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Sample records for arsenite-induced mitotic arrest

  1. Sensitivity to sodium arsenite in human melanoma cells depends upon susceptibility to arsenite-induced mitotic arrest

    SciTech Connect

    McNeely, Samuel C.; Belshoff, Alex C.; Taylor, B. Frazier; Fan, Teresa W-M.; McCabe, Michael J.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2008-06-01

    Arsenic induces clinical remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and has potential for treatment of other cancers. The current study examines factors influencing sensitivity to arsenic using human malignant melanoma cell lines. A375 and SK-Mel-2 cells were sensitive to clinically achievable concentrations of arsenite, whereas SK-Mel-3 and SK-Mel-28 cells required supratherapeutic levels for toxicity. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter function attenuated arsenite resistance, consistent with studies suggesting that arsenite is extruded from the cell as a glutathione conjugate by MRP-1. However, MRP-1 was not overexpressed in resistant lines and GST-{pi} was only slightly elevated. ICP-MS analysis indicated that arsenite-resistant SK-Mel-28 cells did not accumulate less arsenic than arsenite-sensitive A375 cells, suggesting that resistance was not attributable to reduced arsenic accumulation but rather to intrinsic properties of resistant cell lines. The mode of arsenite-induced cell death was apoptosis. Arsenite-induced apoptosis is associated with cell cycle alterations. Cell cycle analysis revealed arsenite-sensitive cells arrested in mitosis whereas arsenite-resistant cells did not, suggesting that induction of mitotic arrest occurs at lower intracellular arsenic concentrations. Higher intracellular arsenic levels induced cell cycle arrest in the S-phase and G{sub 2}-phase in SK-Mel-3 and SK-Mel-28 cells, respectively. The lack of arsenite-induced mitotic arrest in resistant cell lines was associated with a weakened spindle checkpoint resulting from reduced expression of spindle checkpoint protein BUBR1. These data suggest that arsenite has potential for treatment of solid tumors but a functional spindle checkpoint is a prerequisite for a positive response to its clinical application.

  2. Arsenite-induced mitotic death involves stress response and is independent of tubulin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, B. Frazier; McNeely, Samuel C.; Miller, Heather L.; States, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Arsenite, a known mitotic disruptor, causes cell cycle arrest and cell death at anaphase. The mechanism causing mitotic arrest is highly disputed. We compared arsenite to the spindle poisons nocodazole and paclitaxel. Immunofluorescence analysis of α-tubulin in interphase cells demonstrated that, while nocodazole and paclitaxel disrupt microtubule polymerization through destabilization and hyperpolymerization, respectively, microtubules in arsenite-treated cells remain comparable to untreated cells even at supra-therapeutic concentrations. Immunofluorescence analysis of α-tubulin in mitotic cells showed spindle formation in arsenite- and paclitaxel-treated cells but not in nocodazole-treated cells. Spindle formation in arsenite-treated cells appeared irregular and multi-polar. γ-tubulin staining showed that cells treated with nocodazole and therapeutic concentrations of paclitaxel contained two centrosomes. In contrast, most arsenite-treated mitotic cells contained more than two centrosomes, similar to centrosome abnormalities induced by heat shock. Of the three drugs tested, only arsenite treatment increased expression of the inducible isoform of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i). HSP70 and HSP90 proteins are intimately involved in centrosome regulation and mitotic spindle formation. HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG sensitized cells to arsenite treatment and increased arsenite-induced centrosome abnormalities. Combined treatment of 17-DMAG and arsenite resulted in a supra-additive effect on viability, mitotic arrest, and centrosome abnormalities. Thus, arsenite-induced abnormal centrosome amplification and subsequent mitotic arrest is independent of effects on tubulin polymerization and may be due to specific stresses that are protected against by HSP90 and HSP70. PMID:18485433

  3. Arsenite-induced mitotic death involves stress response and is independent of tubulin polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, B. Frazier; McNeely, Samuel C.; Miller, Heather L.; States, J. Christopher

    2008-07-15

    Arsenite, a known mitotic disruptor, causes cell cycle arrest and cell death at anaphase. The mechanism causing mitotic arrest is highly disputed. We compared arsenite to the spindle poisons nocodazole and paclitaxel. Immunofluorescence analysis of {alpha}-tubulin in interphase cells demonstrated that, while nocodazole and paclitaxel disrupt microtubule polymerization through destabilization and hyperpolymerization, respectively, microtubules in arsenite-treated cells remain comparable to untreated cells even at supra-therapeutic concentrations. Immunofluorescence analysis of {alpha}-tubulin in mitotic cells showed spindle formation in arsenite- and paclitaxel-treated cells but not in nocodazole-treated cells. Spindle formation in arsenite-treated cells appeared irregular and multi-polar. {gamma}-tubulin staining showed that cells treated with nocodazole and therapeutic concentrations of paclitaxel contained two centrosomes. In contrast, most arsenite-treated mitotic cells contained more than two centrosomes, similar to centrosome abnormalities induced by heat shock. Of the three drugs tested, only arsenite treatment increased expression of the inducible isoform of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i). HSP70 and HSP90 proteins are intimately involved in centrosome regulation and mitotic spindle formation. HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG sensitized cells to arsenite treatment and increased arsenite-induced centrosome abnormalities. Combined treatment of 17-DMAG and arsenite resulted in a supra-additive effect on viability, mitotic arrest, and centrosome abnormalities. Thus, arsenite-induced abnormal centrosome amplification and subsequent mitotic arrest is independent of effects on tubulin polymerization and may be due to specific stresses that are protected against by HSP90 and HSP70.

  4. Mitotic Arrest-Associated Apoptosis Induced by Sodium Arsenite in A375 Melanoma Cells Is BUBR1-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Samuel C.; Taylor, B. Frazier; States, J. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    A375 human malignant melanoma cells undergo mitotic arrest-associated apoptosis when treated with pharmacological concentrations of sodium arsenite, a chemotherapeutic for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Our previous studies indicated that decreased arsenite sensitivity correlated with reduced mitotic spindle checkpoint function and reduced expression of the checkpoint protein BUBR1. In the current study, arsenite induced securin and cyclin B stabilization, BUBR1 phosphorylation, and spindle checkpoint activation. Arsenite also increased activating cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) Thr161 phosphorylation but decreased inhibitory Tyr15 phosphorylation. Mitotic arrest resulted in apoptosis as indicated by colocalization of mitotic phospho-Histone H3 with active caspase 3. Apoptosis was associated with BCL-2 Ser70 phosphorylation. Inhibition of CDK1 with roscovitine in arsenite-treated mitotic cells inhibited spindle checkpoint maintenance as inferred from reduced BUBR1 phosphorylation, reduced cyclin B expression, and diminution of mitotic index. Roscovitine also reduced BCL-2 Ser70 phosphorylation and protected against apoptosis, suggesting mitotic arrest caused by hyperactivation of CDK1 directly or indirectly leads to BCL-2 phosphorylation and apoptosis. In addition, suppression of BUBR1 with siRNA prevented arsenite-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of arsenic’s chemotherapeutic action and indicate a functional spindle checkpoint may be required for arsenic-sensitivity. PMID:18501396

  5. Mitotic arrest-associated apoptosis induced by sodium arsenite in A375 melanoma cells is BUBR1-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    McNeely, Samuel C.; Taylor, B. Frazier; States, J. Christopher

    2008-08-15

    A375 human malignant melanoma cells undergo mitotic arrest-associated apoptosis when treated with pharmacological concentrations of sodium arsenite, a chemotherapeutic for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Our previous studies indicated that decreased arsenite sensitivity correlated with reduced mitotic spindle checkpoint function and reduced expression of the checkpoint protein BUBR1. In the current study, arsenite induced securin and cyclin B stabilization, BUBR1 phosphorylation, and spindle checkpoint activation. Arsenite also increased activating cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) Thr{sup 161} phosphorylation but decreased inhibitory Tyr15 phosphorylation. Mitotic arrest resulted in apoptosis as indicated by colocalization of mitotic phospho-Histone H3 with active caspase 3. Apoptosis was associated with BCL-2 Ser70 phosphorylation. Inhibition of CDK1 with roscovitine in arsenite-treated mitotic cells inhibited spindle checkpoint maintenance as inferred from reduced BUBR1 phosphorylation, reduced cyclin B expression, and diminution of mitotic index. Roscovitine also reduced BCL-2 Ser70 phosphorylation and protected against apoptosis, suggesting mitotic arrest caused by hyperactivation of CDK1 directly or indirectly leads to BCL-2 phosphorylation and apoptosis. In addition, suppression of BUBR1 with siRNA prevented arsenite-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of arsenic's chemotherapeutic action and indicate a functional spindle checkpoint may be required for arsenic-sensitivity.

  6. Mitotic Arrest in Teratoma Susceptible Fetal Male Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Western, Patrick S.; Ralli, Rachael A.; Wakeling, Stephanie I.; Lo, Camden; van den Bergen, Jocelyn A.; Miles, Denise C.; Sinclair, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Formation of germ cell derived teratomas occurs in mice of the 129/SvJ strain, but not in C57Bl/6 inbred or CD1 outbred mice. Despite this, there have been few comparative studies aimed at determining the similarities and differences between teratoma susceptible and non-susceptible mouse strains. This study examines the entry of fetal germ cells into the male pathway and mitotic arrest in 129T2/SvJ mice. We find that although the entry of fetal germ cells into mitotic arrest is similar between 129T2/SvJ, C57Bl/6 and CD1 mice, there were significant differences in the size and germ cell content of the testis cords in these strains. In 129T2/SvJ mice germ cell mitotic arrest involves upregulation of p27KIP1, p15INK4B, activation of RB, the expression of male germ cell differentiation markers NANOS2, DNMT3L and MILI and repression of the pluripotency network. The germ-line markers DPPA2 and DPPA4 show reciprocal repression and upregulation, respectively, while FGFR3 is substantially enriched in the nucleus of differentiating male germ cells. Further understanding of fetal male germ cell differentiation promises to provide insight into disorders of the testis and germ cell lineage, such as testis tumour formation and infertility. PMID:21674058

  7. Docetaxel-induced mitotic arrest in epithelium of gallbladder: a hitherto unreported occurrence.

    PubMed

    Melgoza, Frank; Narula, Navneet; Wu, Mark Li-cheng

    2008-04-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents that bind tubulin cause mitotic arrest, which may be seen histologically. Such mitotic arrest has been reported to occur in the skin, alimentary canal, lungs, liver, bone marrow, endometrium, breasts, or in ascites following treatment with paclitaxel, vincristine, colchicine, podophyllotoxin, or maytansine. Mitotic arrest as a result of docetaxel, a taxane that binds tubulin, has yet to be reported. Mitotic arrest in the gallbladder has also yet to be reported. We recently encountered a case of dramatic mitotic arrest as a result of docetaxel, involving the gallbladder of a 66-year-old man with metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma. Strikingly abundant bizarre mitoses initially prompted a diagnosis of primary carcinoma. Carcinoma was eventually excluded based on the absence of dysplasia in all cells at interphase and the history of recent administration of docetaxel. This is the first case of mitotic arrest involving docetaxel or the gallbladder. Awareness of this phenomenon is necessary to avoid misdiagnosing carcinoma.

  8. Suppression of p53 and p21CIP1/WAF1 reduces arsenite-induced aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Ana María; Miller, Heather L.; McNeely, Samuel C.; Sordo, Monserrat; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; States, J. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Aneuploidy and extensive chromosomal rearrangements are common in human tumors. The role of DNA damage response proteins p53 and p21CIP1/WAF1 in aneugenesis and clastogenesis was investigated in telomerase immortalized diploid human fibroblasts using siRNA suppression of p53 and p21CIP1/WAF1. Cells were exposed to the environmental carcinogen sodium arsenite (15 and 20 µM), and the induction of micronuclei (MN) was evaluated in binucleated cells using the cytokinesis-block assay. To determine whether MN resulted from missegregation of chromosomes or from chromosomal fragments, we used a fluorescent in situ hybridization with a centromeric DNA probe. Micronuclei were predominantly of clastogenic origin in control cells regardless of p53 or p21CIP1/WAF1 expression. MN with centromere signals in cells transfected with NSC siRNA or Mock increased 30% after arsenite exposure, indicating that arsenite induced aneuploidy in the tGM24 cells. Although suppression of p53 increased the fraction of arsenite-treated cells with MN, it caused a decrease in the fraction of with centeromeric DNA. Suppression of p21CIP1/WAF1 like p53 suppression decreased the fraction of with centromeric DNA. Our results suggest that cells lacking normal p53 function cannot become aneuploid because they die by mitotic arrest-associated apoptosis, whereas cells with normal p53 function that are able to exit from mitotic arrest can become aneuploid. Furthermore our current results support this role for p21CIP1/WAF1. Since suppression of p21CIP1/WAF1 caused a decrease in aneuploidy induced by arsenite suggesting that p21CIP1/WAF1 plays a role in mitotic exit. PMID:20000476

  9. AMPK and PFKFB3 mediate glycolysis and survival in response to mitophagy during mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Elena; Maestre, Carolina; Esteban-Martínez, Lorena; Partida, David; Pascual, Rosa; Fernández-Miranda, Gonzalo; Seco, Esther; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Pérez, Manuel; Megias, Diego; Allen, Katherine; López, Miguel; Saha, Asish K; Velasco, Guillermo; Rial, Eduardo; Méndez, Raúl; Boya, Patricia; Salazar-Roa, María; Malumbres, Marcos

    2015-10-01

    Blocking mitotic progression has been proposed as an attractive therapeutic strategy to impair proliferation of tumour cells. However, how cells survive during prolonged mitotic arrest is not well understood. We show here that survival during mitotic arrest is affected by the special energetic requirements of mitotic cells. Prolonged mitotic arrest results in mitophagy-dependent loss of mitochondria, accompanied by reduced ATP levels and the activation of AMPK. Oxidative respiration is replaced by glycolysis owing to AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of PFKFB3 and increased production of this protein as a consequence of mitotic-specific translational activation of its mRNA. Induction of autophagy or inhibition of AMPK or PFKFB3 results in enhanced cell death in mitosis and improves the anti-tumoral efficiency of microtubule poisons in breast cancer cells. Thus, survival of mitotic-arrested cells is limited by their metabolic requirements, a feature with potential implications in cancer therapies aimed to impair mitosis or metabolism in tumour cells.

  10. Efficient Activation of Apoptotic Signaling during Mitotic Arrest with AK301

    PubMed Central

    Bleiler, Marina; Yeagley, Michelle; Wright, Dennis; Giardina, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic inhibitors are widely utilized chemotherapeutic agents that take advantage of mitotic defects in cancer cells. We have identified a novel class of piperazine-based mitotic inhibitors, of which AK301 is the most potent derivative identified to date (EC50 < 200 nM). Colon cancer cells arrested in mitosis with AK301 readily underwent a p53-dependent apoptosis following compound withdrawal and arrest release. This apoptotic response was significantly higher for AK301 than for other mitotic inhibitors tested (colchicine, vincristine, and BI 2536). AK301-treated cells exhibited a robust mitosis-associated DNA damage response, including ATM activation, γH2AX phosphorylation and p53 stabilization. The association between mitotic signaling and the DNA damage response was supported by the finding that Aurora B inhibition reduced the level of γH2AX staining. Confocal imaging of AK301-treated cells revealed multiple γ-tubulin microtubule organizing centers attached to microtubules, but with limited centrosome migration, raising the possibility that aberrant microtubule pulling may underlie DNA breakage. AK301 selectively targeted APC-mutant colonocytes and promoted TNF-induced apoptosis in p53-mutant colon cancer cells. Our findings indicate that AK301 induces a mitotic arrest state with a highly active DNA damage response. Together with a reversible arrest state, AK301 is a potent promoter of a mitosis-to-apoptosis transition that can target cancer cells with mitotic defects. PMID:27097159

  11. Stathmin inhibition enhances okadaic acid-induced mitotic arrest: a potential role for stathmin in mitotic exit.

    PubMed

    Mistry, S J; Atweh, G F

    2001-08-17

    Stathmin is a microtubule-destabilizing phosphoprotein that plays a critical role in the regulation of mitosis. The microtubule-depolymerizing activity of stathmin is lost upon phosphorylation in mitosis. Although the role of phosphorylation of stathmin by p34(cdc2) kinase in the assembly of the mitotic spindle is well established, the role of dephosphorylation of stathmin in mitosis is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dephosphorylation of stathmin may be critically important for the depolymerization of the mitotic spindle and the exit from mitosis. We compared the effects of okadaic acid, a specific inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, on different parameters of mitotic progression in the presence or absence of stathmin deficiency. Because okadaic acid prevents dephosphorylation of stathmin and results in accumulation of the inactive phosphorylated form, exposure to okadaic acid would be expected to have a more profound effect on mitosis in the presence of relative stathmin deficiency. We found that inhibition of stathmin expression results in increased sensitivity to the antimitotic effects of okadaic acid. This was reflected by increased growth inhibition associated with mitotic arrest. A vast majority of the stathmin-inhibited cells were found to be arrested in late metaphase/anaphase and had severe mitotic spindle abnormalities. Exposure to okadaic acid also resulted in a bigger ratio of polymerized/unpolymerized tubulin in stathmin-inhibited cells relative to control cells. Because the only difference between the control and the stathmin-inhibited cells is the deficiency of stathmin in the latter, the increased susceptibility of the stathmin-inhibited cells to okadaic acid-induced mitotic arrest implies a role for stathmin in the later stages of mitosis.

  12. Pharicin A, a novel natural ent-kaurene diterpenoid, induces mitotic arrest and mitotic catastrophe of cancer cells by interfering with BubR1 function.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han-Zhang; Huang, Ying; Wu, Ying-Li; Zhao, Yong; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Lin, Qi-Shan; Sun, Han-Dong; Dai, Wei; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2010-07-15

    In this study, we report the functional characterization of a new ent-kaurene diterpenoid termed pharicin A, which was originally isolated from Isodon, a perennial shrub frequently used in Chinese folk medicine for tumor treatment. Pharicin A induces mitotic arrest in leukemia and solid tumor-derived cells identified by their morphology, DNA content and mitotic marker analyses. Pharicin A-induced mitotic arrest is associated with unaligned chromosomes, aberrant BubR1 localization and deregulated spindle checkpoint activation. Pharicin A directly binds to BubR1 in vitro, which is correlated with premature sister chromatid separation in vivo. Pharicin A also induces mitotic arrest in paclitaxel-resistant Jurkat and U2OS cells. Combined, our study strongly suggests that pharicin A represents a novel class of small molecule compounds capable of perturbing mitotic progression and initiating mitotic catastrophe, which merits further preclinical and clinical investigations for cancer drug development.

  13. Bcl-xL controls a switch between cell death modes during mitotic arrest

    PubMed Central

    Bah, N; Maillet, L; Ryan, J; Dubreil, S; Gautier, F; Letai, A; Juin, P; Barillé-Nion, S

    2014-01-01

    Antimitotic agents such as microtubule inhibitors (paclitaxel) are widely used in cancer therapy while new agents blocking mitosis onset are currently in development. All these agents impose a prolonged mitotic arrest in cancer cells that relies on sustained activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and may lead to subsequent cell death by incompletely understood molecular events. We have investigated the role played by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in the fate of mitotically arrested mammary tumor cells treated with paclitaxel, or depleted in Cdc20, the activator of the anaphase promoting complex. Under these conditions, a weak and delayed mitotic cell death occurs that is caspase- and Bax/Bak-independent. Moreover, BH3 profiling assays indicate that viable cells during mitotic arrest are primed to die by apoptosis and that Bcl-xL is required to maintain mitochondrial integrity. Consistently, Bcl-xL depletion, or treatment with its inhibitor ABT-737 (but not with the specific Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-199), during mitotic arrest converts cell response to antimitotics to efficient caspase and Bax-dependent apoptosis. Apoptotic priming under conditions of mitotic arrest relies, at least in part, on the phosphorylation on serine 62 of Bcl-xL, which modulates its interaction with Bax and its sensitivity to ABT-737. The phospho-mimetic S62D-Bcl-xL mutant is indeed less efficient than the corresponding phospho-deficient S62A-Bcl-xL mutant in sequestrating Bax and in protecting cancer cells from mitotic cell death or yeast cells from Bax-induced growth inhibition. Our results provide a rationale for combining Bcl-xL targeting to antimitotic agents to improve clinical efficacy of antimitotic strategy in cancer therapy. PMID:24922075

  14. Phosphorylation of Lte1 by Cdk prevents polarized growth during mitotic arrest in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Spanos, Adonis; Jensen, Sanne; Sedgwick, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Lte1 is known as a regulator of mitotic progression in budding yeast. Here we demonstrate phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of polarized bud growth during G2/M by Lte1. Cla4 activity first localizes Lte1 to the polarity cap and thus specifically to the bud. This localization is a prerequisite for subsequent Clb–Cdk-dependent phosphorylation of Lte1 and its relocalization to the entire bud cortex. There, Lte1 interferes with activation of the small GTPases, Ras and Bud1. The inhibition of Bud1 prevents untimely polarization until mitosis is completed and Cdc14 phosphatase is released. Inhibition of Bud1 and Ras depends on Lte1’s GEF-like domain, which unexpectedly inhibits these small G proteins. Thus, Lte1 has dual functions for regulation of mitotic progression: it both induces mitotic exit and prevents polarized growth during mitotic arrest, thereby coupling cell cycle progression and morphological development. PMID:21149565

  15. Cell fate after mitotic arrest in different tumor cells is determined by the balance between slippage and apoptotic threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Galán-Malo, Patricia; Vela, Laura; Gonzalo, Oscar; Calvo-Sanjuán, Rubén; Gracia-Fleta, Lucía; Naval, Javier; Marzo, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    Microtubule poisons and other anti-mitotic drugs induce tumor death but the molecular events linking mitotic arrest to cell death are still not fully understood. We have analyzed cell fate after mitotic arrest produced by the microtubule-destabilizing drug vincristine in a panel of human tumor cell lines showing different response to vincristine. In Jurkat, RPMI 8226 and HeLa cells, apoptosis was triggered shortly after vincristine-induced mitotic arrest. However, A549 cells, which express a great amount of Bcl-x{sub L} and undetectable amounts of Bak, underwent mitotic slippage prior to cell death. However, when Bcl-x{sub L} gene was silenced in A549 cells, vincristine induced apoptosis during mitotic arrest. Another different behavior was found in MiaPaca2 cells, where vincristine caused death by mitotic catastrophe that switched to apoptosis when cyclin B1 degradation was prevented by proteasome inhibition. Overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L} or silencing Bax and Bak expression delayed the onset of apoptosis in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells, enabling mitotic slippage and endoreduplication. In HeLa cells, overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L} switched cell death from apoptosis to mitotic catastrophe. Mcl-1 offered limited protection to vincristine-induced cell death and Mcl-1 degradation was not essential for vincristine-induced death. All these results, taken together, indicate that the Bcl-x{sub L}/Bak ratio and the ability to degrade cyclin B1 determine cell fate after mitotic arrest in the different tumor cell types. Highlights: ► Vincristine induces cell death by apoptosis or mitotic catastrophe. ► Apoptosis-proficient cells die by apoptosis during mitosis upon vincristine treatment. ► p53wt apoptosis-deficient cells undergo apoptosis from a G1-like tetraploid state. ► p53mt apoptosis-deficient cells can survive and divide giving rise to 8N cells.

  16. Sulforaphane induces reactive oxygen species-mediated mitotic arrest and subsequent apoptosis in human bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Soo; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Hwang, Hye Jin; Park, Kun Young; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether sulforaphane-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) might cause growth arrest and apoptosis in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Our results show that the reduced viability of 5637 cells by sulforaphane is due to mitotic arrest, but not the G2 phase. The sulforaphane-induced mitotic arrest correlated with an induction of cyclin B1 and phosphorylation of Cdk1, as well as a concomitant increased complex between cyclin B1 and Cdk1. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis was associated with the activation of caspase-8 and -9, the initiators caspases of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively, and activation of effector caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. However, blockage of caspase activation inhibited apoptosis and abrogated growth inhibition in sulforaphane-treated 5637 cells. This study further investigated the roles of ROS with respect to mitotic arrest and the apoptotic effect of sulforaphane, and the maximum level of ROS accumulation was observed 3h after sulforaphane treatment. However, a ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, notably attenuated sulforaphane-mediated apoptosis as well as mitotic arrest. Overall, these results suggest that sulforaphane induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis of 5637 cells via a ROS-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitotic phosphorylation of Exo84 disrupts exocyst assembly and arrests cell growth.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangzuo; Zhang, Jian; Luca, Francis C; Guo, Wei

    2013-07-08

    The rate of eukaryotic cell growth is tightly controlled for proper progression through each cell cycle stage and is important for cell size homeostasis. It was previously shown that cell growth is inhibited during mitosis when cells are preparing for division. However, the mechanism for growth arrest at this stage is unknown. Here we demonstrate that exocytosis of a select group of cargoes was inhibited before the metaphase-anaphase transition in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdk1, when bound to the mitotic cyclin Clb2, directly phosphorylated Exo84, a component of the exocyst complex essential for exocytosis. Mitotic phosphorylation of Exo84 disrupted the assembly of the exocyst complex, thereby affecting exocytosis and cell surface expansion. Our study demonstrates the coordination between membrane trafficking and cell cycle progression and provides a molecular mechanism by which cell growth is controlled during the cell division cycle.

  18. Discovery of Novel Polo-Like Kinase 1 Polo-Box Domain Inhibitors to Induce Mitotic Arrest in Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tan; Chen, Fangjin; Zhuo, Xiaolong; Guo, Xiao; Yun, Taikangxiang; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chuanmao; Lai, Luhua

    2016-08-11

    Polo-like kinase 1(Plk1) is vital for cell mitosis and has been identified as anticancer target. Its polo-box domain (PBD) mediates substrate binding, blocking of which may offer selective Plk1 inhibition compared to kinase domain inhibitors. Although several PBD inhibitors were reported, most of them suffer from low cell activity. Here, we report the discovery of novel inhibitors to induce mitotic arrest in HeLa cells by virtual screening with Plk1 PBD and cellular activity testing. Of the 81 compounds tested in the cell assay, 10 molecules with diverse chemical scaffolds are potent to induce mitotic arrest of HeLa at low micromolar concentrations. The best compound induces mitotic arrest of HeLa cells with an EC50 of 4.4 μM. The cellular active inhibitors showed binding to Plk1 PBD and compete with PBD substrate in microscale thermophoresis analysis.

  19. The SUMO protease SENP1 is required for cohesion maintenance and mitotic arrest following spindle poison treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Era, Saho; Abe, Takuya; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Szakal, Barnabas; Yoshikawa, Yusuke; Motegi, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi; Branzei, Dana

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SENP1 knockout chicken DT40 cells are hypersensitive to spindle poisons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spindle poison treatment of SENP1{sup -/-} cells leads to increased mitotic slippage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitotic slippage in SENP1{sup -/-} cells associates with apoptosis and endoreplication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SENP1 counteracts sister chromatid separation during mitotic arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plk1-mediated cohesion down-regulation is involved in colcemid cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: SUMO conjugation is a reversible posttranslational modification that regulates protein function. SENP1 is one of the six SUMO-specific proteases present in vertebrate cells and its altered expression is observed in several carcinomas. To characterize SENP1 role in genome integrity, we generated Senp1 knockout chicken DT40 cells. SENP1{sup -/-} cells show normal proliferation, but are sensitive to spindle poisons. This hypersensitivity correlates with increased sister chromatid separation, mitotic slippage, and apoptosis. To test whether the cohesion defect had a causal relationship with the observed mitotic events, we restored the cohesive status of sister chromatids by introducing the TOP2{alpha}{sup +/-} mutation, which leads to increased catenation, or by inhibiting Plk1 and Aurora B kinases that promote cohesin release from chromosomes during prolonged mitotic arrest. Although TOP2{alpha} is SUMOylated during mitosis, the TOP2{alpha}{sup +/-} mutation had no obvious effect. By contrast, inhibition of Plk1 or Aurora B rescued the hypersensitivity of SENP1{sup -/-} cells to colcemid. In conclusion, we identify SENP1 as a novel factor required for mitotic arrest and cohesion maintenance during prolonged mitotic arrest induced by spindle poisons.

  20. Taxifolin Enhances Andrographolide-Induced Mitotic Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells via Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide (Andro) suppresses proliferation and triggers apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. Taxifolin (Taxi) has been proposed to prevent cancer development similar to other dietary flavonoids. In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the addition of Andro alone and Andro and Taxi together on human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells were assessed. Andro inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation by mitotic arrest and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Although the effect of Taxi alone on DU145 cell proliferation was not significant, the combined use of Taxi with Andro significantly potentiated the anti-proliferative effect of increased mitotic arrest and apoptosis by enhancing the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caspases-7 and -9. Andro together with Taxi enhanced microtubule polymerization in vitro, and they induced the formation of twisted and elongated spindles in the cancer cells, thus leading to mitotic arrest. In addition, we showed that depletion of MAD2, a component in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), alleviated the mitotic block induced by the two compounds, suggesting that they trigger mitotic arrest by SAC activation. This study suggests that the anti-cancer activity of Andro can be significantly enhanced in combination with Taxi by disrupting microtubule dynamics and activating the SAC. PMID:23382917

  1. Taxifolin enhances andrographolide-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells via spindle assembly checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong Rong; Al Zaharna, Mazen; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide (Andro) suppresses proliferation and triggers apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. Taxifolin (Taxi) has been proposed to prevent cancer development similar to other dietary flavonoids. In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the addition of Andro alone and Andro and Taxi together on human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells were assessed. Andro inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation by mitotic arrest and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Although the effect of Taxi alone on DU145 cell proliferation was not significant, the combined use of Taxi with Andro significantly potentiated the anti-proliferative effect of increased mitotic arrest and apoptosis by enhancing the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caspases-7 and -9. Andro together with Taxi enhanced microtubule polymerization in vitro, and they induced the formation of twisted and elongated spindles in the cancer cells, thus leading to mitotic arrest. In addition, we showed that depletion of MAD2, a component in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), alleviated the mitotic block induced by the two compounds, suggesting that they trigger mitotic arrest by SAC activation. This study suggests that the anti-cancer activity of Andro can be significantly enhanced in combination with Taxi by disrupting microtubule dynamics and activating the SAC.

  2. Phosphorylation of Mcl-1 by CDK1-cyclin B1 initiates its Cdc20-dependent destruction during mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Harley, Margaret E; Allan, Lindsey A; Sanderson, Helen S; Clarke, Paul R

    2010-07-21

    The balance between cell cycle progression and apoptosis is important for both surveillance against genomic defects and responses to drugs that arrest the cell cycle. In this report, we show that the level of the human anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 is regulated during the cell cycle and peaks at mitosis. Mcl-1 is phosphorylated at two sites in mitosis, Ser64 and Thr92. Phosphorylation of Thr92 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-cyclin B1 initiates degradation of Mcl-1 in cells arrested in mitosis by microtubule poisons. Mcl-1 destruction during mitotic arrest requires proteasome activity and is dependent on Cdc20/Fizzy, which mediates recognition of mitotic substrates by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Stabilisation of Mcl-1 during mitotic arrest by mutation of either Thr92 or a D-box destruction motif inhibits the induction of apoptosis by microtubule poisons. Thus, phosphorylation of Mcl-1 by CDK1-cyclin B1 and its APC/C(Cdc20)-mediated destruction initiates apoptosis if a cell fails to resolve mitosis. Regulation of apoptosis, therefore, is linked intrinsically to progression through mitosis and is governed by a temporal mechanism that distinguishes between normal mitosis and prolonged mitotic arrest.

  3. Picropodophyllin causes mitotic arrest and catastrophe by depolymerizing microtubules via insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Waraky, Ahmed; Akopyan, Karen; Parrow, Vendela; Strömberg, Thomas; Axelson, Magnus; Abrahmsén, Lars; Lindqvist, Arne; Larsson, Olle; Aleem, Eiman

    2014-09-30

    Picropodophyllin (PPP) is an anticancer drug undergoing clinical development in NSCLC. PPP has been shown to suppress IGF-1R signaling and to induce a G2/M cell cycle phase arrest but the exact mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study identified an IGF-1-independent mechanism of PPP leading to pro-metaphase arrest. The mitotic block was induced in human cancer cell lines and in an A549 xenograft mouse but did not occur in normal hepatocytes/mouse tissues. Cell cycle arrest by PPP occurred in vitro and in vivo accompanied by prominent CDK1 activation, and was IGF-1R-independent since it occurred also in IGF-1R-depleted and null cells. The tumor cells were not arrested in G2/M but in mitosis. Centrosome separation was prevented during mitotic entry, resulting in a monopolar mitotic spindle with subsequent prometaphase-arrest, independent of Plk1/Aurora A or Eg5, and leading to cell features of mitotic catastrophe. PPP also increased soluble tubulin and decreased spindle-associated tubulin within minutes, indicating that it interfered with microtubule dynamics. These results provide a novel IGF-1R-independent mechanism of antitumor effects of PPP.

  4. Involvement of p53 in cell death following cell cycle arrest and mitotic catastrophe induced by rotenone

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, António Pedro; Máximo, Valdemar; Lima, Jorge; Singh, Keshav K.; Soares, Paula; Videira, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the cell death-inducing effects of rotenone, a plant extract commonly used as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, we studied cancer cell lines with different genetic backgrounds. Rotenone inhibits cell growth through the induction of cell death and cell cycle arrest, associated with the development of mitotic catastrophe. The cell death inducer staurosporine potentiates the inhibition of cell growth by rotenone in a dose-dependent synergistic manner. The tumor suppressor p53 is involved in rotenone-induced cell death, since the drug treatment results in increased expression, phosphorylation and nuclear localization of the protein. The evaluation of the effects of rotenone on a p53-deficient cell line revealed that although not required for the promotion of mitotic catastrophe, functional p53 appears to be essential for the extensive cell death that occurs afterwards. Our results suggest that mitotic slippage also occurs subsequently to the rotenone-induced mitotic arrest and cells treated with the drug for a longer period become senescent. Treatment of mtDNA-depleted cells with rotenone induces cell death and cell cycle arrest as in cells containing wild type mtDNA, but not formation of reactive oxygen species. This suggests that the effects of rotenone are not dependent from the production of reactive oxygen species. This work highlights the multiple effects of rotenone in cancer cells related to its action as an anti-mitotic drug. PMID:21223980

  5. Involvement of p53 in cell death following cell cycle arrest and mitotic catastrophe induced by rotenone.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, António Pedro; Máximo, Valdemar; Lima, Jorge; Singh, Keshav K; Soares, Paula; Videira, Arnaldo

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the cell death-inducing effects of rotenone, a plant extract commonly used as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, we studied cancer cell lines with different genetic backgrounds. Rotenone inhibits cell growth through the induction of cell death and cell cycle arrest, associated with the development of mitotic catastrophe. The cell death inducer staurosporine potentiates the inhibition of cell growth by rotenone in a dose-dependent synergistic manner. The tumor suppressor p53 is involved in rotenone-induced cell death, since the drug treatment results in increased expression, phosphorylation and nuclear localization of the protein. The evaluation of the effects of rotenone on a p53-deficient cell line revealed that although not required for the promotion of mitotic catastrophe, functional p53 appears to be essential for the extensive cell death that occurs afterwards. Our results suggest that mitotic slippage also occurs subsequently to the rotenone-induced mitotic arrest and cells treated with the drug for a longer period become senescent. Treatment of mtDNA-depleted cells with rotenone induces cell death and cell cycle arrest as in cells containing wild-type mtDNA, but not formation of reactive oxygen species. This suggests that the effects of rotenone are not dependent from the production of reactive oxygen species. This work highlights the multiple effects of rotenone in cancer cells related to its action as an anti-mitotic drug.

  6. The apoptotic mechanisms of MT-6, a mitotic arrest inducer, in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Chuan; Kuo, Yi-Chiu; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yi-Lin; Shen, Chien-Chang; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin

    2017-04-07

    Patients with ovarian cancer are typically diagnosed at an advanced stage, resulting in poor prognosis since there are currently no effective early-detection screening tests for women at average-risk for ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of MT-6, a derivative of moscatilin, in ovarian cancer cells. Our investigation showed that MT-6 inhibited the proliferation and viability of ovarian cancer cells with submicromolar IC50 values. MT-6-treated SKOV3 cells showed significant cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, followed by an increase in the proportion of cells in a sub-G1 phase. In addition, MT-6 induced a concentration-dependent increase in mitotic markers, mitotic kinases, cell cycle regulators of G2/M transition, and apoptosis-related markers in ovarian cancer cells. MT-6 treatment also induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss, JNK activation, and DR5 expression. Cotreatment of cells with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 considerably attenuated MT-6-induced apoptosis, mitochondria membrane potential loss, DR5 upregulation, and suppression of cell viability. MT-6 also inhibited tumor growth in an SKOV3 xenograft model without significant body weight loss. Together, our findings suggest that MT-6 is a potent anticancer agent with tumor-suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo that could be further investigated for ovarian cancer therapy in the future.

  7. The apoptotic mechanisms of MT-6, a mitotic arrest inducer, in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Chuan; Kuo, Yi-Chiu; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yi-Lin; Shen, Chien-Chang; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with ovarian cancer are typically diagnosed at an advanced stage, resulting in poor prognosis since there are currently no effective early-detection screening tests for women at average-risk for ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of MT-6, a derivative of moscatilin, in ovarian cancer cells. Our investigation showed that MT-6 inhibited the proliferation and viability of ovarian cancer cells with submicromolar IC50 values. MT-6–treated SKOV3 cells showed significant cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, followed by an increase in the proportion of cells in a sub-G1 phase. In addition, MT-6 induced a concentration-dependent increase in mitotic markers, mitotic kinases, cell cycle regulators of G2/M transition, and apoptosis-related markers in ovarian cancer cells. MT-6 treatment also induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss, JNK activation, and DR5 expression. Cotreatment of cells with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 considerably attenuated MT-6–induced apoptosis, mitochondria membrane potential loss, DR5 upregulation, and suppression of cell viability. MT-6 also inhibited tumor growth in an SKOV3 xenograft model without significant body weight loss. Together, our findings suggest that MT-6 is a potent anticancer agent with tumor-suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo that could be further investigated for ovarian cancer therapy in the future. PMID:28387244

  8. A Novel Resveratrol Based Tubulin Inhibitor Induces Mitotic Arrest and Activates Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Hegde, Mahesh; Kumar, Sujeet; Karki, Subhas S.; Raghavan, Sathees C.; Choudhary, Bibha

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is one of the most widely studied bioactive plant polyphenols which possesses anticancer properties. Previously we have reported synthesis, characterization and identification of a novel resveratrol analog, SS28. In the present study, we show that SS28 induced cytotoxicity in several cancer cell lines ex vivo with an IC50 value of 3–5 μM. Mechanistic evaluation of effect of SS28 in non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) and T-cell leukemic cell line (CEM) showed that it inhibited Tubulin polymerization during cell division to cause cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase of the cell cycle at 12–18 h time period. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed the mitotic arrest upon treatment with SS28. Besides, we show that SS28 binds to Tubulin with a dissociation constant of 0.414 ± 0.11 μM. Further, SS28 treatment resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of Caspase 9 and Caspase 3, leading to PARP-1 cleavage and finally cell death via intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Importantly, treatment with SS28 resulted in regression of tumor in mice. Hence, our study reveals the antiproliferative activity of SS28 by disrupting microtubule dynamics by binding to its cellular target Tubulin and its potential to be developed as an anticancer molecule. PMID:27748367

  9. Maytansinoid-Antibody Conjugates Induce Mitotic Arrest by Suppressing Microtubule Dynamic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Oroudjev, Emin; Lopus, Manu; Wilson, Leslie; Audette, Charlene; Provenzano, Carmela; Erickson, Hans; Kovtun, Yelena; Chari, Ravi; Jordan, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Maytansine and its analogs (maytansinoids) are potent microtubule-targeted compounds that inhibit proliferation of cells at mitosis. Antibody-maytansinoid conjugates consisting of maytansinoids (DM1 and DM4) attached to tumor-specific antibodies have shown promising clinical results. To determine the mechanism by which the antibody-DM1 conjugates inhibit cell proliferation, we examined the effects of the cleavable anti-EpCAM -SPP-DM1 and uncleavable anti-EpCAM-SMCC-DM1 conjugates on MCF7 human breast tumor cells. We also examined the effects of the free maytansinoids, maytansine and S-methyl DM1 (a version of DM1 that is stable in cell culture medium) for comparison. Both the conjugates and free maytansinoids potently inhibited MCF7 cell proliferation at nanomolar and subnanomolar concentrations, respectively, by arresting the cells in mitotic prometaphase/metaphase. Arrest occurred in concert with the internalization and intracellular processing of both conjugates under conditions that induced abnormal spindle organization and suppressed microtubule dynamic instability. Microtubule depolymerization occurred only at significantly higher drug concentrations. The results indicate that free maytansinoids, antibody-maytansinoid conjugates, and their metabolites exert their potent antimitotic effects via a common mechanism involving suppression of microtubule dynamic instability. PMID:20937595

  10. Mitotic Stress Is an Integral Part of the Oncogene-Induced Senescence Program that Promotes Multinucleation and Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Dikovskaya, Dina; Cole, John J.; Mason, Susan M.; Nixon, Colin; Karim, Saadia A.; McGarry, Lynn; Clark, William; Hewitt, Rachael N.; Sammons, Morgan A.; Zhu, Jiajun; Athineos, Dimitris; Leach, Joshua D.G.; Marchesi, Francesco; van Tuyn, John; Tait, Stephen W.; Brock, Claire; Morton, Jennifer P.; Wu, Hong; Berger, Shelley L.; Blyth, Karen; Adams, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a tumor suppression mechanism that blocks cell proliferation in response to oncogenic signaling. OIS is frequently accompanied by multinucleation; however, the origin of this is unknown. Here, we show that multinucleate OIS cells originate mostly from failed mitosis. Prior to senescence, mutant H-RasV12 activation in primary human fibroblasts compromised mitosis, concordant with abnormal expression of mitotic genes functionally linked to the observed mitotic spindle and chromatin defects. Simultaneously, H-RasV12 activation enhanced survival of cells with damaged mitoses, culminating in extended mitotic arrest and aberrant exit from mitosis via mitotic slippage. ERK-dependent transcriptional upregulation of Mcl1 was, at least in part, responsible for enhanced survival and slippage of cells with mitotic defects. Importantly, mitotic slippage and oncogene signaling cooperatively induced senescence and key senescence effectors p21 and p16. In summary, activated Ras coordinately triggers mitotic disruption and enhanced cell survival to promote formation of multinucleate senescent cells. PMID:26299965

  11. Mitotic Stress Is an Integral Part of the Oncogene-Induced Senescence Program that Promotes Multinucleation and Cell Cycle Arrest.

    PubMed

    Dikovskaya, Dina; Cole, John J; Mason, Susan M; Nixon, Colin; Karim, Saadia A; McGarry, Lynn; Clark, William; Hewitt, Rachael N; Sammons, Morgan A; Zhu, Jiajun; Athineos, Dimitris; Leach, Joshua D G; Marchesi, Francesco; van Tuyn, John; Tait, Stephen W; Brock, Claire; Morton, Jennifer P; Wu, Hong; Berger, Shelley L; Blyth, Karen; Adams, Peter D

    2015-09-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a tumor suppression mechanism that blocks cell proliferation in response to oncogenic signaling. OIS is frequently accompanied by multinucleation; however, the origin of this is unknown. Here, we show that multinucleate OIS cells originate mostly from failed mitosis. Prior to senescence, mutant H-RasV12 activation in primary human fibroblasts compromised mitosis, concordant with abnormal expression of mitotic genes functionally linked to the observed mitotic spindle and chromatin defects. Simultaneously, H-RasV12 activation enhanced survival of cells with damaged mitoses, culminating in extended mitotic arrest and aberrant exit from mitosis via mitotic slippage. ERK-dependent transcriptional upregulation of Mcl1 was, at least in part, responsible for enhanced survival and slippage of cells with mitotic defects. Importantly, mitotic slippage and oncogene signaling cooperatively induced senescence and key senescence effectors p21 and p16. In summary, activated Ras coordinately triggers mitotic disruption and enhanced cell survival to promote formation of multinucleate senescent cells.

  12. Sulforaphane inhibits mitotic clonal expansion during adipogenesis through cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Lee, Youn-Sun; Sin, Dong-Mi; Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Jin-Tae; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for numerous metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Adipocyte differentiation is triggered by adipocyte hyperplasia, which leads to obesity. In this study, the inhibitory effect of sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. Sulforaphane decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets stained with Oil Red O and inhibited the elevation of triglycerides in the adipocytes (half-maximal inhibitory concentration = 7.3 µmol/l). The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), major transcription factors for adipocyte differentiation, was significantly reduced by sulforaphane. The major effects of sulforaphane on the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation occurred during the early stage of adipogenesis. Thus, the expression of C/EBPβ, an early-stage biomarker of adipogenesis, decreased in a concentration-dependent manner when the adipocytes were exposed to sulforaphane (0, 5, 10, and 20 µmol/l). The proliferation of adipocytes treated with 20 µmol/l sulforaphane for 24 and 48 h was also suppressed. These results indicate that sulforaphane may specifically affect mitotic clonal expansion to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Sulforaphane arrested the cell cycle at the G(0)/G(1) phase, increased p27 expression, and decreased retinoblastoma (Rb) phosphorylation. Additionally, sulforaphane modestly decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Our results indicate that the inhibition of early-stage adipocyte differentiation by sulforaphane may be associated with cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase through upregulation of p27 expression.

  13. Cytotoxic 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones as mitotic arresters and cell migration inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Salum, Lívia B.; Altei, Wanessa F.; Chiaradia, Louise D.; Cordeiro, Marlon N.S.; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Melo, Carolina P.S.; Winter, Evelyn; Mattei, Bruno; Daghestani, Hikmat N.; Santos-Silva, Maria Cláudia; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B.; Yunes, Rosendo A.; Yunes, José A.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.; Day, Billy W.; Nunes, Ricardo J.; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Based on classical colchicine site ligands and a computational model of the colchicine binding site on beta tubulin, two classes of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin assembly and toxicity in human cancer cell lines. Docking studies suggested that the chalcone scaffold could fit the colchicine site on tubulin in an orientation similar to that of the natural product. In particular, a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring adjacent to the carbonyl group appeared to benefit the ligand-tubulin interaction, occupying the same subcavity as the corresponding moiety in colchicine. Consistent with modeling predictions, several 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones showed improved cytotoxicity to murine acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with a previously described parent compound, and inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro as potently as colchicine. The most potent chalcones inhibited the growth of human leukemia cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, caused microtubule destabilization and mitotic arrest in human cervical cancer cells, and inhibited human breast cancer cell migration in scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays. PMID:23524161

  14. Anthelmintic drug albendazole arrests human gastric cancer cells at the mitotic phase and induces apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Xiangyang; Pei, Dongsheng; Gao, Chao

    2017-01-01

    As microtubules have a vital function in the cell cycle, oncologists have developed microtubule inhibitors capable of preventing uncontrolled cell division, as in the case of cancer. The anthelmintic drug albendazole (ABZ) has been demonstrated to inhibit hepatocellular, ovarian and prostate cancer cells via microtubule targeting. However, its activity against human gastric cancer (GC) cells has remained to be determined. In the present study, ABZ was used to treat GC cells (MKN-45, SGC-7901 and MKN-28). A a CCK-8 cell proliferation assay was performed to assess the effects of ABZ on cell viability and cell cycle changes were assessed using flow cytometry. SGC-7901 cells were selected for further study, and flow cytometry was employed to determine the apoptotic rate, immunofluorescence analysis was employed to show changes of the microtubule structure as well as the subcellular localization and expression levels of cyclin B1, and western blot analysis was used to identify the dynamics of microtubule assembly. The expression levels of relevant proteins, including cyclin B1 and Cdc2, the two subunits of mitosis-promoting factor as well as apoptosis-asociated proteins were also assessed by western blot analysis. The results showed that ABZ exerted its anti-cancer activity in GC cell lines by disrupting microtubule formation and function to cause mitotic arrest, which is also associated with the accumulation of cyclin B1, and consequently induces apoptosis. PMID:28352336

  15. Mitotic Arrest-Deficient Protein 2B Overexpressed in Lung Cancer Promotes Proliferation, EMT, and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; He, Xiuquan; Yu, Wenfei; Yue, Bingqing; Yu, Ziting; Qin, Ying

    2017-09-11

    As the non-catalytic subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase, mitotic arrest-deficient protein 2B (MAD2B) has been reportedto play a role in cell-cycle regulation, DNA damage tolerance, gene expression and carcinogenesis. Although its expression is known to be associated with poor prognosis in several types of human cancers, the significance of MAD2B expression in lung malignancies is still unclear. Our study showed that MAD2B expression significantly increased in lung cancer, especially in the metastatic tissues. We also found that knockdown of MAD2B inhibited the migration, invasion and epithelialmesenchymal transitions of lung cancer cells in vitro and the metastasis in vivo, while over-expression of MAD2B had the opposite effect. Microarray and western blotting data indicated that slug might be its downstream target since knockdown of MAD2B inhibited the expression while over-expression increased the expression of slug. Moreover, the expression of MAD2B was found positively correlated with slug in lung cancer tissues, as well. Collectively, these findings indicate an oncogenic role of MAD2B in lung cancer, and slug might be involved in the process.

  16. Effect of caffeine on radiation-induced mitotic delay: delayed expression of G/sub 2/ arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, R.; Zorch, M.; Leeper, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    In the presence of 5 mM caffeine, irradiated (1.5 Gy) S and G/sub 2/ cells progressed to mitosis in register and without arrest in G/sub 2/. Caffeine (5 mM) markedly reduced mitotic delay even after radiation doses up to 20 Gy. When caffeine was removed from irradiated (1.5 Gy) and caffeine-treated cells, a period of G/sub 2/ arrest followed, similar in length to that produced by radiation alone. The arrest expressed was independent of the duration of the caffeine treatment for exposures up to 3 hr. The similarity of the response to the cited effects of caffeine on S-phase delay suggests a common basis for delay induction in S and G/sub 2/ phases.

  17. Rohitukine inhibits in vitro adipogenesis arresting mitotic clonal expansion and improves dyslipidemia in vivo[S

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Salil; Shankar, Kripa; Beg, Muheeb; Balaramnavar, Vishal M.; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Jagdale, Pankaj; Srivastava, Shishir; Chhonker, Yashpal S.; Lakshmi, Vijai; Chaudhari, Bhushan P.; Bhatta, Rabi Shankar; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth

    2014-01-01

    We developed a common feature pharmacophore model using known antiadipogenic compounds (CFPMA). We identified rohitukine, a reported chromone anticancer alkaloid as a potential hit through in silico mapping of the in-house natural product library on CFPMA. Studies were designed to assess the antiadipogenic potential of rohitukine. Rohitukine was isolated from Dysoxylum binacteriferum Hook. to ⬧95% purity. As predicted by CFPMA, rohitukine was indeed found to be an antiadipogenic molecule. Rohitukine inhibited lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in a concentration- and exposure-time-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. Rohitukine downregulated expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), FAS, and glucose transporter 4. It also suppressed mRNA expression of LPL, sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) 1c, FAS, and aP2, the downstream targets of PPARγ. Rohitukine arrests cells in S phase during mitotic clonal expansion. Rohitukine was bioavailable, and 25.7% of orally administered compound reached systemic circulation. We evaluated the effect of rohitukine on dyslipidemia induced by high-fat diet in the hamster model. Rohitukine increased hepatic expression of liver X receptor α and decreased expression of SREBP-2 and associated targets. Rohitukine decreased hepatic and gonadal lipid accumulation and ameliorated dyslipidemia significantly. In summary, our strategy to identify a novel antiadipogenic molecule using CFPMA successfully resulted in identification of rohitukine, which confirmed antiadipogenic activity and also exhibited in vivo antidyslipidemic activity. PMID:24646949

  18. Induction of chromosome aberrations and mitotic arrest by cytomegalovirus in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    AbuBakar, S.; Au, W.W.; Legator, M.S.; Albrecht, T.

    1988-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is potentially an effective but often overlooked genotoxic agent in humans. We report here evidence that indicates that infection by CMV can induce chromosome alterations and mitotic inhibition. The frequency of chromosome aberrations induced was dependent on the input multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) for human lung fibroblasts (LU), but not for human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) when both cell types were infected at the GO phase of the cell cycle. The aberrations induced by CMV were mostly chromatid breaks and chromosome pulverizations that resembled prematurely condensed S-phase chromatin. Pulverized chromosomes were not observed in LU cells infected with virus stocks that had been rendered nonlytic by UV-irradiation at 24,000 ergs/mm2 or from infection of human lymphocytes. In LU cells infected with UV-irradiated CMV, the frequency of aberrations induced was inversely dependent on the extent of the exposure of the CMV stock to the UV-light. In permissive CMV infection of proliferating LU cells at 24 hr after subculture, a high percentage (greater than 40%) of the metaphase cells were arrested at their first metaphase and displayed severely condensed chromosomes when harvested 48 hr later. A significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the chromosome aberration frequency was also observed. Our study shows that CMV infection is genotoxic to host cells. The types and extent of damage are dependent on the viral genome expression and on the cell cycle stage of the cells at the time of infection. The possible mechanisms for induction of chromosome damage by CMV are discussed.

  19. G2 cell cycle arrest, down-regulation of cyclin B, and induction of mitotic catastrophe by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Robin M

    2004-10-01

    Because proliferation of eukaryotic cells requires cell cycle-regulated chromatid separation by the mitotic spindle, it is subject to regulation by mitotic checkpoints. To determine the mechanism of the antiproliferative activity of the flavoprotein-specific inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), I have examined its effect on the cell cycle and mitosis. Similar to paclitaxel, exposure to DPI causes an accumulation of cells with a 4N DNA content. However, unlike the paclitaxel-mediated mitotic block, DPI-treated cells are arrested in the cell cycle prior to mitosis. Although DPI-treated cells can arrest with fully separated centrosomes at opposite sides of the nucleus, these centrosomes fail to assemble mitotic spindle microtubules and they do not accumulate the Thr(288) phosphorylated Aurora-A kinase marker of centrosome maturation. In contrast with paclitaxel-arrested cells, DPI impairs cyclin B1 accumulation. Release from DPI permits an accumulation of cyclin B1 and progression of the cells into mitosis. Conversely, exposure of paclitaxel-arrested mitotic cells to DPI causes a precipitous drop in cyclin B and Thr(288) phosphorylated Aurora-A levels and leads to mitotic catastrophe in a range of cancerous and noncancerous cells. Hence, the antiproliferative activity of DPI reflects a novel inhibitory mechanism of cell cycle progression that can reverse spindle checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest.

  20. Curcumin-treated cancer cells show mitotic disturbances leading to growth arrest and induction of senescence phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mosieniak, Grażyna; Sliwinska, Małgorzata A; Przybylska, Dorota; Grabowska, Wioleta; Sunderland, Piotr; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna; Sikora, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Cellular senescence is recognized as a potent anticancer mechanism that inhibits carcinogenesis. Cancer cells can also undergo senescence upon chemo- or radiotherapy. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, shows anticancer properties both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, we have shown that treatment with curcumin leads to senescence of human cancer cells. Now we identified the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We observed a time-dependent accumulation of mitotic cells upon curcumin treatment. The time-lapse analysis proved that those cells progressed through mitosis for a significantly longer period of time. A fraction of cells managed to divide or undergo mitotic slippage and then enter the next phase of the cell cycle. Cells arrested in mitosis had an improperly formed mitotic spindle and were positive for γH2AX, which shows that they acquired DNA damage during prolonged mitosis. Moreover, the DNA damage response pathway was activated upon curcumin treatment and the components of this pathway remained upregulated while cells were undergoing senescence. Inhibition of the DNA damage response decreased the number of senescent cells. Thus, our studies revealed that the induction of cell senescence upon curcumin treatment resulted from aberrant progression through the cell cycle. Moreover, the DNA damage acquired by cancer cells, due to mitotic disturbances, activates an important molecular mechanism that determines the potential anticancer activity of curcumin.

  1. A Subpopulation of the K562 Cells Are Killed by Curcumin Treatment after G2/M Arrest and Mitotic Catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Castillo, Macario; Bonilla-Moreno, Raul; Aleman-Lazarini, Leticia; Meraz-Rios, Marco Antonio; Orozco, Lorena; Cedillo-Barron, Leticia; Cordova, Emilio J.

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is extensively investigated as a good chemo-preventive agent in the development of many cancers and particularly in leukemia, including treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and it has been proposed as an adjuvant for leukemia therapies. Human chronic myeloid leukemia cells (K562), were treated with 20 μM of curcumin, and we found that a subpopulation of these cells were arrested and accumulate in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Characterization of this cell subpopulation showed that the arrested cells presented nuclear morphology changes resembling those described for mitotic catastrophe. Mitotic cells displayed abnormal chromatin organization, collapse of the mitotic spindle and abnormal chromosome segregation. Then, these cells died in an apoptosis dependent manner and showed diminution in the protein levels of BCL-2 and XIAP. Moreover, our results shown that a transient activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) occurred early in these cells, but decreased after 6 h of the treatment, explaining in part the diminution of the anti-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, P73 was translocated to the cell nuclei, because the expression of the C/EBPα, a cognate repressor of the P73 gene, was decreased, suggesting that apoptosis is trigger by elevation of P73 protein levels acting in concert with the diminution of the two anti-apoptotic molecules. In summary, curcumin treatment might produce a P73-dependent apoptotic cell death in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells (K562), which was triggered by mitotic catastrophe, due to sustained BAX and survivin expression and impairment of the anti-apoptotic proteins BCL-2 and XIAP. PMID:27832139

  2. A Subpopulation of the K562 Cells Are Killed by Curcumin Treatment after G2/M Arrest and Mitotic Catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Castillo, Macario; Bonilla-Moreno, Raul; Aleman-Lazarini, Leticia; Meraz-Rios, Marco Antonio; Orozco, Lorena; Cedillo-Barron, Leticia; Cordova, Emilio J; Villegas-Sepulveda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is extensively investigated as a good chemo-preventive agent in the development of many cancers and particularly in leukemia, including treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and it has been proposed as an adjuvant for leukemia therapies. Human chronic myeloid leukemia cells (K562), were treated with 20 μM of curcumin, and we found that a subpopulation of these cells were arrested and accumulate in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Characterization of this cell subpopulation showed that the arrested cells presented nuclear morphology changes resembling those described for mitotic catastrophe. Mitotic cells displayed abnormal chromatin organization, collapse of the mitotic spindle and abnormal chromosome segregation. Then, these cells died in an apoptosis dependent manner and showed diminution in the protein levels of BCL-2 and XIAP. Moreover, our results shown that a transient activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) occurred early in these cells, but decreased after 6 h of the treatment, explaining in part the diminution of the anti-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, P73 was translocated to the cell nuclei, because the expression of the C/EBPα, a cognate repressor of the P73 gene, was decreased, suggesting that apoptosis is trigger by elevation of P73 protein levels acting in concert with the diminution of the two anti-apoptotic molecules. In summary, curcumin treatment might produce a P73-dependent apoptotic cell death in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells (K562), which was triggered by mitotic catastrophe, due to sustained BAX and survivin expression and impairment of the anti-apoptotic proteins BCL-2 and XIAP.

  3. Paclitaxel sensitivity of breast cancer cells requires efficient mitotic arrest and disruption of Bcl-xL/Bak interaction.

    PubMed

    Flores, M Luz; Castilla, Carolina; Ávila, Rainiero; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel A

    2012-06-01

    Taxanes are being used for the treatment of breast cancer. However, cancer cells frequently develop resistance to these drugs with the subsequent recurrence of the tumor. MDA-MB-231 and T-47D breast cancer cell lines were used to assess the effect of paclitaxel treatment on apoptosis and cell cycle, the possible mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance as well as the enhancement of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis based on its combination with phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). T-47D cells undergo apoptosis in response to paclitaxel treatment. The induction of apoptosis was associated with a robust mitotic arrest and the disruption of Bcl-xL/Bak interaction. By contrary, MDA-MB-231 cells were insensitive to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and this was associated with a high percentage of cells that slip out of paclitaxel-imposed mitotic arrest and also with the maintenance of Bcl-xL/Bak interaction. The sequential treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with PEITC followed by paclitaxel inhibited the slippage induced by paclitaxel and increased the apoptosis induction achieved with any of the drugs alone. In breast cancer tissues, high Bcl-xL expression was correlated with a shorter time of disease-free survival in patients treated with a chemotherapeutic regimen that contains paclitaxel, in a statistically significant way. Thus, resistance to paclitaxel in MDA-MB-231 cells is related to the inability to disrupt the Bcl-xL/Bak interaction and increased slippage. In this context, the combination of a drug that induces a strong mitotic arrest, such as paclitaxel, with another that inhibits slippage, such as PEITC, translates into increased apoptotic induction.

  4. Arecoline arrests cells at prometaphase by deregulating mitotic spindle assembly and spindle assembly checkpoint: implication for carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chu; Tsai, Yi-Shan; Huang, Jau-Ling; Lee, Ka-Wo; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Wang, Chung-Sheng; Huang, A-Mei; Chang, Jang-Yang; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Lin, Chang-Shen

    2010-04-01

    One apparent feature of cancerous cells is genomic instability, which may include various types of chromosomal aberrations, such as translocation, aneuploidy, and the presence of micronuclei inside the cells. Mutagenic factors that promote the emergence of genomic instability are recognized as risk factors for the development of human malignancies. In Asia, betel quid (BQ) chewing is one of such risk factors for oral cancer. Areca nut is an essential constitute of BQ and is declared as a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms regarding the carcinogenicity of areca nut are not fully explored. Here we reported that arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, could arrest cells at prometaphase with large amounts of misaligned chromosomes. This prometaphase arrest was evidenced by condensed chromosome pattern, increased histone H3 phosphorylation, and accumulation of mitotic proteins, including aurora A and cyclin B(1). To investigate the molecular mechanisms accounting for arecoline-induced prometaphase arrest, we found that arecoline could stabilize mitotic spindle assembly, which led to distorted organization of mitotic spindles, misalignment of chromosomes, and up-regulation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes. The SAC proteins BubR1 and Mps1 were differentially modified between the cells treated with arecoline and nocodazole. This together with aurora A overexpression suggested that SAC might be partly suppressed by arecoline. As a result, the arecoline-exposed cells might produce progeny that contained various chromosomal aberrations and exhibited genomic instability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure of Human Lung Cancer Cells to 8-Chloro-Adenosine Induces G2/M Arrest and Mitotic Catastrophe1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Gu, Yan-Yan; Li, Zeng-Gang; Jia, Yu-Hong; Yuan, Lan; Li, Shu-Yan; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2004-01-01

    Abstract 8-Chloro-adenosine (8-Cl-Ado) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent whose cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor cell lines has been widely investigated. However, the molecular mechanisms are uncertain. In this study, we found that exposure of human lung cancer cell lines A549 (p53-wt) and H1299 (p53-depleted) to 8-Cl-Ado induced cell arrest in the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by accumulation of binucleated and polymorphonucleated cells resulting from aberrant mitosis and failed cytokinesis. Western blotting showed the loss of phosphorylated forms of Cdc2 and Cdc25C that allowed progression into mitosis. Furthermore, the increase in Ser10-phosphorylated histone H3-positive cells revealed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting suggested that the agent-targeted cells were able to exit the G2 phase and enter the M phase. Immunocytochemistry showed that microtubule and microfilament arrays were changed in exposed cells, indicating that the dynamic instability of microtubules and microfilaments was lost, which may correlate with mitotic dividing failure. Aberrant mitosis resulted in mitotic catastrophe followed by varying degrees of apoptosis, depending on the cell lines. Thus, 8-Cl-Ado appears to exert its cytotoxicity toward cells in culture by inducing mitotic catastrophe. PMID:15720807

  6. Live-Cell Imaging Visualizes Frequent Mitotic Skipping During Senescence-Like Growth Arrest in Mammary Carcinoma Cells Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Senescence-like growth arrest in human solid carcinomas is now recognized as the major outcome of radiotherapy. This study was designed to analyze cell cycle during the process of senescence-like growth arrest in mammary carcinoma cells exposed to X-rays. Methods and Materials: Fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicators were introduced into the human mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Cell cycle was sequentially monitored by live-cell imaging for up to 5 days after exposure to 10 Gy of X-rays. Results: Live-cell imaging revealed that cell cycle transition from G2 to G1 phase without mitosis, so-called mitotic skipping, was observed in 17.1% and 69.8% of G1- and G2-irradiated cells, respectively. Entry to G1 phase was confirmed by the nuclear accumulation of mKO{sub 2}-hCdt1 as well as cyclin E, which was inversely correlated to the accumulation of G2-specific markers such as mAG-hGeminin and CENP-F. More than 90% of cells skipping mitosis were persistently arrested in G1 phase and showed positive staining for the senescent biochemical marker, which is senescence-associated ss-galactosidase, indicating induction of senescence-like growth arrest accompanied by mitotic skipping. While G2 irradiation with higher doses of X-rays induced mitotic skipping in approximately 80% of cells, transduction of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for p53 significantly suppressed mitotic skipping, suggesting that ionizing radiation-induced mitotic skipping is associated with p53 function. Conclusions: The present study found the pathway of senescence-like growth arrest in G1 phase without mitotic entry following G2-irradiation.

  7. Combination of {gamma}-radiation antagonizes the cytotoxic effects of vincristine and vinblastine on both mitotic arrest and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Meihua; Fan Weimin . E-mail: fanw@musc.edu

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Combination therapy with different modalities is a common practice in the treatment of cancer. The promising clinical profile of vincristine and vinblastine has promoted considerable interest in combining these vinca alkaloids with radiation therapy to treat a variety of solid tumors. However, the therapeutic efficacy and the interaction between the vinca alkaloids with radiation is not entirely clear. In this study, we assessed the potential interactions in the combination of vincristine or vinblastine with {gamma}-radiation against human tumor cells in vitro. Methods and materials: Vincristine or vinblastine and {gamma}-radiation were administrated at three different sequences designed as preradiated, coradiated, and postradiated combinations in human breast cancer cells and human epidermoid carcinoma cells. The cytotoxic interactions and mutual influences between these two modalities were analyzed by a series of assays including cytotoxic, morphologic, and biochemical examinations. Results: Our results showed that the combination of these two modalities did not produce any synergistic or additive effects. Instead, the clonogenic assays showed the survival rates of these combinations were increased up to 2.17-fold and 2.7-fold, respectively, of those treated with vincristine or vinblastine alone (p < 0.01). DNA fragmentation, T{alpha}T-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and flow cytometric assays also showed that the combination of {gamma}-radiation significantly interfered with the ability of these vinca alkaloids to induce apoptosis. Further analyses indicated that addition of {gamma}-radiation resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2} phase, which subsequently prevented the mitotic arrest induced by vincristine or vinblastine. In addition, biochemical examinations revealed that {gamma}-radiation regulated p34{sup cdc2}/cyclin B1 and survivin, and inhibited I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation and bcl-2 phosphorylation. Conclusions: These

  8. Two p90 ribosomal S6 kinase isoforms are involved in the regulation of mitotic and meiotic arrest in Artemia.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ru-Bing; Zhang, Li; Chen, Dian-Fu; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2014-06-06

    There are multiple isoforms of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), which regulate diverse cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, maturation, and motility. However, the relationship between the structures and functions of RSK isoforms remains undetermined. Artemia is a useful model in which to study cell cycle arrest because these animals undergo prolonged diapauses, a state of obligate dormancy. A novel RSK isoform was identified in Artemia, which was termed Ar-Rsk2. This isoform was compared with an RSK isoform that we previously identified in Artemia, termed Ar-Rsk1. Ar-Rsk2 has an ERK-docking motif, whereas Ar-Rsk1 does not. Western blot analysis revealed that Ar-Rsk1 was activated by phosphorylation, which blocked meiosis in oocytes. Knockdown of Ar-Rsk1 reduced the level of phosphorylated cdc2 and thereby suppressed cytostatic factor activity. This indicates that Ar-Rsk1 regulates the cytostatic factor in meiosis. Expression of Ar-Rsk2 was down-regulated in Artemia cysts in which mitosis was arrested. Knockdown of Ar-Rsk2 resulted in decreased levels of cyclin D3 and phosphorylated histone H3, and the production of pseudo-diapause cysts. This indicates that Ar-Rsk2 regulates mitotic arrest. PLK and ERK RNAi showed that Ar-Rsk2, but not Ar-Rsk1, could be activated by PLK-ERK in Artemia. This is the first study to report that RSK isoforms with and without an ERK-docking motif regulate mitosis and meiosis, respectively. This study provides insight into the relationship between the structures and functions of RSK isoforms. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Two p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase Isoforms Are Involved in the Regulation of Mitotic and Meiotic Arrest in Artemia*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ru-Bing; Zhang, Li; Chen, Dian-Fu; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple isoforms of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), which regulate diverse cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, maturation, and motility. However, the relationship between the structures and functions of RSK isoforms remains undetermined. Artemia is a useful model in which to study cell cycle arrest because these animals undergo prolonged diapauses, a state of obligate dormancy. A novel RSK isoform was identified in Artemia, which was termed Ar-Rsk2. This isoform was compared with an RSK isoform that we previously identified in Artemia, termed Ar-Rsk1. Ar-Rsk2 has an ERK-docking motif, whereas Ar-Rsk1 does not. Western blot analysis revealed that Ar-Rsk1 was activated by phosphorylation, which blocked meiosis in oocytes. Knockdown of Ar-Rsk1 reduced the level of phosphorylated cdc2 and thereby suppressed cytostatic factor activity. This indicates that Ar-Rsk1 regulates the cytostatic factor in meiosis. Expression of Ar-Rsk2 was down-regulated in Artemia cysts in which mitosis was arrested. Knockdown of Ar-Rsk2 resulted in decreased levels of cyclin D3 and phosphorylated histone H3, and the production of pseudo-diapause cysts. This indicates that Ar-Rsk2 regulates mitotic arrest. PLK and ERK RNAi showed that Ar-Rsk2, but not Ar-Rsk1, could be activated by PLK-ERK in Artemia. This is the first study to report that RSK isoforms with and without an ERK-docking motif regulate mitosis and meiosis, respectively. This study provides insight into the relationship between the structures and functions of RSK isoforms. PMID:24755224

  10. Soluble hyaluronan receptor RHAMM induces mitotic arrest by suppressing Cdc2 and cyclin B1 expression

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The hyaluronan (HA) receptor RHAMM is an important regulator of cell growth. Overexpression of RHAMM is transforming and is required for H- ras transformation. The molecular mechanism underlying growth control by RHAMM and other extracellular matrix receptors remains largely unknown. We report that soluble RHAMM induces G2/M arrest by suppressing the expression of Cdc2/Cyclin B1, a protein kinase complex essential for mitosis. Down-regulation of RHAMM by use of dominant negative mutants or antisense of mRNA also decreases Cdc2 protein levels. Suppression of Cdc2 occurs as a result of an increased rate of cdc2 mRNA degradation. Moreover, tumor cells treated with soluble RHAMM are unable to form lung metastases. Thus, we show that mitosis is directly linked to RHAMM through control of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1 expression. Failure to sustain levels of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1 proteins leads to cell cycle arrest. PMID:8666924

  11. Lysophosphatidate Induces Chemo-Resistance by Releasing Breast Cancer Cells from Taxol-Induced Mitotic Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Nasser; Bekele, Raie T.; Goping, Ing Swie; Schang, Luis M.; Brindley, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Taxol is a microtubule stabilizing agent that arrests cells in mitosis leading to cell death. Taxol is widely used to treat breast cancer, but resistance occurs in 25–69% of patients and it is vital to understand how Taxol resistance develops to improve chemotherapy. The effects of chemotherapeutic agents are overcome by survival signals that cancer cells receive. We focused our studies on autotaxin, which is a secreted protein that increases tumor growth, aggressiveness, angiogenesis and metastasis. We discovered that autotaxin strongly antagonizes the Taxol-induced killing of breast cancer and melanoma cells by converting the abundant extra-cellular lipid, lysophosphatidylcholine, into lysophosphatidate. This lipid stimulates specific G-protein coupled receptors that activate survival signals. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we determined the basis of these antagonistic actions of lysophosphatidate towards Taxol-induced G2/M arrest and cell death using cultured breast cancer cells. Lysophosphatidate does not antagonize Taxol action in MCF-7 cells by increasing Taxol metabolism or its expulsion through multi-drug resistance transporters. Lysophosphatidate does not lower the percentage of cells accumulating in G2/M by decreasing exit from S-phase or selective stimulation of cell death in G2/M. Instead, LPA had an unexpected and remarkable action in enabling MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells, which had been arrested in G2/M by Taxol, to normalize spindle structure and divide, thus avoiding cell death. This action involves displacement of Taxol from the tubulin polymer fraction, which based on inhibitor studies, depends on activation of LPA receptors and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Conclusions/Significance This work demonstrates a previously unknown consequence of lysophosphatidate action that explains why autotaxin and lysophosphatidate protect against Taxol-induced cell death and promote resistance to the action of this important therapeutic

  12. Akt activation suppresses Chk2-mediated, methylating agent-induced G2 arrest and protects from temozolomide-induced mitotic catastrophe and cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yuchi; Katayama, Makoto; Mirzoeva, Olga K; Berger, Mitchel S; Pieper, Russell O

    2005-06-01

    Pharmacologic inhibition of the DNA signal transducers Chk1 and p38 blocks G2 arrest and sensitizes glioblastoma cells to chemotherapeutic methylating agent-induced cytotoxicity. Because Akt pathway activation has been suggested to also block G2 arrest induced by DNA-damaging agents and because glioma cells frequently have high levels of Akt activation, we examined the contribution of the Akt pathway to methylating agent-induced G2 arrest and toxicity. U87MG human glioma cells containing an inducible Akt expression construct were incubated with inducing agent or vehicle, after which the cells were exposed to temozolomide and assayed for activation of the components of the G2 arrest pathway and survival. Temozolomide-treated control cells activated the DNA damage signal transducers Chk1, Chk2, and p38, leading to Cdc25C and Cdc2 inactivation, prolonged G2 arrest, and loss of clonagenicity by a combination of senescence and mitotic catastrophe. Temozolomide-treated cells induced to overexpress Akt, however, exhibited significantly less drug-induced Cdc25C/Cdc2 inactivation and less G2 arrest. Akt-mediated suppression of G2 arrest was associated not with alterations in Chk1 or p38 activation but rather with suppression of Chk2 activation and reduced recruitment of Chk2 to sites of damage in chromatin. Unlike bypass of the G2 checkpoint induced by pharmacologic inhibitors of Chk1 or p38, however, Akt-induced bypass of G2 arrest suppressed, rather than enhanced, temozolomide-induced senescence and mitotic catastrophe. These results show that whereas Akt activation suppresses temozolomide-induced Chk2 activation and G2 arrest, the overriding effect is protection from temozolomide-induced cytotoxicity. The Akt pathway therefore represents a new target for the sensitization of gliomas to chemotherapeutic methylating agents such as temozolomide.

  13. Mitotic arrest induced in human DU145 prostate cancer cells in response to KHC-4 treatment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Tien-Huang; Hsieh, You-Liang; Shen, Chia-Yao; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Chien, Wen-Shin; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Wen, Su-Ying; Ting, Wei-Jen; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the antitumor activity of KHC-4 was analyzed using human prostate cancer (CaP) cells and the underlining anticancer mechanisms of KHC-4 were identified. KHC-4 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in the castration-resistant CaP DU145 cell line. The most effective concentration of KHC-4 was 0.1 μM. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that KHC-4 treatment caused G2/M arrest and a subsequent increase in the sub-G1 population. Furthermore, KHC-4 is up-regulated p21, p27, and p53 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The exposure of cells to KHC-4 induced Cdk1/cyclin B1 complex activity, which led to cell cycle arrest. Moreover, KHC-4 inhibited the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 to inhibit tumor cell metastasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1879-1887, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Airborne urban particles (Milan winter-PM2.5) cause mitotic arrest and cell death: Effects on DNA, mitochondria, AhR binding and spindle organization.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Maurizio; Ovrevik, Johan; Mollerup, Steen; Asare, Nana; Longhin, Eleonora; Dahlman, Hans-Jørgen; Camatini, Marina; Holme, Jørn A

    2011-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is considered to be an important contributor to lung diseases. In the present study we report that Milan winter-PM2.5 inhibited proliferation in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by inducing mitotic arrest. The cell cycle arrest was followed by an increase in mitotic-apoptotic cells, mitotic slippage and finally an increase in "classical" apoptotic cells. Exposure to winter-PM10 induced only a slight effect which may be due to the presence of PM2.5 in this fraction while pure combustion particles failed to disturb mitosis. Fewer cells expressing the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 compared to cells with condensed chromosomes, suggest that PM2.5 induced premature mitosis. PM2.5 was internalized into the cells and often localized in laminar organelles, although particles without apparent plasma membrane covering were also seen. In PM-containing cells mitochondria and lysosomes were often damaged, and in mitotic cells fragmented chromosomes often appeared. PM2.5 induced DNA strands breaks and triggered a DNA-damage response characterized by increased phosphorylation of ATM, Chk2 and H2AX; as well as induced a marked increase in expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and AhRR. Furthermore, some disturbance of the organization of microtubules was indicated. It is hypothesized that the induced mitotic arrest and following cell death was due to a premature chromosome condensation caused by a combination of DNA, mitochondrial and spindle damage.

  15. Structurally simplified biphenyl combretastatin A4 derivatives retain in vitro anti-cancer activity dependent on mitotic arrest

    PubMed Central

    Tarade, Daniel; Ma, Dennis; Pignanelli, Christopher; Mansour, Fadi; Simard, Daniel; van den Berg, Sean; Gauld, James; McNulty, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2017-01-01

    The cis-stilbene, combretastatin A4 (CA4), is a potent microtubule targeting and vascular damaging agent. Despite promising results at the pre-clinical level and extensive clinical evaluation, CA4 has yet to be approved for therapeutic use. One impediment to the development of CA4 is an inherent conformational instability about the ethylene linker, which joins two aromatic rings. We have previously published preliminary data regarding structurally simplified biphenyl derivatives of CA4, lacking an ethylene linker, which retain anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity, albeit at higher doses. Our current study provides a more comprehensive evaluation regarding the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of biphenyl CA4 derivatives in both 2D and 3D cancerous and non-cancerous cell models. Computational analysis has revealed that cytotoxicity of CA4 and biphenyl analogues correlates with predicted tubulin affinity. Additional mechanistic evaluation of the biphenyl derivatives found that their anti-cancer activity is dependent on prolonged mitotic arrest, in a similar manner to CA4. Lastly, we have shown that cancer cells deficient in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis experience delayed cell death following treatment with CA4 or analogues. Biphenyl derivatives of CA4 represent structurally simplified analogues of CA4, which retain a similar mechanism of action. The biphenyl analogues warrant in vivo examination to evaluate their potential as vascular damaging agents. PMID:28253265

  16. The adenovirus E4orf4 protein induces growth arrest and mitotic catastrophe in H1299 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Szymborski, A; Miron, M-J; Marcellus, R; Binda, O; Lavoie, J N; Branton, P E

    2009-01-22

    The human adenovirus E4orf4 protein, when expressed alone, induces p53-independent death in a wide range of cancer cells. Earlier studies by our groups suggested that although in some cases cell death can be associated with some hallmarks of apoptosis, it is not always affected by caspase inhibitors. Thus it is unlikely that E4orf4-induced cell death occurs uniquely through apoptosis. In the present studies using H1299 human lung carcinoma cells as a model system we found that death is induced in the absence of activation of any of the caspases tested, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, or release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. E4orf4 caused a substantial change in cell morphology, including vigorous membrane blebbing, multiple nuclei in many cells and increased cell volume. Most of these characteristics are not typical of apoptosis, but they are of necrosis. FACS analysis and western blotting for cell cycle markers showed that E4orf4-expressing cells became arrested in G(2)/M and also accumulated high levels of cyclin E. The presence of significant numbers of tetraploid and polyploid cells and some cells with micronuclei suggested that E4orf4 appears to induce death in these cells through a process resulting from mitotic catastrophe.

  17. Disruption of mitotic arrest precedes precocious differentiation and transdifferentiation of pregranulosa cells in the perinatal Wnt4 mutant ovary.

    PubMed

    Maatouk, Danielle M; Mork, Lindsey; Chassot, Anne-Amandine; Chaboissier, Marie-Christine; Capel, Blanche

    2013-11-15

    Mammalian sex determination is controlled by antagonistic pathways that are initially co-expressed in the bipotential gonad and subsequently become male- or female-specific. In XY gonads, testis development is initiated by upregulation of Sox9 by SRY in pre-Sertoli cells. Disruption of either gene leads to complete male-to-female sex reversal. Ovarian development is dependent on canonical Wnt signaling through Wnt4, Rspo1 and β-catenin. However, only a partial female-to-male sex reversal results from disruption of these ovary-promoting genes. In Wnt4 and Rspo1 mutants, there is evidence of pregranulosa cell-to-Sertoli cell transdifferentiation near birth, following a severe decline in germ cells. It is currently unclear why primary sex reversal does not occur at the sex-determining stage, but instead occurs near birth in these mutants. Here we show that Wnt4-null and Rspo1-null pregranulosa cells transition through a differentiated granulosa cell state prior to transdifferentiating towards a Sertoli cell fate. This transition is preceded by a wave of germ cell death that is closely associated with the disruption of pregranulosa cell quiescence. Our results suggest that maintenance of mitotic arrest in pregranulosa cells may preclude upregulation of Sox9 in cases where female sex-determining genes are disrupted. This may explain the lack of complete sex reversal in such mutants at the sex-determining stage. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Disruption of mitotic arrest precedes precocious differentiation and transdifferentiation of pregranulosa cells in the perinatal Wnt4 mutant ovary

    PubMed Central

    Maatouk, Danielle M.; Mork, Lindsey; Chassot, Anne-Amandine; Marie-Christine, Chaboissier; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sex determination is controlled by antagonistic pathways that are initially co-expressed in the bipotential gonad and subsequently become male- or female-specific. In XY gonads, testis development is initiated by upregulation of Sox9 by SRY in pre-Sertoli cells. Disruption of either gene leads to complete male-to-female sex reversal. Ovarian development is dependent on canonical Wnt signaling through Wnt4, Rspo1 and β-catenin. However, only a partial female-to-male sex reversal results from disruption of these ovary-promoting genes. In Wnt4 and Rspo1 mutants, there is evidence of pregranulosa cell-to-Sertoli cell transdifferentiation near birth, following a severe decline in germ cells. It is currently unclear why primary sex reversal does not occur at the sex-determining stage, but instead occurs near birth in these mutants. Here we show that Wnt4-null and Rspo1-null pregranulosa cells transition through a differentiated granulosa cell state prior to transdifferentiating towards a Sertoli cell fate. This transition is preceded by a wave of germ cell death that is closely associated with the disruption of pregranulosa cell quiescence. Our results suggest that maintenance of mitotic arrest in pregranulosa cells may preclude upregulation of Sox9 in cases where female sex-determining genes are disrupted. This may explain the lack of complete sex reversal in such mutants at the sex-determining stage. PMID:24036309

  19. Designed inhibitor for nuclear localization signal of polo-like kinase 1 induces mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangjin; Zhuo, Xiaolong; Qin, Tan; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Chuanmao; Lai, Luhua

    2016-11-24

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a member of polo-like kinase family, regulates multiple essential steps of the cell cycle progression. Plk1 is overexpressed in multiple cancer cell lines and considered to be a prime anticancer target. Plk1 accumulates in the nucleus during S and G2 phases by its bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, which is crucial for Plk1 regulation during normal cell cycle progression. Here, through combined computational and experimental studies, we identified compound D110, which inhibits Plk1 kinase activity with an IC50 of 85 nm and blocks the nuclear localization of Plk1 during S and G2 phases. D110-treated cancer cells were arrested at mitosis with monopolar spindle, indicating the inhibition of the Plk1 kinase activity in cell. As D110 interacts with both the ATP site and the NLS in Plk1, it demonstrates good selectivity toward Plk2 and Plk3. The strategy of simultaneously inhibiting kinase activity and its subcellular translocations offers a novel approach for selective kinase inhibitor design.

  20. Inhibition of alpha-mannosidase Man2c1 gene expression suppresses growth of esophageal carcinoma cells through mitotic arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yun; Ju, Ji Yu; Zhou, Yi Qun; Liu, Yin; Zhu, Li Ping

    2008-12-01

    To study the effects of suppressed alpha-mannosidase Man2c1 gene expression on EC9706 human esophageal carcinoma cells, the cells were treated with short interfering RNA. Growth inhibition of EC9706 cells was observed when Man2c1 expression was inhibited in this way. Flow cytometric analysis showed accumulation of cells in S and G(2)-M phases, as well as cell apoptosis. The mitotic index test showed cell-cycle arrest at the M checkpoint. Although the percentage of cells in (pro)metaphase increased, the proportion of cells in anaphase and telophase decreased. Apoptosis was trigged by mitotic arrest. Furthermore, microtubules in EC9607 cells were examined by means of fluorescence staining of alpha-tubulin. Although control cells showed a nest-like microtubule network, the microtubule network in experimental cells was vague and condensed at the perinuclear region. Some cells with Man2c1 suppression had large protrusions of cytoplasm, some of which linked with the main body through a long, thin connection. Western blotting showed that tubulin polymerization was inhibited. The data imply that induction of mitotic arrest and consequent apoptosis resulted from microtubule disorganization, which appears to be one of the major cellular mechanisms by which suppressed expression of the Man2c1 gene causes growth inhibition of EC9706 esophageal carcinoma cells. In addition, Man2c1 suppression results in upregulation of E-cadherin, alpha-catenin, and beta-catenin expression in cells.

  1. 53BP1 and USP28 mediate p53 activation and G1 arrest after centrosome loss or extended mitotic duration

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Christopher; Dowdy, Steven F.; Desai, Arshad; Shiau, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    In normal human cells, centrosome loss induced by centrinone—a specific centrosome duplication inhibitor—leads to irreversible, p53-dependent G1 arrest by an unknown mechanism. A genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen for centrinone resistance identified genes encoding the p53-binding protein 53BP1, the deubiquitinase USP28, and the ubiquitin ligase TRIM37. Deletion of TP53BP1, USP28, or TRIM37 prevented p53 elevation in response to centrosome loss but did not affect cytokinesis failure–induced arrest or p53 elevation after doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. Deletion of TP53BP1 and USP28, but not TRIM37, prevented growth arrest in response to prolonged mitotic duration. TRIM37 knockout cells formed ectopic centrosomal-component foci that suppressed mitotic defects associated with centrosome loss. TP53BP1 and USP28 knockouts exhibited compromised proliferation after centrosome removal, suggesting that centrosome-independent proliferation is not conferred solely by the inability to sense centrosome loss. Thus, analysis of centrinone resistance identified a 53BP1-USP28 module as critical for communicating mitotic challenges to the p53 circuit and TRIM37 as an enforcer of the singularity of centrosome assembly. PMID:27432897

  2. MAD2γ, a novel MAD2 isoform, reduces mitotic arrest and is associated with resistance in testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Ramírez-Otero, Miguel; Díaz-Chávez, José; Cáceres-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo; Justo-Garrido, Monserrat; Andonegui, Marco A.; Mendoza, Julia; Downie-Ruíz, Ángela; Cortés-González, Carlo; Reynoso, Nancy; Castro-Hernández, Clementina; Domínguez-Gómez, Guadalupe; Santibáñez, Miguel; Fabián-Morales, Eunice; Pruefer, Franz; Luna-Maldonado, Fernando; González-Barrios, Rodrigo; Herrera, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Prolonged mitotic arrest in response to anti-cancer chemotherapeutics, such as DNA-damaging agents, induces apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Disruptions in mitotic checkpoints contribute resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer. MAD2 has been associated with checkpoint failure and chemotherapy response. In this study, a novel splice variant of MAD2, designated MAD2γ, was identified, and its association with the DNA damage response was investigated. Methods: Endogenous expression of MAD2γ and full-length MAD2 (MAD2α) was measured using RT-PCR in cancer cell lines, normal foreskin fibroblasts, and tumor samples collected from patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). A plasmid expressing MAD2γ was transfected into HCT116 cells, and its intracellular localization and checkpoint function were evaluated according to immunofluorescence and mitotic index. Results: MAD2γ was expressed in several cancer cell lines and non-cancerous fibroblasts. Ectopically expressed MAD2γ localized to the nucleus and reduced the mitotic index, suggesting checkpoint impairment. In patients with TGCTs, the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, was associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Likewise, cisplatin induced the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, in HCT116 cells. Conclusions: Overexpression of MAD2γ may play a role in checkpoint disruption and is associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in TGCTs. PMID:27315568

  3. DT-13 synergistically enhanced vinorelbine-mediated mitotic arrest through inhibition of FOXM1-BICD2 axis in non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyang; Sun, Li; Li, Hang; Lv, Xiaodan; Semukunzi, Herve; Li, Ruiming; Yu, Jun; Yuan, Shengtao; Lin, Sensen

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most commonly diagnosed malignant disease with the leading cause of cancer-related death. Combination treatment remains the major strategy in the clinical therapy of NSCLC. Vinorelbine (NVB), a semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid, is used for advanced and metastatic NSCLC by destabilizing microtubule formation to induce mitotic arrest and cell death. However, the side effect of NVB heavily affected its effectiveness in clinical therapy. Hence, it is of great significance to develop new agents to synergize with NVB and decrease the adverse effect. In our study, we found that the saponin monomer 13 of the dwarf lilyturf tuber, DT-13, exhibiting anti-angiogenesis and anti-metastasis effect, synergized with NVB to inhibit cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. The synergistic interaction of DT-13 and NVB was confirmed by combination Index values. Also, DT-13 and NVB act in concert to inhibit the long-term colony formation. Furthermore, DT-13/NVB co-treatment cooperated to induce mitotic arrest and subsequent apoptosis. Mechanistically, we found that nuclear expression of transcription factors forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and levels of motor adaptor bicaudal D2 (BICD2) were dramatically reduced by combination treatment. Importantly, oncogene FOXM1 was identified as the crucial regulator of BICD2, which played critical roles in NVB-induced mitotic spindle defects. Moreover, overexpression of FOXM1 and BICD2 significantly reversed mitotic arrest induced by DT-13/NVB co-treatment, and siRNAs against both genes greatly increased the combinational effects. In addition, in vivo study revealed that DT-13 combined with NVB significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice xenograft model, and downregulated the expression of FOXM1 and BICD2 in tumor tissues, which was consistent with in vitro study. In conclusion, DT-13 might provide a novel strategy for the chemosensitization of NVB in NSCLC therapy. PMID:28542137

  4. DT-13 synergistically enhanced vinorelbine-mediated mitotic arrest through inhibition of FOXM1-BICD2 axis in non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyang; Sun, Li; Li, Hang; Lv, Xiaodan; Semukunzi, Herve; Li, Ruiming; Yu, Jun; Yuan, Shengtao; Lin, Sensen

    2017-05-25

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most commonly diagnosed malignant disease with the leading cause of cancer-related death. Combination treatment remains the major strategy in the clinical therapy of NSCLC. Vinorelbine (NVB), a semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid, is used for advanced and metastatic NSCLC by destabilizing microtubule formation to induce mitotic arrest and cell death. However, the side effect of NVB heavily affected its effectiveness in clinical therapy. Hence, it is of great significance to develop new agents to synergize with NVB and decrease the adverse effect. In our study, we found that the saponin monomer 13 of the dwarf lilyturf tuber, DT-13, exhibiting anti-angiogenesis and anti-metastasis effect, synergized with NVB to inhibit cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. The synergistic interaction of DT-13 and NVB was confirmed by combination Index values. Also, DT-13 and NVB act in concert to inhibit the long-term colony formation. Furthermore, DT-13/NVB co-treatment cooperated to induce mitotic arrest and subsequent apoptosis. Mechanistically, we found that nuclear expression of transcription factors forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and levels of motor adaptor bicaudal D2 (BICD2) were dramatically reduced by combination treatment. Importantly, oncogene FOXM1 was identified as the crucial regulator of BICD2, which played critical roles in NVB-induced mitotic spindle defects. Moreover, overexpression of FOXM1 and BICD2 significantly reversed mitotic arrest induced by DT-13/NVB co-treatment, and siRNAs against both genes greatly increased the combinational effects. In addition, in vivo study revealed that DT-13 combined with NVB significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice xenograft model, and downregulated the expression of FOXM1 and BICD2 in tumor tissues, which was consistent with in vitro study. In conclusion, DT-13 might provide a novel strategy for the chemosensitization of NVB in NSCLC therapy.

  5. Arsenite-induced autophagy is associated with proteotoxicity in human lymphoblastoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, Alicia M.; Zhao, Fei; Pacheco, Samantha; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2012-10-15

    Epidemiological studies of arsenic-exposed populations have provided evidence that arsenic exposure in humans is associated with immunosuppression. Previously, we have reported that arsenite-induced toxicity is associated with the induction of autophagy in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL). Autophagy is a cellular process that functions in the degradation of damaged cellular components, including protein aggregates formed by misfolded or damaged proteins. Accumulation of misfolded or damaged proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). In an effort to investigate the mechanism of autophagy induction by arsenite in the LCL model, we examined the potential contribution of ER stress and activation of the UPR. LCL exposed to sodium arsenite for 8-days induced expression of UPR-activated genes, including CHOP and GRP78, at the RNA and the protein level. Evidence for activation of the three arms of the UPR was observed. The arsenite-induced activation of the UPR was associated with an accumulation of protein aggregates containing p62 and LC3, proteins with established roles in the sequestration and autophagic clearance of protein aggregates. Taken together, these data provide evidence that arsenite-induced autophagy is associated with the generation of ER stress, activation of the UPR, and formation of protein aggregates that may be targeted to the lysosome for degradation. -- Highlights: ► Arsenite induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response. ► Arsenite induces the formation of protein aggregates that contain p62 and LC3-II. ► Time-course data suggests that arsenite-induced autophagy precedes ER stress.

  6. Involvement of HIF-2α-mediated inflammation in arsenite-induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Yuan; Pang, Ying; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-10-15

    Arsenic is a well established human carcinogen that causes diseases of the lung. Some studies have suggested a link between inflammation and lung cancer; however, it is unknown if arsenite-induced inflammation causally contributes to arsenite-caused malignant transformation of cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation during neoplastic transformation induced in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells by chronic exposure to arsenite. The results showed that, on acute or chronic exposure to arsenite, HBE cells over-expressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The data also indicated that HIF-2α was involved in arsenite-induced inflammation. Moreover, IL-6 and IL-8 were essential for the malignant progression of arsenite-transformed HBE cells. Thus, these experiments show that HIF-2α mediates arsenite-induced inflammation and that such inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. The results provide a link between the inflammatory response and the acquisition of a malignant transformed phenotype by cells chronically exposed to arsenite and thus establish a previously unknown mechanism for arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite induces inflammation. • Arsenite-induced the increases of IL-6 and IL-8 via HIF-2α. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

  7. Cyclin B2 undergoes cell cycle-dependent nuclear translocation and, when expressed as a non-destructible mutant, causes mitotic arrest in HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Cyclin proteins form complexes with members of the p34cdc2 kinase family and they are essential components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery. They are thought to determine the timing of activation, the subcellular distribution, and/or the substrate specificity of cdc2- related kinases, but their precise mode of action remains to be elucidated. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of avian cyclin B2. Based on the use of monospecific antibodies raised against bacterially expressed protein, we also describe the subcellular distribution of cyclin B2 in chick embryo fibroblasts and in DU249 hepatoma cells. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy we show that cyclin B2 is cytoplasmic during interphase of the cell cycle, but undergoes an abrupt translocation to the cell nucleus at the onset of mitotic prophase. Finally, we have examined the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and mutated versions of avian cyclin B2 in HeLa cells. We found that expression of cyclin B2 carrying a mutation at arginine 32 (to serine) caused HeLa cells to arrest in a pseudomitotic state. Many of the arrested cells displayed multiple mitotic spindles, suggesting that the centrosome cycle had continued in spite of the cell cycle arrest. PMID:1532584

  8. THE EFFECTS OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 (HSP70) AND EXPOSURE PROTOCOL ON ARSENITE INDUCED GENOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) and Exposure Protocol on Arsenite Induced Genotoxicity

    Barnes, J.A.1,2, Collins, B.W.2, Dix, D.J.3 and Allen J.W2.
    1National Research Council, 2Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, 3Reproductive Toxicology Division, Office...

  9. THE EFFECTS OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 (HSP70) AND EXPOSURE PROTOCOL ON ARSENITE INDUCED GENOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) and Exposure Protocol on Arsenite Induced Genotoxicity

    Barnes, J.A.1,2, Collins, B.W.2, Dix, D.J.3 and Allen J.W2.
    1National Research Council, 2Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, 3Reproductive Toxicology Division, Office...

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in arsenite-induced oxidative injury in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Anya M.Y.; Chao, P.L.; Fang, S.F.; Chi, C.W.; Yang, C.H.

    2007-10-15

    The mechanism underlying sodium arsenite (arsenite)-induced neurotoxicity was investigated in rat brain. Arsenite was locally infused in the substantia nigra (SN) of anesthetized rat. Seven days after infusion, lipid peroxidation in the infused SN was elevated and dopamine level in the ipsilateral striatum was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner (0.3-5 nmol). Furthermore, local infusion of arsenite (5 nmol) decreased GSH content and increased expression of heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1 in the infused SN. Aggregation of {alpha}-synuclein, a putative pathological protein involved in several CNS neurodegenerative diseases, was elevated in the arsenite-infused SN. From the breakdown pattern of {alpha}-spectrin, both necrosis and apoptosis were involved in the arsenite-induced neurotoxicity. Pyknotic nuclei, cellular shrinkage and cytoplasmic disintegration, indicating necrosis, and TUNEL-positive cells and DNA ladder, indicating apoptosis was observed in the arsenite-infused SN. Arsenite-induced apoptosis was mediated via two different organelle pathways, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). For mitochondrial activation, cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-3 levels were elevated in the arsenite-infused SN. In ER pathway, arsenite increased activating transcription factor-4, X-box binding protein 1, C/EBP homologues protein (CHOP) and cytosolic immunoglobulin binding protein levels. Moreover, arsenite reduced procaspase 12 levels, an ER-specific enzyme in the infused SN. Taken together, our study suggests that arsenite is capable of inducing oxidative injury in CNS. In addition to mitochondria, ER stress was involved in the arsenite-induced apoptosis. Arsenite-induced neurotoxicity clinically implies a pathophysiological role of arsenite in CNS neurodegeneration.

  11. The stress-activated protein kinases p38α/β and JNK1/2 cooperate with Chk1 to inhibit mitotic entry upon DNA replication arrest.

    PubMed

    Llopis, Alba; Salvador, Noelia; Ercilla, Amaia; Guaita-Esteruelas, Sandra; Barrantes, Ivan del Barco; Gupta, Jalaj; Gaestel, Matthias; Davis, Roger J; Nebreda, Angel R; Agell, Neus

    2012-10-01

    Accurate DNA replication is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. To this aim, cells have evolved complex surveillance mechanisms to prevent mitotic entry in the presence of partially replicated DNA. ATR and Chk1 are key elements in the signal transduction pathways of DNA replication checkpoint; however, other kinases also make significant contributions. We show here that the stress kinases p38 and JNK are activated when DNA replication is blocked, and that their activity allows S/M, but not G 2/M, checkpoint maintenance when Chk1 is inhibited. Activation of both kinases by DNA replication inhibition is not mediated by the caffeine-sensitive kinases ATR or ATM. Phosphorylation of MKK3/6 and MKK4, p38 and JNK upstream kinases was also observed upon DNA replication inhibition. Using a genetic approach, we dissected the p38 pathway and showed that both p38α and p38β isoforms collaborate to inhibit mitotic entry. We further defined MKK3/6 and MK2/3 as the key upstream and downstream elements in the p38 signaling cascade after replication arrest. Accordingly, we found that the stress signaling pathways collaborate with Chk1 to keep cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes inactive when DNA replication is inhibited, thereby preventing cell cycle progression when DNA replication is stalled. Our results show a complex response to replication stress, where multiple pathways are activated and fulfill overlapping roles to prevent mitotic entry with unreplicated DNA.

  12. Mitotic arrest-induced phosphorylation of Mcl-1 revisited using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and phosphoproteomics: nine phosphorylation sites identified

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Katherine; Kothari, Anisha; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Kovak, Matthew R.; Chambers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) characteristically promote phosphorylation and degradation of Mcl-1, and this represents a critical pro-apoptotic signal in mitotic death. While several phosphorylation sites and kinases have been implicated in mitotic arrest-induced Mcl-1 phosphorylation, a comprehensive biochemical analysis has been lacking. Contrary to previous reports suggesting that T92 phosphorylation by Cdk1 regulates Mcl-1 degradation, a T92A Mcl-1 mutant expressed in HeLa cells was phosphorylated and degraded with the same kinetics as wild-type Mcl-1 following vinblastine treatment. Similarly, when Mcl-1 with alanine replacements of all five putative Cdk sites (S64, T92, S121, S159, T163) was expressed, it was also phosphorylated and degraded in response to vinblastine. To analyze Mcl-1 phosphorylation in more detail, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) was performed. While untreated cells expressed mainly unphosphorylated Mcl-1 with two minor phosphorylated species, Mcl-1 from vinblastine treated cells migrated during 2D-PAGE as a train of acidic spots representing nine or more phosphorylated species. Immunopurification and mass spectrometry of phosphorylated Mcl-1 derived from mitotically arrested HeLa cells revealed nine distinct sites, including several previously unreported. Mcl-1 bearing substitutions of all nine sites had a longer half-life than wild-type Mcl-1 under basal conditions, but still underwent phosphorylation and degradation in response to vinblastine treatment, and, like wild-type Mcl-1, was unable to protect cells from MTA treatment. These results reveal an unexpected complexity in Mcl-1 phosphorylation in response to MTAs and indicate that previous work has severely underestimated the number of sites, and thus encourage major revisions to the current model. PMID:27738316

  13. Dissociation of centrosome replication events from cycles of DNA synthesis and mitotic division in hydroxyurea-arrested Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the mechanisms used by somatic cells to regulate the replication of the centrosome complex. Centrosome doubling was studied in CHO cells by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy using human autoimmune anticentrosome antiserum, and by Northern blotting using the cDNA encoding portion of the centrosome autoantigen pericentriolar material (PCM)-1. Centrosome doubling could be dissociated from cycles of DNA synthesis and mitotic division by arresting cells at the G1/S boundary of the cell cycle using either hydroxyurea or aphidicolin. Immunofluorescence micros-copy using SPJ human autoimmune anticentrosome antiserum demonstrated that arrested cells were able to undergo numerous rounds of centrosome replication in the absence of cycles of DNA synthesis and mitosis. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the synthesis and degradation of the mRNA encoding PCM-1 occurred in a cell cycle-dependent fashion in CHO cells with peak levels of PCM-1 mRNA being present in G1 and S phase cells before mRNA amounts dropped to undetectable levels in G2 and M phases. Conversely, cells arrested at the G1/S boundary of the cell cycle maintained PCM-1 mRNA at artificially elevated levels, providing a possible molecular mechanism for explaining the multiple rounds of centrosome replication that occurred in CHO cells during prolonged hydroxyurea-induced arrest. The capacity to replicate centrosomes could be abolished in hydroxyurea-arrested CHO cells by culturing the cells in dialyzed serum. However, the ability to replicate centrosomes and to synthesize PCM-1 mRNA could be re- initiated by adding EGF to the dialyzed serum. This experimental system should be useful for investigating the positive and negative molecular mechanisms used by somatic cells to regulate the replication of centrosomes and for studying and the methods used by somatic cells for coordinating centrosome duplication with other cell cycle progression events. PMID:7790366

  14. New Indole Tubulin Assembly Inhibitors Cause Stable Arrest of Mitotic Progression, Enhanced Stimulation of Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Activity, and Repression of Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Verrico, Annalisa; Miele, Andrea; Monti, Ludovica; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Ricci, Biancamaria; Soriani, Alessandra; Santoni, Angela; Caraglia, Michele; Porto, Stefania; Pozzo, Eleonora Da; Martini, Claudia; Brancale, Andrea; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Bigogno, Chiara; Dondio, Giulio; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2015-01-01

    We designed 39 new 2-phenylindole derivatives as potential anticancer agents bearing the 3,4,5-trimethox-yphenyl moiety with a sulfur, ketone, or methylene bridging group at position 3 of the indole and with halogen or methoxy substituent(s) at positions 4–7. Compounds 33 and 44 strongly inhibited the growth of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing multi-drug-resistant cell lines NCI/ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5. At 10 nM, 33 and 44 stimulated the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. At 20–50 nM, 33 and 44 arrested >80% of HeLa cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, with stable arrest of mitotic progression. Cell cycle arrest was followed by cell death. Indoles 33, 44, and 81 showed strong inhibition of the SAG-induced Hedgehog signaling activation in NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells with IC50 values of 19, 72, and 38 nM, respectively. Compounds of this class potently inhibited tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth, including stimulation of natural killer cell cytotoxic activity and repression of Hedgehog-dependent cancer. PMID:26132075

  15. Arsenite-induced autophagy is associated with proteotoxicity in human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Alicia M; Zhao, Fei; Pacheco, Samantha; Klimecki, Walter T

    2012-10-15

    Epidemiological studies of arsenic-exposed populations have provided evidence that arsenic exposure in humans is associated with immunosuppression. Previously, we have reported that arsenite-induced toxicity is associated with the induction of autophagy in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL). Autophagy is a cellular process that functions in the degradation of damaged cellular components, including protein aggregates formed by misfolded or damaged proteins. Accumulation of misfolded or damaged proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). In an effort to investigate the mechanism of autophagy induction by arsenite in the LCL model, we examined the potential contribution of ER stress and activation of the UPR. LCL exposed to sodium arsenite for 8-days induced expression of UPR-activated genes, including CHOP and GRP78, at the RNA and the protein level. Evidence for activation of the three arms of the UPR was observed. The arsenite-induced activation of the UPR was associated with an accumulation of protein aggregates containing p62 and LC3, proteins with established roles in the sequestration and autophagic clearance of protein aggregates. Taken together, these data provide evidence that arsenite-induced autophagy is associated with the generation of ER stress, activation of the UPR, and formation of protein aggregates that may be targeted to the lysosome for degradation.

  16. Screening for Microtubule-Disrupting Antifungal Agents by Using a Mitotic-Arrest Mutant of Aspergillus nidulans and Novel Action of Phenylalanine Derivatives Accompanying Tubulin Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kiso, Tetsuo; Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Ping, Xu; Tanaka, Toshio; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    The microtubule, which is one of the major targets of anthelmintics, anticancer drugs, and fungicides, is composed mainly of α- and β-tubulins. We focused on a unique characteristic of an Aspergillus nidulans benA33 mutant to screen for microtubule-disrupting antifungal agents. This mutant, which has a β-tubulin with a mutation of a single amino acid, undergoes mitotic arrest due to the formation of hyperstable microtubules at 37°C. The heat sensitivity of the mutant is remedied by some antimicrotubule agents. We found that an agar plate assay with the mutant was able to distinguish three types of microtubule inhibitors. The growth recovery zones of the mutant were formed around paper disks containing microtubule inhibitors, including four benzimidazoles, ansamitocin P-3, griseofulvin, and rhizoxin, on the agar plate at 37°C. Nocodazole, thiabendazole, and griseofulvin reversed the mitotic arrest of the mutant and promoted its hyphal growth. Ansamitocin P-3 and rhizoxin showed growth recovery zones around the growth-inhibitory zones. Benomyl and carbendazim also reversed mitotic arrest but produced weaker growth recovery than the aforementioned drugs. Other microtubule inhibitors, such as colchicine, Colcemid, paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin, TN-16, vinblastine, and vincristine, as well as some cytoskeletal inhibitors tested, did not show such activity. In our screening, we newly identified two mycotoxins, citrinin and patulin, two sesquiterpene dialdehydes, polygodial and warburganal, and four phenylalanine derivatives, arphamenine A, l-2,5-dihydrophenylalanine (DHPA), N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethylketone, and N-carbobenzoxy-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone. In a wild-type strain of A. nidulans, DHPA caused selective losses of microtubules, as determined by fluorescence microscopy, and of both α- and β-tubulins, as determined by Western blot analysis. This screening method involving the benA33 mutant of A. nidulans is useful, convenient, and highly

  17. Increased expression of mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD1L1) is associated with poor prognosis and insensitive to Taxol treatment in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Xianyu; Liu, Tong; Liu, Xiaolong; Geng, Jingshu; He, Xiaohui; Liu, Yang; Pang, Da

    2013-07-01

    Aneuploidy is a characteristic of human cancers, and recent studies have suggested that defects of mitotic checkpoints play a role in carcinogenesis. Mitotic Arrest Deficient-Like 1 (MAD1L1), whose altered expression is associated with chromosomal instability, is a checkpoint gene. We examined MAD1L1 protein expression from 461 breast cancer tissues and patients' normal breast tissues by tissue microarray to study the correlation between the MAD1L1 expression and the clinicopathological features. MAD1L1 protein expression was significantly increased in the nuclei of cancer cells (28.4 %) compared with that in normal mammary cells (2.2 %), and was correlated with Her-2 status, cancer subtypes, p53 status, and age. High level of MAD1L1 expression in nuclei was associated with worse OS (p = 0.018). Furthermore, patients with high level of MAD1L1 expression (in nuclei) and undergone Taxol chemotherapy treatment have shorter overall survival than ones without Taxol treatment in this study (p = 0.026). In conclusion, our data demonstrated a significant correlation between nuclear expression of MAD1L1 protein and adverse prognosis in breast cancer. MAD1L1 might be used as a prognostic biomarker for breast cancer and expression of MAD1L1 in nuclei is also a predict biomarker of contraindication to pacilitaxel treatment in breast cancer.

  18. The histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589 inhibits expression of mitotic genes causing G2/M arrest and cell death in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Prystowsky, Michael B; Adomako, Alfred; Smith, Richard V; Kawachi, Nicole; McKimpson, Wendy; Atadja, Peter; Chen, Quan; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Parish, Joanna L; Childs, Geoffrey; Belbin, Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma represents a complex set of neoplasms arising in diverse anatomical locations. The site and stage of the cancer determine whether patients will be treated with single or multi-modality therapy. The HDAC inhibitor LBH589 is effective in treating some haematological neoplasms and shows promise for certain epithelial neoplasms. As with other human cancer cell lines, LBH589 causes up-regulation of p21, G2/M cell cycle arrest, and cell death of human HNSCC cell lines, as measured using flow cytometry and cDNA microarrays. Global RNA expression studies following treatment of the HNSCC cell line FaDu with LBH589 reveal down-regulation of genes required for chromosome congression and segregation (SMC2L1), sister chromatid cohesion (DDX11), and kinetochore structure (CENP-A, CENP-F, and CENP-M); these LBH589-induced changes in gene expression coupled with the down-regulation of MYC and BIRC5 (survivin) provide a plausible explanation for the early mitotic arrest and cell death observed. When LBH589-induced changes in gene expression were compared with gene expression profiles of 41 primary HNSCC samples, many of the genes that were down-regulated by LBH589 showed increased expression in primary HNSCC, suggesting that some patients with HNSCC may respond to treatment with LBH589. (c) 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Dynamic feature of mitotic arrest deficient 2-like protein 2 (MAD2L2) and structural basis for its interaction with chromosome alignment maintaining phosphoprotein (CAMP).

    PubMed

    Hara, Kodai; Taharazako, Shota; Ikeda, Masanori; Fujita, Hiroki; Mikami, Yoshiko; Kikuchi, Sotaro; Hishiki, Asami; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Ishikawa, Yoshinobu; Kanno, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Kozo; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2017-09-08

    Mitotic arrest deficient 2-like protein 2 (MAD2L2), also termed MAD2B or REV7, is involved in multiple cellular functions including translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), signal transduction, transcription, and mitotic events. MAD2L2 interacts with chromosome alignment-maintaining phosphoprotein (CAMP), a kinetochore-microtubule attachment protein in mitotic cells, presumably through a novel "WK" motif in CAMP. Structures of MAD2L2 in complex with binding regions of the TLS proteins REV3 and REV1 have revealed that MAD2L2 has two faces for protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that are regulated by its C-terminal region; however, the mechanisms underlying the MAD2L2-CAMP interaction and the mitotic role of MAD2L2 remain unknown. Here we have determined the structures of human MAD2L2 in complex with a CAMP fragment in two crystal forms. The overall structure of the MAD2L2-CAMP complex in both crystal forms was essentially similar to that of the MAD2L2-REV3 complex. However, the residue interactions between MAD2L2 and CAMP were strikingly different from those in the MAD2L2-REV3 complex. Furthermore, structure-based interaction analyses revealed an unprecedented mechanism involving CAMP's WK motif. Surprisingly, in one of the crystal forms, the MAD2L2-CAMP complex formed a dimeric structure in which the C-terminal region of MAD2L2 was swapped and adopted an immature structure. The structure provides direct evidence for the dynamic nature of MAD2L2 structure, which in turn may have implications for the PPI mechanism and the multiple functions of this protein. This work is the first structural study of MAD2L2 aside from its role in TLS and might pave the way to clarify MAD2L2's function in mitosis. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Mitotic arrest of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by a halogenated thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Ross, Christina R; Temburnikar, Kartik W; Wilson, Gerald M; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2015-04-15

    Halogenated thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines exhibit antiproliferative activity against a variety of cancer cell models, such as the mouse lymphocytic leukemia cell line L1210 in which they induce apoptosis independent of cell cycle arrest. Here we assessed these activities on MDA-MB-231 cells, a well-established model of aggressive, metastatic breast cancer. While 2,4-dichloro[3,2-d]pyrimidine was less toxic to MDA-MB-231 cells than previously observed in the L1210 model, flow cytometry analysis showed that MDA-MB-231 cell death involved arrest at the G2/M stage of the cell cycle. Conversely, the introduction of bromine at C7 of the 2,4-dichloro[3,2-d]pyrimidine eliminated cell type-dependent differences in cytotoxicity or cell cycle status. Together, these data indicate that a substituent at C7 can profoundly modify the cytotoxic mechanism of halogenated thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines in a cell type-specific manner.

  1. 2-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4(1H)-one (HKL-1) induces G2/M arrest and mitotic catastrophe in human leukemia HL-60 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Mei-Hua; Liu, Chin-Yu; Lin, Chiao-Min; Chen, Yen-Jung; Chen, Chun-Jen; Lin, Yu-Fu; Huang, Li-Jiau; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Kuo, Sheng-Chu

    2012-03-01

    2-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4(1H)-one (HKL-1), a 2-phenyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4-one (2-PN) derivative, was synthesized and evaluated as an effective antimitotic agent in our laboratory. However, the molecular mechanisms are uncertain. In this study, HKL-1 was demonstrated to induce multipolar spindles, sustain mitotic arrest and generate multinucleated cells, all of which indicate mitotic catastrophe, in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Western blotting showed that HKL-1 induces mitotic catastrophe in HL-60 cells through regulating mitotic phase-specific kinases (down-regulating CDK1, cyclin B1, CENP-E, and aurora B) and regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (down-regulating Bcl-2 and up-regulating Bax and Bak), followed by caspase-9/-3 cleavage. These findings suggest that HKL-1 appears to exert its cytotoxicity toward HL-60 cells in culture by inducing mitotic catastrophe. Highlights: ► HKL-1 is a potential antimitotic agent against HL-60 cells. ► HKL-1 induces spindle disruption and sustained resulted in mitotic catastrophe. ► CENP-E and aurora B protein expressions significantly reduced. ► Bcl-2 family protein expressions altered and caspase-9/-3 activation. ► HKL-1 is an attractive candidate for possible use as a novel antimitotic agent.

  2. Structure–Biological Function Relationship Extended to Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2-Like Protein Mad2 Native and Mutants-New Opportunity for Genetic Disorder Control

    PubMed Central

    Avram, Speranta; Milac, Adina; Mernea, Maria; Mihailescu, Dan; Putz, Mihai V.; Buiu, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN) and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2) to active closed (C-Mad2) conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) or Mad1) were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided) and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53–0.65) and fitted correlation r2 (0.82–0.90). Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN. PMID:25411801

  3. EFFECT OF EXPOSURE PROTOCOL AND HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN EXPRESSION ON ARSENITE INDUCED GENOTOXICITY IN MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Effect of exposure protocol and heat shock protein expression on arsenite induced genotoxicity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    The genotoxic effects of arsenic (As) are well accepted, yet its mechanism of action is not clearly defined. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) protect...

  4. EFFECT OF EXPOSURE PROTOCOL AND HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN EXPRESSION ON ARSENITE INDUCED GENOTOXICITY IN MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Effect of exposure protocol and heat shock protein expression on arsenite induced genotoxicity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    The genotoxic effects of arsenic (As) are well accepted, yet its mechanism of action is not clearly defined. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) protect...

  5. The metalloid arsenite induces nuclear export of Id3 possibly via binding to the N-terminal cysteine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Kurooka, Hisanori; Sugai, Manabu; Mori, Kentaro; Yokota, Yoshifumi

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Sodium arsenite induces cytoplasmic accumulation of Id3. •Arsenite binds to closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3. •N-terminal cysteines are essential for arsenite-induced nuclear export of Id3. •Nuclear export of Id3 counteracts its transcriptional repression activity. -- Abstract: Ids are versatile transcriptional repressors that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and appropriate subcellular localization of the Id proteins is important for their functions. We previously identified distinct functional nuclear export signals (NESs) in Id1 and Id2, but no active NES has been reported in Id3. In this study, we found that treatment with the stress-inducing metalloid arsenite led to the accumulation of GFP-tagged Id3 in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic accumulation was impaired by a mutation in the Id3 NES-like sequence resembling the Id1 NES, located at the end of the HLH domain. It was also blocked by co-treatment with the CRM1-specific nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB), but not with the inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Importantly, we showed that the closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3 interacted with the arsenic derivative phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and were essential for the arsenite-induced cytoplasmic accumulation, suggesting that arsenite induces the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of Id3 via binding to the N-terminal cysteines. Finally, we demonstrated that Id3 significantly repressed arsenite-stimulated transcription of the immediate-early gene Egr-1 and that this repression activity was inversely correlated with the arsenite-induced nuclear export. Our results imply that Id3 may be involved in the biological action of arsenite.

  6. Possible vasculoprotective role of linagliptin against sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, Uma; Kansal, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Puneet; Goyal, Sandeep

    2016-02-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) interrupts the integrity and function of endothelial lining through enhanced markers of oxidative stress and decrease endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. The main aim of the present study has been designed to investigate the possible vasculoprotective role of linagliptin against sodium arsenite-induced VED. Sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg, i.p., 2 weeks) abrogated the acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by depicting the decrease in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, reduced glutathione level, and simultaneously enhance the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, superoxide level, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These elevated markers interrupt the integrity of endothelial lining of thoracic aorta which was assessed histologically. The study elicits dose dependent effect of linagliptin (1.5 mg/kg, i.p. and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) or atorvastatin (30 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment, improved the endothelium-dependent independent relaxation, improve the integrity of endothelium lining which was assessed histologically by enhancing the serum nitrite/nitrate level, reduced glutathione level and simultaneously decreasing the TBARS level, superoxide anion level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level. L-NAME (25 mg/kg, i.p.), eNOS inhibitor, abrogated the ameliorative potential of linagliptin. However, the ameliorative potential of linagliptin has been enhanced by l-arginine (200 mg/kg, i.p.) which elicits that ameliorative potential of linagliptin was through eNOS signaling cascade and it may be concluded that linagliptin 3 mg/kg, i.p. has more significantly activated the eNOS and decreased the oxidative markers than linagliptin 1.5 mg/kg, i.p. and prevented sodium arsenite-induced VED.

  7. A novel microtubule inhibitor, MT3-037, causes cancer cell apoptosis by inducing mitotic arrest and interfering with microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ling-Chu; Yu, Yung-Luen; Hsieh, Min-Tsang; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Huang, Wei-Chien; Lin, Hui-Yi; Hung, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the anticancer potential of a new synthetic compound, 7-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-methylpyrido-[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5(8H)-one (MT3-037). We found that MT3-037 effectively decreased the cancer cell viability by inducing apoptosis. MT3-037 treatments led to cell cycle arrest at M phase, with a marked increase in both expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) as well as in CDK1 kinase activity. Key proteins that regulate mitotic spindle dynamics, including survivin, Aurora A/B kinases, and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), were activated in MT3-037-treated cells. MT3-037-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of a pro-apoptotic factor, FADD, and the inactivation of apoptosis inhibitors, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, resulting in the cleavage/activation of caspases. The activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was associated with MT3-037-induced CDK1 and Aurora A/B activation and apoptosis. Immunofluorescence staining of tubulin indicated that MT3-037 altered tubulin networks in cancer cells. Moreover, an in vitro tubulin polymerization assay revealed that MT3-037 inhibited the tubulin polymerization by direct binding to tubulin. Molecular docking studies and binding site completion assays revealed that MT3-037 binds to the colchicine-binding site. Furthermore, MT3-037 significantly inhibited the tumor growth in both MDAMB-468 and Erlotinib-resistant MDA-MB-468 xenograft mouse models. In addition, MT3-037 inhibited the angiogenesis and disrupted the tube formation by human endothelial cells. Our study demonstrates that MT3-037 is a potential tubulin-disrupting agent for antitumor therapy. PMID:27186428

  8. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  9. Impaired autophagic flux and p62-mediated EMT are involved in arsenite-induced transformation of L-02 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinlu; Ling, Min; Chen, Chao; Luo, Fei; Yang, Ping; Wang, Dapeng; Chen, Xiong; Xu, Hui; Xue, Junchao; Yang, Qianlei; Lu, Lu; Lu, Jiachun; Bian, Qian; Zhang, Aihua; Liu, Qizhan

    2017-09-06

    Autophagy is a catabolic process essential for preserving cellular homeostasis, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved during tissue development and cancer progression. In arsenite-treated human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cells, arsenite reduced the autophagic flux, which caused accumulation of p62, an adaptor and receptor of autophagy. Further, in arsenite-transformed L-02 cells, the levels of E-cadherin were attenuated, but the levels of vimentin, which is expressed in mesenchymal cells, and Snail, a transcription regulator of the EMT, were up-regulated. Thus, after chronic exposure of L-02 cells to arsenite, the impaired autophagic flux induced the accumulation of p62, which up-regulated the expression of Snail, a protein involved in arsenite-induced EMT of these cells. Knockdown of p62 by siRNA reversed the arsenite-induced EMT and decreased the capacities of arsenite-transformed L-02 cells for colony formation and invasion and migration. Therefore, in arsenite-induced transformation of L-02 cells, the accumulation of p62, by impairing autophagic flux, mediates the EMT via Snail. These results provide a previously unknown mechanism underlying arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of RAPD to detect sodium arsenite-induced DNA damage in human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuan-Cho; Yang, Vivian C; Wang, Tsu-Shing

    2007-09-24

    Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous study showed that arsenite significantly induces oxidative DNA adducts and DNA-protein cross-links in several mammalian cell lines. In the present study, we used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to evaluate the possible target in the genomic DNA of human lymphoblastoid cells that were exposed to sodium arsenite. Treatment with both 10 and 80 microM arsenite for 4h induced significant changes in RAPD profiles compared with the control pattern. Two 10-mer RAPD primers (D11 and F1) produced the most distinguishable banding profiles between arsenite-treated and control genomic DNA. The sequencing of four arsenite-sensitive RAPD bands showed that the RB1CC1 and PACE4 genes might be the DNA targets of sodium arsenite treatment. We propose that arsenite may induce sequence- or gene-specific damage and then change the RAPD profile in human lymphoblastoid cells. The results of our study also show that RAPD combined with other techniques is a good tool for detecting alterations in genomic DNA and for the direct screening of new molecular markers related to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

  11. Protective effects of Vernonia amygdalina against sodium arsenite-induced genotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Adetutu, Adewale; Oyewo, Emmanuel Bukoye; Adesokan, Ayoade A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Contamination of the environment with arsenic (As) from both human and natural sources is known as a global problem. This study investigated the chemoprotective potential of Vernonia amygdalina leave extract against sodium arsenite-induced genotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Genotoxic effects were evaluated in the rat bone marrow using micronuclei. The gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed in rat serum. Results: Pre-treatment with extract of V. amygdalina at doses 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg significantly decreased the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). The GGT and ALP activities were elevated more than fourfold, in the liver of rats treated with sodium arsenite, while it was reduced almost to half when the sodium arsenit-treated rats were fed fresh V. amgdalina leave extracts The phytochemical constituents of V. amygdalina assayed in this study may be responsible for high radical scavenging of the DPPH free radical observed. Conclusion: The present results indicate that V. amygdalina extract is capable of suppressing the chromosomal aberration induced by sodium arsenite in rat. Thus, V. amygdalina may be a potent chemoprotective agent against the toxicity of sodium arsenite in rats. PMID:23900237

  12. DT-13, a saponin monomer 13 of the Dwarf lilyturf tuber, synergized with vinorelbine to induce mitotic arrest via activation of ERK signaling pathway in NCI-H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyang; Sun, Li; Li, Hang; Lv, Xiaodan; Semukunzi, Herve; Li, Ruiming; Yu, Jun; Yuan, Shengtao; Lin, Sensen

    2017-03-16

    Vinorelbine (NVB) is a semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid that is approved for the clinical therapy of lung cancer. However, the clinical application of NVB was limited because of the acquisition of resistance and inacceptable toxicity. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop low-cytotoxic drugs that can synergize with NVB. DT-13, a saponin monomer 13 of the Dwarf lilyturf tuber, showed inhibitory effects on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis in the previous studies. Here, we found that DT-13 combined with NVB exhibited synergistic effect to inhibit the cell proliferation in human lung cancer NCI-H1299 cells rather than human embryonic lung fibroblasts WI-38. The combination of DT-13 and NVB significantly inhibited the colony formation, induced cellular and nuclear morphological changes, and triggered cell cycle arrest at mitotic phase. Furthermore, MAPK signaling pathway was activated by the combination treatment, and the activation of ERK was required for the induction of mitotic arrest. Taken together, DT-13 combined with NVB exhibited synergistic anticancer effect in NCI-H1299 cells, and DT-13 may be a candidate agent for adjuvant chemotherapy of NVB in lung cancer.

  13. Enhanced glycolysis, regulated by HIF-1α via MCT-4, promotes inflammation in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Zou, Zhonglan; Liu, Xinlu; Ling, Min; Wang, Qingling; Wang, Qi; Lu, Lu; Shi, Le; Liu, Yonglian; Liu, Qizhan; Zhang, Aihua

    2017-06-01

    Arsenite is well established as a human carcinogen, but the molecular mechanisms leading to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis are complex and elusive. Accelerated glycolysis, a common process in tumor cells called the Warburg effect, is associated with various biological phenomena. However, the role of glycolysis induced by arsenite is unknown. We have found that, with chronic exposure to arsenite, L-02 cells undergo a metabolic shift to glycolysis. In liver cells exposed to arsenite, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and monocarboxylate transporter-4 (MCT-4) are over-expressed. MCT-4, directly mediated by HIF-1α, maintains a high level of glycolysis, and the enhanced glycolysis promotes pro-inflammatory properties, which are involved in arsenite carcinogenesis. In addition, serum lactate and cytokines are higher in arsenite-exposed human populations, and there is a positive correlation between them. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between lactate and cytokines with arsenic in hair. In sum, these findings indicate that MCT-4, mediated by HIF-1α, enhances the glycolysis induced by arsenite. Lactate, the end product of glycolysis, is released into the extracellular environment. The acidic microenvironment promotes production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to arsenite-induced liver carcinogenesis. These results provide a link between the induction of glycolysis and inflammation in liver cells exposed to arsenite, and thus establish a previously unknown mechanism for arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The novel role of fenofibrate in preventing nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Reddy, Krishna; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of fenofibrate, an agonist of PPAR-alpha, in nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) and sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The scanning electron microscopy study in thoracic aorta revealed that administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium. Further, administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite significantly decreased serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and subsequently reduced acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Moreover, nicotine or sodium arsenite produced oxidative stress by increasing serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day p.o., a standard agent) significantly prevented nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentrations of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Conversely, co-administration of L-NAME (25 mg/kg/day, i.p.), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, markedly attenuated these vascular protective effects of fenofibrate. The administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite altered the lipid profile by increasing serum cholesterol and triglycerides and consequently decreasing high-density lipoprotein levels, which were significantly prevented by treatment with fenofibrate or atorvastatin. It may be concluded that fenofibrate improves the integrity and function of vascular endothelium, and the vascular protecting potential of fenofibrate in preventing the development of nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED may be attributed to its

  15. Arsenite induces endothelial cell permeability increase through a reactive oxygen species-vascular endothelial growth factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lingzhi; Shi, Honglian

    2010-11-15

    As a potent environmental oxidative stressor, arsenic exposure has been reported to exacerbate cardiovascular diseases and increase vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is not well understood. In this paper, we test our hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression may play an important role in an arsenic-caused increase of endothelial cell monolayer permeability. The mouse brain vascular endothelial cell bEnd3 monolayer was exposed to arsenite for 1, 3, and 6 days. The monolayer permeability, VEGF protein release, and ROS generation were determined. In addition, VE-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), two membrane structure proteins, were immunostained to elucidate the effects of arsenite on the cell-cell junction. The roles of ROS and VEGF in arsenite-induced permeability was determined by inhibiting ROS with antioxidants and immuno-depleting VEGF with a VEGF antibody. We observed that arsenite increased bEnd3 monolayer permeability, elevated the production of cellular ROS, and increased VEGF release. VE-cadherin and ZO-1 disruptions were also found in cells treated with arsenite. Furthermore, both antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine and tempol) and the VEGF antibody treatments significantly lowered the arsenite-induced permeability of the bEnd3 monolayer as well as VEGF expression. VE-cadherin and ZO-1 disruptions were also diminished by N-acetyl cysteine and the VEGF antibody. Our data suggest that the increase in VEGF expression caused by ROS may play an important role in the arsenite-induced increase in endothelial cell permeability.

  16. Involvement of Polo-like Kinase 1 (Plk1) in Mitotic Arrest by Inhibition of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase-Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (MEK-ERK-RSK1) Cascade*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Chen, Dian-Fu; Zhou, Rong; Jia, Sheng-Nan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Clegg, James S.; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Cell division is controlled through cooperation of different kinases. Of these, polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) play key roles. Plk1 acts as a G2/M trigger, and RSK1 promotes G1 progression. Although previous reports show that Plk1 is suppressed by RSK1 during meiosis in Xenopus oocytes, it is still not clear whether this is the case during mitosis or whether Plk1 counteracts the effects of RSK1. Few animal models are available for the study of controlled and transient cell cycle arrest. Here we show that encysted embryos (cysts) of the primitive crustacean Artemia are ideal for such research because they undergo complete cell cycle arrest when they enter diapause (a state of obligate dormancy). We found that Plk1 suppressed the activity of RSK1 during embryonic mitosis and that Plk1 was inhibited during embryonic diapause and mitotic arrest. In addition, studies on HeLa cells using Plk1 siRNA interference and overexpression showed that phosphorylation of RSK1 increased upon interference and decreased after overexpression, suggesting that Plk1 inhibits RSK1. Taken together, these findings provide insights into the regulation of Plk1 during cell division and Artemia diapause cyst formation and the correlation between the activity of Plk1 and RSK1. PMID:22427657

  17. Protection of Nrf2 against arsenite-induced oxidative damage is regulated by the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-protein kinase G signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chengzhi; Jiang, Xuejun; Gu, Shiyan; Lai, Yanhao; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2016-10-24

    Arsenite has been shown to induce a variety of oxidative damage in mammalian cells. However, the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to its adverse effects remain unknown. We previously showed that the level of Nrf2, a nuclear transcription factor significantly increased in arsenite-treated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells suggesting that Nrf2 is involved in responding to arsenite-induced oxidative damage. To explore how Nrf2 can impact arsenite-induced oxidative damage, in this study, we examined Nrf2 activation and its regulation upon cellular arsenite exposure as well as its effects on arsenite-induced oxidative damage in HBE cells. We found that Nrf2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by arsenite in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that over-expression of Nrf2 significantly reduced the level of arsenite-induced oxidative damage in HBE cells including DNA damage, chromosomal breakage, lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidants. This indicates a protective role of Nrf2 against arsenite toxicity. This was further supported by the fact that activation of Nrf2 by its agonists, tertiary butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ) and sulforaphane (SFN) resulted in the same protective effects against arsenite toxicity. Moreover, we demonstrated that arsenite-induced activation of Nrf2 was mediated by the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway. This is the first evidence showing that Nrf2 protects against arsenite-induced oxidative damage through the cGMP-PKG pathway. Our study suggests that activation of Nrf2 through the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway in HBE cells may be developed as a new strategy for prevention of arsenite toxicity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2016.

  18. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  19. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2010-11-25

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum γ-Glutamyl transferase (γGT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities when compared with the group administered the toxin alone. In addition, treatments of the animals with aqueous or ethanolic extract of O. basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.

  20. Adenovirus Replaces Mitotic Checkpoint Controls

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Roberta L.; Groitl, Peter; Dobner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with adenovirus triggers the cellular DNA damage response, elements of which include cell death and cell cycle arrest. Early adenoviral proteins, including the E1B-55K and E4orf3 proteins, inhibit signaling in response to DNA damage. A fraction of cells infected with an adenovirus mutant unable to express the E1B-55K and E4orf3 genes appeared to arrest in a mitotic-like state. Cells infected early in G1 of the cell cycle were predisposed to arrest in this state at late times of infection. This arrested state, which displays hallmarks of mitotic catastrophe, was prevented by expression of either the E1B-55K or the E4orf3 genes. However, E1B-55K mutant virus-infected cells became trapped in a mitotic-like state in the presence of the microtubule poison colcemid, suggesting that the two viral proteins restrict entry into mitosis or facilitate exit from mitosis in order to prevent infected cells from arresting in mitosis. The E1B-55K protein appeared to prevent inappropriate entry into mitosis through its interaction with the cellular tumor suppressor protein p53. The E4orf3 protein facilitated exit from mitosis by possibly mislocalizing and functionally inactivating cyclin B1. When expressed in noninfected cells, E4orf3 overcame the mitotic arrest caused by the degradation-resistant R42A cyclin B1 variant. IMPORTANCE Cells that are infected with adenovirus type 5 early in G1 of the cell cycle are predisposed to arrest in a mitotic-like state in a p53-dependent manner. The adenoviral E1B-55K protein prevents entry into mitosis. This newly described activity for the E1B-55K protein appears to depend on the interaction between the E1B-55K protein and the tumor suppressor p53. The adenoviral E4orf3 protein facilitates exit from mitosis, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of cyclin B1. By preventing entry into mitosis and by promoting exit from mitosis, these adenoviral proteins act to prevent the infected cell from arresting in a

  1. Sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: protective role of p-coumaric acid, a common dietary polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Nagalakshmi; Krishnan, Dhanalakshmi Navaneethan; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the ameliorative role of p-coumaric acid against sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/b.wt) was orally administered once a day for 30 days to the animals to induce cardiotoxicity. After the experimental period, cardiotoxicity was assessed by estimating the levels of lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, total reduced glutathione, protein sulfyhydryl and non-protein sulfhydryl groups) and DNA fragmentation in the cardiac tissue of control and experimental rats. In addition, cardiac tissue specific serum markers (triacylglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol) in serum and histopathological changes in the cardiac tissue were also evaluated. From the results obtained in our study, sodium arsenite administration to the rats increased lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, triacylglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas antioxidant status and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were found to be reduced. However, p-coumaric acid (75 and100 mg/kg/b.wt) treatment orally once per day for 30 days, immediately before a daily administration of sodium arsenite protected the abnormal biochemical abnormalities observed in the cardiac tissue of sodium arsenite treated rats as evidenced by the cardiac histopathology. For comparison purpose, a standard antioxidant vitamin C (100 mg/kg/b.wt) was used. In conclusion, this study concluded that p-coumaric acid could be a promising candidate for protecting the sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity in rats through its antioxidant character.

  2. Antisense expression of an Arabidopsis ran binding protein renders transgenic roots hypersensitive to auxin and alters auxin-induced root growth and development by arresting mitotic progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Arnold, D.; Lloyd, A.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis Ran binding protein, AtRanBP1c, and generated transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the antisense strand of the AtRanBP1c gene to understand the in vivo functions of the Ran/RanBP signal pathway. The transgenic plants showed enhanced primary root growth but suppressed growth of lateral roots. Auxin significantly increased lateral root initiation and inhibited primary root growth in the transformants at 10 pM, several orders of magnitude lower than required to induce these responses in wild-type roots. This induction was followed by a blockage of mitosis in both newly emerged lateral roots and in the primary root, ultimately resulting in the selective death of cells in the tips of both lateral and primary roots. Given the established role of Ran binding proteins in the transport of proteins into the nucleus, these findings are consistent with a model in which AtRanBP1c plays a key role in the nuclear delivery of proteins that suppress auxin action and that regulate mitotic progress in root tips.

  3. Antisense expression of an Arabidopsis ran binding protein renders transgenic roots hypersensitive to auxin and alters auxin-induced root growth and development by arresting mitotic progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Arnold, D.; Lloyd, A.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis Ran binding protein, AtRanBP1c, and generated transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the antisense strand of the AtRanBP1c gene to understand the in vivo functions of the Ran/RanBP signal pathway. The transgenic plants showed enhanced primary root growth but suppressed growth of lateral roots. Auxin significantly increased lateral root initiation and inhibited primary root growth in the transformants at 10 pM, several orders of magnitude lower than required to induce these responses in wild-type roots. This induction was followed by a blockage of mitosis in both newly emerged lateral roots and in the primary root, ultimately resulting in the selective death of cells in the tips of both lateral and primary roots. Given the established role of Ran binding proteins in the transport of proteins into the nucleus, these findings are consistent with a model in which AtRanBP1c plays a key role in the nuclear delivery of proteins that suppress auxin action and that regulate mitotic progress in root tips.

  4. Trichodermin induces c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent apoptosis caused by mitotic arrest and DNA damage in human p53-mutated pancreatic cancer cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ming-Hsien; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Yeh, Yen-Hsiu; Li, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Po-Chuan; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Yung-Wei; Hsiao, Michael; Wang, Shih-Wei; Hua, Kuo-Tai

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy, which generally responds poorly to chemotherapy. In this study, trichodermin, an endophytic fungal metabolite from Nalanthamala psidii, was identified as a potent and selective antitumor agent in human pancreatic cancer. Trichodermin exhibited antiproliferative effects against pancreatic cancer cells, especially p53-mutated cells (MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3) rather than normal pancreatic epithelial cells. We found that trichodermin induced caspase-dependent and mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis. Trichodermin also increased apoptosis through mitotic arrest by activating Cdc2/cyclin B1 complex activity. Moreover, trichodermin promoted the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and inhibition of JNK by its inhibitor, shRNA, or siRNA significantly reversed trichodermin-mediated caspase-dependent apoptosis. Trichodermin triggered DNA damage stress to activate p53 function for executing apoptosis in p53-mutated cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that trichodermin with efficacy similar to gemcitabine, profoundly suppressed tumor growth through inducing intratumoral DNA damage and JNK activation in orthotopic pancreatic cancer model. Based on these findings, trichodermin is a potential therapeutic agent worthy of further development into a clinical trial candidate for treating cancer, especially the mutant p53 pancreatic cancer.

  5. Green synthesis of bacterial mediated anti-proliferative gold nanoparticles: inducing mitotic arrest (G2/M phase) and apoptosis (intrinsic pathway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh Kumar, C.; Poornachandra, Y.; Chandrasekhar, Cheemalamarri

    2015-11-01

    The physiochemical and biological properties of microbial derived gold nanoparticles have potential applications in various biomedical domains as well as in cancer therapy. We have fabricated anti-proliferative bacterial mediated gold nanoparticles (b-Au NPs) using a culture supernatant of Streptomyces clavuligerus and later characterized them by UV-visible, TEM, DLS, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The capping agent responsible for the nanoparticle formation was characterized based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. They were tested for anticancer activity in A549, HeLa and DU145 cell lines. The biocompatibility and non-toxic nature of the nanoparticles were tested on normal human lung cell line (MRC-5). The b-Au NPs induced the cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and also inhibited the microtubule assembly in DU145 cells. Mechanistic studies, such as ROS, MMP, Cyt-c, GSH, caspases 9, 8 and 3 activation and the Annexin V-FITC staining, along with the above parameters tested provided sufficient evidence that the b-Au NPs induced apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. The results supported the use of b-Au NPs for future therapeutic application in cancer therapy and other biomedical applications.The physiochemical and biological properties of microbial derived gold nanoparticles have potential applications in various biomedical domains as well as in cancer therapy. We have fabricated anti-proliferative bacterial mediated gold nanoparticles (b-Au NPs) using a culture supernatant of Streptomyces clavuligerus and later characterized them by UV-visible, TEM, DLS, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The capping agent responsible for the nanoparticle formation was characterized based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. They were tested for anticancer activity in A549, HeLa and DU145 cell lines. The biocompatibility and non-toxic nature of the nanoparticles were tested on normal human lung cell line (MRC-5). The b-Au NPs induced the cell cycle arrest in G2

  6. Green synthesis of bacterial mediated anti-proliferative gold nanoparticles: inducing mitotic arrest (G2/M phase) and apoptosis (intrinsic pathway).

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Ganesh; Poornachandra, Y; Chandrasekhar, Cheemalamarri

    2015-11-28

    The physiochemical and biological properties of microbial derived gold nanoparticles have potential applications in various biomedical domains as well as in cancer therapy. We have fabricated anti-proliferative bacterial mediated gold nanoparticles (b-Au NPs) using a culture supernatant of Streptomyces clavuligerus and later characterized them by UV-visible, TEM, DLS, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The capping agent responsible for the nanoparticle formation was characterized based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. They were tested for anticancer activity in A549, HeLa and DU145 cell lines. The biocompatibility and non-toxic nature of the nanoparticles were tested on normal human lung cell line (MRC-5). The b-Au NPs induced the cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and also inhibited the microtubule assembly in DU145 cells. Mechanistic studies, such as ROS, MMP, Cyt-c, GSH, caspases 9, 8 and 3 activation and the Annexin V-FITC staining, along with the above parameters tested provided sufficient evidence that the b-Au NPs induced apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. The results supported the use of b-Au NPs for future therapeutic application in cancer therapy and other biomedical applications.

  7. Farnesyltransferase inhibitor R115777 (Zarnestra, Tipifarnib) synergizes with paclitaxel to induce apoptosis and mitotic arrest and to inhibit tumor growth of multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kuichun; Gerbino, Elvira; Beaupre, Darrin M; Mackley, Paul A; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Beam, Craig; Hamilton, Andrew D; Lichtenheld, Mathias G; Kerr, William G; Dalton, William; Alsina, Melissa; Sebti, Saïd M

    2005-06-15

    Despite major advances, multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable malignancy. Recently we have found that disease stabilization was achieved in 64% of patients with advanced MM treated with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor R115777 (Zarnestra) in a phase 2 clinical trial. In order to enhance R115777 antitumor activity in MM, we examined the combination of this novel agent with other anticancer drugs in MM cell lines. In this study, R115777 was found to synergize with paclitaxel and docetaxel, but not with other chemotherapy agents, including doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplastin, melphalan, mitoxantrone, and dexamethasone. R115777 synergized with paclitaxel to inhibit MM cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis. Synergism in the induction of apoptosis was accompanied by increase in cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis also showed that paclitaxel and R115777 synergized to induce G(2)/M cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, synergism was observed in taxane- and R115777-resistant MM cells. In the human severe combined immunodeficient (SCID-hu) bone model of myeloma growth, the ability of paclitaxel to inhibit tumor growth in vivo was enhanced by R115777. Combination of paclitaxel or docetaxel with R115777 in the treatment of MM cells from patients with multiple myeloma was more beneficial than treatment with single agents. Our results provide the basis for combination therapy clinical trials with paclitaxel or docetaxel with R115777 in MM patients.

  8. Deficiency of long isoforms of Nfe2l1 sensitizes MIN6 pancreatic β cells to arsenite-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qi; Fu, Jingqi; Hu, Yuxin; Li, Yongfang; Yang, Bei; Li, Lu; Sun, Jing; Chen, Chengjie; Sun, Guifan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qiang; Pi, Jingbo

    2017-08-15

    Increasing evidence indicates that chronic inorganic arsenic exposure is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease of growing prevalence. Pancreatic β-cells were targeted and damaged by oxidative stress induced by arsenite. We previously showed that nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2)-deficient pancreatic β-cells were vulnerable to cell damage induced by oxidative stressors including arsenite, due to a muted antioxidant response. Like nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2), NFE2L1 also belongs to the cap 'n' collar (CNC) basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family, and regulates antioxidant response element (ARE) related genes. Our prior work showed NFE2L1 regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells and isolated islets. In the current study, we demonstrated that MIN6 cells with a specific knockdown of long isoforms of Nfe2l1 (L-Nfe2l1) by lentiviral shRNA (Nfe2l1(L)-KD) were vulnerable to arsenite-induced apoptosis and cell damage. The expression levels of antioxidant genes, such as Gclc, Gclm and Ho-1, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were not different in Scramble and Nfe2l1(L)-KD cells, while the expression of arsenic metabolism related-genes, such as Gsto1, Gstm1 and Nqo1, increased in Nfe2l1(L)-KD cells with or without arsenite treatment. The up-regulation of arsenic biotransformation genes was due to activated NFE2L2 in Nfe2l1(L)-KD MIN6 cells. Furthermore, the level of intracellular monomethylarsenic (MMA) was higher in Nfe2l1(L)-KD MIN6 cells than in Scramble cells. These results showed that deficiency of L-Nfe2l1 in pancreatic β-cells increased susceptibility to acute arsenite-induced cytotoxicity by promoting arsenic biotransformation and intracellular MMA levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Methanol Extract of Adansonia digitata Leaf Protects Against Sodium Arsenite-induced Toxicities in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adegoke, Ayodeji Mathias; Gbadegesin, Michael Adedapo; Odunola, Oyeronke Adunni

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human and animal population exposure to arsenic through the consumption of arsenic contaminated water is rampant in many parts of the world. Protective agents of medicinal plants origin could provide maximum protection against toxicities of various kinds. Objective: The protective role of orally administered methanol extract of the leaves of Adansonia digitata (MELAD) on sodium arsenite (SA) – induced clastogenicity and hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats divided into six Groups (1–6) of five animals each were used for the study. Group 1 (negative control) received distilled water and normal diet only, Groups 2–6 received the extract (at 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) and/or SA at 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Results: There was statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and lipid peroxidation in the SA group as compared with the negative control and treated groups. Administration of the extract reduced the effects of SA on the above parameters. Activities of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases did not show statistically significant effects; however, the histological analyses revealed periportal cellular infiltration by mononuclear cells, whereas the MELAD treated groups show mild cellular infiltration and mild portal congestion. Conclusions: MELAD protect against SA-induced toxicities in rats, and it may offer protection in circumstances of co-exposure and cases of arsenicosis. SUMMARY MELAD extract significantly reduce the lipid peroxidation induced by sodium arsenite in the liver of rats.MELAD did not show profound effects on the activities of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotranferases.MELAD offered significant protection against sodium arsenite-induced genotoxicity in the micronuclei induction assay.In the circumstances of co-exposure to arsenic contamination, MELAD may protect against sodium arsenite-induced

  10. Ethyl acetate extract from marine sponge Hyattella cribriformis exhibit potent anticancer activity by promoting tubulin polymerization as evidenced mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Pazhanimuthu; Thayman, Malini; Rajan, Sowmiya; Raman, Lakshmi Sundaram; Ramasubbu, Sankar; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine sponges are important sources of bioactive compounds. Objective: This study investigated the anticancer properties of Hyattella cribriformis ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in various cancer and normal cell lines. Materials and Methods: anticancer assay was carried out in 15 cell lines to evaluate the anticancer potential of the EA fraction. Impact on cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. The fraction was investigated for interfering microtubules assembly in both in vitro and cellular assay. Further studies were conducted to determine the fraction induced cell death (apoptosis) using calcein/propidium iodide dual staining, activated caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 protein at Ser70. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis. Results: EA fraction exhibited potent inhibition of cancer cell growth and resulted in 50% growth inhibition (GI50) of 0.27 μg/mL in A673 cell line. Sarcoma (MG-63, Saos-2) and ovarian (SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3) cancer cell lines also showed superior anticancer activity GI50 of 1.0 μg/mL. Colon and breast cancer cell lines exhibited moderate GI compare other cancer cell lines and normal human lung fibroblast showed GI50 of 15.6 μg/mL. EA fraction showed potent G2/M phase arrest in A673 cell line and induced apoptosis at 48 h exposure. EA fraction promoted microtubule polymerization in tubulin polymerization assay and increased level of polymerized tubulin in the HeLa cells. Fraction induced the activation of caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. Fraction induced DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells as evidence of apoptosis. Conclusion: Marine sponge H. cribriformis EA fraction exhibited potent anticancer activity through tubulin polymerization and induction of apoptosis. PMID:25829774

  11. Mitotic Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells Induced by Origanum majorana Extract: Upregulation of TNF-α and Downregulation of Survivin and Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Yusra; Eid, Ali; AbuQamar, Synan; Attoub, Samir; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Aiche, Ghenima; Hisaindee, Soleiman; Iratni, Rabah

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, we investigated the effect of Origanum majorana ethanolic extract on the survival of the highly proliferative and invasive triple-negative p53 mutant breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Results We found that O. majorana extract (OME) was able to inhibit the viability of the MDA-MB-231 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect of OME on cellular viability was further confirmed by the inhibition of colony growth. We showed, depending on the concentration used, that OME elicited different effects on the MDA-MB 231 cells. Concentrations of 150 and 300 µg/mL induced an accumulation of apoptotic–resistant population of cells arrested in mitotis and overexpressing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21 and the inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin. On the other hand, higher concentrations of OME (450 and 600 µg/mL) triggered a massive apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, including the activation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), caspase 8, caspase 3, and cleavage of PARP, downregulation of survivin as well as depletion of the mutant p53 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, OME induced an upregulation of γ-H2AX, a marker of double strand DNA breaks and an overall histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation. Conclusion Our findings provide strong evidence that O. majorana may be a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate against cancer especially for highly invasive triple negative p53 mutant breast cancer; thus validating its complementary and alternative medicinal use. PMID:23451065

  12. c-Jun/AP-1 pathway-mediated cyclin D1 expression participates in low dose arsenite-induced transformation in mouse epidermal JB6 Cl41 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Dongyun; Li Jingxia; Gao Jimin; Huang Chuanshu

    2009-02-15

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen associated with skin carcinogenesis. Our previous work reveals that arsenite exposure is able to induce cell transformation in mouse epidermal cell JB6 Cl41 through the activation of ERK, rather than JNK pathway. Our current studies further evaluate downstream pathway in low dose arsenite-induced cell transformation in JB6 Cl41 cells. Our results showed that treatment of cells with low dose arsenite induced activation of c-Jun/AP-1 pathway, and ectopic expression of dominant negative mutant of c-Jun (TAM67) blocked arsenite-induced transformation. Furthermore, our data indicated that cyclin D1 was an important downstream molecule involved in c-Jun/AP-1-mediated cell transformation upon low dose arsenite exposure, because inhibition of cyclin D1 expression by its specific siRNA in the JB6 Cl41 cells resulted in impairment of anchorage-independent growth of cells induced by low dose arsenite. Collectively, our results demonstrate that c-Jun/AP-1-mediated cyclin D1 expression is at least one of the key events implicated in cell transformation upon low dose arsenite exposure.

  13. Stress-induced Start Codon Fidelity Regulates Arsenite-inducible Regulatory Particle-associated Protein (AIRAP) Translation*

    PubMed Central

    Zach, Lolita; Braunstein, Ilana; Stanhill, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Initial steps in protein synthesis are highly regulated processes as they define the reading frame of the translation machinery. Eukaryotic translation initiation is a process facilitated by numerous factors (eIFs), aimed to form a “scanning” mechanism toward the initiation codon. Translation initiation of the main open reading frame (ORF) in an mRNA transcript has been reported to be regulated by upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in a manner of re-initiation. This mode of regulation is governed by the phosphorylation status of eIF2α and controlled by cellular stresses. Another mode of translational initiation regulation is leaky scanning, and this regulatory process has not been extensively studied. We have identified arsenite-inducible regulatory particle-associated protein (AIRAP) transcript to be translationally induced during arsenite stress conditions. AIRAP transcript contains a single uORF in a poor-kozak context. AIRAP translation induction is governed by means of leaky scanning and not re-initiation. This induction of AIRAP is solely dependent on eIF1 and the uORF kozak context. We show that eIF1 is phosphorylated under specific conditions that induce protein misfolding and have biochemically characterized this site of phosphorylation. Our data indicate that leaky scanning like re-initiation is responsive to stress conditions and that leaky scanning can induce ORF translation by bypassing poor kozak context of a single uORF transcript. PMID:24898249

  14. Short dysfunctional telomeres impair the repair of arsenite-induced oxidative damage in mouse cells.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jennifer P A; Banerjee, Birendranath; Fang, Wanru; Poonepalli, Anuradha; Balakrishnan, Lakshmidevi; Low, Grace Kah Mun; Bhattacharjee, Rabindra N; Akira, Shizuo; Jayapal, Manikandan; Melendez, Alirio J; Baskar, Rajamanickam; Lee, Han-Woong; Hande, M Prakash

    2008-03-01

    Telomeres and telomerase appear to participate in the repair of broken DNA ends produced by oxidative damage. Arsenite is an environmental contaminant and a potent human carcinogen, which induces oxidative stress on cells via the generation of reactive oxygen species affecting cell viability and chromosome stability. It promotes telomere attrition and reduces cell survival by apoptosis. In this study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from mice lacking telomerase RNA component (mTERC(-/-) mice) with long (early passage or EP) and short (late passage or LP) telomeres to investigate the extent of oxidative damage by comparing the differences in DNA damage, chromosome instability, and cell survival at 24 and 48 h of exposure to sodium arsenite (As3+; NaAsO2). There was significantly high level of DNA damage in mTERC(-/-) cells with short telomeres as determined by alkaline comet assay. Consistent with elevated DNA damage, increased micronuclei (MN) induction reflecting gross genomic instability was also observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that increasing doses of arsenite augmented the chromosome aberrations, which contributes to genomic instability leading to possibly apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest. Microarray analysis has revealed that As3+ treatment altered the expression of 456 genes of which 20% of them have known functions in cell cycle and DNA damage signaling and response, cell growth, and/or maintenance. Results from our studies imply that short dysfunctional telomeres impair the repair of oxidative damage caused by arsenite. The results will have implications in risk estimation as well as cancer chemotherapy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Sodium arsenite induced changes in survival, growth, metamorphosis and genotoxicity in the Indian cricket frog (Rana limnocharis).

    PubMed

    Singha, Utsab; Pandey, Neelam; Boro, Freeman; Giri, Sarbani; Giri, Anirudha; Biswas, Somava

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of the environment is a matter of great concern. Understanding the effects of arsenic on aquatic life will act as biological early warning system to assess how arsenic could shape the biodiversity in the affected areas. Rapid decline in amphibian population in recent decades is a cause of major concern. Over the years, amphibians have been recognized as excellent bio-indicators of environmental related stress. In the present study, we examined the toxic and genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite in the tadpoles of the Indian cricket frog (Rana limnocharis). Sodium arsenite at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg L(-1)) neither induced lethality nor significantly altered body weight at metamorphosis. However, it accelerated the rate of metamorphosis at higher concentrations, reduced body size (snout-vent length) and induced developmental deformities such as loss of limbs. Besides, at concentration ranges between 100 and 400 μg L(-1), sodium arsenite induced statistically significant genotoxicity at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of the exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. However, it did not show time effects as the highest frequency was found between 48 and 72 h which remained steady subsequently. The genotoxicity was confirmed by comet assay in the whole blood cells. These findings suggest that arsenic at environmentally relevant concentrations has significant sub-lethal effects on R.limnocharis, which may have long-term fitness consequence to the species and may have similar implications in other aquatic life too. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Sodium Arsenite-Induced Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Wistar Rats: Protective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ageratum conyzoides

    PubMed Central

    Ola-Davies, Olufunke Eunice; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herbaceous plant used in folklore medicine for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Objective: To investigate the protective effect of the ethanol leaf extract of A. conyzoides (EEAC) against hematological, serum biochemical and histological alterations induced by Sodium arsenite administration to Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats each. Group I received propylene glycol and Group II rats were given the (EEAC, 100 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 7 days. Group III were given a single oral dose of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 2.5 mg/kg b.w.). Animals in Group IV were pretreated with 100 mg/kg EEAC for 7 days followed by a single oral dose of sodium arsenite. Results: Arsenic exposure resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in values of packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) count, and elevation in total white blood cell (WBC) count with insignificant reductions in serum total protein, albumin, and globulin levels. Alterations in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase activities, as well as in serum levels of urea, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, were not statistically significant. EEAC significantly restored (P < 0.05) the PCV, Hb, RBC, and WBC as well as serum albumin, globulin, and total protein to normal values. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that EEAC possess strong potentials to protect against toxicities induced by sodium arsenite. SUMMARY Ageratum conyzoides produced significant reversal of the reduction in the erythrocytic indices (packed cell volume, red blood cell, and Hb) caused by sodium arseniteSodium arsenite-induced slight elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), correlating with the

  17. p27 suppresses arsenite-induced Hsp27/Hsp70 expression through inhibiting JNK2/c-Jun- and HSF-1-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyi; Zhang, Dongyun; Mi, Xiaoyi; Xia, Qing; Yu, Yonghui; Zuo, Zhenghong; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Xuewei; Cao, Jia; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Angela; Yang, Wancai; Shi, Xianglin; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Chuanshu

    2010-08-20

    p27 is an atypical tumor suppressor that can regulate the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases and G(0)-to-S phase transitions. More recent studies reveal that p27 may also exhibit its tumor-suppressive function through regulating many other essential cellular events. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these anticancer effects of p27 are largely unknown. In this study, we found that depletion of p27 expression by either gene knock-out or knockdown approaches resulted in up-regulation of both Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression at mRNA- and promoter-derived transcription as well as protein levels upon arsenite exposure, indicating that p27 provides a negative signal for regulating the expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. Consistently, arsenite-induced activation of JNK2/c-Jun and HSF-1 pathways was also markedly elevated in p27 knock-out (p27(-/-)) and knockdown (p27 shRNA) cells. Moreover, interference with the expression or function of JNK2, c-Jun, and HSF-1, but not JNK1, led to dramatic inhibition of arsenite-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression. Collectively, our results demonstrate that p27 suppresses Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression at the transcriptional level specifically through JNK2/c-Jun- and HSF-1-dependent pathways upon arsenite exposure, which provides additional important molecular mechanisms for the tumor-suppressive function of p27.

  18. Induction of apoptosis by an inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin KSP requires both activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic slippage.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weikang; South, Victoria J; Zhang, Yun; Davide, Joseph P; Farrell, Linda; Kohl, Nancy E; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura; Lobell, Robert B

    2005-07-01

    The inhibition of KSP causes mitotic arrest by activating the spindle assembly checkpoint. While transient inhibition of KSP leads to reversible mitotic arrest, prolonged exposure to a KSP inhibitor induces apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis by the KSP inhibitor couples with mitotic slippage. Slippage-refractory cells show resistance to KSP inhibitor-mediated lethality, whereas promotion of slippage after mitotic arrest enhances apoptosis. However, attenuation of the spindle checkpoint confers resistance to KSP inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, sustained KSP inhibition activates the proapoptotic protein, Bax, and both activation of the spindle checkpoint and subsequent mitotic slippage are required for Bax activation. These studies indicate that in response to KSP inhibition, activation of the spindle checkpoint followed by mitotic slippage initiates apoptosis by activating Bax.

  19. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian; Yamanaka, Kenzo; An, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sodium arsenite-induced stress-related gene expression in normal human epidermal, HaCaT, and HEL30 keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Trouba, Kevin J; Geisenhoffer, Kristen M; Germolec, Dori R

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen that poses a significant health risk in humans. Based on evidence that arsenic has differential effects on human, rodent, normal, and transformed cells, these studies addressed the relative merits of using normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and immortalized human (HaCaT) and mouse (HEL30) keratinocytes when examining stress-induced gene expression that may contribute to carcinogenesis. We hypothesize that redox-related gene expression is differentially modulated by arsenic in normal versus immortalized keratinocytes. To test the hypothesis, we exposed keratinocytes to sodium arsenite for 4 or 24 hr, at which time serine threonine kinase-25 (stk25) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate [nad(p)h] quinone oxidoreductase gene expression were measured. The effect of glutathione reduction on arsenite-induced cytotoxicity and gene expression in NHEK also was evaluated by addition of l-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) to culture media. Results indicate the term LC(50) for arsenite is approximately 10-15 microM in NHEK and HEL30 keratinocytes and 30 microM in HaCaT keratinocytes. Compared with HaCaT and HEL30 keratinocytes, a nontoxic concentration of arsenite (2.5 microM) increases stk25 and nad(p)h quinone oxidoreductase gene expression in NHEK, an effect partially attenuated by BSO. These data indicate that NHEK and HaCaT/HEL30 keratinocytes have similar sensitivities toward arsenite-induced cytotoxicity but unique gene expression responses. They also suggest that arsenite modulates gene expression in NHEK involved in cellular signaling and other aspects of intermediary metabolism that may contribute to the carcinogenic process. PMID:12426128

  1. Effects of combined administration of captopril and DMSA on arsenite induced oxidative stress and blood and tissue arsenic concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Kiran; Narula, Gagan Deep; Kannan, G M; Flora, S J S

    2007-01-01

    We compared the therapeutic efficacy of captopril and a thiol chelating agent, meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) either individually or in combination against arsenite induced oxidative stress and mobilization of metal in rats. Animals were exposed to 100 ppm arsenite as sodium arsenite in drinking water for six weeks followed by treatment with DMSA (50 mg/kg, orally), captopril (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) either alone or in combination, once daily for 5 consecutive days. Arsenite exposure led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, glutathione and platelet levels while significantly increased the level of reactive oxygen species (in RBCs). Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) level showed a significant decrease while, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels increased on arsenite exposure indicating arsenite induced hepatic oxidative stress. Kidney GSH, GSSG, catalase and TBARS remained unchanged on arsenite exposure. Treatment with DMSA was effective in increasing ALAD activity while, captopril was ineffective when given alone. Captopril when co-administered with DMSA also provided no additional beneficial effect on blood ALAD activity but significant brought altered platelet counts back to the normal value. In contrast, administration of captopril alone provided significant beneficial effects on hepatic oxidative stress, and in combination with DMSA provided a more pronounced recovery in the TBARS level compared to the individual effect of DMSA and captopril. Renal biochemical variables remained insensitive to arsenite and any of the treatments. Interestingly, combined administration of captopril with DMSA had a remarkable effect in depleting total arsenic concentration from blood and soft tissues. These results lead us to conclude that captopril administration during chelation treatment had some beneficial effects particularly on the protection of inhibited blood ALAD activity, and depletion

  2. Targeting mitotic exit with hyperthermia or APC/C inhibition to increase paclitaxel efficacy.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzi, Serena; Bellapu, Dhruv; Morozov, Viacheslav M; Ishov, Alexander M

    2013-08-15

    Microtubule-poisoning drugs, such as Paclitaxel (or Taxol, PTX), are powerful and commonly used anti-neoplastic agents for the treatment of several malignancies. PTX triggers cell death, mainly through a mitotic arrest following the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Cells treated with PTX slowly slip from this mitotic block and die by mitotic catastrophe. However, cancer cells can acquire or are intrinsically resistant to this drug, posing one of the main obstacles for PTX clinical effectiveness. In order to override PTX resistance and increase its efficacy, we investigated both the enhancement of mitotic slippage and the block of mitotic exit. To test these opposing strategies, we used physiological hyperthermia (HT) to force exit from PTX-induced mitotic block and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) inhibitor, proTAME, to block mitotic exit. We observed that application of HT on PTX-treated cells forced mitotic slippage, as shown by the rapid decline of cyclin B levels and by microscopy analysis. Similarly, HT induced mitotic exit in cells blocked in mitosis by other antimitotic drugs, such as Nocodazole and the Aurora A inhibitor MLN8054, indicating a common effect of HT on mitotic cells. On the other hand, proTAME prevented mitotic exit of PTX and MLN8054 arrested cells, prolonged mitosis, and induced apoptosis. In addition, we showed that proTAME prevented HT-mediated mitotic exit, indicating that stress-induced APC/C activation is necessary for HT-induced mitotic slippage. Finally, HT significantly increased PTX cytotoxicity, regardless of cancer cells' sensitivity to PTX, and this activity was superior to the combination of PTX with pro-TAME. Our data suggested that forced mitotic exit of cells arrested in mitosis by anti-mitotic drugs, such as PTX, can be a more successful anticancer strategy than blocking mitotic exit by inactivation of the APC/C.

  3. Precocious centriole disengagement and centrosome fragmentation induced by mitotic delay.

    PubMed

    Karki, Menuka; Keyhaninejad, Neda; Shuster, Charles B

    2017-06-13

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays mitotic progression until all sister chromatid pairs achieve bi-orientation, and while the SAC can maintain mitotic arrest for extended periods, moderate delays in mitotic progression have significant effects on the resulting daughter cells. Here we show that when retinal-pigmented epithelial (RPE1) cells experience mitotic delay, there is a time-dependent increase in centrosome fragmentation and centriole disengagement. While most cells with disengaged centrioles maintain spindle bipolarity, clustering of disengaged centrioles requires the kinesin-14, HSET. Centrosome fragmentation and precocious centriole disengagement depend on separase and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activity, which also triggers the acquisition of distal appendage markers on daughter centrioles and the loss of procentriolar markers. Together, these results suggest that moderate delays in mitotic progression trigger the initiation of centriole licensing through centriole disengagement, at which point the ability to maintain spindle bipolarity becomes a function of HSET-mediated spindle pole clustering.

  4. Genome-wide siRNA screen reveals coupling between mitotic apoptosis and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Martínez, Laura A; Karamysheva, Zemfira N; Warrington, Ross; Li, Bing; Wei, Shuguang; Xie, Xian-Jin; Roth, Michael G; Yu, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    The antimitotic anti-cancer drugs, including taxol, perturb spindle dynamics, and induce prolonged, spindle checkpoint-dependent mitotic arrest in cancer cells. These cells then either undergo apoptosis triggered by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway or exit mitosis without proper cell division in an adaptation pathway. Using a genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen in taxol-treated HeLa cells, we systematically identify components of the mitotic apoptosis and adaptation pathways. We show that the Mad2 inhibitor p31comet actively promotes mitotic adaptation through cyclin B1 degradation and has a minor separate function in suppressing apoptosis. Conversely, the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member, Noxa, is a critical initiator of mitotic cell death. Unexpectedly, the upstream components of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 contribute to mitotic adaption. Our results reveal crosstalk between the apoptosis and adaptation pathways during mitotic arrest. PMID:25024437

  5. Modulatory role of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Adegoke, Ayodeji M; Olugbami, J Olorunjuwon; Uche, Ndidi S

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative damage and clastogenicity in male Wistar rats was investigated. Animals were divided into four groups and were treated daily via oral gavage for one week before they were sacrificed. Brain, liver and blood serum were collected for antioxidant and protein assays. Clastogenicity, in vitro antioxidant activity, vitamins and minerals were also evaluated. From the results, co-administration of Acacia honey with sodium arsenite on the animals increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities with concomitant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and anti-clastogenic effects relative to the group treated with sodium arsenite only. The honey possesses reducing power, high hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, good amount of vitamins (A, C and E), flavonoids (5.08 ± 0.92 mg QE/100 g) and phenolics (5.40 ± 0.69 mg GAE/100 g). The minerals present include zinc, iron, sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium. In conclusion, Acacia honey from Nigeria may mitigate oxidative stress and clastogenicity.

  6. Modulation of gene-expression profiles associated with sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity by p-coumaric acid, a common dietary polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Nagalakshmi; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the purpose was to investigate the effect of p-coumaric acid on the mRNA-expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, transcription factor, MAP kinases, and apoptotic proteins by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the cardiac tissue of sodium arsenite exposed rats. Sodium arsenite administration (5 mg/kg/b.wt, once daily for 30 days) upregulated the mRNA-expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor growth factor-beta), transcription factor (NF-Kb-Rel A), protein kinases (Janus kinase and p38), caspase 3, and proapoptotic protein Bax in the cardiac tissue of rats, but the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 mRNA expression was found be downregulated. However, p-coumaric acid (75, 100 mg/kg/b. wt. oral) pretreatment daily before the sodium arsenite exposure protected the changes in the above mRNA-expression profiles observed in the cardiac tissues. In conclusion, this study confirmed that p-coumaric acid could be a promising dietary agent for protecting against the sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity.

  7. Arsenite-Induced Pseudo-Hypoxia Results in Loss of Anchorage-Dependent Growth in BEAS-2B Pulmonary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fei; Malm, Scott W.; Hinchman, Alyssa N.; Li, Hui; Beeks, Connor G.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology studies have established a strong link between lung cancer and arsenic exposure. Currently, the role of disturbed cellular energy metabolism in carcinogenesis is a focus of scientific interest. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1A) is a key regulator of energy metabolism, and it has been found to accumulate during arsenite exposure under oxygen-replete conditions. We modeled arsenic-exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro with BEAS-2B, a non-malignant lung epithelial cell line. Constant exposure to 1 µM arsenite (As) resulted in the early loss of anchorage-dependent growth, measured by soft agar colony formation, beginning at 6 weeks of exposure. This arsenite exposure resulted in HIF-1A accumulation and increased glycolysis, similar to the physiologic response to hypoxia, but in this case under oxygen-replete conditions. This “pseudo-hypoxia” response was necessary for the maximal acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in arsenite-exposed BEAS-2B. The HIF-1A accumulation and induction in glycolysis was sustained throughout a 52 week course of arsenite exposure in BEAS-2B. There was a time-dependent increase in anchorage-independent growth during the exposure to arsenite. When HIF-1A expression was stably suppressed, arsenite-induced glycolysis was abrogated, and the anchorage-independent growth was reduced. These findings establish that arsenite exerts a hypoxia-mimetic effect, which plays an important role in the subsequent gain of malignancy-associated phenotypes. PMID:25513814

  8. Arsenite induces apoptosis in human mesenchymal stem cells by altering Bcl-2 family proteins and by activating intrinsic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Santosh; Shi Yongli; Wang Feng; Wang He

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Environmental exposure to arsenic is an important public health issue. The effects of arsenic on different tissues and organs have been intensively studied. However, the effects of arsenic on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have not been reported. This study is designed to investigate the cell death process caused by arsenite and its related underlying mechanisms on MSCs. The rationale is that absorbed arsenic in the blood circulation can reach to the bone marrow and may affect the cell survival of MSCs. Methods: MSCs of passage 1 were purchased from Tulane University, grown till 70% confluency level and plated according to the experimental requirements followed by treatment with arsenite at various concentrations and time points. Arsenite (iAs{sup III}) induced cytotoxic effects were confirmed by cell viability and cell cycle analysis. For the presence of canonic apoptosis markers; DNA damage, exposure of intramembrane phosphotidylserine, protein and m-RNA expression levels were analyzed. Results: iAs{sup III} induced growth inhibition, G2-M arrest and apoptotic cell death in MSCs, the apoptosis induced by iAs{sup III} in the cultured MSCs was, via altering Bcl-2 family proteins and by involving intrinsic pathway. Conclusion: iAs{sup III} can induce apoptosis in bone marrow-derived MSCs via Bcl-2 family proteins, regulating intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Due to the multipotency of MSC, acting as progenitor cells for a variety of connective tissues including bone, adipose, cartilage and muscle, these effects of arsenic may be important in assessing the health risk of the arsenic compounds and understanding the mechanisms of arsenic-induced harmful effects.

  9. RPF101, a new capsaicin-like analogue, disrupts the microtubule network accompanied by arrest in the G2/M phase, inducing apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe in the MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sá-Júnior, Paulo Luiz de; Pasqualoto, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Tavares, Maurício Temotheo; Damião, Mariana Celestina Frojuello Costa Bernstorff; Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre de; Câmara, Diana Aparecida Dias; Pereira, Alexandre; Madeiro de Souza, Dener; Parise Filho, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the world's leading cause of death among women. This situation imposes an urgent development of more selective and less toxic agents. The use of natural molecular fingerprints as sources for new bioactive chemical entities has proven to be a quite promising and efficient method. Capsaicin, which is the primary pungent compound in red peppers, was reported to selectively inhibit the growth of a variety tumor cell lines. Here, we report for the first time a novel synthetic capsaicin-like analogue, RPF101, which presents a high antitumor activity on MCF-7 cell line, inducing arrest of the cell cycle at the G2/M phase through a disruption of the microtubule network. Furthermore, it causes cellular morphologic changes characteristic of apoptosis and a decrease of Δψm. Molecular modeling studies corroborated the biological findings and suggested that RPF101, besides being a more reactive molecule towards its target, may also present a better pharmacokinetic profile than capsaicin. All these findings support the fact that RPF101 is a promising anticancer agent. -- Highlights: ► We report for the first time that RPF101 possesses anticancer properties. ► RPF101 induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. ► RPF 101 decreases mitochondrial potential and induces DNA fragmentation.

  10. Mcl-1 dynamics influence mitotic slippage and death in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Sloss, Olivia; Topham, Caroline; Diez, Maria; Taylor, Stephen

    2016-02-02

    Microtubule-binding drugs such as taxol are frontline treatments for a variety of cancers but exactly how they yield patient benefit is unclear. In cell culture, inhibiting microtubule dynamics prevents spindle assembly, leading to mitotic arrest followed by either apoptosis in mitosis or slippage, whereby a cell returns to interphase without dividing. Myeloid cell leukaemia-1 (Mcl-1), a pro-survival member of the Bcl-2 family central to the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, is degraded during a prolonged mitotic arrest and may therefore act as a mitotic death timer. Consistently, we show that blocking proteasome-mediated degradation inhibits taxol-induced mitotic apoptosis in a Mcl-1-dependent manner. However, this degradation does not require the activity of either APC/C-Cdc20, FBW7 or MULE, three separate E3 ubiquitin ligases implicated in targeting Mcl-1 for degradation. This therefore challenges the notion that Mcl-1 undergoes regulated degradation during mitosis. We also show that Mcl-1 is continuously synthesized during mitosis and that blocking protein synthesis accelerates taxol induced death-in-mitosis. Modulating Mcl-1 levels also influences slippage; overexpressing Mcl-1 extends the time from mitotic entry to mitotic exit in the presence of taxol, while inhibiting Mcl-1 accelerates it. We suggest that Mcl-1 competes with Cyclin B1 for binding to components of the proteolysis machinery, thereby slowing down the slow degradation of Cyclin B1 responsible for slippage. Thus, modulating Mcl-1 dynamics influences both death-in-mitosis and slippage. However, because mitotic degradation of Mcl-1 appears not to be under the control of an E3 ligase, we suggest that the notion of network crosstalk is used with caution.

  11. Mcl-1 dynamics influence mitotic slippage and death in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Sloss, Olivia; Topham, Caroline; Diez, Maria; Taylor, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-binding drugs such as taxol are frontline treatments for a variety of cancers but exactly how they yield patient benefit is unclear. In cell culture, inhibiting microtubule dynamics prevents spindle assembly, leading to mitotic arrest followed by either apoptosis in mitosis or slippage, whereby a cell returns to interphase without dividing. Myeloid cell leukaemia-1 (Mcl-1), a pro-survival member of the Bcl-2 family central to the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, is degraded during a prolonged mitotic arrest and may therefore act as a mitotic death timer. Consistently, we show that blocking proteasome-mediated degradation inhibits taxol-induced mitotic apoptosis in a Mcl-1-dependent manner. However, this degradation does not require the activity of either APC/C-Cdc20, FBW7 or MULE, three separate E3 ubiquitin ligases implicated in targeting Mcl-1 for degradation. This therefore challenges the notion that Mcl-1 undergoes regulated degradation during mitosis. We also show that Mcl-1 is continuously synthesized during mitosis and that blocking protein synthesis accelerates taxol induced death-in-mitosis. Modulating Mcl-1 levels also influences slippage; overexpressing Mcl-1 extends the time from mitotic entry to mitotic exit in the presence of taxol, while inhibiting Mcl-1 accelerates it. We suggest that Mcl-1 competes with Cyclin B1 for binding to components of the proteolysis machinery, thereby slowing down the slow degradation of Cyclin B1 responsible for slippage. Thus, modulating Mcl-1 dynamics influences both death-in-mitosis and slippage. However, because mitotic degradation of Mcl-1 appears not to be under the control of an E3 ligase, we suggest that the notion of network crosstalk is used with caution. PMID:26769847

  12. PKCι depletion initiates mitotic slippage-induced senescence in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Restall, Ian J; Parolin, Doris A E; Daneshmand, Manijeh; Hanson, Jennifer E L; Simard, Manon A; Fitzpatrick, Megan E; Kumar, Ritesh; Lavictoire, Sylvie J; Lorimer, Ian A J

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a tumor suppressor mechanism where cells enter a permanent growth arrest following cellular stress. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is induced in non-malignant cells following the expression of an oncogene or inactivation of a tumor suppressor. Previously, we have shown that protein kinase C iota (PKCι) depletion induces cellular senescence in glioblastoma cells in the absence of a detectable DNA damage response. Here we demonstrate that senescent glioblastoma cells exhibit an aberrant centrosome morphology. This was observed in basal levels of senescence, in p21-induced senescence, and in PKCι depletion-induced senescence. In addition, senescent glioblastoma cells are polyploid, Ki-67 negative and arrest at the G1/S checkpoint, as determined by expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. These markers are all consistent with cells that have undergone mitotic slippage. Failure of the spindle assembly checkpoint to function properly can lead to mitotic slippage, resulting in the premature exit of mitotic cells into the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Although in G1, these cells have the replicated DNA and centrosomal phenotype of a cell that has entered mitosis and failed to divide. Overall, we demonstrate that PKCι depletion initiates mitotic slippage-induced senescence in glioblastoma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of markers of mitotic slippage directly in senescent cells by co-staining for senescence-associated β-galactosidase and immunofluorescence markers in the same cell population. We suggest that markers of mitotic slippage be assessed in future studies of senescence to determine the extent of mitotic slippage in the induction of cellular senescence. PMID:26208522

  13. PKCι depletion initiates mitotic slippage-induced senescence in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Restall, Ian J; Parolin, Doris A E; Daneshmand, Manijeh; Hanson, Jennifer E L; Simard, Manon A; Fitzpatrick, Megan E; Kumar, Ritesh; Lavictoire, Sylvie J; Lorimer, Ian A J

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a tumor suppressor mechanism where cells enter a permanent growth arrest following cellular stress. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is induced in non-malignant cells following the expression of an oncogene or inactivation of a tumor suppressor. Previously, we have shown that protein kinase C iota (PKCι) depletion induces cellular senescence in glioblastoma cells in the absence of a detectable DNA damage response. Here we demonstrate that senescent glioblastoma cells exhibit an aberrant centrosome morphology. This was observed in basal levels of senescence, in p21-induced senescence, and in PKCι depletion-induced senescence. In addition, senescent glioblastoma cells are polyploid, Ki-67 negative and arrest at the G1/S checkpoint, as determined by expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. These markers are all consistent with cells that have undergone mitotic slippage. Failure of the spindle assembly checkpoint to function properly can lead to mitotic slippage, resulting in the premature exit of mitotic cells into the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Although in G1, these cells have the replicated DNA and centrosomal phenotype of a cell that has entered mitosis and failed to divide. Overall, we demonstrate that PKCι depletion initiates mitotic slippage-induced senescence in glioblastoma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of markers of mitotic slippage directly in senescent cells by co-staining for senescence-associated β-galactosidase and immunofluorescence markers in the same cell population. We suggest that markers of mitotic slippage be assessed in future studies of senescence to determine the extent of mitotic slippage in the induction of cellular senescence.

  14. Cardiac arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... or low levels can cause cardiac arrest. Severe physical stress. Anything that causes a severe stress on your body can lead to cardiac arrest. This can include trauma, electrical shock, or major blood loss. Recreational drugs. Using certain drugs, such as cocaine ...

  15. Phosphorylation of XIAP by CDK1–cyclin-B1 controls mitotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ying; Allan, Lindsey A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulation of cell death is crucial for the response of cancer cells to drug treatments that cause arrest in mitosis, and is likely to be important for protection against chromosome instability in normal cells. Prolonged mitotic arrest can result in cell death by activation of caspases and the induction of apoptosis. Here, we show that X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) plays a key role in the control of mitotic cell death. Ablation of XIAP expression sensitises cells to prolonged mitotic arrest caused by a microtubule poison. XIAP is stable during mitotic arrest, but its function is controlled through phosphorylation by the mitotic kinase CDK1–cyclin-B1 at S40. Mutation of S40 to a phosphomimetic residue (S40D) inhibits binding to activated effector caspases and abolishes the anti-apoptotic function of XIAP, whereas a non-phosphorylatable mutant (S40A) blocks apoptosis. By performing live-cell imaging, we show that phosphorylation of XIAP reduces the threshold for the onset of cell death in mitosis. This work illustrates that mitotic cell death is a form of apoptosis linked to the progression of mitosis through control by CDK1–cyclin-B1. PMID:27927753

  16. Prophylactic neuroprotective efficiency of co-administration of Ginkgo biloba and Trifolium pretense against sodium arsenite-induced neurotoxicity and dementia in different regions of brain and spinal cord of rats.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Heba M; Yousef, Mokhtar I; El Mekkawy, Desouki A; Al-Shami, Ahmed S

    2016-08-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential protective role of co-administration of Ginkgo biloba, Trifolium pretenseagainst sodium arsenite-induced neurotoxicity in different parts of brain (Cerebral cortex, Hippocampus, striatum and Hind brain) and in the spinal cord of rats. Sodium arsenite caused impairment in the acquisition and learning in all the behavioral tasks and caused significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α,thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances andlipid profile, while caused significant decrease in glutathione, total thiol content, total antioxidant capacity, acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase and ATPases activities. These results were confirmed by histopathological, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy examination of different regions of brain. From these results sodium arsenite-induced neurodegenerative disorder in different regions of brain and spinal cord and this could be mediated through modifying the intracellular brain ions homeostasis, cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative damage. The presence of Ginkgo biloba and/orTrifolium pretense with sodium arsenite minimized its neurological damages. It was pronounced that using Ginkgo biloba and Trifolium pretense in combination was more effective as protective agents compared to use eachone of them alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An ent-kaurene that inhibits mitotic chromosome movement and binds the kinetochore protein ran-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Natalie T; Nelson, Jim; Flory, Mark R; Joseph, Jomon; Th'ng, John; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dasso, Mary; Andersen, Raymond J; Roberge, Michel

    2006-08-22

    Using a chemical genetics screen, we have identified ent-15-oxokaurenoic acid (EKA) as a chemical that causes prolonged mitotic arrest at a stage resembling prometaphase. EKA inhibits the association of the mitotic motor protein centromeric protein E with kinetochores and inhibits chromosome movement. Unlike most antimitotic agents, EKA does not inhibit the polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin. To identify EKA-interacting proteins, we used a cell-permeable biotinylated form that retains biological activity to isolate binding proteins from living cells. Mass spectrometric analysis identified six EKA-binding proteins, including Ran-binding protein 2, a kinetochore protein whose depletion by small interfering RNA causes a similar mitotic arrest phenotype.

  18. XAB2 functions in mitotic cell cycle progression via transcriptional regulation of CENPE.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shuai; Li, Na; Zhang, Qian; Li, Hui; Wei, Xinyue; Hao, Tian; Li, Yue; Azam, Sikandar; Liu, Caigang; Cheng, Wei; Jin, Bilian; Liu, Quentin; Li, Man; Lei, Haixin

    2016-10-13

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA)-binding protein 2 (XAB2) is a multi-functional protein that plays critical role in processes including transcription, transcription-coupled DNA repair, pre-mRNA splicing, homologous recombination and mRNA export. Microarray analysis on gene expression in XAB2 knockdown cells reveals that many genes with significant change in expression function in mitotic cell cycle regulation. Fluorescence-activated cell scanner analysis confirmed XAB2 depletion led to cell arrest in G2/M phase, mostly at prophase or prometaphase. Live cell imaging further disclosed that XAB2 knockdown induced severe mitotic defects including chromosome misalignment and defects in segregation, leading to mitotic arrest, mitotic catastrophe and subsequent cell death. Among top genes down-regulated by XAB2 depletion is mitotic motor protein centrosome-associated protein E (CENPE). Knockdown CENPE showed similar phenotypes to loss of XAB2, but CENPE knockdown followed by XAB2 depletion did not further enhance cell cycle arrest. Luciferase assay on CENPE promoter showed that overexpression of XAB2 increased luciferase activity, whereas XAB2 depletion resulted in striking reduction of luciferase activity. Further mapping revealed a region in CENPE promoter that is required for the transcriptional regulation by XAB2. Moreover, ChIP assay showed that XAB2 interacted with CENPE promoter. Together, these results support a novel function of XAB2 in mitotic cell cycle regulation, which is partially mediated by transcription regulation on CENPE.

  19. XAB2 functions in mitotic cell cycle progression via transcriptional regulation of CENPE

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shuai; Li, Na; Zhang, Qian; Li, Hui; Wei, Xinyue; Hao, Tian; Li, Yue; Azam, Sikandar; Liu, Caigang; Cheng, Wei; Jin, Bilian; Liu, Quentin; Li, Man; Lei, Haixin

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA)-binding protein 2 (XAB2) is a multi-functional protein that plays critical role in processes including transcription, transcription-coupled DNA repair, pre-mRNA splicing, homologous recombination and mRNA export. Microarray analysis on gene expression in XAB2 knockdown cells reveals that many genes with significant change in expression function in mitotic cell cycle regulation. Fluorescence-activated cell scanner analysis confirmed XAB2 depletion led to cell arrest in G2/M phase, mostly at prophase or prometaphase. Live cell imaging further disclosed that XAB2 knockdown induced severe mitotic defects including chromosome misalignment and defects in segregation, leading to mitotic arrest, mitotic catastrophe and subsequent cell death. Among top genes down-regulated by XAB2 depletion is mitotic motor protein centrosome-associated protein E (CENPE). Knockdown CENPE showed similar phenotypes to loss of XAB2, but CENPE knockdown followed by XAB2 depletion did not further enhance cell cycle arrest. Luciferase assay on CENPE promoter showed that overexpression of XAB2 increased luciferase activity, whereas XAB2 depletion resulted in striking reduction of luciferase activity. Further mapping revealed a region in CENPE promoter that is required for the transcriptional regulation by XAB2. Moreover, ChIP assay showed that XAB2 interacted with CENPE promoter. Together, these results support a novel function of XAB2 in mitotic cell cycle regulation, which is partially mediated by transcription regulation on CENPE. PMID:27735937

  20. The NIMA Kinase Is Required To Execute Stage-Specific Mitotic Functions after Initiation of Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraghavan, Meera; Lad, Alisha A.

    2014-01-01

    The G2-M transition in Aspergillus nidulans requires the NIMA kinase, the founding member of the Nek kinase family. Inactivation of NIMA results in a late G2 arrest, while overexpression of NIMA is sufficient to promote mitotic events independently of cell cycle phase. Endogenously tagged NIMA-GFP has dynamic mitotic localizations appearing first at the spindle pole body and then at nuclear pore complexes before transitioning to within nuclei and the mitotic spindle and back at the spindle pole bodies at mitotic exit, suggesting that it functions sequentially at these locations. Since NIMA is indispensable for mitotic entry, it has been difficult to determine the requirement of NIMA for subaspects of mitosis. We show here that when NIMA is partially inactivated, although mitosis can be initiated, a proportion of cells fail to successfully generate two daughter nuclei. We further define the mitotic defects to show that normal NIMA function is required for the formation of a bipolar spindle, nuclear pore complex disassembly, completion of chromatin segregation, and the normal structural rearrangements of the nuclear envelope required to generate two nuclei from one. In the remaining population of cells that enter mitosis with inadequate NIMA, two daughter nuclei are generated in a manner dependent on the spindle assembly checkpoint, indicating highly penetrant defects in mitotic progression without sufficient NIMA activity. This study shows that NIMA is required not only for mitotic entry but also sequentially for successful completion of stage-specific mitotic events. PMID:24186954

  1. c-Mos forces the mitotic cell cycle to undergo meiosis II to produce haploid gametes

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Kazunori; Tanaka, Daisuke; Isobe, Tomohiro; Kishimoto, Takeo

    2000-01-01

    The meiotic cycle reduces ploidy through two consecutive M phases, meiosis I and meiosis II, without an intervening S phase. To maintain ploidy through successive generations, meiosis must be followed by mitosis after the recovery of diploidy by fertilization. However, the coordination from meiotic to mitotic cycle is still unclear. Mos, the c-mos protooncogene product, is a key regulator of meiosis in vertebrates. In contrast to the previous observation that Mos functions only in vertebrate oocytes that arrest at meiotic metaphase II, here we isolate the first invertebrate mos from starfish and show that Mos functions also in starfish oocytes that arrest after the completion of meiosis II but not at metaphase II. In the absence of Mos, meiosis I is followed directly by repeated embryonic mitotic cycles, and its reinstatement restores meiosis II and subsequent cell cycle arrest. These observations imply that after meiosis I, oocytes have a competence to progress through the embryonic mitotic cycle, but that Mos diverts the cell cycle to execute meiosis II and remains to restrain the return to the mitotic cycle. We propose that a role of Mos that is conserved in invertebrate and vertebrate oocytes is not to support metaphase II arrest but to prevent the meiotic/mitotic conversion after meiosis I until fertilization, directing meiosis II to ensure the reduction of ploidy. PMID:11121036

  2. Induction of mitotic catastrophe by PKC inhibition in Nf1-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shen, Ling; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Chen, Changyan

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of tumor suppressor Nf1 gene deregulate Ras-mediated signaling, which confers the predisposition for developing benign or malignant tumors. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) was shown to be in synergy with aberrant Ras for the induction of apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. However, it has not been investigated whether loss of PKC is lethal for Nf1-deficient cells. In this study, using HMG (3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl, a PKC inhibitor), we demonstrate that the inhibition of PKC by HMG treatment triggered a persistently mitotic arrest, resulting in the occurrence of mitotic catastrophe in Nf1-deficient ST8814 cells. However, the introduction of the Nf1 effective domain gene into ST8814 cells abolished this mitotic crisis. In addition, HMG injection significantly attenuated the growth of the xenografted ST8814 tumors. Moreover, Chk1 was phosphorylated, accompanied with the persistent increase of cyclin B1 expression in HMG-treated ST8814 cells. The knockdown of Chk1 by the siRNA prevented the Nf1-deficient cells from undergoing HMG-mediated mitotic arrest as well as mitotic catastrophe. Thus, our data suggested that the suppression of PKC activates the Chk1-mediated mitotic exit checkpoint in Nf1-deficient cells, leading to the induction of apoptosis via mitotic catastrophe. Collectively, the study indicates that targeting PKC may be a potential option for developing new strategies to treat Nf1-deficiency-related diseases.

  3. Evidence for regulation of mitotic progression through temporal phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CK2alpha.

    PubMed

    St-Denis, Nicole A; Derksen, D Richard; Litchfield, David W

    2009-04-01

    Proper mitotic progression is crucial for maintenance of genomic integrity in proliferating cells and is regulated through an intricate series of events, including protein phosphorylation governed by a complex network of protein kinases. One kinase family implicated in the regulation of mitotic progression is protein kinase CK2, a small family of enzymes that is overexpressed in cancer and induces transformation in mice and cultured fibroblasts. CK2alpha, one isoform of the catalytic subunits of CK2, is maximally phosphorylated at four sites in nocodazole-treated cells. To investigate the effects of CK2alpha phosphorylation on mitotic progression, we generated phosphospecific antibodies against its mitotic phosphorylation sites. In U2OS cells released from S-phase arrest, these antibodies reveal that CK2alpha is most highly phosphorylated in prophase and metaphase. Phosphorylation gradually decreases during anaphase and becomes undetectable during telophase and cytokinesis. Stable expression of phosphomimetic CK2alpha (CK2alpha-4D, CK2alpha-4E) results in aberrant centrosome amplification and chromosomal segregation defects and loss of mitotic cells through mitotic catastrophe. Conversely, cells expressing nonphosphorylatable CK2alpha (CK2alpha-4A) show a decreased ability to arrest in mitosis following nocodazole treatment, suggesting involvement in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Collectively, these studies indicate that reversible phosphorylation of CK2alpha requires precise regulation to allow proper mitotic progression.

  4. Unprotected Replication Forks Are Converted into Mitotic Sister Chromatid Bridges.

    PubMed

    Ait Saada, Anissia; Teixeira-Silva, Ana; Iraqui, Ismail; Costes, Audrey; Hardy, Julien; Paoletti, Giulia; Fréon, Karine; Lambert, Sarah A E

    2017-05-04

    Replication stress and mitotic abnormalities are key features of cancer cells. Temporarily paused forks are stabilized by the intra-S phase checkpoint and protected by the association of Rad51, which prevents Mre11-dependent resection. However, if a fork becomes dysfunctional and cannot resume, this terminally arrested fork is rescued by a converging fork to avoid unreplicated parental DNA during mitosis. Alternatively, dysfunctional forks are restarted by homologous recombination. Using fission yeast, we report that Rad52 and the DNA binding activity of Rad51, but not its strand-exchange activity, act to protect terminally arrested forks from unrestrained Exo1-nucleolytic activity. In the absence of recombination proteins, large ssDNA gaps, up to 3 kb long, occur behind terminally arrested forks, preventing efficient fork merging and leading to mitotic sister chromatid bridging. Thus, Rad52 and Rad51 prevent temporarily and terminally arrested forks from degrading and, despite the availability of converging forks, converting to anaphase bridges causing aneuploidy and cell death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiproliferative Fate of the Tetraploid Formed after Mitotic Slippage and Its Promotion; A Novel Target for Cancer Therapy Based on Microtubule Poisons.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuji; Inoue, Toshiaki

    2016-05-19

    Microtubule poisons inhibit spindle function, leading to activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and mitotic arrest. Cell death occurring in prolonged mitosis is the first target of microtubule poisons in cancer therapies. However, even in the presence of microtubule poisons, SAC and mitotic arrest are not permanent, and the surviving cells exit the mitosis without cytokinesis (mitotic slippage), becoming tetraploid. Another target of microtubule poisons-based cancer therapy is antiproliferative fate after mitotic slippage. The ultimate goal of both the microtubule poisons-based cancer therapies involves the induction of a mechanism defined as mitotic catastrophe, which is a bona fide intrinsic oncosuppressive mechanism that senses mitotic failure and responds by driving a cell to an irreversible antiproliferative fate of death or senescence. This mechanism of antiproliferative fate after mitotic slippage is not as well understood. We provide an overview of mitotic catastrophe, and explain new insights underscoring a causal association between basal autophagy levels and antiproliferative fate after mitotic slippage, and propose possible improved strategies. Additionally, we discuss nuclear alterations characterizing the mitotic catastrophe (micronuclei, multinuclei) after mitotic slippage, and a possible new type of nuclear alteration (clustered micronuclei).

  6. A simplified Bcl-2 network model reveals quantitative determinants of cell-to-cell variation in sensitivity to anti-mitotic chemotherapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueh, Hao Yuan; Zhu, Yanting; Shi, Jue

    2016-11-01

    Anti-mitotic drugs constitute a major class of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics used in the clinic, killing cancer cells by inducing prolonged mitotic arrest that activates intrinsic apoptosis. Anti-mitotics-induced apoptosis is known to involve degradation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins during mitotic arrest; however, it remains unclear how this mechanism accounts for significant heterogeneity observed in the cell death responses both within and between cancer cell types. To unravel quantitative determinants underlying variability in anti-mitotic drug response, we constructed a single-cell dynamical Bcl-2 network model describing cell death control during mitotic arrest, and constrained the model using experimental data from four representative cancer cell lines. The modeling analysis revealed that, given a variable, slowly accumulating pro-apoptotic signal arising from anti-apoptotic protein degradation, generation of a switch-like apoptotic response requires formation of pro-apoptotic Bak complexes with hundreds of subunits, suggesting a crucial role for high-order cooperativity. Moreover, we found that cell-type variation in susceptibility to drug-induced mitotic death arises primarily from differential expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 relative to Bak. The dependence of anti-mitotic drug response on Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 that we derived from the modeling analysis provides a quantitative measure to predict sensitivity of distinct cancer cells to anti-mitotic drug treatment.

  7. A simplified Bcl-2 network model reveals quantitative determinants of cell-to-cell variation in sensitivity to anti-mitotic chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kueh, Hao Yuan; Zhu, Yanting; Shi, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Anti-mitotic drugs constitute a major class of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics used in the clinic, killing cancer cells by inducing prolonged mitotic arrest that activates intrinsic apoptosis. Anti-mitotics-induced apoptosis is known to involve degradation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins during mitotic arrest; however, it remains unclear how this mechanism accounts for significant heterogeneity observed in the cell death responses both within and between cancer cell types. To unravel quantitative determinants underlying variability in anti-mitotic drug response, we constructed a single-cell dynamical Bcl-2 network model describing cell death control during mitotic arrest, and constrained the model using experimental data from four representative cancer cell lines. The modeling analysis revealed that, given a variable, slowly accumulating pro-apoptotic signal arising from anti-apoptotic protein degradation, generation of a switch-like apoptotic response requires formation of pro-apoptotic Bak complexes with hundreds of subunits, suggesting a crucial role for high-order cooperativity. Moreover, we found that cell-type variation in susceptibility to drug-induced mitotic death arises primarily from differential expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 relative to Bak. The dependence of anti-mitotic drug response on Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 that we derived from the modeling analysis provides a quantitative measure to predict sensitivity of distinct cancer cells to anti-mitotic drug treatment. PMID:27811996

  8. Cell death by mitotic catastrophe: a molecular definition.

    PubMed

    Castedo, Maria; Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Roumier, Thomas; Andreau, Karine; Medema, Rene; Kroemer, Guido

    2004-04-12

    The current literature is devoid of a clearcut definition of mitotic catastrophe, a type of cell death that occurs during mitosis. Here, we propose that mitotic catastrophe results from a combination of deficient cell-cycle checkpoints (in particular the DNA structure checkpoints and the spindle assembly checkpoint) and cellular damage. Failure to arrest the cell cycle before or at mitosis triggers an attempt of aberrant chromosome segregation, which culminates in the activation of the apoptotic default pathway and cellular demise. Cell death occurring during the metaphase/anaphase transition is characterized by the activation of caspase-2 (which can be activated in response to DNA damage) and/or mitochondrial membrane permeabilization with the release of cell death effectors such as apoptosis-inducing factor and the caspase-9 and-3 activator cytochrome c. Although the morphological aspect of apoptosis may be incomplete, these alterations constitute the biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis. Cells that fail to execute an apoptotic program in response to mitotic failure are likely to divide asymmetrically in the next round of cell division, with the consequent generation of aneuploid cells. This implies that disabling of the apoptotic program may actually favor chromosomal instability, through the suppression of mitotic catastrophe. Mitotic catastrophe thus may be conceived as a molecular device that prevents aneuploidization, which may participate in oncogenesis. Mitotic catastrophe is controlled by numerous molecular players, in particular, cell-cycle-specific kinases (such as the cyclin B1-dependent kinase Cdk1, polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases), cell-cycle checkpoint proteins, survivin, p53, caspases and members of the Bcl-2 family.

  9. Heat shock protein inhibitors, 17-DMAG and KNK437, enhance arsenic trioxide-induced mitotic apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yichen; Yen Wenyen; Lee, T.-C. Yih, L.-H.

    2009-04-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic agent in leukemia because of its ability to induce apoptosis. However, there is no sufficient evidence to support its therapeutic use for other types of cancers. In this study, we investigated if, and how, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-DMAG), an antagonist of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), and KNK437, a HSP synthesis inhibitor, potentiated the cytotoxic effect of ATO. Our results showed that cotreatment with ATO and either 17-DMAG or KNK437 significantly increased ATO-induced cell death and apoptosis. siRNA-mediated attenuation of the expression of the inducible isoform of HSP70 (HSP70i) or HSP90{alpha}/{beta} also enhanced ATO-induced apoptosis. In addition, cotreatment with ATO and 17-DMAG or KNK437 significantly increased ATO-induced mitotic arrest and ATO-induced BUBR1 phosphorylation and PDS1 accumulation. Cotreatment also significantly increased the percentage of mitotic cells with abnormal mitotic spindles and promoted metaphase arrest as compared to ATO treatment alone. These results indicated that 17-DMAG or KNK437 may enhance ATO cytotoxicity by potentiating mitotic arrest and mitotic apoptosis possibly through increased activation of the spindle checkpoint.

  10. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity increases chromosomal instability by the aberrant regulation of mitotic checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Jin; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Jeon, Ae-Hwa; Kim, So-Jung; Jang, Kyung-Lib; Sung, Young-Chul; Kim, Chang-Min; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2003-06-19

    Histone modification through acetylation and deacetylation is a key process in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome segregation. During mitosis, histones are highly acetylated and chromatin is condensed. Here, we investigate the mechanistic involvement of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in the regulation of mitotic checkpoint activation. Inhibition of HDAC activity was found to cause the improper kinetochore localization of the mitotic checkpoint proteins, and to prolong mitotic arrest, and thus to lead to chromosomal instability due to aberrant exit from the mitotic cell cycle arrest. In addition, treatment with HDAC inhibitor attenuated the activations of p38 and ERK kinases, and increased the expression levels of cIAP-1, suggesting that the observed increased adaptation and chromosomal instability induced by inhibiting HDAC activity might be directly connected with the activations of cell survival and/or antiapoptotic signals. Moreover, the treatment of cells with mitotic defects with HDAC inhibitor increased their susceptibility to chromosomal instability. These results support the notion that HDAC activity plays an important role in the regulation of mitotic checkpoint activation, and thus the aberrant control of HDAC activity contributes to chromosomal instability.

  11. Polyoma small T antigen triggers cell death via mitotic catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Arun T Pores; Andrabi, Shaida; Cizmecioglu, Onur; Zhu, Cailei; Livingston, David M.; Higgins, Jonathan M.G; Schaffhausen, Brian S; Roberts, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Polyoma small T antigen (PyST), an early gene product of the polyoma virus, has been shown to cause cell death in a number of mammalian cells in a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent manner. In the current study, using a cell line featuring regulated expression of PyST, we found that PyST arrests cells in mitosis. Live-cell and immunofluorescence studies showed that the majority of the PyST-expressing cells were arrested in prometaphase with almost no cells progressing beyond metaphase. These cells exhibited defects in chromosomal congression, sister chromatid cohesion and spindle positioning, resulting in the activation of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC). Prolonged mitotic arrest then led to cell death via mitotic catastrophe. Cell cycle inhibitors that block cells in G1/S prevented PyST-induced death. PyST-induced cell death that occurs during M is not dependent on p53 status. These data suggested, and our results confirmed that, PP2A inhibition could be used to preferentially kill cancer cells with p53 mutations that proliferate normally in the presence of cell cycle inhibitors. PMID:24998850

  12. Inhibitory factors associated with anaphase-promoting complex/cylosome in mitotic checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Braunstein, Ilana; Miniowitz, Shirly; Moshe, Yakir; Hershko, Avram

    2007-01-01

    The mitotic (or spindle assembly) checkpoint system ensures accurate chromosome segregation by preventing anaphase initiation until all chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle. It affects the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase that targets inhibitors of anaphase initiation for degradation. The mechanisms by which this system regulates APC/C remain obscure. Some models propose that the system promotes sequestration of the APC/C activator Cdc20 by binding to the checkpoint proteins Mad2 and BubR1. A different model suggests that a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) composed of BubR1, Bub3, Cdc20, and Mad2 inhibits APC/C in mitotic checkpoint [Sudakin V, Chan GKT, Yen TJ (2001) J Cell Biol 154:925–936]. We examined this problem by using extracts from nocodazole-arrested cells that reproduce some downstream events of the mitotic checkpoint system, such as lag kinetics of the degradation of APC/C substrate. Incubation of extracts with adenosine-5′-(γ-thio)triphosphate (ATP[γS]) stabilized the checkpoint-arrested state, apparently by stable thiophosphorylation of some proteins. By immunoprecipitation of APC/C from stably checkpoint-arrested extracts, followed by elution with increased salt concentration, we isolated inhibitory factors associated with APC/C. A part of the inhibitory material consists of Cdc20 associated with BubR1 and Mad2, and is thus similar to MCC. Contrary to the original MCC hypothesis, we find that MCC disassembles upon exit from the mitotic checkpoint. Thus, the requirement of the mitotic checkpoint system for the binding of Mad2 and BubR1 to Cdc20 may be for the assembly of the inhibitory complex rather than for Cdc20 sequestration. PMID:17360335

  13. “Wait anaphase” signals are not confined to the mitotic spindle

    PubMed Central

    Heasley, Lydia R.; Markus, Steven M.; DeLuca, Jennifer G.

    2017-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint ensures the faithful inheritance of chromosomes by arresting mitotic progression in the presence of kinetochores that are not attached to spindle microtubules. This is achieved through inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome by a kinetochore-derived “wait anaphase” signal known as the mitotic checkpoint complex. It remains unclear whether the localization and activity of these inhibitory complexes are restricted to the mitotic spindle compartment or are diffusible throughout the cytoplasm. Here we report that “wait anaphase” signals are indeed able to diffuse outside the confines of the mitotic spindle compartment. Using a cell fusion approach to generate multinucleate cells, we investigate the effects of checkpoint signals derived from one spindle compartment on a neighboring spindle compartment. We find that spindle compartments in close proximity wait for one another to align all chromosomes before entering anaphase synchronously. Synchrony is disrupted in cells with increased interspindle distances and cellular constrictions between spindle compartments. In addition, when mitotic cells are fused with interphase cells, “wait anaphase” signals are diluted, resulting in premature mitotic exit. Overall our studies reveal that anaphase inhibitors are diffusible and active outside the confines of the mitotic spindle from which they are derived. PMID:28298492

  14. About Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cardiac Arrest Updated:Mar 10,2017 What is cardiac arrest? Cardiac arrest is the abrupt loss of heart function in a person who may or may not have diagnosed heart ...

  15. Evidence for Regulation of Mitotic Progression through Temporal Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of CK2α▿ †

    PubMed Central

    St-Denis, Nicole A.; Derksen, D. Richard; Litchfield, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Proper mitotic progression is crucial for maintenance of genomic integrity in proliferating cells and is regulated through an intricate series of events, including protein phosphorylation governed by a complex network of protein kinases. One kinase family implicated in the regulation of mitotic progression is protein kinase CK2, a small family of enzymes that is overexpressed in cancer and induces transformation in mice and cultured fibroblasts. CK2α, one isoform of the catalytic subunits of CK2, is maximally phosphorylated at four sites in nocodazole-treated cells. To investigate the effects of CK2α phosphorylation on mitotic progression, we generated phosphospecific antibodies against its mitotic phosphorylation sites. In U2OS cells released from S-phase arrest, these antibodies reveal that CK2α is most highly phosphorylated in prophase and metaphase. Phosphorylation gradually decreases during anaphase and becomes undetectable during telophase and cytokinesis. Stable expression of phosphomimetic CK2α (CK2α-4D, CK2α-4E) results in aberrant centrosome amplification and chromosomal segregation defects and loss of mitotic cells through mitotic catastrophe. Conversely, cells expressing nonphosphorylatable CK2α (CK2α-4A) show a decreased ability to arrest in mitosis following nocodazole treatment, suggesting involvement in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Collectively, these studies indicate that reversible phosphorylation of CK2α requires precise regulation to allow proper mitotic progression. PMID:19188443

  16. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Kawamura, Ryo; Marko, John F.

    2011-02-01

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed.

  17. Theory of Mitotic Spindle Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, Stephan W.; Kruse, Karsten; Jülicher, Frank

    2005-03-01

    During unequal cell division the mitotic spindle is positioned away from the center of the cell before cell cleavage. In many biological systems this repositioning is accompanied by oscillatory movements of the spindle. We present a theoretical description for mitotic spindle oscillations. We show that the cooperative attachment and detachment of cortical force generators to astral microtubules leads to spontaneous oscillations beyond a critical number of force generators. This mechanism can quantitatively describe the spindle oscillations observed during unequal division of the one cell stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

  18. Phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle of HP1α governs accurate mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), a bona fide factor of silent chromatin, is required for establishing as well as maintaining the higher-order chromatin structure in eukaryotes. HP1α is decorated with several post-translational modifications, and many of these are critical for its cellular functions. HP1α is heavily phosphorylated; however, its physiological relevance had remained to be completely understood. We have recently demonstrated that human HP1α is a mitotic target for NDR kinase, and the phosphorylation at the hinge region of HP1α at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle is crucial for mitotic progression and Sgo1 loading at mitotic centromeres (Chakraborty et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that the dephosphorylation of HP1α within its hinge domain occurs during mitosis, specifically soon after prometaphase. In the absence of the hinge-specific HP1α phosphorylation, either as a consequence of depleting NDR1 or in cells expressing a non-phosphorylatable HP1α mutant, the cells arrest in prometaphase with several mitotic defects. In this study we show that NDR1-depleted cells expressing hinge-specific phosphomimetic HP1α mutant rescues the prometaphase arrest but displays defects in mitotic exit, suggesting that the dephosphorylation of HP1α is required for the completion of cytokinesis. Taken together, our results reveal that the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle of HP1α orchestrates accurate progression of cells through mitosis. PMID:24786771

  19. Myosin-10 independently influences mitotic spindle structure and mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Sandquist, Joshua C.; Larson, Matthew E.; Hine, Ken J.

    2016-01-01

    The iconic bipolar structure of the mitotic spindle is of extreme importance to proper spindle function. At best, spindle abnormalities result in a delayed mitosis, while worse outcomes include cell death or disease. Recent work has uncovered an important role for the actin-based motor protein myosin-10 in the regulation of spindle structure and function. Here we examine the contribution of the myosin tail homology 4 (MyTH4) domain of the myosin-10 tail to the protein’s spindle functions. The MyTH4 domain is known to mediate binding to microtubules and we verify the suspicion that this domain contributes to myosin-10’s close association with the spindle. More surprisingly, our data demonstrate that some but not all of myosin-10’s spindle functions require microtubule binding. In particular, myosin-10’s contribution to spindle pole integrity requires microtubule binding, whereas its contribution to normal mitotic progression does not. This is demonstrated by the observation that dominant negative expression of the wild-type MyTH4 domain produces multipolar spindles and an increased mitotic index, whereas overexpression of a version of the MyTH4 domain harboring point mutations that abrogate microtubule binding results in only the mitotic index phenotype. Our data suggest that myosin-10 helps to control the metaphase to anaphase transition in cells independent of microtubule binding. PMID:27220038

  20. Myosin-10 independently influences mitotic spindle structure and mitotic progression.

    PubMed

    Sandquist, Joshua C; Larson, Matthew E; Hine, Ken J

    2016-06-01

    The iconic bipolar structure of the mitotic spindle is of extreme importance to proper spindle function. At best, spindle abnormalities result in a delayed mitosis, while worse outcomes include cell death or disease. Recent work has uncovered an important role for the actin-based motor protein myosin-10 in the regulation of spindle structure and function. Here we examine the contribution of the myosin tail homology 4 (MyTH4) domain of the myosin-10 tail to the protein's spindle functions. The MyTH4 domain is known to mediate binding to microtubules and we verify the suspicion that this domain contributes to myosin-10's close association with the spindle. More surprisingly, our data demonstrate that some but not all of myosin-10's spindle functions require microtubule binding. In particular, myosin-10's contribution to spindle pole integrity requires microtubule binding, whereas its contribution to normal mitotic progression does not. This is demonstrated by the observation that dominant negative expression of the wild-type MyTH4 domain produces multipolar spindles and an increased mitotic index, whereas overexpression of a version of the MyTH4 domain harboring point mutations that abrogate microtubule binding results in only the mitotic index phenotype. Our data suggest that myosin-10 helps to control the metaphase to anaphase transition in cells independent of microtubule binding. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mitotic Exit in the Absence of Separase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, three interdigitated pathways regulate mitotic exit (ME): mitotic cyclin–cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inactivation; the Cdc14 early anaphase release (FEAR) network, including a nonproteolytic function of separase (Esp1); and the mitotic exit network (MEN) driven by interaction between the spindle pole body and the bud cortex. Here, we evaluate the contributions of these pathways to ME kinetics. Reducing Cdk activity is critical for ME, and the MEN contributes strongly to ME efficiency. Esp1 contributes to ME kinetics mainly through cohesin cleavage: the Esp1 requirement can be largely bypassed if cells are provided Esp1-independent means of separating sister chromatids. In the absence of Esp1 activity, we observed only a minor ME delay consistent with a FEAR defect. Esp1 overexpression drives ME in Cdc20-depleted cells arrested in metaphase. We have found that this activity of overexpressed Esp1 depended on spindle integrity and the MEN. We defined the first quantitative measure for Cdc14 release based on colocalization with the Net1 nucleolar anchor. This measure indicates efficient Cdc14 release upon MEN activation; release driven by Esp1 in the absence of microtubules was inefficient and incapable of driving ME. We also found a novel role for the MEN: activating Cdc14 nuclear export, even in the absence of Net1. PMID:19144818

  2. Chelidonine induces mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhongyuan; Zou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiujuan; Sheng, Jiejing; Wang, Yumeng; Wang, Jiaqi; Wang, Chao; Ji, Yubin

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chelidonine on mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. The MTT assay was performed to detect the antiproliferative effect of chelidonine. Following treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), the ultrastructure changes in SGC-7901, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of chelidonine on G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells were determined by flow cytometry. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to detect the phosphorylation level of histone H3 (Ser10) and microtubule formation was detected using LSCM following immunofluorescent labeling. Subsequent to treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), expression levels of mitotic slippage-associated proteins, including BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B (BubR1), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cyclin B1, and apoptosis-associated protein, caspase-3 were examined by western blotting at 24, 48 and 72 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of chelidonine was 23.13 µmol/l over 48 h and chelidonine induced G2/M phase arrest of cells. The phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 was significantly increased following treatment with chelidonine for 24 h, indicating that chelidonine arrested the SGC-7901 cells in the M phase. Chelidonine inhibited microtubule polymerization, destroyed microtubule structures and induced cell cycle arrest in the M phase. Giant cells were observed with multiple micronuclei of varying sizes, which indicated that following a prolonged arrest in the M phase, the cells underwent mitotic catastrophe. Western blotting demonstrated that the protein expression levels of BubR1, cyclin B1 and Cdk1 decreased significantly between 48 and 72 h. Low expression levels of BubR1 and inactivation of the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex results in the cells being arrested at mitosis and leads to

  3. Spatial Reorganization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum during Mitosis Relies on Mitotic Kinase Cyclin A in the Early Drosophila Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Zane J.; Mclaurin, Justin D.; Eritano, Anthony S.; Johnson, Brittany M.; Sims, Amanda Q.; Riggs, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase with their cyclin partners (cyclin:Cdks) are the master regulators of cell cycle progression responsible for regulating a host of activities during mitosis. Nuclear mitotic events, including chromosome condensation and segregation have been directly linked to Cdk activity. However, the regulation and timing of cytoplasmic mitotic events by cyclin:Cdks is poorly understood. In order to examine these mitotic cytoplasmic events, we looked at the dramatic changes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo. The dynamic changes of the ER can be arrested in an interphase state by inhibition of either DNA or protein synthesis. Here we show that this block can be alleviated by micro-injection of Cyclin A (CycA) in which defined mitotic ER clusters gathered at the spindle poles. Conversely, micro-injection of Cyclin B (CycB) did not affect spatial reorganization of the ER, suggesting CycA possesses the ability to initiate mitotic ER events in the cytoplasm. Additionally, RNAi-mediated simultaneous inhibition of all 3 mitotic cyclins (A, B and B3) blocked spatial reorganization of the ER. Our results suggest that mitotic ER reorganization events rely on CycA and that control and timing of nuclear and cytoplasmic events during mitosis may be defined by release of CycA from the nucleus as a consequence of breakdown of the nuclear envelope. PMID:25689737

  4. Podocyte loss involves MDM2-driven mitotic catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Thomasova, Dana; Ryu, Mi; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Migliorini, Adriana; Bruns, Hauke; Gröbmayr, Regina; Lazzeri, Elena; Lasagni, Laura; Liapis, Helen; Romagnani, Paola; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2013-07-01

    Podocyte apoptosis as a pathway of podocyte loss is often suspected but rarely detected. To study podocyte apoptosis versus inflammatory forms of podocyte death in vivo, we targeted murine double minute (MDM)-2 for three reasons. First, MDM2 inhibits p53-dependent apoptosis; second, MDM2 facilitates NF-κB signalling; and third, podocytes show strong MDM2 expression. We hypothesized that blocking MDM2 during glomerular injury may trigger p53-mediated podocyte apoptosis, proteinuria, and glomerulosclerosis. Unexpectedly, MDM2 blockade in early adriamycin nephropathy of Balb/c mice had the opposite effect and reduced intra-renal cytokine and chemokine expression, glomerular macrophage and T-cell counts, and plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. In cultured podocytes exposed to adriamycin, MDM2 blockade did not trigger podocyte death but induced G2/M arrest to prevent aberrant nuclear divisions and detachment of dying aneuploid podocytes, a feature of mitotic catastrophe in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with these observations, 12 of 164 consecutive human renal biopsies revealed features of podocyte mitotic catastrophe but only in glomerular disorders with proteinuria. Furthermore, delayed MDM2 blockade reduced plasma creatinine levels, blood urea nitrogen, tubular atrophy, interstitial leukocyte numbers, and cytokine expression as well as interstitial fibrosis. Together, MDM2-mediated mitotic catastrophe is a previously unrecognized variant of podocyte loss where MDM2 forces podocytes to complete the cell cycle, which in the absence of cytokinesis leads to podocyte aneuploidy, mitotic catastrophe, and loss by detachment. MDM2 blockade with nutlin-3a could be a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent renal inflammation, podocyte loss, glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria, and progressive kidney disease. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mechanisms of Mitotic Spindle Assembly.

    PubMed

    Petry, Sabine

    2016-06-02

    Life depends on cell proliferation and the accurate segregation of chromosomes, which are mediated by the microtubule (MT)-based mitotic spindle and ∼200 essential MT-associated proteins. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of how the mitotic spindle is assembled and achieves chromosome segregation is still missing. This is mostly due to the density of MTs in the spindle, which presumably precludes their direct observation. Recent insight has been gained into the molecular building plan of the metaphase spindle using bulk and single-molecule measurements combined with computational modeling. MT nucleation was uncovered as a key principle of spindle assembly, and mechanistic details about MT nucleation pathways and their coordination are starting to be revealed. Lastly, advances in studying spindle assembly can be applied to address the molecular mechanisms of how the spindle segregates chromosomes.

  6. Mechanisms of Mitotic Spindle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Life depends on cell proliferation and the accurate segregation of chromosomes, which are mediated by the microtubule (MT)-based mitotic spindle and ~200 essential MT-associated proteins. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of how the mitotic spindle is assembled and achieves chromosome segregation is still missing. This is mostly due to the density of MTs in the spindle, which presumably precludes their direct observation. Recent insight has been gained into the molecular building plan of the metaphase spindle using bulk and single-molecule measurements combined with computational modeling. MT nucleation was uncovered as a key principle of spindle assembly, and mechanistic details about MT nucleation pathways and their coordination are starting to be revealed. Lastly, advances in studying spindle assembly can be applied to address the molecular mechanisms of how the spindle segregates chromosomes. PMID:27145846

  7. A LCMT1-PME-1 methylation equilibrium controls mitotic spindle size.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoyu; Gholkar, Ankur; Senese, Silvia; Torres, Jorge Z

    2015-01-01

    Leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 (LCMT1) and protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) are essential enzymes that regulate the methylation of the protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC). LCMT1 and PME-1 have been linked to the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. We show here an important role for an LCMT1-PME-1 methylation equilibrium in controlling mitotic spindle size. Depletion of LCMT1 or overexpression of PME-1 led to long spindles. In contrast, depletion of PME-1, pharmacological inhibition of PME-1 or overexpression of LCMT1 led to short spindles. Furthermore, perturbation of the LCMT1-PME-1 methylation equilibrium led to mitotic arrest, spindle assembly checkpoint activation, defective cell divisions, induction of apoptosis and reduced cell viability. Thus, we propose that the LCMT1-PME-1 methylation equilibrium is critical for regulating mitotic spindle size and thereby proper cell division.

  8. [Cell cycle arrest at M phase induced by vinblastine in MOLT-4 cells].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi-Sheng; Pan, Chang-Chuan; Jin, Chang-Nan; Li, Jian-Jun; Xiong, Gong-Peng; Zhang, Jian-Xi; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2009-04-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the biological effect of vinblastine (VLS), usually known as inductor of mitotic arrest, on MOLT-4 of ALL cells and to evaluate its significance. The cell arrest in M phase and/or cell apoptosis were induced by treatment of MOLT-4 cells with 0.05 microg/ml VLS for 0 - 12 hours; the DNA histogram was detected by flow cytometry; the morphological changes of cells were observed by confocal microscopy; the cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis and morphological changes of cells before and after arrest were analyzed by using arrest increasing rate (AIR), arrest efficiency (AE), apoptosis rate (AR) and morphologic parameters respectively. The results indicated that the cell arrest did not accompanied by significant increase of apoptosis rate; the DNA histogram of cell arrest showed dynamic change of cell cycle in time-dependent manner; the arrest efficiency could be quantified. The cell arrest at M phase was accompanied by cell stack in S phase, the cell proliferation rate dropped after cell arrest occurred. The cells arrested at M phase possessed of characteristic morphologic features in cell mitosis. It is concluded that the vinblastine can solely induce arrest of MOLT-4 cells at M phase. This study provides experimental basis for further investigating the relation of cell cycle arrest to apoptosis, mechanism of checkpoint and development of new anticancer drugs.

  9. Plk1 Inhibition Causes Post-Mitotic DNA Damage and Senescence in a Range of Human Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Doug; Shinde, Vaishali; Lasky, Kerri; Shi, Judy; Vos, Tricia; Stringer, Bradley; Amidon, Ben; D'Amore, Natalie; Hyer, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Plk1 is a checkpoint protein whose role spans all of mitosis and includes DNA repair, and is highly conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to man. Consistent with this wide array of functions for Plk1, the cellular consequences of Plk1 disruption are diverse, spanning delays in mitotic entry, mitotic spindle abnormalities, and transient mitotic arrest leading to mitotic slippage and failures in cytokinesis. In this work, we present the in vitro and in vivo consequences of Plk1 inhibition in cancer cells using potent, selective small-molecule Plk1 inhibitors and Plk1 genetic knock-down approaches. We demonstrate for the first time that cellular senescence is the predominant outcome of Plk1 inhibition in some cancer cell lines, whereas in other cancer cell lines the dominant outcome appears to be apoptosis, as has been reported in the literature. We also demonstrate strong induction of DNA double-strand breaks in all six lines examined (as assayed by γH2AX), which occurs either during mitotic arrest or mitotic-exit, and may be linked to the downstream induction of senescence. Taken together, our findings expand the view of Plk1 inhibition, demonstrating the occurrence of a non-apoptotic outcome in some settings. Our findings are also consistent with the possibility that mitotic arrest observed as a result of Plk1 inhibition is at least partially due to the presence of unrepaired double-strand breaks in mitosis. These novel findings may lead to alternative strategies for the development of novel therapeutic agents targeting Plk1, in the selection of biomarkers, patient populations, combination partners and dosing regimens. PMID:25365521

  10. Whole genome functional analysis identifies novel components required for mitotic spindle integrity in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Rines, Daniel R; Gomez-Ferreria, Maria Ana; Zhou, Yingyao; DeJesus, Paul; Grob, Seanna; Batalov, Serge; Labow, Marc; Huesken, Dieter; Mickanin, Craig; Hall, Jonathan; Reinhardt, Mischa; Natt, Francois; Lange, Joerg; Sharp, David J; Chanda, Sumit K; Caldwell, Jeremy S

    2008-01-01

    Background The mitotic spindle is a complex mechanical apparatus required for accurate segregation of sister chromosomes during mitosis. We designed a genetic screen using automated microscopy to discover factors essential for mitotic progression. Using a RNA interference library of 49,164 double-stranded RNAs targeting 23,835 human genes, we performed a loss of function screen to look for small interfering RNAs that arrest cells in metaphase. Results Here we report the identification of genes that, when suppressed, result in structural defects in the mitotic spindle leading to bent, twisted, monopolar, or multipolar spindles, and cause cell cycle arrest. We further describe a novel analysis methodology for large-scale RNA interference datasets that relies on supervised clustering of these genes based on Gene Ontology, protein families, tissue expression, and protein-protein interactions. Conclusion This approach was utilized to classify functionally the identified genes in discrete mitotic processes. We confirmed the identity for a subset of these genes and examined more closely their mechanical role in spindle architecture. PMID:18302737

  11. Involvement of CNOT3 in mitotic progression through inhibition of MAD1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akinori; Kikuguchi, Chisato; Morita, Masahiro; Shimodaira, Tetsuhiro; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Ohsugi, Miho; Suzuki, Toru; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 depletion increases the mitotic index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 inhibits the expression of MAD1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 destabilizes the MAD1 mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. -- Abstract: The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4-NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show that CNOT3, a subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a part in the regulation of mitosis. CNOT3 depletion increases the population of mitotic-arrested cells and specifically increases the expression of MAD1 mRNA and its protein product that plays a part in the spindle assembly checkpoint. We showed that CNOT3 depletion stabilizes the MAD1 mRNA, and that MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced increase of the mitotic index. Basing on these observations, we propose that CNOT3 is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through its ability to regulate the stability of MAD1 mRNA.

  12. Gene copy number and cell cycle arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bhaswar; Bose, Indrani

    2006-03-01

    The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events which ultimately lead to the division of a single cell into two daughter cells. In the case of DNA damage by radiation or chemicals, the damage checkpoints in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle are activated. This results in an arrest of the cell cycle so that the DNA damage can be repaired. Once this is done, the cell continues with its usual cycle of activity. We study a mathematical model of the DNA damage checkpoint in the G2 phase which arrests the transition from the G2 to the M (mitotic) phase of the cell cycle. The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a key role in activating the pathways leading to cell cycle arrest in mammalian systems. If the DNA damage is severe, the p53 proteins activate other pathways which bring about apoptosis, i.e., programmed cell death. Loss of the p53 gene results in the proliferation of cells containing damaged DNA, i.e., in the growth of tumors which may ultimately become cancerous. There is some recent experimental evidence which suggests that the mutation of a single copy of the p53 gene (in the normal cell each gene has two identical copies) is sufficient to trigger the formation of tumors. We study the effect of reducing the gene copy number of the p53 and two other genes on cell cycle arrest and obtain results consistent with experimental observations.

  13. Orc mutants arrest in metaphase with abnormally condensed chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Pflumm, M F; Botchan, M R

    2001-05-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a six subunit complex required for eukaryotic DNA replication initiation and for silencing of the heterochromatic mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our discovery of the Drosophila ORC complex concentrated in the centric heterochromatin of mitotic cells in the early embryo and its interactions with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP-1) lead us to speculate that ORC may play some general role in chromosomal folding. To explore the role of ORC in chromosomal condensation, we have identified a mutant of subunit 5 of the Drosophila melanogaster origin recognition complex (Orc5) and have characterized the phenotypes of both the Orc5 and the previously identified Orc2 mutant, k43. Both Orc mutants died at late larval stages and surprisingly, despite a reduced number of S-phase cells, an increased fraction of cells were also detected in mitosis. For this latter population of cells, Orc mutants arrest in a defective metaphase with shorter and thicker chromosomes that fail to align at the metaphase plate within a poorly assembled mitotic spindle. In addition, sister chromatid cohesion was frequently lost. PCNA and MCM4 mutants had similar phenotypes to Orc mutants. We propose that DNA replication defects trigger the mitotic arrest, due to the fact that frequent fragmentation was observed. Thus, cells have a mitotic checkpoint that senses chromosome integrity. These studies also suggest that the density of functional replication origins and completion of S phase are requirements for proper chromosomal condensation.

  14. Mitotic trafficking of silicon microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serda, Rita E.; Ferrati, Silvia; Godin, Biana; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-11-01

    Multistage carriers were recently introduced by our laboratory, with the concurrent objectives of co-localized delivery of multiple therapeutic agents, the ``theranostic'' integration of bioactive moieties with imaging contrast, and the selective, potentially personalized bypassing of the multiplicity of biological barriers that adversely impact biodistribution of vascularly injected particulates. Mesoporous (``nanoporous'') silicon microparticles were selected as primary carriers in multi-stage devices, with targets including vascular endothelia at pathological lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate biocompatibility of mesoporous silicon microparticles with endothelial cells using in vitro assays with an emphasis on microparticle compatibility with mitotic events. We observed that vascular endothelial cells, following internalization of silicon microparticles, maintain cellular integrity, as demonstrated by cellular morphology, viability and intact mitotic trafficking of vesicles bearing silicon microparticles. The presence of gold or iron oxide nanoparticles within the porous matrix did not alter the cellular uptake of particles or the viability of endothelial cells subsequent to engulfment of microparticles. Endothelial cells maintained basal levels of IL-6 and IL-8 release in the presence of silicon microparticles. This is the first study that demonstrates polarized, ordered partitioning of endosomes based on tracking microparticles. The finding that mitotic sorting of endosomes is unencumbered by the presence of nanoporous silicon microparticles advocates the use of silicon microparticles for biomedical applications.Multistage carriers were recently introduced by our laboratory, with the concurrent objectives of co-localized delivery of multiple therapeutic agents, the ``theranostic'' integration of bioactive moieties with imaging contrast, and the selective, potentially personalized bypassing of the multiplicity of biological barriers that

  15. Axin localizes to mitotic spindles and centrosomes in mitotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Shi-Mun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Song, Ki-Joon; Kim, Sewoon; Seo, Eunjeong; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2009-04-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In addition, numerous recent studies have shown that various Wnt signaling components are involved in mitosis and chromosomal instability. However, the role of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, in mitosis has remained unclear. Using monoclonal antibodies against Axin, we found that Axin localizes to the centrosome and along mitotic spindles. This localization was suppressed by siRNA specific for Aurora A kinase and by Aurora kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, Axin over-expression altered the subcellular distribution of Plk1 and of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3{beta}) without producing any notable changes in cellular phenotype. In the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor, Axin over-expression induced the formation of cleavage furrow-like structures and of prominent astral microtubules lacking midbody formation in a subset of cells. Our results suggest that Axin modulates distribution of Axin-associated proteins such as Plk1 and GSK3{beta} in an expression level-dependent manner and these interactions affect the mitotic process, including cytokinesis under certain conditions, such as in the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor.

  16. Elucidation of protective efficacy of Pentahydroxy flavone isolated from Madhuca indica against arsenite-induced cardiomyopathy: Role of Nrf-2, PPAR-γ, c-fos and c-jun.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anwesha A; Kandhare, Amit D; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2017-09-01

    Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. (Sapotaceae) is widely used ethnobotanically as anti-diabetic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic. It was shown to possess potent anti-apoptotic property. To evaluate the possible mechanism of action of isolated phytoconstituent from Madhuca indica Leaves methanolic extract (MI-ALC) on arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. The 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone (QTN) was isolated and characterized by using HPTLC, (1)H NMR, and LC-MS from MI-ALC. QTN (5, 10 and 20mg/kg, p.o.) was administered in arsenic intoxicated rats (5mL/kg, p.o.) for 28days and evaluated for various behavioral, biochemical, molecular and ultra-histological changes. Treatment with QTN (10 and 20mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited (p<0.05) arsenic-induced electrocardiographic, hemodynamic and left ventricular function alterations. Elevated levels of cardiac markers (LDH, CK-MB, AST, ALT, and ALP), altered lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, and VLDL) was significantly restored (p<0.05) by QTN. It also significantly inhibited (p<0.05) altered cardiac oxido-nitrosative stress, Na-K-ATPase level and mitochondrial enzymes (I-IV) activity after arsenite administration. QTN significantly increased (p<0.05) myocardial Nrf-2, PPAR-γ and significantly decreased (p<0.05) myocardial c-fos and c-jun mRNA expressions. Flow cytometric analysis showed that treatment with QTN (10 and 20mg/kg) significantly inhibited (p<0.05) arsenite-induce ROS and apoptosis. It also reduced ultra-histological aberrations induced by sodium arsenite. Administration of 3,5,7,3',4'- Pentahydroxy flavone (i.e. Quercetin (QTN)) isolated from MI-ALC showed significant protection against arsenic-induced oxido-nitrosative stress and myocardial injury via modulation of Nrf2, PPAR-γ, and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Mitotic force generators and chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul

    2010-01-01

    The mitotic spindle uses dynamic microtubules and mitotic motors to generate the pico-Newton scale forces that are needed to drive the mitotic movements that underlie chromosome capture, alignment and segregation. Here, we consider the biophysical and molecular basis of force-generation for chromosome movements in the spindle, and, with reference to the Drosophila embryo mitotic spindle, we briefly discuss how mathematical modeling can complement experimental analysis to illuminate the mechanisms of chromosome-to-pole motility during anaphase A and spindle elongation during anaphase B. PMID:20221784

  18. Sulforaphane: a naturally occurring mammary carcinoma mitotic inhibitor, which disrupts tubulin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Steven J T; Singletary, Keith W

    2004-02-01

    Sulforaphane (SUL), an isothiocyanate found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to induce phase II detoxification enzymes, inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors in rats, and more recently to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells of the colon. Here, we provide evidence that SUL also acts as a breast cancer anti-proliferative agent. The BALB/c mouse mammary carcinoma cell line F3II was treated with SUL at concentrations up to 15 microM and examined for markers of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Treatment of asynchronous F3II cells with 15 microM SUL resulted in G2/M cell cycle arrest, elevated p34cdc2 (cdc2) kinase activity, Bcl-2 down-regulation, evidence of caspase activation, and aggregation of condensed nuclear chromatin. Subsequent exposure of synchronized cells to 15 microM SUL resulted in elevated numbers of prophase/prometaphase mitotic figures, indicating cell cycle progression beyond G2 and arrest early within mitosis. Moreover, cells treated with 15 microM SUL displayed aberrant mitotic spindles, and higher doses of SUL inhibited tubulin polymerization in vitro. In addition, BALB/c mice injected s.c. with F3II cells and subsequently injected daily i.v. with SUL (15 nmol/day for 13 days) developed significantly smaller tumors (approximately 60% less in mass) than vehicle-treated controls. Western blot analysis of tumor proteins demonstrated significantly (P<0.05) reduced PCNA and elevated PARP fragmentation in samples from animals dosed with SUL. Taken together, these results indicate that SUL has mammary cancer suppressive actions both in cell culture and in the whole animal. Inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis appears in part to involve perturbation of mitotic microtubules and early M-phase block associated with cdc2 kinase activation, indicating that cells arrest prior to metaphase exit.

  19. Dietary flavonoid fisetin induces a forced exit from mitosis by targeting the mitotic spindle checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Salmela, Anna-Leena; Pouwels, Jeroen; Varis, Asta; Kukkonen, Anu M.; Toivonen, Pauliina; Halonen, Pasi K.; Perälä, Merja; Kallioniemi, Olli; Gorbsky, Gary J.; Kallio, Marko J.

    2009-01-01

    Fisetin is a natural flavonol present in edible vegetables, fruits and wine at 2–160 μg/g concentrations and an ingredient in nutritional supplements with much higher concentrations. The compound has been reported to exert anticarcinogenic effects as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity via its ability to act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation and free radical scavenger, respectively. Our cell-based high-throughput screen for small molecules that override chemically induced mitotic arrest identified fisetin as an antimitotic compound. Fisetin rapidly compromised microtubule drug-induced mitotic block in a proteasome-dependent manner in several human cell lines. Moreover, in unperturbed human cancer cells fisetin caused premature initiation of chromosome segregation and exit from mitosis without normal cytokinesis. To understand the molecular mechanism behind these mitotic errors, we analyzed the consequences of fisetin treatment on the localization and phoshorylation of several mitotic proteins. Aurora B, Bub1, BubR1 and Cenp-F rapidly lost their kinetochore/centromere localization and others became dephosphorylated upon addition of fisetin to the culture medium. Finally, we identified Aurora B kinase as a novel direct target of fisetin. The activity of Aurora B was significantly reduced by fisetin in vitro and in cells, an effect that can explain the observed forced mitotic exit, failure of cytokinesis and decreased cell viability. In conclusion, our data propose that fisetin perturbs spindle checkpoint signaling, which may contribute to the antiproliferative effects of the compound. PMID:19395653

  20. Mitotic DNA damages induced by carbon-ion radiation incur additional chromosomal breaks in polyploidy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Libin; Liu, Xiongxiong; Jin, Xiaodong; Zhao, Ting; Ye, Fei; Liu, Xinguo; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Li, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    Compared with low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, carbon-ion radiation has been proved to induce high frequency of more complex DNA damages, including DNA double strands (DSBs) and non-DSB clustered DNA lesions. Chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin has been reported to elicit additional H2AX phosphorylation in polyploidy. Here, we investigated whether mitotic DNA damage induced by high-LET carbon-ion radiation could play the same role. We demonstrate that impairment of post-mitotic G1 and S arrest and abrogation of post-mitotic G2-M checkpoint failed to prevent mis-replication of damaged DNA and mis-separation of chromosomes. Meanwhile, mitotic slippage only nocodazole-related, cytokinesis failure and cell fusion collectively contributed to the formation of binucleated cells. Chk1 and Cdh1 activation was inhibited when polyploidy emerged in force, both of which are critical components for mitotic exit and cytokinesis. Carbon-ion radiation irrelevant of nocodazole incurred additional DNA breaks in polyploidy, manifesting as structural and numerical karyotype changes. The proliferation of cells given pre-synchronization and radiation was completely inhibited and cells were intensely apoptotic. Since increased chromosomal damage resulted in extensive H2AX phosphorylation during polyploidy, we propose that the additional γ-H2AX during polyploidy incurred by carbon-ion radiation provides a final opportunity for these dangerous and chromosomally unstable cells to be eliminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae spindle pole body duplication gene MPS1 is part of a mitotic checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    M-phase checkpoints inhibit cell division when mitotic spindle function is perturbed. Here we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPS1 gene product, an essential protein kinase required for spindle pole body (SPB) duplication (Winey et al., 1991; Lauze et al., 1995), is also required for M-phase check-point function. In cdc31-2 and mps2-1 mutants, conditional failure of SPB duplication results in cell cycle arrest with high p34CDC28 kinase activity that depends on the presence of the wild-type MAD1 checkpoint gene, consistent with checkpoint arrest of mitosis. In contrast, mps1 mutant cells fail to duplicate their SPBs and do not arrest division at 37 degrees C, exhibiting a normal cycle of p34CDC28 kinase activity despite the presence of a monopolar spindle. Double mutant cdc31-2, mps1-1 cells also fail to arrest mitosis at 37 degrees C, despite having SPB structures similar to cdc31-2 single mutants as determined by EM analysis. Arrest of mitosis upon microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole is also conditionally absent in mps1 strains. This is observed in mps1 cells synchronized in S phase with hydroxyurea before exposure to nocodazole, indicating that failure of checkpoint function in mps1 cells is independent of SPB duplication failure. In contrast, hydroxyurea arrest and a number of other cdc mutant arrest phenotypes are unaffected by mps1 alleles. We propose that the essential MPS1 protein kinase functions both in SPB duplication and in a mitotic checkpoint monitoring spindle integrity. PMID:8567717

  2. Evidence of Selection against Complex Mitotic-Origin Aneuploidy during Preimplantation Development

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Rajiv C.; Demko, Zachary P.; Ryan, Allison; Banjevic, Milena; Hill, Matthew; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Rabinowitz, Matthew; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-chromosome imbalances affect over half of early human embryos and are the leading cause of pregnancy loss. While these errors frequently arise in oocyte meiosis, many such whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting cleavage-stage embryos are the result of chromosome missegregation occurring during the initial mitotic cell divisions. The first wave of zygotic genome activation at the 4–8 cell stage results in the arrest of a large proportion of embryos, the vast majority of which contain whole-chromosome abnormalities. Thus, the full spectrum of meiotic and mitotic errors can only be detected by sampling after the initial cell divisions, but prior to this selective filter. Here, we apply 24-chromosome preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) to 28,052 single-cell day-3 blastomere biopsies and 18,387 multi-cell day-5 trophectoderm biopsies from 6,366 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. We precisely characterize the rates and patterns of whole-chromosome abnormalities at each developmental stage and distinguish errors of meiotic and mitotic origin without embryo disaggregation, based on informative chromosomal signatures. We show that mitotic errors frequently involve multiple chromosome losses that are not biased toward maternal or paternal homologs. This outcome is characteristic of spindle abnormalities and chaotic cell division detected in previous studies. In contrast to meiotic errors, our data also show that mitotic errors are not significantly associated with maternal age. PGS patients referred due to previous IVF failure had elevated rates of mitotic error, while patients referred due to recurrent pregnancy loss had elevated rates of meiotic error, controlling for maternal age. These results support the conclusion that mitotic error is the predominant mechanism contributing to pregnancy losses occurring prior to blastocyst formation. This high-resolution view of the full spectrum of whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting early embryos provides insight

  3. Mitotic figure counts are significantly overestimated in resection specimens of invasive breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Rochat, Candice; Schaper, Cornelia; Nobile, Antoine; Shanouda, Sherien; Vijgen, Sandrine; Gauthier, Arnaud; Obermann, Ellen; Leuba, Susana; Schmidt, Marcus; C, Curzio Ruegg; Delaloye, Jean-Francois; Simiantonaki, Nectaria; Schaefer, Stephan C

    2013-03-01

    Several authors have demonstrated an increased number of mitotic figures in breast cancer resection specimen when compared with biopsy material. This has been ascribed to a sampling artifact where biopsies are (i) either too small to allow formal mitotic figure counting or (ii) not necessarily taken form the proliferating tumor periphery. Herein, we propose a different explanation for this phenomenon. Biopsy and resection material of 52 invasive ductal carcinomas was studied. We counted mitotic figures in 10 representative high power fields and quantified MIB-1 immunohistochemistry by visual estimation, counting and image analysis. We found that mitotic figures were elevated by more than three-fold on average in resection specimen over biopsy material from the same tumors (20±6 vs 6±2 mitoses per 10 high power fields, P=0.008), and that this resulted in a relative diminution of post-metaphase figures (anaphase/telophase), which made up 7% of all mitotic figures in biopsies but only 3% in resection specimen (P<0.005). At the same time, the percentages of MIB-1 immunostained tumor cells among total tumor cells were comparable in biopsy and resection material, irrespective of the mode of MIB-1 quantification. Finally, we found no association between the size of the biopsy material and the relative increase of mitotic figures in resection specimen. We propose that the increase in mitotic figures in resection specimen and the significant shift towards metaphase figures is not due to a sampling artifact, but reflects ongoing cell cycle activity in the resected tumor tissue due to fixation delay. The dwindling energy supply will eventually arrest tumor cells in metaphase, where they are readily identified by the diagnostic pathologist. Taken together, we suggest that the rapidly fixed biopsy material better represents true tumor biology and should be privileged as predictive marker of putative response to cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  4. Microelasticity of Single Mitotic Chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Michael; Eroglu, Sertac; Chatenay, Didier; Marko, John F.; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2000-03-01

    The force-extension behavior of mitotic chromosomes from the newt TVI tumor cell line was studied using micropipette manipulation and force measuring techniques. Reversible, linear elastic response was observed for extensions up to 5 times the native length; the force required to double chromosome length was 1 nanonewton (nN). For further elongations, the linear response teminates at a force plateau of 15 nN and at an extension of 20x. Beyond this extension, the chromosome breaks at elongations between 20x and 70x. These results will be compared to the similar behavior of mitotic chromosomes from explanted newt cells (Poirier, Eroglu, Chatenay and Marko, Mol. Biol. Cell, in press). Also, the effect of biochemical modifications on the elasticity was studied. Ethidium Bromide, which binds to DNA, induces up to a 10 times increase in the Young's modulus. Anti-XCAP-E, which binds to a putative chromosome folding protein, induces up to a 2 times increase in the Young's modulus. Preliminary results on the dynamical relaxation of chromosomes will also be presented. Support of this research through a Biomedical Engineering Research Grant from The Whitaker Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Chromatin shapes the mitotic spindle.

    PubMed

    Dinarina, Ana; Pugieux, Céline; Corral, Maria Mora; Loose, Martin; Spatz, Joachim; Karsenti, Eric; Nédélec, François

    2009-08-07

    In animal and plant cells, mitotic chromatin locally generates microtubules that self-organize into a mitotic spindle, and its dimensions and bipolar symmetry are essential for accurate chromosome segregation. By immobilizing microscopic chromatin-coated beads on slide surfaces using a microprinting technique, we have examined the effect of chromatin on the dimensions and symmetry of spindles in Xenopus laevis cytoplasmic extracts. While circular spots with diameters around 14-18 microm trigger bipolar spindle formation, larger spots generate an incorrect number of poles. We also examined lines of chromatin with various dimensions. Their length determined the number of poles that formed, with a 6 x 18 microm rectangular patch generating normal spindle morphology. Around longer lines, multiple poles formed and the structures were disorganized. While lines thinner than 10 mum generated symmetric structures, thicker lines induced the formation of asymmetric structures where all microtubules are on the same side of the line. Our results show that chromatin defines spindle shape and orientation. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file available with the online Supplemental Data.

  6. Proteomic profiling revealed the functional networks associated with mitotic catastrophe of HepG2 hepatoma cells induced by 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Bo; Huang Bo; Guan Hua; Zhang Shimeng; Xu Qinzhi; He Xingpeng; Liu Xiaodan; Wang Yu; Shang Zengfu; Zhou Pingkun

    2011-05-01

    Mitotic catastrophe, a form of cell death resulting from abnormal mitosis, is a cytotoxic death pathway as well as an appealing mechanistic strategy for the development of anti-cancer drugs. In this study, 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde was demonstrated to induce DNA double-strand break, multipolar spindles, sustain mitotic arrest and generate multinucleated cells, all of which indicate mitotic catastrophe, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. We used proteomic profiling to identify the differentially expressed proteins underlying mitotic catastrophe. A total of 137 differentially expressed proteins (76 upregulated and 61 downregulated proteins) were identified. Some of the changed proteins have previously been associated with mitotic catastrophe, such as DNA-PKcs, FoxM1, RCC1, cyclin E, PLK1-pT210, 14-3-3{sigma} and HSP70. Multiple isoforms of 14-3-3, heat-shock proteins and tubulin were upregulated. Analysis of functional significance revealed that the 14-3-3-mediated signaling network was the most significantly enriched for the differentially expressed proteins. The modulated proteins were found to be involved in macromolecule complex assembly, cell death, cell cycle, chromatin remodeling and DNA repair, tubulin and cytoskeletal organization. These findings revealed the overall molecular events and functional signaling networks associated with spindle disruption and mitotic catastrophe. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: > 6-bromoisovanillin induced spindle disruption and sustained mitotic arrest, consequently resulted in mitotic catastrophe. > Proteomic profiling identified 137 differentially expressed proteins associated mitotic catastrophe. > The 14-3-3-mediated signaling network was the most significantly enriched for the altered proteins. > The macromolecule complex assembly, cell cycle, chromatin remodeling and DNA repair, tubulin organization were also shown involved in mitotic catastrophe.

  7. Inhibition of mitotic-specific histone phophorylation by sodium arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Cobo, J.M.; Valdez, J.G.; Gurley, L.R.

    1994-10-01

    Synchronized cultures of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) were used to measure the effects of 10{mu}M sodium arsenite on histone phosphorylation. This treatment caused cell proliferation to be temporarily arrested, after which the cells spontaneously resumed cell proliferation in a radiomimetric manner. Immediately following treatment, it was found that sodium arsenite affected only mitotic-specific HI and H3 phosphorylations. Neither interphase, nor mitotic, H2A and H4 phosphorylations were affected, nor was interphase HI Phosphorylation affected. The phosphorylation of HI was inhibited only in mitosis, reducing HI phosphorylation to 38.1% of control levels, which was the level of interphase HI phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of both H3 variants was inhibited in mitosis, the less hydrophobic H3 to 19% and the more hydrophobic H3 to 24% of control levels. These results suggest that sodium arsenite may inhibite cell proliferation by interfering with the cyclin B/p34{sup cdc2} histone kinase activity which is thought to play a key role in regulating the cell cycle. It has been proposed by our laboratory that HI and H3 phosphorylations play a role in restructuring interphase chromatin into metaphase chromosomes. Interference of this process by sodium arsenite may lead to structurally damaged chromosomes resulting in the increased cancer risks known to be produced by arsenic exposure from the environment.

  8. Regulation of Mitotic Exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Baro, Bàrbara; Queralt, Ethel; Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) is an essential signaling pathway, closely related to the Hippo pathway in mammals, which promotes mitotic exit and initiates cytokinesis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about the MEN components and their regulation.

  9. Prolonged oestrogen treatment does not correlate with a sustained increase in anterior pituitary mitotic index in ovariectomized Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Nolan, L A; Levy, A

    2009-03-01

    Oestrogen is a powerful mitogen that is believed to exert a continuous, dose-dependent trophic stimulus at the anterior pituitary. This persistent mitotic effect contrasts with corticosterone and testosterone, changes in the levels of which induce only transient, self-limiting fluctuations in pituitary mitotic activity. To further define the putative long-term trophic effects of oestrogen, we have accurately analysed the effects of 7 and 28 days oestrogen treatment on anterior pituitary mitotic activity in ovariectomized 10-week-old Wistar rats using both bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and timed colchicine-induced mitotic arrest. An oestrogen dose-dependent increase in mitotic index was seen 7 days after the start of treatment as expected, representing an acceleration in gross mitotic activity from 1.7%/day in ovariectomized animals in the absence of any oestrogen replacement to 3.7%/day in the presence of a pharmacological dose of oestrogen (50 mcg/rat per day: approximately 230 mcg/kg per day). Despite continued exposure to high-dose oestrogen and persistence of the increase in pituitary wet weight, the increase in mitotic index was unexpectedly not sustained. After 28 days of high-dose oestrogen treatment, anterior pituitary mitotic index and BrdU-labelling index were not significantly different from baseline. Although a powerful pituitary mitogen in the short term, responsible, presumably, for increased trophic variability in oestrus cycling females, these data indicate that in keeping with other trophic stimuli to the pituitary and in contrast to a much established dogma, the mitotic response to longer-term high-dose oestrogen exposure is transient and is not the driver of persistent pituitary growth, at least in female Wistar rats.

  10. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of

  11. Cell biology of mitotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-03-02

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as well as the cellular organization of the process of homologous recombination. Herein we review the cell biological aspects of mitotic homologous recombination with a focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells, but will also draw on findings from other experimental systems. Key topics of this review include the stoichiometry and dynamics of recombination complexes in vivo, the choreography of assembly and disassembly of recombination proteins at sites of DNA damage, the mobilization of damaged DNA during homology search, and the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus with respect to capacity of homologous recombination.

  12. Cell Biology of Mitotic Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as well as the cellular organization of the process of homologous recombination. Herein we review the cell biological aspects of mitotic homologous recombination with a focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells, but will also draw on findings from other experimental systems. Key topics of this review include the stoichiometry and dynamics of recombination complexes in vivo, the choreography of assembly and disassembly of recombination proteins at sites of DNA damage, the mobilization of damaged DNA during homology search, and the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus with respect to capacity of homologous recombination. PMID:25731763

  13. Cell Division Cycle 6 Promotes Mitotic Slippage and Contributes to Drug Resistance in Paclitaxel-Treated Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yue; Yan, Daoyu; Zheng, Dianpeng; Hu, Zhiming; Li, Hongwei; Li, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is an antimitotic drug that possesses potent anticancer activity, but its therapeutic potential in the clinic has been hindered by drug resistance. Here, we report a mechanism by which cancer cells can exit from the PTX-induced mitotic arrest, i.e. mitotic slippage, and avoid subsequent death resulting in drug resistance. In cells experiencing mitotic slippage, Cdc6 protein level was significantly upregulated, Cdk1 activity was inhibited, and Cohesin/Rad21 was cleaved as a result. Cdc6 depletion by RNAi or Norcantharidin inhibited PTX-induced Cdc6 up-regulation, maintained Cdk1 activity, and repressed Cohesin/Rad21 cleavage. In all, this resulted in reduced mitotic slippage and reversal of PTX resistance. Moreover, in synchronized cells, the role of Cdc6 in mitotic exit under PTX pressure was also confirmed. This study indicates that Cdc6 may promote mitotic slippage by inactivation of Cdk1. Targeting of Cdc6 may serve as a promising strategy for enhancing the anticancer activity of PTX.

  14. NudC Deacetylation Regulates Mitotic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Carol; Pan, Jing; Hawke, David H.; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Yu-Lee, Li-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Mitosis is largely driven by posttranslational modifications of proteins. Recent studies suggest that protein acetylation is prevalent in mitosis, but how protein acetylation/deacetylation regulates mitotic progression remains unclear. Nuclear distribution protein C (NudC), a conserved protein that regulates cell division, was previously shown to be acetylated. We found that NudC acetylation was decreased during mitosis. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we identified K39 to be an acetylation site on NudC. Reconstitution of NudC-deficient cells with wild-type or K39R acetylation-defective NudC rescued mitotic phenotypes, including chromosome misalignment, chromosome missegregation, and reduced spindle width, observed after NudC protein knockdown. In contrast, the K39Q acetylation-mimetic NudC was unable to rescue these mitotic phenotypes, suggesting that NudC deacetylation is important for mitotic progression. To examine proteins that may play a role in NudC deacetylation during mitosis, we found that NudC co-localizes on the mitotic spindle with the histone deacetylase HDAC3, an HDAC shown to regulate mitotic spindle stability. Further, NudC co-immunoprecipitates with HDAC3 and loss of function of HDAC3 either by protein knockdown or inhibition with a small molecule inhibitor increased NudC acetylation. These observations suggest that HDAC3 may be involved in NudC deacetylation during mitosis. Cells with NudC or HDAC3 knockdown exhibited overlapping mitotic abnormalities, including chromosomes arranged in a “dome-like” configuration surrounding a collapsed mitotic spindle. Our studies suggest that NudC acetylation/deacetylation regulates mitotic progression and NudC deacetylation, likely through HDAC3, is critical for spindle function and chromosome congression. PMID:24069238

  15. Spindly/CCDC99 is required for efficient chromosome congression and mitotic checkpoint regulation.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Marin; Sohm, Bénédicte; Mikolcevic, Petra; Wandke, Cornelia; Rauch, Veronika; Ringer, Thomas; Hess, Michael; Bonn, Günther; Geley, Stephan

    2010-06-15

    Spindly recruits a fraction of cytoplasmic dynein to kinetochores for poleward movement of chromosomes and control of mitotic checkpoint signaling. Here we show that human Spindly is a cell cycle-regulated mitotic phosphoprotein that interacts with the Rod/ZW10/Zwilch (RZZ) complex. The kinetochore levels of Spindly are regulated by microtubule attachment and biorientation induced tension. Deletion mutants lacking the N-terminal half of the protein (NDelta253), or the conserved Spindly box (DeltaSB), strongly localized to kinetochores and failed to respond to attachment or tension. In addition, these mutants prevented the removal of the RZZ complex and that of MAD2 from bioriented chromosomes and caused cells to arrest at metaphase, showing that RZZ-Spindly has to be removed from kinetochores to terminate mitotic checkpoint signaling. Depletion of Spindly by RNAi, however, caused cells to arrest in prometaphase because of a delay in microtubule attachment. Surprisingly, this defect was alleviated by codepletion of ZW10. Thus, Spindly is not only required for kinetochore localization of dynein but is a functional component of a mechanism that couples dynein-dependent poleward movement of chromosomes to their efficient attachment to microtubules.

  16. Spindly/CCDC99 Is Required for Efficient Chromosome Congression and Mitotic Checkpoint Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Barisic, Marin; Sohm, Bénédicte; Mikolcevic, Petra; Wandke, Cornelia; Rauch, Veronika; Ringer, Thomas; Hess, Michael; Bonn, Günther

    2010-01-01

    Spindly recruits a fraction of cytoplasmic dynein to kinetochores for poleward movement of chromosomes and control of mitotic checkpoint signaling. Here we show that human Spindly is a cell cycle–regulated mitotic phosphoprotein that interacts with the Rod/ZW10/Zwilch (RZZ) complex. The kinetochore levels of Spindly are regulated by microtubule attachment and biorientation induced tension. Deletion mutants lacking the N-terminal half of the protein (NΔ253), or the conserved Spindly box (ΔSB), strongly localized to kinetochores and failed to respond to attachment or tension. In addition, these mutants prevented the removal of the RZZ complex and that of MAD2 from bioriented chromosomes and caused cells to arrest at metaphase, showing that RZZ-Spindly has to be removed from kinetochores to terminate mitotic checkpoint signaling. Depletion of Spindly by RNAi, however, caused cells to arrest in prometaphase because of a delay in microtubule attachment. Surprisingly, this defect was alleviated by codepletion of ZW10. Thus, Spindly is not only required for kinetochore localization of dynein but is a functional component of a mechanism that couples dynein-dependent poleward movement of chromosomes to their efficient attachment to microtubules. PMID:20427577

  17. The flavonoid eupatorin inactivates the mitotic checkpoint leading to polyploidy and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Salmela, Anna-Leena; Pouwels, Jeroen; Kukkonen-Macchi, Anu; Waris, Sinikka; Toivonen, Pauliina; Jaakkola, Kimmo; Maeki-Jouppila, Jenni; Kallio, Lila; Kallio, Marko J.

    2012-03-10

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a conserved mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome distribution in mitosis by preventing anaphase onset until the correct bipolar microtubule-kinetochore attachments are formed. Errors in SAC function may contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing numerical chromosome anomalies (aneuploidy). On the other hand, total disruption of SAC can lead to massive genomic imbalance followed by cell death, a phenomena that has therapeutic potency. We performed a cell-based high-throughput screen with a compound library of 2000 bioactives for novel SAC inhibitors and discovered a plant-derived phenolic compound eupatorin (3 Prime ,5-dihydroxy-4 Prime ,6,7-trimethoxyflavone) as an anti-mitotic flavonoid. The premature override of the microtubule drug-imposed mitotic arrest by eupatorin is dependent on microtubule-kinetochore attachments but not interkinetochore tension. Aurora B kinase activity, which is essential for maintenance of normal SAC signaling, is diminished by eupatorin in cells and in vitro providing a mechanistic explanation for the observed forced mitotic exit. Eupatorin likely has additional targets since eupatorin treatment of pre-mitotic cells causes spindle anomalies triggering a transient M phase delay followed by impaired cytokinesis and polyploidy. Finally, eupatorin potently induces apoptosis in multiple cancer cell lines and suppresses cancer cell proliferation in organotypic 3D cell culture model.

  18. The Yeast Polo Kinase Cdc5 Regulates the Shape of the Mitotic Nucleus

    DOE PAGES

    Walters, Alison D.; May, Christopher K.; Dauster, Emma S.; ...

    2014-11-20

    Abnormal nuclear size and shape are hallmarks of aging and cancer. However, the mechanisms regulating nuclear morphology and nuclear envelope (NE) expansion are poorly understood. In metazoans, the NE disassembles prior to chromosome segregation and reassembles at the end of mitosis. In budding yeast, the NE remains intact. The nucleus elongates as chromosomes segregate and then divides at the end of mitosis to form two daughter nuclei without NE disassembly. The budding yeast nucleus also undergoes remodeling during a mitotic arrest; the NE continues to expand despite the pause in chromosome segregation, forming a nuclear extension, or "flare," that encompassesmore » the nucleolus. The distinct nucleolar localization of the mitotic flare indicates that the NE is compartmentalized and that there is a mechanism by which NE expansion is confined to the region adjacent to the nucleolus. Here we show that mitotic flare formation is dependent on the yeast polo kinase Cdc5. This function of Cdc5 is independent of its known mitotic roles, including rDNA condensation. High-resolution imaging revealed that following Cdc5 inactivation, nuclei expand isometrically rather than forming a flare, indicating that Cdc5 is needed for NE compartmentalization. Lastly, even in an uninterrupted cell cycle, a small NE expansion occurs adjacent to the nucleolus prior to anaphase in a Cdc5-dependent manner. Our data provide the first evidence that polo kinase, a key regulator of mitosis, plays a role in regulating nuclear morphology and NE expansion.« less

  19. Nakiterpiosin Targets Tubulin and Triggers Mitotic Catastrophe in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jen-Hsuan; Seemann, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Agents that interfere with mitotic progression by perturbing microtubule dynamics are commonly used for cancer chemotherapy. Here, we identify nakiterpiosin as a novel anti-mitotic drug that targets microtubules. Nakiterpiosin induces mitotic arrest and triggers mitotic catastrophe in human cancer cells by impairing bipolar spindle assembly. At higher concentration, it alters the interphase microtubule network and suppresses microtubule dynamics. In the presence of nakiterpiosin, microtubules are no longer arranged in a centrosomal array and centrosome-mediated microtubule regrowth after cold depolymerization is inhibited. However, centrosome organization, the ultrastructure of Golgi stacks and protein secretion are not affected, suggesting that the drug has minimal toxicity towards other cellular functions. Nakiterpiosin interacts directly with tubulin, inhibits microtubule polymerization in vitro, and decreases polymer mass in cells. Furthermore, it enhances tubulin acetylation and reduces viability of paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells. In conclusion, nakiterpiosin exerts anti-proliferative activity by perturbing microtubule dynamics during mitosis, which activates the spindle assembly checkpoint and triggers cell death. These findings suggest the potential use of nakiterpiosin as a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:21139045

  20. The yeast polo kinase Cdc5 regulates the shape of the mitotic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Walters, Alison D; May, Christopher K; Dauster, Emma S; Cinquin, Bertrand P; Smith, Elizabeth A; Robellet, Xavier; D'Amours, Damien; Larabell, Carolyn A; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2014-12-01

    Abnormal nuclear size and shape are hallmarks of aging and cancer. However, the mechanisms regulating nuclear morphology and nuclear envelope (NE) expansion are poorly understood. In metazoans, the NE disassembles prior to chromosome segregation and reassembles at the end of mitosis. In budding yeast, the NE remains intact. The nucleus elongates as chromosomes segregate and then divides at the end of mitosis to form two daughter nuclei without NE disassembly. The budding yeast nucleus also undergoes remodeling during a mitotic arrest; the NE continues to expand despite the pause in chromosome segregation, forming a nuclear extension, or "flare," that encompasses the nucleolus. The distinct nucleolar localization of the mitotic flare indicates that the NE is compartmentalized and that there is a mechanism by which NE expansion is confined to the region adjacent to the nucleolus. Here we show that mitotic flare formation is dependent on the yeast polo kinase Cdc5. This function of Cdc5 is independent of its known mitotic roles, including rDNA condensation. High-resolution imaging revealed that following Cdc5 inactivation, nuclei expand isometrically rather than forming a flare, indicating that Cdc5 is needed for NE compartmentalization. Even in an uninterrupted cell cycle, a small NE expansion occurs adjacent to the nucleolus prior to anaphase in a Cdc5-dependent manner. Our data provide the first evidence that polo kinase, a key regulator of mitosis, plays a role in regulating nuclear morphology and NE expansion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. AIP regulates stability of Aurora-A at early mitotic phase coordinately with GSK-3beta.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, K; Lee, P-C; Saya, H; Kikuchi, A

    2008-07-24

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3beta) regulates microtubule dynamics and cellular polarity through phosphorylating various microtubule associating proteins and plus-end tracking proteins. Although it was also reported that GSK-3beta is inactivated by protein kinase B at the spindle poles, functions and targets of GSK-3beta in the mitotic phase are unknown. Here, we identified Aurora-A-interacting protein (AIP), a negative regulator of Aurora-A, as a binding partner of GSK-3beta. AIP was colocalized with Aurora-A and GSK-3beta to the spindle poles in metaphase, and its depletion in cells stabilized and activated Aurora-A in early mitotic phase and caused mitotic cell arrest. Treatment of the cells with a GSK-3beta inhibitor reduced the protein level of Aurora-A and this reduction was suppressed by AIP knockdown. AIP was phosphorylated by GSK-3beta, and an AIP mutant in which the GSK-3beta phosphorylation site was mutated could bind and downregulate Aurora-A more efficiently. These results suggest that GSK-3beta modulates the early mitotic Aurora-A level through binding and phosphorylating AIP.

  2. Profiling DNA damage response following mitotic perturbations

    PubMed Central

    S. Pedersen, Ronni; Karemore, Gopal; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Rask, Maj-Britt; Neumann, Beate; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Pepperkok, Rainer; Ellenberg, Jan; Gerlich, Daniel W.; Lukas, Jiri; Lukas, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Genome integrity relies on precise coordination between DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Whereas replication stress attracted much attention, the consequences of mitotic perturbations for genome integrity are less understood. Here, we knockdown 47 validated mitotic regulators to show that a broad spectrum of mitotic errors correlates with increased DNA breakage in daughter cells. Unexpectedly, we find that only a subset of these correlations are functionally linked. We identify the genuine mitosis-born DNA damage events and sub-classify them according to penetrance of the observed phenotypes. To demonstrate the potential of this resource, we show that DNA breakage after cytokinesis failure is preceded by replication stress, which mounts during consecutive cell cycles and coincides with decreased proliferation. Together, our results provide a resource to gauge the magnitude and dynamics of DNA breakage associated with mitotic aberrations and suggest that replication stress might limit propagation of cells with abnormal karyotypes. PMID:27976684

  3. Mitotic Spindle Form and Function

    PubMed Central

    Winey, Mark; Bloom, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle in budding yeast is exemplified by its simplicity and elegance. Microtubules are nucleated from a crystalline array of proteins organized in the nuclear envelope, known as the spindle pole body in yeast (analogous to the centrosome in larger eukaryotes). The spindle has two classes of nuclear microtubules: kinetochore microtubules and interpolar microtubules. One kinetochore microtubule attaches to a single centromere on each chromosome, while approximately four interpolar microtubules emanate from each pole and interdigitate with interpolar microtubules from the opposite spindle to provide stability to the bipolar spindle. On the cytoplasmic face, two to three microtubules extend from the spindle pole toward the cell cortex. Processes requiring microtubule function are limited to spindles in mitosis and to spindle orientation and nuclear positioning in the cytoplasm. Microtubule function is regulated in large part via products of the 6 kinesin gene family and the 1 cytoplasmic dynein gene. A single bipolar kinesin (Cin8, class Kin-5), together with a depolymerase (Kip3, class Kin-8) or minus-end-directed kinesin (Kar3, class Kin-14), can support spindle function and cell viability. The remarkable feature of yeast cells is that they can survive with microtubules and genes for just two motor proteins, thus providing an unparalleled system to dissect microtubule and motor function within the spindle machine. PMID:22491889

  4. p31comet promotes disassembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex in an ATP-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Teichner, Adar; Eytan, Esther; Sitry-Shevah, Danielle; Miniowitz-Shemtov, Shirly; Dumin, Elena; Gromis, Jonathan; Hershko, Avram

    2011-01-01

    Accurate segregation of chromosomes in mitosis is ensured by a surveillance mechanism called the mitotic (or spindle assembly) checkpoint. It prevents sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle through their kinetochores. The checkpoint acts by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase that targets for degradation securin, an inhibitor of anaphase initiation. The activity of APC/C is inhibited by a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), composed of the APC/C activator Cdc20 bound to the checkpoint proteins MAD2, BubR1, and Bub3. When all kinetochores acquire bipolar attachment the checkpoint is inactivated, but the mechanisms of checkpoint inactivation are not understood. We have previously observed that hydrolyzable ATP is required for exit from checkpoint-arrested state. In this investigation we examined the possibility that ATP hydrolysis in exit from checkpoint is linked to the action of the Mad2-binding protein p31comet in this process. It is known that p31comet prevents the formation of a Mad2 dimer that it thought to be important for turning on the mitotic checkpoint. This explains how p31comet blocks the activation of the checkpoint but not how it promotes its inactivation. Using extracts from checkpoint-arrested cells and MCC isolated from such extracts, we now show that p31comet causes the disassembly of MCC and that this process requires β,γ-hydrolyzable ATP. Although p31comet binds to Mad2, it promotes the dissociation of Cdc20 from BubR1 in MCC. PMID:21300909

  5. Drug-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) protocols: cytogenetic approaches in mitotic chromosome and interphase chromatin.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome analysis is a fundamental technique which is used in wide areas of cytogenetic study including karyotyping species, hereditary diseases diagnosis, or chromosome biology study. Chromosomes are usually prepared from mitotic cells arrested by colcemid block protocol. However, obtaining mitotic chromosomes is often hampered under several circumstances. As a result, cytogenetic analysis will be sometimes difficult or even impossible in such cases. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) (see Note 1) is an alternative method that has proved to be a unique and useful way in chromosome analysis. Former, PCC has been achieved following cell fusion method (cell-fusion PCC) mediated either by fusogenic viruses (e.g., Sendai virus) or cell fusion chemicals (e.g., polyethylene glycol), but the cell fusion PCC has several drawbacks. The novel drug-induced PCC using protein phosphatase inhibitors was introduced about 20 years ago. This method is much simpler and easier even than the conventional mitotic chromosome preparation protocol use with colcemid block and furthermore obtained PCC index (equivalent to mitotic index for metaphase chromosome) is usually much higher than colcemid block method. Moreover, this method allows the interphase chromatin to be condensed to visualize like mitotic chromosomes. Therefore drug-induced PCC has opened the way for chromosome analysis not only in metaphase chromosomes but also in interphase chromatin. The drug-induced PCC has thus proven the usefulness in cytogenetics and other cell biology fields. For this second edition version, updated modifications/changes are supplemented in Subheadings 2, 3, and 4, and a new section describing the application of PCC in chromosome science fields is added with citation of updated references.

  6. Polo-like kinase 1 is essential for the first mitotic division in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Baran, V; Solc, P; Kovarikova, V; Rehak, P; Sutovsky, P

    2013-07-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a member of the serine/threonine protein kinases family, is involved in multiple steps of mitotic progression. It regulates centrosome maturation, mitotic spindle formation, and cytokinesis. While studied extensively in somatic cells, little is known about PLK1 activities in the mammalian preimplantation embryo. We examined the role of PLK1 in the one-cell mouse embryo. Western blotting showed that the PLK1 protein content increased significantly during the S-phase of the one-cell stage and declined during the first mitotic division. Activation of PLK1 preceded nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) in both pronuclei at the entry to first embryo mitosis. Immunofluorescence revealed the presence of phosphorylated, active PLK1 (pThr(210) -PLK1) in both male and female pronuclei, and in the microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) shortly before NEBD. During the first mitotic metaphase, pThr(210) -PLK1 accumulated at the spindle poles and was also associated with condensed chromosomes. Inhibition of PLK1 activity with a specific PLK1 inhibitor, BI 2536, at the one-cell stage induced the formation of a bipolar spindle that displayed disordered microtubular arrangements and dislocated, condensed chromosomes. Although such embryos entered mitosis, they did not complete mitosis and arrested at metaphase. Time-lapse recording revealed progressive misalignment of condensed chromosomes during first mitotic metaphase. These data indicate that PLK1 activity is not essential for entry into first mitosis, but is required for the events leading up to metaphase-anaphase transition in the one-cell mouse embryo. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mitotic Catastrophe Occurs in the Absence of Apoptosis in p53-Null Cells with a Defective G1 Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Fragkos, Michalis; Beard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cell death occurring during mitosis, or mitotic catastrophe, often takes place in conjunction with apoptosis, but the conditions in which mitotic catastrophe may exhibit features of programmed cell death are still unclear. In the work presented here, we studied mitotic cell death by making use of a UV-inactivated parvovirus (adeno-associated virus; AAV) that has been shown to induce a DNA damage response and subsequent death of p53-defective cells in mitosis, without affecting the integrity of the host genome. Osteosarcoma cells (U2OSp53DD) that are deficient in p53 and lack the G1 cell cycle checkpoint respond to AAV infection through a transient G2 arrest. We found that the infected U2OSp53DD cells died through mitotic catastrophe with no signs of chromosome condensation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, cell death was independent of caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), autophagy and necroptosis. These findings were confirmed by time-lapse microscopy of cellular morphology following AAV infection. The assays used readily revealed apoptosis in other cell types when it was indeed occurring. Taken together the results indicate that in the absence of the G1 checkpoint, mitotic catastrophe occurs in these p53-null cells predominantly as a result of mechanical disruption induced by centrosome overduplication, and not as a consequence of a suicide signal. PMID:21853057

  8. The Nek6 and Nek7 protein kinases are required for robust mitotic spindle formation and cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Laura; Fry, Andrew M

    2009-07-01

    Nek6 and Nek7 are members of the NIMA-related serine/threonine kinase family. Previous work showed that they contribute to mitotic progression downstream of another NIMA-related kinase, Nek9, although the roles of these different kinases remain to be defined. Here, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the regulation and function of Nek6 and Nek7 in human cells. By generating specific antibodies, we show that both Nek6 and Nek7 are activated in mitosis and that interfering with their activity by either depletion or expression of reduced-activity mutants leads to mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, while completely inactive mutants and small interfering RNA-mediated depletion delay cells at metaphase with fragile mitotic spindles, hypomorphic mutants or RNA interference treatment combined with a spindle assembly checkpoint inhibitor delays cells at cytokinesis. Importantly, depletion of either Nek6 or Nek7 leads to defective mitotic progression, indicating that although highly similar, they are not redundant. Indeed, while both kinases localize to spindle poles, only Nek6 obviously localizes to spindle microtubules in metaphase and anaphase and to the midbody during cytokinesis. Together, these data lead us to propose that Nek6 and Nek7 play independent roles not only in robust mitotic spindle formation but also potentially in cytokinesis.

  9. Moderate intensity static magnetic fields affect mitotic spindles and increase the antitumor efficacy of 5-FU and Taxol.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Ji, Xinmiao; Liu, Juanjuan; Li, Zhiyuan; Wang, Wenchao; Chen, Wei; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Qingsong; Zhang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Microtubules are the fundamental components in mitotic spindle, which plays essential roles in cell division. It was well known that purified microtubules could be affected by static magnetic fields (SMFs) in vitro because of the diamagnetic anisotropy of tubulin. However, whether these effects lead to cell division defects was unknown. Here we find that 1T SMFs induce abnormal mitotic spindles and increase mitotic index. Synchronization experiments show that SMFs delay cell exit from mitosis and cause mitotic arrest. These mimic the cellular effects of a microtubule-targeting drug Paclitaxel (Taxol), which is frequently used in combination with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Cisplatin in cancer treatment. Using four different human cancer cell lines, HeLa, HCT116, CNE-2Z and MCF7, we find that SMFs increase the antitumor efficacy of 5-FU or 5-FU/Taxol, but not Cisplatin, which indicates that the SMF-induced combinational effects with chemodrugs are drug-specific. Our study not only reveals the effect of SMFs on microtubules to cause abnormal mitotic spindles and delay cells exit from mitosis, but also implies the potential applications of SMFs in combination with chemotherapy drugs 5-FU or 5-FU/Taxol, but not with Cisplatin in cancer treatment.

  10. Epigenetic countermarks in mitotic chromosome condensation.

    PubMed

    van Wely, Karel H M; Mora Gallardo, Carmen; Vann, Kendra R; Kutateladze, Tatiana G

    2017-01-03

    Mitosis in metazoans is characterized by abundant phosphorylation of histone H3 and involves the recruitment of condensin complexes to chromatin. The relationship between the 2 phenomena and their respective contributions to chromosome condensation in vivo remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that H3T3 phosphorylation decreases binding of histone readers to methylated H3K4 in vitro and is essential to displace the corresponding proteins from mitotic chromatin in vivo. Together with previous observations, these data provide further evidence for a role of mitotic histone H3 phosphorylation in blocking transcriptional programs or preserving the 'memory' PTMs. Mitotic protein exclusion can also have a role in depopulating the chromatin template for subsequent condensin loading. H3 phosphorylation thus serves as an integral step in the condensation of chromosome arms.

  11. The mitotic spindle and actin tails.

    PubMed

    Karsenti, Eric; Nédélec, François

    2004-04-01

    To segregate their chromosomes, eukaryotic cells rely on a dynamic structure made of microtubules: the mitotic spindle. This structure can form in cells lacking centrosomes, because their chromosomes also nucleate microtubules. This second assembly pathway is observed even in some cells that naturally have centrosomes, for example when the centrosomes are ablated by laser surgery. Recent results have started to address the complementary question of whether centrosome-nucleated microtubules alone could sustain the formation of a functional mitotic spindle. We wonder in this respect whether lower eukaryotes such as yeasts are different from higher eukaryotes such as vertebrates.

  12. THE DIRECT ISOLATION OF THE MITOTIC APPARATUS

    PubMed Central

    Mazia, Daniel; Mitchison, J. M.; Medina, Heitor; Harris, Patricia

    1961-01-01

    A method for isolating the mitotic apparatus from dividing sea urchin eggs without the use of ethyl alcohol or of detergents is described. In the present method, the eggs are dispersed directly in a medium containing 1 M (to 1.15 M) sucrose, 0.15 M dithiodiglycol, and 0.001 M Versene at pH 6, releasing the visibly intact mitotic apparatus. The method is designed for studies of enzyme activities, lipid components, and the variables affecting the stability of the apparatus. PMID:13768661

  13. Fully functional global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts and compromised transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in condensed mitotic chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Komura, Jun-ichiro; Ikehata, Hironobu; Mori, Toshio; Ono, Tetsuya

    2012-03-10

    During mitosis, chromatin is highly condensed, and activities such as transcription and semiconservative replication do not occur. Consequently, the condensed condition of mitotic chromatin is assumed to inhibit DNA metabolism by impeding the access of DNA-transacting proteins. However, about 40 years ago, several researchers observed unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated mitotic chromosomes, suggesting the presence of excision repair. We re-examined this subject by directly measuring the removal of UV-induced DNA lesions by an ELISA and by a Southern-based technique in HeLa cells arrested at mitosis. We observed that the removal of (6-4) photoproducts from the overall genome in mitotic cells was as efficient as in interphase cells. This suggests that global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts is fully functional during mitosis, and that the DNA in mitotic chromatin is accessible to proteins involved in this mode of DNA repair. Nevertheless, not all modes of DNA repair seem fully functional during mitosis. We also observed that the removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from the dihydrofolate reductase and c-MYC genes in mitotic cells was very slow. This suggests that transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers is compromised or non-functional during mitosis, which is probably the consequence of mitotic transcriptional repression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts is fully active in mitotic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA in condensed mitotic chromatin does not seem inaccessible or inert. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitotic transcriptional repression may impair transcription-coupled repair.

  14. Centrin: Another target of monastrol, an inhibitor of mitotic spindle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lian; Wang, Tong-Qing; Bian, Wei; Liu, Wen; Sun, Yue; Yang, Bin-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    Monastrol, a cell-permeable inhibitor, considered to specifically inhibit kinesin Eg5, can cause mitotic arrest and monopolar spindle formation, thus exhibiting antitumor properties. Centrin, a ubiquitous protein associated with centrosome, plays a critical role in centrosome duplication. Moreover, a correlation between centrosome amplification and cancer has been reported. In this study, it is proposed for the first time that centrin may be another target of the anticancer drug monastrol since monastrol can effectively inhibit not only the growth of the transformed Escherichia coli cells in vivo, but also the Lu3+-dependent self-assembly of EoCen in vitro. The two closely related compounds (Compounds 1 and 2) could not take the same effect. Fluorescence titration experiments suggest that four monastrols per protein is the optimum binding pattern, and the binding constants at different temperatures were obtained. Detailed thermodynamic analysis indicates that hydrophobic force is the main acting force between monastrol and centrin, and the extent of monastrol inhibition of centrin self-assembly is highly dependent upon the hydrophobic region of the protein, which is largely exposed by the binding of metal ions.

  15. Rapid measurement of mitotic spindle orientation in cultured mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Decarreau, Justin; Driver, Jonathan; Asbury, Charles; Wordeman, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Summary Factors that influence the orientation of the mitotic spindle are important for the maintenance of stem cell populations and in cancer development. However, screening for these factors requires rapid quantification of alterations of the angle of the mitotic spindle in cultured cell lines. Here we describe a method to image mitotic cells and rapidly score the angle of the mitotic spindle using a simple MATLAB application to analyze a stack of Z-images. PMID:24633791

  16. SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF ISOLATED MITOTIC APPARATUS

    PubMed Central

    Bibring, Thomas; Baxandall, Jane

    1971-01-01

    Mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs has been treated with meralluride sodium under conditions otherwise resembling those of its isolation. The treatment causes a selective morphological disappearance of microtubules while extracting a major protein fraction, probably consisting of two closely related proteins, which constitutes about 10% of mitotic apparatus protein. Extraction of other cell particulates under similar conditions yields much less of this protein. The extracted protein closely resembles outer doublet microtubule protein from sea urchin sperm tail in properties considered typical of microtubule proteins: precipitation by calcium ion and vinblastine, electrophoretic mobility in both acid and basic polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, and, according to a preliminary determination, amino acid composition. An antiserum against a preparation of sperm tail outer doublet microtubules cross-reacts with the extract from mitotic apparatus. On the basis of these findings it appears that microtubule protein is selectively extracted from isolated mitotic apparatus by treatment with meralluride, and is a typical microtubule protein. PMID:5543404

  17. Cdk1-FOXO1: a mitotic signal takes center stage in post-mitotic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Albert H; Bonni, Azad

    2008-12-15

    An emerging theme in molecular neurobiology is the discovery of post-mitotic functions for proteins classically associated with mitotic transition in cycling cells. Although neurons have departed the cell cycle, they surprisingly express molecules in the cell cycle apparatus throughout development. The major mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 plays a critical role during the period of naturally occurring neuronal death in the nervous system and has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms by which Cdk1 promotes neuronal apoptosis are incompletely understood. A recent report by Yuan et al., (2008) has identified a direct relationship between this mitotic kinase and forkhead transcription factor FOXO1, a protein previously implicated in cell death, DNA damage repair and tumor suppression. Here we will discuss the key findings of this report and consider the implications of this mechanism to the regulation of other signal transduction pathways in brain development and diseases.

  18. Role of CCT chaperonin in the disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes.

    PubMed

    Kaisari, Sharon; Sitry-Shevah, Danielle; Miniowitz-Shemtov, Shirly; Teichner, Adar; Hershko, Avram

    2017-01-31

    The mitotic checkpoint system prevents premature separation of sister chromatids in mitosis and thus ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. When this checkpoint is active, a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), composed of the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, Bub3, and Cdc20, is assembled. MCC inhibits the ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), whose action is necessary for anaphase initiation. When the checkpoint signal is turned off, MCC is disassembled, a process required for exit from checkpoint-arrested state. Different moieties of MCC are disassembled by different ATP-requiring processes. Previous work showed that Mad2 is released from MCC by the joint action of the TRIP13 AAA-ATPase and the Mad2-binding protein p31(comet) Now we have isolated from extracts of HeLa cells an ATP-dependent factor that releases Cdc20 from MCC and identified it as chaperonin containing TCP1 or TCP1-Ring complex (CCT/TRiC chaperonin), a complex known to function in protein folding. Bacterially expressed CCT5 chaperonin subunits, which form biologically active homooligomers [Sergeeva, et al. (2013) J Biol Chem 288(24):17734-17744], also promote the disassembly of MCC. CCT chaperonin further binds and disassembles subcomplexes of MCC that lack Mad2. Thus, the combined action of CCT chaperonin with that of TRIP13 ATPase promotes the complete disassembly of MCC, necessary for the inactivation of the mitotic checkpoint.

  19. Inhibition of the mitotic exit network in response to damaged telomeres.

    PubMed

    Valerio-Santiago, Mauricio; de Los Santos-Velázquez, Ana Isabel; Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    When chromosomal DNA is damaged, progression through the cell cycle is halted to provide the cells with time to repair the genetic material before it is distributed between the mother and daughter cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this cell cycle arrest occurs at the G2/M transition. However, it is also necessary to restrain exit from mitosis by maintaining Bfa1-Bub2, the inhibitor of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), in an active state. While the role of Bfa1 and Bub2 in the inhibition of mitotic exit when the spindle is not properly aligned and the spindle position checkpoint is activated has been extensively studied, the mechanism by which these proteins prevent MEN function after DNA damage is still unclear. Here, we propose that the inhibition of the MEN is specifically required when telomeres are damaged but it is not necessary to face all types of chromosomal DNA damage, which is in agreement with previous data in mammals suggesting the existence of a putative telomere-specific DNA damage response that inhibits mitotic exit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism of MEN inhibition when telomeres are damaged relies on the Rad53-dependent inhibition of Bfa1 phosphorylation by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5, establishing a new key role of this kinase in regulating cell cycle progression.

  20. The novel combination of chlorpromazine and pentamidine exerts synergistic antiproliferative effects through dual mitotic action.

    PubMed

    Lee, Margaret S; Johansen, Lisa; Zhang, Yanzhen; Wilson, Amy; Keegan, Mitchell; Avery, William; Elliott, Peter; Borisy, Alexis A; Keith, Curtis T

    2007-12-01

    Combination therapy has proven successful in treating a wide variety of aggressive human cancers. Historically, combination treatments have been discovered through serendipity or lengthy trials using known anticancer agents with similar indications. We have used combination high-throughput screening to discover the unexpected synergistic combination of an antiparasitic agent, pentamidine, and a phenothiazine antipsychotic, chlorpromazine. This combination, CRx-026, inhibits the growth of tumor cell lines in vivo more effectively than either pentamidine or chlorpromazine alone. Here, we report that CRx-026 exerts its antiproliferative effect through synergistic dual mitotic action. Chlorpromazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin KSP/Eg5 and inhibits tumor cell proliferation through mitotic arrest and accumulation of monopolar spindles. Pentamidine treatment results in chromosomal segregation defects and delayed progression through mitosis, consistent with inhibition of the phosphatase of regenerating liver family of phosphatases. We also show that CRx-026 synergizes in vitro and in vivo with the microtubule-binding agents paclitaxel and vinorelbine. These data support a model where dual action of pentamidine and chlorpromazine in mitosis results in synergistic antitumor effects and show the importance of systematic screening for combinations of targeted agents.

  1. Mitotic catastrophe and cell death induced by depletion of centrosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, M; Yoshioka, T; Saio, M; Banno, Y; Nagaoka, H; Okano, Y

    2013-01-01

    Mitotic catastrophe, which refers to cell death or its prologue triggered by aberrant mitosis, can be induced by a heterogeneous group of stimuli, including chromosome damage or perturbation of the mitotic apparatus. We investigated the mechanism of mitotic catastrophe and cell death induced by depletion of centrosomal proteins that perturbs microtubule organization. We transfected cells harboring wild-type or mutated p53 with siRNAs targeting Aurora A, ninein, TOG, TACC3, γ-tubulin, or pericentriolar material-1, and monitored the effects on cell death. Knockdown of Aurora A, ninein, TOG, and TACC3 led to cell death, regardless of p53 status. Knockdown of Aurora A, ninein, and TOG, led to aberrant spindle formation and subsequent cell death, which was accompanied by several features of apoptosis, including nuclear condensation and Annexin V binding in HeLa cells. During this process, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, caspase-3, and caspase-9 was detected, but cleavage of caspase-8 was not. Cell death, monitored by time-lapse imaging, occurred during both interphase and M phase. In cells depleted of a centrosomal protein (Aurora A, ninein, or TOG), the rate of cell death was higher if the cells were cotransfected with siRNA against BubR1 or Mad2 than if they were transfected with siRNA against Bub1 or a control siRNA. These results suggest that metaphase arrest is necessary for the mitotic catastrophe and cell death caused by depletion of centrosomal proteins. Knockdown of centrosomal proteins led to increased phosphorylation of Chk2. Enhanced p-Chk2 localization was also observed at the centrosome in cells arrested in M phase, as well as in the nuclei of dying cells. Cotransfection of siRNAs against Chk2, in combination with depletion of a centrosomal protein, decreased the amount of cell death. Thus, Chk2 activity is indispensable for apoptosis after mitotic catastrophe induced by depletion of centrosomal proteins that perturbs microtubule organization

  2. Fully functional global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts and compromised transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in condensed mitotic chromatin.

    PubMed

    Komura, Jun-ichiro; Ikehata, Hironobu; Mori, Toshio; Ono, Tetsuya

    2012-03-10

    During mitosis, chromatin is highly condensed, and activities such as transcription and semiconservative replication do not occur. Consequently, the condensed condition of mitotic chromatin is assumed to inhibit DNA metabolism by impeding the access of DNA-transacting proteins. However, about 40 years ago, several researchers observed unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated mitotic chromosomes, suggesting the presence of excision repair. We re-examined this subject by directly measuring the removal of UV-induced DNA lesions by an ELISA and by a Southern-based technique in HeLa cells arrested at mitosis. We observed that the removal of (6-4) photoproducts from the overall genome in mitotic cells was as efficient as in interphase cells. This suggests that global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts is fully functional during mitosis, and that the DNA in mitotic chromatin is accessible to proteins involved in this mode of DNA repair. Nevertheless, not all modes of DNA repair seem fully functional during mitosis. We also observed that the removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from the dihydrofolate reductase and c-MYC genes in mitotic cells was very slow. This suggests that transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers is compromised or non-functional during mitosis, which is probably the consequence of mitotic transcriptional repression.

  3. Unattached kinetochores rather than intrakinetochore tension arrest mitosis in taxol-treated cells

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Valentin; He, Jie; Ault, Jeffrey G.; O’Connell, Christopher B.; Yang, Nachen; Tikhonenko, Irina; McEwen, Bruce F.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetochores attach chromosomes to the spindle microtubules and signal the spindle assembly checkpoint to delay mitotic exit until all chromosomes are attached. Light microscopy approaches aimed to indirectly determine distances between various proteins within the kinetochore (termed Delta) suggest that kinetochores become stretched by spindle forces and compact elastically when the force is suppressed. Low Delta is believed to arrest mitotic progression in taxol-treated cells. However, the structural basis of Delta remains unknown. By integrating same-kinetochore light microscopy and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that the value of Delta is affected by the variability in the shape and size of outer kinetochore domains. The outer kinetochore compacts when spindle forces are maximal during metaphase. When the forces are weakened by taxol treatment, the outer kinetochore expands radially and some kinetochores completely lose microtubule attachment, a condition known to arrest mitotic progression. These observations offer an alternative interpretation of intrakinetochore tension and question whether Delta plays a direct role in the control of mitotic progression. PMID:26833787

  4. The mitotic inhibitor ccs52 is required for endoreduplication and ploidy-dependent cell enlargement in plants.

    PubMed

    Cebolla, A; Vinardell, J M; Kiss, E; Oláh, B; Roudier, F; Kondorosi, A; Kondorosi, E

    1999-08-16

    Plant organs develop mostly post-embryonically from persistent or newly formed meristems. After cell division arrest, differentiation frequently involves endoreduplication and cell enlargement. Factors controlling transition from mitotic cycles to differentiation programmes have not been identified yet in plants. Here we describe ccs52, a plant homologue of APC activators involved in mitotic cyclin degradation. The ccs52 cDNA clones were isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules, which exhibit the highest degree of endopolyploidy in this plant. ccs52 represents a small multigenic family and appears to be conserved in plants. Overexpression of ccs52 in yeast triggered mitotic cyclin degradation, cell division arrest, endoreduplication and cell enlargement. In Medicago, enhanced expression of ccs52 was found in differentiating cells undergoing endoreduplication. In transgenic M.truncatula plants, overexpression of the ccs52 gene in the antisense orientation resulted in partial suppression of ccs52 expression and decreased the number of endocycles and the volume of the largest cells. Thus, the ccs52 product may switch proliferating cells to differentiation programmes which, in the case of endocycles, result in cell size increments.

  5. Mutation in the Bimd Gene of Aspergillus Nidulans Confers a Conditional Mitotic Block and Sensitivity to DNA Damaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Denison, S. H.; Kafer, E.; May, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    Mutation in the bimD gene of Aspergillus nidulans results in a mitotic block in anaphase characterized by a defective mitosis. Mutation in bimD also confers, at temperatures permissive for the mitotic arrest phenotype, an increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, including methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet light. In order to better understand the relationship between DNA damage and mitotic progression, we cloned the bimD gene from Aspergillus. A cosmid containing the bimD gene was identified among pools of cosmids by cotransformation with the nutritional selective pyrG gene of a strain carrying the recessive, temperature-sensitive lethal bimD6 mutation. The bimD gene encodes a predicted polypeptide of 166,000 daltons in mass and contains amino acid sequence motifs similar to those found in some DNA-binding transcription factors. These sequences include a basic domain followed by a leucine zipper, which together are called a bZIP motif, and a carboxyl-terminal domain enriched in acidic amino acids. Overexpression of the wild-type bimD protein resulted in an arrest of the nuclear division cycle that was reversible and determined to be in either the G(1) or S phase of the cell cycle. Our data suggest that bimD may play an essential regulatory role relating to DNA metabolism which is required for a successful mitosis. PMID:8375649

  6. Pb-inhibited mitotic activity in onion roots involves DNA damage and disruption of oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Plant responses to abiotic stress significantly affect the development of cells, tissues and organs. However, no studies correlating Pb-induced mitotic inhibition and DNA damage and the alterations in redox homeostasis during root division per se were found in the literature. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of Pb on mitotic activity and the associated changes in the oxidative metabolism in onion roots. The cytotoxic effect of Pb on cell division was assessed in the root meristems of Allium cepa (onion). The mitotic index (MI) was calculated and chromosomal abnormalities were sought. Pb-treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in MI in the onion root tips and caused mitotic abnormalities such as distorted metaphase, fragments, sticky chromosomes, laggards, vagrant chromosomes and bridges. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis was also performed to evaluate Pb induced genotoxicity. It was accompanied by altered oxidative metabolism in the onion root tips suggesting the interference of Pb with the redox homeostasis during cell division. There was a higher accumulation of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydrogen peroxide, and a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases in Pb-treated onion roots, whereas catalases activity exhibited a decreasing pattern upon Pb exposure. The study concludes that Pb-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the onion roots is mediated through ROS and is also tightly linked to the cell cycle. The exposure to higher concentrations arrested cell cycle leading to cell death, whereas different repair responses are generated at lower concentrations, thereby allowing the cell to complete the cell cycle.

  7. CHFR protein regulates mitotic checkpoint by targeting PARP-1 protein for ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Lisa; Idogawa, Masashi; Mita, Hiroaki; Shitashige, Miki; Yamada, Tesshi; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hiromu; Toyota, Minoru; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Tokino, Takashi

    2012-04-13

    The mitotic checkpoint gene CHFR (checkpoint with forkhead-associated (FHA) and RING finger domains) is silenced by promoter hypermethylation or mutated in various human cancers, suggesting that CHFR is an important tumor suppressor. Recent studies have reported that CHFR functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, resulting in the degradation of target proteins. To better understand how CHFR suppresses cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis, we sought to identify CHFR-interacting proteins using affinity purification combined with mass spectrometry. Here we show poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) to be a novel CHFR-interacting protein. In CHFR-expressing cells, mitotic stress induced the autoPARylation of PARP-1, resulting in an enhanced interaction between CHFR and PARP-1 and an increase in the polyubiquitination/degradation of PARP-1. The decrease in PARP-1 protein levels promoted cell cycle arrest at prophase, supporting that the cells expressing CHFR were resistant to microtubule inhibitors. In contrast, in CHFR-silenced cells, polyubiquitination was not induced in response to mitotic stress. Thus, PARP-1 protein levels did not decrease, and cells progressed into mitosis under mitotic stress, suggesting that CHFR-silenced cancer cells were sensitized to microtubule inhibitors. Furthermore, we found that cells from Chfr knockout mice and CHFR-silenced primary gastric cancer tissues expressed higher levels of PARP-1 protein, strongly supporting our data that the interaction between CHFR and PARP-1 plays an important role in cell cycle regulation and cancer therapeutic strategies. On the basis of our studies, we demonstrate a significant advantage for use of combinational chemotherapy with PARP inhibitors for cancer cells resistant to microtubule inhibitors.

  8. Cardiac arrest and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Tabitha A; Sanson, Tracy G

    2009-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy is rare occurring in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. When it does occur, it is important for a clinician to be familiar with the features peculiar to the pregnant state. Knowledge of the anatomic and physiologic changes of pregnancy is helpful in the treatment and diagnosis. Although the main focus should be on the mother, it should not be forgotten that there is another potential life at stake. Resuscitation of the mother is performed in the same manner as in any other patient, except for a few minor adjustments because of the changes of pregnancy. The specialties of obstetrics and neonatology should be involved early in the process to ensure appropriate treatment of both mother and the newborn. This article will explore the changes that occur in pregnancy and their impact on treatment. The common causes of maternal cardiac arrest will be discussed briefly. PMID:19561954

  9. Mitotic inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Andrew B.; Royle, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Endocytosis and mitosis are fundamental processes in a cell’s life. Nearly fifty years of research suggest that these processes are linked and that endocytosis is shut down as cells undergo the early stages of mitosis. Precisely how this occurs at a molecular level is an open question. In this review, we summarize the early work characterizing the inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and discuss recent challenges to this established concept. We also set out four proposed mechanisms for the inhibition: mitotic phosphorylation of endocytic proteins, altered membrane tension, moonlighting of endocytic proteins and a mitotic spindle-dependent mechanism. Finally, we speculate the functional consequences of endocytic shutdown during mitosis and where an understanding of the mechanism of inhibition will lead us in the future. PMID:23307073

  10. Factors that Control Mitotic Spindle Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fraschini, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Mitosis is the last phase of the cell cycle and it leads to the formation of two daughter cells with the same genetic information. This process must occurr in a very precise way and this task is essential to preserve genetic stability and to maintain cell viability. Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis is brought about by an important cellular organelle: the mitotic spindle. This structure is made of microtubules, polymers of alpha and beta tubulin, and it is highly dynamic during the cell cycle: it emanates from two microtubules organizing centers (Spindle Pole Bodies, SPBs, in yeast) that are essential to build a short bipolar spindle, and it undergoes two steps of elongation during anaphase A and anaphase B in order to separate sister chromatids. Several proteins are involved in the control of mitotic spindle dynamics and their activity is tightly coordinated with other cell cycle events and with cell cycle progression.

  11. Novel DNA damage checkpoint in mitosis: Mitotic DNA damage induces re-replication without cell division in various cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sun-Yi; Rosen, Eliot M; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-07-06

    DNA damage induces multiple checkpoint pathways to arrest cell cycle progression until damage is repaired. In our previous reports, when DNA damage occurred in prometaphase, cells were accumulated in 4 N-DNA G1 phase, and mitosis-specific kinases were inactivated in dependent on ATM/Chk1 after a short incubation for repair. We investigated whether or not mitotic DNA damage causes cells to skip-over late mitotic periods under prolonged incubation in a time-lapse study. 4 N-DNA-damaged cells re-replicated without cell division and accumulated in 8 N-DNA content, and the activities of apoptotic factors were increased. The inhibition of DNA replication reduced the 8 N-DNA cell population dramatically. Induction of replication without cell division was not observed upon depletion of Chk1 or ATM. Finally, mitotic DNA damage induces mitotic slippage and that cells enter G1 phase with 4 N-DNA content and then DNA replication is occurred to 8 N-DNA content before completion of mitosis in the ATM/Chk1-dependent manner, followed by caspase-dependent apoptosis during long-term repair.

  12. Suppression of spindly delays mitotic exit and exacerbates cell death response of cancer cells treated with low doses of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia M A; Ribeiro, Nilza; Lima, Raquel T; Andrade, Cláudia; Diogo, Vânia; Teixeira, Joana; Florindo, Cláudia; Tavares, Álvaro; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2017-02-27

    Microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are used extensively for the treatment of diverse types of cancer. They block cancer cells in mitosis through the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), the surveillance mechanism that ensures accurate chromosome segregation at the onset of anaphase. However, the cytotoxic activity of MTAs is limited by premature mitotic exit (mitotic slippage) due to SAC silencing. Here we have explored the dual role of the protein Spindly in chromosome attachments and SAC silencing to analyze the consequences of its depletion on the viability of tumor cells treated with clinically relevant doses of paclitaxel. As expected, siRNA-mediated Spindly suppression induced chromosome misalignment and accumulation of cells in mitosis. Remarkably, these cells were more sensitive to low-doses of paclitaxel. Sensitization was due to an increase in the length of mitotic arrest and high frequency of multinucleated cells, both correlated with an exacerbated post-mitotic cell death response as determined by cell fate profiling. Thus, by affecting both SAC silencing and chromosome attachment, Spindly targeting offers a double-edged sword that potentiates tumor cell killing by clinically relevant doses of paclitaxel, providing a rationale for combination chemotherapy against cancer.

  13. Automatic microscopy for mitotic cell location.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, J.; Ranshaw, R.; Castle, J.; Wald, N.

    1972-01-01

    Advances are reported in the development of an automatic microscope with which to locate hematologic or other cells in mitosis for subsequent chromosome analysis. The system under development is designed to perform the functions of: slide scanning to locate metaphase cells; conversion of images of selected cells into binary form; and on-line computer analysis of the digitized image for significant cytogenetic data. Cell detection criteria are evaluated using a test sample of 100 mitotic cells and 100 artifacts.

  14. Automatic microscopy for mitotic cell location.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, J.; Ranshaw, R.; Castle, J.; Wald, N.

    1972-01-01

    Advances are reported in the development of an automatic microscope with which to locate hematologic or other cells in mitosis for subsequent chromosome analysis. The system under development is designed to perform the functions of: slide scanning to locate metaphase cells; conversion of images of selected cells into binary form; and on-line computer analysis of the digitized image for significant cytogenetic data. Cell detection criteria are evaluated using a test sample of 100 mitotic cells and 100 artifacts.

  15. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  16. Mitotic Spindle Positioning in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tirnauer, Jennifer S. M.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Email: tirnauer@uchc.edu 5e. TASK...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project was to determine whether mitotic spindle position differs in benign versus malignant...postdoc working on the project has left, I want to re-visit the experiments with MCF-10A cells using serum free media. 15. SUBJECT TERMS breast

  17. Defective in Mitotic Arrest 1 (Dma1) Ubiquitin Ligase Controls G1 Cyclin Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Sara; Bru, Samuel; Ricco, Natalia; Ramírez, Sara; Casals, Núria; Jiménez, Javier; Isasa, Marta; Crosas, Bernat; Clotet, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle is controlled by diverse cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that might be associated to numerous cyclin isoforms. Given such complexity, regulation of cyclin degradation should be crucial for coordinating progression through the cell cycle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SCF is the only E3 ligase known to date to be involved in G1 cyclin degradation. Here, we report the design of a genetic screening that uncovered Dma1 as another E3 ligase that targets G1 cyclins in yeast. We show that the cyclin Pcl1 is ubiquitinated in vitro and in vivo by Dma1, and accordingly, is stabilized in dma1 mutants. We demonstrate that Pcl1 must be phosphorylated by its own CDK to efficiently interact with Dma1 and undergo degradation. A nonphosphorylatable version of Pcl1 accumulates throughout the cell cycle, demonstrating the physiological relevance of the proposed mechanism. Finally, we present evidence that the levels of Pcl1 and Cln2 are independently controlled in response to nutrient availability. This new previously unknown mechanism for G1 cyclin degradation that we report here could help elucidate the specific roles of the redundant CDK-cyclin complexes in G1. PMID:23264631

  18. Mitotic indices of rat laryngeal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J

    1981-05-01

    The histology and mitotic indices of rat laryngeal epithelia were investigated. Five distinct types of epithelia were found: stratified squamous, squamoid (low squamous), respiratory and two cuboidal forms. Squamous epithelium was present mainly in the cranial portion of the larynx, whereas the respiratory type was mostly located in caudal regions. One type of cuboidal epithelium often formed intermediate zones between squamous and respiratory areas. Another form of cuboidal epithelium lined the ventral pouch, and the vocal folds were covered by a low squamous or squamoid type. The mitotic index for each type of epithelium was calculated using colchicine and was expressed as the percentage of total epithelial cells of that kind in mitosis. Mitotic indices for laryngeal epithelial types were: 5.6% in squamous epithelium; 2.4% in the squamoid epithelium of the vocal folds; 2.2% in the cuboidal epithelium in the ventrolateral region; 1.5% in the cuboidal epithelium of the ventral pouch, and 0.6% in respiratory epithelium, although in isolated ciliated areas in the lower epiglottis it was considerably higher (2.6%). There were no significant differences between rats examined on different occasions.

  19. Mitotic indices of rat laryngeal epithelia.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D J

    1981-01-01

    The histology and mitotic indices of rat laryngeal epithelia were investigated. Five distinct types of epithelia were found: stratified squamous, squamoid (low squamous), respiratory and two cuboidal forms. Squamous epithelium was present mainly in the cranial portion of the larynx, whereas the respiratory type was mostly located in caudal regions. One type of cuboidal epithelium often formed intermediate zones between squamous and respiratory areas. Another form of cuboidal epithelium lined the ventral pouch, and the vocal folds were covered by a low squamous or squamoid type. The mitotic index for each type of epithelium was calculated using colchicine and was expressed as the percentage of total epithelial cells of that kind in mitosis. Mitotic indices for laryngeal epithelial types were: 5.6% in squamous epithelium; 2.4% in the squamoid epithelium of the vocal folds; 2.2% in the cuboidal epithelium in the ventrolateral region; 1.5% in the cuboidal epithelium of the ventral pouch, and 0.6% in respiratory epithelium, although in isolated ciliated areas in the lower epiglottis it was considerably higher (2.6%). There were no significant differences between rats examined on different occasions. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7298492

  20. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry.

  1. Mitotic spindle studied using picosecond laser scissors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, N. M.; Botvinick, E. L.; Shi, Linda; Berns, M. B.; Wu, George

    2006-08-01

    In previous studies we have shown that the second harmonic 532 nm, from a picosecond frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, can cleanly and selectively disrupt spindle fiber microtubules in live cells (Botvinick et al 2004, Biophys. J. 87:4303-4212). In the present study we have ablated different locations and amounts of the metaphase mitotic spindle, and followed the cells in order to observe the fate of the irradiated spindle and the ability of the cell to continue through mitosis. Cells of the rat kangaroo line (PTK2) were stably transfected by ECFP-tubulin and, using fluorescent microscopy and the automated RoboLase microscope, (Botvinick and Berns, 2005, Micros. Res. Tech. 68:65-74) brightly fluorescent individual cells in metaphase were irradiated with 0.2447 nJ/micropulse corresponding to an irradiance of 1.4496*10^7 J/(ps*cm^2) . Upon irradiation the exposed part of the mitotic spindle immediately lost fluorescence and the following events were observed in the cells over time: (1) immediate contraction of the spindle pole towards the cut, (2) recovery of connection between pole and cut microtubule, (3) completion of mitosis. This system should be very useful in studying internal cellular dynamics of the mitotic spindle.

  2. Chemically diverse microtubule stabilizing agents initiate distinct mitotic defects and dysregulated expression of key mitotic kinases.

    PubMed

    Rohena, Cristina C; Peng, Jiangnan; Johnson, Tyler A; Crews, Phillip; Mooberry, Susan L

    2013-04-15

    Microtubule stabilizers are some of the most successful drugs used in the treatment of adult solid tumors and yet the molecular events responsible for their antimitotic actions are not well defined. The mitotic events initiated by three structurally and biologically diverse microtubule stabilizers; taccalonolide AJ, laulimalide/fijianolide B and paclitaxel were studied. These microtubule stabilizers cause the formation of aberrant, but structurally distinct mitotic spindles leading to the hypothesis that they differentially affect mitotic signaling. Each microtubule stabilizer initiated different patterns of expression of key mitotic signaling proteins. Taccalonolide AJ causes centrosome separation and disjunction failure to a much greater extent than paclitaxel or laulimalide, which is consistent with the distinct defects in expression and activation of Plk1 and Eg5 caused by each stabilizer. Localization studies revealed that TPX2 and Aurora A are associated with each spindle aster formed by each stabilizer. This suggests a common mechanism of aster formation. However, taccalonolide AJ also causes pericentrin accumulation on every spindle aster. The presence of pericentrin at every spindle aster initiated by taccalonolide AJ might facilitate the maintenance and stability of the highly focused asters formed by this stabilizer. Laulimalide and paclitaxel cause completely different patterns of expression and activation of these proteins, as well as phenotypically different spindle phenotypes. Delineating how diverse microtubule stabilizers affect mitotic signaling pathways could identify key proteins involved in modulating sensitivity and resistance to the antimitotic actions of these compounds.

  3. Chemically Diverse Microtubule Stabilizing Agents Initiate Distinct Mitotic Defects and Dysregulated Expression of Key Mitotic Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Rohena, Cristina C.; Peng, Jiangnan; Johnson, Tyler A.; Crews, Phillip; Mooberry, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Microtubule stabilizers are some of the most successful drugs used in the treatment of adult solid tumors and yet the molecular events responsible for their antimitotic actions are not well defined. The mitotic events initiated by three structurally and biologically diverse microtubule stabilizers; taccalonolide AJ, laulimalide/fijianolide B and paclitaxel were studied. These microtubule stabilizers cause the formation of aberrant, but structurally distinct mitotic spindles leading to the hypothesis that they differentially affect mitotic signaling. Each microtubule stabilizer initiated different patterns of expression of key mitotic signaling proteins. Taccalonolide AJ causes centrosome separation and disjunction failure to a much greater extent than paclitaxel or laulimalide, which is consistent with the distinct defects in expression and activation of Plk1 and Eg5 caused by each stabilizer. Localization studies revealed that TPX2 and Aurora A are associated with each spindle aster formed by each stabilizer. This suggests a common mechanism of aster formation. However, taccalonolide AJ also causes pericentrin accumulation on every spindle aster. The presence of pericentrin at every spindle aster initiated by taccalonolide AJ might facilitate the maintenance and stability of the highly focused asters formed by this stabilizer. Laulimalide and paclitaxel cause completely different patterns of expression and activation of these proteins, as well as phenotypically different spindle phenotypes. Delineating how diverse microtubule stabilizers affect mitotic signaling pathways could identify key proteins involved in modulating sensitivity and resistance to the antimitotic actions of these compounds. PMID:23399639

  4. Evaluation of 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone as antimitotic agent that induces mitotic catastrophe in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Masawang, Kamonporn; Pedro, Madalena; Cidade, Honorina; Reis, Rita M; Neves, Marta P; Corrêa, Arlene G; Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Bousbaa, Hassan; Pinto, Madalena M

    2014-09-02

    We previously reported the synthesis and the anti-proliferative action of 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone. Here we reported its mechanism of action on MCF-7 cells. The compound induced aberrant spindles, and arrested cells at metaphase/anaphase boundary with accumulation of checkpoint proteins Mad2, Bub1 and BubR1. Live cell imaging revealed that the compound sustained a prolonged mitotic arrest, followed by massive cell death. The results indicate that 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone exerts its anti-proliferative activity by affecting microtubules and causing mitotic catastrophe, and thus has the potential for antitumor activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Singh, Shree Ram; Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Hou, Steven X

    2015-12-01

    In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division.

  6. LIM-kinase 2, a regulator of actin dynamics, is involved in mitotic spindle integrity and sensitivity to microtubule-destabilizing drugs.

    PubMed

    Po'uha, S T; Shum, M S Y; Goebel, A; Bernard, O; Kavallaris, M

    2010-01-28

    LIM-kinase 2 (LIMK2) belongs to the LIMK family of proteins, which comprises LIMK1 and LIMK2. Both proteins regulate actin polymerization through phosphorylation and inactivation of the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. In this study, we show that the level of LIMK2 protein is increased in neuroblastoma, BE(2)-C cells, selected for resistance to microtubule-destabilizing agents, vincristine and colchicine. However, the level of phosphorylated LIMK1 and LIMK2 was similar in the resistant and parental BE(2)-C cells. In contrast, the level of phospho-cofilin was greatly increased in the drug-resistant cells. Downregulation of LIMK2 expression increases sensitivity of neuroblastoma SH-EP cells to vincristine and vinblastine but not to microtubule-stabilizing agents, while it's overexpression increased its resistance to vincristine. Its vincristine-induced mitotic arrest was moderately inhibited in the LIMK2 knockdown cells, suggesting that the increased drug sensitivity is through an alternative mechanism other then mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, downregulation of LIMK2 expression induces formation of abnormal mitotic spindles, an effect enhanced in the presence of microtubule-destabilizing agents. LIMK2 is important for normal mitotic spindle formation and altered LIMK2 expression mediates sensitivity to microtubule destabilizing agents. These findings suggest that inhibition of LIMK2 activity may be used for the treatment of tumors resistant to microtubule-destabilizing drugs.

  7. The spindle and kinetochore–associated (Ska) complex enhances binding of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) to chromosomes and promotes mitotic exit

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Sushama; Daum, John R.; Tipton, Aaron R.; Rankin, Susannah; Gorbsky, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    The spindle and kinetochore–associated (Ska) protein complex is a heterotrimeric complex required for timely anaphase onset. The major phenotypes seen after small interfering RNA–mediated depletion of Ska are transient alignment defects followed by metaphase arrest that ultimately results in cohesion fatigue. We find that cells depleted of Ska3 arrest at metaphase with only partial degradation of cyclin B1 and securin. In cells arrested with microtubule drugs, Ska3-depleted cells exhibit slower mitotic exit when the spindle checkpoint is silenced by inhibition of the checkpoint kinase, Mps1, or when cells are forced to exit mitosis downstream of checkpoint silencing by inactivation of Cdk1. These results suggest that in addition to a role in fostering kinetochore–microtubule attachment and chromosome alignment, the Ska complex has functions in promoting anaphase onset. We find that both Ska3 and microtubules promote chromosome association of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Chromosome-bound APC/C shows significantly stronger ubiquitylation activity than cytoplasmic APC/C. Forced localization of Ska complex to kinetochores, independent of microtubules, results in enhanced accumulation of APC/C on chromosomes and accelerated cyclin B1 degradation during induced mitotic exit. We propose that a Ska-microtubule-kinetochore association promotes APC/C localization to chromosomes, thereby enhancing anaphase onset and mitotic exit. PMID:24403607

  8. HSP70 colocalizes with PLK1 at the centrosome and disturbs spindle dynamics in cells arrested in mitosis by arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Lai, Kuo-Chu; Kuo, Hsiao-Hui; Chow, Lu-Ping; Yih, Ling-Huei; Lee, Te-Chang

    2014-09-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been shown to be a substrate of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and it prevents cells arrested in mitosis by arsenic trioxide (ATO) from dying. Here, we report that HSP70 participates in ATO-induced spindle elongation, which interferes with mitosis progression. Our results demonstrate that HSP70 and PLK1 colocalize at the centrosome in ATO-arrested mitotic cells. HSP70 located at the centrosome was found to be phosphorylated by PLK1 at Ser⁶³¹ and Ser⁶³³. Moreover, unlike wild-type HSP70 (HSP70(wt)) and its phosphomimetic mutant (HSP70(SS631,633DD)), a phosphorylation-resistant mutant of HSP70 (HSP70(SS631,633AA)) failed to localize at the centrosome. ATO-induced spindle elongation was abolished in cells overexpressing HSP70(SS631,633AA). Conversely, mitotic spindles in cells ectopically expressing HSP70(SS631,633DD) were more resistant to nocodazole-induced depolymerization than in those expressing HSP70(wt) or HSP70(SS631,633AA). In addition, inhibition of PLK1 significantly reduced HSP70 phosphorylation and induced early onset of apoptosis in ATO-arrested mitotic cells. Taken together, our results indicate that PLK1-mediated phosphorylation and centrosomal localization of HSP70 may interfere with spindle dynamics and prevent apoptosis of ATO-arrested mitotic cells.

  9. Paclitaxel-induced aberrant mitosis and mitotic slippage efficiently lead to proliferative death irrespective of canonical apoptosis and p53.

    PubMed

    Yasuhira, Shinji; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Nishiya, Masao; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-12-01

    Spindle poisons elicit various cellular responses following metaphase arrest, but how they relate to long-term clonogenicity has remained unclear. We prepared several HeLa lines in which the canonical apoptosis pathway was attenuated, and compared their acute responses to paclitaxel, as well as long-term fate, with the parental line. Three-nanomolar paclitaxel induced brief metaphase arrest (<5 h) often followed by aberrant mitosis, and about 90% of the cells of each line had lost their clonogenicity after 48 h of the treatment. A combination of the same concentration of paclitaxel with the kinesin-5 inhibitor, S-trityl-L-cysteine (STLC), at 1 µM led to much longer arrest (∼20 h) and predominance of subsequent line-specific responses: mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in the apoptosis-prone line, or mitotic slippage without obvious MOMP in the apoptosis-reluctant lines. In spite of this, combination with STLC did not lead to a marked difference in clonogenicity between the apoptosis-prone and -reluctant lines, and intriguingly resulted in slightly better clonogenicity than that of cells treated with 3 nM paclitaxel alone. This indicates that changes in the short-term response within 3 possible scenarios - acute MOMP, mitotic slippage or aberrant mitosis - has only a weak impact on clonogenicity. Our results suggest that once cells have committed to slippage or aberrant mitosis they eventually undergo proliferative death irrespective of canonical apoptosis or p53 function. Consistent with this, cells with irregular DNA contents originating from mitotic slippage or aberrant mitosis were mostly eliminated from the population within several rounds of division after the drug treatment.

  10. Registry of Unexplained Cardiac Arrest

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Cardiac Arrest; Long QT Syndrome; Brugada Syndrome; Catecholaminergi Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia; Idiopathic VentricularFibrillation; Early Repolarization Syndrome; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy

  11. Identification of Novel Mitotic Checkpoint Genes in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    chromosomal instability to alterations in genes and proteins that regulate the mitotic spindle checkpoint. We first characterized the degree of chromosomal...chromosome attachment to mitotic spindle microtubules . Genetic events disrupting the mitotic spindle checkpoint may allow cells to proliferate with... Regulates onset of anaphase via monitoring S. cerevisiae, spans 1382 bp MAD2A 25 kDa kinetochore/ spindle attachments at metaphase homolog-like 1 693

  12. HTLV-1 Tax Effects on Cellular Mitotic Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-12

    34 HTLV -I Tax Effects on Cellular Mitotic Regulation" Randall Merling Doctor of Philosophy Degree 12 April 2007 Christophe Broder, Ph" . Department ’o...copyrighted material in the dissertation manuscript entitled: "The Effects of HTLV -1 Tax on Mitotic Regulation" Is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond...University of the Health Sciences 11 iii ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: “The Effects of HTLV -1 Tax on Mitotic Regulation” Author: Randall K. Merling

  13. Perichromosomal protein Ki67 supports mitotic chromosome architecture.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masatoshi; Natsume, Toyoaki; Kanemaki, Masato T; Imamoto, Naoko

    2016-10-01

    Although the condensin complexes and topoisomerase IIα (TopoIIα) are the central players in mitotic chromosome formation, they are insufficient for its completion, and additional factors involved in the process have been extensively sought. In this study, we examined the possibility that Ki67, a perichromosomal protein widely used as a cell proliferation marker, is one such factor. Using a combination of auxin-inducible degron and CRISPR-Cas9-based gene editing technologies, we generated a human HCT116 cell line in which Ki67 is rapidly depleted in a few hours. The removal of Ki67 before mitotic entry did not impact the early mitotic chromosome assembly observed in prophase but subsequently resulted in the formation of misshapen mitotic chromosomes. When Ki67 was removed after mitotic entry, preassembled rod-shaped mitotic chromosomes became disorganized. In addition, we show that Ki67 and TopoIIα are reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from mitotic cell extracts. These observations indicate that Ki67 aids the finalization of mitotic chromosome formation and helps maintain rod-shaped chromosome architecture, likely in collaboration with TopoIIα. Together, these findings represent a new model in which mitotic chromosome architecture is supported both internally and externally. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Novel insights into mitotic chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Piskadlo, Ewa; Oliveira, Raquel A.

    2016-01-01

    The fidelity of mitosis is essential for life, and successful completion of this process relies on drastic changes in chromosome organization at the onset of nuclear division. The mechanisms that govern chromosome compaction at every cell division cycle are still far from full comprehension, yet recent studies provide novel insights into this problem, challenging classical views on mitotic chromosome assembly. Here, we briefly introduce various models for chromosome assembly and known factors involved in the condensation process (e.g. condensin complexes and topoisomerase II). We will then focus on a few selected studies that have recently brought novel insights into the mysterious way chromosomes are condensed during nuclear division. PMID:27508072

  15. Meiotic and mitotic recombination in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kathryn P; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Meiotic crossovers facilitate the segregation of homologous chromosomes and increase genetic diversity. The formation of meiotic crossovers was previously posited to occur via two pathways, with the relative use of each pathway varying between organisms; however, this paradigm could not explain all crossovers, and many of the key proteins involved were unidentified. Recent studies that identify some of these proteins reinforce and expand the model of two meiotic crossover pathways. The results provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of the pathways, suggesting that one is similar to a mitotic DNA repair pathway and the other evolved to incorporate special features unique to meiosis.

  16. CDK1 substitutes for mTOR kinase to activate mitotic cap-dependent protein translation.

    PubMed

    Shuda, Masahiro; Velásquez, Celestino; Cheng, Erdong; Cordek, Daniel G; Kwun, Hyun Jin; Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick S

    2015-05-12

    Mitosis is commonly thought to be associated with reduced cap-dependent protein translation. Here we show an alternative control mechanism for maintaining cap-dependent translation during mitosis revealed by a viral oncoprotein, Merkel cell polyomavirus small T (MCV sT). We find MCV sT to be a promiscuous E3 ligase inhibitor targeting the anaphase-promoting complex, which increases cell mitogenesis. MCV sT binds through its Large T stabilization domain region to cell division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) and, possibly, cdc20 homolog 1 (Cdh1) E3 ligase adapters. This activates cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B1 (CDK1/CYCB1) to directly hyperphosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein (4E-BP1) at authentic sites, generating a mitosis-specific, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-resistant δ phospho-isoform not present in G1-arrested cells. Recombinant 4E-BP1 inhibits capped mRNA reticulocyte translation, which is partially reversed by CDK1/CYCB1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. eIF4G binding to the eIF4E-m(7)GTP cap complex is resistant to mTOR inhibition during mitosis but sensitive during interphase. Flow cytometry, with and without sT, reveals an orthogonal pH3(S10+) mitotic cell population having higher inactive p4E-BP1(T37/T46+) saturation levels than pH3(S10-) interphase cells. Using a Click-iT flow cytometric assay to directly measure mitotic protein synthesis, we find that most new protein synthesis during mitosis is cap-dependent, a result confirmed using the eIF4E/4G inhibitor drug 4E1RCat. For most cell lines tested, cap-dependent translation levels were generally similar between mitotic and interphase cells, and the majority of new mitotic protein synthesis was cap-dependent. These findings suggest that mitotic cap-dependent translation is generally sustained during mitosis by CDK1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 even under conditions of reduced mTOR signaling.

  17. CDK1 substitutes for mTOR kinase to activate mitotic cap-dependent protein translation

    PubMed Central

    Shuda, Masahiro; Velásquez, Celestino; Cheng, Erdong; Cordek, Daniel G.; Kwun, Hyun Jin; Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Mitosis is commonly thought to be associated with reduced cap-dependent protein translation. Here we show an alternative control mechanism for maintaining cap-dependent translation during mitosis revealed by a viral oncoprotein, Merkel cell polyomavirus small T (MCV sT). We find MCV sT to be a promiscuous E3 ligase inhibitor targeting the anaphase-promoting complex, which increases cell mitogenesis. MCV sT binds through its Large T stabilization domain region to cell division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) and, possibly, cdc20 homolog 1 (Cdh1) E3 ligase adapters. This activates cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B1 (CDK1/CYCB1) to directly hyperphosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein (4E-BP1) at authentic sites, generating a mitosis-specific, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-resistant δ phospho-isoform not present in G1-arrested cells. Recombinant 4E-BP1 inhibits capped mRNA reticulocyte translation, which is partially reversed by CDK1/CYCB1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. eIF4G binding to the eIF4E–m7GTP cap complex is resistant to mTOR inhibition during mitosis but sensitive during interphase. Flow cytometry, with and without sT, reveals an orthogonal pH3S10+ mitotic cell population having higher inactive p4E-BP1T37/T46+ saturation levels than pH3S10– interphase cells. Using a Click-iT flow cytometric assay to directly measure mitotic protein synthesis, we find that most new protein synthesis during mitosis is cap-dependent, a result confirmed using the eIF4E/4G inhibitor drug 4E1RCat. For most cell lines tested, cap-dependent translation levels were generally similar between mitotic and interphase cells, and the majority of new mitotic protein synthesis was cap-dependent. These findings suggest that mitotic cap-dependent translation is generally sustained during mitosis by CDK1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 even under conditions of reduced mTOR signaling. PMID:25883264

  18. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50) properties <0.0183 mg/ml. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja Twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite Clay, Bunge Root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea Fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder Root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane Root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi Root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree Fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis) and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth-root (Trillium Pendulum) and alkanet-root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (Speranskia tuberculata) which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of natural anti-mitotic resources effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  19. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A

    2014-06-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5 mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties <0.0183 mg/mL. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Golgi mitotic checkpoint is controlled by BARS-dependent fission of the Golgi ribbon into separate stacks in G2.

    PubMed

    Colanzi, Antonino; Hidalgo Carcedo, Cristina; Persico, Angela; Cericola, Claudia; Turacchio, Gabriele; Bonazzi, Matteo; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2007-05-16

    The Golgi ribbon is a complex structure of many stacks interconnected by tubules that undergo fragmentation during mitosis through a multistage process that allows correct Golgi inheritance. The fissioning protein CtBP1-S/BARS (BARS) is essential for this, and is itself required for mitotic entry: a block in Golgi fragmentation results in cell-cycle arrest in G2, defining the 'Golgi mitotic checkpoint'. Here, we clarify the precise stage of Golgi fragmentation required for mitotic entry and the role of BARS in this process. Thus, during G2, the Golgi ribbon is converted into isolated stacks by fission of interstack connecting tubules. This requires BARS and is sufficient for G2/M transition. Cells without a Golgi ribbon are independent of BARS for Golgi fragmentation and mitotic entrance. Remarkably, fibroblasts from BARS-knockout embryos have their Golgi complex divided into isolated stacks at all cell-cycle stages, bypassing the need for BARS for Golgi fragmentation. This identifies the precise stage of Golgi fragmentation and the role of BARS in the Golgi mitotic checkpoint, setting the stage for molecular analysis of this process.

  1. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor BI2536 causes mitotic catastrophe following activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minji; Kim, Wootae; Cheon, Min Gyeong; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Ja Eun

    2015-02-28

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a critical kinase that regulates multiple steps in mitosis, is overexpressed in diverse human cancers; thus many PLK1 inhibitors have been developed as potential cancer therapeutic agents. One of these compounds, the PLK1-specific inhibitor BI2536, has been investigated as a cytotoxic drug in several cancers, including lung cancer; however, the detailed mechanism by which BI2536 induces defects in cell proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not yet been determined. We found that BI2536 treatment resulted in mitotic arrest due to improper formation of the mitotic spindles and mitotic centrosomes. The unattached kinetochores in BI2536-treated NSCLC cells activated the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The prolonged activation of the SAC led to a type of apoptotic cell death referred to as mitotic catastrophe. Finally, BI2536-treated NSCLC cells show a defect in cell proliferation. Overall, these data indicate that PLK1 inhibition via mitotic disruption represents a potential approach for the treatment of NSCLC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ECPR for Refractory Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-22

    Cardiac Arrest; Heart Arrest; Sudden Cardiac Arrest; Cardiopulmonary Arrest; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; CPR; Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

  3. Cell cycle arrest and activation of development in marine invertebrate deuterostomes.

    PubMed

    Costache, Vlad; McDougall, Alex; Dumollard, Rémi

    2014-08-01

    Like most metazoans, eggs of echinoderms and tunicates (marine deuterostomes, there is no data for the cephalochordates) arrest awaiting fertilization due to the activity of the Mos/MEK/MAPK cascade and are released from this cell cycle arrest by sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals. Invertebrate deuterostome eggs display mainly three distinct types of cell cycle arrest before fertilization mediated by potentially different cytostatic factors (CSF): one CSF causes arrest during meiotic metaphase I (MI-CSF in tunicates and some starfishes), another CSF likely causes arrest during meiotic metaphase II (amphioxus), and yet another form of CSF causes arrest to occur after meiotic exit during G1 of the first mitotic cycle (G1-CSF). In tunicates and echinoderms these different CSF activities have been shown to rely on the Mos//MAPK pathway for establishment and on Ca2+ signals for their inactivation. Despite these molecular similarities, release of MI-CSF arrest is caused by APC/C activation (to destroy cyclin B) whereas release from G1-CSF is caused by stimulating S phase and the synthesis of cyclins. Further research is needed to understand how both the Mos//MAPK cascade and Ca2+ achieve these tasks in different marine invertebrate deuterostomes. Another conserved feature of eggs is that protein synthesis of specific mRNAs is necessary to proceed through oocyte maturation and to maintain CSF-induced cell cycle arrest. Then activation of development at fertilization is accompanied by an increase in the rate of protein synthesis but the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown in most of the marine deuterostomes. How the sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals cause an increase in protein synthesis has been studied mainly in sea urchin eggs. Here we review these conserved features of eggs (arrest, activation and protein synthesis) focusing on the non-vertebrate deuterostomes.

  4. [Thrombolysis in cardiac arrest].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Bailén, M; Rucabado Aguilar, L; Morante Valle, A; Castillo Rivera, A

    2006-03-01

    Both acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary thromboembolism are responsible for a great number of cardiac arrests. Both present high rates of mortality. Thrombolysis has proved to be an effective treatment for acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary thromboembolism with shock. It would be worth considering whether thrombolysis could be effective and safe during or after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Unfortunately, too few clinical studies presenting sufficient scientific data exist in order to respond adequately to this question. However, most studies they show that thrombolysis applied during and after CPR is a therapeutic option that is not associated with greater risk of serious hemorrhaging and could possibly have beneficial effects. On the other hand, experimental data exists which show that thrombolytics can attenuate neurological damage produced after CPR. Nevertheless, clinical trials would be necessary in order to adequately establish the effectiveness and safety of thrombolysis in patients who require CPR.

  5. Distal ulnar growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Nelson, O A; Buchanan, J R; Harrison, C S

    1984-03-01

    Four cases of arrest of distal ulnar physeal growth occurring in children ages 7 to 13 years had follow-up for 2 to 10 years. Each patient developed bowing of the radial diaphysis, ulnar translation of the distal radial epiphysis, and increased ulnar angulation of the distal radiocarpal joint surface. Growth discrepancies were documented in both the ulna (range 2.2 to 3.9 cm) and to a lesser extent the radius (range 0.2 to 1.6 cm) when compared to the opposite forearm in each patient. The progression of deformity appeared to be greatest during adolescence. Radial deviation and pronation were limited to varying degrees in each case. No patient had significant pain or functional impairment, but the cosmetic appearance was always displeasing. Indications for surgical treatment include increasing ulnar angulation of the distal radial articular surface, progressive loss of motion, and displeasing cosmetic appearance.

  6. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ziganshin, Bulat A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective cerebral protection remains the principle concern during aortic arch surgery. Hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is entrenched as the primary neuroprotection mechanism since the 70s, as it slows injury-inducing pathways by limiting cerebral metabolism. However, increases in HCA duration has been associated with poorer neurological outcomes, necessitating the adjunctive use of antegrade (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). ACP has superseded RCP as the preferred perfusion strategy as it most closely mimic physiological perfusion, although there exists uncertainty regarding several technical details, such as unilateral versus bilateral perfusion, flow rate and temperature, perfusion site, undue trauma to head vessels, and risks of embolization. Nevertheless, we believe that the convenience, simplicity and effectiveness of straight DHCA justifies its use in the majority of elective and emergency cases. The following perspective offers a historical and clinical comparison of the DHCA with other techniques of cerebral protection. PMID:23977599

  7. Mitotic cell recognition with hidden Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Greg M.; Yang, Fuxing; Ianzini, Fiorenza; Mackey, Michael; Sonka, Milan

    2004-05-01

    This work describes a method for detecting mitotic cells in time-lapse microscopy images of live cells. The image sequences are from the Large Scale Digital Cell Analysis System (LSDCAS) at the University of Iowa. LSDCAS is an automated microscope system capable of monitoring 1000 microscope fields over time intervals of up to one month. Manual analysis of the image sequences can be extremely time consuming. This work is part of a larger project to automate the image sequence analysis. A three-step approach is used. In the first step, potential mitotic cells are located in the image sequences. In the second step, object border segmentation is performed with the watershed algorithm. Objects in adjacent frames are grouped into object sequences for classification. In the third step, the image sequences are converted to feature vector sequences. The feature vectors contain spatial and temporal information. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are used to classify the feature vector sequences into dead cells, cell edges, and dividing cells. Discrete and continuous HMMs were trained on 500 sequences. The discrete HMM recognition rates were 62% for dead cells, 77% for cell edges, and 75% for dividing cells. The continuous HMM results were 68%, 88% and 77%.

  8. Divergence of mitotic strategies in fission yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ying; Yam, Candice; Oliferenko, Snezhana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of mitosis is to produce two daughter nuclei, each containing a chromosome complement identical to that of the mother nucleus. This can be accomplished through a variety of strategies, with “open” and “closed” modes of mitosis positioned at the opposite ends of the spectrum and a range of intermediate patterns in between. In the “closed” mitosis, the nuclear envelope remains intact throughout the nuclear division. In the “open” division type, the envelope of the original nucleus breaks down early in mitosis and reassembles around the segregated daughter genomes. In any case, the nuclear membrane has to remodel to accommodate the mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome segregation and formation of the daughter nuclei. We have recently shown that within the fission yeast clade, the mitotic control of the nuclear surface area may determine the choice between the nuclear envelope breakdown and a fully “closed” division. Here we discuss our data and argue that comparative cell biology studies using two fission yeast species, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, could provide unprecedented insights into physiology and evolution of mitosis. PMID:22572960

  9. Induction of mitotic aneuploidy in lower eukaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Kappas, A.

    1993-12-31

    Genetic tests for induction of mitotic aneuploidy in lower eukarotes used mainly the fungal systems of Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There are several differences between the two systems such as the greater tolerance for aneuploidy and the fertility of triploids in S. cerevisiae, the stability of diploids and the selective advantage of haploids over diploids in Aspergillus and the mycelial growth of Aspergillus. On the other hand several similarities also exist between the two systems such as the general instability and varying growth rate of disomics and the random loss of extra chromosomes which produces more competitive types or the most frequent recovery of certain specific aneuploids. In using lower eukaryotes as test systems for the identification of aneugens several points should be considered which concern the relevance of such systems to higher organisms, the ability to identify primary aneuploidy and distinguish this from events, such as chromosomal breaks, which lead to secondary aneuploidy and the ability to obtain repeatable results. Within the framework of an EEC comparative study for evaluating assays for aneuploidy, a number of chemicals were assayed in A. nidulans for mitotic instability due to malsegregation of chromosomes at cell division.

  10. Mitotic recombination of chromosome 17 in astrocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.D.; Carlbom, E.; Nordenskjold, M.; Collins, V.P.; Cavenee, W.K. )

    1989-04-01

    Allelic combinations at seven loci on human chromosome 17 defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms were determined in tumor and normal tissues from 35 patients with gliomas. Loss of constitutional heterozygosity at one or more of these loci was observed in 8 of the 24 tumors displaying astrocytic differentiation and in the single primitive neuroectodermal tumor examined. The astrocytomas showing these losses included examples of each adult malignancy grade of the disease, including glioblastoma (malignancy grade IV), and seven of them demonstrated concurrent maintenance of heterozygosity for at least one chromosome 17 locus. Determination of allele dosage together with the genotypic data indicated that the tumor chromosomes 17 were derived by mitotic recombination in 7 of the 9 cases with shared homozygosity of the region 17p11.2-ptr in all cases. In contrast, tumors of oligodendrocytic, ependymal, or mixed cellular differentiation did not exhibit loss of alleles at any of the loci examined. These data suggest that the somatic attainment of homozygosity for loci on chromosome 17p is frequently associated with the oncogenesis of central nervous system tumors, particularly those showing solely astrocytic differentiation, and that mitotic recombination mapping is a useful approach towards the subregional localization of a locus whose rearrangement is involved in this disease.

  11. Ayurvedic medicine constituent withaferin a causes G2 and M phase cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stan, Silvia D; Zeng, Yan; Singh, Shivendra V

    2008-01-01

    Withaferin A (WA) is derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera that has been safely used for centuries in the Indian Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of various ailments. We now demonstrate that WA treatment causes G2 and mitotic arrest in human breast cancer cells. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 (estrogen-independent) and MCF-7 (estrogen-responsive) cell lines with WA resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent increase in G2-M fraction, which correlated with a decrease in levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) and/or Cdc25B proteins, leading to accumulation of Tyrosine15 phosphorylated (inactive) Cdk1. Ectopic expression of Cdc25C conferred partial yet significant protection against WA-mediated G2-M phase cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. The WA-treated MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were also arrested in mitosis as judged by fluorescence microscopy and analysis of Ser10 phosphorylated histone H3. Mitotic arrest resulting from exposure to WA was accompanied by an increase in the protein level of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome substrate securin. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that G2-M phase cell cycle arrest may be an important mechanism in antiproliferative effect of WA against human breast cancer cells.

  12. Cyclic activation of histone H1 kinase during sea urchin egg mitotic divisions.

    PubMed

    Meijer, L; Pondaven, P

    1988-01-01

    Fertilized sea urchin eggs undergo a series of rapid and synchronized mitotic divisions. Extracts were made at various times throughout the first three mitotic divisions and assayed for phosphorylating activity toward histone H1. Histone H1 kinase (HH1K) undergoes a transient activation (8- to 10-fold increase) 20 min before each cleavage. The amplitude of the HH1K peak strongly depends on the synchrony of the egg population. Concomitant cytological observations show that the time-course of HH1K correlates with the time-course of nuclear envelope breakdown and of metaphase. This correlation is observed at each cell division cycle. HH1K from each of the three first mitoses show identical time- and concentration-dependence curves as well as identical dose-inhibition curves with 6-dimethylaminopurine and quercetin, suggesting that the same (group of) kinase(s) is (are) activated before each cleavage. Ionophore A23187 does not trigger, but inhibits, HH1K activation; however, partial activation of the eggs with ammonia at pH 9.0 (but not at pH 8.0) triggers the transient HH1K activation. Appearance of the HH1K cycle requires protein synthesis since it is completely abolished in emetine-treated eggs. Although cytochalasin B blocks egg cleavage, it does not inhibit HH1K activation nor nuclear divisions. A prolonged HH1K activation cycle is observed in eggs arrested in metaphase with colchicine or nocodazole. Despite the existence of a cycle in cAMP concentration during mitosis, forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, does not modify the time-course of HH1K activation and of cell division. The cycling HH1K is independent of calcium-calmodulin, calcium-phospholipids, or cyclic AMP. It clearly resembles the mammalian "growth-associated histone kinase." The relationship between the transient activation of HH1K and the intracellular mitotic factors driving the cell cycle is discussed.

  13. The moyamoya disease susceptibility variant RNF213 R4810K (rs112735431) induces genomic instability by mitotic abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Hitomi, Toshiaki; Habu, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Harada, Kouji H.; Osafune, Kenji; Taura, Daisuke; Sone, Masakatsu; Asaka, Isao; Ameku, Tomonaga; Watanabe, Akira; Kasahara, Tomoko; Sudo, Tomomi; Shiota, Fumihiko; Hashikata, Hirokuni; Takagi, Yasushi; Morito, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Susumu; Nakao, Kazuwa; Koizumi, Akio

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K inhibited cell proliferation. •Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K had the time of mitosis 4-fold and mitotic failure. •R4810K formed a complex with MAD2 more readily than wild-type. •iPSECs from the MMD patients had elevated mitotic failure compared from the control. •RNF213 R4810K induced mitotic abnormality and increased risk of aneuploidy. -- Abstract: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disease characterized by occlusive lesions in the Circle of Willis. The RNF213 R4810K polymorphism increases susceptibility to MMD. In the present study, we characterized phenotypes caused by overexpression of RNF213 wild type and R4810K variant in the cell cycle to investigate the mechanism of proliferation inhibition. Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K in HeLa cells inhibited cell proliferation and extended the time of mitosis 4-fold. Ablation of spindle checkpoint by depletion of mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (MAD2) did not shorten the time of mitosis. Mitotic morphology in HeLa cells revealed that MAD2 colocalized with RNF213 R4810K. Immunoprecipitation revealed an RNF213/MAD2 complex: R4810K formed a complex with MAD2 more readily than RNF213 wild-type. Desynchronized localization of MAD2 was observed more frequently during mitosis in fibroblasts from patients (n = 3, 61.0 ± 8.2%) compared with wild-type subjects (n = 6, 13.1 ± 7.7%; p < 0.01). Aneuploidy was observed more frequently in fibroblasts (p < 0.01) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (p < 0.03) from patients than from wild-type subjects. Vascular endothelial cells differentiated from iPSCs (iPSECs) of patients and an unaffected carrier had a longer time from prometaphase to metaphase than those from controls (p < 0.05). iPSECs from the patients and unaffected carrier had significantly increased mitotic failure rates compared with controls (p < 0.05). Thus, RNF213 R4810K induced mitotic abnormalities and increased risk of genomic instability.

  14. Absence of a conventional spindle mitotic checkpoint in the binucleated single-celled parasite Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Markova, Kristyna; Uzlikova, Magdalena; Tumova, Pavla; Jirakova, Klara; Hagen, Guy; Kulda, Jaroslav; Nohynkova, Eva

    2016-10-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) joins the machinery of chromosome-to-spindle microtubule attachment with that of the cell cycle to prevent missegregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Although a functioning SAC has been verified in a limited number of organisms, it is regarded as an evolutionarily conserved safeguard mechanism. In this report, we focus on the existence of the SAC in a single-celled parasitic eukaryote, Giardia intestinalis. Giardia belongs to Excavata, a large and diverse supergroup of unicellular eukaryotes in which SAC control has been nearly unexplored. We show that Giardia cells with absent or defective mitotic spindles due to the inhibitory effects of microtubule poisons do not arrest in mitosis; instead, they divide without any delay, enter the subsequent cell cycle and even reduplicate DNA before dying. We identified a limited repertoire of kinetochore and SAC components in the Giardia genome, indicating that this parasite is ill equipped to halt mitosis before the onset of anaphase via SAC control of chromosome-spindle microtubule attachment. Finally, based on overexpression, we show that Giardia Mad2, a core SAC protein in other eukaryotes, localizes along intracytoplasmic portions of caudal flagellar axonemes, but never within nuclei, even in mitotic cells with blocked spindles, where the SAC should be active. These findings are consistent with the absence of a conventional SAC, known from yeast and metazoans, in the parasitic protist Giardia.

  15. A three-dimensional approach to mitotic chromosome structure: evidence for a complex hierarchical organization

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We describe findings on the architecture of Drosophila melanogaster mitotic chromosomes, made using a three-dimensional-oriented structural approach. Using high-voltage and conventional transmission electron microscopy combined with axial tomography and digital contrast- enhancement techniques, we have for the first time visualized significant structural detail within minimally perturbed mitotic chromosomes. Chromosomes prepared by several different preparative procedures showed a consistent size hierarchy of discrete chromatin structural domains with cross-sectional diameters of 120, 240, 400-500, and 800-1,000 A. In fully condensed, metaphase-arrested chromosomes, there is evidence for even larger-scale structural organization in the range of 1,300-3,000-A size. The observed intrachromosomal arrangements of these higher-order structural domains show that both the radial loop and sequential helical coiling models of chromosome structure are over- simplifications of the true situation. Finally, our results suggest that the pathway of chromatin condensation through mitosis consists of concurrent changes occurring at several levels of chromatin organization, rather than a strictly sequential folding process. PMID:3112167

  16. DNA Strand Breaks in Mitotic Germ Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans Evaluated by Comet Assay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sojin; Choi, Seoyun; Ahn, Byungchan

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage responses are important for the maintenance of genome stability and the survival of organisms. Such responses are activated in the presence of DNA damage and lead to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair. In Caenorhabditis elegans, double-strand breaks induced by DNA damaging agents have been detected indirectly by antibodies against DSB recognizing proteins. In this study we used a comet assay to detect DNA strand breaks and to measure the elimination of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. We found that C. elegans brc-1 mutants were more sensitive to ionizing radiation and camptothecin than the N2 wild-type strain and repaired DNA strand breaks less efficiently than N2. This study is the first demonstration of direct measurement of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. This newly developed assay can be applied to detect DNA strand breaks in different C. elegans mutants that are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. PMID:26903030

  17. Amitozyn Impairs Chromosome Segregation and Induces Apoptosis via Mitotic Checkpoint Activation

    PubMed Central

    Potopalsky, Anatoly I.; Chroboczek, Jadwiga; Tcherniuk, Sergey O.

    2013-01-01

    Amitozyn (Am) is a semi-synthetic drug produced by the alkylation of major celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) alkaloids with the organophosphorous compound N,N’N’-triethylenethiophosphoramide (ThioTEPA). We show here that the treatment of living cells with Am reversibly perturbs the microtubule cytoskeleton, provoking a dose-dependent cell arrest in the M phase. Am changed the dynamics of tubulin polymerization in vitro, promoted the appearance of aberrant mitotic phenotypes in HeLa cells and induced apoptosis by the activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP, without inducing DNA breaks. Am treatment of HeLa cells induced changes in the phosphorylation of the growth suppressor pRb that coincided with maximum mitotic index. The dose-dependent and reversible anti-proliferative effect of Am was observed in several transformed cell lines. Importantly, the drug was also efficient against multidrug-resistant, paclitaxel-resistant or p53-deficient cells. Our results thus open the way to further pre-clinical evaluation of Am. PMID:23505430

  18. NITROUS OXIDE: EFFECTS ON THE MITOTIC APPARATUS AND CHROMOSOME MOVEMENT IN HELA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, B. R.; Rao, Potu N.

    1973-01-01

    When HeLa cells were grown in the presence of nitrous oxide (N2O) under pressure (80 lb/in2) mitosis was inhibited and the chromosomes displayed a typical colchicine metaphase (c-metaphase) configuration when examined by light microscopy. When the cells were returned to a 37°C incubator, mitosis was resumed and the cells entered G1 synchronously. Ultrastructural studies of N2O-blocked cells revealed a bipolar spindle with centriole pairs at each pole. Both chromosomal and interpolar (pole-to-pole) microtubules were also present. Thus, N2O, unlike most c-mitotic agents, appeared to have little or no effect upon spindle microtubule assembly. However, the failure of chromo somes to become properly aligned onto the metaphase plate indicated an impairment in normal prometaphase movement. The alignment of spindle microtubules was frequently atypical with some chromosomal microtubules extending from kinetochores to the poles, while others extended out at acute angles from the spindle axis. These ultrastructural studies indicated that N2O blocked cells at a stage in mitosis more advanced than that produced by Colcemid or other c-mitotic agents. Like Colcemid, however, prolonged arrest in mitosis with N2O led to an increased incidence of multipolar spindles. PMID:4726309

  19. On the Spatial Configuration of the Mitotic Spindle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Weijia; Sun, Limin; Lu, Kunquan; Tang, Xiaowei

    1995-03-01

    An experimental simulation using electrorheological (ER) fluid is developed to investigate the spatial configuration of the mitotic spindle. In the presence of two different kinds of electric field, the structures of particle arrangement in ER fluid are similar to the configuration of the mitotic spindle of the animal and plant cells respectively.

  20. Random mitotic activities across human embryonic stem cell colonies.

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Q.; Duggan, R.; Dasa, S.; Li, F.; Chen, L.

    2010-08-01

    A systemic and quantitative study was performed to examine whether different levels of mitotic activities, assessed by the percentage of S-phase cells at any given time point, existed at different physical regions of human embryonic stem (hES) cell colonies at 2, 4, 6 days after cell passaging. Mitotically active cells were identified by the positive incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) within their newly synthesized DNA. Our data indicated that mitotically active cells were often distributed as clusters randomly across the colonies within the examined growth period, presumably resulting from local deposition of newly divided cells. This latter notion was further demonstrated by the confined growth of enhanced green florescence protein (EGFP) expressing cells amongst non-GFP expressing cells. Furthermore, the overall percentage of mitotically active cells remained constantly at about 50% throughout the 6-day culture period, indicating mitotic activities of hES cell cultures were time-independent under current growth conditions.

  1. Mitotic Spindle Proteomics in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Mary Kate; Poole, Daniel S.; Xu, Tao; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Skop, Ahna R.

    2011-01-01

    Mitosis is a fundamental process in the development of all organisms. The mitotic spindle guides the cell through mitosis as it mediates the segregation of chromosomes, the orientation of the cleavage furrow, and the progression of cell division. Birth defects and tissue-specific cancers often result from abnormalities in mitotic events. Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Four different isolations of metaphase spindles were subjected to Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 1155 proteins and used Gene Ontology (GO) analysis to categorize proteins into cellular component groups. We then compared our data to the previously published CHO midbody proteome and identified proteins that are unique to the CHO spindle. Our data represent the first mitotic spindle proteome in CHO cells, which augments the list of mitotic spindle components from mammalian cells. PMID:21647379

  2. Two different mitotic checkpoint inhibitors of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome antagonize the action of the activator Cdc20

    PubMed Central

    Eytan, Esther; Braunstein, Ilana; Ganoth, Dvora; Teichner, Adar; Hittle, James C.; Yen, Tim J.; Hershko, Avram

    2008-01-01

    The mitotic checkpoint system ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation by preventing the completion of mitosis in the presence of any misaligned chromosome. When activated, it blocks the initiation of anaphase by inhibiting the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Little is known about the biochemical mechanisms by which this system inhibits APC/C, except for the existence of a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) inhibitor of APC/C composed of the APC/C activator Cdc20 associated with the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, and Bub3. We have been studying the mechanisms of the mitotic checkpoint system in extracts that reproduce its downstream events. We found that inhibitory factors are associated with APC/C in the checkpoint-arrested state, which can be recovered from immunoprecipitates. Only a part of the inhibitory activity was caused by MCC [Braunstein I, Miniowitz S, Moshe Y, Hershko A (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4870–4875]. Here, we show that during exit from checkpoint, rapid disassembly of MCC takes place while APC/C is still inactive. This observation suggested the possible involvement of multiple factors in the regulation of APC/C by the mitotic checkpoint. We have separated a previously unknown inhibitor of APC/C from MCC. This inhibitor, called mitotic checkpoint factor 2 (MCF2), is associated with APC/C only in the checkpoint-arrested state. The inhibition of APC/C by both MCF2 and MCC was decreased at high concentrations of Cdc20. We propose that both MCF2 and MCC inhibit APC/C by antagonizing Cdc20, possibly by interaction with the Cdc20-binding site of APC/C. PMID:18591651

  3. Curcumin affects components of the chromosomal passenger complex and induces mitotic catastrophe in apoptosis-resistant Bcr-Abl-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Kamila; Magalska, Adriana; Mosieniak, Grazyna; Klinger, Rut; McKenna, Sharon; Vejda, Susanne; Sikora, Ewa; Piwocka, Katarzyna

    2006-07-01

    The Bcr-Abl oncoprotein plays a major role in the development and progression of chronic myeloid leukemia and is a determinant of chemotherapy resistance occurring during the blast crisis phase of the disease. The aim of this article was to investigate the possibility of combating the resistance to apoptosis caused by Bcr-Abl by inducing an alternative cell death process. As a model of chronic myeloid leukemia, we employed Bcr-Abl-transfected mouse progenitor 32D cells with low and high Bcr-Abl expression levels corresponding to drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells, respectively. The drug curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a known potent inducer of cell death in many cancer cells, was investigated for efficacy with Bcr-Abl-expressing cells. Curcumin strongly inhibited cell proliferation and affected cell viability by inducing apoptotic symptoms in all tested cells; however, apoptosis was a relatively late event. G(2)-M cell cycle arrest, together with increased mitotic index and cellular and nuclear morphology resembling those described for mitotic catastrophe, was observed and preceded caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Mitosis-arrested cells displayed abnormal chromatin organization, multipolar chromosome segregation, aberrant cytokinesis, and multinucleated cells-morphologic changes typical of mitotic catastrophe. We found that the mitotic cell death symptoms correlated with attenuated expression of survivin, a member of the chromosomal passenger complex, and mislocalization of Aurora B, the partner of survivin in the chromosomal passenger complex. Inhibition of survivin expression with small interfering RNA exhibited similar mitotic disturbances, thus implicating survivin as a major, albeit not the only, target for curcumin action. This study shows that curcumin can overcome the broad resistance to cell death caused by expression of Bcr-Abl and suggests that curcumin may be a promising agent for new combination regimens for drug-resistant chronic myeloid

  4. Acquired Upper Extremity Growth Arrest.

    PubMed

    Gauger, Erich M; Casnovsky, Lauren L; Gauger, Erica J; Bohn, Deborah C; Van Heest, Ann E

    2017-01-01

    This study reviewed the clinical history and management of acquired growth arrest in the upper extremity in pediatric patients. The records of all patients presenting from 1996 to 2012 with radiographically proven acquired growth arrest were reviewed. Records were examined to determine the etiology and site of growth arrest, management, and complications. Patients with tumors or hereditary etiology were excluded. A total of 44 patients (24 boys and 20 girls) with 51 physeal arrests who presented at a mean age of 10.6 years (range, 0.8-18.2 years) were included in the study. The distal radius was the most common site (n=24), followed by the distal humerus (n=8), metacarpal (n=6), distal ulna (n=5), proximal humerus (n=4), radial head (n=3), and olecranon (n=1). Growth arrest was secondary to trauma (n=22), infection (n=11), idiopathy (n=6), inflammation (n=2), compartment syndrome (n=2), and avascular necrosis (n=1). Twenty-six patients (59%) underwent surgical intervention to address deformity caused by the physeal arrest. Operative procedures included ipsilateral unaffected bone epiphysiodesis (n=21), shortening osteotomy (n=10), lengthening osteotomy (n=8), excision of physeal bar or bone fragment (n=2), angular correction osteotomy (n=1), and creation of single bone forearm (n=1). Four complications occurred; 3 of these required additional procedures. Acquired upper extremity growth arrest usually is caused by trauma or infection, and the most frequent site is the distal radius. Growth disturbances due to premature arrest can be treated effectively with epiphysiodesis or osteotomy. In this series, the specific site of anatomic growth arrest was the primary factor in determining treatment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e95-e103.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. [Arrest of maturation in spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; Bellocci, M; Martini, M; Bruno, B; Moscardelli, S; Fabbrini, A; Properzi, G

    1982-07-30

    The ultrastructural aspects of the germinal epithelium of 10 infertile men affected by maturative arrest of spermatogenesis were studied. We noted an increased number of malformed germinal cells. Marginal nuclear vescicles were present in spermatogonia of patients affected by spermatogonial arrest. The few spermatid present in the germinal epithelium of the patients affected by a spermatidic arrest presented changes of the nuclear condensation, the acrosome, and the tail. The Sertoli cells presented an immature aspect of the nucleus and changes of the "mantle". A possible correlation between the Sertoli cells changes and the altered spermatogenesis was proposed.

  6. Force and Length in the Mitotic Spindle

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Sophie; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    The mitotic spindle assembles to a steady-state length at metaphase through the integrated action of molecular mechanisms that generate and respond to mechanical forces. While molecular mechanisms that produce force have been described, our understanding of how they integrate with each other, and with the assembly-disassembly mechanisms that regulate length, is poor. We review current understanding of the basic architecture and dynamics of the metaphase spindle, and some of the elementary force producing mechanisms. We then discuss models for force integration, and spindle length determination. We also emphasize key missing data that notably includes absolute values of forces, and how they vary as a function of position, within the spindle. PMID:19906577

  7. Mitotic Protein CSPP1 Interacts with CENP-H Protein to Coordinate Accurate Chromosome Oscillation in Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lijuan; Wang, Zhikai; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Chunli; Hua, Shasha; Su, Zeqi; Brako, Larry; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Ye, Mingliang; Wei, Xuan; Zou, Hanfa; Ding, Xia; Liu, Lifang; Liu, Xing; Yao, Xuebiao

    2015-11-06

    Mitotic chromosome segregation is orchestrated by the dynamic interaction of spindle microtubules with the kinetochores. During chromosome alignment, kinetochore-bound microtubules undergo dynamic cycles between growth and shrinkage, leading to an oscillatory movement of chromosomes along the spindle axis. Although kinetochore protein CENP-H serves as a molecular control of kinetochore-microtubule dynamics, the mechanistic link between CENP-H and kinetochore microtubules (kMT) has remained less characterized. Here, we show that CSPP1 is a kinetochore protein essential for accurate chromosome movements in mitosis. CSPP1 binds to CENP-H in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of CSPP1 perturbs proper mitotic progression and compromises the satisfaction of spindle assembly checkpoint. In addition, chromosome oscillation is greatly attenuated in CSPP1-depleted cells, similar to what was observed in the CENP-H-depleted cells. Importantly, CSPP1 depletion enhances velocity of kinetochore movement, and overexpression of CSPP1 decreases the speed, suggesting that CSPP1 promotes kMT stability during cell division. Specific perturbation of CENP-H/CSPP1 interaction using a membrane-permeable competing peptide resulted in a transient mitotic arrest and chromosome segregation defect. Based on these findings, we propose that CSPP1 cooperates with CENP-H on kinetochores to serve as a novel regulator of kMT dynamics for accurate chromosome segregation.

  8. Efficient APC/C substrate degradation in cells undergoing mitotic exit depends on K11 ubiquitin linkages

    PubMed Central

    Min, Mingwei; Mevissen, Tycho E. T.; De Luca, Maria; Komander, David; Lindon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) directs programmed destruction of key cellular regulators via posttranslational modification of its targets with polyubiquitin chains. These commonly contain Lys-48 (K48)–directed ubiquitin linkages, but chains containing atypical Lys-11 (K11) linkages also target substrates to the proteasome—for example, to regulate cell cycle progression. The ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) controls mitotic exit. In higher eukaryotes, the APC/C works with the E2 enzyme UBE2S to assemble K11 linkages in cells released from mitotic arrest, and these are proposed to constitute an improved proteolytic signal during exit from mitosis. We tested this idea by correlating quantitative measures of in vivo K11-specific ubiquitination of individual substrates, including Aurora kinases, with their degradation kinetics tracked at the single-cell level. All anaphase substrates tested by this methodology are stabilized by depletion of K11 linkages via UBE2S knockdown, even if the same substrates are significantly modified with K48-linked polyubiquitin. Specific examination of substrates depending on the APC/C coactivator Cdh1 for their degradation revealed Cdh1-dependent enrichment of K11 chains on these substrates, whereas other ubiquitin linkages on the same substrates added during mitotic exit were Cdh1-independent. Therefore we show that K11 linkages provide the APC/C with a means to regulate the rate of substrate degradation in a coactivator-specified manner. PMID:26446837

  9. Mitotic Protein CSPP1 Interacts with CENP-H Protein to Coordinate Accurate Chromosome Oscillation in Mitosis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lijuan; Wang, Zhikai; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Chunli; Hua, Shasha; Su, Zeqi; Brako, Larry; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Ye, Mingliang; Wei, Xuan; Zou, Hanfa; Ding, Xia; Liu, Lifang; Liu, Xing; Yao, Xuebiao

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosome segregation is orchestrated by the dynamic interaction of spindle microtubules with the kinetochores. During chromosome alignment, kinetochore-bound microtubules undergo dynamic cycles between growth and shrinkage, leading to an oscillatory movement of chromosomes along the spindle axis. Although kinetochore protein CENP-H serves as a molecular control of kinetochore-microtubule dynamics, the mechanistic link between CENP-H and kinetochore microtubules (kMT) has remained less characterized. Here, we show that CSPP1 is a kinetochore protein essential for accurate chromosome movements in mitosis. CSPP1 binds to CENP-H in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of CSPP1 perturbs proper mitotic progression and compromises the satisfaction of spindle assembly checkpoint. In addition, chromosome oscillation is greatly attenuated in CSPP1-depleted cells, similar to what was observed in the CENP-H-depleted cells. Importantly, CSPP1 depletion enhances velocity of kinetochore movement, and overexpression of CSPP1 decreases the speed, suggesting that CSPP1 promotes kMT stability during cell division. Specific perturbation of CENP-H/CSPP1 interaction using a membrane-permeable competing peptide resulted in a transient mitotic arrest and chromosome segregation defect. Based on these findings, we propose that CSPP1 cooperates with CENP-H on kinetochores to serve as a novel regulator of kMT dynamics for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:26378239

  10. Dephosphorylation and subcellular compartment change of the mitotic Bloom's syndrome DNA helicase in response to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Dutertre, Stéphanie; Sekhri, Redha; Tintignac, Lionel A; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Chatton, Bruno; Jaulin, Christian; Amor-Guéret, Mounira

    2002-02-22

    Bloom's syndrome is a rare human autosomal recessive disorder that combines a marked genetic instability and an increased risk of developing all types of cancers and which results from mutations in both copies of the BLM gene encoding a RecQ 3'-5' DNA helicase. We recently showed that BLM is phosphorylated and excluded from the nuclear matrix during mitosis. We now show that the phosphorylated mitotic BLM protein is associated with a 3'-5' DNA helicase activity and interacts with topoisomerase III alpha. We demonstrate that in mitosis-arrested cells, ionizing radiation and roscovitine treatment both result in the reversion of BLM phosphorylation, suggesting that BLM could be dephosphorylated through the inhibition of cdc2 kinase. This was supported further by our data showing that cdc2 kinase activity is inhibited in gamma-irradiated mitotic cells. Finally we show that after ionizing radiation, BLM is not involved in the establishment of the mitotic DNA damage checkpoint but is subjected to a subcellular compartment change. These findings lead us to propose that BLM may be phosphorylated during mitosis, probably through the cdc2 pathway, to form a pool of rapidly available active protein. Inhibition of cdc2 kinase after ionizing radiation would lead to BLM dephosphorylation and possibly to BLM recruitment to some specific sites for repair.

  11. Cycling to and from a stem cell niche: the temporal and spatial odyssey of mitotic male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The development of male germ cells within the prenatal and prepubertal periods in mammals combines multiple biological events that integrate cell cycle regulation, epigenetic reprogramming, and cell migration along temporally and spatially dynamic lines. Germ cells arise from their precursor primordial germ cells in the mid-gestation embryo, forming gonocytes that enter G0 phase cell cycle arrest within the fetal testis. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, activated retinoblastoma 1 protein, and increased levels of transforming growth factor beta 2 collectively influence this cell cycle arrest. Gonocyte quiescence persists until shortly after birth, whereupon the cells concomitantly re-enter the cell cycle and migrate towards a niche that establishes and maintains self-renewing spermatogonial stem cells and balances them with differentiating spermatogonia. Platelet-derived growth factor signaling is one of the mechanisms that regulates both mitotic activation and migration in neonatal gonocytes, along with mitogens, 17β-estradiol and retinoic acid, and chemoattractants C-C-motif ligand 9 and members of the ADAM, integrin, and tetraspanin families. Numerous germ cell-intrinsic proteins have been identified that ensure the retention of germ cells within the spermatogonial stem cell niche. Sertoli cells are a significant component of this niche, contributing essential growth factors and chemokines to spermatogonia. This review focuses on the dynamic events that occur to mitotic male germ cells before and during their arrival at this niche, with an emphasis on the cell cycle and directed migration.

  12. Caspase activity is not required for the mitotic checkpoint or mitotic slippage in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyunghee; Kenny, Alison E.; Rieder, Conly L.

    2011-01-01

     Biochemical studies suggest that caspase activity is required for a functional mitotic checkpoint (MC) and mitotic slippage. To test this directly, we followed nontransformed human telomerase immortalized human retinal pigment epithelia (RPE-1) cells through mitosis after inhibiting or depleting selected caspases. We found that inhibiting caspases individually, in combination, or in toto did not affect the duration or fidelity of mitosis in otherwise untreated cells. When satisfaction of the MC was prevented with 500 nM nocodazole or 2.5 μM dimethylenastron (an Eg5 inhibitor), 92–100% of RPE-1 cells slipped from mitosis in the presence of pan-caspase inhibitors or after simultaneously depleting caspase-3 and -9, and they did so with the same kinetics (∼21–22 h) as after treatment with nocodazole or Eg5 inhibitors alone. Surprisingly, inhibiting or depleting caspase-9 alone doubled the number of nocodazole-treated, but not Eg5-inhibited, cells that died in mitosis. In addition, inhibiting or depleting caspase-9 and -3 together accelerated the rate of slippage ∼40% (to ∼13–15 h). Finally, nocodazole-treated cells that recently slipped through mitosis in the presence or absence of pan-caspase inhibitors contained numerous BubR1 foci in their nuclei. From these data, we conclude that caspase activity is not required for a functional MC or for mitotic slippage. PMID:21613548

  13. Identification of a novel mitotic phosphorylation motif associated with protein localization to the mitotic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Luo, Quanzhou; Kelly, Ryan T.; Clauss, Therese RW; Brinkley, William R.; Smith, Richard D.; Stenoien, David L.

    2007-11-16

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is a critical regulator of chromosome, cytoskeleton and membrane dynamics during mitosis. Here, we identified phosphopeptides and phosphoprotein complexes recognized by a phosphorylation specific antibody that labels the CPC using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A mitotic phosphorylation motif (PX{G/T/S}{L/M}[pS]P or WGL[pS]P) was identified in 11 proteins including Fzr/Cdh1 and RIC-8, two proteins with potential links to the CPC. Phosphoprotein complexes contained known CPC components INCENP, Aurora-B and TD-60, as well as SMAD2, 14-3-3 proteins, PP2A, and Cdk1, a likely kinase for this motif. Protein sequence analysis identified phosphorylation motifs in additional proteins including SMAD2, Plk3 and INCENP. Mitotic SMAD2 and Plk3 phosphorylation was confirmed using phosphorylation specific antibodies, and in the case of Plk3, phosphorylation correlates with its localization to the mitotic apparatus. A mutagenesis approach was used to show INCENP phosphorylation is required for midbody localization. These results provide evidence for a shared phosphorylation event that regulates localization of critical proteins during mitosis.

  14. Distinct transcriptional networks in quiescent myoblasts: a role for Wnt signaling in reversible vs. irreversible arrest.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sindhu; Sreenivas, Prethish; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Reddy, Vatrapu Rami; Shashidhara, Lingadahalli Subrahmanya; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Mylavarapu, Madhavi; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Most cells in adult mammals are non-dividing: differentiated cells exit the cell cycle permanently, but stem cells exist in a state of reversible arrest called quiescence. In damaged skeletal muscle, quiescent satellite stem cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and subsequently execute divergent programs to regenerate both post-mitotic myofibers and quiescent stem cells. The molecular basis for these alternative programs of arrest is poorly understood. In this study, we used an established myogenic culture model (C2C12 myoblasts) to generate cells in alternative states of arrest and investigate their global transcriptional profiles. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared G0 myoblasts with post-mitotic myotubes. Our findings define the transcriptional program of quiescent myoblasts in culture and establish that distinct gene expression profiles, especially of tumour suppressor genes and inhibitors of differentiation characterize reversible arrest, distinguishing this state from irreversibly arrested myotubes. We also reveal the existence of a tissue-specific quiescence program by comparing G0 C2C12 myoblasts to isogenic G0 fibroblasts (10T1/2). Intriguingly, in myoblasts but not fibroblasts, quiescence is associated with a signature of Wnt pathway genes. We provide evidence that different levels of signaling via the canonical Wnt pathway characterize distinct cellular states (proliferation vs. quiescence vs. differentiation). Moderate induction of Wnt signaling in quiescence is associated with critical properties such as clonogenic self-renewal. Exogenous Wnt treatment subverts the quiescence program and negatively affects clonogenicity. Finally, we identify two new quiescence-induced regulators of canonical Wnt signaling, Rgs2 and Dkk3, whose induction in G0 is required for clonogenic self-renewal. These results support the concept that active signal-mediated regulation of quiescence contributes to stem cell properties, and have implications for pathological

  15. Determinants of Human Cyclin B1 Association with Mitotic Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Pfaff, Kathleen L.; King, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin B1–CDK1 activity is essential for mitotic entry, but questions remain regarding how the activity of this kinase is spatially regulated. Previous studies showed that the cyclin B1 subunit localizes to several compartments of a mitotic cell, including the centrosomes, mitotic spindle, kinetochores and chromosomes via distinct sequence elements. Mitotic chromosome association occurs through the unstructured N-terminal domain of cyclin B1 and is independent of CDK1 binding. Here, we use live cell imaging of human cyclin B1 fused to GFP to precisely define the sequence elements within cyclin B1 that mediate its association with condensed mitotic chromosomes. We find that a short, evolutionarily conserved N-terminal motif is required for cyclin B1 to localize to mitotic chromosomes. We further reveal a role for arginine residues within and near the destruction box sequence in the chromosome association of cyclin B1. Additionally, our data suggest that sequences further downstream in cyclin B1, such as the cytoplasmic retention sequence and the cyclin box, may negatively modulate chromosome association. Because multiple basic residues are required for cyclin B1 association with mitotic chromosomes, electrostatic interactions with DNA may facilitate cyclin B1 localization to chromosomes. PMID:23505570

  16. Mitotic entry: Non-genetic heterogeneity exposes the requirement for Plk1.

    PubMed

    Aspinall, Claire F; Zheleva, Daniella; Tighe, Anthony; Taylor, Stephen S

    2015-11-03

    The quest to develop novel antimitotic chemotherapy agents has led to the generation of several small molecule inhibitors targeting Plk1, a protein kinase required for multiple aspects of cell division. Previous studies have shown that upon exposure to Plk1 inhibitors, cells enter mitosis, delay briefly in prophase and then arrest in mitosis due to an inability to undergo centrosome separation. Here, we show that four different classes of Plk1 inhibitor block mitotic entry in several cancer cell lines and non-transformed RPE-1 cells. The proportion of cells that arrest in G2 is cell line and concentration dependent, and is subject to non-genetic heterogeneity. Following inhibitor washout, the G2 block is alleviated and cells enter mitosis but then fail to complete cell division indicating that most Plk1 inhibitors are not fully reversible. An exception is CYC140844; in contrast to five other inhibitors examined here, this novel Plk1 inhibitor is fully reversible. We discuss the implications for developing Plk1 inhibitors as chemotherapy agents and research tools.

  17. Statistical correlations of crime with arrests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuelling, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Regression analysis shows that the overall crime rate correlates with the overall arrest rate. Violent crime only weakly correlates with the violent arrest rate, but strongly correlates with the property arrest rate. Contrary to common impressions, increasing arrest rates do not significantly increase loading on incarceration facilities.

  18. Juvenile Arrests, 1998. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This report provides a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data in the United States. In 1998, law enforcement agencies made an estimated 2.6 million arrests of persons under age 18. Federal Bureau of Investigations statistics indicate that juveniles account for 18% of all arrests, and 17% of all violent crime arrests in…

  19. Radiation-induced senescence-like terminal growth arrest in thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Podtcheko, Alexei; Namba, Hiroyuki; Saenko, Vladimir; Ohtsuru, Akira; Starenki, Dmitriy; Meirmanov, Serik; Polona, Iryna; Rogounovitch, Tatiana; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2005-04-01

    Premature senescence may play an important role as an acute, drug-, or ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible growth arrest program along with interphase apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether IR can induce senescence-like phenotype (SLP) associated with terminal growth arrest in the thyroid cells, and if so, to evaluate impact of terminal growth arrest associated with SLP in intrinsic radiosensitivity of various thyroid carcinomas. The induction of SLP in thyroid cells were identified by: (1) senescence associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) staining method, (2) dual-flow cytometric analysis of cell proliferation and side light scatter using vital staining with PKH-2 fluorescent dye, (3) double labeling for 5-bromodeoxyuridine and SA- beta-Gal, (4) Staining for SA-beta-Gal with consequent antithyroglobulin immunohistochemistry. IR induced SLP associated with terminal growth arrest in four thyroid cancer cells lines and in primary thyrocytes in time- and dose-dependent manner. Analysis of relationship between induction of SLP and radiosensitivity revealed a trend in which more radioresistant cell lines strongly tended to show lower specific SLP yields (r = -0.93, p = 0.068). We find out that SA-beta-Gal staining is detectable in irradiated ARO xenotransplants, but not in control tumors. We, therefore, conclude that induction of SLP with terminal growth arrest contribute to the elimination of clonogenic populations after IR.

  20. Abnormal mitosis triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in human tetraploid cells.

    PubMed

    Kuffer, Christian; Kuznetsova, Anastasia Yurievna; Storchová, Zuzana

    2013-08-01

    Erroneously arising tetraploid mammalian cells are chromosomally instable and may facilitate cell transformation. An increasing body of evidence shows that the propagation of mammalian tetraploid cells is limited by a p53-dependent arrest. The trigger of this arrest has not been identified so far. Here we show by live cell imaging of tetraploid cells generated by an induced cytokinesis failure that most tetraploids arrest and die in a p53-dependent manner after the first tetraploid mitosis. Furthermore, we found that the main trigger is a mitotic defect, in particular, chromosome missegregation during bipolar mitosis or spindle multipolarity. Both a transient multipolar spindle followed by efficient clustering in anaphase as well as a multipolar spindle followed by multipolar mitosis inhibited subsequent proliferation to a similar degree. We found that the tetraploid cells did not accumulate double-strand breaks that could cause the cell cycle arrest after tetraploid mitosis. In contrast, tetraploid cells showed increased levels of oxidative DNA damage coinciding with the p53 activation. To further elucidate the pathways involved in the proliferation control of tetraploid cells, we knocked down specific kinases that had been previously linked to the cell cycle arrest and p53 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates p53 in tetraploid cells after abnormal mitosis and thus contributes to proliferation control of human aberrantly arising tetraploids.

  1. The Spo12 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a regulator of mitotic exit whose cell cycle-dependent degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, R; Jensen, S; Frenz, L M; Johnson, A L; Johnston, L H

    2001-01-01

    The Spo12 protein plays a regulatory role in two of the most fundamental processes of biology, mitosis and meiosis, and yet its biochemical function remains elusive. In this study we concentrate on the genetic and biochemical analysis of its mitotic function. Since high-copy SPO12 is able to suppress a wide variety of mitotic exit mutants, all of which arrest with high Clb-Cdc28 activity, we speculated whether SPO12 is able to facilitate exit from mitosis when overexpressed by antagonizing mitotic kinase activity. We show, however, that Spo12 is not a potent regulator of Clb-Cdc28 activity and can function independently of either the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi), Sic1, or the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) regulator, Hct1. Spo12 protein level is regulated by the APC and the protein is degraded in G1 by an Hct1-dependent mechanism. We also demonstrate that in addition to localizing to the nucleus Spo12 is a nucleolar protein. We propose a model where overexpression of Spo12 may lead to the delocalization of a small amount of Cdc14 from the nucleolus, resulting in a sufficient lowering of mitotic kinase levels to facilitate mitotic exit. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis of highly conserved residues in the Spo12 protein sequence abolishes both its mitotic suppressor activity as well as its meiotic function. This result is the first indication that Spo12 may carry out the same biochemical function in mitosis as it does in meiosis. PMID:11729145

  2. Torin1-mediated TOR kinase inhibition reduces Wee1 levels and advances mitotic commitment in fission yeast and HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Jane; Halova, Lenka; Ferguson, Jennifer; Hitchin, James R; Lichawska-Cieslar, Agata; Jordan, Allan M; Pines, Jonathon; Wellbrock, Claudia; Petersen, Janni

    2014-03-15

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates cell growth and division. Rapamycin only inhibits a subset of TOR activities. Here we show that in contrast to the mild impact of rapamycin on cell division, blocking the catalytic site of TOR with the Torin1 inhibitor completely arrests growth without cell death in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A mutation of the Tor2 glycine residue (G2040D) that lies adjacent to the key Torin-interacting tryptophan provides Torin1 resistance, confirming the specificity of Torin1 for TOR. Using this mutation, we show that Torin1 advanced mitotic onset before inducing growth arrest. In contrast to TOR inhibition with rapamycin, regulation by either Wee1 or Cdc25 was sufficient for this Torin1-induced advanced mitosis. Torin1 promoted a Polo and Cdr2 kinase-controlled drop in Wee1 levels. Experiments in human cell lines recapitulated these yeast observations: mammalian TOR (mTOR) was inhibited by Torin1, Wee1 levels declined and mitotic commitment was advanced in HeLa cells. Thus, the regulation of the mitotic inhibitor Wee1 by TOR signalling is a conserved mechanism that helps to couple cell cycle and growth controls.

  3. Torin1-mediated TOR kinase inhibition reduces Wee1 levels and advances mitotic commitment in fission yeast and HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Jane; Halova, Lenka; Ferguson, Jennifer; Hitchin, James R.; Lichawska-Cieslar, Agata; Jordan, Allan M.; Pines, Jonathon; Wellbrock, Claudia; Petersen, Janni

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates cell growth and division. Rapamycin only inhibits a subset of TOR activities. Here we show that in contrast to the mild impact of rapamycin on cell division, blocking the catalytic site of TOR with the Torin1 inhibitor completely arrests growth without cell death in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A mutation of the Tor2 glycine residue (G2040D) that lies adjacent to the key Torin-interacting tryptophan provides Torin1 resistance, confirming the specificity of Torin1 for TOR. Using this mutation, we show that Torin1 advanced mitotic onset before inducing growth arrest. In contrast to TOR inhibition with rapamycin, regulation by either Wee1 or Cdc25 was sufficient for this Torin1-induced advanced mitosis. Torin1 promoted a Polo and Cdr2 kinase-controlled drop in Wee1 levels. Experiments in human cell lines recapitulated these yeast observations: mammalian TOR (mTOR) was inhibited by Torin1, Wee1 levels declined and mitotic commitment was advanced in HeLa cells. Thus, the regulation of the mitotic inhibitor Wee1 by TOR signalling is a conserved mechanism that helps to couple cell cycle and growth controls. PMID:24424027

  4. 33 CFR 154.822 - Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detonation arresters, flame... BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.822 Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. (a) Each detonation arrester required by this part must: (1) Be capable of arresting a detonation from either side of...

  5. Significant decrease of ADP release rate underlies the potent activity of dimethylenastron to inhibit mitotic kinesin Eg5 and cancer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Linlin; Sun, Xiaodong; Xie, Songbo; Yu, Haiyang; Zhong, Diansheng

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • DIMEN displays higher anti-proliferative activity than enastron. • DIMEN induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis more significantly than enastron. • DIMEN blocked the conformational change of ADP-binding pocket more effectively. • DIMEN hindered ADP release more potently than enastron. - Abstract: Eg5 is a mitotic kinesin that plays a crucial role in the formation of bipolar mitotic spindles, by hydrolyzing ATP to push apart anti-parallel microtubules. Dimethylenastron is potent specific small molecule inhibitor of Eg5. The mechanism by which dimethylenastron inhibits Eg5 function remains unclear. By comparing with enastron, here we report that dimethylenastron prevents the growth of pancreatic and lung cancer cells more effectively, by halting mitotic progression and triggering apoptosis. We analyze their interactions with ADP-bound Eg5 crystal structure, and find that dimethylenastron binds Eg5 motor domain with higher affinity. In addition, dimethylenastron allosterically blocks the conformational change of the “sandwich”-like ADP-binding pocket more effectively. We subsequently use biochemical approach to reveal that dimethylenastron slows ADP release more significantly than enastron. These data thus provide biological, structural and mechanistic insights into the potent inhibitory activity of dimethylenastron.

  6. Immunochemical studies of 22S protein from isolated mitotic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1969-05-01

    Evidence is presented that the "22S protein" of mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs is not microtubule protein. An antibody preparation active against 22S protein is described, and immunochemical studies of the distribution of 22S protein in various cellular fractions and among morphological features of mitotic apparatus are reported. The protein is ubiquitous in the metaphase egg fractions that were tested but is not found in sperm flagella. It is immunologically distinct from proposed microtubule protein isolated from mitotic apparatus by the method of Sakai, and from proposed microtubule protein obtained after extraction with mild acid. It exists in nontubule material of isolated mitotic apparatus but is not detectable in microtubules.

  7. IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF 22S PROTEIN FROM ISOLATED MITOTIC APPARATUS

    PubMed Central

    Bibring, Thomas; Baxandall, Jane

    1969-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the "22S protein" of mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs is not microtubule protein. An antibody preparation active against 22S protein is described, and immunochemical studies of the distribution of 22S protein in various cellular fractions and among morphological features of mitotic apparatus are reported. The protein is ubiquitous in the metaphase egg fractions that were tested but is not found in sperm flagella. It is immunologically distinct from proposed microtubule protein isolated from mitotic apparatus by the method of Sakai, and from proposed microtubule protein obtained after extraction with mild acid. It exists in nontubule material of isolated mitotic apparatus but is not detectable in microtubules. PMID:4977446

  8. Dynactin Function in Mitotic Spindle Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey K.; Li, Jun; Cooper, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Dynactin is a multisubunit protein complex necessary for dynein function. Here, we investigated the function of dynactin in budding yeast. Loss of dynactin impaired movement and positioning of the mitotic spindle, similar to loss of dynein. Dynactin subunits required for function included p150Glued, dynamitin, actin-related protein (Arp) 1 and p24. Arp10 and capping protein were dispensable, even in combination. All dynactin subunits tested localized to dynamic plus ends of cytoplasmic microtubules, to stationary foci on the cell cortex and to spindle pole bodies. The number of molecules of dynactin in those locations was small, less than five. In the absence of dynactin, dynein accumulated at plus ends and did not appear at the cell cortex, consistent with a role for dynactin in offloading dynein from the plus end to the cortex. Dynein at the plus end was necessary for dynactin plus-end targeting. p150Glued was the only dynactin subunit sufficient for plus-end targeting. Interactions among the subunits support a molecular model that resembles the current model for brain dynactin in many respects; however, three subunits at the pointed end of brain dynactin appear to be absent from yeast. PMID:18221362

  9. SEROLOGICAL SIMILARITY OF FLAGELLAR AND MITOTIC MICROTUBULES

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Chandler; Kane, R. E.; Stephens, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    An antiserum to flagellar axonemes from sperm of Arbacia punctulata contains antibodies which react both with intact flagellar outer fibers and with purified tubulin from the outer fibers. Immunodiffusion tests indicate the presence of similar antigenic determinants on outer-fiber tubulins from sperm flagella of five species of sea urchins and a sand dollar, but not a starfish. The antibodies also react with extracts containing tubulins from different classes of microtubules, including central-pair fibers and both A- and B-subfibers from outer fibers of sperm flagella, an extract from unfertilized eggs, mitotic apparatuses from first cleavage embryos, and cilia from later embryos. Though most tubulins tested share similar antigenic determinants, some clear differences have been detected, even, in Pseudoboletia indiana, between the outer-fiber tubulins of sperm flagella and blastular cilia. Though tubulins are "actin-like" proteins, antitubulin serum does not react with actin from sea urchin lantern muscle. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that various echinoid microtubules are built of similar, but not identical, tubulins. PMID:4106543

  10. Micromechanical study of mitotic chromosome structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marko, John

    2011-03-01

    Our group has developed micromanipulation techniques for study of the highly compacted mitotic form of chromosome found in eukaryote cells during cell division. Each metaphase chromosome contains two duplicate centimeter-long DNA molecules, folded up by proteins into cylindrical structures several microns in length. Native chromosomes display linear and reversible stretching behavior over a wide range of extensions (up to 5x native length for amphibian chromosomes), described by a Young modulus of about 300 Pa. Studies using DNA-cutting and protein-cutting enzymes have revealed that metaphase chromosomes behave as a network of chromatin fibers held together by protein-based isolated crosslinks. Our results are not consistent with the more classical model of loops of chromatin attached to a protein-based structural organizer or ``scaffold". In short, our experiments indicate that metaphase chromosomes can be considered to be ``gels" of chromatin; the stretching modulus of a whole chromosome is consistent with stretching of the chromatin fibers contained within it. Experiments using topoisomerases suggest that topological constraints may play an appreciable role in confining chromatin in the metaphase chromosome. Finally, recent experiments on human chromosomes will be reviewed, including results of experiments where chromosome-folding proteins are specifically depleted using siRNA methods. Supported by NSF-MCB-1022117, DMR-0715099, PHY-0852130, DMR-0520513, NCI 1U54CA143869-01 (NU-PS-OC), and the American Heart Association.

  11. Mitotic Dysfunction Associated with Aging Hallmarks.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Joana Catarina; Vaz, Sara; Logarinho, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by the progressive deterioration of physiological functions known to be the main risk factor for chronic diseases and declining health. There has been an emerging connection between aging and aneuploidy, an aberrant number of chromosomes, even though the molecular mechanisms behind age-associated aneuploidy remain largely unknown. In recent years, several genetic pathways and biochemical processes controlling the rate of aging have been identified and proposed as aging hallmarks. Primary hallmarks that cause the accumulation of cellular damage include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations and loss of proteostasis (López-Otín et al., Cell 153:1194-1217, 2013). Here we review the provocative link between these aging hallmarks and the loss of chromosome segregation fidelity during cell division, which could support the correlation between aging and aneuploidy seen over the past decades. Secondly, we review the systemic impacts of aneuploidy in cell physiology and emphasize how these include some of the primary hallmarks of aging. Based on the evidence, we propose a mutual causality between aging and aneuploidy, and suggest modulation of mitotic fidelity as a potential means to ameliorate healthy lifespan.

  12. Mitotic Diversity in Homeostatic Human Interfollicular Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Nöske, Katharina; Stark, Hans-Jürgen; Nevaril, Leonard; Berning, Manuel; Langbein, Lutz; Goyal, Ashish; Diederichs, Sven; Boukamp, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of skin research, regulation of proliferation and homeostasis in human epidermis is still insufficiently understood. To address the role of mitoses in tissue regulation, we utilized human long-term skin equivalents and systematically assessed mitoses during early epidermal development and long-term epidermal regeneration. We now demonstrate four different orientations: (1) horizontal, i.e., parallel to the basement membrane (BM) and suggestive of symmetric divisions; (2) oblique with an angle of 45°–70°; or (3) perpendicular, suggestive of asymmetric division. In addition, we demonstrate a fourth substantial fraction of suprabasal mitoses, many of which are committed to differentiation (Keratin K10-positive). As verified also for normal human skin, this spatial mitotic organization is part of the regulatory program of human epidermal tissue homeostasis. As a potential marker for asymmetric division, we investigated for Numb and found that it was evenly spread in almost all undifferentiated keratinocytes, but indeed asymmetrically distributed in some mitoses and particularly frequent under differentiation-repressing low-calcium conditions. Numb deletion (stable knockdown by CRISPR/Cas9), however, did not affect proliferation, neither in a three-day follow up study by life cell imaging nor during a 14-day culture period, suggesting that Numb is not essential for the general control of keratinocyte division. PMID:26828486

  13. Mitotic Diversity in Homeostatic Human Interfollicular Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Nöske, Katharina; Stark, Hans-Jürgen; Nevaril, Leonard; Berning, Manuel; Langbein, Lutz; Goyal, Ashish; Diederichs, Sven; Boukamp, Petra

    2016-01-28

    Despite decades of skin research, regulation of proliferation and homeostasis in human epidermis is still insufficiently understood. To address the role of mitoses in tissue regulation, we utilized human long-term skin equivalents and systematically assessed mitoses during early epidermal development and long-term epidermal regeneration. We now demonstrate four different orientations: (1) horizontal, i.e., parallel to the basement membrane (BM) and suggestive of symmetric divisions; (2) oblique with an angle of 45°-70°; or (3) perpendicular, suggestive of asymmetric division. In addition, we demonstrate a fourth substantial fraction of suprabasal mitoses, many of which are committed to differentiation (Keratin K10-positive). As verified also for normal human skin, this spatial mitotic organization is part of the regulatory program of human epidermal tissue homeostasis. As a potential marker for asymmetric division, we investigated for Numb and found that it was evenly spread in almost all undifferentiated keratinocytes, but indeed asymmetrically distributed in some mitoses and particularly frequent under differentiation-repressing low-calcium conditions. Numb deletion (stable knockdown by CRISPR/Cas9), however, did not affect proliferation, neither in a three-day follow up study by life cell imaging nor during a 14-day culture period, suggesting that Numb is not essential for the general control of keratinocyte division.

  14. Pseudolaric acid B induced cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence in murine fibrosarcoma l929 cell.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing hua; Liu, Chun yu; Zheng, Gui bin; Zhang, Li Ying; Yan, Ming hui; Zhang, Wen yan; Meng, Xian ying; Yu, Xiao fang

    2013-01-01

    PAB induced various cancer cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. But in cell line murine fibrosarcoma L929, PAB did not induce apoptosis, but autophagy, therefore it was thought by us as a good model to research the relationship of cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence bypass apoptosis. Inhibitory ratio was assessed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis. Phase contrast microscopy visualized cell morphology. Hoechst 33258 staining for nuclear change, propidium iodode (PI) staining for cell cycle, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining for autophagy, and rodanmine 123 staining for mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured by fluorescence microscopy or flowcytometry. Apoptosis was determined by DNA ladder test. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was detected by PKC assay kit. SA-β-galactosidase assay was used to detect senescence. Protein expression was examined by western blot. PAB inhibited L929 cell growth in time-and dose-dependent manner. At 12 h, 80 μmol/L PAB induced obvious mitotic arrest; at 24 h, PAB began to induce autophagy; at 36 h, cell-treated with PAB slip into G1 cell cycle; and 3 d PAB induced senescence. In time sequence PAB induced firstly cell cycle arrest, then autophagy, then slippage into G1 phase, lastly senescence. Senescent cells had high level of autophagy, inhibiting autophagy led to apoptosis, and no senescence. PAB activated PKC activity to induce cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence, inhibiting PKC activity suppressed cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence. PAB induced cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cell through PKC.

  15. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    PubMed

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  16. Mitotic Bookmarking: Maintaining the Stem Cell Identity during Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-06-01

    In Cell Reports, Liu et al. (2017) investigate mechanisms for how pluripotent stem cells maintain their identity during cell division. They show that the histone mark H3K27ac and pluripotency transcription factors remain associated with mitotic chromatin in ESCs and during iPSC reprogramming, demonstrating the importance of mitotic bookmarking in pluripotency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Timeless Links Replication Termination to Mitotic Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Wiedmer, Andreas; Hayden, James; Speicher, David; Gotter, Anthony L.; Yen, Tim; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms that coordinate the termination of DNA replication with progression through mitosis are not completely understood. The human Timeless protein (Tim) associates with S phase replication checkpoint proteins Claspin and Tipin, and plays an important role in maintaining replication fork stability at physical barriers, like centromeres, telomeres and ribosomal DNA repeats, as well as at termination sites. We show here that human Tim can be isolated in a complex with mitotic entry kinases CDK1, Auroras A and B, and Polo-like kinase (Plk1). Plk1 bound Tim directly and colocalized with Tim at a subset of mitotic structures in M phase. Tim depletion caused multiple mitotic defects, including the loss of sister-chromatid cohesion, loss of mitotic spindle architecture, and a failure to exit mitosis. Tim depletion caused a delay in mitotic kinase activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as a reduction in global histone H3 S10 phosphorylation during G2/M phase. Tim was also required for the recruitment of Plk1 to centromeric DNA and formation of catenated DNA structures at human centromere alpha satellite repeats. Taken together, these findings suggest that Tim coordinates mitotic kinase activation with termination of DNA replication. PMID:21573113

  18. Targeting the Mitotic Catastrophe Signaling Pathway in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mc Gee, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic catastrophe, as defined in 2012 by the International Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death, is a bona fide intrinsic oncosuppressive mechanism that senses mitotic failure and responds by driving a cell to an irreversible antiproliferative fate of death or senescence. Thus, failed mitotic catastrophe can promote the unrestrained growth of defective cells, thereby representing a major gateway to tumour development. Furthermore, the activation of mitotic catastrophe offers significant therapeutic advantage which has been exploited in the action of conventional and targeted anticancer agents. Yet, despite its importance in tumour prevention and treatment, the molecular mechanism of mitotic catastrophe is not well understood. A better understanding of the signals that determine cell fate following failed or defective mitosis will reveal new opportunities to selectively target and enhance the programme for therapeutic benefit and reveal biomarkers to predict patient response. This review is focused on the molecular mechanism of mitotic catastrophe induction and signalling and highlights current strategies to exploit the process in cancer therapy. PMID:26491220

  19. Micromechanical-biochemical studies of mitotic chromosome elasticity and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Michael Guy

    The structure of mitotic chromosomes was studied by combining micromechanical force measurements with microfluidic biochemical exposures. Our method is to use glass micropipettes attached to either end of a single chromosome to do mechanical experiments in the extracellular buffer. A third pipette can be used to locally 'spray' reactants so as to carry out dynamical mechanical-chemical experiments. The following elastic properties of mitotic chromosomes are found: Young's modulus, Y = 300 Pa; Poisson ratio, sigma = 0.1; Bending rigidity, B = 1 x 10 -22 J·m; Internal viscosity, eta' = 100 kg/m·sec; Volume fraction, ϕ = 0.7; Extensions of less than 3 times the relaxed length are linear and reversible; Extensions beyond 30 fold exhibit a force plateau at 15 nN and convert the chromosome to a disperse ghost-like state with little change in chromatin structure; Mitotic chromosomes are relatively isotropic; dsDNA cuts of at least every 3 kb cause the a mitotic chromosomes to fall apart; dsDNA cuts less frequently than every 50 kb do not affect mitotic chromosome structure. These results lead to the conclusion that mitotic chromosomes are a network crosslinked every 50 kb between which chromatin is fold by chromatin folding proteins, which are likely to be condensins.

  20. Timeless links replication termination to mitotic kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Wiedmer, Andreas; Hayden, James; Speicher, David; Gotter, Anthony L; Yen, Tim; Lieberman, Paul M

    2011-05-06

    The mechanisms that coordinate the termination of DNA replication with progression through mitosis are not completely understood. The human Timeless protein (Tim) associates with S phase replication checkpoint proteins Claspin and Tipin, and plays an important role in maintaining replication fork stability at physical barriers, like centromeres, telomeres and ribosomal DNA repeats, as well as at termination sites. We show here that human Tim can be isolated in a complex with mitotic entry kinases CDK1, Auroras A and B, and Polo-like kinase (Plk1). Plk1 bound Tim directly and colocalized with Tim at a subset of mitotic structures in M phase. Tim depletion caused multiple mitotic defects, including the loss of sister-chromatid cohesion, loss of mitotic spindle architecture, and a failure to exit mitosis. Tim depletion caused a delay in mitotic kinase activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as a reduction in global histone H3 S10 phosphorylation during G2/M phase. Tim was also required for the recruitment of Plk1 to centromeric DNA and formation of catenated DNA structures at human centromere alpha satellite repeats. Taken together, these findings suggest that Tim coordinates mitotic kinase activation with termination of DNA replication.

  1. THE CHEMOTHERAPY OF CARDIAC ARREST.

    PubMed

    MINUCK, M

    1965-01-02

    Direct-air ventilation, external cardiac compression, and external defibrillation are established techniques for patients who unexpectedly develop cardiac arrest. The proper use of drugs can increase the incidence of successful resuscitation. Intracardiac adrenaline (epinephrine) acts as a powerful stimulant during cardiac standstill and, in addition, converts fine ventricular fibrillation to a coarser type, more responsive to electrical defibrillation. Routine use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate is recommended to combat the severe metabolic acidosis accompanying cardiac arrest. Lidocaine is particularly useful when ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia tends to recur. Analeptics are contraindicated, since they invariably increase oxygen requirements of already hypoxic cerebral tissues. The following acrostic is a useful mnemonic for recalling the details of the management of cardiac arrest in their proper order: A (Airway), B (Breathing), C (Circulation), D (Diagnosis of underlying cause), E (Epinephrine), F (Fibrillation), G (Glucose intravenously), pH (Sodium bicarbonate), I (Intensive care).

  2. Prp19 Arrests Cell Cycle via Cdc5L in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Renzheng; Xue, Ruyi; Qu, Di; Yin, Jie; Shen, Xi-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19) is involved in many cellular events including pre-mRNA processing and DNA damage response. Recently, it has been identified as a candidate oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of Prp19 in tumor biology is still elusive. Here, we reported that Prp19 arrested cell cycle in HCC cells via regulating G2/M transition. Mechanistic insights revealed that silencing Prp19 inhibited the expression of cell division cycle 5-like (Cdc5L) via repressing the translation of Cdc5L mRNA and facilitating lysosome-mediated degradation of Cdc5L in HCC cells. Furthermore, we found that silencing Prp19 induced cell cycle arrest could be partially resumed by overexpressing Cdc5L. This work implied that Prp19 participated in mitotic progression and thus could be a promising therapeutic target of HCC. PMID:28387715

  3. Anti-mitotic potential of 7-diethylamino-3(2 Prime -benzoxazolyl)-coumarin in 5-fluorouracil-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SNU620/5-FU

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nam Hyun; Kim, Su-Nam; Oh, Joa Sub; Lee, Seokjoon; Kim, Yong Kee

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DBC exerts antiproliferative potential against 5FU-resistant human gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is mediated by destabilization of microtubules and subsequent mitotic arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DBC enhances apoptosis via caspase activation and downregulation of antiapoptotic genes. -- Abstract: In this study, we investigate an anti-mitotic potential of the novel synthetic coumarin-based compound, 7-diethylamino-3(2 Prime -benzoxazolyl)-coumarin, in 5-fluorouracil-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SNU-620-5FU and its parental cell SNU-620. It exerts the anti-proliferative effects with similar potencies against both cancer cells, which is mediated by destabilization of microtubules and subsequent mitotic arrest. Furthermore, this compound enhances caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death via decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes. Taken together, our data strongly support anti-mitotic potential of 7-diethylamino-3(2 Prime -benzoxazolyl)-coumarin against drug-resistant cancer cells which will prompt us to further develop as a novel microtubule inhibitor for drug-resistant cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Analysis of Crack Arrest Toughness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-15

    vload(m) vp tn(m) Vertical Source Load (kN) on wedge HY80 Finite Element 0.0122 0.0099 3.81x10 -4 144 Steel Calculations Experiment 0.0122 --- 3.74x10-4...curve, are bona fide measures of the fracture arrest capability of tough ductile steels . The second is that the J-values represent the crack driving...fibrous mode of crack extension. (b) A new test method for studying fast fracture and arrest in tough steels . (c) Measurements of fast fracture and crack

  5. Bleomycin-induced over-replication involves sustained inhibition of mitotic entry through the ATM/ATR pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuji; Igarashi, Asae; Kikuchi, Ikue; Obata, Yuuki; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2009-09-10

    Polyploid cells result in aneuploidy through aberrant chromosome segregation, possibly leading to tumorigenesis. Although polyploid cells are induced through over-replication by a variety of agents, including DNA-damaging drugs, the mechanisms that induce polyploidy have been hitherto unknown. Here, we show that treatment with bleomycin, a glycopeptide anticancer drug, induces over-replication at low cytotoxic doses. During bleomycin-induced over-replication, mitotic entry is inhibited through tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK1 along the ATM/ATR pathway in the early phase of treatment. Bleomycin-induced over-replication is inhibited by the inhibitors of the ATM/ATR pathway through abrogation of bleomycin-induced G2 arrest, and the ATM/ATR inhibitors promote cell death instead of over-replication. Following the phosphorylation of CDK1, the level of cyclin B1 is decreased in the late phase of treatment. Time-lapse imaging of clone cells that express a live cell marker of endogenous cyclin B1 revealed that cyclin B1 is degraded in G2-arrested cells upon bleomycin treatment. Our findings lead to a model of how the ATM/ATR pathway acts as a molecular switch for regulating cell fates, flipping between cell death via progress into mitosis, and over-replication via sustained G2 arrest upon DNA damage, where cyclin B1 degradation is an important factor for inducing over-replication.

  6. An Ordered Inheritance Strategy for the Golgi Apparatus: Visualization of Mitotic Disassembly Reveals a Role for the Mitotic Spindle

    PubMed Central

    Shima, David T.; Cabrera-Poch, Noemí; Pepperkok, Rainer; Warren, Graham

    1998-01-01

    During mitosis, the ribbon of the Golgi apparatus is transformed into dispersed tubulo-vesicular membranes, proposed to facilitate stochastic inheritance of this low copy number organelle at cytokinesis. Here, we have analyzed the mitotic disassembly of the Golgi apparatus in living cells and provide evidence that inheritance is accomplished through an ordered partitioning mechanism. Using a Sar1p dominant inhibitor of cargo exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), we found that the disassembly of the Golgi observed during mitosis or microtubule disruption did not appear to involve retrograde transport of Golgi residents to the ER and subsequent reorganization of Golgi membrane fragments at ER exit sites, as has been suggested. Instead, direct visualization of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Golgi resident through mitosis showed that the Golgi ribbon slowly reorganized into 1–3-μm fragments during G2/early prophase. A second stage of fragmentation occurred coincident with nuclear envelope breakdown and was accompanied by the bulk of mitotic Golgi redistribution. By metaphase, mitotic Golgi dynamics appeared to cease. Surprisingly, the disassembly of mitotic Golgi fragments was not a random event, but involved the reorganization of mitotic Golgi by microtubules, suggesting that analogous to chromosomes, the Golgi apparatus uses the mitotic spindle to ensure more accurate partitioning during cytokinesis. PMID:9585414

  7. Dynamic Positioning of Mitotic Spindles in Yeast:

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Elaine; Yang, Charlie; Chin, Elaine; Maddox, Paul; Salmon, E. D.; Lew, Daniel J.; Bloom, Kerry

    2000-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, movement of the mitotic spindle to a predetermined cleavage plane at the bud neck is essential for partitioning chromosomes into the mother and daughter cells. Astral microtubule dynamics are critical to the mechanism that ensures nuclear migration to the bud neck. The nucleus moves in the opposite direction of astral microtubule growth in the mother cell, apparently being “pushed” by microtubule contacts at the cortex. In contrast, microtubules growing toward the neck and within the bud promote nuclear movement in the same direction of microtubule growth, thus “pulling” the nucleus toward the bud neck. Failure of “pulling” is evident in cells lacking Bud6p, Bni1p, Kar9p, or the kinesin homolog, Kip3p. As a consequence, there is a loss of asymmetry in spindle pole body segregation into the bud. The cytoplasmic motor protein, dynein, is not required for nuclear movement to the neck; rather, it has been postulated to contribute to spindle elongation through the neck. In the absence of KAR9, dynein-dependent spindle oscillations are evident before anaphase onset, as are postanaphase dynein-dependent pulling forces that exceed the velocity of wild-type spindle elongation threefold. In addition, dynein-mediated forces on astral microtubules are sufficient to segregate a 2N chromosome set through the neck in the absence of spindle elongation, but cytoplasmic kinesins are not. These observations support a model in which spindle polarity determinants (BUD6, BNI1, KAR9) and cytoplasmic kinesin (KIP3) provide directional cues for spindle orientation to the bud while restraining the spindle to the neck. Cytoplasmic dynein is attenuated by these spindle polarity determinants and kinesin until anaphase onset, when dynein directs spindle elongation to distal points in the mother and bud. PMID:11071919

  8. Assessment of Mitotic Activity in Pituitary Adenomas and Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Kamal; Yamada, Yukio; Scheithauer, Bernd; Kovacs, Kalman; Yamada, Shozo; Stefaneanu, Lucia

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of mitotic activity represents one of the oldest and most routinely used histopathologic methods of evaluating the biological aggressiveness of human tumors. In the case of pituitary tumors, however, the relevance of this approach as a means of gauging tumor behavior remains ill-defined. In this article, the relationship between the mitotic index and biological aggressiveness of pituitary tumors was evaluated in a series of 54 pituitary adenomas and 6 primary pituitary carcinomas. All tumors were fully classified by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy; adenomas were further stratified on the basis of their invasion status, the latter being defined as gross, operatively, or radiologically apparent infiltration of dura or bone. Mitotic figures were present in 11 tumors, 10 being either invasive adenomas or pituitary carcinomas. A significant association between the presence of mitotic figures and tumor behavior was noted, as evidenced by progressive increments in the proportion of cases expressing mitotic figures in the categories of noninvasive adenoma, invasive adenoma, and pituitary carcinoma (3.9, 21.4, and 66.7%, respectively; Fisher's exact test, two-tailed, p < 0.001). The mitotic index, however, appeared to be a less informative parameter, being extremely low in all cases (mean = 0.016% +/- 0.005 [+/- SEMI). Although the mean mitotic index in pituitary carcinomas (0.09% +/- 0.035) was significantly higher than the mean mitotic index of either noninvasive adenomas (0.002% +/- 0.002) or invasive adenomas (0.013% +/- 0.005), no practical threshold value capable of distinguishing these three groups was evident. Comparison of the mitotic index with Ki-67 derived growth fractions in these tumors revealed a significant but weak linear correlation (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). These data suggest that when, mitotic figures are present, they do provide some indication of the behavior and invasive potential of pituitary tumors. For routine diagnostic

  9. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hee Jin; Lee, Eun-Mi; Nguyen, Long Duy; Shim, Jaekyung; Song, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis.

  10. Prognostic differences of World Health Organization-assessed mitotic activity index and mitotic impression by quick scanning in invasive ductal breast cancer patients younger than 55 years.

    PubMed

    Skaland, Ivar; van Diest, Paul J; Janssen, Emiel A M; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Baak, Jan P A

    2008-04-01

    The proliferation marker mitotic activity index is the strongest prognostic indicator in lymph node-negative breast cancer. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2003-defined procedure for determining WHO-mitotic activity index is often replaced by a quick scan mitotic impression. We evaluated the prognostic consequences of this practice in 433 T(1-3)N(0)M(0) lymph node-negative invasive ductal type breast cancers with long-term follow-up (median, 112 months; range, 12-187 months). Twenty-seven percent of the studied cases developed distant metastases, and 25% died of disease. Agreement between WHO-mitotic activity index (0-5 = 1, 6-10 = 2, >10 = 3) and mitotic impression (1, 2, 3) categories was 66% (kappa = 0.41), including 85% for category 1, 26% for category 2, and 52% for category 3. The WHO-mitotic activity index was a much stronger prognosticator than the mitotic impression, and the 10-year survival rates of the same categories (eg, mitotic activity index and mitotic impression category both 2) differed greatly. When grade was assessed by combining WHO-mitotic activity index or mitotic impression with the same values for tubular formation and nuclear atypia, grades disagreed in 18% of the cases. Deviation from the formal WHO-mitotic activity index assessment guidelines in breast cancer often results in erroneous prognosis estimations with therapeutic consequences and may explain why the prognostic value of proliferative activity in breast cancer is not always confirmed.

  11. DUI Arrests and Academic Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin M.; Richardson, Katie

    2008-01-01

    A sobering 2002 study reported that over 2 million college students drove under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in 1999. Among those driving while intoxicated, approximately 1.7% or roughly 34,000 students reported being arrested on DUI charges. Regrettably, a significant proportion of the 1,400 college student deaths and 500,000 injuries are…

  12. Cardiac arrest during dipyridamole imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.S.; McCauley, C.S.

    1988-05-01

    A case of cardiac arrest and subsequent acute myocardial infarction occurring during thallium-201 imaging with oral dipyridamole augmentation is presented. Previous reports emphasizing the safety of this procedure are briefly reviewed and a recommendation for close hemodynamic and arrhythmia monitoring during the study is made. Large doses of oral dipyridamole may be contraindicated in patients with unstable angina.

  13. DUI Arrests and Academic Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin M.; Richardson, Katie

    2008-01-01

    A sobering 2002 study reported that over 2 million college students drove under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in 1999. Among those driving while intoxicated, approximately 1.7% or roughly 34,000 students reported being arrested on DUI charges. Regrettably, a significant proportion of the 1,400 college student deaths and 500,000 injuries are…

  14. Gentle arrester for moving bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Wire cable absorbs energy at constant rate with reduced shock and rebounding. Cable typically elongates to 90 percent of its potential, but is surrounded by braided sheath to absorb remaining energy should it break prematurely. Applications of arrester include passenger restraint in air and land vehicles, parachute risers, and ground snatch by aircraft. Possible cable material is type 302 stainless steel.

  15. Gentle arrester for moving bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Wire cable absorbs energy at constant rate with reduced shock and rebounding. Cable typically elongates to 90 percent of its potential, but is surrounded by braided sheath to absorb remaining energy should it break prematurely. Applications of arrester include passenger restraint in air and land vehicles, parachute risers, and ground snatch by aircraft. Possible cable material is type 302 stainless steel.

  16. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  17. Cardiac Arrest: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... dying from a second SCA. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Start Here About Cardiac Arrest (American Heart ... Society) What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest? (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Latest News How Devices in Public Places ...

  18. Cardiac arrest: resuscitation and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kaustubha D; Halperin, Henry R; Becker, Lance B

    2015-06-05

    The modern treatment of cardiac arrest is an increasingly complex medical procedure with a rapidly changing array of therapeutic approaches designed to restore life to victims of sudden death. The 2 primary goals of providing artificial circulation and defibrillation to halt ventricular fibrillation remain of paramount importance for saving lives. They have undergone significant improvements in technology and dissemination into the community subsequent to their establishment 60 years ago. The evolution of artificial circulation includes efforts to optimize manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation, external mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices designed to augment circulation, and may soon advance further into the rapid deployment of specially designed internal emergency cardiopulmonary bypass devices. The development of defibrillation technologies has progressed from bulky internal defibrillators paddles applied directly to the heart, to manually controlled external defibrillators, to automatic external defibrillators that can now be obtained over-the-counter for widespread use in the community or home. But the modern treatment of cardiac arrest now involves more than merely providing circulation and defibrillation. As suggested by a 3-phase model of treatment, newer approaches targeting patients who have had a more prolonged cardiac arrest include treatment of the metabolic phase of cardiac arrest with therapeutic hypothermia, agents to treat or prevent reperfusion injury, new strategies specifically focused on pulseless electric activity, which is the presenting rhythm in at least one third of cardiac arrests, and aggressive post resuscitation care. There are discoveries at the cellular and molecular level about ischemia and reperfusion pathobiology that may be translated into future new therapies. On the near horizon is the combination of advanced cardiopulmonary bypass plus a cocktail of multiple agents targeted at restoration of normal metabolism and

  19. Mad2 and Mad3 Cooperate to Arrest Budding Yeast in Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Derek T. C.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The spindle checkpoint ensures accurate chromosome transmission by delaying chromosome segregation until all chromosomes are correctly aligned on the mitotic spindle. The checkpoint is activated by kinetochores that are not attached to microtubules or are attached but not under tension and arrests cells at metaphase by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and its co-activator Cdc20. Despite numerous studies, we still do not understand how the checkpoint proteins coordinate with each other to inhibit APCCdc20 activity. Results To ask how the checkpoint components induce metaphase arrest, we constructed fusions of checkpoint proteins and expressed them in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to mimic possible protein interactions during checkpoint activation. We found that expression of a Mad2-Mad3 protein fusion or non-covalently linked Mad2 and Mad3, but not the overexpression of the two separate proteins, induces metaphase arrest that is independent of functional kinetochores or other checkpoint proteins. We further showed that artificially tethering Mad2 to Cdc20 also arrests cells in metaphase independently of other checkpoint components. Conclusion Our results suggest that Mad3 is required for the stable binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 in vivo, which is sufficient to inhibit APC activity and is the most downstream event in spindle checkpoint activation. PMID:22209528

  20. Loops determine the mechanical properties of mitotic chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Heermann, Dieter W.

    2013-03-01

    In mitosis, chromosomes undergo a condensation into highly compacted, rod-like objects. Many models have been put forward for the higher-order organization of mitotic chromosomes including radial loop and hierarchical folding models. Additionally, mechanical properties of mitotic chromosomes under different conditions were measured. However, the internal organization of mitotic chromosomes still remains unclear. Here we present a polymer model for mitotic chromosomes and show how chromatin loops play a major role for their mechanical properties. The key assumption of the model is the ability of the chromatin fibre to dynamically form loops with the help of binding proteins. Our results show that looping leads to a tight compaction and significantly increases the bending rigidity of chromosomes. Moreover, our qualitative prediction of the force elongation behaviour is close to experimental findings. This indicates that the internal structure of mitotic chromosomes is based on self-organization of the chromatin fibre. We also demonstrate how number and size of loops have a strong influence on the mechanical properties. We suggest that changes in the mechanical characteristics of chromosomes can be explained by an altered internal loop structure. YZ gratefully appreciates funding by the German National Academic Foundation (Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes) and support by the Heidelberg Graduate School for Mathematical and Computational Methods in the Sciences (HGS MathComp).

  1. A Brief History of Research on Mitotic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, J. Richard; Hays, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes in summary form some of the most important research on chromosome segregation, from the discovery and naming of mitosis in the nineteenth century until around 1990. It gives both historical and scientific background for the nine chapters that follow, each of which provides an up-to-date review of a specific aspect of mitotic mechanism. Here, we trace the fruits of each new technology that allowed a deeper understanding of mitosis and its underlying mechanisms. We describe how light microscopy, including phase, polarization, and fluorescence optics, provided descriptive information about mitotic events and also enabled important experimentation on mitotic functions, such as the dynamics of spindle fibers and the forces generated for chromosome movement. We describe studies by electron microscopy, including quantitative work with serial section reconstructions. We review early results from spindle biochemistry and genetics, coupled to molecular biology, as these methods allowed scholars to identify key molecular components of mitotic mechanisms. We also review hypotheses about mitotic mechanisms whose testing led to a deeper understanding of this fundamental biological event. Our goal is to provide modern scientists with an appreciation of the work that has laid the foundations for their current work and interests. PMID:28009830

  2. Mitotic Exit Control as an Evolved Complex System

    SciTech Connect

    Bosl, W; Li, R

    2005-04-25

    The exit from mitosis is the last critical decision a cell has to make during a division cycle. A complex regulatory system has evolved to evaluate the success of mitotic events and control this decision. Whereas outstanding genetic work in yeast has led to rapid discovery of a large number of interacting genes involved in the control of mitotic exit, it has also become increasingly difficult to comprehend the logic and mechanistic features embedded in the complex molecular network. Our view is that this difficulty stems in part from the attempt to explain mitotic exit control using concepts from traditional top-down engineering design, and that exciting new results from evolutionary engineering design applied to networks and electronic circuits may lend better insights. We focus on four particularly intriguing features of the mitotic exit control system: the two-stepped release of Cdc14; the self-activating nature of Tem1 GTPase; the spatial sensor associated with the spindle pole body; and the extensive redundancy in the mitotic exit network. We attempt to examine these design features from the perspective of evolutionary design and complex system engineering.

  3. Mechanical control of mitotic progression in single animal cells.

    PubMed

    Cattin, Cedric J; Düggelin, Marcel; Martinez-Martin, David; Gerber, Christoph; Müller, Daniel J; Stewart, Martin P

    2015-09-08

    Despite the importance of mitotic cell rounding in tissue development and cell proliferation, there remains a paucity of approaches to investigate the mechanical robustness of cell rounding. Here we introduce ion beam-sculpted microcantilevers that enable precise force-feedback-controlled confinement of single cells while characterizing their progression through mitosis. We identify three force regimes according to the cell response: small forces (∼5 nN) that accelerate mitotic progression, intermediate forces where cells resist confinement (50-100 nN), and yield forces (>100 nN) where a significant decline in cell height impinges on microtubule spindle function, thereby inhibiting mitotic progression. Yield forces are coincident with a nonlinear drop in cell height potentiated by persistent blebbing and loss of cortical F-actin homogeneity. Our results suggest that a buildup of actomyosin-dependent cortical tension and intracellular pressure precedes mechanical failure, or herniation, of the cell cortex at the yield force. Thus, we reveal how the mechanical properties of mitotic cells and their response to external forces are linked to mitotic progression under conditions of mechanical confinement.

  4. A dynamic mode of mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Sheila S; An, Luye; Hansen, Anders S; Xie, Liangqi; Darzacq, Xavier; Tjian, Robert

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, transcription is shut off, chromatin condenses, and most transcription factors (TFs) are reported to be excluded from chromosomes. How do daughter cells re-establish the original transcription program? Recent discoveries that a select set of TFs remain bound on mitotic chromosomes suggest a potential mechanism for maintaining transcriptional programs through the cell cycle termed mitotic bookmarking. Here we report instead that many TFs remain associated with chromosomes in mouse embryonic stem cells, and that the exclusion previously described is largely a fixation artifact. In particular, most TFs we tested are significantly enriched on mitotic chromosomes. Studies with Sox2 reveal that this mitotic interaction is more dynamic than in interphase and is facilitated by both DNA binding and nuclear import. Furthermore, this dynamic mode results from lack of transcriptional activation rather than decreased accessibility of underlying DNA sequences in mitosis. The nature of the cross-linking artifact prompts careful re-examination of the role of TFs in mitotic bookmarking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22280.001 PMID:27855781

  5. The reversibility of mitotic exit in vertebrate cells.

    PubMed

    Potapova, Tamara A; Daum, John R; Pittman, Bradley D; Hudson, Joanna R; Jones, Tara N; Satinover, David L; Stukenberg, P Todd; Gorbsky, Gary J

    2006-04-13

    A guiding hypothesis for cell-cycle regulation asserts that regulated proteolysis constrains the directionality of certain cell-cycle transitions. Here we test this hypothesis for mitotic exit, which is regulated by degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activator, cyclin B. Application of chemical Cdk1 inhibitors to cells in mitosis induces cytokinesis and other normal aspects of mitotic exit, including cyclin B degradation. However, chromatid segregation fails, resulting in entrapment of chromatin in the midbody. If cyclin B degradation is blocked with a proteasome inhibitor or by expression of non-degradable cyclin B, Cdk inhibitors will nonetheless induce mitotic exit and cytokinesis. However, if after mitotic exit, the Cdk1 inhibitor is washed free from cells in which cyclin B degradation is blocked, the cells can revert back to M phase. This reversal is characterized by chromosome recondensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, assembly of microtubules into a mitotic spindle, and in most cases, dissolution of the midbody, reopening of the cleavage furrow, and realignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate. These findings demonstrate that proteasome-dependent degradation of cyclin B provides directionality for the M phase to G1 transition.

  6. Mitotic Chromosome Loss in a Disomic Haploid of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. A.; Fogel, S.; Lusnak, K.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments designed to characterize the incidence of mitotic chromosome loss in a yeast disomic haploid were performed. The selective methods employed utilize the non-mating property of strains disomic for linkage group III and heterozygous at the mating type locus. The principal findings are: (1) The frequency of spontaneous chromosome loss in the disome is of the order 10-4 per cell; this value approximates the frequency in the same population of spontaneous mitotic exchange resulting in homozygosity at the mating type locus. (2) The recovered diploids are pure clones, and thus represent unique events in the disomic haploid. (3) Of the euploid chromosomes recovered after events leading to chromosome loss, approximately 90% retain the parental marker configuration expected from segregation alone; however, the remainder are recombinant for marker genes, and are the result of mitotic exchanges in the disome, especially in regions near the centromere. The recombinant proportion significantly exceeds that expected if chromosome loss and mitotic exchange in the disome were independent events. The data are consistent with a model proposing mitotic nondisjunction as the event responsible for chromosome loss in the disomic haploid. PMID:1092597

  7. 25 CFR 11.301 - Arrests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrests. 11.301 Section 11.301 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Procedure § 11.301 Arrests. (a) Arrest is the taking of a person into police custody in order that...

  8. 10 CFR 1049.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1049.4 Section 1049.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.4 Arrest authority. (a) Under the Act, the authority of...

  9. 10 CFR 1049.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1049.4 Section 1049.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.4 Arrest authority. (a) Under the Act, the authority of...

  10. 14 CFR 1203b.103 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.103 Arrest authority. (a) NASA security... authority. (b) The authority of NASA security force personnel to make a warrantless arrest is subject to the...

  11. Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) Biomarkers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-07

    Neurological Outcome; Cardiac Arrest; Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest; Brain Anoxia Ischemia; Hypoxia, Brain; Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain; Cardiac Arrest With Successful Resuscitation; Cardiac Arrest, Out-Of-Hospital; Brain Injuries

  12. Shaping mitotic chromosomes: From classical concepts to molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kschonsak, Marc; Haering, Christian H

    2015-01-01

    How eukaryotic genomes are packaged into compact cylindrical chromosomes in preparation for cell divisions has remained one of the major unsolved questions of cell biology. Novel approaches to study the topology of DNA helices inside the nuclei of intact cells, paired with computational modeling and precise biomechanical measurements of isolated chromosomes, have advanced our understanding of mitotic chromosome architecture. In this Review Essay, we discuss – in light of these recent insights – the role of chromatin architecture and the functions and possible mechanisms of SMC protein complexes and other molecular machines in the formation of mitotic chromosomes. Based on the information available, we propose a stepwise model of mitotic chromosome condensation that envisions the sequential generation of intra-chromosomal linkages by condensin complexes in the context of cohesin-mediated inter-chromosomal linkages, assisted by topoisomerase II. The described scenario results in rod-shaped metaphase chromosomes ready for their segregation to the cell poles. PMID:25988527

  13. Plk2 regulates mitotic spindle orientation and mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Elizabeth; Kabotyanski, Elena B; Shore, Amy N; Creighton, Chad J; Westbrook, Thomas F; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2014-04-01

    Disruptions in polarity and mitotic spindle orientation contribute to the progression and evolution of tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating these processes in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Polo-like kinase 2 (Plk2) regulates mitotic spindle orientation in the mammary gland and that this might account for its suggested role as a tumor suppressor. Plk2 is highly expressed in the mammary gland and is required for proper mammary gland development. Loss of Plk2 leads to increased mammary epithelial cell proliferation and ductal hyperbranching. Additionally, a novel role for Plk2 in regulating the orientation of the mitotic spindle and maintaining proper cell polarity in the ductal epithelium was discovered. In support of a tumor suppressor function for Plk2, loss of Plk2 increased the formation of lesions in multiparous glands. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel role for Plk2 in regulating mammary gland development.

  14. Shaping mitotic chromosomes: From classical concepts to molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kschonsak, Marc; Haering, Christian H

    2015-07-01

    How eukaryotic genomes are packaged into compact cylindrical chromosomes in preparation for cell divisions has remained one of the major unsolved questions of cell biology. Novel approaches to study the topology of DNA helices inside the nuclei of intact cells, paired with computational modeling and precise biomechanical measurements of isolated chromosomes, have advanced our understanding of mitotic chromosome architecture. In this Review Essay, we discuss - in light of these recent insights - the role of chromatin architecture and the functions and possible mechanisms of SMC protein complexes and other molecular machines in the formation of mitotic chromosomes. Based on the information available, we propose a stepwise model of mitotic chromosome condensation that envisions the sequential generation of intra-chromosomal linkages by condensin complexes in the context of cohesin-mediated inter-chromosomal linkages, assisted by topoisomerase II. The described scenario results in rod-shaped metaphase chromosomes ready for their segregation to the cell poles.

  15. Mechanisms and Regulation of Mitotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Symington, Lorraine S.; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homology-dependent exchange of genetic information between DNA molecules has a profound impact on the maintenance of genome integrity by facilitating error-free DNA repair, replication, and chromosome segregation during cell division as well as programmed cell developmental events. This chapter will focus on homologous mitotic recombination in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is an important link between mitotic and meiotic recombination (covered in the forthcoming chapter by Hunter et al. 2015) and many of the functions are evolutionarily conserved. Here we will discuss several models that have been proposed to explain the mechanism of mitotic recombination, the genes and proteins involved in various pathways, the genetic and physical assays used to discover and study these genes, and the roles of many of these proteins inside the cell. PMID:25381364

  16. Mitotic gene conversion events induced in G1-synchronized yeast cells by gamma rays are similar to spontaneous conversion events

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Phoebe S.; Petes, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we mapped spontaneous mitotic reciprocal crossovers (RCOs) in a 120-kb interval of chromosome V of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. About three-quarters of the crossovers were associated with gene conversion tracts. About 40% of these conversion tracts had the pattern expected as a consequence of repair of a double-stranded DNA break (DSB) of an unreplicated chromosome. We test this hypothesis by examining the crossovers and gene conversion events induced by gamma irradiation in G1- and G2-arrested diploid yeast cells. The gene conversion patterns of G1-irradiated cells (but not G2-irradiated cells) mimic conversion events associated with spontaneous RCOs, confirming our previous conclusion that many spontaneous crossovers are initiated by a DSB on an unreplicated chromosome. PMID:20231456

  17. Detection of G1 proteins in Chinese hamster cells synchronized by isoleucine deprivation or mitotic selection.

    PubMed

    Ley, K D

    1975-07-01

    Examination of labeling patterns of proteins in Chinese hamster cells(line CHO) revealed the presence of a class of protein(s) that is synthesized during G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cells arrested in G1 by isoleucine (Ile) deprivation were prelabeded with [14-C]Ile, induced to traverse G1 by addition of unlabeled Ile, and labeled with [3-H]Ile at hourly intervals. Cells were fractionated into neclear and cytoplasmic portions, and proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide get electrophoresis. Gel profiles of proteins in the 45,000-160,000 mol wt range from the cytoplasm of cells in G1 were similar to those from cells arrested in G1 except for the presence of a mojor peak of [1-H]Ile incorporated into a protein(s) of approximately 80,000 mol wt. Peaks of net [3-H]Ile incorporation were not detected in neclear preparations. Cellular fractionation by differential centrifugation showed the peak I protein was located in the soluble supernatant fraction of the cytoplasm. Time-course studies showed that synthesis of this protein began 1-2 h after initiation of G1 traverse; the protein reached maximum levels in 4-6 h and was reduced to undetectable levels by 9 h. A cytoplasmic protein with similar electrophoretic mobility was found in G1 phase of cells synchronized by mitotic selection. This class of proteins is synthesized by cells before entry into S phase and may be involved in initiation of DNA synthesis.

  18. Force and the spindle: Mechanical cues in mitotic spindle orientation

    PubMed Central

    Nestor-Bergmann, Alexander; Goddard, Georgina; Woolner, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical environment of a cell has a profound effect on its behaviour, from dictating cell shape to driving the transcription of specific genes. Recent studies have demonstrated that mechanical forces play a key role in orienting the mitotic spindle, and therefore cell division, in both single cells and tissues. Whilst the molecular machinery that mediates the link between external force and the mitotic spindle remains largely unknown, it is becoming increasingly clear that this is a widely used mechanism which could prove vital for coordinating cell division orientation across tissues in a variety of contexts. PMID:25080021

  19. Environmental epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and somatic epigenetic mitotic stability.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K

    2011-07-01

    The majority of environmental factors can not modify DNA sequence, but can influence the epigenome. The mitotic stability of the epigenome and ability of environmental epigenetics to influence phenotypic variation and disease, suggests environmental epigenetics will have a critical role in disease etiology and biological areas such as evolutionary biology. The current review presents the molecular basis of how environment can promote stable epigenomes and modified phenotypes, and distinguishes the difference between epigenetic transgenerational inheritance through the germ line versus somatic cell mitotic stability.

  20. CaMKKβ-AMPKα2 signaling contributes to mitotic Golgi fragmentation and the G2/M transition in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Jeong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Before a cell enters mitosis, the Golgi apparatus undergoes extensive fragmentation. This is required for the correct partitioning of the Golgi apparatus into daughter cells, and inhibition of this process leads to cell cycle arrest in G2 phase. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays critical roles in regulating growth and reprogramming metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that AMPK promotes mitotic progression and Golgi disassembly, and that this seems independent of the cellular energy status. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events is not well understood. Here, we show that both treatment with compound C and depletion of AMPKα2 (but not AMPKα1) delays the G2/M transition in synchronized HeLa cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry and mitotic index analysis. Furthermore, knockdown of AMPKα2 specifically delays further fragmentation of isolated Golgi stacks. Interestingly, pAMPKαThr172 signals transiently appear in the perinuclear region of late G2/early prophase cells, partially co-localizing with the Golgi matrix protein, GM-130. These Golgi pAMPKαThr172 signals were also specifically abolished by AMPKα2 knockdown, indicating specific spatio-temporal activation of AMPKα2 at Golgi complex during late G2/early prophases. We also found that the specific CaMKKβ inhibitor, STO-609, reduces the pAMPKα Thr172 signals in the perinuclear region of G2 phase cells and delays mitotic Golgi fragmentation. Taken together, these data suggest that AMPKα2 is the major catalytic subunit of AMPKα which regulates Golgi fragmentation and G2/M transition, and that the CaMKKβ activates AMPKα2 during late G2 phase. PMID:25590814

  1. The zebrafish early arrest mutants.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes.

  2. Activation of nuclear PTEN by inhibition of Notch signaling induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-J; Lee, H-W; Baek, J-H; Cho, Y-H; Kang, H G; Jeong, J S; Song, J; Park, H-S; Chun, K-H

    2016-01-14

    Mutation in PTEN has not yet been detected, but its function as a tumor suppressor is inactivated in many cancers. In this study we determined that, activated Notch signaling disables PTEN by phosphorylation and thereby contributes to gastric tumorigenesis. Notch inhibition by small interfering RNA or γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Notch inhibition induced dephosphorylation in the C-terminal domain of PTEN, which led to PTEN nuclear localization. Overexpression of activated Notch1-induced phosphorylation of PTEN and reversed GSI-induced mitotic arrest. Dephosphorylated nuclear PTEN caused prometaphase arrest by interaction with the cyclin B1-CDK1 complex, resulting in their accumulation in the nucleus and subsequent apoptosis. We found a correlation between high expression levels of Notch1 and low survival rates and, similarly, between reduced nuclear PTEN expression and increasing the TNM classification of malignant tumours stages in malignant tissues from gastric cancer patients. The growth of Notch1-depleted gastric tumors was significantly retarded in xenografted mice, and in addition, PTEN deletion restored growth similar to control tumors. We also demonstrated that combination treatment with GSI and chemotherapeutic agents significantly reduced the orthotopically transplanted gastric tumors in mice without noticeable toxicity. Overall, our findings suggest that inhibition of Notch signaling can be employed as a PTEN activator, making it a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.

  3. MAPK inactivation is required for the G2 to M-phase transition of the first mitotic cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Abrieu, A; Fisher, D; Simon, M N; Dorée, M; Picard, A

    1997-01-01

    Down-regulation of MAP kinase (MAPK) is a universal consequence of fertilization in the animal kingdom, although its role is not known. Here we show that MAPK inactivation is essential for embryos, both vertebrate and invertebrate, to enter first mitosis. Suppressing down-regulation of MAPK at fertilization, for example by constitutively activating the upstream MAPK cascade, specifically suppresses cyclin B-cdc2 kinase activation and its consequence, entry into first mitosis. It thus appears that MAPK functions in meiotic maturation by preventing unfertilized eggs from proceeding into parthenogenetic development. The most general effect of artificially maintaining MAPK activity after fertilization is prevention of the G2 to M-phase transition in the first mitotic cell cycle, even though inappropriate reactivation of MAPK after fertilization may lead to metaphase arrest in vertebrates. Advancing the time of MAPK inactivation in fertilized eggs does not, however, speed up their entry into first mitosis. Thus, sustained activity of MAPK during part of the first mitotic cell cycle is not responsible for late entry of fertilized eggs into first mitosis. PMID:9351823

  4. Novel Mad2-targeting miR-493-3p controls mitotic fidelity and cancer cells’ sensitivity to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni; Chen, Ping; Elgaaen, Bente Vilming; Straume, Anne Hege; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Cárpen, Olli; Lønning, Per Eystein; Davidson, Ben; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kallio, Marko J.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pathways that contribute to the proliferation and drug response of cancer cells are highly complex and currently insufficiently characterized. We have identified a previously unknown microRNA-based mechanism that provides cancer cells means to stimulate tumorigenesis via increased genomic instability and, at the same time, evade the action of clinically utilized microtubule drugs. We demonstrate miR-493-3p to be a novel negative regulator of mitotic arrest deficient-2 (MAD2), an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that monitors the fidelity of chromosome segregation. The microRNA targets the 3′ UTR of Mad2 mRNA thereby preventing translation of the Mad2 protein. In cancer cells, overexpression of miR-493-3p induced a premature mitotic exit that led to increased frequency of aneuploidy and cellular senescence in the progeny cells. Importantly, excess of the miR-493-3p conferred resistance of cancer cells to microtubule drugs. In human neoplasms, miR-493-3p and Mad2 expression alterations correlated with advanced ovarian cancer forms and high miR-493-3p levels were associated with reduced survival of ovarian and breast cancer patients with aggressive tumors, especially in the paclitaxel therapy arm. Our results suggest that intratumoral profiling of miR-493-3p and Mad2 levels can have diagnostic value in predicting the efficacy of taxane chemotherapy. PMID:26943585

  5. APCste9/srw1 promotes degradation of mitotic cyclins in G1 and is inhibited by cdc2 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Miguel A.; Sánchez-Díaz, Alberto; de Prada, José M.; Moreno, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Fission yeast ste9/srw1 is a WD-repeat protein highly homologous to budding yeast Hct1/Cdh1 and Drosophila Fizzy-related that are involved in activating APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome). We show that APCste9/srw1 specifically promotes the degradation of mitotic cyclins cdc13 and cig1 but not the S-phase cyclin cig2. APCste9/srw1 is not necessary for the proteolysis of cdc13 and cig1 that occurs at the metaphase–anaphase transition but it is absolutely required for their degradation in G1. Therefore, we propose that the main role of APCste9/srw1 is to promote degradation of mitotic cyclins when cells need to delay or arrest the cell cycle in G1. We also show that ste9/srw1 is negatively regulated by cdc2-dependent protein phosphorylation. In G1, when cdc2–cyclin kinase activity is low, unphosphorylated ste9/srw1 interacts with APC/C. In the rest of the cell cycle, phosphorylation of ste9/srw1 by cdc2–cyclin complexes both triggers proteolysis of ste9/srw1 and causes its dissociation from the APC/C. This mechanism provides a molecular switch to prevent inactivation of cdc2 in G2 and early mitosis and to allow its inactivation in G1. PMID:10921876

  6. The proteolysis of mitotic cyclins in mammalian cells persists from the end of mitosis until the onset of S phase.

    PubMed Central

    Brandeis, M; Hunt, T

    1996-01-01

    We have studied how the cell cycle-specific oscillations of mitotic B-type cyclins are generated in mouse fibroblasts. A reporter enzyme comprising the N-terminus of a B-type cyclin fused to bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) was degraded at the end of mitosis like endogenous cyclins. Point mutations in the destruction box of this construct completely abolished its mitotic instability. When the destructible reporter was driven by the cyclin B2 promoter, CAT activity mimicked the oscillations in the level of the endogenous cyclin B2. These oscillations were largely conserved when the reporter was transcribed constitutively from the SV40 promoter. Pulse-chase experiments or addition of the proteasome inhibitors lactacystin and ALLN showed that cyclin synthesis continued after the end of mitosis. The destruction box-specific degradation of cyclins normally ceases at the onset of S phase, and is active in fibroblasts arrested in G0 and in differentiated C2 myoblasts. We were able to reproduce this proteolysis in vitro in extracts of synchronized cells. Extracts of G1 cells degraded cyclin B1 whereas p27Kip1 was stable, in contrast, cyclin B1 remained stable and p27Kip1 was degraded in extracts of S phase cells. Images PMID:8895573

  7. Mitotic Spindle Disruption by Alternating Electric Fields Leads to Improper Chromosome Segregation and Mitotic Catastrophe in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Moshe; Schneiderman, Rosa S; Voloshin, Tali; Porat, Yaara; Munster, Mijal; Blat, Roni; Sherbo, Shay; Bomzon, Zeev; Urman, Noa; Itzhaki, Aviran; Cahal, Shay; Shteingauz, Anna; Chaudhry, Aafia; Kirson, Eilon D; Weinberg, Uri; Palti, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) are low intensity, intermediate frequency, alternating electric fields. TTFields are a unique anti-mitotic treatment modality delivered in a continuous, noninvasive manner to the region of a tumor. It was previously postulated that by exerting directional forces on highly polar intracellular elements during mitosis, TTFields could disrupt the normal assembly of spindle microtubules. However there is limited evidence directly linking TTFields to an effect on microtubules. Here we report that TTFields decrease the ratio between polymerized and total tubulin, and prevent proper mitotic spindle assembly. The aberrant mitotic events induced by TTFields lead to abnormal chromosome segregation, cellular multinucleation, and caspase dependent apoptosis of daughter cells. The effect of TTFields on cell viability and clonogenic survival substantially depends upon the cell division rate. We show that by extending the duration of exposure to TTFields, slowly dividing cells can be affected to a similar extent as rapidly dividing cells. PMID:26658786

  8. Invasive Cell Fate Requires G1 Cell-Cycle Arrest and Histone Deacetylase-Mediated Changes in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Matus, David Q; Lohmer, Lauren L; Kelley, Laura C; Schindler, Adam J; Kohrman, Abraham Q; Barkoulas, Michalis; Zhang, Wan; Chi, Qiuyi; Sherwood, David R

    2015-10-26

    Despite critical roles in development and cancer, the mechanisms that specify invasive cellular behavior are poorly understood. Through a screen of transcription factors in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified G1 cell-cycle arrest as a precisely regulated requirement of the anchor cell (AC) invasion program. We show that the nuclear receptor nhr-67/tlx directs the AC into G1 arrest in part through regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor cki-1. Loss of nhr-67 resulted in non-invasive, mitotic ACs that failed to express matrix metalloproteinases or actin regulators and lack invadopodia, F-actin-rich membrane protrusions that facilitate invasion. We further show that G1 arrest is necessary for the histone deacetylase HDA-1, a key regulator of differentiation, to promote pro-invasive gene expression and invadopodia formation. Together, these results suggest that invasive cell fate requires G1 arrest and that strategies targeting both G1-arrested and actively cycling cells may be needed to halt metastatic cancer.

  9. Biz1, a Zinc Finger Protein Required for Plant Invasion by Ustilago maydis, Regulates the Levels of a Mitotic Cyclin[W

    PubMed Central

    Flor-Parra, Ignacio; Vranes, Miroslav; Kämper, Jörg; Pérez-Martín, José

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasion by pathogenic fungi involves regulated growth and highly organized fungal morphological changes. For instance, when the smut fungus Ustilago maydis infects maize (Zea mays), its dikaryotic infective filament is cell cycle arrested, and appressoria are differentiated prior to plant penetration. Once the filament enters the plant, the cell cycle block is released and fungal cells begin proliferation, suggesting a tight interaction between plant invasion and the cell cycle and morphogenesis control systems. We describe a novel factor, Biz1 (b-dependent zinc finger protein), which has two Cys2His2 zinc finger domains and nuclear localization, suggesting a transcriptional regulatory function. The deletion of biz1 shows no detectable phenotypic alterations during axenic growth. However, mutant cells show a severe reduction in appressoria formation and plant penetration, and those hyphae that invade the plant arrest their pathogenic development directly after plant penetration. biz1 is induced via the b-mating–type locus, the key control instance for pathogenic development. The gene is expressed at high levels throughout pathogenic development, which induces a G2 cell cycle arrest that is a direct consequence of the downregulation of the mitotic cyclin Clb1. Our data support a model in which Biz1 is involved in cell cycle arrest preceding plant penetration as well as in the induction of appressoria. PMID:16905655

  10. Prophase I arrest and progression to metaphase I in mouse oocytes: comparison of resumption of meiosis and recovery from G2-arrest in somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Solc, Petr; Schultz, Richard M; Motlik, Jan

    2010-09-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I until puberty when luteinizing hormone (LH) induces resumption of meiosis of follicle-enclosed oocytes. Resumption of meiosis is tightly coupled with regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) activity. Prophase I arrest depends on inhibitory phosphorylation of CDK1 and anaphase-promoting complex-(APC-CDH1)-mediated regulation of cyclin B levels. Prophase I arrest is maintained by endogenously produced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (PKA) that in turn phosphorylates (and activates) the nuclear kinase WEE2. In addition, PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the phosphatase CDC25B results in its cytoplasmic retention. The combined effect maintains low levels of CDK1 activity that are not sufficient to initiate resumption of meiosis. LH triggers synthesis of epidermal growth factor-like factors in mural granulosa cells and leads to reduced cGMP transfer from cumulus cells to oocytes via gap junctions that couple the two cell types. cGMP inhibits oocyte phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) and a decline in oocyte cGMP results in increased PDE3A activity. The ensuing decrease in oocyte cAMP triggers maturation by alleviating the aforementioned phosphorylations of WEE2 and CDC25B. As a direct consequence CDC25B translocates into the nucleus. The resulting activation of CDK1 also promotes extrusion of WEE2 from the nucleus thereby providing a positive amplification mechanism for CDK1 activation. Other kinases, e.g. protein kinase B, Aurora kinase A and polo-like kinase 1, also participate in resumption of meiosis. Mechanisms governing meiotic prophase I arrest and resumption of meiosis share common features with DNA damage-induced mitotic G2-checkpoint arrest and checkpoint recovery, respectively. These common features include CDC14B-dependent activation of APC-CDH1 in prophase I arrested oocytes or G2-arrested somatic cells, and CDC25B-dependent cell cycle resumption in both oocytes and somatic

  11. Genome co-amplification upregulates a mitotic gene network activity that predicts outcome and response to mitotic protein inhibitors in breast cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Zhi; Mao, Jian-Hua; Curtis, Christina; ...

    2016-07-01

    Background: High mitotic activity is associated with the genesis and progression of many cancers. Small molecule inhibitors of mitotic apparatus proteins are now being developed and evaluated clinically as anticancer agents. With clinical trials of several of these experimental compounds underway, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that determine high mitotic activity, identify tumor subtypes that carry molecular aberrations that confer high mitotic activity, and to develop molecular markers that distinguish which tumors will be most responsive to mitotic apparatus inhibitors. Methods: We identified a coordinately regulated mitotic apparatus network by analyzing gene expression profiles for 53 malignantmore » and non-malignant human breast cancer cell lines and two separate primary breast tumor datasets. We defined the mitotic network activity index (MNAI) as the sum of the transcriptional levels of the 54 coordinately regulated mitotic apparatus genes. The effect of those genes on cell growth was evaluated by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results: High MNAI was enriched in basal-like breast tumors and was associated with reduced survival duration and preferential sensitivity to i nhibitors of the mitotic apparatus proteins, polo-like kinase, centromere associated protein E and aurora kinase designated GSK462364, GSK923295 and GSK1070916, respectively. Co-amplification of regions of chromosomes 8q24, 10p15-p12, 12p13, and 17q24-q25 was associated with the transcriptional upregulation of this network of 54 mitotic apparatus genes, and we identify transcription factors that localize to these regions and putatively regulate mitotic activity. Knockdown of the mitotic network by siRNA identified 22 genes that might be considered as additional therapeutic targets for this clinically relevant patient subgroup. Conclusions: We define a molecular signature which may guide therapeutic approaches for tumors with high mitotic network activity.« less

  12. Genome co-amplification upregulates a mitotic gene network activity that predicts outcome and response to mitotic protein inhibitors in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhi; Mao, Jian-Hua; Curtis, Christina; Huang, Ge; Gu, Shenda; Heiser, Laura; Lenburg, Marc E.; Korkola, James E.; Bayani, Nora; Samarajiwa, Shamith; Seoane, Jose A.; Dane, Mark A.; Esch, Amanda; Feiler, Heidi S.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Laquerre, Sylvie; Jackson, Jeff; W. Wood, Kenneth; Weber, Barbara; Spellman, Paul T.; Aparicio, Samuel; Wooster, Richard; Caldas, Carlos; Gray, Joe W.

    2016-07-01

    Background: High mitotic activity is associated with the genesis and progression of many cancers. Small molecule inhibitors of mitotic apparatus proteins are now being developed and evaluated clinically as anticancer agents. With clinical trials of several of these experimental compounds underway, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that determine high mitotic activity, identify tumor subtypes that carry molecular aberrations that confer high mitotic activity, and to develop molecular markers that distinguish which tumors will be most responsive to mitotic apparatus inhibitors. Methods: We identified a coordinately regulated mitotic apparatus network by analyzing gene expression profiles for 53 malignant and non-malignant human breast cancer cell lines and two separate primary breast tumor datasets. We defined the mitotic network activity index (MNAI) as the sum of the transcriptional levels of the 54 coordinately regulated mitotic apparatus genes. The effect of those genes on cell growth was evaluated by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results: High MNAI was enriched in basal-like breast tumors and was associated with reduced survival duration and preferential sensitivity to i nhibitors of the mitotic apparatus proteins, polo-like kinase, centromere associated protein E and aurora kinase designated GSK462364, GSK923295 and GSK1070916, respectively. Co-amplification of regions of chromosomes 8q24, 10p15-p12, 12p13, and 17q24-q25 was associated with the transcriptional upregulation of this network of 54 mitotic apparatus genes, and we identify transcription factors that localize to these regions and putatively regulate mitotic activity. Knockdown of the mitotic network by siRNA identified 22 genes that might be considered as additional therapeutic targets for this clinically relevant patient subgroup. Conclusions: We define a molecular signature which may guide therapeutic approaches for tumors with high mitotic network activity.

  13. Genome co-amplification upregulates a mitotic gene network activity that predicts outcome and response to mitotic protein inhibitors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi; Mao, Jian-Hua; Curtis, Christina; Huang, Ge; Gu, Shenda; Heiser, Laura; Lenburg, Marc E; Korkola, James E; Bayani, Nora; Samarajiwa, Shamith; Seoane, Jose A; A Dane, Mark; Esch, Amanda; Feiler, Heidi S; Wang, Nicholas J; Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Laquerre, Sylvie; Jackson, Jeff; W Wood, Kenneth; Weber, Barbara; Spellman, Paul T; Aparicio, Samuel; Wooster, Richard; Caldas, Carlos; Gray, Joe W

    2016-07-01

    High mitotic activity is associated with the genesis and progression of many cancers. Small molecule inhibitors of mitotic apparatus proteins are now being developed and evaluated clinically as anticancer agents. With clinical trials of several of these experimental compounds underway, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that determine high mitotic activity, identify tumor subtypes that carry molecular aberrations that confer high mitotic activity, and to develop molecular markers that distinguish which tumors will be most responsive to mitotic apparatus inhibitors. We identified a coordinately regulated mitotic apparatus network by analyzing gene expression profiles for 53 malignant and non-malignant human breast cancer cell lines and two separate primary breast tumor datasets. We defined the mitotic network activity index (MNAI) as the sum of the transcriptional levels of the 54 coordinately regulated mitotic apparatus genes. The effect of those genes on cell growth was evaluated by small interfering RNA (siRNA). High MNAI was enriched in basal-like breast tumors and was associated with reduced survival duration and preferential sensitivity to inhibitors of the mitotic apparatus proteins, polo-like kinase, centromere associated protein E and aurora kinase designated GSK462364, GSK923295 and GSK1070916, respectively. Co-amplification of regions of chromosomes 8q24, 10p15-p12, 12p13, and 17q24-q25 was associated with the transcriptional upregulation of this network of 54 mitotic apparatus genes, and we identify transcription factors that localize to these regions and putatively regulate mitotic activity. Knockdown of the mitotic network by siRNA identified 22 genes that might be considered as additional therapeutic targets for this clinically relevant patient subgroup. We define a molecular signature which may guide therapeutic approaches for tumors with high mitotic network activity.

  14. LATS1/WARTS phosphorylates MYPT1 to counteract PLK1 and regulate mammalian mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Chiyoda, Tatsuyuki; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Takatsune; Naoe, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Ishizawa, Jo; Arima, Yoshimi; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Ito, Masaaki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Aoki, Daisuke; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    In the mitotic exit network of budding yeast, Dbf2 kinase phosphorylates and regulates Cdc14 phosphatase. In contrast, no phosphatase substrates of LATS1/WARTS kinase, the mammalian equivalent of Dbf2, has been reported. To address this discrepancy, we performed phosphoproteomic screening using LATS1 kinase. Screening identified MYPT1 (myosin phosphatase–targeting subunit 1) as a new substrate for LATS1. LATS1 directly and preferentially phosphorylated serine 445 (S445) of MYPT1. An MYPT1 mutant (S445A) failed to dephosphorylate Thr 210 of PLK1 (pololike kinase 1), thereby activating PLK1. This suggests that LATS1 promotes MYPT1 to antagonize PLK1 activity. Consistent with this, LATS1-depleted HeLa cells or fibroblasts from LATS1 knockout mice showed increased PLK1 activity. We also found deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage–induced LATS1 activation caused PLK1 suppression via the phosphorylation of MYPT1 S445. Furthermore, LATS1 knockdown cells showed reduced G2 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. These results indicate that LATS1 phosphorylates a phosphatase as does the yeast Dbf2 and demonstrate a novel role of LATS1 in controlling PLK1 at the G2 DNA damage checkpoint. PMID:22641346

  15. The DEAD-box RNA helicase Vasa functions in embryonic mitotic progression in the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M

    2011-06-01

    Vasa is a broadly conserved ATP-dependent RNA helicase that functions in the germ line of organisms from cnidarians to mammals. Curiously, Vasa is also present in the somatic cells of many animals and functions as a regulator of multipotent cells. Here, we report a mitotic function of Vasa revealed in the sea urchin embryo. We found that Vasa protein is present in all blastomeres of the early embryo and that its abundance oscillates with the cell cycle. Vasa associates with the spindle and the separating sister chromatids at metaphase, and then quickly disappears after telophase. Inhibition of Vasa protein synthesis interferes with proper chromosome segregation, arrests cells at M-phase, and delays overall cell cycle progression. Cdk activity is necessary for the proper localization of Vasa, implying that Vasa is involved in the cyclin-dependent cell cycle network, and Vasa is required for the efficient translation of cyclinB mRNA. Our results suggest an evolutionarily conserved role of Vasa that is independent of its function in germ line determination.

  16. Glycophthalocyanines as photosensitizers for triggering mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana R M; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Iglesias-de la Cruz, M Carmen; Zamarrón, Alicia; Carrasco, Elisa; González, Salvador; Cavaleiro, José A S; Torres, Tomás; Guldi, Dirk M; Juarranz, Angeles

    2012-04-16

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for different forms of cancer based on the combination of light, molecular oxygen, and a photosensitizer (PS) compound. When activated by light, the PS generates reactive oxygen species leading to tumor destruction. Phthalocyanines are compounds that have already shown to be efficient PSs for PDT. Several examples of carbohydrate substituted phthalocyanines have been reported, assuming that the presence of carbohydrate moieties could improve their tumor selectivity. This work describes the photoeffects of symmetric and asymmetric phthalocyanines with D-galactose (so-called GPh1, GPh2, and GPh3) on HeLa carcinoma cells and their involvement in cell death. Photophysical properties and in vitro photodynamic activities for the compounds considered revealed that the asymmetric glycophthalocyanine GPh3 is very efficient and selective, producing higher photocytotoxicity on cancer cells than in nonmalignat HaCaT. The cell toxiticy after PDT treatment was dependent upon light exposure level and GPh3 concentration. GPh3 causes cell cycle arrest at the metaphase stage leading to multiple spindle poles, mitotic catastrophe, followed by apoptosis in cancer cells. These effects were partially negated by the pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Together, these results indicate that GPh3 is an excellent candidate drug for PDT, able to induce selective tumor cell death.

  17. Cortical neurons gradually attain a post-mitotic state

    PubMed Central

    Anda, Froylan Calderon de; Madabhushi, Ram; Rei, Damien; Meng, Jia; Gräff, Johannes; Durak, Omer; Meletis, Konstantinos; Richter, Melanie; Schwanke, Birgit; Mungenast, Alison; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Once generated, neurons are thought to permanently exit the cell cycle and become irreversibly differentiated. However, neither the precise point at which this post-mitotic state is attained nor the extent of its irreversibility is clearly defined. Here we report that newly born neurons from the upper layers of the mouse cortex, despite initiating axon and dendrite elongation, continue to drive gene expression from the neural progenitor tubulin α1 promoter (Tα1p). These observations suggest an ambiguous post-mitotic neuronal state. Whole transcriptome analysis of sorted upper cortical neurons further revealed that neurons continue to express genes related to cell cycle progression long after mitotic exit until at least post-natal day 3 (P3). These genes are however down-regulated thereafter, associated with a concomitant up-regulation of tumor suppressors at P5. Interestingly, newly born neurons located in the cortical plate (CP) at embryonic day 18-19 (E18-E19) and P3 challenged with calcium influx are found in S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and still able to undergo division at E18-E19 but not at P3. At P5 however, calcium influx becomes neurotoxic and leads instead to neuronal loss. Our data delineate an unexpected flexibility of cell cycle control in early born neurons, and describe how neurons transit to a post-mitotic state. PMID:27325298

  18. Regulation of Aurora-A kinase on the mitotic spindle.

    PubMed

    Kufer, Thomas A; Nigg, Erich A; Silljé, Herman H W

    2003-12-01

    The error-free segregation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division is essential for the maintenance of an intact genome. This process is brought about by a highly dynamic bipolar array of microtubules, the mitotic spindle. The formation and function of the mitotic spindle during M-phase of the cell cycle is regulated by protein phosphorylation, involving multiple protein kinases and phosphatases. Prominent among the enzymes implicated in spindle assembly is the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Aurora-A. In several common human tumors, Aurora-A is overexpressed, and deregulation of this kinase was shown to result in mitotic defects and aneuploidy. Moreover, recent genetic evidence directly links the human Aurora-A gene to cancer susceptibility. Several of the physiological substrates of Aurora-A presumably await identification, but recent studies are beginning to shed light on the regulation of this critical mitotic kinase. Here, we review these findings with particular emphasis on the role of TPX2, a prominent spindle component implicated in a Ran-GTP-mediated spindle assembly pathway.

  19. GSK3 Regulates Mitotic Chromosomal Alignment through CRMP4

    PubMed Central

    Ong Tone, Stephan; Dayanandan, Bama

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) has been implicated in regulating chromosomal alignment and mitotic progression but the physiological substrates mediating these GSK3-dependent effects have not been identified. Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 4 (CRMP4) is a cytosolic phosphoprotein known to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and is a known physiological substrate of GSK3. In this study, we investigate the role of CRMP4 during mitosis. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that during mitosis CRMP4 phosphorylation is regulated in a GSK3-dependent manner. We show that CRMP4 localizes to spindle microtubules during mitosis and loss of CRMP4 disrupts chromosomal alignment and mitotic progression. The effect of CRMP4 on chromosomal alignment is dependent on phosphorylation by GSK3 identifying CRMP4 as a critical GSK3 substrate during mitotic progression. We also provide mechanistic data demonstrating that CRMP4 regulates spindle microtubules consistent with its known role in the regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Conclusion and Significance Our findings identify CRMP4 as a key physiological substrate of GSK3 in regulating chromosomal alignment and mitotic progression through its effect on spindle microtubules. PMID:21179545

  20. Rab11-endosomes contribute to mitotic spindle orientation

    PubMed Central

    Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    During interphase, Rab11-GTPase-containing endosomes recycle endocytic cargo. However, little is known about Rab11 and endosomes in mitosis. Here we show that Rab11 localizes to the mitotic spindle and regulates dynein-dependent endosome localization at poles. We found that mitotic recycling endosomes bind γ-TuRC components and associate with tubulin in vitro. Rab11-depletion or dominant-negative Rab11 expression disrupts astral microtubules, delays mitosis, and redistributes spindle pole proteins. Reciprocally, constitutively-active Rab11 increases astral microtubules, restores γ-tubulin spindle pole localization and generates robust spindles. This suggests a fundamental role for Rab11 activity in spindle pole maturation during mitosis. Rab11 depletion causes misorientation of the mitotic spindle and the plane of cell division. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the organization of astral microtubules and the mitotic spindle through Rab11-dependent control of spindle pole assembly and function. We propose that Rab11 and its associated endosomes co-contribute to these processes through retrograde transport to poles by dynein. PMID:24561039

  1. Cortical neurons gradually attain a post-mitotic state.

    PubMed

    Anda, Froylan Calderon de; Madabhushi, Ram; Rei, Damien; Meng, Jia; Gräff, Johannes; Durak, Omer; Meletis, Konstantinos; Richter, Melanie; Schwanke, Birgit; Mungenast, Alison; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2016-09-01

    Once generated, neurons are thought to permanently exit the cell cycle and become irreversibly differentiated. However, neither the precise point at which this post-mitotic state is attained nor the extent of its irreversibility is clearly defined. Here we report that newly born neurons from the upper layers of the mouse cortex, despite initiating axon and dendrite elongation, continue to drive gene expression from the neural progenitor tubulin α1 promoter (Tα1p). These observations suggest an ambiguous post-mitotic neuronal state. Whole transcriptome analysis of sorted upper cortical neurons further revealed that neurons continue to express genes related to cell cycle progression long after mitotic exit until at least post-natal day 3 (P3). These genes are however down-regulated thereafter, associated with a concomitant up-regulation of tumor suppressors at P5. Interestingly, newly born neurons located in the cortical plate (CP) at embryonic day 18-19 (E18-E19) and P3 challenged with calcium influx are found in S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and still able to undergo division at E18-E19 but not at P3. At P5 however, calcium influx becomes neurotoxic and leads instead to neuronal loss. Our data delineate an unexpected flexibility of cell cycle control in early born neurons, and describe how neurons transit to a post-mitotic state.

  2. Tumor suppressor VHL functions in the control of mitotic fidelity.

    PubMed

    Hell, Michael P; Duda, Maria; Weber, Thomas C; Moch, Holger; Krek, Wilhelm

    2014-05-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein pVHL is commonly mutated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and has been implicated in the control of multiple cellular processes that might be linked to tumor suppression, including promoting proper spindle orientation and chromosomal stability. However, it is unclear whether pVHL exerts these mitotic regulatory functions in vivo as well. Here, we applied ischemic kidney injury to stimulate cell division in otherwise quiescent mouse adult kidneys. We show that in the short term (5.5 days after surgery), Vhl-deficient kidney cells demonstrate both spindle misorientation and aneuploidy. The spindle misorientation phenotype encompassed changes in directed cell division, which may manifest in the development of cystic lesions, whereas the aneuploidy phenotype involved the occurrence of lagging chromosomes but not chromosome bridges, indicative of mitotic checkpoint impairment. Intriguingly, in the long term (4 months after the ischemic insult), Vhl-deficient kidneys displayed a heterogeneous pattern of ccRCC precursor lesions, including cysts, clear cell-type cells, and dysplasia. Together, these data provide direct evidence for a key role of pVHL in mediating oriented cell division and faithful mitotic checkpoint function in the renal epithelium, emphasizing the importance of pVHL as a controller of mitotic fidelity in vivo. ©2014 AACR.

  3. Arrest and detention in international travellers.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Douglas W; Gushulak, Brian D; Sandhu, James

    2007-07-01

    Systematic published reviews of national arrests of travellers abroad are rare. The pattern of arrest during international travel has implications for travellers and those involved in providing traveller services. There are also consequences for travellers who are arrested and detained abroad. The Consular Affairs Bureau, Foreign Affairs Canada assists Canadian civilians who are abroad. Beginning in 1995 the Consular Management and Operations System was used to track notifications of Canadian arrests abroad. This database was designed for the demographics, destinations, and reported causes of Canadians arrested abroad for 1996-2004. In this period, there were 6514 notifications of arrested Canadians abroad; 1024 (16%) females and 5490 (84%) males with an average age of 33.3 and 36.4 years, respectively. Recorded reasons for arrest were for females: drugs: 420 (41% of females arrested), violence: 75 (7%), other criminal acts: 198 (19%), immigration: 169 (17%), other minor causes: 20 (2%); and for males: drugs: 1554 (28% of males arrested), violence: 581 (11%), other criminal acts: 1468 (27%), immigration: 1056 (20%), other minor causes: 105 (1.9%); or the cause was not recorded for 142 women and 747 men. The USA was the most common host country for arrested Canadians. Alleged drug offences, other criminal activities, and immigration reasons were the most common cited reasons for arrest. Country of arrest reflected the pattern of Canadian international travel for recreation, business, and ancestral linkages. There are a wide-range of potential physical and mental health outcomes to arrest and imprisonment abroad that may be different in foreign jurisdictions due to language, culture, judicial processes and penalties imposed. The prison environment may also pose significant health risks.

  4. Cytotoxic effects of cylindrospermopsin in mitotic and non-mitotic Vicia faba cells.

    PubMed

    Garda, Tamás; Riba, Milán; Vasas, Gábor; Beyer, Dániel; M-Hamvas, Márta; Hajdu, Gréta; Tándor, Ildikó; Máthé, Csaba

    2015-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin known as a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. We aimed to study its effects on growth, stress responses and mitosis of a eukaryotic model, Vicia faba (broad bean). Growth responses depended on exposure time (3 or 6d), cyanotoxin concentration, culture conditions (dark or continuous light) and V. faba cultivar ("Standard" or "ARC Egypt Cross"). At 6d of exposure, CYN had a transient stimulatory effect on root system growth, roots being possibly capable of detoxification. The toxin induced nucleus fragmentation, blebbing and chromosomal breaks indicating double stranded DNA breaks and programmed cell death. Root necrotic tissue was observed at 0.1-20 μg mL(-1) CYN that probably impeded toxin uptake into vascular tissue. Growth and cell death processes observed were general stress responses. In lateral root tip meristems, lower CYN concentrations (0.01-0.1 μg mL(-1)) induced the stimulation of mitosis and distinct mitotic phases, irrespective of culture conditions or the cultivar used. Higher cyanotoxin concentrations inhibited mitosis. Short-term exposure of hydroxylurea-synchronized roots to 5 μg mL(-1) CYN induced delay of mitosis that might have been related to a delay of de novo protein synthesis. CYN induced the formation of double, split and asymmetric preprophase bands (PPBs), in parallel with the alteration of cell division planes, related to the interference of cyanotoxin with protein synthesis, thus it was a plant- and CYN specific alteration.

  5. Ral A, via activating the mitotic checkpoint, sensitizes cells lacking a functional Nf1 to apoptosis in the absence of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Suthakar; Fagman, Johan B; Shen, Ling; Yu, Tianqi; Zhou, Xiaodong; Dai, Wei; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Chen, Changyan

    2016-12-20

    Nf1 mutations or deletions are suggested to underlie the tumor predisposition of NF1 (neurofibromatosis type 1) and few treatments are available for treating NF1 patients with advanced malignant tumors. Aberrant activation of Ras in Nf1-deficient conditions is responsible for the promotion of tumorigenesis in NF1. PKC is proven to be an important factor in supporting the viability of Nf1-defected cells, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (HMG, a PKC inhibitor) preferentially sensitizes Nf1-defected cells to apoptosis, via triggering a persistent mitotic arrest. In this process, Ral A is activated. Subsequently, Chk1 is phosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus. Silencing Ral A significantly blocks Chk1 nuclear translocation and releases HMG-treated Nf1-deficient cells from mitotic arrest, resulting in the reduction of the magnitude of apoptosis. Thus, our study reveals that PKC is able to maintain the homeostasis or viability of Nf1-defected cells and may serve as a potential target for developing new therapeutic strategies.

  6. A High Throughput, Whole Cell Screen for Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Mitotic Spindle Checkpoint Identifies OM137, a Novel Aurora Kinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    DeMoe, Joanna H.; Santaguida, Stefano; Daum, John R.; Musacchio, Andrea; Gorbsky, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    In mitosis the kinetochores of chromosomes that lack full microtubule attachments and/or mechanical tension activate a signaling pathway called the mitotic spindle checkpoint that blocks progression into anaphase and prevents premature segregation of the chromatids until chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate (1). The spindle checkpoint is responsible for arresting cells in mitosis in response to chemotherapeutic spindle poisons such as paclitaxel or vinblastine. Some cancer cells show a weakened checkpoint signaling system that may contribute to chromosome instability in tumors. Since complete absence of the spindle checkpoint leads to catastrophic cell division, we reasoned that drugs targeting the checkpoint might provide a therapeutic window in which the checkpoint would be eliminated in cancer cells but sufficiently preserved in normal cells. We developed an assay to identify lead compounds that inhibit the spindle checkpoint. Most cells respond to microtubule drugs by activating the spindle checkpoint and arresting in mitosis with a rounded morphology. Our assay depended on the ability of checkpoint inhibitor compounds to drive mitotic exit and cause cells to flatten onto the substrate in the continuous presence of microtubule drugs. In this study we characterize one of the compounds, OM137, as an inhibitor of Aurora kinases. We find that this compound is growth inhibitory to cultured cells when applied at high concentration and potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of subnanomolar concentrations of paclitaxel. PMID:19190331

  7. Mechanism of APC/CCDC20 activation by mitotic phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Renping; Weissmann, Florian; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Brown, Nicholas G.; VanderLinden, Ryan; Imre, Richard; Jarvis, Marc A.; Brunner, Michael R.; Davidson, Iain F.; Litos, Gabriele; Haselbach, David; Mechtler, Karl; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A.; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit are initiated by the 1.2-MDa ubiquitin ligase APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) and its coactivator CDC20 (cell division cycle 20). To avoid chromosome missegregation, APC/CCDC20 activation is tightly controlled. CDC20 only associates with APC/C in mitosis when APC/C has become phosphorylated and is further inhibited by a mitotic checkpoint complex until all chromosomes are bioriented on the spindle. APC/C contains 14 different types of subunits, most of which are phosphorylated in mitosis on multiple sites. However, it is unknown which of these phospho-sites enable APC/CCDC20 activation and by which mechanism. Here we have identified 68 evolutionarily conserved mitotic phospho-sites on human APC/C bound to CDC20 and have used the biGBac technique to generate 47 APC/C mutants in which either all 68 sites or subsets of them were replaced by nonphosphorylatable or phospho-mimicking residues. The characterization of these complexes in substrate ubiquitination and degradation assays indicates that phosphorylation of an N-terminal loop region in APC1 is sufficient for binding and activation of APC/C by CDC20. Deletion of the N-terminal APC1 loop enables APC/CCDC20 activation in the absence of mitotic phosphorylation or phospho-mimicking mutations. These results indicate that binding of CDC20 to APC/C is normally prevented by an autoinhibitory loop in APC1 and that its mitotic phosphorylation relieves this inhibition. The predicted location of the N-terminal APC1 loop implies that this loop controls interactions between the N-terminal domain of CDC20 and APC1 and APC8. These results reveal how APC/C phosphorylation enables CDC20 to bind and activate the APC/C in mitosis. PMID:27114510

  8. Developmentally arrested Austrofundulus limnaeus embryos have changes in post-translational modifications of histone H3.

    PubMed

    Toni, Lee S; Padilla, Pamela A

    2016-02-01

    Although vertebrate embryogenesis is typically a continuous and dynamic process, some embryos have evolved mechanisms to developmentally arrest. The embryos of Austrofundulus limnaeus, a killifish that resides in ephemeral ponds, routinely enter diapause II (DII), a reversible developmental arrest promoted by endogenous cues rather than environmental stress. DII, which starts at 24-26 days post-fertilization and can persist for months, is characterized by a significant decline in heart rate and an arrest of development and differentiation. Thus, A. limnaeus is a unique model to study epigenetic features associated with embryonic arrest. To investigate chromosome structures associated with mitosis or gene expression, we examined the post-translational modifications of histone H3 (phosphorylation of serine 10, mono-, di- and tri-methylation of lysine 4 or 27) in preDII, DII and postDII embryos. As seen by microscopy analysis, DII embryos have a significant decrease in the H3S10P marker for mitotic nuclei and an inner nuclear membrane localization of the H3K27me2 marker associated with silencing of gene expression. ELISA experiments reveal that the levels of methylation at H3K4 and H3K27 are significantly different between preDII, DII and postDII embryos, indicating that there are molecular differences between embryos of different chronological age and stage of development. Furthermore, in DII embryos relative to preDII embryos, there are differences in the level of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, which may reflect critical chromatin remodeling that occurs prior to arrest of embryogenesis. This work helps lay a foundation for chromatin analysis of vertebrate embryo diapause, an intriguing yet greatly understudied phenomenon.

  9. Evidence for arrested bone formation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Bobyn, J. D.; Duvall, P.; Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.; Spector, M.

    1982-01-01

    Addressing the question of whether the bone formed in space is unusual, the morphology of bone made at the tibial diaphysis of rats before, during, and after spaceflight is studied. Evidence of arrest lines in the bone formed in space is reported suggesting that bone formation ceases along portions of the periosteum during spaceflight. Visualized by microradiography, the arrest lines are shown to be less mineralized than the surrounding bone matrix. When viewed by scanning electron microscopy, it is seen that bone fractures more readily at the site of an arrest line. These observations are seen as suggesting that arrest lines are a zone of weakness and that their formation may result in decreased bone strength in spite of normalization of bone formation after flight. The occurrence, location, and morphology of arrest lines are seen as suggesting that they are a visible result of the phenomenon of arrested bone formation.

  10. Inhibition of Plk1 and Cyclin B1 Expression Results in Panobinostat-Induced G2 Delay and Mitotic Defects

    PubMed Central

    Prystowsky, Michael; Feeney, Katherine; Kawachi, Nicole; Montagna, Cristina; Willmott, Michelle; Wasson, Christopher; Antkowiak, Maciej; Loudig, Olivier; Parish, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The development of clinically useful histone deacetylase inhibitors has expanded greatly. In a preclinical study, we showed that panobinostat (LBH589) inhibits cell cycle progression of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines at G2/M and an associated decrease in expression of particular genes required for passage through G2 and mitosis. In this study we sought to analyse the mechanistic underpinnings of panobinostat-induced growth arrest. HNSCC cell lines were synchronised and progression through mitosis monitored. We demonstrate that panobinostat causes a marked G2 delay and mitotic defects. A loss of G2-specific Plk1 and Cyclin B1 expression and co-incident increase in p21Waf1/Cip1 expression is also shown. Furthermore, we show a significant loss of E2F1 recruitment to the promoters of these genes in response to panobinostat treatment. These data provide mechanistic evidence of panobinostat-induced cell cycle arrest and highlight its potential as a chemotherapeutic agent for HNSCC. PMID:24026482

  11. Application of lightning arrester on transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, K.

    1990-05-01

    A lightning arrester on transmission lines is expected to reduce lightning incidents; however, the problems of the application guide to be established such as the method of application, the treating capacity for lightning energy, and the coordination to an arc horn remain as they are. The method of application for a lightning arrester on transmission lines and its effect are examined from the viewpoint of the generating incident on transmission lines by lightning and the operating viewpoint of a lightning arrester for a 77kV system. The double circuit setup of an arrester is the best method to reduce the lightning incidents and the single circuit setup can reduce the incident rate by 40 percent preventing the flashover of the circuit on which the arrester is not set up. For installing an arrester on a short section, the flashover point can transfer to the next steel tower where the arrester is not set up, only when lightning strikes the last steel tower. Inflowing current into an arrester from a direct lightning strike is considerably large and the energy at that time becomes large but this energy can be reduced by the operation of the arrester set up on another steel tower.

  12. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  13. MOV surge arresters: improved substation equipment protection

    SciTech Connect

    Niebuhr, W.D.

    1985-07-01

    The introduction of metal-oxide-varistor (MOV) surge arresters has added a new dimension to substation equipment protection. Through the optimal use of these arresters, it is possible to lower surge arrester ratings and thereby improve protective margins, resulting in a possible reduction of the insulation levels (BIL) of substation equipment. This reduction in BIL can lead to a significant reduction in the cost of substation equipment. General methods are delineated for selecting MOV surge arresters for substation protection and the resulting effect on substation equipment insulation levels.

  14. Ras family proteins: new players involved in the diplotene arrest of Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Jessus, C; Rime, H; Ozon, R

    1998-11-01

    Oogonia undergo numerous mitotic cell cycles before completing the last DNA replication and entering the meiotic prophase I. After chromosome pairing and chromatid exchanges between paired chromosomes, the oocyte I remains arrested at the diplotene stage of the first meiotic prophase. Oocyte growth then occurs independently of cell division; indeed, during this growth period, oocytes (4n DNA) are prevented from completing the meiotic divisions. How is the prophase arrest regulated? One of the players of the prophase block is the high level of intracellular cAMP, maintained by an active adenylate cyclase. By using lethal toxin from Clostridium sordellii (LT), a glucosyltransferase that glucosylates and inactivates small G proteins of the Ras subfamily, we have shown that inhibition of either Ras or Rap or both proteins is sufficient to release the prophase block of Xenopus oocytes in a cAMP-dependent manner. The implications of Ras family proteins as new players involved in the prophase arrest of Xenopus oocytes will be discussed here.

  15. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  16. Investigation following resuscitated cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Roughly two thirds of resuscitated cardiac arrests in children and youth are due to inherited heart diseases. The most commonly implicated are the cardiac ion channelopathies long QT syndrome, CPVT (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) and Brugada syndrome. Diagnosis is pivotal to further management of the child if he/she survives, and also to other family members who may be at risk. Thorough investigation of the cardiac arrest survivor is essential to either identify or exclude inherited heart disease. If standard cardiac investigation does not reveal a diagnosis, pharmacological provocation tests are needed to unmask electrocardiographic signs of disease, even if, due to severe brain injury, it is planned ultimately to allow a natural death. Examples are the ajmaline/flecainide challenge for Brugada syndrome and epinephrine for CPVT. A supportive, informative and sympathetic approach to the family is essential. An arrhythmia specialist and a cardiac genetic service should be involved early, with storage of DNA and cardiac/genetic investigation of the family. This review proposes a diagnostic algorithm-based approach to the investigation of this increasingly common clinical scenario.

  17. Role of Polo-like kinase in the degradation of early mitotic inhibitor 1, a regulator of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Yakir; Boulaire, Jérôme; Pagano, Michele; Hershko, Avram

    2004-01-01

    Early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) inhibits the activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that targets mitotic regulators for degradation in exit from mitosis. Levels of Emi1 oscillate in the cell cycle: it accumulates in the S phase and is rapidly degraded in prometaphase. The degradation of Emi1 in early mitosis is necessary for the activation of APC/C in late mitosis. Previous studies have shown that Emi1 is targeted for degradation in mitosis by a Skp1–Cullin1 F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex that contains the F-box protein β-TrCP. As with other substrates of SCFβ-TrCP, the phosphorylation of Emi1 on a DSGxxS sequence is required for this process. However, the protein kinase(s) involved has not been identified. We find that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a protein kinase that accumulates in mitosis, markedly stimulates the ligation of Emi1 to ubiquitin by purified SCFβ-TrCP. Cdk1-cyclin B, another major mitotic protein kinase, has no influence on this process by itself but stimulates the action of Plk1 at low, physiological concentrations. Plk1 phosphorylates serine residues in the DSGxxS sequence of Emi1, as suggested by the reduced phosphorylation of a derivative in which the two serines were mutated to nonphosphorylatable amino acids. Transfection with an small interfering RNA duplex directed against Plk1 caused the accumulation of Emi1 in mitotically arrested HeLa cells. It is suggested that phosphorylation of Emi1 by Plk1 is involved in its degradation in mitosis. PMID:15148369

  18. 33 CFR 154.822 - Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arresters, and flame screens. 154.822 Section 154.822 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.822 Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. (a) Each... Commandant (G-MSO). (c) Each flame screen required by this part must be either a single screen of corrosion...

  19. Brownian dynamics simulation of fission yeast mitotic spindle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmaier, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The mitotic spindle segregates chromosomes during mitosis. The dynamics that establish bipolar spindle formation are not well understood. We have developed a computational model of fission-yeast mitotic spindle formation using Brownian dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. Our model includes rigid, dynamic microtubules, a spherical nuclear envelope, spindle pole bodies anchored in the nuclear envelope, and crosslinkers and crosslinking motor proteins. Crosslinkers and crosslinking motor proteins attach and detach in a grand canonical ensemble, and exert forces and torques on the attached microtubules. We have modeled increased affinity for crosslinking motor attachment to antiparallel microtubule pairs, and stabilization of microtubules in the interpolar bundle. We study parameters controlling the stability of the interpolar bundle and assembly of a bipolar spindle from initially adjacent spindle-pole bodies.

  20. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division. PMID:26310442

  1. Control of the mitotic cleavage plane by local epithelial topology

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, William T.; Veldhuis, James H.; Rubinstein, Boris; Cartwright, Heather N.; Perrimon, Norbert; Brodland, G. Wayne; Nagpal, Radhika; Gibson, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY For nearly 150 years, it has been recognized that cell shape strongly influences the orientation of the mitotic cleavage plane (e.g. Hofmeister, 1863). However, we still understand little about the complex interplay between cell shape and cleavage plane orientation in epithelia, where polygonal cell geometries emerge from multiple factors, including cell packing, cell growth, and cell division itself. Here, using mechanical simulations, we show that the polygonal shapes of individual cells can systematically bias the long axis orientations of their adjacent mitotic neighbors. Strikingly, analysis of both animal epithelia and plant epidermis confirm a robust and nearly identical correlation between local cell topology and cleavage plane orientation in vivo. Using simple mathematics, we show that this effect derives from fundamental packing constraints. Our results suggest that local epithelial topology is a key determinant of cleavage plane orientation, and that cleavage plane bias may be a widespread property of polygonal cell sheets in plants and animals. PMID:21295702

  2. Analysis of the Functionality of the Mitotic Checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Fraschini, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    During cell division the main goal of the cell is to produce two daughter cells with the same genome as the mother, i.e., maintain its genetic stability. Since this issue is essential to preserve the cell ability to proliferate properly, all eukaryotic cells have developed several pathways, called mitotic checkpoints, that regulate mitotic entry, progression, and exit in response to different cellular signals. Given the evolutive conservation of mechanisms and proteins involved in the cell cycle control from yeast to humans, the budding yeast S. cerevisiae has been very helpful to gain insight in these complex regulations. Here, we describe how the checkpoint can be activated and which cellular phenotypes can be used as markers of checkpoint activation.

  3. Molecular pathways regulating mitotic spindle orientation in animal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Michelle S.; Johnston, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation of the cell division axis is essential for the correct development and maintenance of tissue morphology, both for symmetric cell divisions and for the asymmetric distribution of fate determinants during, for example, stem cell divisions. Oriented cell division depends on the positioning of the mitotic spindle relative to an axis of polarity. Recent studies have illuminated an expanding list of spindle orientation regulators, and a molecular model for how cells couple cortical polarity with spindle positioning has begun to emerge. Here, we review both the well-established spindle orientation pathways and recently identified regulators, focusing on how communication between the cell cortex and the spindle is achieved, to provide a contemporary view of how positioning of the mitotic spindle occurs. PMID:23571210

  4. Mitotic Spindle Assembly in Land Plants: Molecules and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Moé; Goshima, Gohta

    2017-01-01

    In textbooks, the mitotic spindles of plants are often described separately from those of animals. How do they differ at the molecular and mechanistic levels? In this chapter, we first outline the process of mitotic spindle assembly in animals and land plants. We next discuss the conservation of spindle assembly factors based on database searches. Searches of >100 animal spindle assembly factors showed that the genes involved in this process are well conserved in plants, with the exception of two major missing elements: centrosomal components and subunits/regulators of the cytoplasmic dynein complex. We then describe the spindle and phragmoplast assembly mechanisms based on the data obtained from robust gene loss-of-function analyses using RNA interference (RNAi) or mutant plants. Finally, we discuss future research prospects of plant spindles. PMID:28125061

  5. Mitotic phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G1 (eIF4G1) at Ser1232 by Cdk1:cyclin B inhibits eIF4A helicase complex binding with RNA.

    PubMed

    Dobrikov, Mikhail I; Shveygert, Mayya; Brown, Michael C; Gromeier, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    During mitosis, global translation is suppressed, while synthesis of proteins with vital mitotic roles must go on. Prior evidence suggests that the mitotic translation shift involves control of initiation. Yet, no signals specifically targeting translation initiation factors during mitosis have been identified. We used phosphoproteomics to investigate the central translation initiation scaffold and "ribosome adaptor," eukaryotic initiation factor 4G1 (eIF4G1) in interphase or nocodazole-arrested mitotic cells. This approach and kinase inhibition assays, in vitro phosphorylation with recombinant kinase, and kinase depletion-reconstitution experiments revealed that Ser1232 in eIF4G1 is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1):cyclin B during mitosis. Ser1232 is located in an unstructured region of the C-terminal portion of eIF4G1 that coordinates assembly of the eIF4G/-4A/-4B helicase complex and binding of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal-integrating kinase, Mnk. Intense phosphorylation of Ser1232 in mitosis strongly enhanced the interactions of eIF4A with HEAT domain 2 of eIF4G and decreased association of eIF4G/-4A with RNA. Our findings implicate phosphorylation of eIF4G1(Ser1232) by Cdk1:cyclin B and its inhibitory effects on eIF4A helicase activity in the mitotic translation initiation shift.

  6. Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Mps1 Has a Role in Normal Physiology which Impacts Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ricardo; Blasina, Alessandra; Hallin, Jill F.; Hu, Wenyue; Rymer, Isha; Fan, Jeffery; Hoffman, Robert L.; Murphy, Sean; Marx, Matthew; Yanochko, Gina; Trajkovic, Dusko; Dinh, Dac; Timofeevski, Sergei; Zhu, Zhou; Sun, Peiquing; Lappin, Patrick B.; Murray, Brion W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint intervention is an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer when applied to patients predisposed to respond and the treatment is well-tolerated. A critical cell cycle process that could be targeted is the mitotic checkpoint (spindle assembly checkpoint) which governs the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and insures proper chromosomal segregation. The mitotic checkpoint kinase Mps1 was selected to explore whether enhancement in genomic instability is a viable therapeutic strategy. The basal-a subset of triple-negative breast cancer was chosen as a model system because it has a higher incidence of chromosomal instability and Mps1 expression is up-regulated. Depletion of Mps1 reduces tumor cell viability relative to normal cells. Highly selective, extremely potent Mps1 kinase inhibitors were created to investigate the roles of Mps1 catalytic activity in tumor cells and normal physiology (PF-7006, PF-3837; Ki<0.5 nM; cellular IC50 2–6 nM). Treatment of tumor cells in vitro with PF-7006 modulates expected Mps1-dependent biology as demonstrated by molecular and phenotypic measures (reduced pHH3-Ser10 levels, shorter duration of mitosis, micro-nucleation, and apoptosis). Tumor-bearing mice treated with PF-7006 exhibit tumor growth inhibition concomitant with pharmacodynamic modulation of a downstream biomarker (pHH3-Ser10). Unfortunately, efficacy only occurs at drug exposures that cause dose-limiting body weight loss, gastrointestinal toxicities, and neutropenia. Mps1 inhibitor toxicities may be mitigated by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest in Rb1-competent cells with the cyclin-dependent kinase-4/6 inhibitor palbociclib. Using an isogenic cellular model system, PF-7006 is shown to be selectively cytotoxic to Rb1-deficient cells relative to Rb1-competent cells (also a measure of kinase selectivity). Human bone marrow cells pretreated with palbociclib have decreased PF-7006-dependent apoptosis relative to cells without palbociclib pretreatment

  7. Leptin increases mitotic index and regeneration ratio in hepatectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Cilekar, Murat; Uysal, Onur; Bal, Cengiz; Turel, Serkan; Yılmaz, Sezgin

    2013-11-13

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of intraperitoneal administration of leptin on the hepatic regeneration and the mitotic index. 56 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups each containing 8 rats. Group 1 was evaluated as the sham group and no surgical procedure was performed on animals. The rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 (named C24, C48, C72, respectively) were given intraperitoneal injection of 2 ml/kg normal saline 60 minutes before the surgical procedure consisting of laparotomy and 70% hepatectomy. These groups were used as controls at 24, 48, and 72 hours. The rats in groups 5, 6, and 7 (named L24, L48, and L72, respectively) were given intraperitoneal injection of 20 µg/kg doses of recombinant mouse leptin 60 minutes before the same surgical procedure. These groups were evaluated as the experiment groups at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Blood samples were collected for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the remaining tissue samples were obtained for liver histopathology, regeneration rate, and mitotic index (MI). The weights of the remaining livers were also noted. The values of AST and ALT were higher in the groups that were administered leptin and they had significantly higher mitotic index than the other groups. Leptin also significantly increased the regeneration ratio as compared to the control group. The weights of the remaining livers were also higher in the leptin groups. Intraperitoneal administration of leptin was observed to increase liver regeneration and mitotic rate in 70% hepatectomized rats.

  8. Pattern formation in stochastic systems: Magnetized billiards and mitotic spindles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffner, Stuart C.

    Physical systems that exhibit chaotic behavior or are subject to thermal noise are treated as random processes, especially if the state of the system cannot be measured precisely. Here we examine two such systems. The first is a single electron confined to a wedge-shaped section of a disk, called a billiard, in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The system exhibits a mixture of chaotic and nonchaotic behavior at different values of the magnetic field strength. If the size of the billiard is on the order of micrometers, as in a quantum dot, both quantum and classical analyses are necessary. The second system is a collection of stiff fibers, called microtubules, suspended in a fluid called the cytoplasm, and lying over chromosomes in a cell. The cytoplasm supplies molecular motors and fuel for the motors. The chromosomes supply motor attachment points. The combination causes the microtubules to self-assemble into a coherent structure called the mitotic spindle. This structure is vital to cell division in plants and animals. Elements of the mitotic spindle have sizes ranging from nanometers to micrometers, and all are subject to considerable thermal agitation. Mitotic spindle self-assembly occurs despite the randomizing effect of this thermal motion. We studied both systems by constructing physical models described by mathematical equations. From these we were able to perform computer simulations. For the billiard problem, we made innovative use of geometric symmetries. These symmetries allowed us to construct efficient representations of both classical and quantum systems. We found a new region of integrable trajectories for a magnetic field above that required to produce completely chaotic orbits. For the mitotic spindle, we were the first to demonstrate spindle self-assembly in a model that matches conditions reported by experimental biologists. Our simulations have shed significant light on which of the many elements in this complex system are

  9. Cyto-3D-print to attach mitotic cells.

    PubMed

    Castroagudin, Michelle R; Zhai, Yujia; Li, Zhi; Marnell, Michael G; Glavy, Joseph S

    2016-08-01

    The Cyto-3D-print is an adapter that adds cytospin capability to a standard centrifuge. Like standard cytospinning, Cyto-3D-print increases the surface attachment of mitotic cells while giving a higher degree of adaptability to other slide chambers than available commercial devices. The use of Cyto-3D-print is cost effective, safe, and applicable to many slide designs. It is durable enough for repeated use and made of biodegradable materials for environment-friendly disposal.

  10. Mitotic activity in dorsal epidermis of Rana pipiens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Arce, H.; Mizell, S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of statistically significant rhythms of mitotic division in dorsal epidermis of frogs, Rana pipiens, exposed to a 12:12 light:dark environment for 14 days. The results include the findings that (1) male animals have a primary period of 22 hr in summer and 18 hr in winter, (2) female animals have an 18 hr period, and (3) parapinealectomy and blinding abolish the rhythm.

  11. Mitotic exit: Determining the PP2A dephosphorylation program.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gislene; Schiebel, Elmar

    2016-08-29

    In mitotic exit, proteins that were highly phosphorylated are sequentially targeted by the phosphatase PP2A-B55, but what underlies substrate selection is unclear. In this issue, Cundell et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201606033) identify the determinants of PP2A-B55's dephosphorylation program, thereby influencing spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope reformation, and cytokinesis.

  12. Mitotic exit: Determining the PP2A dephosphorylation program

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In mitotic exit, proteins that were highly phosphorylated are sequentially targeted by the phosphatase PP2A-B55, but what underlies substrate selection is unclear. In this issue, Cundell et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201606033) identify the determinants of PP2A-B55’s dephosphorylation program, thereby influencing spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope reformation, and cytokinesis. PMID:27551057

  13. [Effects of dithiocarbamates on the mitotic activity of thymocytes].

    PubMed

    Hennighausen, G; Kröning, G

    1988-01-01

    The effects of dithiocarbamates on the mitotic activity of thymocytes were studied in vitro and in vivo. The mitotic activity was determined by counting of the metaphases blocked by colchicine. Using thymocytes of mice the mitotic activity in short-time cultures was inhibited (50%) by the following concentrations of the substances under study (EC50-values in mol/l): tetraethylthiuramdisulfide; (1; disulfiram) 4.2.10(-9); diethyldithiocarbamate (2) 3.2.10(-8), Cu-2, 2.6.10(-8), Zn-dimethyldithiocarbamate (3; Ziram) 1.9.10(-8), Zn-ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (4; Zineb) 2.3.10(-6). Using rat and guinea-pig thymocytes the ED50- values for 1 and 2 were found in the same concentration range as compared with thymocytes of mice. There was no impact on the vitality of cells by the mitosis inhibiting concentrations. In vivo the mitotic activity of thymocytes in mice was decreased only after application of high doses (500 mg/kg i.p.) of 2. After depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) by the pretreatment of mice with diethylmaleate the effects of 2 were increased in vivo. In vitro GSH (10(-4) mol/l) decreased the mitosis inhibiting activity of 2 in mice thymocytes and the inhibition of the SH-enzyme ecto-ATPase in rat thymocytes. It is supposed that the inhibition of mitosis is due to the reaction of dithiocarbamates with SH-groups of microtubules and other functionally important proteines. The formation of tiyl radicals from dithiocarbamates may play a certain role in redox processes which can be influenced by GSH.

  14. Mitotic activity in dorsal epidermis of Rana pipiens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Arce, H.; Mizell, S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of statistically significant rhythms of mitotic division in dorsal epidermis of frogs, Rana pipiens, exposed to a 12:12 light:dark environment for 14 days. The results include the findings that (1) male animals have a primary period of 22 hr in summer and 18 hr in winter, (2) female animals have an 18 hr period, and (3) parapinealectomy and blinding abolish the rhythm.

  15. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  16. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  17. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  18. 36 CFR 222.76 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arrest. 222.76 Section 222.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.76 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  19. 36 CFR 222.76 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arrest. 222.76 Section 222.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.76 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  20. 36 CFR 222.36 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arrest. 222.36 Section 222.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.36 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  1. 36 CFR 222.36 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arrest. 222.36 Section 222.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.36 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  2. 36 CFR 222.36 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrest. 222.36 Section 222.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.36 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  3. 10 CFR 1047.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1047.4 Section 1047.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS... of the Atomic Energy Act: (i) Felonies: (A) Section 222. Violation of Specific Sections—42...

  4. 10 CFR 1047.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1047.4 Section 1047.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS... of the Atomic Energy Act: (i) Felonies: (A) Section 222. Violation of Specific Sections—42...

  5. 10 CFR 1047.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1047.4 Section 1047.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS... of the Atomic Energy Act: (i) Felonies: (A) Section 222. Violation of Specific Sections—42...

  6. Know Your Rights If You Get Arrested.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This brochure provides a summary, in simple language, of an individual's legal rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act if arrested and offers specific suggestions for the individual faced with arrest. Answers and suggestions are provided for the following questions: "What happens if I am stopped by the police?"; "What…

  7. Juvenile Arrests, 2000. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin examines the national and state juvenile arrest rate in 2000 using data reported annually by local law enforcement agencies nationwide to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting program. Results indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1965; juvenile arrests for violence in 2000 were the lowest since 1988; few juveniles…

  8. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  9. Juvenile Arrests 1996. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    In 1996, law enforcement agencies in the United States made an estimated 2.9 million arrests of persons under the age of 18. According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) figures, juveniles accounted for 19% of all arrests and 19% of all violent crime in 1996. The substantial growth in juvenile crime that began in the late 1980s peaked in…

  10. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Manjunath P.; K.R., Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Materials and Methods Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Results Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Conclusion Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries. PMID:26155592

  11. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Puranik, Manjunath P; K R, Sowmya

    2015-05-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries.

  12. Toward a systems-level view of mitotic checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Bashar

    2015-03-01

    Reproduction and natural selection are the key elements of life. In order to reproduce, the genetic material must be doubled, separated and placed into two new daughter cells, each containing a complete set of chromosomes and organelles. In mitosis, transition from one process to the next is guided by intricate surveillance mechanisms, known as the mitotic checkpoints. Dis-regulation of cell division through checkpoint malfunction can lead to developmental defects and contribute to the development or progression of tumors. This review approaches two important mitotic checkpoints, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC). The highly conserved spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) controls the onset of anaphase by preventing premature segregation of the sister chromatids of the duplicated genome, to the spindle poles. In contrast, the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC), in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ensures that during asymmetric cell division mitotic exit does not occur until the spindle is properly aligned with the cell polarity axis. Although there are no known homologs, there is indication that functionally similar checkpoints exist also in animal cells. This review can be regarded as an "executable model", which could be easily translated into various quantitative concrete models like Petri nets, ODEs, PDEs, or stochastic particle simulations. It can also function as a base for developing quantitative models explaining the interplay of the various components and proteins controlling mitosis.

  13. On the molecular mechanisms of mitotic kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Richard; Fry, Andrew; Haq, Tamanna; Yeoh, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    During mitosis, human cells exhibit a peak of protein phosphorylation that alters the behaviour of a significant proportion of proteins, driving a dramatic transformation in the cell's shape, intracellular structures and biochemistry. These mitotic phosphorylation events are catalysed by several families of protein kinases, including Auroras, Cdks, Plks, Neks, Bubs, Haspin and Mps1/TTK. The catalytic activities of these kinases are activated by phosphorylation and through protein–protein interactions. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of the structural basis of mitotic kinase activation mechanisms. This review aims to provide a clear and comprehensive primer on these mechanisms to a broad community of researchers, bringing together the common themes, and highlighting specific differences. Along the way, we have uncovered some features of these proteins that have previously gone unreported, and identified unexplored questions for future work. The dysregulation of mitotic kinases is associated with proliferative disorders such as cancer, and structural biology will continue to play a critical role in the development of chemical probes used to interrogate disease biology and applied to the treatment of patients. PMID:23226601

  14. A roller coaster ride with the mitotic cyclins.

    PubMed

    Fung, Tsz Kan; Poon, Randy Y C

    2005-06-01

    Cyclins are discovered as proteins that accumulate progressively through interphase and disappear abruptly at mitosis during each cell cycle. In mammalian cells, cyclin A accumulates from late G1 phase and is destroyed before metaphase, and cyclin B is destroyed slightly later at anaphase. The abundance of the mitotic cyclins is mainly regulated at the levels of transcription and proteolysis. Transcription is stimulated and repressed by several transcription factors, including B-MYB, E2F, FOXM1, and NF-Y. Elements in the promoter, including CCRE/CDE and CHR, are in part responsible for the cell cycle oscillation of transcription. Destruction of the mitotic cyclins is carried out by the ubiquitin ligases APC/C(CDC20) and APC/C(CDH1). Central to our knowledge is the understanding of how APC/C is turned on from anaphase to early G1 phase, and turned off from late G1 till the spindle-assembly checkpoint is deactivated in metaphase. Reciprocal actions of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) on APC/C, as well as on the SCF complexes ensure that the mitotic cyclins are destroyed only at the proper time.

  15. Long astral microtubules uncouple mitotic spindles from the cytokinetic furrow

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Astral microtubules (MTs) are known to be important for cleavage furrow induction and spindle positioning, and loss of astral MTs has been reported to increase cortical contractility. To investigate the effect of excess astral MT activity, we depleted the MT depolymerizer mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) from HeLa cells to produce ultra-long, astral MTs during mitosis. MCAK depletion promoted dramatic spindle rocking in early anaphase, wherein the entire mitotic spindle oscillated along the spindle axis from one proto-daughter cell to the other, driven by oscillations of cortical nonmuscle myosin II. The effect was phenocopied by taxol treatment. Live imaging revealed that cortical actin partially vacates the polar cortex in favor of the equatorial cortex during anaphase. We propose that this renders the polar actin cortex vulnerable to rupture during normal contractile activity and that long astral MTs enlarge the blebs. Excessively large blebs displace mitotic spindle position by cytoplasmic flow, triggering the oscillations as the blebs resolve. PMID:20603328

  16. Distinct Kinesin-14 mitotic mechanisms in spindle bipolarity.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Dimitre R; Kenny, Katelyn; Seo, Lan; Moyer, Amanda; Allen, Jessica; Paluh, Janet L

    2009-11-01

    Kinesin-like proteins are integral to formation and function of a conserved mitotic spindle apparatus that directs chromosome segregation and precedes cell division. Ubiquitous to the mechanism of spindle assembly and stability are balanced Kinesin-5 promoting and Kinesin-14 opposing forces. Distinct Kinesin-14 roles in bipolarity in eukaryotes have not been shown, but are suggested by gamma-tubulin-based pole interactions that affect establishment and by microtubule cross-linking and sliding that maintain bipolarity and spindle length. Distinct roles also imply specialized functional domains. By cross-species analysis of compatible mechanisms in establishing mitotic bipolarity we demonstrate that Kinesin-14 human HSET (HsHSET) functionally replaces Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pkl1 and its action is similarly blocked by mutation in a Kinesin-14 binding site on gamma-tubulin. Drosophila DmNcd localizes preferentially to bundled interpolar microtubules in fission yeast and does not replace SpPkl1. Analysis of twenty-six Kinesin-14 derivatives, including Tail, Stalk or Neck-Motor chimeras, for spindle localization, spindle assembly and mitotic progression defined critical domains. The Tail of SpPkl1 contains functional elements enabling its role in spindle assembly that are distinct from but transferable to DmNcd, whereas HsHSET function utilizes both Tail and Stalk features. Our analysis is the first to demonstrate distinct mechanisms between SpPkl1 and DmNcd, and reveal that HsHSET shares functional overlap in spindle pole mechanisms.

  17. Influence of centriole number on mitotic spindle length and symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Lani C.; Wemmer, Kimberly A.; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2010-01-01

    The functional role of centrioles or basal bodies in mitotic spindle assembly and function is currently unclear. Although supernumerary centrioles have been associated with multipolar spindles in cancer cells, suggesting centriole number might dictate spindle polarity, bipolar spindles are able to assembly in the complete absence of centrioles, suggesting a level of centriole-independence in the spindle assembly pathway. In this report we perturb centriole number using mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and measure the response of the mitotic spindle to these perturbations in centriole number. Although altered centriole number increased the frequency of monopolar and multipolar spindles, the majority of spindles remained bipolar regardless of the centriole number. But even when spindles were bipolar, abnormal centriole numbers led to asymmetries in tubulin distribution, half-spindle length and spindle pole focus. Half spindle length correlated directly with number of centrioles at a pole, such that an imbalance in centriole number between the two poles of a bipolar spindle correlated with increased asymmetry between half spindle lengths. These results are consistent with centrioles playing an active role in regulating mitotic spindle length. Mutants with centriole number alteration also show increased cytokinesis defects, but these do not correlate with centriole number in the dividing cell and may therefore reflect downstream consequences of defects in preceding cell divisions. PMID:20540087

  18. Regulation of microtubule stability and mitotic progression by survivin.

    PubMed

    Giodini, Alessandra; Kallio, Marko J; Wall, Nathan R; Gorbsky, Gary J; Tognin, Simona; Marchisio, Pier Carlo; Symons, Marc; Altieri, Dario C

    2002-05-01

    Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family, which has been implicated in both preservation of cell viability and regulation of mitosis in cancer cells. Here, we show that HeLa cells microinjected with a polyclonal antibody to survivin exhibited delayed progression in prometaphase (31.5 +/- 6.9 min) and metaphase (126.8 +/- 73.8 min), as compared with control injected cells (prometaphase, 21.5 +/- 3.3 min; metaphase, 18.9 +/- 4.5 min; P < 0.01). Cells injected with the antibody to survivin displayed short mitotic spindles severely depleted of microtubules and occasionally underwent apoptosis without exiting the mitotic block or thereafter. Forced expression of survivin in HeLa cells profoundly influenced microtubule dynamics with reduction of pole-to-pole distance at metaphase (8.57 +/- 0.21 microm versus 10.58 +/- 0.19 microm; P < 0.0001) and stabilization of microtubules against nocodazole-induced depolymerization in vivo. These data demonstrate that survivin functions at cell division to control microtubule stability and assembly of a normal mitotic spindle. This pathway may facilitate checkpoint evasion and promote resistance to chemotherapy in cancer.

  19. On the molecular mechanisms of mitotic kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, Richard; Fry, Andrew; Haq, Tamanna; Yeoh, Sharon

    2012-11-01

    During mitosis, human cells exhibit a peak of protein phosphorylation that alters the behaviour of a significant proportion of proteins, driving a dramatic transformation in the cell's shape, intracellular structures and biochemistry. These mitotic phosphorylation events are catalysed by several families of protein kinases, including Auroras, Cdks, Plks, Neks, Bubs, Haspin and Mps1/TTK. The catalytic activities of these kinases are activated by phosphorylation and through protein-protein interactions. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of the structural basis of mitotic kinase activation mechanisms. This review aims to provide a clear and comprehensive primer on these mechanisms to a broad community of researchers, bringing together the common themes, and highlighting specific differences. Along the way, we have uncovered some features of these proteins that have previously gone unreported, and identified unexplored questions for future work. The dysregulation of mitotic kinases is associated with proliferative disorders such as cancer, and structural biology will continue to play a critical role in the development of chemical probes used to interrogate disease biology and applied to the treatment of patients.

  20. SUMOylation inhibits FOXM1 activity and delays mitotic transition

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, S S; Kongsema, M; Man, C W-Y; Kelly, D J; Gomes, A R; Khongkow, P; Karunarathna, U; Zona, S; Langer, J K; Dunsby, C W; Coombes, R C; French, P M; Brosens, J J; Lam, E W-F

    2014-01-01

    The forkhead box transcription factor FOXM1 is an essential effector of G2/M-phase transition, mitosis and the DNA damage response. As such, it is frequently deregulated during tumorigenesis. Here we report that FOXM1 is dynamically modified by SUMO1 but not by SUMO2/3 at multiple sites. We show that FOXM1 SUMOylation is enhanced in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in response to treatment with epirubicin and mitotic inhibitors. Mutation of five consensus conjugation motifs yielded a SUMOylation-deficient mutant FOXM1. Conversely, fusion of the E2 ligase Ubc9 to FOXM1 generated an auto-SUMOylating mutant (FOXM1-Ubc9). Analysis of wild-type FOXM1 and mutants revealed that SUMOylation inhibits FOXM1 activity, promotes translocation to the cytoplasm and enhances APC/Cdh1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Further, expression of the SUMOylation-deficient mutant enhanced cell proliferation compared with wild-type FOXM1, whereas the FOXM1-Ubc9 fusion protein resulted in persistent cyclin B1 expression and slowed the time from mitotic entry to exit. In summary, our findings suggest that SUMOylation attenuates FOXM1 activity and causes mitotic delay in cytotoxic drug response. PMID:24362530

  1. Crack arrest in thick section steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E.

    1983-03-01

    Crack arrest in thick section steel plate is considered in relation to the conditions for crack arrest in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, when this is subjected to thermal stresses resulting from a hypothetical loss of coolant accident. The results of a theoretical analysis, based primarily on recent developments in quasi-static crack propagation theory, provide further support for the view that the arrest toughness KIa is essentially a material property. However, since the theoretical results also suggest that KIa is reduced by neutron irradiation, and because there is, as yet, no conclusive experimental data on the effect of neutron irradiation on KIa, it is proposed that with highly irradiated steel, instead of using a KIa crack arrest criterion, it is better to use a more conservative criterion, based on the concept that arrest occurs within the vessel at a position where the temperature exceeds that temperature above which the cleavage fracture mode is unable to operate.

  2. Physeal arrest of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua M; Little, Kevin; Kozin, Scott H

    2014-06-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common pediatric fractures. Although most of these fractures heal without complication, some result in partial or complete physeal arrest. The risk of physeal arrest can be reduced by avoiding known risk factors during fracture management, including multiple attempts at fracture reduction. Athletes may place substantial compressive and shear forces across the distal radial physes, making them prone to growth arrest. Timely recognition of physeal arrest can allow for more predictable procedures to be performed, such as distal ulnar epiphysiodesis. In cases of partial arrest, physeal bar excision with interposition grafting can be performed. Once ulnar abutment is present, more invasive procedures may be required, including ulnar shortening osteotomy or radial lengthening.

  3. Cbx2 stably associates with mitotic chromosomes via a PRC2- or PRC1-independent mechanism and is needed for recruiting PRC1 complex to mitotic chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Chao Yu; Duc, Huy Nguyen; Kokotovic, Marko; Phiel, Christopher J.; Ren, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic transcriptional factors that repress key developmental regulators and maintain cellular identity through mitosis via a poorly understood mechanism. Using quantitative live-cell imaging in mouse ES cells and tumor cells, we demonstrate that, although Polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 proteins (Cbx-family proteins, Ring1b, Mel18, and Phc1) exhibit variable capacities of association with mitotic chromosomes, Cbx2 overwhelmingly binds to mitotic chromosomes. The recruitment of Cbx2 to mitotic chromosomes is independent of PRC1 or PRC2, and Cbx2 is needed to recruit PRC1 complex to mitotic chromosomes. Quantitative fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis indicates that PRC1 proteins rapidly exchange at interphasic chromatin. On entry into mitosis, Cbx2, Ring1b, Mel18, and Phc1 proteins become immobilized at mitotic chromosomes, whereas other Cbx-family proteins dynamically bind to mitotic chromosomes. Depletion of PRC1 or PRC2 protein has no effect on the immobilization of Cbx2 on mitotic chromosomes. We find that the N-terminus of Cbx2 is needed for its recruitment to mitotic chromosomes, whereas the C-terminus is required for its immobilization. Thus these results provide fundamental insights into the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance. PMID:25232004

  4. AIBp regulates mitotic entry and mitotic spindle assembly by controlling activation of both Aurora-A and Plk1.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Hua; Loh, Joon-Khim; Yang, Ming-Chang; Lin, Ching-Chih; Hong, Ming-Chang; Cho, Chung-Lung; Chou, An-Kuo; Wang, Chi-Huei; Lieu, Ann-Shung; Howng, Shen-Long; Hsu, Ching-Mei; Hong, Yi-Ren

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that Aurora-A and the hNinein binding protein AIBp facilitate centrosomal structure maintenance and contribute to spindle formation. Here, we report that AIBp also interacts with Plk1, raising the possibility of functional similarity to Bora, which subsequently promotes Aurora-A-mediated Plk1 activation at Thr210 as well as Aurora-A activation at Thr288. In kinase assays, AIBp acts not only as a substrate but also as a positive regulator of both Aurora-A and Plk1. However, AIBp functions as a negative regulator to block phosphorylation of hNinein mediated by Aurora-A and Plk1. These findings suggest a novel AIBp-dependent regulatory machinery that controls mitotic entry. Additionally, knockdown of hNinein caused failure of AIBp to target the centrosome, whereas depletion of AIBp did not affect the localization of hNinein and microtubule nucleation. Notably, knockdown of AIBp in HeLa cells impaired both Aurora-A and Plk1 kinase, resulting in phenotypes with multiple spindle pole formation and chromosome misalignment. Our data show that depletion of AIBp results in the mis-localization of TACC3 and ch-TOG, but not CEP192 and CEP215, suggesting that loss of AIBp dominantly affects the Aurora-A substrate to cause mitotic aberrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that AIBp contributes to mitotic entry and bipolar spindle assembly and may partially control localization, phosphorylation, and activation of both Aurora-A and Plk1 via hNinein during mitotic progression.

  5. MITOTIC INDEX IS AN INDEPENDENT PREDICTOR OF RECURRENCE-FREE SURVIVAL IN MENINGIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Olar, Adriana; Wani, Khalida M; Sulman, Erik P; Mansouri, Alireza; Zadeh, Gelareh; Wilson, Charmaine D; DeMonte, Franco; Fuller, Gregory N; Aldape, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    While World Health Organization (WHO) grading of meningioma stratifies patients according to recurrence risk overall, there is substantial within-grade heterogeneity with respect to recurrence-free survival (RFS). Most meningiomas are graded according to mitotic counts per unit area on H&E sections, a method potentially confounded by tumor cellularity, as well as potential limitations of accurate mitotic figure detection on routine histology. To refine mitotic figure assessment we evaluated 363 meningiomas with phospho-histoneH3(Ser10), and determined the mitotic index (number of mitoses per 1000 tumor cells). The median mitotic indices among WHO grades I (n=268), II (n=84), and III (n=11) tumors were 1, 4, and 12, Classification and regression tree analysis to categorize cutoffs identified 3 subgroups defined by mitotic indices of 0–2, 3–4, and ≥5, which on univariate analysis were associated with RFS (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, mitotic index subgrouped in this manner was significantly associated with RFS (p<0.01) after adjustment for Simpson grade, WHO grade, and MIB-1 index. Mitotic index was then examined within individual WHO grade, showing that for grade I and II meningiomas, mitotic index can add additional information to RFS risk. The results suggest that the use of a robust mitotic marker in meningioma could refine risk stratification. PMID:25040885

  6. Human Nek7-interactor RGS2 is required for mitotic spindle organization.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edmarcia Elisa; Hehnly, Heidi; Perez, Arina Marina; Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Doxsey, Stephen; Kobarg, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The mitotic spindle apparatus is composed of microtubule (MT) networks attached to kinetochores organized from 2 centrosomes (a.k.a. spindle poles). In addition to this central spindle apparatus, astral MTs assemble at the mitotic spindle pole and attach to the cell cortex to ensure appropriate spindle orientation. We propose that cell cycle-related kinase, Nek7, and its novel interacting protein RGS2, are involved in mitosis regulation and spindle formation. We found that RGS2 localizes to the mitotic spindle in a Nek7-dependent manner, and along with Nek7 contributes to spindle morphology and mitotic spindle pole integrity. RGS2-depletion leads to a mitotic-delay and severe defects in the chromosomes alignment and congression. Importantly, RGS2 or Nek7 depletion or even overexpression of wild-type or kinase-dead Nek7, reduced γ-tubulin from the mitotic spindle poles. In addition to causing a mitotic delay, RGS2 depletion induced mitotic spindle misorientation coinciding with astral MT-reduction. We propose that these phenotypes directly contribute to a failure in mitotic spindle alignment to the substratum. In conclusion, we suggest a molecular mechanism whereupon Nek7 and RGS2 may act cooperatively to ensure proper mitotic spindle organization.

  7. Mitotic Index is an Independent Predictor of Recurrence-Free Survival in Meningioma.

    PubMed

    Olar, Adriana; Wani, Khalida M; Sulman, Erik P; Mansouri, Alireza; Zadeh, Gelareh; Wilson, Charmaine D; DeMonte, Franco; Fuller, Gregory N; Aldape, Kenneth D

    2015-05-01

    While World Health Organization (WHO) grading of meningioma stratifies patients according to recurrence risk overall, there is substantial within-grade heterogeneity with respect to recurrence-free survival (RFS). Most meningiomas are graded according to mitotic counts per unit area on hematoxylin and eosin sections, a method potentially confounded by tumor cellularity, as well as potential limitations of accurate mitotic figure detection on routine histology. To refine mitotic figure assessment, we evaluated 363 meningiomas with phospho-histone H3 (Ser10) and determined the mitotic index (number of mitoses per 1000 tumor cells). The median mitotic indices among WHO grade I (n = 268), grade II (n = 84) and grade III (n = 11) tumors were 1, 4 and 12. Classification and regression tree analysis to categorize cut-offs identified three subgroups defined by mitotic indices of 0-2, 3-4 and ≥5, which on univariate analysis were associated with RFS (P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, mitotic index subgrouped in this manner was significantly associated with RFS (P < 0.01) after adjustment for Simpson grade, WHO grade and MIB-1 index. Mitotic index was then examined within individual WHO grade, showing that for grade I and grade II meningiomas, mitotic index can add additional information to RFS risk. The results suggest that the use of a robust mitotic marker in meningioma could refine risk stratification.

  8. 53BP1 and USP28 mediate p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in response to centrosome loss and prolonged mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Mazo, Gregory; Das, Tuhin; Goodman, Joshua; Kim, Minhee; O'Rourke, Brian P; Izquierdo, Denisse; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Mitosis occurs efficiently, but when it is disturbed or delayed, p53-dependent cell death or senescence is often triggered after mitotic exit. To characterize this process, we conducted CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function screens using a cell-based assay in which mitosis is consistently disturbed by centrosome loss. We identified 53BP1 and USP28 as essential components acting upstream of p53, evoking p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in response not only to centrosome loss, but also to other distinct defects causing prolonged mitosis. Intriguingly, 53BP1 mediates p53 activation independently of its DNA repair activity, but requiring its interacting protein USP28 that can directly deubiquitinate p53 in vitro and ectopically stabilize p53 in vivo. Moreover, 53BP1 can transduce prolonged mitosis to cell cycle arrest independently of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), suggesting that while SAC protects mitotic accuracy by slowing down mitosis, 53BP1 and USP28 function in parallel to select against disturbed or delayed mitosis, promoting mitotic efficiency. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16270.001 PMID:27371829

  9. 53BP1 and USP28 mediate p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in response to centrosome loss and prolonged mitosis.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Mazo, Gregory; Das, Tuhin; Goodman, Joshua; Kim, Minhee; O'Rourke, Brian P; Izquierdo, Denisse; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2016-07-02

    Mitosis occurs efficiently, but when it is disturbed or delayed, p53-dependent cell death or senescence is often triggered after mitotic exit. To characterize this process, we conducted CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function screens using a cell-based assay in which mitosis is consistently disturbed by centrosome loss. We identified 53BP1 and USP28 as essential components acting upstream of p53, evoking p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in response not only to centrosome loss, but also to other distinct defects causing prolonged mitosis. Intriguingly, 53BP1 mediates p53 activation independently of its DNA repair activity, but requiring its interacting protein USP28 that can directly deubiquitinate p53 in vitro and ectopically stabilize p53 in vivo. Moreover, 53BP1 can transduce prolonged mitosis to cell cycle arrest independently of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), suggesting that while SAC protects mitotic accuracy by slowing down mitosis, 53BP1 and USP28 function in parallel to select against disturbed or delayed mitosis, promoting mitotic efficiency.

  10. Hsp72 is targeted to the mitotic spindle by Nek6 to promote K-fiber assembly and mitotic progression.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Laura; Sampson, Josephina; Richards, Mark W; Knebel, Axel; Roth, Daniel; Hood, Fiona E; Straube, Anne; Royle, Stephen J; Bayliss, Richard; Fry, Andrew M

    2015-05-11

    Hsp70 proteins represent a family of chaperones that regulate cellular homeostasis and are required for cancer cell survival. However, their function and regulation in mitosis remain unknown. In this paper, we show that the major inducible cytoplasmic Hsp70 isoform, Hsp72, is required for assembly of a robust bipolar spindle capable of efficient chromosome congression. Mechanistically, Hsp72 associates with the K-fiber-stabilizing proteins, ch-TOG and TACC3, and promotes their interaction with each other and recruitment to spindle microtubules (MTs). Targeting of Hsp72 to the mitotic spindle is dependent on phosphorylation at Thr-66 within its nucleotide-binding domain by the Nek6 kinase. Phosphorylated Hsp72 concentrates on spindle poles and sites of MT-kinetochore attachment. A phosphomimetic Hsp72 mutant rescued defects in K-fiber assembly, ch-TOG/TACC3 recruitment and mitotic progression that also resulted from Nek6 depletion. We therefore propose that Nek6 facilitates association of Hsp72 with the mitotic spindle, where it promotes stable K-fiber assembly through recruitment of the ch-TOG-TACC3 complex.

  11. Parkin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in TNF-α-treated HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Ho; Cho, Yoonjung; Jung, Byung Chul; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kang, Yeo Wool; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Yoon Suk

    2015-08-14

    Parkin is a known tumor suppressor. However, the mechanism by which parkin acts as a tumor suppressor remains to be fully elucidated. Previously, we reported that parkin expression induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in TNF-α-treated HeLa cells. However, at that time, we did not consider the involvement of parkin in cell cycle control. In the current study, we investigated whether parkin is involved in cell cycle regulation and suppression of cancer cell growth. In our cell cycle analyses, parkin expression induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in TNF-α-treated HeLa cells. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which parkin induces this G2/M arrest, we analyzed cell cycle regulatory molecules involved in the G2/M transition. Parkin expression induced CDC2 phosphorylation which is known to inhibit CDC2 activity and cause G2/M arrest. Cyclin B1, which is degraded during the mitotic transition, accumulated in response to parkin expression, thereby indicating parkin-induced G2/M arrest. Next, we established that Myt1, which is known to phosphorylate and inhibit CDC2, increased following parkin expression. In addition, we found that parkin also induces increased Myt1 expression, G2/M arrest, and reduced cell viability in TNF-α-treated HCT15 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of parkin expression by parkin-specific siRNA decreased Myt1 expression and phosphorylation of CDC2 and resulted in recovered cell viability. These results suggest that parkin acts as a crucial molecule causing cell cycle arrest in G2/M, thereby suppressing tumor cell growth.

  12. Chromosome Damage and Early Developmental Arrest Caused by the Rex Element of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, L. G.; Pimpinelli, S.

    1994-01-01

    Rex (Ribosomal exchange) is a genetically identified repeated element within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Drosophila melanogaster. Rex has a semidominant maternal effect that promotes exchange between and within rDNA arrays in the first few embryonic mitoses. Several of Rex's genetic properties suggest that its primary effect is rDNA-specific chromosome breakage that is resolved by recombination. We report here that rDNA crossovers are only a small, surviving minority of Rex-induced events. Cytology of embryos produced by Rex-homozygous females reveals obvious chromosome damage in at least a quarter of the embryos within the first three mitotic divisions. More than half of the embryos produced by Rex females die, and the developmental arrest is among the earliest reported for any maternal-effect lethal. The striking lethal phenotype suggests that embryos with early chromosome damage could be particularly fruitful subjects for analysis of the cell biology of early embryos. PMID:7828823

  13. The SFP1 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates G2/M transitions during the mitotic cell cycle and DNA-damage response.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Z; Norris, D

    1998-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, checkpoint pathways arrest cell-cycle progression if a particular event has failed to complete appropriately or if an important intracellular structure is defective or damaged. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that lack the SFP1 gene fail to arrest at the G2 DNA-damage checkpoint in response to genomic injury, but maintain their ability to arrest at the replication and spindle-assembly checkpoints. sfp1Delta mutants are characterized by a premature entrance into mitosis during a normal (undamaged) cell cycle, while strains that overexpress Sfp1p exhibit delays in G2. Sfp1p therefore acts as a repressor of the G2/M transition, both in the normal cell cycle and in the G2 checkpoint pathway. Sfp1 is a nuclear protein with two Cys2His2 zinc-finger domains commonly found in transcription factors. We propose that Sfp1p regulates the expression of gene products involved in the G2/M transition during the mitotic cell cycle and the DNA-damage response. In support of this model, overexpression of Sfp1p induces the expression of the PDS1 gene, which is known to encode a protein that regulates the G2 checkpoint. PMID:9832520

  14. G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Tumor Selective Apoptosis of Acute Leukemia Cells by a Promising Benzophenone Thiosemicarbazone Compound

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Maia; Gomez, Natalia; Remes Lenicov, Federico; Echeverría, Emiliana; Shayo, Carina; Moglioni, Albertina; Fernández, Natalia; Davio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anti-mitotic therapies have been considered a hallmark in strategies against abnormally proliferating cells. Focusing on the extensively studied family of thiosemicarbazone (TSC) compounds, we have previously identified 4,4’-dimethoxybenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (T44Bf) as a promising pharmacological compound in a panel of human leukemia cell lines (HL60, U937, KG1a and Jurkat). Present findings indicate that T44Bf-mediated antiproliferative effects are associated with a reversible chronic mitotic arrest caused by defects in chromosome alignment, followed by induced programmed cell death. Furthermore, T44Bf selectively induces apoptosis in leukemia cell lines when compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The underlying mechanism of action involves the activation of the mitochondria signaling pathway, with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL as well as increased Bcl-2 (enhanced phosphorylated fraction) and pro-apoptotic protein Bad levels. In addition, ERK signaling pathway activation was found to be a requisite for T44Bf apoptotic activity. Our findings further describe a novel activity for a benzophenone thiosemicarbazone and propose T44Bf as a promising anti-mitotic prototype to develop chemotherapeutic agents to treat acute leukemia malignancies. PMID:26360247

  15. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest following trauma].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Kanz, K-G

    2016-11-01

    For decades, survival rates of cardiac arrest following trauma were reported between 0 and 2 %. Since 2005, survival rates have increased with a wide range up to 39 % and good neurological recovery in every second person injured for unknown reasons. Especially in children, high survival rates with good neurologic outcomes are published. Resuscitation following traumatic cardiac arrest differs significantly from nontraumatic causes. Paramount is treatment of reversible causes, which include massive bleeding, hypoxia, tension pneumothorax, and pericardial tamponade. Treatment of reversible causes should be simultaneous. Chest compression is inferior following traumatic cardiac arrest and should never delay treatment of reversible causes of the traumatic cardiac arrest. In massive bleeding, bleeding control has priority. Damage control resuscitation with permissive hypotension, aggressive coagulation therapy, and damage control surgery represent the pillars of initial treatment. Cardiac arrest due to hypoxia should be resolved by airway management and ventilation. Tension pneumothorax should be decompressed by finger thoracostomy, pericardial tamponade by resuscitative thoracotomy. In addition, resuscitative thoracotomy allows direct and indirect bleeding control. Untreated impact brain apnea may rapidly lead to cardiac arrest and requires quick opening of the airway and effective oxygenation. Established algorithms for treatment of cardiac arrest following trauma enable a safe, structured, and effective management.

  16. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Refractory Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Steven A; Rycus, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is the use of rapid deployment venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support systemic circulation and vital organ perfusion in patients in refractory cardiac arrest not responding to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although prospective controlled studies are lacking, observational studies suggest improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR when ECPR is instituted within 30–60 min following cardiac arrest. Adult and pediatric patients with witnessed in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and good quality CPR, failure of at least 15 min of conventional resuscitation, and a potentially reversible cause for arrest are candidates. Percutaneous cannulation where feasible is rapid and can be performed by nonsurgeons (emergency physicians, intensivists, cardiologists, and interventional radiologists). Modern extracorporeal systems are easy to prime and manage and are technically easy to manage with proper training and experience. ECPR can be deployed in the emergency department for out-of-hospital arrest or in various inpatient units for in-hospital arrest. ECPR should be considered for patients with refractory cardiac arrest in hospitals with an existing extracorporeal life support program, able to provide rapid deployment of support, and with resources to provide postresuscitation evaluation and management. PMID:28074817

  17. Theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Maldonado, R.; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2008-05-01

    We present a first-principles theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures based on the multicomponent self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of colloid dynamics [M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 72, 031107 (2005); M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E76, 039902 (2007)]. We illustrate its application with a description of dynamic arrest in two simple model colloidal mixtures: namely, hard-sphere and repulsive Yukawa binary mixtures. Our results include observation of the two patterns of dynamic arrest, one in which both species become simultaneously arrested and the other involving the sequential arrest of the two species. The latter case gives rise to mixed states in which one species is arrested while the other species remains mobile. We also derive the (”bifurcation” or fixed-point”) equations for the nonergodic parameters of the system, which takes the surprisingly simple form of a system of coupled equations for the localization length of the particles of each species. The solution of this system of equations indicates unambiguously which species is arrested (finite localization length) and which species remains ergodic (infinite localization length). As a result, we are able to draw the entire ergodic-nonergodic phase diagram of the binary hard-sphere mixture.

  18. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Steven A; Rycus, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is the use of rapid deployment venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support systemic circulation and vital organ perfusion in patients in refractory cardiac arrest not responding to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although prospective controlled studies are lacking, observational studies suggest improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR when ECPR is instituted within 30-60 min following cardiac arrest. Adult and pediatric patients with witnessed in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and good quality CPR, failure of at least 15 min of conventional resuscitation, and a potentially reversible cause for arrest are candidates. Percutaneous cannulation where feasible is rapid and can be performed by nonsurgeons (emergency physicians, intensivists, cardiologists, and interventional radiologists). Modern extracorporeal systems are easy to prime and manage and are technically easy to manage with proper training and experience. ECPR can be deployed in the emergency department for out-of-hospital arrest or in various inpatient units for in-hospital arrest. ECPR should be considered for patients with refractory cardiac arrest in hospitals with an existing extracorporeal life support program, able to provide rapid deployment of support, and with resources to provide postresuscitation evaluation and management.

  19. Irreversible translation arrest in the reperfused brain

    PubMed Central

    DeGracia, Donald J; Hu, Bingren R

    2012-01-01

    Irreversible translation arrest occurs in reperfused neurons that will die by delayed neuronal death. It is now recognized that suppression of protein synthesis is a general response of eukaryotic cells to exogenous stressors. Indeed, stress-induced translation arrest can be viewed as a component of cell stress responses, and consists of initiation, maintenance, and termination phases that work in concert with stress-induced transcriptional mechanisms. Within this framework, we review translation arrest in reperfused neurons. This framework provides a basis to recognize that phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is the initiator of translation arrest, and a key marker indicating activation of neuronal stress responses. However, eIF2 alpha phosphorylation is reversible. Other phases of stress-induced translation arrest appear to contribute to irreversible translation arrest specifically in ischemic vulnerable neuron populations. We detail two lines of evidence supporting this view. First, ischemia, as a stress stimulus, induces irreversible co-translational protein misfolding and aggregation after 4 to 6 h of reperfusion, trapping protein synthesis machinery into functionally inactive protein aggregates. Second, ischemia and reperfusion leads to modifications of stress granules (SGs) that sequester functionally inactive 48S preinitiation complexes to maintain translation arrest. At later reperfusion durations, these mechanisms may converge such that SGs become sequestered in protein aggregates. These mechanisms result in elimination of functionally active ribosomes and preclude recovery of protein synthesis in selectively vulnerable neurons. Thus, recognizing translation arrest as a component of endogenous cellular stress response pathways will aid in making sense of the complexities of postischemic translation arrest. PMID:16926841

  20. Telomere loss in somatic cells of Drosophila causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, K; Golic, K G

    1999-01-01

    Checkpoint mechanisms that respond to DNA damage in the mitotic cell cycle are necessary to maintain the fidelity of chromosome transmission. These mechanisms must be able to distinguish the normal telomeres of linear chromosomes from double-strand break damage. However, on several occasions, Drosophila chromosomes that lack their normal telomeric DNA have been recovered, raising the issue of whether Drosophila is able to distinguish telomeric termini from nontelomeric breaks. We used site-specific recombination on a dispensable chromosome to induce the formation of a dicentric chromosome and an acentric, telomere-bearing, chromosome fragment in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. The acentric fragment is lost when cells divide and the dicentric breaks, transmitting a chromosome that has lost a telomere to each daughter cell. In the eye imaginal disc, cells with a newly broken chromosome initially experience mitotic arrest and then undergo apoptosis when cells are induced to divide as the eye differentiates. Therefore, Drosophila cells can detect and respond to a single broken chromosome. It follows that transmissible chromosomes lacking normal telomeric DNA nonetheless must possess functional telomeres. We conclude that Drosophila telomeres can be established and maintained by a mechanism that does not rely on the terminal DNA sequence. PMID:10049921

  1. A novel histone H4 mutant defective in nuclear division and mitotic chromosome transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M M; Yang, P; Santisteban, M S; Boone, P W; Goldstein, A T; Megee, P C

    1996-01-01

    The histone proteins are essential for the assembly and function of th e eukaryotic chromosome. Here we report the first isolation of a temperature-sensitive lethal histone H4 mutant defective in mitotic chromosome transmission Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant requires two amino acid substitutions in histone H4: a lethal Thr-to-Ile change at position 82, which lies within one of the DNA-binding surfaces of the protein, and a substitution of Ala to Val at position 89 that is an intragenic suppressor. Genetic and biochemical evidence shows that the mutant histone H4 is temperature sensitive for function but not for synthesis, deposition, or stability. The chromatin structure of 2 micrometer circle minichromosomes is temperature sensitive in vivo, consistent with a defect in H4-DNA interactions. The mutant also has defects in transcription, displaying weak Spt- phenotypes. At the restrictive temperature, mutant cells arrest in the cell cycle at nuclear division, with a large bud, a single nucleus with 2C DNA content, and a short bipolar spindle. At semipermissive temperatures, the frequency of chromosome loss is elevated 60-fold in the mutant while DNA recombination frequencies are unaffected. High-copy CSE4, encoding an H3 variant related to the mammalian CENP-A kinetochore antigen, was found to suppress the temperature sensitivity of the mutant without suppressing the Spt- transcription defect. These genetic, biochemical, and phenotypic results indicate that this novel histone H4 mutant defines one or more chromatin-dependent steps in chromosome segregation. PMID:8622646

  2. A requirement for protein phosphorylation in regulating the meiotic and mitotic cell cycles in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Néant, I; Charbonneau, M; Guerrier, P

    1989-04-01

    Populations of hormone-stimulated starfish oocytes and fertilized sea urchin eggs undergo synchronous meiotic and mitotic divisions. We have studied the requirement for protein phosphorylation during these events by testing the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) upon the incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate. It was found that 6-DMAP blocked meiosis reinitiation and early cleavage and simultaneously inhibited protein phosphorylation, without changing the rate of [35S]methionine incorporation or pattern of protein synthesis. The protein, cyclin (54 kDa in starfish and 57 kDa in sea urchin), continues to be synthesized in the presence of 6-DMAP. This protein is destroyed at first and second cell cycles when 6-DMAP is added 30 min following fertilization but not when this drug is present before fertilization. Thus, cyclin breakdown does not depend on the completion of the nuclear events of M-phase, and its time of breakdown is set at an early step between fertilization and first cleavage. Using tubulin immunostaining, we found that 6-DMAP did not affect the cortical microtubules and resting female centrioles of prophase-arrested starfish oocytes, whereas it induced a precocious disappearance of spindle fibers when applied to hormone-stimulated oocytes. While an early addition of 6-DMAP precluded nuclear breakdown and spindle formation in both systems, a late treatment always allowed chromosome separation and centriole separation. Under these conditions pericentriolar tubulin persisted and could organize new spindles after the inhibitor was removed. It is suggested that (1) the assembly of cortical and centriolar-associated microtubules is not controlled by the same factors as spindle-associated tubulin; (2) specific proteins which are required for the cell to enter the following M-phase can become operative only via a process depending upon protein phosphorylation; (3) microtubule-associated kinases may play an important role in MPF function and spindle dynamics.

  3. Inhibiting effect of a hepatoma extract on the mitotic rate of regenerating liver.

    PubMed

    Echave Llanos, J M; Badrán, A F; Moreno, F R

    1986-01-01

    Aqueous tumor extracts were prepared by the homogenization of a fast-growing, undifferentiated, transplantable malignant murine hepatoma in distilled water. After centrifugation, an aliquot of 0.01 ml of the supernatant g body weight was injected intraperitoneally into partially hepatectomized mice. Control animals were injected with saline. Groups of mice were killed at various times in relation to the hepatectomy. Four h before killing the animals were given Colcemid (1 microgram/g body weight). The number of Colcemid-arrested mitoses in the hepatocytes and in the littoral cells, respectively, were counted in 140 microscopic fields. The extract significantly inhibited the mitotic rate in hepatocytes when the injection was given between 22 h before, and up to 26 h after hepatectomy. In the littoral cells, a slight initial stimulation was followed by a slight but significant inhibition which occurred when the injection was given at hepatectomy or until 18 h after hepatectomy. The effect was not modified by exposing the extracts to temperatures of 47 degrees C for 30 min or 22 degrees C for 24 h, but 10 min of boiling destroyed their inhibitory effect. Lyophilization and storing at -18 degrees C for up to 4 weeks did not modify the effect. The mitosis-inhibiting effect was also measurable when the extract was injected subcutaneously. There was an almost linear dose-response curve. The results are discussed in relation to circadian rhythms, the pattern of liver cell proliferation after hepatectomy, and recent similar reports from the literature. The conclusion is drawn that extracts of a hepatoma contain one or more growth-inhibitory factors significantly active on regenerating liver cells, and less significantly on littoral cells.

  4. Cardiac Arrest: Obstetric CPR/ACLS.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Benjamin; Lipman, Steven

    2017-01-10

    In contrast with other high-resource countries, maternal mortality has seen an increase in the United States. Caring for pregnant women in cardiac arrest may prove uniquely challenging given the rarity of the event coupled by the physiological changes of pregnancy. Optimization of resuscitative efforts warrants special attention as described in the 2015 American Heart Association's "Scientific Statement on Maternal Cardiac Arrest." Current recommendations address a variety of topics ranging from the basic components of chest compressions and airway management to some of the logistical complexities and operational challenges involved in maternal cardiac arrest.

  5. Innovations in polymer arrester moisture sealing testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.A.; Mackevich, J.P.; Mosso, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    The vast majority of porcelain distribution arrester failures are the result of moisture ingress. Standards lag technology and do not currently address the unique design aspects of polymer arresters. Traditional sealing test methods cannot be run on polymer arresters because of lack of internal air space. A novel design test is proposed which involves sensitive interfacial leakage current measurements as the diagnostic. Samples are thermally cycled in water to produce thermal excursions and aging, while encouraging water ingress, should the sealing system be compromised. The proposed test is a modification of a protocol established for polymer insulators, which has been correlated to field service.

  6. Innovation in polymer arrester moisture sealing testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.A.; Mackevich, J.P.; Mosso, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of porcelain distribution arrester failures are the result of moisture ingress. Standards lag technology and do not currently address the unique design aspects of polymer arresters. Traditional sealing test methods cannot be run on polymer arresters because of lack of internal air space. A novel design test is proposed which involves sensitive interfacial leakage current measurements as the diagnostic. Samples are thermally cycled in water to produce thermal excursions and aging, while encouraging water ingress, should the sealing system be compromised. The proposed test is a modification of a protocol established for polymer insulators, which has been correlated to field service.

  7. Sudden death during arrest and phencyclidine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pestaner, Joseph P; Southall, Pamela E

    2003-06-01

    Deaths of individuals being arrested are important and complex medicolegal cases. Conclusions regarding the cause and manner of death for such cases must take into account multiple factors that may have played a role, as well as anticipate the forensic issues that will arise. In this article, we review the deaths of 2 individuals in which phencyclidine intoxication was a factor that contributed to death during arrest. Most cases of sudden death during arrest have involved cocaine intoxication; because phencyclidine's pharmacologic properties are quite different from those of cocaine, these cases allow for comparisons to those factors that may have greater importance.

  8. Why a Combination of WP 631 and Epo B is an Improvement on the Drugs Singly - Involvement in the Cell Cycle and Mitotic Slippage.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Barbara; Rogalska, Aneta; Forma, Ewa; Brys, Magdalena; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies clearly demonstrated that a combination of WP 631 and Epo B has higher activity against ovarian cancer cells than either of these compounds used separately. In order to fully understand the exact mechanism of action in combination, we assessed effects on the cell cycle of SKOV-3 cells. We evaluated three control points essential for WP 631 and Epo B action to determine which cell cycle-regulating proteins (CDK1/cyclin B complex, EpCAM or HMGB1) mediate activity. The effects of the drug on the cell cycle were measured based on the nuclear DNA content using flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle-regulating genes was analyzed using real-time PCR. It was discovered that WP 631, at the tested concentration, did not affect the SKOV-3 cell cycle. Epo B caused significant G2/M arrest, whereas the drug combination induced stronger apoptosis and lower mitotic arrest than Epo B alone. This is very important information from the point of view of the fight against cancer, as, while mitotic arrest in Epo B-treated cells could be overcame after DNA damage repair, apoptosis which occurs after mitotic slippage in combination-treated cells is irreversible. It clearly explains the higher activity of the drug combination in comparison to Epo B alone. Epo B acts via the CDK1/cyclin B complex and has the ability to inhibit CDK1, which may be a promising strategy for ovarian cancer treatment in the future. The drug combination diminishes EpCAM and HMGB1 expression to a greater degree than either WP 631 and Epo B alone. Owing to the fact that the high expression of these two proteins is a poor prognostic factor for ovarian cancer, a decrease in their expression, observed in our studies, may result in improved efficacy of cancer therapy. The presented findings show that the combination of WP 631 and Epo B is a better therapeutic option than either of these drugs alone.

  9. Influence of the circadian rhythm in cell division on radiation-induced mitotic delay in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, N.H.

    1982-01-01

    Mitotic delay is described as a classical response to radiation; however, circadian rhythmicity in cell division in vivo has not been considered by many authors. The present study investigated the relation between fluctuations reported as mitotic delay and recovery in vivo and circadian oscillations in mitotic index in mouse corneal epithelium. One aspect involved single doses (approximately 600 rad) given to mice at different circadian stages. The normal circadian rhythm in cell division was never obliterated. Inhibition of mitosis was evident but unpredictable, ranging from 6 to 15 hr after irradiation. Recovery was evident only during the daily increase in mitotic index of controls. The classical interpretation of recovery from mitotic delay may be in an in vitro phenomenon not reflecting in vivo responses, which are apparently strongly circadian stage dependent. The second portion of the study demonstrated a dose-response effect on length of mitotic delay and, to a lesser extent, degree of recovery.

  10. An unmet actin requirement explains the mitotic inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Satdip; Fielding, Andrew B; Gassner, Gisela; Carter, Nicholas J; Royle, Stephen J

    2014-02-18

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major internalisation route for many different receptor types in mammalian cells. CME is shut down during early mitosis, but the mechanism of this inhibition is unclear. In this study, we show that the mitotic shutdown is due to an unmet requirement for actin in CME. In mitotic cells, membrane tension is increased and this invokes a requirement for the actin cytoskeleton to assist the CME machinery to overcome the increased load. However, the actin cytoskeleton is engaged in the formation of a rigid cortex in mitotic cells and is therefore unavailable for deployment. We demonstrate that CME can be 'restarted' in mitotic cells despite high membrane tension, by allowing actin to engage in endocytosis. Mitotic phosphorylation of endocytic proteins is maintained in mitotic cells with restored CME, indicating that direct phosphorylation of the CME machinery does not account for shutdown. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00829.001.

  11. MEN, destruction and separation: mechanistic links between mitotic exit and cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Foong May; Lim, Hong Hwa; Surana, Uttam

    2002-07-01

    Cellular events must be executed in a certain sequence during the cell division in order to maintain genome integrity and hence ensure a cell's survival. In M phase, for instance, chromosome segregation always precedes mitotic exit (characterized by mitotic kinase inactivation via cyclin destruction); this is then followed by cytokinesis. How do cells impose this strict order? Recent findings in budding yeast have suggested a mechanism whereby partitioning of chromosomes into the daughter cell is a prerequisite for the activation of mitotic exit network (MEN). So far, however, a regulatory scheme that would temporally link the initiation of cytokinesis to the execution of mitotic exit has not been determined. We propose that the requirement of MEN components for cytokinesis, their translocation to the mother-daughter neck and triggering of this translocation by inactivation of the mitotic kinase may be the three crucial elements that render initiation of cytokinesis dependent on mitotic exit.

  12. G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest Correlates with Primate Lentiviral Vpr Interaction with the SLX4 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Gregory; Lawrence, Madeleine; Hué, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The accessory gene vpr, common to all primate lentiviruses, induces potent G2/M arrest in cycling cells. A recent study showed that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) mediates this through activation of the SLX4/MUS81/EME1 exonuclease complex that forms part of the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway. To confirm these observations, we have examined the G2/M arrest phenotypes of a panel of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Vpr proteins. We show that SIV Vpr proteins differ in their ability to promote cell cycle arrest in human cells. While this is dependent on the DCAF1/DDB1/CUL4 ubiquitin ligase complex, interaction with human DCAF1 does not predict G2/M arrest activity of SIV Vpr in human cells. In all cases, SIV Vpr-mediated cell cycle arrest in human cells correlated with interaction with human SLX4 (huSLX4) and could be abolished by small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion of any member of the SLX4 complex. In contrast, all but one of the HIV/SIV Vpr proteins tested, including those that lacked activity in human cells, were competent for G2/M arrest in grivet cells. Correspondingly, here cell cycle arrest correlated with interaction with the grivet orthologues of the SLX4 complex, suggesting a level of host adaptation in these interactions. Phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that G2/M arrest/SLX4 interactions are ancestral activities of primate lentiviral Vpr proteins and that the ability to dysregulate the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway is an essential function of Vpr in vivo. IMPORTANCE The Vpr protein of HIV-1 and related viruses is essential for the virus in vivo. The ability of Vpr to block the cell cycle at mitotic entry is well known, but the importance of this function for viral replication is unclear. Recent data have shown that HIV-1 Vpr targets the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway by interacting with and activating an endonuclease complex, SLX4/MUS81/EME1, that processes interstrand DNA cross-links. Here

  13. XCTK2: A Kinesin-related Protein That Promotes Mitotic Spindle Assembly in Xenopus laevis Egg Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, Claire E.; Verma, Suzie; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    We used a peptide antibody to a conserved sequence in the motor domain of kinesins to screen a Xenopus ovary cDNA expression library. Among the clones isolated were two that encoded a protein we named XCTK2 for Xenopus COOH-terminal kinesin 2. XCTK2 contains an NH2-terminal globular domain, a central α-helical stalk, and a COOH-terminal motor domain. XCTK2 is similar to CTKs in other organisms and is most homologous to CHO2. Antibodies raised against XCTK2 recognize a 75-kD protein in Xenopus egg extracts that cosediments with microtubules. In Xenopus tissue culture cells, the anti-XCTK2 antibodies stain mitotic spindles as well as a subset of interphase nuclei. To probe the function of XCTK2, we have used an in vitro assay for spindle assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. Addition of antibodies to cytostatic factor- arrested extracts causes a 70% reduction in the percentage of bipolar spindles formed. XCTK2 is not required for maintenance of bipolar spindles, as antibody addition to preformed spindles has no effect. To further evaluate the function of XCTK2, we expressed XCTK2 in insect Sf-9 cells using the baculovirus expression system. When purified (recombinant XCTK2 is added to Xenopus egg extracts at a fivefold excess over endogenous levels) there is a stimulation in both the rate and extent of bipolar spindle formation. XCTK2 exists in a large complex in extracts and can be coimmunoprecipitated with two other proteins from extracts. XCTK2 likely plays an important role in the establishment and structural integrity of mitotic spindles. PMID:9049251

  14. Multi-Kinase Inhibitor C1 Triggers Mitotic Catastrophe of Glioma Stem Cells Mainly through MELK Kinase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kaushal; Nakano-Okuno, Mariko; Hong, Christopher; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Kornblum, Harley I.; Molla, Annie; Nakano, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumor. Due to resistance to current therapies, patient prognosis remains poor and development of novel and effective GBM therapy is crucial. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) have gained attention as a therapeutic target in GBM due to their relative resistance to current therapies and potent tumor-initiating ability. Previously, we identified that the mitotic kinase maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK) is highly expressed in GBM tissues, specifically in GSCs, and its expression is inversely correlated with the post-surgical survival period of GBM patients. In addition, patient-derived GSCs depend on MELK for their survival and growth both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate evidence that the role of MELK in the GSC survival is specifically dependent on its kinase activity. With in silico structure-based analysis for protein-compound interaction, we identified the small molecule Compound 1 (C1) is predicted to bind to the kinase-active site of MELK protein. Elimination of MELK kinase activity was confirmed by in vitro kinase assay in nano-molar concentrations. When patient-derived GSCs were treated with C1, they underwent mitotic arrest and subsequent cellular apoptosis in vitro, a phenotype identical to that observed with shRNA-mediated MELK knockdown. In addition, C1 treatment strongly induced tumor cell apoptosis in slice cultures of GBM surgical specimens and attenuated growth of mouse intracranial tumors derived from GSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Lastly, C1 treatment sensitizes GSCs to radiation treatment. Collectively, these data indicate that targeting MELK kinase activity is a promising approach to attenuate GBM growth by eliminating GSCs in tumors. PMID:24739874

  15. RNA Binding Protein CUGBP2/CELF2 Mediates Curcumin-Induced Mitotic Catastrophe of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Ramalingam, Satish; Linehan, David C.; Dieckgraefe, Brian K.; Postier, Russell G.; Houchen, Courtney W.; Jensen, Roy A.; Anant, Shrikant

    2011-01-01

    Background Curcumin inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer tumor xenografts in nude mice; however, the mechanism of action is not well understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that RNA binding proteins regulate posttranscriptional gene expression and play a critical role in RNA stability and translation. Here, we have determined that curcumin modulates the expression of RNA binding protein CUGBP2 to inhibit pancreatic cancer growth. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we show that curcumin treated tumor xenografts have a significant reduction in tumor volume and angiogenesis. Curcumin inhibited the proliferation, while inducing G2-M arrest and apoptosis resulting in mitotic catastrophe of various pancreatic cancer cells. This was further confirmed by increased phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) protein coupled with higher levels of nuclear cyclin B1 and Cdc-2. Curcumin increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) a