translocated to the spindle poles of first mitotic metaphase. {gamma}-tubulin antibody microinjection resulted in spindle disorganization and retardation of the first cell division. NuMA antibody microinjection also resulted in spindle disorganization. Our findings indicate that (1) the

  14. Arsenic treatment considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.W.; Frey, M.M.; Clifford, D.; McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1999-03-01

    The best arsenic treatment technique for a given utility will depend on arsenic concentration and species in source water, other constituents in the water, existing treatment processes, treatment costs, and handling of residuals. To evaluate these issues, a national survey investigated arsenic occurrence and speciation in US drinking water sources. In general, total arsenic concentration was higher in groundwater than in surface water supplies. Particulate arsenic was more abundant than previously suspected, and more arsenate than arsenite was present. The cost of arsenic treatment increased in the following order: modified conventional treatment {much_lt} activated alumina or anion exchange < reverse osmosis. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective treatment still might not be best, because secondary treatment benefits and residuals handling should also be taken into account.

  15. Effects of the ninein-like protein centrosomal protein on breast cancer cell invasion and migration

    PubMed Central

    LIU, QI; WANG, XINZHAO; LV, MINLIN; MU, DIANBIN; WANG, LEILEI; ZUO, WENSU; YU, ZHIYONG

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the centrosomal protein, ninein-like protein (Nlp), on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the present study established green fluorescent protein (GFP)-containing MCF7 plasmids with steady and overexpression of Nlp (MCG7-GFP-N1p) and blank plasmids (MCF7-GFP) using lentiviral transfection technology in MCF7 the breast cancer cell line. The expression of Nlp was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blott analysis. Differences in levels of proliferation, invasion and metastasis between the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group and MCF-GFP group were compared using MTT, plate colony formation and Transwell migration assays. The cell growth was more rapid and the colony forming rate was markedly increased in the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group (P<0.05) compared with the MCF7-GFP group. The number of cells in the MCF-GFP-Nlp and MCF7-GFP groups transferred across membranes were 878±18.22 and 398±8.02, respectively, in the migration assay. The invasive capacity was significantly increased in the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group (P<0.05) compared with the MCF7-GFP group. The western blotting results demonstrated high expression levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 in the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group. The increased expression of Nlp was associated with an increase in MCF7 cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, which indicated that Nlp promoted breast tumorigenesis and may be used as a potent biological index to predict breast cancer metastasis and develop therapeutic regimes. PMID:25901761

  16. Effects of the ninein-like protein centrosomal protein on breast cancer cell invasion and migration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Wang, Xinzhao; Lv, Minlin; Mu, Dianbin; Wang, Leilei; Zuo, Wensu; Yu, Zhiyong

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effects of the centrosomal protein, ninein-like protein (Nlp), on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the present study established green fluorescent protein (GFP)-containing MCF7 plasmids with steady and overexpression of Nlp (MCG7-GFP-N1p) and blank plasmids (MCF7-GFP) using lentiviral transfection technology in MCF7 the breast cancer cell line. The expression of Nlp was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blott analysis. Differences in levels of proliferation, invasion and metastasis between the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group and MCF-GFP group were compared using MTT, plate colony formation and Transwell migration assays. The cell growth was more rapid and the colony forming rate was markedly increased in the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group (P<0.05) compared with the MCF7-GFP group. The number of cells in the MCF-GFP-Nlp and MCF7-GFP groups transferred across membranes were 878 ± 18.22 and 398 ± 8.02, respectively, in the migration assay. The invasive capacity was significantly increased in the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group (P<0.05) compared with the MCF7-GFP group. The western blotting results demonstrated high expression levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 in the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group. The increased expression of Nlp was associated with an increase in MCF7 cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, which indicated that Nlp promoted breast tumorigenesis and may be used as a potent biological index to predict breast cancer metastasis and develop therapeutic regimes.

  17. Arsenic-Induced Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Sean; Zancosky, Krysia; Farah, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide has brought about tremendous advancement in the treatment of acute promyelocytic myelogenous leukemia (APML). In most instances, the benefits of these treatments outweigh the risks associated with their respective safety profiles. Although acute pancreatitis is not commonly associated with arsenic toxicity, it should be considered as a possible side effect. We report a case of arsenic-induced pancreatitis in a patient with APML. PMID:22606427

  18. Inhibitory mechanism of dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) in the cellular biomethylation of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Shi, Nan; Geng, Zhirong; Li, Xiangli; Hu, Xin; Wang, Zhilin

    2014-11-01

    Dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) has been approved for the treatment of arsenic poisoning through promoting arsenic excretion and modulating arsenic species. To clarify how DMPS regulates the excretion of arsenic species, we investigated the effects of DMPS on the biomethylation of arsenite (As(3+)) in HepG2 cells. In the experiments, we found that DMPS at low concentrations dramatically decreased the content of arsenic in HepG2 cells and inhibited the cellular methylation of As(3+). Three aspects, the expression of human arsenic (III) methyltransferase (hAS3MT), the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the in vitro enzymatic methylation of arsenic, were considered to explain the reasons for the inhibition of DMPS in arsenic metabolism. The results suggested that DMPS competitively coordinated with As(3+) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(3+)) to inhibit the up-regulation of arsenic on the expression of hAS3MT and block arsenic involving in the enzymatic methylation. Moreover, DMPS eliminated arsenic-induced accumulation of ROS, which might contribute to the antidotal effects of DMPS on arsenic posing.

  19. Knockdown of TWIST1 enhances arsenic trioxide- and ionizing radiation-induced cell death in lung cancer cells by promoting mitochondrial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Sung-Keum; Kim, Jae-Hee; Choi, Ha-Na; Choe, Tae-Boo; Hong, Seok-Il; Yi, Jae-Youn; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Knockdown of TWIST1 enhanced ATO- and IR-induced cell death in NSCLCs. • Intracellular ROS levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA. • TWIST1 siRNA induced MMP loss and mitochondrial fragmentation. • TWIST1 siRNA upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. - Abstract: TWIST1 is implicated in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition, metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance in cancer cells, and therefore is a potential target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we found that knockdown of TWIST1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced arsenic trioxide (ATO)- and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Interestingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA and further increased by co-treatment with ATO or IR. Pretreatment of lung cancer cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine markedly suppressed the cell death induced by combined treatment with TWIST1 siRNA and ATO or IR. Moreover, treatment of cells with TWIST1 siRNA induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that siRNA-mediated TWIST1 knockdown induces mitochondrial dysfunction and enhances IR- and ATO-induced cell death in lung cancer cells.

  20. Chronic arsenic toxicity: studies in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Guha Mazumder, Debendranath; Dasgupta, U B

    2011-09-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been found to be

  1. Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.

    PubMed

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  2. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

  3. Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Mandal, Ardhendu K.; Saito, Hiroshi; Pulliam, Joseph F.; Lee, Eun Y.; Ke, Zun-Ji; Lu, Jian; Ding, Songze; Li, Li; Shelton, Brent J.; Tucker, Thomas; Evers, B. Mark; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of β-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of β-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited β-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggests that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. -- Highlights: ► Carcinogenic metals in drinking water promote colorectal tumor formation in vivo. ► Carcinogenic metals induce β-catenin activation in vivo and in vitro. ► ROS generation induced by carcinogenic metals mediated β-catenin activation.

  4. Centrosome structure and function is altered by chloral hydrate and diazepam during the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the mode of action of the tranquillizers chloral hydrate and diazepam during fertilization and mitosis of the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs. Most striking effects of these drugs are the alteration of centrosomal material and the abnormal microtubule configurations during exposure and after recovery from the drugs. This finding is utilized to study the mechanisms of centrosome compaction and decompaction and the dynamic configurational changes of centrosomal material and its interactions with microtubules. When 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam is applied at specific phases during the first cell cycle of sea urchin eggs, expanded centrosomal material compacts at distinct regions and super-compacts into dense spheres while microtubules disassemble. When eggs are treated before pronuclear fusion, centrosomal material aggregates around each of the two pronuclei while microtubules disappear. Upon recovery, atypical asters oftentimes with multiple foci are formed from centrosomal material surrounding the pronuclei which indicates that the drugs have affected centrosomal material and prevent it from functioning normally. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies with antibodies that routinely stain centrosomes in sea urchin eggs (4D2; and Ah-6) depict centrosomal material that is altered when compared to control cells. This centrosomal material is not able to reform normal microtubule patterns upon recovery but will form multiple asters around the two pronuclei. When cells are treated with 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam during mitosis, the bipolar centrosomal material becomes compacted and aggregates into multiple dense spheres while spindle and polar microtubules disassemble. With increased incubation time, the smaller dense centrosome particles aggregate into bigger and fewer spheres. Upon recovery, unusual irregular microtubule configurations are formed from centrosomes that have lost their

  5. Centrosome structure and function is altered by chloral hydrate and diazepam during the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the mode of action of the tranquillizers chloral hydrate and diazepam during fertilization and mitosis of the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs. Most striking effects of these drugs are the alteration of centrosomal material and the abnormal microtubule configurations during exposure and after recovery from the drugs. This finding is utilized to study the mechanisms of centrosome compaction and decompaction and the dynamic configurational changes of centrosomal material and its interactions with microtubules. When 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam is applied at specific phases during the first cell cycle of sea urchin eggs, expanded centrosomal material compacts at distinct regions and super-compacts into dense spheres while microtubules disassemble. When eggs are treated before pronuclear fusion, centrosomal material aggregates around each of the two pronuclei while microtubules disappear. Upon recovery, atypical asters oftentimes with multiple foci are formed from centrosomal material surrounding the pronuclei which indicates that the drugs have affected centrosomal material and prevent it from functioning normally. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies with antibodies that routinely stain centrosomes in sea urchin eggs (4D2; and Ah-6) depict centrosomal material that is altered when compared to control cells. This centrosomal material is not able to reform normal microtubule patterns upon recovery but will form multiple asters around the two pronuclei. When cells are treated with 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam during mitosis, the bipolar centrosomal material becomes compacted and aggregates into multiple dense spheres while spindle and polar microtubules disassemble. With increased incubation time, the smaller dense centrosome particles aggregate into bigger and fewer spheres. Upon recovery, unusual irregular microtubule configurations are formed from centrosomes that have lost their

  6. Klp10A, a stem cell centrosome-enriched kinesin, balances asymmetries in Drosophila male germline stem cell division

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cuie; Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric stem cell division is often accompanied by stereotypical inheritance of the mother and daughter centrosomes. However, it remains unknown whether and how stem cell centrosomes are uniquely regulated and how this regulation may contribute to stem cell fate. Here we identify Klp10A, a microtubule-depolymerizing kinesin of the kinesin-13 family, as the first protein enriched in the stem cell centrosome in Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs). Depletion of klp10A results in abnormal elongation of the mother centrosomes in GSCs, suggesting the existence of a stem cell-specific centrosome regulation program. Concomitant with mother centrosome elongation, GSCs form asymmetric spindle, wherein the elongated mother centrosome organizes considerably larger half spindle than the other. This leads to asymmetric cell size, yielding a smaller differentiating daughter cell. We propose that klp10A functions to counteract undesirable asymmetries that may result as a by-product of achieving asymmetries essential for successful stem cell divisions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20977.001 PMID:27885983

  7. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation by an arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), yielding methyl arsenic (MA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA). To identify molecular mechanisms that coordinate arsenic biotra...

  8. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation by an arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), yielding methyl arsenic (MA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA). To identify molecular mechanisms that coordinate arsenic biotra...

  9. Heparan sulfate regulates the number and centrosome positioning of Drosophila male germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Daniel C.; Arashiro, Takeshi; Nakato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell division is tightly controlled via secreted signaling factors and cell adhesion molecules provided from local niche structures. Molecular mechanisms by which each niche component regulates stem cell behaviors remain to be elucidated. Here we show that heparan sulfate (HS), a class of glycosaminoglycan chains, regulates the number and asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila testis. We found that GSC number is sensitive to the levels of 6-O sulfate groups on HS. Loss of 6-O sulfation also disrupted normal positioning of centrosomes, a process required for asymmetric division of GSCs. Blocking HS sulfation specifically in the niche, termed the hub, led to increased GSC numbers and mispositioning of centrosomes. The same treatment also perturbed the enrichment of Apc2, a component of the centrosome-anchoring machinery, at the hub–GSC interface. This perturbation of the centrosome-anchoring process ultimately led to an increase in the rate of spindle misorientation and symmetric GSC division. This study shows that specific HS modifications provide a novel regulatory mechanism for stem cell asymmetric division. The results also suggest that HS-mediated niche signaling acts upstream of GSC division orientation control. PMID:26792837

  10. Induction of Excess Centrosomes in Neural Progenitor Cells during the Development of Radiation-Induced Microcephaly

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Mikio; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Kato, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Junya; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2016-01-01

    The embryonic brain is one of the tissues most vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In this study, we showed that ionizing radiation induces apoptosis in the neural progenitors of the mouse cerebral cortex, and that the surviving progenitor cells subsequently develop a considerable amount of supernumerary centrosomes. When mouse embryos at Day 13.5 were exposed to γ-rays, brains sizes were reduced markedly in a dose-dependent manner, and these size reductions persisted until birth. Immunostaining with caspase-3 antibodies showed that apoptosis occurred in 35% and 40% of neural progenitor cells at 4 h after exposure to 1 and 2 Gy, respectively, and this was accompanied by a disruption of the apical layer in which mitotic spindles were positioned in unirradiated mice. At 24 h after 1 Gy irradiation, the apoptotic cells were completely eliminated and proliferation was restored to a level similar to that of unirradiated cells, but numerous spindles were localized outside the apical layer. Similarly, abnormal cytokinesis, which included multipolar division and centrosome clustering, was observed in 19% and 24% of the surviving neural progenitor cells at 48 h after irradiation with 1 and 2 Gy, respectively. Because these cytokinesis aberrations derived from excess centrosomes result in growth delay and mitotic catastrophe-mediated cell elimination, our findings suggest that, in addition to apoptosis at an early stage of radiation exposure, radiation-induced centrosome overduplication could contribute to the depletion of neural progenitors and thereby lead to microcephaly. PMID:27367050

  11. E-cadherin is required for centrosome and spindle orientation in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Fuller, Margaret T; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2010-08-31

    Many adult stem cells reside in a special microenvironment known as the niche, where they receive essential signals that specify stem cell identity. Cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin and integrin plays a crucial role in maintaining stem cells within the niche. In Drosophila melanogaster, male germline stem cells (GSCs) are attached to niche component cells (i.e., the hub) via adherens junctions. The GSC centrosomes and spindle are oriented toward the hub-GSC junction, where E-cadherin-based adherens junctions are highly concentrated. For this reason, adherens junctions are thought to provide a polarity cue for GSCs to enable proper orientation of centrosomes and spindles, a critical step toward asymmetric stem cell division. However, understanding the role of E-cadherin in GSC polarity has been challenging, since GSCs carrying E-cadherin mutations are not maintained in the niche. Here, we tested whether E-cadherin is required for GSC polarity by expressing a dominant-negative form of E-cadherin. We found that E-cadherin is indeed required for polarizing GSCs toward the hub cells, an effect that may be mediated by Apc2. We also demonstrated that E-cadherin is required for the GSC centrosome orientation checkpoint, which prevents mitosis when centrosomes are not correctly oriented. We propose that E-cadherin orchestrates multiple aspects of stem cell behavior, including polarization of stem cells toward the stem cell-niche interface and adhesion of stem cells to the niche supporting cells.

  12. Heparan sulfate regulates the number and centrosome positioning of Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Levings, Daniel C; Arashiro, Takeshi; Nakato, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Stem cell division is tightly controlled via secreted signaling factors and cell adhesion molecules provided from local niche structures. Molecular mechanisms by which each niche component regulates stem cell behaviors remain to be elucidated. Here we show that heparan sulfate (HS), a class of glycosaminoglycan chains, regulates the number and asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila testis. We found that GSC number is sensitive to the levels of 6-O sulfate groups on HS. Loss of 6-O sulfation also disrupted normal positioning of centrosomes, a process required for asymmetric division of GSCs. Blocking HS sulfation specifically in the niche, termed the hub, led to increased GSC numbers and mispositioning of centrosomes. The same treatment also perturbed the enrichment of Apc2, a component of the centrosome-anchoring machinery, at the hub-GSC interface. This perturbation of the centrosome-anchoring process ultimately led to an increase in the rate of spindle misorientation and symmetric GSC division. This study shows that specific HS modifications provide a novel regulatory mechanism for stem cell asymmetric division. The results also suggest that HS-mediated niche signaling acts upstream of GSC division orientation control.

  13. Historical roots of centrosome research: discovery of Boveri's microscope slides in Würzburg

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Boveri's visionary monograph ‘Ueber die Natur der Centrosomen’ (On the nature of centrosomes) in 1900 was founded primarily on microscopic observations of cleaving eggs of sea urchins and the roundworm parasite Ascaris. As Boveri wrote in the introductory paragraph, his interests were less about morphological aspects of centrosomes, but rather aimed at an understanding of their physiological role during cell division. The remarkable transition from observations of tiny dot-like structures in fixed and sectioned material to a unified theory of centrosome function (which in essence still holds true today) cannot be fully appreciated without examining Boveri's starting material, the histological specimens. It was generally assumed that the microscope slides were lost during the bombing of the Zoological Institute in Würzburg at the end of WWII. Here, I describe the discovery of a number of Boveri's original microscope slides with serial sections of early sea urchin and Ascaris embryos, stained by Heidenhain's iron haematoxylin method. Some slides bear handwritten notes and sketches by Boveri. Evidence is presented that the newly discovered slides are part of the original material used by Boveri for his seminal centrosome monograph. PMID:25047623

  14. Downregulation of Protein 4.1R impairs centrosome function,bipolar spindle organization and anaphase

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, Jeffrey R.; Go, Minjoung M.; Bahmanyar, S.; Barth,A.I.M.; Krauss, Sharon Wald

    2006-03-17

    Centrosomes nucleate and organize interphase MTs and areinstrumental in the assembly of the mitotic bipolar spindle. Here wereport that two members of the multifunctional protein 4.1 family havedistinct distributions at centrosomes. Protein 4.1R localizes to maturecentrioles whereas 4.1G is a component of the pericentriolar matrixsurrounding centrioles. To selectively probe 4.1R function, we used RNAinterference-mediated depletion of 4.1R without decreasing 4.1Gexpression. 4.1R downregulation reduces MT anchoring and organization atinterphase and impairs centrosome separation during prometaphase.Metaphase chromosomes fail to properly condense/align and spindleorganization is aberrant. Notably 4.1R depletion causes mislocalizationof its binding partner NuMA (Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein),essential for spindle pole focusing, and disrupts ninein. Duringanaphase/telophase, 4.1R-depleted cells have lagging chromosomes andaberrant MT bridges. Our data provide functional evidence that 4.1R makescrucial contributions to centrosome integrity and to mitotic spindlestructure enabling mitosis and anaphase to proceed with the coordinatedprecision required to avoid pathological events.

  15. NDRG1 links p53 with proliferation-mediated centrosome homeostasis and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Croessmann, Sarah; Wong, Hong Yuen; Zabransky, Daniel J; Chu, David; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Mohseni, Morassa; Rosen, D Marc; Scharpf, Robert B; Cidado, Justin; Cochran, Rory L; Parsons, Heather A; Dalton, W Brian; Erlanger, Bracha; Button, Berry; Cravero, Karen; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Beaver, Julia A; Kachhap, Sushant; Hurley, Paula J; Lauring, Josh; Park, Ben Ho

    2015-09-15

    The tumor protein 53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently somatically altered gene in human cancers. Here we show expression of N-Myc down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is induced by p53 during physiologic low proliferative states, and mediates centrosome homeostasis, thus maintaining genome stability. When placed in physiologic low-proliferating conditions, human TP53 null cells fail to increase expression of NDRG1 compared with isogenic wild-type controls and TP53 R248W knockin cells. Overexpression and RNA interference studies demonstrate that NDRG1 regulates centrosome number and amplification. Mechanistically, NDRG1 physically associates with γ-tubulin, a key component of the centrosome, with reduced association in p53 null cells. Strikingly, TP53 homozygous loss was mutually exclusive of NDRG1 overexpression in over 96% of human cancers, supporting the broad applicability of these results. Our study elucidates a mechanism of how TP53 loss leads to abnormal centrosome numbers and genomic instability mediated by NDRG1.

  16. Proteomic analysis of mammalian sperm cells identifies new components of the centrosome.

    PubMed

    Firat-Karalar, Elif N; Sante, Joshua; Elliott, Sarah; Stearns, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Centrioles are evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based structures at the core of the animal centrosome that are essential for nucleating the axoneme of cilia. We hypothesized that centriole proteins have been under-represented in proteomic studies of the centrosome, because of the larger amount of pericentriolar material making up the centrosome. In this study, we have overcome this problem by determining the centriolar proteome of mammalian sperm cells, which have a pair of centrioles but little pericentriolar material. Mass spectrometry of sperm centrioles identifies known components of centrioles and many previously uncharacterized candidate centriole proteins. Assessment of localization of a subset of these candidates in cultured cells identified CCDC113, CCDC96, C4orf47, CCDC38, C7orf31, CCDC146, CCDC81 and CCDC116 as centrosome-associated proteins. We examined the highly conserved protein CCDC113 further and found that it is a component of centriolar satellites, is in a complex with the satellite proteins HAP1 and PCM1, and functions in primary cilium formation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Trichoplein controls microtubule anchoring at the centrosome by binding to Odf2 and ninein.

    PubMed

    Ibi, Miho; Zou, Peng; Inoko, Akihito; Shiromizu, Takashi; Matsuyama, Makoto; Hayashi, Yuko; Enomoto, Masato; Mori, Daisuke; Hirotsune, Shinji; Kiyono, Tohru; Tsukita, Sachiko; Goto, Hidemasa; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-03-15

    The keratin cytoskeleton performs several functions in epithelial cells and provides regulated interaction sites for scaffold proteins, including trichoplein. Previously, we found that trichoplein was localized on keratin intermediate filaments and desmosomes in well-differentiated, non-dividing epithelia. Here, we report that trichoplein is widely expressed and has a major function in the correct localization of the centrosomal protein ninein in epithelial and non-epithelial cells. Immunocytochemical analysis also revealed that this protein is concentrated at the subdistal to medial zone of both mother and daughter centrioles. Trichoplein binds the centrosomal proteins Odf2 and ninein, which are localized at the distal to subdistal ends of the mother centriole. Trichoplein depletion abolished the recruitment of ninein, but not Odf2, specifically at the subdistal end. However, Odf2 depletion inhibited the recruitment of trichoplein to a mother centriole, whereas ninein depletion did not. In addition, the depletion of each molecule impaired MT anchoring at the centrosome. These results suggest that trichoplein has a crucial role in MT-anchoring activity at the centrosome in proliferating cells, probably through its complex formation with Odf2 and ninein.

  18. Galectin-3, a novel centrosome-associated protein, required for epithelial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Annett; Poirier, Francoise; Jacob, Ralf; Delacour, Delphine

    2010-01-15

    Galectin-3 is a beta-galactoside-binding protein widely expressed in all epithelia where it is involved in tissue homeostasis and cancer progression. We recently reported unique abnormalities in the identity of membrane domains in galectin-3 null mutant mice, suggesting that galectin-3 may participate in epithelial polarity program. We investigated the potential role of galectin-3 on early events in polarization of epithelial renal cells, using three-dimensional cultures of MDCK cells and also galectin-3 null mutant mouse kidneys. We show that depletion in galectin-3 systematically leads to severe perturbations of microtubular network associated with defects in membrane compartimentation, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the absence of galectin-3 impinges on the morphology of the primary cilium, which is three times longer and unusually shaped. By immunological and biochemical approaches, we could demonstrate that endogenous galectin-3 is normally associated with basal bodies and centrosomes, where it closely interacts with core proteins, such as centrin-2. However, this association transiently occurs during the process of epithelial polarization. Interestingly, galectin-3-depleted cells contain numerous centrosome-like structures, demonstrating an unexpected function of this protein in the formation and/or stability of the centrosomes. Collectively, these data establish galectin-3 as a key determinant in epithelial morphogenesis via its effect on centrosome biology.

  19. Disruption of clathrin-mediated trafficking causes centrosome overduplication and senescence

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Maciej B.; Chandris, Panagiotis; Park, Bum-Chan; Eisenberg, Evan; Greene, Lois E.

    2013-01-01

    The Hsc70 cochaperone, G cyclin-associated kinase (GAK), has been shown to be essential for the chaperoning of clathrin by Hsc70 in the cell. In this study, we used conditional GAK knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to determine the effect of completely inhibiting clathrin-dependent trafficking on the cell cycle. After GAK was knocked out, the cells developed the unusual phenotype of having multiple centrosomes, but at the same time failed to divide and ultimately became senescent. To explain this phenotype, we examined the signaling profile and found that mitogenic stimulation of the GAK KO cells and the control cells were similar except for increased phosphosylation of Akt. In addition, the disruption of intracellular trafficking caused by knocking out GAK destabilized the lysosomal membranes, resulting in DNA damage due to iron leakage. Knocking down clathrin heavy chain or inhibiting dynamin largely reproduced the GAK KO phenotype, but inhibiting only clathrin-mediated endocytosis by knocking down AP2 caused growth arrest and centrosome overduplication, but no DNA damage or senescence. We conclude that disruption of clathrin-dependent trafficking induces senescence accompanied by centrosome overduplication because of a combination of DNA damage and changes in mitogenic signaling that uncouples centrosomal duplication from DNA replication. PMID:24138026

  20. The tumor suppressor proteins ASPP1 and ASPP2 interact with C-Nap1 and regulate centrosome linker reassembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yuqi; Wei, Youheng; Ma, Jian; Peng, Jingtao; Wumaier, Reziya; Shen, Suqin; Zhang, Pingzhao; Yu, Long

    2015-03-13

    Centrosome linker tethers interphase centrosomes together allowing them to function as a single microtubule organization center. The centrosome linker is disrupted at the onset of mitosis to ensure timely centrosome disjunction and bipolar spindle formation and is reassembled at the end of mitosis. While the mechanism controlling centrosome linker disassembly at early mitosis has been well explored, little is known about how the linker is subsequently reassembled before mitotic exit. Here we report that ASPP1 and ASPP2, two members of the apoptosis stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family, are involved in centrosome linker reassembly. We showed that ASPP1/2 interacted with centrosome linker protein C-Nap1. Co-depletion of ASPP1 and ASPP2 inhibited re-association of C-Nap1 with centrosome at the end of mitosis. Moreover, ASPP1/2 facilitated the interaction between C-Nap1 and PP1α, and this interaction was significantly reduced by co-depletion of ASPP1/2. ASPP1/2 antagonized the NEK2A-mediated C-Nap1 Ser2417/2421 phosphorylation in a PP1-dependent manner. Co-depletion of ASPP1 and ASPP2 inhibited dephosphorylation of C-Nap1 (Ser2417/2421) at the end of mitosis. Based on these findings, we propose that ASPP1/2 act as PP1-targeting subunits to facilitate C-Nap1 dephosphorylation and centrosome linker reassembly at the end of mitosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Shellfishes from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2005-12-01

    Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts

  2. Mitotic catastrophe and cell death induced by depletion of centrosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, M; Yoshioka, T; Saio, M; Banno, Y; Nagaoka, H; Okano, Y

    2013-01-01

    Mitotic catastrophe, which refers to cell death or its prologue triggered by aberrant mitosis, can be induced by a heterogeneous group of stimuli, including chromosome damage or perturbation of the mitotic apparatus. We investigated the mechanism of mitotic catastrophe and cell death induced by depletion of centrosomal proteins that perturbs microtubule organization. We transfected cells harboring wild-type or mutated p53 with siRNAs targeting Aurora A, ninein, TOG, TACC3, γ-tubulin, or pericentriolar material-1, and monitored the effects on cell death. Knockdown of Aurora A, ninein, TOG, and TACC3 led to cell death, regardless of p53 status. Knockdown of Aurora A, ninein, and TOG, led to aberrant spindle formation and subsequent cell death, which was accompanied by several features of apoptosis, including nuclear condensation and Annexin V binding in HeLa cells. During this process, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, caspase-3, and caspase-9 was detected, but cleavage of caspase-8 was not. Cell death, monitored by time-lapse imaging, occurred during both interphase and M phase. In cells depleted of a centrosomal protein (Aurora A, ninein, or TOG), the rate of cell death was higher if the cells were cotransfected with siRNA against BubR1 or Mad2 than if they were transfected with siRNA against Bub1 or a control siRNA. These results suggest that metaphase arrest is necessary for the mitotic catastrophe and cell death caused by depletion of centrosomal proteins. Knockdown of centrosomal proteins led to increased phosphorylation of Chk2. Enhanced p-Chk2 localization was also observed at the centrosome in cells arrested in M phase, as well as in the nuclei of dying cells. Cotransfection of siRNAs against Chk2, in combination with depletion of a centrosomal protein, decreased the amount of cell death. Thus, Chk2 activity is indispensable for apoptosis after mitotic catastrophe induced by depletion of centrosomal proteins that perturbs microtubule organization

  3. 53BP1 and USP28 mediate p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in response to centrosome loss and prolonged mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Mazo, Gregory; Das, Tuhin; Goodman, Joshua; Kim, Minhee; O'Rourke, Brian P; Izquierdo, Denisse; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Mitosis occurs efficiently, but when it is disturbed or delayed, p53-dependent cell death or senescence is often triggered after mitotic exit. To characterize this process, we conducted CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function screens using a cell-based assay in which mitosis is consistently disturbed by centrosome loss. We identified 53BP1 and USP28 as essential components acting upstream of p53, evoking p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in response not only to centrosome loss, but also to other distinct defects causing prolonged mitosis. Intriguingly, 53BP1 mediates p53 activation independently of its DNA repair activity, but requiring its interacting protein USP28 that can directly deubiquitinate p53 in vitro and ectopically stabilize p53 in vivo. Moreover, 53BP1 can transduce prolonged mitosis to cell cycle arrest independently of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), suggesting that while SAC protects mitotic accuracy by slowing down mitosis, 53BP1 and USP28 function in parallel to select against disturbed or delayed mitosis, promoting mitotic efficiency. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16270.001 PMID:27371829

  4. 53BP1 and USP28 mediate p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in response to centrosome loss and prolonged mitosis.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Mazo, Gregory; Das, Tuhin; Goodman, Joshua; Kim, Minhee; O'Rourke, Brian P; Izquierdo, Denisse; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2016-07-02

    Mitosis occurs efficiently, but when it is disturbed or delayed, p53-dependent cell death or senescence is often triggered after mitotic exit. To characterize this process, we conducted CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function screens using a cell-based assay in which mitosis is consistently disturbed by centrosome loss. We identified 53BP1 and USP28 as essential components acting upstream of p53, evoking p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in response not only to centrosome loss, but also to other distinct defects causing prolonged mitosis. Intriguingly, 53BP1 mediates p53 activation independently of its DNA repair activity, but requiring its interacting protein USP28 that can directly deubiquitinate p53 in vitro and ectopically stabilize p53 in vivo. Moreover, 53BP1 can transduce prolonged mitosis to cell cycle arrest independently of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), suggesting that while SAC protects mitotic accuracy by slowing down mitosis, 53BP1 and USP28 function in parallel to select against disturbed or delayed mitosis, promoting mitotic efficiency.

  5. Mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Vahter, Marie

    2002-12-27

    Inorganic arsenic, a documented human carcinogen, is methylated in the body by alternating reduction of pentavalent arsenic to trivalent and addition of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine. Glutathione, and possibly other thiols, serve as reducing agents. The liver is the most important site of arsenic methylation, but most organs show arsenic methylating activity. The end metabolites are methylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). These are less reactive with tissue constituents than inorganic arsenic and readily excreted in the urine. However, reactive intermediates may be formed. Absorbed arsenate (As(V)) is fairly rapidly reduced in blood to As(III), which implies increased toxicity. Also, intermediate reduced forms of the methylated metabolites, MMA(III) and DMA(III), have been detected in human urine. In particular MMA(III) is highly toxic. To what extent MMA(III) and DMA(III) contribute to the observed toxicity following exposure to inorganic arsenic remains to be elucidated. There are marked differences in the metabolism of arsenic between mammalian species, population groups and individuals. There are indications that subjects with low MMA in urine have faster elimination of ingested arsenic, compared to those with more MMA in urine.

  6. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  7. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  8. An update on arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Malachowski, M.E. )

    1990-09-01

    Arsenic poisoning is more than just a medical curiosity. Cases of acute and chronic intoxication continue to occur in the United States. Much is now known about the biochemical mechanisms of injury, which has led to a rational basis for therapy. Most importantly, however, the clinician must stay alert to correctly diagnose and treat cases of arsenic poisoning.23 references.

  9. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  10. Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Mandal, Ardhendu K; Saito, Hiroshi; Pulliam, Joseph F; Lee, Eun Y; Ke, Zun-Ji; Lu, Jian; Ding, Songze; Li, Li; Shelton, Brent J; Tucker, Thomas; Evers, B Mark; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of β-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of β-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited β-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggests that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Mandal, Ardhendu K.; Saito, Hiroshi; Pulliam, Joseph F.; Lee, Eun Y.; Ke, Zun-Ji; Lu, Jian; Ding, Songze; Li, Li; Shelton, Brent J; Tucker, Thomas; Evers, B. Mark; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of β-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of β-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited β-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggest that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:22552367

  12. The global burden of disease for skin, lung, and bladder cancer caused by arsenic in food.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Shilpi; Barchowsky, Aaron; Wu, Felicia

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that poses a significant human cancer risk. While water consumption provides the majority of human exposure, millions of individuals worldwide are significantly exposed to arsenic through naturally occurring levels of arsenic in grains, vegetables, meats and fish, as well as through food processed with water containing arsenic. Thus, we estimated the global burdens of disease for bladder, lung, and skin cancers attributable to inorganic arsenic in food. To determine foodborne inorganic arsenic exposures worldwide, we used World Health Organization estimates of food consumption in thirteen country clusters, in conjunction with reported measurements of total and inorganic arsenic in different foods. We estimated slope factors for arsenic-related bladder and lung cancers, and used the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency skin cancer slope factor, to calculate the annual risk of the cancer incidence in males and females within each country cluster. We estimated that each year 9,129 to 119,176 additional cases of bladder cancer, 11,844 to 121,442 of lung cancer, and 10,729 to 110,015 of skin cancer worldwide are attributable to inorganic arsenic in food. These estimates indicate that foodborne arsenic exposure causes a significant global burden of human disease. Estimating the global cancer burden caused by arsenic exposure in food will support policies that reduce exposure to disease-promoting environmental hazards. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Environmental biochemistry of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, S; Frankenberger, W T

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in the redistribution and global cycling of arsenic. Arsenic can accumulate and can be subject to various biotransformations including reduction, oxidation, and methylation. Bacterial methylation of inorganic arsenic is coupled to the methane biosynthetic pathway in methanogenic bacteria under anaerobic conditions and may be a mechanism for arsenic detoxification. The pathway proceeds by reduction of arsenate to arsenite followed by methylation to dimethylarsine. Fungi are also able to transform inorganic and organic arsenic compounds into volatile methylarsines. The pathway proceeds aerobically by arsenate reduction to arsenite followed by several methylation steps producing trimethylarsine. Volatile arsine gases are very toxic to mammals because they destroy red blood cells (LD50 in rats; 3.0 mg kg-1). Further studies are needed on dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine toxicity tests through inhalation of target animals. Marine algae transform arsenate into non-volatile methylated arsenic compounds (methanearsonic and dimethylarsinic acids) in seawater. This is considered to be a beneficial step not only to the primary producers, but also to the higher trophic levels, since non-volatile methylated arsenic is much less toxic to marine invertebrates. Freshwater algae like marine algae synthesize lipid-soluble arsenic compounds and do not produce volatile methylarsines. Aquatic plants also synthesize similar lipid-soluble arsenic compounds. In terrestrial plants, arsenate is preferentially taken up 3 to 4 times the rate of arsenite. In the presence of phosphate, arsenate uptake is inhibited while in the presence of arsenate, phosphate uptake is only slightly inhibited. There is a competitive interaction between arsenate and phosphate for the same uptake system in terrestrial plants. The mode of toxicity of arsenate is to partially block protein synthesis and interfere with protein phosphorylation but the presence of phosphate prevents this

  14. A role for the centrosome and PAR-3 in the hand-off of microtubule organizing center function during epithelial polarization

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jessica L.; Priess, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The centrosome is the major microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in dividing cells and in many post-mitotic, differentiated cells. In other cell types, however, MTOC function is reassigned from the centrosome to non-centrosomal sites. Here, we analyze how MTOC function is reassigned to the apical membrane of C. elegans intestinal cells. Results After the terminal intestinal cell division, the centrosomes and nuclei move near the future apical membranes, and the postmitotic centrosomes lose all, or nearly all, of their associated microtubules. We show that microtubule-nucleating proteins such as γ-tubulin and CeGrip-1 that are centrosome components in dividing cells become localized to the apical membrane, which becomes highly enriched in microtubules. Our results suggest that centrosomes are critical to specify the apical membrane as the new MTOC. First, γ-tubulin appears to redistribute directly from the migrating centrosome onto the lateral, then apical membrane. Second, γ-tubulin fails to accumulate apically in wild-type cells following laser ablation of the centrosome. We show that centrosomes localize apically by first moving toward lateral foci of the conserved polarity proteins PAR-3 and PAR-6, and then move together with these foci toward the future apical surface. Embryos lacking PAR-3 fail to localize their centrosomes apically, and have aberrant localization of γ-tubulin and CeGrip-1. Conclusions These data suggest that PAR proteins contribute to apical polarity in part by determining centrosome position and that the reassignment of MTOC function from centrosomes to the apical membrane is associated with a physical hand-off of nucleators of microtubule assembly. PMID:22425160

  15. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  16. Binational arsenic exposure survey: methodology and estimated arsenic intake from drinking water and urinary arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Jason; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L; Harris, Robin B

    2012-04-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  17. CEP90 is required for the assembly and centrosomal accumulation of centriolar satellites, which is essential for primary cilia formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmi; Lee, Kwanwoo; Rhee, Kunsoo

    2012-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are PCM-1-positive granules surrounding centrosomes. Proposed functions of the centriolar satellites include protein targeting to the centrosome, as well as communication between the centrosome and surrounding cytoplasm. CEP90 is a centriolar satellite protein that is critical for spindle pole integrity in mitotic cells. In this study, we examined the biological functions of CEP90 in interphase cells. CEP90 physically interacts with PCM-1 at centriolar satellites, and this interaction is essential for centrosomal accumulation of the centriolar satellites and eventually for primary cilia formation. CEP90 is also required for BBS4 loading on centriolar satellites and its localization in primary cilia. Our results imply that the assembly and transport of centriolar satellites are critical steps for primary cilia formation and ciliary protein recruitment.

  18. Cdk1 Phosphorylates Drosophila Sas-4 to Recruit Polo to Daughter Centrioles and Convert Them to Centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Novak, Zsofia A; Wainman, Alan; Gartenmann, Lisa; Raff, Jordan W

    2016-06-20

    Centrosomes and cilia are organized by a centriole pair comprising an older mother and a younger daughter. Centriole numbers are tightly regulated, and daughter centrioles (which assemble in S phase) cannot themselves duplicate or organize centrosomes until they have passed through mitosis. It is unclear how this mitotic "centriole conversion" is regulated, but it requires Plk1/Polo kinase. Here we show that in flies, Cdk1 phosphorylates the conserved centriole protein Sas-4 during mitosis. This creates a Polo-docking site that helps recruit Polo to daughter centrioles and is required for the subsequent recruitment of Asterless (Asl), a protein essential for centriole duplication and mitotic centrosome assembly. Point mutations in Sas-4 that prevent Cdk1 phosphorylation or Polo docking do not block centriole disengagement during mitosis, but block efficient centriole conversion and lead to embryonic lethality. These observations can explain why daughter centrioles have to pass through mitosis before they can duplicate and organize a centrosome.

  19. Renal, hepatic, pulmonary and adrenal tumors induced by prenatal inorganic arsenic followed by dimethylarsinic acid in adulthood in CD1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Tokar, Erik J.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic, an early life carcinogen in humans and mice, can initiate lesions promotable by other agents in later life. The biomethylation product of arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), is a multi-site tumor promoter. Thus, pregnant CD1 mice were given drinking water (0 or 85 ppm arsenic) from gestation day 8 to 18 and after weaning male offspring received DMA (0 or 200 ppm; drinking water) for up to 2 years. No renal tumors occurred in controls or DMA alone treated mice while gestational arsenic exposure plus later DMA induced a significant renal tumor incidence of 17% (primarily renal cell carcinoma). Arsenic plus DMA or arsenic alone also increased renal hyperplasia over control but DMA alone did not. Arsenic alone, DMA alone and arsenic plus DMA all induced urinary bladder hyperplasia (33–35%) versus control (2%). Compared to control (6%), arsenic alone tripled hepatocellular carcinoma (20%), and arsenic plus DMA doubled this rate again (43%), but DMA alone had no effect. DMA alone, arsenic alone, and arsenic plus DMA increased lung adenocarcinomas and adrenal adenomas versus control. Overall, DMA in adulthood promoted tumors/lesions initiated by prenatal arsenic in the kidney and liver, but acted independently in the urinary bladder, lung and adrenal. PMID:22230260

  20. Environmental biochemistry of arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, S.; Frankenberger, W.T. Jr. )

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in the redistribution and global cycling of arsenic. Arsenic can accumulate and can be subject to various biotransformations including reduction, oxidation, and methylation. Bacterial methylation of inorganic arsenic is coupled to the methane biosynthetic pathway in methanogenic bacteria under anaerobic conditions and may be a mechanism for arsenic detoxification. The pathway proceeds by reduction of arsenate to arsenite followed by methylation to dimethylarsine. Fungi are also able to transform inorganic and organic arsenic compounds into volatile methylarsines. The pathway proceeds aerobically by arsenate reduction to arsenite followed by several methylation steps producing trimethylarsine. Volatile arsine gases are very toxic to mammals because they destroy red blood cells (LD50 in rats; 3.0 mg kg-1). Further studies are needed on dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine toxicity tests through inhalation of target animals. Marine algae transform arsenate into non-volatile methylated arsenic compounds (methanearsonic and dimethylarsinic acids) in seawater. This is considered to be a beneficial step not only to the primary producers, but also to the higher trophic levels, since non-volatile methylated arsenic is much less toxic to marine invertebrates. Freshwater algae like marine algae synthesize lipid-soluble arsenic compounds and do not produce volatile methylarsines. Aquatic plants also synthesize similar lipid-soluble arsenic compounds. In terrestrial plants, arsenate is preferentially taken up 3 to 4 times the rate of arsenite. In the presence of phosphate, arsenate uptake is inhibited while in the presence of arsenate, phosphate uptake is only slightly inhibited. There is a competitive interaction between arsenate and phosphate for the same uptake system in terrestrial plants.

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum CenB Is a Bona Fide Centrin Essential for Nuclear Architecture and Centrosome Stability ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mana-Capelli, Sebastian; Gräf, Ralph; Larochelle, Denis A.

    2009-01-01

    Centrins are a family of proteins within the calcium-binding EF-hand superfamily. In addition to their archetypical role at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC), centrins have acquired multiple functionalities throughout the course of evolution. For example, centrins have been linked to different nuclear activities, including mRNA export and DNA repair. Dictyostelium discoideum centrin B is a divergent member of the centrin family. At the amino acid level, DdCenB shows 51% identity with its closest relative and only paralog, DdCenA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DdCenB and DdCenA form a well-supported monophyletic and divergent group within the centrin family of proteins. Interestingly, fluorescently tagged versions of DdCenB were not found at the centrosome (in whole cells or in isolated centrosomes). Instead, DdCenB localized to the nuclei of interphase cells. This localization disappeared as the cells entered mitosis, although Dictyostelium cells undergo a closed mitosis in which the nuclear envelope (NE) does not break down. DdCenB knockout cells exhibited aberrant nuclear architecture, characterized by enlarged and deformed nuclei and loss of proper centrosome-nucleus anchoring (observed as NE protrusions). At the centrosome, loss of DdCenB resulted in defects in the organization and morphology of the MTOC and supernumerary centrosomes and centrosome-related bodies. The multiple defects that the loss of DdCenB generated at the centrosome can be explained by its atypical division cycle, transitioning into the NE as it divides at mitosis. On the basis of these findings, we propose that DdCenB is required at interphase to maintain proper nuclear architecture, and before delocalizing from the nucleus, DdCenB is part of the centrosome duplication machinery. PMID:19465563

  2. Mother Centriole Distal Appendages Mediate Centrosome Docking at the Immunological Synapse and Reveal Mechanistic Parallels with Ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Jane C; Randzavola, Lyra O; Angus, Karen L; Mantell, Judith M; Verkade, Paul; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2015-12-21

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are highly effective serial killers capable of destroying virally infected and cancerous targets by polarized release from secretory lysosomes. Upon target contact, the CTL centrosome rapidly moves to the immunological synapse, focusing microtubule-directed release at this point [1-3]. Striking similarities have been noted between centrosome polarization at the synapse and basal body docking during ciliogenesis [1, 4-8], suggesting that CTL centrosomes might dock with the plasma membrane during killing, in a manner analogous to primary cilia formation [1, 4]. However, questions remain regarding the extent and function of centrosome polarization at the synapse, and recent reports have challenged its role [9, 10]. Here, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tomography analysis to show that, as in ciliogenesis, the distal appendages of the CTL mother centriole contact the plasma membrane directly during synapse formation. This is functionally important as small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting of the distal appendage protein, Cep83, required for membrane contact during ciliogenesis [11], impairs CTL secretion. Furthermore, the regulatory proteins CP110 and Cep97, which must dissociate from the mother centriole to allow cilia formation [12], remain associated with the mother centriole in CTLs, and neither axoneme nor transition zone ciliary structures form. Moreover, complete centrosome docking can occur in proliferating CTLs with multiple centriole pairs. Thus, in CTLs, centrosomes dock transiently with the membrane, within the cell cycle and without progression into ciliogenesis. We propose that this transient centrosome docking without cilia formation is important for CTLs to deliver rapid, repeated polarized secretion directed by the centrosome. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Tasnim; Zehra, Kaneez; Munshi, Alia; Ahsan, Samiah

    2009-02-01

    Chronic Arsenic Toxicity may have varied clinical presentations ranging from non-cancerous manifestations to malignancy of skin and different internal organs. Dermal lesions such as hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis, predominantly over palms and soles are diagnostic of Chronic Arsenicosis. We report two cases from a family living in Sukkur who presented with classical skin lesions described in Chronic Arsenicosis. The urine, nail and hair samples of these patients contained markedly elevated levels of arsenic. Also the water samples from their household and the neighbouring households were found to have alarming levels of inorganic Arsenic.

  4. Water hyacinth removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Misbahuddin, Mir; Fariduddin, Atm

    2002-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water. This effect depends on several factors, such as the amount of water hyacinth, amount of arsenic present in the water, duration of exposure, and presence of sunlight and air. On the basis of the present study, the authors suggest that water hyacinth is useful for making arsenic-contaminated drinking water totally arsenic free. Water hyacinth provides a natural means of removing arsenic from drinking water at the household level without monetary cost.

  5. Arsenic removal during precipitative softening

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1997-05-01

    Because utilities with hard waters tend to have higher concentrations of arsenic, removal of arsenic via precipitative softening processes was investigated in the context of the more stringent proposed arsenic regulation. Arsenic removal can be facilitated by a variety of solids formed during softening including CaCO{sub 3}, Mg(OH){sub 2}, Mn(OH){sub 2}, and Fe(OH){sub 3}. The extent of As(V) removal is decreased in the presence of orthophosphate and carbonate. As(III) removal is much lower than As(V) removal. At typical solids concentrations, arsenic removal followed a linear isotherm for CaCO{sub 3}, Mg(OH){sub 2}, and Fe(OH){sub 3}, with constant percentage arsenic removal regardless of initial arsenic concentrations. However, for Mn(OH){sub 2} solids arsenic removal was sensitive to arsenic concentrations. A framework for predicting arsenate removal when multiple solids form during softening is presented.

  6. GF-15, a novel inhibitor of centrosomal clustering, suppresses tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marc S; Breitkreutz, Iris; Anderhub, Simon; Rønnest, Mads H; Leber, Blanka; Larsen, Thomas O; Weiz, Ludmila; Konotop, Gleb; Hayden, Patrick J; Podar, Klaus; Fruehauf, Johannes; Nissen, Felix; Mier, Walter; Haberkorn, Uwe; Ho, Anthony D; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Anderson, Kenneth C; Clausen, Mads H; Krämer, Alwin

    2012-10-15

    In contrast to normal cells, malignant cells are frequently aneuploid and contain multiple centrosomes. To allow for bipolar mitotic division, supernumerary centrosomes are clustered into two functional spindle poles in many cancer cells. Recently, we have shown that griseofulvin forces tumor cells with supernumerary centrosomes to undergo multipolar mitoses resulting in apoptotic cell death. Here, we describe the characterization of the novel small molecule GF-15, a derivative of griseofulvin, as a potent inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in malignant cells. At concentrations where GF-15 had no significant impact on tubulin polymerization, spindle tension was markedly reduced in mitotic cells upon exposure to GF-15. Moreover, isogenic cells with conditional centrosome amplification were more sensitive to GF-15 than parental controls. In a wide array of tumor cell lines, mean inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) for proliferation and survival were in the range of 1 to 5 μmol/L and were associated with apoptotic cell death. Importantly, treatment of mouse xenograft models of human colon cancer and multiple myeloma resulted in tumor growth inhibition and significantly prolonged survival. These results show the in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of a prototype small molecule inhibitor of centrosomal clustering and strongly support the further evaluation of this new class of molecules.

  7. Identification of a novel centrosomal protein Crp{sup F46} involved in cell cycle progression and mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yi; Shen Enzhi; Zhao Na; Liu Qian; Fan Jinling; Marc, Jan; Wang Yongchao; Sun Le; Liang Qianjin

    2008-05-01

    A novel centrosome-related protein Crp{sup F46} was detected using a serum F46 from a patient suffering from progressive systemic sclerosis. We identified the protein by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting followed by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. The protein Crp{sup F46} has an apparent molecular mass of {approx} 60 kDa, is highly homologous to a 527 amino acid sequence of the C-terminal portion of the protein Golgin-245, and appears to be a splice variant of Golgin-245. Immunofluorescence microscopy of synchronized HeLa cells labeled with an anti-Crp{sup F46} monoclonal antibody revealed that Crp{sup F46} localized exclusively to the centrosome during interphase, although it dispersed throughout the cytoplasm at the onset of mitosis. Domain analysis using Crp{sup F46} fragments in GFP-expression vectors transformed into HeLa cells revealed that centrosomal targeting is conferred by a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Antisense Crp{sup F46} knockdown inhibited cell growth and proliferation and the cell cycle typically stalled at S phase. The knockdown also resulted in the formation of poly-centrosomal and multinucleate cells, which finally became apoptotic. These results suggest that Crp{sup F46} is a novel centrosome-related protein that associates with the centrosome in a cell cycle-dependent manner and is involved in the progression of the cell cycle and M phase mechanism.

  8. Arsenic-resistant and plant growth-promoting Firmicutes and γ-Proteobacteria species from industrially polluted irrigation water and corresponding cropland.

    PubMed

    Qamar, N; Rehman, Y; Hasnain, S

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore irrigation water polluted with industrial waste and corresponding cropland to screen bacteria for As detoxification and plant growth promotion. Plant growth-promoting (PGP) As-resistant cropland bacteria were isolated from contaminated irrigation water and corresponding agricultural soil. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to two distinct bacterial lineages; Firmicutes and γ-Proteobacteria. Maximum As(V) resistance was exhibited by Klebsiella pneumoniae T22 and Klebsiella oxytoca N53 (550 mmol l(-1) ), whereas maximum resistance against As(III) was exhibited by K. oxytoca N53 (200 mmol l(-1) ). Maximum As(V) reduction was shown by K. pneumoniae T22 (6·7 mmol l(-1) ), whereas maximum As(III) oxidation was exhibited by Bacillus subtilis T23 (4·8 mmol l(-1) ). As resistance genes arsB and ACR3 were detected in many of the isolates through polymerase chain reaction. Many of these isolates exhibited PGP traits such as hydrogen cyanide and auxin production as well as phosphate solubilization. The bacterial strains were able to enhance Triticum aestivum growth both in the absence and presence of As, and statistically significant increase in shoot and root lengths was observed especially in case of Acinetobacter lwoffii T24 and Citrobacter freundii N52-treated plants. Cropland bacteria have the ability to support plant growth. Bacteria of croplands irrigated with industrially polluted water develop resistance against toxicants. These bacteria are helpful for the plant growth in such contaminated lands. The bacteria capable of both As detoxification and plant growth promotion, such as A. lwoffii T24 and C. freundii N52, are ideal for remediation and reclamation of polluted lands for agriculture purposes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Chromated Arsenicals (CCA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a wood preservative pesticide containing chromium, copper, and arsenic that protects wood against termites, fungi, mites and other pests that can degrade or threaten the integrity of wood products.

  10. ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 75 minute presentation will be given at the State of Pennsylvania drinking water training session for state personnel. It will cover four topics: arsenic chemistry, best available technology, demonstration programs and technologies (adsorptive media and iron removal processes)....

  11. ENZYMOLOGY OF ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation

    David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National
    Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

  12. ENZYMOLOGY OF ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation

    David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National
    Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

  13. Mio depletion links mTOR regulation to Aurora A and Plk1 activation at mitotic centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Platani, Melpomeni; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Porter, Michael; Jeyaprakash, A Arockia; Earnshaw, William C

    2015-07-06

    Coordination of cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrient supply is mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In this study, we report that Mio, a highly conserved member of the SEACAT/GATOR2 complex necessary for the activation of mTORC1 kinase, plays a critical role in mitotic spindle formation and subsequent chromosome segregation by regulating the proper concentration of active key mitotic kinases Plk1 and Aurora A at centrosomes and spindle poles. Mio-depleted cells showed reduced activation of Plk1 and Aurora A kinase at spindle poles and an impaired localization of MCAK and HURP, two key regulators of mitotic spindle formation and known substrates of Aurora A kinase, resulting in spindle assembly and cytokinesis defects. Our results indicate that a major function of Mio in mitosis is to regulate the activation/deactivation of Plk1 and Aurora A, possibly by linking them to mTOR signaling in a pathway to promote faithful mitotic progression. © 2015 by The Rockefeller University Press.

  14. Mio depletion links mTOR regulation to Aurora A and Plk1 activation at mitotic centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Porter, Michael; Jeyaprakash, A. Arockia

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrient supply is mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In this study, we report that Mio, a highly conserved member of the SEACAT/GATOR2 complex necessary for the activation of mTORC1 kinase, plays a critical role in mitotic spindle formation and subsequent chromosome segregation by regulating the proper concentration of active key mitotic kinases Plk1 and Aurora A at centrosomes and spindle poles. Mio-depleted cells showed reduced activation of Plk1 and Aurora A kinase at spindle poles and an impaired localization of MCAK and HURP, two key regulators of mitotic spindle formation and known substrates of Aurora A kinase, resulting in spindle assembly and cytokinesis defects. Our results indicate that a major function of Mio in mitosis is to regulate the activation/deactivation of Plk1 and Aurora A, possibly by linking them to mTOR signaling in a pathway to promote faithful mitotic progression. PMID:26124292

  15. Arsenite-oxidizing bacteria exhibiting plant growth promoting traits isolated from the rhizosphere of Oryza sativa L.: Implications for mitigation of arsenic contamination in paddies.

    PubMed

    Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chou, Mon-Lin; Rathod, Jagat; Liu, Chia-Chuan

    2016-01-25

    Arsenite-oxidizing bacteria exhibiting plant growth promoting (PGP) traits can have the advantages of reducing As-uptake by rice and promoting plant growth in As-stressed soil. A gram-positive bacterium Bacillus flexus ASO-6 resistant to high levels of As (32 and 280 mM for arsenite and arsenate, respectively) and exhibiting elevated rates of As(III) oxidation (Vmax=1.34 μM min(-1) 10(-7) cell) was isolated from rhizosphere of rice. The presence of aoxB gene and exhibition of As(III)-oxidase enzyme activity of this strain was observed. The ability of the strain to produce siderophore, IAA, ACC-deaminase and to solubilize phosphate was verified. The rice seed treated with the strain exhibited significantly improved seed germination and seedling vigor compared with the un-inoculated seeds. The bacterial inoculation significantly increased root biomass, straw yield, grain yield, chlorophyll and carotenoid in the rice plant. Moreover, As uptake from root to shoot and As accumulation in straw and grain decreased significantly as a result of the bacterial inoculation. Noteworthy, the inoculation effect is more prominent in non-flooded soil than it is in flooded soil. Owing to its wide action spectrum, this As(III)-oxidizing PGPB could serve as a potential bio-inoculant for mitigation of As in paddies and sustainable rice production in As-contaminated areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Msh2 deficiency leads to chromosomal abnormalities, centrosome amplification, and telomere capping defect

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong; Liu, Yie

    2006-01-01

    Msh2 is a key mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene and mutations or deficiencies in mammalian Msh2 gene result in microsatellite instability (MSI+) and the development of cancer. Here, we report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in the murine MMR gene Msh2 (Msh2-/-) showed a significant increase in chromosome aneuploidy, centrosome amplification, and defective mitotic spindle organization and unequal chromosome segregation. Although Msh2-/- mouse tissues or primary MEFs had no apparent change in telomerase activity, telomere length, or recombination at telomeres, Msh2-/- MEFs showed an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA. These data suggest that MSH2 helps to maintain genomic stability through the regulation of the centrosome and normal telomere capping in vivo and that defects in MMR can contribute to oncogenesis through multiple pathways.

  17. Epstein–Barr virus particles induce centrosome amplification and chromosomal instability

    PubMed Central

    Shumilov, Anatoliy; Tsai, Ming-Han; Schlosser, Yvonne T.; Kratz, Anne-Sophie; Bernhardt, Katharina; Fink, Susanne; Mizani, Tuba; Lin, Xiaochen; Jauch, Anna; Mautner, Josef; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Feederle, Regina; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Infections with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) are associated with cancer development, and EBV lytic replication (the process that generates virus progeny) is a strong risk factor for some cancer types. Here we report that EBV infection of B-lymphocytes (in vitro and in a mouse model) leads to an increased rate of centrosome amplification, associated with chromosomal instability. This effect can be reproduced with virus-like particles devoid of EBV DNA, but not with defective virus-like particles that cannot infect host cells. Viral protein BNRF1 induces centrosome amplification, and BNRF1-deficient viruses largely lose this property. These findings identify a new mechanism by which EBV particles can induce chromosomal instability without establishing a chronic infection, thereby conferring a risk for development of tumours that do not necessarily carry the viral genome. PMID:28186092

  18. ERK regulates Golgi and centrosome orientation towards the leading edge through GRASP65.

    PubMed

    Bisel, Blaine; Wang, Yanzhuang; Wei, Jen-Hsuan; Xiang, Yi; Tang, Danming; Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Seemann, Joachim

    2008-09-08

    Directed cell migration requires the orientation of the Golgi and centrosome toward the leading edge. We show that stimulation of interphase cells with the mitogens epidermal growth factor or lysophosphatidic acid activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which phosphorylates the Golgi structural protein GRASP65 at serine 277. Expression of a GRASP65 Ser277 to alanine mutant or a GRASP65 1-201 truncation mutant, neither of which can be phosphorylated by ERK, prevents Golgi orientation to the leading edge in a wound assay. We show that phosphorylation of GRASP65 with recombinant ERK leads to the loss of GRASP65 oligomerization and causes Golgi cisternal unstacking. Furthermore, preventing Golgi polarization by expressing mutated GRASP65 inhibits centrosome orientation, which is rescued upon disassembly of the Golgi structure by brefeldin A. We conclude that Golgi remodeling, mediated by phosphorylation of GRASP65 by ERK, is critical for the establishment of cell polarity in migrating cells.

  19. ERK regulates Golgi and centrosome orientation towards the leading edge through GRASP65

    PubMed Central

    Bisel, Blaine; Wang, Yanzhuang; Wei, Jen-Hsuan; Xiang, Yi; Tang, Danming; Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Seemann, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Directed cell migration requires the orientation of the Golgi and centrosome toward the leading edge. We show that stimulation of interphase cells with the mitogens epidermal growth factor or lysophosphatidic acid activates the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), which phosphorylates the Golgi structural protein GRASP65 at serine 277. Expression of a GRASP65 Ser277 to alanine mutant or a GRASP65 1–201 truncation mutant, neither of which can be phosphorylated by ERK, prevents Golgi orientation to the leading edge in a wound assay. We show that phosphorylation of GRASP65 with recombinant ERK leads to the loss of GRASP65 oligomerization and causes Golgi cisternal unstacking. Furthermore, preventing Golgi polarization by expressing mutated GRASP65 inhibits centrosome orientation, which is rescued upon disassembly of the Golgi structure by brefeldin A. We conclude that Golgi remodeling, mediated by phosphorylation of GRASP65 by ERK, is critical for the establishment of cell polarity in migrating cells. PMID:18762583

  20. Investigation of Gene Expression Correlating With Centrosome Amplification in Development and Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wilma L. Lingle, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester Rochester, MN 55905...Progression of Breast Cancer 6. AUTHOR(S) Wilma L. Lingle, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZA TION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZA TION Mayo...tumors. The goal of this research is to identify genes important in breast cancer due to their association with amplified centrosomes. We determined that

  1. Evidence of asymmetric cell division and centrosome inheritance in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hideki; Kaneko, Yasuhiko

    2012-10-30

    Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is believed to be a physiological event that occurs during development and tissue homeostasis in a large variety of organisms. ACD produces two unequal daughter cells, one of which resembles a multipotent stem and/or progenitor cell, whereas the other has potential for differentiation. Although recent studies have shown that the balance between self-renewal and differentiation potentials is precisely controlled and that alterations in the balance may lead to tumorigenesis in Drosophila neuroblasts, it is largely unknown whether human cancer cells directly show ACD in an evolutionarily conserved manner. Here, we show that the conserved polarity/spindle protein NuMA is preferentially localized to one side of the cell cortex during cell division, generating unequal inheritance of fate-altering molecules in human neuroblastoma cell lines. We also show that the cells with a single copy of MYCN showed significantly higher percentages of ACD than those with MYCN amplification. Moreover, suppression of MYCN in MYCN-amplified cells caused ACD, whereas expression of MYCN in MYCN-nonamplified cells enhanced symmetric cell division. Furthermore, we demonstrate that centrosome inheritance follows a definite rule in ACD: The daughter centrosome with younger mother centriole is inherited to the daughter cell with NuMA preferentially localized to the cell cortex, whereas the mother centrosome with the older mother centriole migrates to the other daughter cell. Thus, the mechanisms of cell division of ACD or symmetric cell division and centrosome inheritance are recapitulated in human cancer cells, and these findings may facilitate studies on cancer stem cells.

  2. Mitotic Spindle Poles are Organized by Structural and Motor Proteins in Addition to Centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gaglio, Tirso; Dionne, Mary A.; Compton, Duane A.

    1997-01-01

    The focusing of microtubules into mitotic spindle poles in vertebrate somatic cells has been assumed to be the consequence of their nucleation from centrosomes. Contrary to this simple view, in this article we show that an antibody recognizing the light intermediate chain of cytoplasmic dynein (70.1) disrupts both the focused organization of microtubule minus ends and the localization of the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein at spindle poles when injected into cultured cells during metaphase, despite the presence of centrosomes. Examination of the effects of this dynein-specific antibody both in vitro using a cell-free system for mitotic aster assembly and in vivo after injection into cultured cells reveals that in addition to its direct effect on cytoplasmic dynein this antibody reduces the efficiency with which dynactin associates with microtubules, indicating that the antibody perturbs the cooperative binding of dynein and dynactin to microtubules during spindle/aster assembly. These results indicate that microtubule minus ends are focused into spindle poles in vertebrate somatic cells through a mechanism that involves contributions from both centrosomes and structural and microtubule motor proteins. Furthermore, these findings, together with the recent observation that cytoplasmic dynein is required for the formation and maintenance of acentrosomal spindle poles in extracts prepared from Xenopus eggs (Heald, R., R. Tournebize, T. Blank, R. Sandaltzopoulos, P. Becker, A. Hyman, and E. Karsenti. 1996. Nature (Lond.). 382: 420–425) demonstrate that there is a common mechanism for focusing free microtubule minus ends in both centrosomal and acentrosomal spindles. We discuss these observations in the context of a search-capture-focus model for spindle assembly. PMID:9281583

  3. Centrosome Hypertrophy Induced by p53 Mutations Leads to Tumor Aneuploidy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Hypertrophy Induced by p53 Mutations Leads to Tumor Aneuploidy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wilma L. Lingle, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Mayo Foundation...p 5 3 Mutations DAMD17-98-1-8122 Leads to Tumor Aneuploidy 6. AUTHOR(S) Wilma L. Lingle, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8... tumors is caused by centrosome abnormalities which are induced by alteration in p53 function. Specific mutations in p53 that are associated with breast

  4. Fluctuation Analysis of Centrosomes Reveals a Cortical Function of Kinesin-1

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Franziska; Gummalla, Maheshwar; Künneke, Lutz; Lv, Zhiyi; Zippelius, Annette; Aspelmeier, Timo; Grosshans, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The actin and microtubule networks form the dynamic cytoskeleton. Network dynamics is driven by molecular motors applying force onto the networks and the interactions between the networks. Here we assay the dynamics of centrosomes in the scale of seconds as a proxy for the movement of microtubule asters. With this assay we want to detect the role of specific motors and of network interaction. During interphase of syncytial embryos of Drosophila, cortical actin and the microtubule network depend on each other. Centrosomes induce cortical actin to form caps, whereas F-actin anchors microtubules to the cortex. In addition, lateral interactions between microtubule asters are assumed to be important for regular spatial organization of the syncytial embryo. The functional interaction between the microtubule asters and cortical actin has been largely analyzed in a static manner, so far. We recorded the movement of centrosomes at 1 Hz and analyzed their fluctuations for two processes—pair separation and individual movement. We found that F-actin is required for directional movements during initial centrosome pair separation, because separation proceeds in a diffusive manner in latrunculin-injected embryos. For assaying individual movement, we established a fluctuation parameter as the deviation from temporally and spatially slowly varying drift movements. By analysis of mutant and drug-injected embryos, we found that the fluctuations were suppressed by both cortical actin and microtubules. Surprisingly, the microtubule motor Kinesin-1 also suppressed fluctuations to a similar degree as F-actin. Kinesin-1 may mediate linkage of the microtubule (+)-ends to the actin cortex. Consistent with this model is our finding that Kinesin-1-GFP accumulates at the cortical actin caps. PMID:26331244

  5. Regulation of dynein localization and centrosome positioning by Lis-1 and asunder during Drosophila spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sitaram, Poojitha; Anderson, Michael A.; Jodoin, Jeanne N.; Lee, Ethan; Lee, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Dynein, a microtubule motor complex, plays crucial roles in cell-cycle progression in many systems. The LIS1 accessory protein directly binds dynein, although its precise role in regulating dynein remains unclear. Mutation of human LIS1 causes lissencephaly, a developmental brain disorder. To gain insight into the in vivo functions of LIS1, we characterized a male-sterile allele of the Drosophila homolog of human LIS1. We found that centrosomes do not properly detach from the cell cortex at the onset of meiosis in most Lis-1 spermatocytes; centrosomes that do break cortical associations fail to attach to the nucleus. In Lis-1 spermatids, we observed loss of attachments between the nucleus, basal body and mitochondria. The localization pattern of LIS-1 protein throughout Drosophila spermatogenesis mirrors that of dynein. We show that dynein recruitment to the nuclear surface and spindle poles is severely reduced in Lis-1 male germ cells. We propose that Lis-1 spermatogenesis phenotypes are due to loss of dynein regulation, as we observed similar phenotypes in flies null for Tctex-1, a dynein light chain. We have previously identified asunder (asun) as another regulator of dynein localization and centrosome positioning during Drosophila spermatogenesis. We now report that Lis-1 is a strong dominant enhancer of asun and that localization of LIS-1 in male germ cells is ASUN dependent. We found that Drosophila LIS-1 and ASUN colocalize and coimmunoprecipitate from transfected cells, suggesting that they function within a common complex. We present a model in which Lis-1 and asun cooperate to regulate dynein localization and centrosome positioning during Drosophila spermatogenesis. PMID:22764052

  6. OXIDATIVE STRESS AS A POSSIBLE MODE OF ACTION FOR ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Many modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis have been proposed, but few theories have a substantial mass of supporting data. Three stronger theories of arsenic carcinogenesis are production of chromosomal abnormalities, promotion of carcinogenesis and oxidati...

  7. OXIDATIVE STRESS AS A POSSIBLE MODE OF ACTION FOR ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Many modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis have been proposed, but few theories have a substantial mass of supporting data. Three stronger theories of arsenic carcinogenesis are production of chromosomal abnormalities, promotion of carcinogenesis and oxidati...

  8. 53BP1 and USP28 mediate p53 activation and G1 arrest after centrosome loss or extended mitotic duration

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Christopher; Dowdy, Steven F.; Desai, Arshad; Shiau, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    In normal human cells, centrosome loss induced by centrinone—a specific centrosome duplication inhibitor—leads to irreversible, p53-dependent G1 arrest by an unknown mechanism. A genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen for centrinone resistance identified genes encoding the p53-binding protein 53BP1, the deubiquitinase USP28, and the ubiquitin ligase TRIM37. Deletion of TP53BP1, USP28, or TRIM37 prevented p53 elevation in response to centrosome loss but did not affect cytokinesis failure–induced arrest or p53 elevation after doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. Deletion of TP53BP1 and USP28, but not TRIM37, prevented growth arrest in response to prolonged mitotic duration. TRIM37 knockout cells formed ectopic centrosomal-component foci that suppressed mitotic defects associated with centrosome loss. TP53BP1 and USP28 knockouts exhibited compromised proliferation after centrosome removal, suggesting that centrosome-independent proliferation is not conferred solely by the inability to sense centrosome loss. Thus, analysis of centrinone resistance identified a 53BP1-USP28 module as critical for communicating mitotic challenges to the p53 circuit and TRIM37 as an enforcer of the singularity of centrosome assembly. PMID:27432897

  9. Disconnecting the Golgi ribbon from the centrosome prevents directional cell migration and ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Lidia; Caballero, Cristina; Gavilan, Maria P.; Cardenas, Jesus; Bornens, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian cells exhibit a frequent pericentrosomal Golgi ribbon organization. In this paper, we show that two AKAP450 N-terminal fragments, both containing the Golgi-binding GM130-interacting domain of AKAP450, dissociated endogenous AKAP450 from the Golgi and inhibited microtubule (MT) nucleation at the Golgi without interfering with centrosomal activity. These two fragments had, however, strikingly different effects on both Golgi apparatus (GA) integrity and positioning, whereas the short fragment induced GA circularization and ribbon fragmentation, the large construct that encompasses an additional p150glued/MT-binding domain induced separation of the Golgi ribbon from the centrosome. These distinct phenotypes arose by specific interference of each fragment with either Golgi-dependent or centrosome-dependent stages of Golgi assembly. We could thus demonstrate that breaking the polarity axis by perturbing GA positioning has a more dramatic effect on directional cell migration than disrupting the Golgi ribbon. Both features, however, were required for ciliogenesis. We thus identified AKAP450 as a key determinant of pericentrosomal Golgi ribbon integrity, positioning, and function in mammalian cells. PMID:21606206

  10. p53 centrosomal localization diagnoses ataxia-telangiectasia homozygotes and heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Prodosmo, Andrea; De Amicis, Andrea; Nisticò, Cecilia; Gabriele, Mario; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Monteonofrio, Laura; Piane, Maria; Cundari, Enrico; Chessa, Luciana; Soddu, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by radiosensitivity, genomic instability, and predisposition to cancer. A-T is caused by biallelic mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, but heterozygous carriers, though apparently healthy, are believed to be at increased risk for cancer and more sensitive to ionizing radiation than the general population. Despite progress in functional and sequencing-based assays, no straightforward, rapid, and inexpensive test is available for the identification of A-T homozygotes and heterozygotes, which is essential for diagnosis, genetic counseling, and carrier prediction. The oncosuppressor p53 prevents genomic instability and centrosomal amplification. During mitosis, p53 localizes at the centrosome in an ATM-dependent manner. We capitalized on the latter finding and established a simple, fast, minimally invasive, reliable, and inexpensive test to determine mutant ATM zygosity. The percentage of mitotic lymphoblasts or PBMCs bearing p53 centrosomal localization clearly discriminated among healthy donors (>75%), A-T heterozygotes (40%–56%), and A-T homozygotes (<30%). The test is specific for A-T, independent of the type of ATM mutations, and recognized tumor-associated ATM polymorphisms. In a preliminary study, our test confirmed that ATM is a breast cancer susceptibility gene. These data open the possibility of cost-effective, early diagnosis of A-T homozygotes and large-scale screenings for heterozygotes. PMID:23454770

  11. BRCA1 Interaction of Centrosomal Protein Nlp Is Required for Successful Mitotic Progression*♦

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shunqian; Gao, Hua; Mazzacurati, Lucia; Wang, Yang; Fan, Wenhong; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Wei; Wang, Mingrong; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhang, Chuanmao; Zhan, Qimin

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is implicated in the control of mitotic progression, although the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be further defined. Deficiency of BRCA1 function leads to disrupted mitotic machinery and genomic instability. Here, we show that BRCA1 physically interacts and colocalizes with Nlp, an important molecule involved in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. Interestingly, Nlp centrosomal localization and its protein stability are regulated by normal cellular BRCA1 function because cells containing BRCA1 mutations or silenced for endogenous BRCA1 exhibit disrupted Nlp colocalization to centrosomes and enhanced Nlp degradation. Its is likely that the BRCA1 regulation of Nlp stability involves Plk1 suppression. Inhibition of endogenous Nlp via the small interfering RNA approach results in aberrant spindle formation, aborted chromosomal segregation, and aneuploidy, which mimic the phenotypes of disrupted BRCA1. Thus, BRCA1 interaction of Nlp might be required for the successful mitotic progression, and abnormalities of Nlp lead to genomic instability. PMID:19509300

  12. Cytoplasmic dynein participates in the centrosomal localization of the Golgi complex

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The localization of the Golgi complex depends upon the integrity of the microtubule apparatus. At interphase, the Golgi has a restricted pericentriolar localization. During mitosis, it fragments into small vesicles that are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm until telophase, when they again coalesce near the centrosome. These observations have suggested that the Golgi complex utilizes a dynein-like motor to mediate its transport from the cell periphery towards the minus ends of microtubules, located at the centrosome. We utilized semi-intact cells to study the interaction of the Golgi complex with the microtubule apparatus. We show here that Golgi complexes can enter semi-intact cells and associate stably with cytoplasmic constituents. Stable association, termed here "Golgi capture," requires ATP hydrolysis and intact microtubules, and occurs maximally at physiological temperature in the presence of added cytosolic proteins. Once translocated into the semi-intact cell cytoplasm, exogenous Golgi complexes display a distribution similar to endogenous Golgi complexes, near the microtubule-organizing center. The process of Golgi capture requires cytoplasmic tubulin, and is abolished if cytoplasmic dynein is immunodepleted from the cytosol. Cytoplasmic dynein, prepared from CHO cell cytosol, restores Golgi capture activity to reactions carried out with dynein immuno-depleted cytosol. These results indicate that cytoplasmic dynein can interact with isolated Golgi complexes, and participate in their accumulation near the centrosomes of semi-intact, recipient cells. Thus, cytoplasmic dynein appears to play a role in determining the subcellular localization of the Golgi complex. PMID:1387874

  13. Organization of early frog embryos by chemical waves emanating from centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Keisuke; Nguyen, Phuong A.; Wühr, Martin; Groen, Aaron C.; Field, Christine M.; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The large cells in early vertebrate development face an extreme physical challenge in organizing their cytoplasm. For example, amphibian embryos have to divide cytoplasm that spans hundreds of micrometres every 30 min according to a precise geometry, a remarkable accomplishment given the extreme difference between molecular and cellular scales in this system. How do the biochemical reactions occurring at the molecular scale lead to this emergent behaviour of the cell as a whole? Based on recent findings, we propose that the centrosome plays a crucial role by initiating two autocatalytic reactions that travel across the large cytoplasm as chemical waves. Waves of mitotic entry and exit propagate out from centrosomes using the Cdk1 oscillator to coordinate the timing of cell division. Waves of microtubule-stimulated microtubule nucleation propagate out to assemble large asters that position spindles for the following mitosis and establish cleavage plane geometry. By initiating these chemical waves, the centrosome rapidly organizes the large cytoplasm during the short embryonic cell cycle, which would be impossible using more conventional mechanisms such as diffusion or nucleation by structural templating. Large embryo cells provide valuable insights to how cells control chemical waves, which may be a general principle for cytoplasmic organization. PMID:25047608

  14. Tank binding kinase 1 is a centrosome-associated kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Smitha; Nguyen, Jonathan; Johnson, Joseph; Haura, Eric; Coppola, Domenico; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-01-01

    TANK Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) is a non-canonical IκB kinase that contributes to KRAS-driven lung cancer. Here we report that TBK1 plays essential roles in mammalian cell division. Specifically, levels of active phospho-TBK1 increase during mitosis and localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and midbody, and selective inhibition or silencing of TBK1 triggers defects in spindle assembly and prevents mitotic progression. TBK1 binds to the centrosomal protein CEP170 and to the mitotic apparatus protein NuMA, and both CEP170 and NuMA are TBK1 substrates. Further, TBK1 is necessary for CEP170 centrosomal localization and binding to the microtubule depolymerase Kif2b, and for NuMA binding to dynein. Finally, selective disruption of the TBK1–CEP170 complex augments microtubule stability and triggers defects in mitosis, suggesting that TBK1 functions as a mitotic kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis. PMID:26656453

  15. Cep126 is required for pericentriolar satellite localisation to the centrosome and for primary cilium formation.

    PubMed

    Bonavita, Raffaella; Walas, Dawid; Brown, Anna K; Luini, Alberto; Stephens, David J; Colanzi, Antonino

    2014-08-01

    The centrosome is the primary microtubule-organising centre of animal cells and it has crucial roles in several fundamental cellular functions, including cell division, cell polarity, and intracellular transport. The mechanisms responsible for this are not completely understood. The poorly characterised protein CEP126 localises to the centrosome, pericentriolar satellites and the base of the primary cilium. Suppression of CEP126 expression results in dispersion of the pericentriolar satellites and disruption of the radial organisation of the microtubules, and induces disorganisation of the mitotic spindle. Moreover, CEP126 depletion or the transfection of a CEP126 truncation mutant in hTERT-RPE-1 and IMCD3 cells impairs the formation of the primary cilium. We propose that CEP126 is a regulator of microtubule organisation at the centrosome that acts through modulation of the transport of pericentriolar satellites, and consequently, of the organisation of cell structure. © 2014 The Authors. Biology of the Cell published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA on behalf of Société de Biologie Cellulaire Francaise.

  16. Chromatids segregate without centrosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans mitosis in a Ran- and CLASP-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Nahaboo, Wallis; Zouak, Melissa; Askjaer, Peter; Delattre, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During mitosis, chromosomes are connected to a microtubule-based spindle. Current models propose that displacement of the spindle poles and/or the activity of kinetochore microtubules generate mechanical forces that segregate sister chromatids. Using laser destruction of the centrosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans mitosis, we show that neither of these mechanisms is necessary to achieve proper chromatid segregation. Our results strongly suggest that an outward force generated by the spindle midzone, independently of centrosomes, is sufficient to segregate chromosomes in mitotic cells. Using mutant and RNAi analysis, we show that the microtubule-bundling protein SPD-1/MAP-65 and BMK-1/kinesin-5 act as a brake opposing the force generated by the spindle midzone. Conversely, we identify a novel role for two microtubule-growth and nucleation agents, Ran and CLASP, in the establishment of the centrosome-independent force during anaphase. Their involvement raises the interesting possibility that microtubule polymerization of midzone microtubules is continuously required to sustain chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:25833711

  17. CSPP and CSPP-L associate with centrosomes and microtubules and differently affect microtubule organization.

    PubMed

    Patzke, Sebastian; Stokke, Trond; Aasheim, Hans-Christian

    2006-10-01

    We recently described the identification of a centrosome/spindle pole associated protein, CSPP, involved in cell cycle progression. Here we report a CSPP isoform denoted CSPP-L, with a 294 amino acids longer N-terminus and a 51 amino acids insertion located in the coiled-coil mid-domain. Expression analysis indicates an inverse cell cycle dependent regulation. CSPP mRNA expression is highest in G1 whereas CSPP-L expression is highest in G2/M. Ectopic expression of CSPP-L impairs cell cycle progression weaker in G1 than CSPP. Furthermore, normal mitotic phenotypes were observed in CSPP-L but not in CSPP transfectants. CSPP-L relocates from spindle microtubules and poles in metaphase to the mid-spindle in anaphase and concentrates at the mid-body in telophase/cytokinesis. CSPP-L high-expressing mitotic cells were predominantly characterized by lagging chromosomes or monopolar spindles, in contrast to the predominant multipolar spindles observed with CSPP expression. The different effects of CSPP and CSPP-L on microtubule organization in mitosis depend on the coiled-coil mid-domain insertion. The common C-terminal domain is required to repress that activity until mitosis. Notably, this C-terminal domain alone can associate with centrosomes in a microtubule independent manner. Taken together, CSPP and CSPP-L interact with centrosomes and microtubules and can differently affect microtubule organization. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. p53 centrosomal localization diagnoses ataxia-telangiectasia homozygotes and heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Prodosmo, Andrea; De Amicis, Andrea; Nisticò, Cecilia; Gabriele, Mario; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Monteonofrio, Laura; Piane, Maria; Cundari, Enrico; Chessa, Luciana; Soddu, Silvia

    2013-03-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by radiosensitivity, genomic instability, and predisposition to cancer. A-T is caused by biallelic mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, but heterozygous carriers, though apparently healthy, are believed to be at increased risk for cancer and more sensitive to ionizing radiation than the general population. Despite progress in functional and sequencing-based assays, no straightforward, rapid, and inexpensive test is available for the identification of A-T homozygotes and heterozygotes, which is essential for diagnosis, genetic counseling, and carrier prediction. The oncosuppressor p53 prevents genomic instability and centrosomal amplification. During mitosis, p53 localizes at the centrosome in an ATM-dependent manner. We capitalized on the latter finding and established a simple, fast, minimally invasive, reliable, and inexpensive test to determine mutant ATM zygosity. The percentage of mitotic lymphoblasts or PBMCs bearing p53 centrosomal localization clearly discriminated among healthy donors (>75%), A-T heterozygotes (40%-56%), and A-T homozygotes (<30%). The test is specific for A-T, independent of the type of ATM mutations, and recognized tumor-associated ATM polymorphisms. In a preliminary study, our test confirmed that ATM is a breast cancer susceptibility gene. These data open the possibility of cost-effective, early diagnosis of A-T homozygotes and large-scale screenings for heterozygotes.

  19. Cyclin B2 and p53 control proper timing of centrosome separation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyun-Ja; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclins Bl and B2 are frequently elevated in human cancers and are associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome; however, whether and how B-type cyclins drive tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we show that cyclin Bl and B2 transgenic mice are highly prone to tumours, including tumour types where B-type cyclins serve as prognosticators. Cyclins Bl and B2 both induce aneuploidy when overexpressed but through distinct mechanisms, with cyclin Bl inhibiting separase activation, leading to anaphase bridges, and cyclin B2 triggering aurora-A-mediated Plkl hyperactivation, resulting in accelerated centrosome separation and lagging chromosomes. Complementary experiments revealed that cyclin B2 and p53 act antagonistically to control aurora-A-mediated centrosome splitting and accurate chromosome segregation in normal cells. These data demonstrate a causative link between B-type cyclin overexpression and tumour pathophysiology, and uncover previously unknown functions of cyclin B2 and p53 in centrosome separation that may be perturbed in many human cancers. PMID:24776885

  20. Centriole Disassembly In Vivo and Its Effect on Centrosome Structure and Function in Vertebrate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bobinnec, Y.; Khodjakov, A.; Mir, L.M.; Rieder, C.L.; Eddé, B.; Bornens, M.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamylation is the major posttranslational modification of neuronal and axonemal tubulin and is restricted predominantly to centrioles in nonneuronal cells (Bobinnec, Y., M. Moudjou, J.P. Fouquet, E. Desbruyères, B. Eddé, and M. Bornens. 1998. Cell Motil. Cytoskel. 39:223–232). To investigate a possible relationship between the exceptional stability of centriole microtubules and the compartmentalization of glutamylated isoforms, we loaded HeLa cells with the monoclonal antibody GT335, which specifically reacts with polyglutamylated tubulin. The total disappearance of the centriole pair was observed after 12 h, as judged both by immunofluorescence labeling with specific antibodies and electron microscopic observation of cells after complete thick serial sectioning. Strikingly, we also observed a scattering of the pericentriolar material (PCM) within the cytoplasm and a parallel disappearance of the centrosome as a defined organelle. However, centriole disappearance was transient, as centrioles and discrete centrosomes ultimately reappeared in the cell population. During the acentriolar period, a large proportion of monopolar half-spindles or of bipolar spindles with abnormal distribution of PCM and NuMA were observed. However, as judged by a quasinormal increase in cell number, these cells likely were not blocked in mitosis. Our results suggest that a posttranslational modification of tubulin is critical for long-term stability of centriolar microtubules. They further demonstrate that in animal cells, centrioles are instrumental in organizing centrosomal components into a structurally stable organelle. PMID:9852152

  1. Arsenic exposure is associated with DNA hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor gene p16.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangming; Xu, Huiwen; Chang, De; Wu, Zhenglai; Yao, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Shiying; Li, Zhenlong; Bai, Jieben; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to inorganic arsenic leads to development of cancer and represents a significant health hazard in more than 70 countries. The underlying mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis remains unclear. Laboratory studies suggest that arsenic is a poor mutagen but may cause epigenetic silencing of key tumor suppressor genes such as p16 through DNA hypermethylation. However, the evidence for an association between human arsenic exposure and abnormal DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes is lacking. Paired case-control studies were conducted involving 40 individuals with high arsenic exposure and arsenicosis, 40 individuals with similarly high exposure to arsenic but without arsenicosis, and 40 individuals with normal exposure to arsenic. DNA methylation status of p16 was determined using methylation-specific PCR. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that DNA hypermethylation of p16 gene was significantly associated with high arsenic exposure (Odds Ratio = 10.0, P = 0.0019) independently of the development of arsenicosis (Odds Ratio = 2.0, P = 0.1343). High exposure of arsenic in human is positively linked to DNA hypermethylation of p16 gene, suggesting that epigenetic silencing of key tumor suppressor may be an important mechanism by which arsenic promotes cancer initiation.

  2. An Emerging Role for Epigenetic Dysregulation in Arsenic Toxicity and Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xuefeng; McHale, Cliona M.; Skibola, Christine F.; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Zhang, Luoping

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to arsenic, an established human carcinogen, through consumption of highly contaminated drinking water is a worldwide public health concern. Several mechanisms by which arsenical compounds induce tumorigenesis have been proposed, including oxidative stress, genotoxic damage, and chromosomal abnormalities. Recent studies have suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may also mediate toxicity and carcinogenicity resulting from arsenic exposure. Objective We examined the evidence supporting the roles of the three major epigenetic mechanisms—DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA (miRNA) expression—in arsenic toxicity and, in particular, carcinogenicity. We also investigated future research directions necessary to clarify epigenetic and other mechanisms in humans. Data sources and synthesis We conducted a PubMed search of arsenic exposure and epigenetic modification through April 2010 and summarized the in vitro and in vivo research findings, from both our group and others, on arsenic-associated epigenetic alteration and its potential role in toxicity and carcinogenicity. Conclusions Arsenic exposure has been shown to alter methylation levels of both global DNA and gene promoters; histone acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation; and miRNA expression, in studies analyzing mainly a limited number of epigenetic end points. Systematic epigenomic studies in human populations exposed to arsenic or in patients with arsenic-associated cancer have not yet been performed. Such studies would help to elucidate the relationship between arsenic exposure, epigenetic dysregulation, and carcinogenesis and are becoming feasible because of recent technological advancements. PMID:20682481

  3. Synergistic effects of the combination of oxalate and ascorbate on arsenic extraction from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Eun Jung; Baek, Kitae

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic is often associated with iron oxides in soils due to its high affinity with iron oxides and the abundance of iron oxides in the environment. Dissolution of iron oxides can subsequently release arsenic associated with them into the environment, which results in the increase of arsenic mobility in the soil environment. In this study, arsenic extraction from soils via the dissolution of iron oxides was investigated using oxalate, ascorbate, and their combination in order to effectively remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Oxalate mainly extracted iron from soils via a ligand-promoted reaction, while ascorbate extracted iron mainly via a reductive reaction. Arsenic extractions from soils by oxalate and ascorbate were shown to behave similarly to iron extractions, indicating the concurrent release of arsenic adsorbed on iron oxides upon the dissolution of iron oxides. The combination of oxalate and ascorbate greatly increased arsenic extraction, indicating the synergistic effects of the combination of oxalate and ascorbate on iron and arsenic extraction from soils. Oxalate and ascorbate are naturally-occurring organic reagents that have chelating and reducing capacity. Therefore, the use of oxalate and ascorbate is environmentally friendly and effective for the remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Specific histone modification responds to arsenic-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Li, Jun; Zhan, Zhengbao; Chen, Liping; Li, Daochuan; Bai, Qing; Gao, Chen; Li, Jie; Zeng, Xiaowen; He, Zhini; Wang, Shan; Xiao, Yongmei; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Aihua

    2016-07-01

    To explore whether specific histone modifications are associated with arsenic-induced oxidative damage, we recruited 138 arsenic-exposed and arsenicosis subjects from Jiaole Village, Xinren County of Guizhou province, China where the residents were exposed to arsenic from indoor coal burning. 77 villagers from Shang Batian Village that were not exposed to high arsenic coal served as the control group. The concentrations of urine and hair arsenic in the arsenic-exposure group were 2.4-fold and 2.1-fold (all P<0.001) higher, respectively, than those of the control group. Global histone modifications in human peripheral lymphocytes (PBLCs) were examined by ELISA. The results showed that altered global levels of H3K18ac, H3K9me2, and H3K36me3 correlated with both urinary and hair-arsenic levels of the subjects. Notably, H3K36me3 and H3K18ac modifications were associated with urinary 8-OHdG (H3K36me3: β=0.16; P=0.042, H3K18ac: β=-0.24; P=0.001). We also found that the modifications of H3K18ac and H3K36me3 were enriched in the promoters of oxidative stress response (OSR) genes in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and HaCaT cells, providing evidence that H3K18ac and H3K36me3 modifications mediate transcriptional regulation of OSR genes in response to NaAsO2 treatment. Particularly, we found that reduced H3K18ac modification correlated with suppressed expression of OSR genes in HEK cells with long term arsenic treatment and in PBLCs of all the subjects. Taken together, we reveal a critical role for specific histone modification in response to arsenic-induced oxidative damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Sulfur on the Arsenic Phytoremediation Using Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoliang; Feng, Tao; Li, Zhixian; Chen, Zhang; Chen, Yuanqi; Wang, Haihua; Xiang, Yanci

    2017-07-04

    Influences of sulfur (S) on the accumulation and detoxification of arsenic (As) in Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, an arsenic hyperaccumulating submerged aquatic plant, were investigated. At low sulfur levels (<20 mg/L), the thiols and As concentrations in the plant increased significantly with increasing sulfate nutrient supply. If sulfur levels were above 20 mg/L, the thiols and As concentrations in the plant did not increase further. There was a significant positive correlation between thiols and As in the plant. As(III) is the main form (>75%) present in the plant after exposure to As(V). Sulfur plays an important role in the arsenic translocation and detoxification, possibly through stimulating the synthesis of thiols and complexation of arsenite-phytochelatins. This suggests that addition of sulfur to the arsenic-contaminated water may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plants for phytoremediation of arsenic pollution.

  6. The Toxoplasma gondii centrosome is the platform for internal daughter budding as revealed by a Nek1 kinase mutant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2013-08-01

    The pathology and severity of toxoplasmosis results from the rapid replication cycle of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The tachyzoites divide asexually through endodyogeny, wherein two daughter cells bud inside the mother cell. Before mitosis is completed, the daughter buds form around the duplicated centrosomes and subsequently elongate to serve as the scaffold for organellogenesis and organelle partitioning. The molecular control mechanism of this process is poorly understood. Here, we characterized a T. gondii NIMA-related kinase (Nek) ortholog that was identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen. A temperature-sensitive mutant, V-A15, possesses a Cys316Arg mutation in TgNek1 (a novel mutant allele in Neks), which is responsible for growth defects at the restrictive temperature. Phenotypic analysis of V-A15 indicated that TgNek1 is essential for centrosome splitting, proper formation of daughter cells and faithful segregation of genetic material. In vitro kinase assays showed that the mutation abolishes the kinase activity of TgNek1. TgNek1 is recruited to the centrosome prior to its duplication and localizes on the duplicated centrosomes facing the spindle poles in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. Mutational analysis of the activation loop suggests that localization and activity are spatio-temporally regulated by differential phosphorylation. Collectively, our results identified a novel temperature-sensitive allele for a Nek kinase and highlight its essential function in centrosome splitting in Toxoplasma. Moreover, these results conclusively show for the first time that Toxoplasma bud assembly is facilitated by the centrosome because defective centrosome splitting results in single daughter cell budding.

  7. Requirement of hCenexin for proper mitotic functions of polo-like kinase 1 at the centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Soung, Nak-Kyun; Kang, Young Hwi; Kim, Keetae; Kamijo, Keiju; Yoon, Heejeong; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Miki, Toru; Kim, Seung R; Kuriyama, Ryoko; Giam, Chou-Zen; Ahn, Chang H; Lee, Kyung S

    2006-11-01

    Outer dense fiber 2 (Odf2) was initially identified as a major component of sperm tail cytoskeleton and later was suggested to be a widespread component of centrosomal scaffold that preferentially associates with the appendages of the mother centrioles in somatic cells. Here we report the identification of two Odf2-related centrosomal components, hCenexin1 and hCenexin1 variant 1, that possess a unique C-terminal extension. Our results showed that hCenexin1 is the major isoform expressed in HeLa cells, whereas hOdf2 is not detectably expressed. Mammalian polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is critical for proper mitotic progression, and its association with the centrosome is important for microtubule nucleation and function. Interestingly, depletion of hCenexin1 by RNA interference (RNAi) delocalized Plk1 from the centrosomes and the C-terminal extension of hCenexin1 was crucial to recruit Plk1 to the centrosomes through a direct interaction with the polo-box domain of Plk1. Consistent with these findings, the hCenexin1 RNAi cells exhibited weakened gamma-tubulin localization and chromosome segregation defects. We propose that hCenexin1 is a critical centrosomal component whose C-terminal extension is required for proper recruitment of Plk1 and other components crucial for normal mitosis. Our results further suggest that the anti-Odf2 immunoreactive centrosomal antigen previously detected in non-germ line cells is likely hCenexin1.

  8. PATHWAY OF INORGANIC ARSENIC METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A remarkable aspect of the metabolism of inorganic arsenic in humans is its conversion to methylated metabolites. These metabolites account for most of the arsenic found in urine after exposure to inorganic arsenic. At least some of the adverse health effects attributed to inor...

  9. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL COST ESTIMATING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Removal Cost Estimating program (Excel) calculates the costs for using adsorptive media and anion exchange treatment systems to remove arsenic from drinking water. The program is an easy-to-use tool to estimate capital and operating costs for three types of arsenic re...

  11. ARSENIC REMOVAL COST ESTIMATING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Removal Cost Estimating program (Excel) calculates the costs for using adsorptive media and anion exchange treatment systems to remove arsenic from drinking water. The program is an easy-to-use tool to estimate capital and operating costs for three types of arsenic re...

  12. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  13. Atherosclerosis induced by arsenic in drinking water in rats through altering lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Tain-Junn; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Chang, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Guo, How-Ran

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem, and the exposure may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortalities, most likely through causing atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure is still unclear. To study the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure and explore the role of high cholesterol diet (HCD) in this process, we fed spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats with basal diet or HCD and provided with them drinking water containing arsenic at different ages and orders for 20 consecutive weeks. We measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at predetermined intervals and determined expressions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein-1 (CETP-1) and liver X receptor {beta} (LXR{beta}) in the liver. Atherosclerosis was determined by examining the aorta with hematoxylin and eosin stain. After 20 weeks, we found arsenic, alone or combined with HCD, may promote atherosclerosis formation with transient increases in HSP 70 and hs-CRP. Early combination exposure decreased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio without changing the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride until 30 weeks old. Both CETP-1 and LXR{beta} activities were suppressed, most significantly in early combination exposure. In conclusion, arsenic exposure may induce atherosclerosis through modifying reverse cholesterol transport in cholesterol metabolism and suppressing LXR{beta} and CEPT-1 expressions. For decreasing atherosclerosis related mortality associated with arsenic, preventing exposure from environmental sources in early life is an important element. - Highlights: > Arsenic causes cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases through atherosclerosis. > Arsenic may promote atherosclerosis with transient increase in HSP

  14. Effects of glutathione on the in vivo metabolism and oxidative stress of arsenic in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da; Lin, Lin; Li, Xin; Sun, Gui-Fan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of exogenous glutathione and buthionine sulfoximine on arsenic methylation and antioxidant capacity in mice exposed to arsenic via drinking water. Thirty-six female albino mice were randomly divided into six groups. All groups were given free access to drinking water that contained arsenic continuously except the control group. After ten days, mice were treated with different levels of glutathione or buthionine sulfoximine. The levels of the metabolites of arsenic were determined in the liver and urine. The levels of glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were determined in the whole blood and liver. Our results showed that the increase of arsenic species in the liver as well as the decrease of blood and hepatic glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, were all relieved by exogenous glutathione consistently. We also observed the involvement of glutathione in promoting arsenic methylation and urinary elimination in vivo. Increase of total arsenic in the urine was mainly due to the increase of dimethylated arsenic. Furthermore, administration of glutathione increased the first methylation ratio and secondary methylation ratio in the liver and urine, which resulted in the consequent increase of dimethylated arsenic percent and decrease of inorganic arsenic percent in the urine. Opposite effects appeared with the administration of buthionine sulfoximine, a scavenger of glutathione. Our study indicated that exogenous glutathione not only accelerated the methylation and the excretion of arsenic, but also relieve the arsenic-induced oxidative stress. This provides a potential useful chemopreventive dietary component for human populations being at risk of arsenic exposure.

  15. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  16. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  17. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  18. Arsenic: The Silent Killer

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Andrea

    2006-02-28

    Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

  19. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Correlation of Breastmilk Arsenic With Maternal, Infant Urinary Arsenic and Drinking Water Arsenic in an Arsenic Affected Area of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alauddin, M.; Islam, M. R.; Milton, A. H.; Alauddin, S. T.; Mouly, T.; Behri, E.; Ayesha, A.; Akter, S.; Islam, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    About 97% of population in Bangladesh depend on groundwater as the principle source of drinking water and this water is highly contaminated with inorganic arsenic. Consumption of arsenic contaminated drinking water by pregnant women raises the prospect of early life exposure to inorganic arsenic for newborn which may be lead to adverse health effect in later life. This work was carried out in parts of Gopalganj district in Bangladesh, a region affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater. The objective of the work was to assess potential early life exposure to arsenic for infants through breastfeeding by mothers who were drinking water with arsenic levels ranging from 100 to 300 µg/l. A cohort of 30 mother-baby pairs were selected for the current study. Breastmilk samples from mothers, urine samples from each pair of subjects at 1, 6 and 9 month age of infant were collected and total arsenic were determined in these samples. In addition speciation of urinary arsenic and metabolites were carried out in 12 mother-baby pairs. Median level for breastmilk arsenic were 0.50 µg/l. Urinary arsenic of infants did not correlate with breastmilk arsenic with progressing age of infants. Maternal and infant urinary total arsenic at 1 month age of infant showed some positive correlation (r = 0.39). In infant urine major metabolite were dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) (approximately 70%) indicating good methylating capacity for infants at 1 and 6 months of age. In conclusion, infants were not exposed to arsenic through breastfeeding even though mothers were exposed to significant levels of arsenic through drinking water.

  1. Metabolism and toxicity of arsenicals in mammals.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Hafeez, Mian Abdul; Wang, Xu; Hussain, Hafiz Iftikhar; Iqbal, Zahid; Pan, Yuanhu; Iqbal, Mujahid; Shabbir, Muhammad Abubakr; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid usually found in organic and inorganic forms with different oxidation states, while inorganic form (arsenite As-III and arsenate As-v) is considered to be more hazardous as compared to organic form (methylarsonate and dimethylarsinate), with mild or no toxicity in mammals. Due to an increasing trend to using arsenicals as growth promoters or for treatment purposes, the understanding of metabolism and toxicity of As gets vital importance. Its toxicity is mainly depends on oxi-reduction states (As-III or As-v) and the level of methylation during the metabolism process. Currently, the exact metabolic pathways of As have yet to be confirmed in humans and food producing animals. Oxidative methylation and glutathione conjugation is believed to be major pathways of As metabolism. Oxidative methylation is based on conversion of Arsenite in to mono-methylarsonic acid and di-methylarsenic acid in mammals. It has been confirmed that As is only methylated in the presence of glutathione or thiol compounds, suggesting that As is being methylated in trivalent states. Subsequently, non-conjugated trivalent arsenicals are highly reactive with thiol which converts the trivalent arsenicals in to less toxic pentavalent forms. The glutathione conjugate stability of As is the most important factor for determining the toxicity. It can lead to DNA damage by alerting enzyme profile and production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which causes the oxidative stress. Moreover, As causes immune-dysfunction by hindering cellular and humeral immune response. The present review discussed different metabolic pathways and toxic outcomes of arsenicals in mammals which will be helpful in health risk assessment and its impact on biological world.

  2. Xenopus TACC3/Maskin Is Not Required for Microtubule Stability but Is Required for Anchoring Microtubules at the Centrosome

    PubMed Central

    Albee, Alison J.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the transforming acidic coiled coil (TACC) protein family are emerging as important mitotic spindle assembly proteins in a variety of organisms. The molecular details of how TACC proteins function are unknown, but TACC proteins have been proposed to recruit microtubule-stabilizing proteins of the tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) family to the centrosome and to facilitate their loading onto newly emerging microtubules. Using Xenopus egg extracts and in vitro assays, we show that the Xenopus TACC protein maskin is required for centrosome function beyond recruiting the Xenopus TOG protein XMAP215. The conserved C-terminal TACC domain of maskin is both necessary and sufficient to restore centrosome function in maskin-depleted extracts, and we provide evidence that the N terminus of maskin inhibits the function of the TACC domain. Time-lapse video microscopy reveals that microtubule dynamics in Xenopus egg extracts are unaffected by maskin depletion. Our results provide direct experimental evidence of a role for maskin in centrosome function and suggest that maskin is required for microtubule anchoring at the centrosome. PMID:18508920

  3. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ); )

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  4. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  5. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  6. ELUCIDATING THE PATHWAY FOR ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymatically-catalyzed methylation of arsenic is part of a metabolic pathway that converts inorganic arsenic into methylated products. Hence, in humans chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic, methyl and dimethyl arsenic account for most of the arsenic that is excreted in the ...

  7. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  8. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bo Yon; Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.

  9. Casein kinase II is required for proper cell division and acts as a negative regulator of centrosome duplication in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

    PubMed Central

    Medley, Jeffrey C.; Kabara, Megan M.; Stubenvoll, Michael D.; DeMeyer, Lauren E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Centrosomes are the primary microtubule-organizing centers that orchestrate microtubule dynamics during the cell cycle. The correct number of centrosomes is pivotal for establishing bipolar mitotic spindles that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. Thus, centrioles must duplicate once per cell cycle, one daughter per mother centriole, the process of which requires highly coordinated actions among core factors and modulators. Protein phosphorylation is shown to regulate the stability, localization and activity of centrosome proteins. Here, we report the function of Casein kinase II (CK2) in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The catalytic subunit (KIN-3/CK2α) of CK2 localizes to nuclei, centrosomes and midbodies. Inactivating CK2 leads to cell division defects, including chromosome missegregation, cytokinesis failure and aberrant centrosome behavior. Furthermore, depletion or inhibiting kinase activity of CK2 results in elevated ZYG-1 levels at centrosomes, restoring centrosome duplication and embryonic viability to zyg-1 mutants. Our data suggest that CK2 functions in cell division and negatively regulates centrosome duplication in a kinase-dependent manner. PMID:27881437

  10. Casein kinase II is required for proper cell division and acts as a negative regulator of centrosome duplication in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Medley, Jeffrey C; Kabara, Megan M; Stubenvoll, Michael D; DeMeyer, Lauren E; Song, Mi Hye

    2017-01-15

    Centrosomes are the primary microtubule-organizing centers that orchestrate microtubule dynamics during the cell cycle. The correct number of centrosomes is pivotal for establishing bipolar mitotic spindles that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. Thus, centrioles must duplicate once per cell cycle, one daughter per mother centriole, the process of which requires highly coordinated actions among core factors and modulators. Protein phosphorylation is shown to regulate the stability, localization and activity of centrosome proteins. Here, we report the function of Casein kinase II (CK2) in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The catalytic subunit (KIN-3/CK2α) of CK2 localizes to nuclei, centrosomes and midbodies. Inactivating CK2 leads to cell division defects, including chromosome missegregation, cytokinesis failure and aberrant centrosome behavior. Furthermore, depletion or inhibiting kinase activity of CK2 results in elevated ZYG-1 levels at centrosomes, restoring centrosome duplication and embryonic viability to zyg-1 mutants. Our data suggest that CK2 functions in cell division and negatively regulates centrosome duplication in a kinase-dependent manner. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Arsenic removal by coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, K.N.; Green, J.F.; Do, H.D.; McLean, S.J.

    1995-04-01

    This study evaluated the removal of naturally occurring arsenic in a full-scale (106-mgd) conventional treatment plant. When the source water was treated with 3--10 mg/L of ferric chloride or 6, 10, or 20 mg/L of alum, arsenic removal was 81--96% (ferric chloride) and 23--71% (alum). Metal concentrations in the sludge produced during this study were below the state`s current hazardous waste levels at all coagulant dosages. No operational difficulties were encountered.

  12. Biochemistry of arsenic detoxification.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Barry P

    2002-10-02

    All living organisms have systems for arsenic detoxification. The common themes are (a) uptake of As(V) in the form of arsenate by phosphate transporters, (b) uptake of As(III) in the form of arsenite by aquaglyceroporins, (c) reduction of As(V) to As(III) by arsenate reductases, and (d) extrusion or sequestration of As(III). While the overall schemes for arsenic resistance are similar in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, some of the specific proteins are the products of separate evolutionary pathways.

  13. Arsenic doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Volbers, N.; Lautenschlaeger, S.; Leichtweiss, T.; Laufer, A.; Graubner, S.; Meyer, B. K.; Potzger, K.; Zhou Shengqiang

    2008-06-15

    As-doping of zinc oxide has been approached by ion implantation and chemical vapor deposition. The effect of thermal annealing on the implanted samples has been investigated by using secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering/channeling geometry. The crystal damage, the distribution of the arsenic, the diffusion of impurities, and the formation of secondary phases is discussed. For the thin films grown by vapor deposition, the composition has been determined with regard to the growth parameters. The bonding state of arsenic was investigated for both series of samples using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR SINGLE FAMILY HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information on POU and POE arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems. The presentation provides information on the arsenic rule, arsenic chemistry and arsenic treatment. The arsenic treatment options proposed for POU and POE treatment consist prim...

  15. [Effect of the interaction of microorganisms and iron oxides on arsenic releasing into groundwater in Chinese Loess].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun-Yun; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Xie, Qiao-Qin

    2013-10-01

    A large part of groundwater in the Chinese Loess Plateau area is characterized by high arsenic concentration. Anaerobic bacteria have been considered to play key roles in promoting arsenic releasing from loess to groundwater. However, this hypothesis remains unconfirmed. Based on modeling experiments, this study investigated the speciation of arsenic in loess, and then determined the release rates and quantities of arsenic with the mediation of anaerobic bacteria. The results showed that arsenic contents in loess were between 23 mg.kg-1 and 30 mg.kg-1. No obvious arsenic content difference among loess samples was observed. The ratios for specific adsorbed, iron oxides co-precipitated and silicate co-precipitated arsenic were 37.76% , 36. 15% and 25. 69% , respectively. Indigenous microorganisms, dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) could all promote the release of arsenic from loess. Organic matters highly affected the release rates. More than 100 mg.L-1 sodium lactate was required for all bacterial experiments to facilitate obvious arsenic release. Considering the redox condition in loess, the contribution of SRB to arsenic release in loess area was less feasible than that of DIRB and indigenous microorganisms.

  16. Efficacy of arsenic filtration by Kanchan arsenic filter in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Shrestha, Shreekrishna; Maden, Narendra

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has caused a significant public health burden in lowland regions of Nepal. For arsenic mitigation purposes, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) was developed and validated for use in 2003 after pilot studies showed its effectiveness in removing arsenic. However, its efficacy in field conditions operating for a long period has been scarcely observed. In this study, we observe the efficacy of KAFs running over 6 months in highly arsenic-affected households in Nawalparasi district. We assessed pair-wise arsenic concentrations of 62 randomly selected household tubewells before filtration and after filtration via KAFs. Of 62 tubewells, 41 had influent arsenic concentration exceeding the Nepal drinking water quality standard value (50 μg/L). Of the 41 tubewells having unsafe arsenic levels, KAFs reduced arsenic concentration to the safe level for only 22 tubewells, an efficacy of 54%. In conclusion, we did not find significantly high efficacy of KAFs in reducing unsafe influent arsenic level to the safe level under the in situ field conditions.

  17. Cancer in Experimental Animals Exposed to Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Tokar, Erik J.; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Ward, Jerold M.; Lunn, Ruth; Sams, Reeder L.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has long been considered a human carcinogen. Recent studies raise further concern about the metalloid as a major, naturally occurring carcinogen in the environment. However, during this same period it has proven difficult to provide experimental evidence of the carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in laboratory animals and, until recently, there was considered to be a lack of clear evidence for carcinogenicity of any arsenical in animals. More recent work with arsenical methylation metabolites and early life exposures to inorganic arsenic has now provided evidence of carcinogenicity in rodents. Given that tens of millions of people worldwide are exposed to potentially unhealthy levels of environmental arsenic, in vivo rodent models of arsenic carcinogenesis are a clear necessity for resolving critical issues, like mechanisms of action, target tissue specificity, and sensitive subpopulations, and in developing strategies to reduce cancers in exposed human populations. This work reviews the available rodent studies considered relevant to carcinogenic assessment of arsenicals, taking advantage of the most recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) that has not yet appeared as a full monograph but has been summarized (IARC 2009). Many valid studies show that arsenic can interact with other carcinogens/agents to enhance oncogenesis, and help elucidate mechanisms, and these too are summarized in this review. Finally, this body of rodent work is discussed in light of its impact on mechanisms and in the context of the persistent argument that arsenic is not carcinogenic in animals. PMID:20812815

  18. Arsenic in ground-water under oxidizing conditions, south-west United States.

    PubMed

    Robertson, F N

    1989-12-01

    Concentrations of dissolved arsenic in ground-water in alluvial basins of Arizona commonly exceed 50 μg L(-1) and reach values as large as 1,300 μg L(-1). Arsenic speciation analyses show that arsenic occurs in the fully oxidized state of plus 5 (As+5), most likely in the form of HAsO4(∼2), under existing oxidizing and pH conditions. Arsenic in source areas presumably is oxidized to soluble As before transport into the basin or, if after transport, before burial. Probable sources of arsenic are the sulphide and arsenide deposits in the mineralized areas of the mountains surrounding the basins. Arsenic content of alluvial material ranged from 2 to 88 ppm. Occurrence and removal of arsenic in ground-water are related to the pH and the redox condition of the ground-water, the oxidation state of arsenic, and sorption or exchange. Within basins, dissolved arsenic correlates (P<0.01) with dissolved molybdenum, selenium, vanadium, and fluoride and with pH, suggesting sorption of negative ions. The sorption hypothesis is further supported by enrichment of teachable arsenic in the basin-fill sediments by about tenfold relative to the crustal abundance and by as much as a thousandfold relative to concentrations found in ground-water. Silicate hydrolysis reactions, as defined within the alluvial basins, under closed conditions cause increases in pH basinward and would promote desorption. Within the region, large concentrations of arsenic are commonly associated with the central parts of basins whose chemistries evolve under closed conditions. Arsenic does not correlate with dissolved iron (r = 0.09) but may be partly controlled by iron in the solid phase. High solid-phase arsenic contents were found in red clay beds. Large concentrations of arsenic also were found in water associated with red clay beds. Basins that contain the larger concentrations are bounded primarily by basalt and andesite, suggesting that the iron content as well as the arsenic content of the basin

  19. Arsenic in ground-water under oxidizing conditions, south-west United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, F.N.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved arsenic in ground-water in alluvial basins of Arizona commonly exceed 50 ??g L-1 and reach values as large as 1,300 ??g L-1. Arsenic speciation analyses show that arsenic occurs in the fully oxidized state of plus 5 (As+5), most likely in the form of HAsO4???2, under existing oxidizing and pH conditions. Arsenic in source areas presumably is oxidized to soluble As before transport into the basin or, if after transport, before burial. Probable sources of arsenic are the sulphide and arsenide deposits in the mineralized areas of the mountains surrounding the basins. Arsenic content of alluvial material ranged from 2 to 88 ppm. Occurrence and removal of arsenic in ground-water are related to the pH and the redox condition of the ground-water, the oxidation state of arsenic, and sorption or exchange. Within basins, dissolved arsenic correlates (P<0.01) with dissolved molybdenum, selenium, vanadium, and fluoride and with pH, suggesting sorption of negative ions. The sorption hypothesis is further supported by enrichment of teachable arsenic in the basin-fill sediments by about tenfold relative to the crustal abundance and by as much as a thousandfold relative to concentrations found in ground-water. Silicate hydrolysis reactions, as defined within the alluvial basins, under closed conditions cause increases in pH basinward and would promote desorption. Within the region, large concentrations of arsenic are commonly associated with the central parts of basins whose chemistries evolve under closed conditions. Arsenic does not correlate with dissolved iron (r = 0.09) but may be partly controlled by iron in the solid phase. High solid-phase arsenic contents were found in red clay beds. Large concentrations of arsenic also were found in water associated with red clay beds. Basins that contain the larger concentrations are bounded primarily by basalt and andesite, suggesting that the iron content as well as the arsenic content of the basin fill may

  20. The polarity protein Baz forms a platform for the centrosome orientation during asymmetric stem cell division in the Drosophila male germline.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2015-03-20

    Many stem cells divide asymmetrically in order to balance self-renewal with differentiation. The essence of asymmetric cell division (ACD) is the polarization of cells and subsequent division, leading to unequal compartmentalization of cellular/extracellular components that confer distinct cell fates to daughter cells. Because precocious cell division before establishing cell polarity would lead to failure in ACD, these two processes must be tightly coupled; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In Drosophila male germline stem cells, ACD is prepared by stereotypical centrosome positioning. The centrosome orientation checkpoint (COC) further serves to ensure ACD by preventing mitosis upon centrosome misorientation. In this study, we show that Bazooka (Baz) provides a platform for the correct centrosome orientation and that Baz-centrosome association is the key event that is monitored by the COC. Our work provides a foundation for understanding how the correct cell polarity may be recognized by the cell to ensure productive ACD.

  1. Arsenic release by indigenous bacteria Bacillus cereus from aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zuoming; Wang, Yanxin; Duan, Mengyu; Xie, Xianjun; Su, Chunli

    2011-03-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning due to long-term drinking of high arsenic groundwater has been reported in Datong Basin, northern China. To investigate the effects of microbial activities on arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers, Bacillus cereus ( B. cereus) isolated from high arsenic aquifer sediments of the basin was used in our microcosm experiments. The arsenic concentration in the treatment with both bacteria and sodium citrate or glucose had a rapid increase in the first 18 d, and then, it declined. Supplemented with bacteria only, the concentration could increase on the second day. By contrast, the arsenic concentration in the treatment supplemented with sodium citrate or glucose was kept very low. These results indicate that bacterial activities promoted the release of arsenic in the sediments. Bacterial activities also influenced other geochemical parameters of the aqueous phase, such as pH, Eh, and the concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al that are important controls on arsenic release. The removal of Fe, Mn, and Al from sediment samples was observed with the presence of B. cereus. The effects of microbial activities on Fe, Mn, and Al release were nearly the same as those on As mobilization. The pH values of the treatments inoculated with bacteria were lower than those without bacteria, still at alkaline levels. With the decrease of Eh values in treatments inoculated with bacteria, the microcosms became more reducing and are thus favorable for arsenic release.

  2. Role of Aspergillus niger acrA in arsenic resistance and its use as the basis for an arsenic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Choe, Se-In; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Al Abdallah, Qusai; Lee, Mark J; Gibbs, Bernard F; Sheppard, Donald C

    2012-06-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater sources is a major issue worldwide, since exposure to high levels of arsenic has been linked to a variety of health problems. Effective methods of detection are thus greatly needed as preventive measures. In an effort to develop a fungal biosensor for arsenic, we first identified seven putative arsenic metabolism and transport genes in Aspergillus niger, a widely used industrial organism that is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Among the genes tested for RNA expression in response to arsenate, acrA, encoding a putative plasma membrane arsenite efflux pump, displayed an over 200-fold increase in gene expression in response to arsenate. We characterized the function of this A. niger protein in arsenic efflux by gene knockout and confirmed that AcrA was located at the cell membrane using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion construct. Based on our observations, we developed a putative biosensor strain containing a construct of the native promoter of acrA fused with egfp. We analyzed the fluorescence of this biosensor strain in the presence of arsenic using confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The biosensor strain reliably detected both arsenite and arsenate in the range of 1.8 to 180 μg/liter, which encompasses the threshold concentrations for drinking water set by the World Health Organization (10 and 50 μg/liter).

  3. Role of Aspergillus niger acrA in Arsenic Resistance and Its Use as the Basis for an Arsenic Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Se-In; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Al Abdallah, Qusai; Lee, Mark J.; Gibbs, Bernard F.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater sources is a major issue worldwide, since exposure to high levels of arsenic has been linked to a variety of health problems. Effective methods of detection are thus greatly needed as preventive measures. In an effort to develop a fungal biosensor for arsenic, we first identified seven putative arsenic metabolism and transport genes in Aspergillus niger, a widely used industrial organism that is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Among the genes tested for RNA expression in response to arsenate, acrA, encoding a putative plasma membrane arsenite efflux pump, displayed an over 200-fold increase in gene expression in response to arsenate. We characterized the function of this A. niger protein in arsenic efflux by gene knockout and confirmed that AcrA was located at the cell membrane using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion construct. Based on our observations, we developed a putative biosensor strain containing a construct of the native promoter of acrA fused with egfp. We analyzed the fluorescence of this biosensor strain in the presence of arsenic using confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The biosensor strain reliably detected both arsenite and arsenate in the range of 1.8 to 180 μg/liter, which encompasses the threshold concentrations for drinking water set by the World Health Organization (10 and 50 μg/liter). PMID:22467499

  4. Electric fields generated by synchronized oscillations of microtubules, centrosomes and chromosomes regulate the dynamics of mitosis and meiosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Zhan, Qimin

    2012-07-02

    Super-macromolecular complexes play many important roles in eukaryotic cells. Classical structural biological studies focus on their complicated molecular structures, physical interactions and biochemical modifications. Recent advances concerning intracellular electric fields generated by cell organelles and super-macromolecular complexes shed new light on the mechanisms that govern the dynamics of mitosis and meiosis. In this review we synthesize this knowledge to provide an integrated theoretical model of these cellular events. We suggest that the electric fields generated by synchronized oscillation of microtubules, centrosomes, and chromatin fibers facilitate several events during mitosis and meiosis, including centrosome trafficking, chromosome congression in mitosis and synapsis between homologous chromosomes in meiosis. These intracellular electric fields are generated under energy excitation through the synchronized electric oscillations of the dipolar structures of microtubules, centrosomes and chromosomes, three of the super-macromolecular complexes within an animal cell.

  5. Luna, a Drosophila KLF6/KLF7, is maternally required for synchronized nuclear and centrosome cycles in the preblastoderm embryo.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ursula; Rodriguez, Estefania; Martignetti, John; Mlodzik, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel like factors (KLFs) are conserved transcription factors that have been implicated in many developmental processes including differentiation, organ patterning, or regulation of stem cell pluripotency. We report the generation and analysis of loss-of-function mutants of Drosophila Klf6/7, the luna gene. We demonstrate that luna mutants are associated with very early embryonic defects prior to cellularization at the syncytial stage and cause DNA separation defects during the rapid mitotic cycles resulting in un-coupled DNA and centrosome cycles. These defects manifest themselves, both in animals that are maternally homozygous and heterozygous mutant. Surprisingly, luna is only required during the syncytial stages and not later in development, suggesting that the DNA segregation defect is linked to centrosomes, since centrosomes are dispensable for later cell divisions.

  6. Non-centrosomal nucleation mediated by augmin organizes microtubules in post-mitotic neurons and controls axonal microtubule polarity

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Huertas, Carlos; Freixo, Francisco; Viais, Ricardo; Lacasa, Cristina; Soriano, Eduardo; Lüders, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Neurons display a highly polarized microtubule network that mediates trafficking throughout the extensive cytoplasm and is crucial for neuronal differentiation and function. In newborn migrating neurons, the microtubule network is organized by the centrosome. During neuron maturation, however, the centrosome gradually loses this activity, and how microtubules are organized in more mature neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that microtubule organization in post-mitotic neurons strongly depends on non-centrosomal nucleation mediated by augmin and by the nucleator γTuRC. Disruption of either complex not only reduces microtubule density but also microtubule bundling. These microtubule defects impair neurite formation, interfere with axon specification and growth, and disrupt axonal trafficking. In axons augmin does not merely mediate nucleation of microtubules but ensures their uniform plus end-out orientation. Thus, the augmin-γTuRC module, initially identified in mitotic cells, may be commonly used to generate and maintain microtubule configurations with specific polarity. PMID:27405868

  7. Reactive oxygen species mediate arsenic induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis through Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in human colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhuo; Wang Xin; Cheng Senping; Sun Lijuan; Son, Young-Ok; Yao Hua; Li Wenqi; Budhraja, Amit; Li Li; Shelton, Brent J.; Tucker, Thomas; Arnold, Susanne M.; Shi Xianglin

    2011-10-15

    Long term exposure to arsenic can increase incidence of human cancers, such as skin, lung, and colon rectum. The mechanism of arsenic induced carcinogenesis is still unclear. It is generally believed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role in this process. In the present study, we investigate the possible linkage between ROS, {beta}-catenin and arsenic induced transformation and tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, DLD1 cells. Our results show that arsenic was able to activate p47{sup phox} and p67{sup phox}, two key proteins for activation of NADPH oxidase. Arsenic was also able to generate ROS in DLD1 cells. Arsenic increased {beta}-catenin expression level and its promoter activity. ROS played a major role in arsenic-induced {beta}-catenin activation. Treatment of DLD1 cells by arsenic enhanced both transformation and tumorigenesis of these cells. The tumor volumes of arsenic treated group were much larger than those without arsenic treatment. Addition of either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or c