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Sample records for arsr family metal

  1. A CuI-sensing ArsR family Metal Sensor Protein with a Relaxed Metal Selectivity Profile

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Chen, Xiaohua; Ma, Zhen; Shokes, Jacob; Hemmingsen, Lars; Scott, Robert A.; Giedroc, David P.

    2008-01-01

    ArsR (or ArsR/SmtB) family metalloregulatory homodimeric repressors collectively respond to a wide range of metal ion inducers in regulating homeostasis and resistance of essential and nonessential metal ions in bacteria. BxmR from the cyanobacterium Osciliatoria brevis is the first characterized ArsR protein that senses both CuI/AgI and divalent metals ZnII/CdII in cells by regulating the expression of a P-type ATPase efflux pump (Bxa1) and an intracellular metallothionein (BmtA). We show here that both pairs of predicted α3N and α5 sites bind metal ions, but with distinct physicochemical and functional metal specificities. Inactivation of the thiophilic α3N site via mutation (C77S) abolishes regulation by both CdII and CuI, while ZnII remains a potent allosteric negative effector of operator/promoter binding (ΔGc≥+3.2 kcal mol−1). In contrast, α5 site mutant retains regulation by all four metal ions, albeit with a smaller coupling free energy (ΔGc≈+1.7 (±0.1) kcal mol−1). Unlike the other metals ions, the BxmR dimer binds four mol•equiv CuI to form an α3N binuclear CuI2S4 cluster by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. BxmR is thus distinguishable from other closely-related ArsR family sensors, in having evolved a metalloregulatory α3N site that can adopt an expanded range of coordination chemistries, while maintaining redundancy in the response to ZnII. The evolutionary implications of these findings for the ArsR metal sensor family are discussed. PMID:18795800

  2. A novel MAs(III)-selective ArsR transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Nadar, Venkadesh Sarkarai; Rosen, Barry P

    2017-09-01

    Microbial expression of genes for resistance to heavy metals and metalloids is usually transcriptionally regulated by the toxic ions themselves. Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring toxic metalloid widely distributed in soil and groundwater. Microbes biotransform both arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) into more toxic methylated metabolites methylarsenite (MAs(III)) and dimethylarsenite (DMAs(III)). Environmental arsenic is sensed by members of the ArsR/SmtB family. The arsR gene is autoregulated and is typically part of an operon that contains other ars genes involved in arsenic detoxification. To date every identified ArsR is regulated by inorganic As(III). Here we described a novel ArsR from Shewanella putrefaciens selective for MAs(III). SpArsR orthologs control expression of two MAs(III) resistance genes, arsP that encodes the ArsP MAs(III) efflux permease, and arsH encoding the ArsH MAs(III) oxidase. SpArsR has two conserved cysteine residues, Cys101 and Cys102. Mutation of either resulted in loss of MAs(III) binding, indicating that they form an MAs(III) binding site. SpArsR can be converted into an As(III)-responsive repressor by introduction of an additional cysteine that allows for three-coordinate As(III) binding. Our results indicate that SpArsR evolved selectivity for MAs(III) over As(III) in order to control expression of genes for MAs(III) detoxification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Paralogous Regulators ArsR1 and ArsR2 of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a Basis for Arsenic Biosensor Development

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Matilde; Morel, Bertrand; Ramos, Juan L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The remarkable metal resistance of many microorganisms is related to the presence of multiple metal resistance operons. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 can be considered a model for these microorganisms since its arsenic resistance is due to the action of proteins encoded by the two paralogous arsenic resistance operons ARS1 and ARS2. Both operons contain the genes encoding the transcriptional regulators ArsR1 and ArsR2 that control operon expression. We show here that purified ArsR1 and ArsR2 bind the trivalent salt of arsenic (arsenite) with similar affinities (~30 μM), whereas no binding is observed for the pentavalent salt (arsenate). Furthermore, trivalent salts of bismuth and antimony showed binding to both paralogues. The positions of cysteines, found to bind arsenic in other homologues, indicate that ArsR1 and ArsR2 employ different modes of arsenite recognition. Both paralogues are dimeric and possess significant thermal stability. Both proteins were used to construct whole-cell, lacZ-based biosensors. Whereas responses to bismuth were negligible, significant responses were observed for arsenite, arsenate, and antimony. Biosensors based on the P. putida arsB1 arsB2 arsenic efflux pump double mutant were significantly more sensitive than biosensors based on the wild-type strain. This sensitivity enhancement by pump mutation may be a convenient strategy for the construction of other biosensors. A frequent limitation found for other arsenic biosensors was their elevated background signal and interference by inorganic phosphate. The constructed biosensors show no interference by inorganic phosphate, are characterized by a very low background signal, and were found to be suitable to analyze environmental samples. IMPORTANCE Arsenic is at the top of the priority list of hazardous compounds issued by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease. The reason for the stunning arsenic resistance of many microorganisms is the existence of paralogous arsenic

  4. Regulatory Activities of Four ArsR Proteins in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Brame, Keenan; Jetter, Jonathan; Bothner, Brian B.; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ArsR is a well-studied transcriptional repressor that regulates microbe-arsenic interactions. Most microorganisms have an arsR gene, but in cases where multiple copies exist, the respective roles or potential functional overlap have not been explored. We examined the repressors encoded by arsR1 and arsR2 (ars1 operon) and by arsR3 and arsR4 (ars2 operon) in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. ArsR1 and ArsR4 are very similar in their primary sequences and diverge phylogenetically from ArsR2 and ArsR3, which are also quite similar to one another. Reporter constructs (lacZ) for arsR1, arsR2, and arsR4 were all inducible by As(III), but expression of arsR3 (monitored by reverse transcriptase PCR) was not influenced by As(III) and appeared to be linked transcriptionally to an upstream lysR-type gene. Experiments using a combination of deletion mutations and additional reporter assays illustrated that the encoded repressors (i) are not all autoregulatory as is typically known for ArsR proteins, (ii) exhibit variable control of each other's encoding genes, and (iii) exert variable control of other genes previously shown to be under the control of ArsR1. Furthermore, ArsR2, ArsR3, and ArsR4 appear to have an activator-like function for some genes otherwise repressed by ArsR1, which deviates from the well-studied repressor role of ArsR proteins. The differential regulatory activities suggest a complex regulatory network not previously observed in ArsR studies. The results indicate that fine-scale ArsR sequence deviations of the reiterated regulatory proteins apparently translate to different regulatory roles. IMPORTANCE Given the significance of the ArsR repressor in regulating various aspects of microbe-arsenic interactions, it is important to assess potential regulatory overlap and/or interference when a microorganism carries multiple copies of arsR. This study explores this issue and shows that the four arsR genes in A. tumefaciens 5A, associated with two separate

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the arsenic repressor ArsR from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Santha, Sangilimadan; Pandaranayaka, Eswari P. J.; Rosen, Barry P.; Thiyagarajan, Saravanamuthu

    2011-01-01

    ArsR is a member of the SmtB/ArsR family of metalloregulatory proteins that regulate prokaryotic arsenic-resistance operons. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a cysteine-free derivative of ArsR from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgArsR-C15/16/55S) are reported. CgArsR-C15/16/55S was expressed, purified, crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.86 Å resolution. The protein crystallized in a tetragonal space group (P4), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 41.84, c = 99.47 Å. PMID:22139180

  6. Analysis of protein expression regulated by the Helicobacter pylori ArsRS two-component signal transduction system.

    PubMed

    Loh, John T; Gupta, Shobhana S; Friedman, David B; Krezel, Andrzej M; Cover, Timothy L

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Helicobacter pylori ArsRS two-component signal transduction system contributes to acid-responsive gene expression. To identify additional members of the ArsRS regulon and further investigate the regulatory role of the ArsRS system, we analyzed protein expression in wild-type and arsS null mutant strains. Numerous proteins were differentially expressed in an arsS mutant strain compared to a wild-type strain when the bacteria were cultured at pH 5.0 and also when they were cultured at pH 7.0. Genes encoding 14 of these proteins were directly regulated by the ArsRS system, based on observed binding of ArsR to the relevant promoter regions. The ArsRS-regulated proteins identified in this study contribute to acid resistance (urease and amidase), acetone metabolism (acetone carboxylase), resistance to oxidative stress (thioredoxin reductase), quorum sensing (Pfs), and several other functions. These results provide further definition of the ArsRS regulon and underscore the importance of the ArsRS system in regulating expression of H. pylori proteins during bacterial growth at both neutral pH and acidic pH.

  7. A feed-forward loop between lncARSR and YAP activity promotes expansion of renal tumour-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Le; Wu, Zhenjie; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Zhipeng; Liu, Bing; Liu, Feng; Bao, Yi; Wu, Dengshuang; Liu, Jiayi; Wang, Anbang; Chu, Xiaoyuan; Sun, Yinghao; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Zhengyu; Wang, Linhui

    2016-01-01

    Renal tumour-initiating cells (T-ICs) contribute to tumorigenesis, progression and drug resistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the underlying mechanism for the propagation of renal T-ICs remains unclear. Here we show that long non-coding RNA lncARSR is upregulated in primary renal T-ICs and associated with a poor prognosis of clear cell RCCs (ccRCC). Knockdown of lncARSR attenuates the self-renewal, tumorigenicity and metastasis of renal T-ICs. Conversely, forced lncARSR expression enhances T-IC properties of RCC cells. Mechanistically, the binding of lncARSR to YAP impedes LATS1-induced YAP phosphorylation and facilitates YAP nuclear translocation. Reciprocally, YAP/TEAD promotes lncARSR transcription, thus forming a feed-forward circuit. The correlation between lncARSR and YAP is validated in a ccRCC cohort, where the combination of these two parameters exhibits improved prognostic accuracy. Our findings indicate that lncARSR plays a critical role in renal T-ICs propagation and may serve as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target. PMID:27886176

  8. Phosphorylation dependent and independent regulation of Helicobacter pylori acid acclimation by the ArsRS two-component system

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Sachs, George; Wen, Yi; Scott, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The pH sensitive Helicobacter pylori ArsRS two-component system (TCS) aids survival of this neutralophile in the gastric environment by directly sensing and responding to environmental acidity. ArsS is required for acid-induced trafficking of urease and its accessory proteins to the inner membrane, allowing rapid, urea-dependent cytoplasmic and periplasmic buffering. Expression of ArsR, but not its phosphorylation, is essential for bacterial viability. The aim of this study is to characterize the roles of ArsS and ArsR in the response of H. pylori to acid. Materials and Methods Wildtype H. pylori and an arsR(D52N) phosphorylation deficient strain were incubated at acidic or neutral pH. Gene and protein expression, survival, membrane trafficking of urease proteins, urease activity, and internal pH were studied. Results Phosphorylation of ArsR is not required for acid survival. ArsS-driven trafficking of urease proteins to the membrane in acid, required for recovery of internal pH, is independent of ArsR phosphorylation. ArsR phosphorylation increases expression of the urease gene cluster, and the loss of negative feedback in a phosphorylation deficient mutant leads to an increase in total urease activity. Conclusions ArsRS has a dual function in acid acclimation: regulation of urease trafficking to UreI at the cytoplasmic membrane, driven by ArsS, and regulation of urease gene cluster expression, driven by phosphorylation of ArsR. ArsS and ArsR work through phosphorylation dependent and independent regulatory mechanisms to impact acid acclimation and allow gastric colonization. Furthering understanding of the intricacies of acid acclimation will impact the future development of targeted, non-antibiotic treatment regimens. PMID:25997502

  9. Characterization of Key Helicobacter pylori Regulators Identifies a Role for ArsRS in Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Servetas, Stephanie L; Carpenter, Beth M; Haley, Kathryn P; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Merrell, D Scott

    2016-09-15

    Helicobacter pylori must be able to rapidly respond to fluctuating conditions within the stomach. Despite this need for constant adaptation, H. pylori encodes few regulatory proteins. Of the identified regulators, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), the nickel response regulator (NikR), and the two-component acid response system (ArsRS) are each paramount to the success of this pathogen. While numerous studies have individually examined these regulatory proteins, little is known about their combined effect. Therefore, we constructed a series of isogenic mutant strains that contained all possible single, double, and triple regulatory mutations in Fur, NikR, and ArsS. A growth curve analysis revealed minor variation in growth kinetics across the strains; these were most pronounced in the triple mutant and in strains lacking ArsS. Visual analysis showed that strains lacking ArsS formed large aggregates and a biofilm-like matrix at the air-liquid interface. Biofilm quantification using crystal violet assays and visualization via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that all strains lacking ArsS or containing a nonphosphorylatable form of ArsR (ArsR-D52N mutant) formed significantly more biofilm than the wild-type strain. Molecular characterization of biofilm formation showed that strains containing mutations in the ArsRS pathway displayed increased levels of cell aggregation and adherence, both of which are key to biofilm development. Furthermore, SEM analysis revealed prevalent coccoid cells and extracellular matrix formation in the ArsR-D52N, ΔnikR ΔarsS, and Δfur ΔnikR ΔarsS mutant strains, suggesting that these strains may have an exacerbated stress response that further contributes to biofilm formation. Thus, H. pylori ArsRS has a previously unrecognized role in biofilm formation. Despite a paucity of regulatory proteins, adaptation is key to the survival of H. pylori within the stomach. While prior studies have focused on individual regulatory proteins

  10. Characterization of Key Helicobacter pylori Regulators Identifies a Role for ArsRS in Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Servetas, Stephanie L.; Carpenter, Beth M.; Haley, Kathryn P.; Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori must be able to rapidly respond to fluctuating conditions within the stomach. Despite this need for constant adaptation, H. pylori encodes few regulatory proteins. Of the identified regulators, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), the nickel response regulator (NikR), and the two-component acid response system (ArsRS) are each paramount to the success of this pathogen. While numerous studies have individually examined these regulatory proteins, little is known about their combined effect. Therefore, we constructed a series of isogenic mutant strains that contained all possible single, double, and triple regulatory mutations in Fur, NikR, and ArsS. A growth curve analysis revealed minor variation in growth kinetics across the strains; these were most pronounced in the triple mutant and in strains lacking ArsS. Visual analysis showed that strains lacking ArsS formed large aggregates and a biofilm-like matrix at the air-liquid interface. Biofilm quantification using crystal violet assays and visualization via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that all strains lacking ArsS or containing a nonphosphorylatable form of ArsR (ArsR-D52N mutant) formed significantly more biofilm than the wild-type strain. Molecular characterization of biofilm formation showed that strains containing mutations in the ArsRS pathway displayed increased levels of cell aggregation and adherence, both of which are key to biofilm development. Furthermore, SEM analysis revealed prevalent coccoid cells and extracellular matrix formation in the ArsR-D52N, ΔnikR ΔarsS, and Δfur ΔnikR ΔarsS mutant strains, suggesting that these strains may have an exacerbated stress response that further contributes to biofilm formation. Thus, H. pylori ArsRS has a previously unrecognized role in biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Despite a paucity of regulatory proteins, adaptation is key to the survival of H. pylori within the stomach. While prior studies have focused on individual

  11. Mechanistic Modeling of Genetic Circuits for ArsR Arsenic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Berset, Yves; Merulla, Davide; Joublin, Aurélie; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; van der Meer, Jan R

    2017-02-24

    Bioreporters are living cells that generate an easily measurable signal in the presence of a chemical compound. They acquire their functionality from synthetic gene circuits, the configuration of which defines the response signal and signal-to-noise ratio. Bioreporters based on the Escherichia coli ArsR system have raised significant interest for quantifying arsenic pollution, but they need to be carefully optimized to accurately work in the required low concentration range (1-10 μg arsenite L(-1)). To better understand the general functioning of ArsR-based genetic circuits, we developed a comprehensive mechanistic model that was empirically tested and validated in E. coli carrying different circuit configurations. The model accounts for the different elements in the circuits (proteins, DNA, chemical species), and their detailed affinities and interactions, and predicts the (fluorescent) output from the bioreporter cell as a function of arsenite concentration. The model was parametrized using existing ArsR biochemical data, and then complemented by parameter estimations from the accompanying experimental data using a scatter search algorithm. Model predictions and experimental data were largely coherent for feedback and uncoupled circuit configurations, different ArsR alleles, promoter strengths, and presence or absence of arsenic efflux in the bioreporters. Interestingly, the model predicted a particular useful circuit variant having steeper response at low arsenite concentrations, which was experimentally confirmed and may be useful as arsenic bioreporter in the field. From the extensive validation we expect the mechanistic model to further be a useful framework for detailed modeling of other synthetic circuits.

  12. Phosphorylation-dependent and Phosphorylation-independent Regulation of Helicobacter pylori Acid Acclimation by the ArsRS Two-component System.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George; Wen, Yi; Scott, David R

    2016-02-01

    The pH-sensitive Helicobacter pylori ArsRS two-component system (TCS) aids survival of this neutralophile in the gastric environment by directly sensing and responding to environmental acidity. ArsS is required for acid-induced trafficking of urease and its accessory proteins to the inner membrane, allowing rapid, urea-dependent cytoplasmic and periplasmic buffering. Expression of ArsR, but not its phosphorylation, is essential for bacterial viability. The aim of this study was to characterize the roles of ArsS and ArsR in the response of H. pylori to acid. Wild-type H. pylori and an arsR(D52N) phosphorylation-deficient strain were incubated at acidic or neutral pH. Gene and protein expression, survival, membrane trafficking of urease proteins, urease activity, and internal pH were studied. Phosphorylation of ArsR is not required for acid survival. ArsS-driven trafficking of urease proteins to the membrane in acid, required for recovery of internal pH, is independent of ArsR phosphorylation. ArsR phosphorylation increases expression of the urease gene cluster, and the loss of negative feedback in a phosphorylation-deficient mutant leads to an increase in total urease activity. ArsRS has a dual function in acid acclimation: regulation of urease trafficking to UreI at the cytoplasmic membrane, driven by ArsS, and regulation of urease gene cluster expression, driven by phosphorylation of ArsR. ArsS and ArsR work through phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent regulatory mechanisms to impact acid acclimation and allow gastric colonization. Furthering understanding of the intricacies of acid acclimation will impact the future development of targeted, nonantibiotic treatment regimens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Metal-responsive promoter DNA compaction by the ferric uptake regulator

    PubMed Central

    Roncarati, Davide; Pelliciari, Simone; Doniselli, Nicola; Maggi, Stefano; Vannini, Andrea; Valzania, Luca; Mazzei, Luca; Zambelli, Barbara; Rivetti, Claudio; Danielli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Short-range DNA looping has been proposed to affect promoter activity in many bacterial species and operator configurations, but only few examples have been experimentally investigated in molecular detail. Here we present evidence for a metal-responsive DNA condensation mechanism controlled by the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an orthologue of the widespread Fur family of prokaryotic metal-dependent regulators. H. pylori Fur represses the transcription of the essential arsRS acid acclimation operon through iron-responsive oligomerization and DNA compaction, encasing the arsR transcriptional start site in a repressive macromolecular complex. A second metal-dependent regulator NikR functions as nickel-dependent anti-repressor at this promoter, antagonizing the binding of Fur to the operator elements responsible for the DNA condensation. The results allow unifying H. pylori metal ion homeostasis and acid acclimation in a mechanistically coherent model, and demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of a selective metal-responsive DNA compaction mechanism controlling bacterial transcriptional regulation. PMID:27558202

  14. The Chromobacterium violaceum ArsR Arsenite Repressor Exerts Tighter Control on Its Cognate Promoter Than the Escherichia coli System

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Letícia M.; Monteiro, Lummy M. O.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Environmental bacteria are endowed with several regulatory systems that have potential applications in biotechnology. In this report, we characterize the arsenic biosensing features of the ars response system from Chromobacterium violaceum in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. We show that the native Pars/arsR system of C. violaceum outperforms the chromosomal ars copy of E. coli when exposed to micromolar concentrations of arsenite. To understand the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we analyzed the interaction between ArsR regulators and their promoter target sites as well as induction of the system at saturating concentrations of the regulators. In vivo titration experiments indicate that ArsR from C. violaceum has stronger binding affinity for its target promoter than the regulator from E. coli does. Additionally, arsenite induction experiments at saturating regulator concentration demonstrates that although the Pars/arsR system from E. coli displays a gradual response to increasing concentration of the inducer, the system from C. violaceum has a steeper response with a stronger promoter induction after a given arsenite threshold. Taken together, these data demonstrate the characterization of a novel arsenic response element from an environmental bacterium with potentially enhanced performance that could be further explored for the construction of an arsenic biosensor. PMID:27917165

  15. The Chromobacterium violaceum ArsR Arsenite Repressor Exerts Tighter Control on Its Cognate Promoter Than the Escherichia coli System.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Letícia M; Monteiro, Lummy M O; Silva-Rocha, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Environmental bacteria are endowed with several regulatory systems that have potential applications in biotechnology. In this report, we characterize the arsenic biosensing features of the ars response system from Chromobacterium violaceum in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. We show that the native Pars/arsR system of C. violaceum outperforms the chromosomal ars copy of E. coli when exposed to micromolar concentrations of arsenite. To understand the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we analyzed the interaction between ArsR regulators and their promoter target sites as well as induction of the system at saturating concentrations of the regulators. In vivo titration experiments indicate that ArsR from C. violaceum has stronger binding affinity for its target promoter than the regulator from E. coli does. Additionally, arsenite induction experiments at saturating regulator concentration demonstrates that although the Pars/arsR system from E. coli displays a gradual response to increasing concentration of the inducer, the system from C. violaceum has a steeper response with a stronger promoter induction after a given arsenite threshold. Taken together, these data demonstrate the characterization of a novel arsenic response element from an environmental bacterium with potentially enhanced performance that could be further explored for the construction of an arsenic biosensor.

  16. Characterization of a New Family of Metal Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Lou Geurinot; David Eide

    2002-04-29

    Metal ions are critical nutrients, yet overaccumulation of these same metals can also be toxic. To maintain appropriate intracellular levels, cells require specific metal uptake systems that are subject to precise homeostatic regulation. The long-range goal of our research is to define the molecular mechanism(s) and regulation of metal ion uptake in eukaryotic cells. Integrating genetic, molecular biological and biochemical approaches, we have examined these processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both are proven model systems for studying fundamental cellular processes. Our work has focused on the ZIP family of metal transporters which we identified; this family has representatives in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. IRT, one of the founding members of the ZIP family, is an essential cation transporter that is expressed in the epidermal cells of iron deficient plant roots and is responsible for uptake of iron from the soil. We now know that there are 15 ZIP genes in the Arabidopsis and the similarities among their encoded gene products. The ZIP family members display different substrate specificities for metals and different tissue distributions in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the family members respond differentially to metal deficiencies. For example, IRT1, ZIP6 and ZIP9 mRNA are expressed mainly in the roots of iron deficient plants whereas ZIP4 responds to both iron and zinc deficiency. Work in both yeast and Arabidopsis has addressed substrate specificity as well as how these transporters are regulated in response to metal availability

  17. Acid-Induced Activation of the Urease Promoters Is Mediated Directly by the ArsRS Two-Component System of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Pflock, Michael; Kennard, Simone; Delany, Isabel; Scarlato, Vincenzo; Beier, Dagmar

    2005-01-01

    The nickel-containing enzyme urease is an essential colonization factor of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori which enables the bacteria to survive the low-pH conditions of the stomach. Transcription of the urease genes is positively controlled in response to increasing concentrations of nickel ions and acidic pH. Here we demonstrate that acid-induced transcription of the urease genes is mediated directly by the ArsRS two-component system. Footprint analyses identify binding sites of the phosphorylated ArsR response regulator within the ureA and ureI promoters. Furthermore, deletion of a distal upstream ArsR binding site of the ureA promoter demonstrates its role in acid-dependent activation of the promoter. In addition, acid-induced transcription of the ureA gene is unaltered in a nikR mutant, providing evidence that pH-responsive regulation and nickel-responsive regulation of the ureA promoter are mediated by independent mechanisms involving the ArsR response regulator and the NikR protein. PMID:16177315

  18. Characterization of a New Family of Metal Transport Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Guerinot, Mary Lou; Eide, David

    1999-06-01

    Soils at many DOE sites are contaminated with metals and radionuclides. Such soils obviously pose a risk to human and animal health. Unlike organic wastes, which can be metabolized, metals are immutable and cannot be degraded into harmless constituents. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to remove toxic materials from soil and water, may prove to be an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for cleaning up metal contaminated sites. The success of phytoremediation will rely on the availability of plants that absorb, translocate, and tolerate the contaminating metals. However, before we can engineer such plants, we need more basic information on how plants acquire metals. An important long term goal of our research program is to understand how metals such as zinc, cadmium and iron are transported across membranes. Our research is focused on a new family of metal transporters, which we have identified through combined studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We have identified a family of 24 presumptive metal transport genes in a variety of organisms including yeast, trypanosomes, plants, nematodes, and humans. This family, which we have designated the ''ZIP'' genes, provides a rich source of material with which to undertake studies on metal transport in eukar

  19. [Advance in the bioavailability monitoring of heavy metal based on microbial whole-cell sensor].

    PubMed

    Hou, Qi-Hui; Ma, An-Shou; Zhuang, Xiu-Liang; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Microbial whole-cell biosensor is an excellent tool to assess the bioavailability of heavy metal in soil and water. However, the traditional physicochemical instruments are applied to detect the total metal. Furthermore, microbial whole-cell biosensor is simple, rapid and economical in manipulating, and is thus a highly qualified candidate for emergency detection of pollution incidents. The biological component of microbial whole-cell biosensor mostly consists of metalloregulatory proteins and reporter genes. In detail, metalloregulatory proteins mainly include the MerR family, ArsR family and RS family, and reporter genes mainly include gfp, lux and luc. Metalloregulatory protein and reporter gene are related to the sensitivity, specificity and properties in monitoring. The bioavailability of heavy metals is alterable under different conditions, influenced by pH, chelate and detection methods and so on. Increasing the accumulation of intracellular heavy metal, modifying the metalloregulatory proteins and optimizing the detecting conditions are important for improving the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the microbial whole-cell biosensor. The future direction of microbial whole-cell biosensor is to realize the monitoring of pollutions in situ and on line.

  20. Hydroponic screening of black locust families for heavy metal tolerance and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Župunski, Milan; Borišev, Milan; Orlović, Saša; Arsenov, Danijela; Nikolić, Nataša; Pilipović, Andrej; Pajević, Slobodanka

    2016-01-01

    Present work examines phytoextraction potential of four black locust families (half-sibs 54, 56, 115, and 135) grown hydroponically. Plants were treated with 6 ppm of cadmium (Cd), 100 ppm of nickel (Ni), and 40 ppm of lead (Pb) added in Hoagland nutrient solution, accompanying with simultaneously applied all three metals. Responses to metals exposure among families were different, ranging from severe to slight reduction of root and shoot biomass production of treated plants. Calculated tolerance indices are indicating tested families as highly tolerant (Ti > 60). Family 135 had the lowest tolerance index, pointing that it was highly susceptible to applied metals. Comparing photosynthetic activities of tested families it has been noticed that they were highly sensitive to stress induced by heavy metals. Net photosynthetic rate of nickel treated plants was the most affected by applied concentration. Cadmium and nickel concentrations in stems and leaves of black locust families exceeded 100 mg Cd kg(-1) and 1000 mg Ni kg(-1), in both single and multipollution context. On the contrary, accumulation of lead in above ground biomass was highly affected by multipollution treatment. Tf and BCF significantly varied between investigated treatments and families of black locust. Concerning obtained results of heavy metals accumulation and tolerance of black locust families can be concluded that tested families might be a promising tool for phytoextraction purposes, but it takes to be further confirmed in field trials.

  1. Characterization of a new family of metal transport proteins. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Guerinot, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    'Soils at many DOE sites are contaminated with metals and radionuclides. Such soils obviously pose a risk to human and animal health. Unlike organic wastes which can be metabolized, metals are immutable and cannot be degraded into harmless constituents. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to remove toxic materials from soil and water, may prove to be an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for cleaning up metal-contaminated sites. The success of phytoremediation will rely on the availability of plants that absorb, translocate, and tolerate the contaminating metals. However, before the authors can engineer such plants, they need more basic information on how plants acquire metals. An important long term goal of the research program is to understand how metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper are transported across membranes. The research is focused on a new family of metal transporters which they have identified through combined studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They have identified a family of 19 presumptive metal transport genes in a variety of organisms including yeast, trypanosomes, plants, nematodes, and humans. This family, which the authors have designated the ZIP genes, provides a rich source of material with which to undertake studies on metal transport in eukaryotes. The project has three main objectives: Objective 1: Determine the sub-cellular location of the ZIP proteins in Arabidopsis. Objective 2: Carry out a structure/function analysis of the proteins encoded by the ZIP gene family to identify regions of the protein responsible for substrate specificity and affinity. Objective 3: Engineer plants to overexpress and underexpress members of the ZIP gene family and analyze these transgenic plants for alterations in metal accumulation. They now know that manipulation of transporter levels will also require an understanding of post-transcriptional control of ZIP gene expression. They

  2. Conserved methionine dictates substrate preference in Nramp-family divalent metal transporters

    PubMed Central

    Bozzi, Aaron T.; Bane, Lukas B.; Weihofen, Wilhelm A.; McCabe, Anne L.; Singharoy, Abhishek; Chipot, Christophe J.; Schulten, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family transporters catalyze uptake of essential divalent transition metals like iron and manganese. To discriminate against abundant competitors, the Nramp metal-binding site should favor softer transition metals, which interact either covalently or ionically with coordinating molecules, over hard calcium and magnesium, which interact mainly ionically. The metal-binding site contains an unusual, but conserved, methionine, and its sulfur coordinates transition metal substrates, suggesting a vital role in their transport. Using a bacterial Nramp model system, we show that, surprisingly, this conserved methionine is dispensable for transport of the physiological manganese substrate and similar divalents iron and cobalt, with several small amino acid replacements still enabling robust uptake. Moreover, the methionine sulfur’s presence makes the toxic metal cadmium a preferred substrate. However, a methionine-to-alanine substitution enables transport of calcium and magnesium. Thus, the putative evolutionary pressure to maintain the Nramp metal-binding methionine likely exists because it—more effectively than any other amino acid—increases selectivity for low-abundance transition metal transport in the presence of high-abundance divalents like calcium and magnesium. PMID:27573840

  3. Conserved methionine dictates substrate preference in Nramp-family divalent metal transporters.

    PubMed

    Bozzi, Aaron T; Bane, Lukas B; Weihofen, Wilhelm A; McCabe, Anne L; Singharoy, Abhishek; Chipot, Christophe J; Schulten, Klaus; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-09-13

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family transporters catalyze uptake of essential divalent transition metals like iron and manganese. To discriminate against abundant competitors, the Nramp metal-binding site should favor softer transition metals, which interact either covalently or ionically with coordinating molecules, over hard calcium and magnesium, which interact mainly ionically. The metal-binding site contains an unusual, but conserved, methionine, and its sulfur coordinates transition metal substrates, suggesting a vital role in their transport. Using a bacterial Nramp model system, we show that, surprisingly, this conserved methionine is dispensable for transport of the physiological manganese substrate and similar divalents iron and cobalt, with several small amino acid replacements still enabling robust uptake. Moreover, the methionine sulfur's presence makes the toxic metal cadmium a preferred substrate. However, a methionine-to-alanine substitution enables transport of calcium and magnesium. Thus, the putative evolutionary pressure to maintain the Nramp metal-binding methionine likely exists because it-more effectively than any other amino acid-increases selectivity for low-abundance transition metal transport in the presence of high-abundance divalents like calcium and magnesium.

  4. Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    evolutionary modulation of non-cysteine amino acid positions. Conclusion The Roman snail HpCdMT and HpCuMT isoforms can thus be regarded as prototypes of isoform families that evolved genuine metal-specificity within pulmonate molluscs. Diversification into these isoforms may have been initiated by gene duplication, followed by speciation and selection towards opposite needs for protecting copper-dominated metabolic pathways from nonessential cadmium. The mechanisms enabling these proteins to be metal-specific could also be relevant for other metalloproteins. PMID:21255385

  5. Crystal Structure and Conformational Change Mechanism of a Bacterial Nramp-Family Divalent Metal Transporter.

    PubMed

    Bozzi, Aaron T; Bane, Lukas B; Weihofen, Wilhelm A; Singharoy, Abhishek; Guillen, Eduardo R; Ploegh, Hidde L; Schulten, Klaus; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-12-06

    The widely conserved natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family of divalent metal transporters enables manganese import in bacteria and dietary iron uptake in mammals. We determined the crystal structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans Nramp homolog (DraNramp) in an inward-facing apo state, including the complete transmembrane (TM) segment 1a (absent from a previous Nramp structure). Mapping our cysteine accessibility scanning results onto this structure, we identified the metal-permeation pathway in the alternate outward-open conformation. We investigated the functional impact of two natural anemia-causing glycine-to-arginine mutations that impaired transition metal transport in both human Nramp2 and DraNramp. The TM4 G153R mutation perturbs the closing of the outward metal-permeation pathway and alters the selectivity of the conserved metal-binding site. In contrast, the TM1a G45R mutation prevents conformational change by sterically blocking the essential movement of that helix, thus locking the transporter in an inward-facing state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tolerance to toxic metals by a gene family of phytochelatin synthases from plants and yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, S; Kim, E J; Neumann, D; Schroeder, J I

    1999-01-01

    Phytochelatins play major roles in metal detoxification in plants and fungi. However, genes encoding phytochelatin synthases have not yet been identified. By screening for plant genes mediating metal tolerance we identified a wheat cDNA, TaPCS1, whose expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a dramatic increase in cadmium tolerance. TaPCS1 encodes a protein of approximately 55 kDa with no similarity to proteins of known function. We identified homologs of this new gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and interestingly also Caenorhabditis elegans. The Arabidopsis and S.pombe genes were also demonstrated to confer substantial increases in metal tolerance in yeast. PCS-expressing cells accumulate more Cd2+ than controls. PCS expression mediates Cd2+ tolerance even in yeast mutants that are either deficient in vacuolar acidification or impaired in vacuolar biogenesis. PCS-induced metal resistance is lost upon exposure to an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, a process necessary for phytochelatin formation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells disrupted in the PCS gene exhibit hypersensitivity to Cd2+ and Cu2+ and are unable to synthesize phytochelatins upon Cd2+ exposure as determined by HPLC analysis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing PCS produce phytochelatins. Moreover, the recombinant purified S.pombe PCS protein displays phytochelatin synthase activity. These data demonstrate that PCS genes encode phytochelatin synthases and mediate metal detoxification in eukaryotes. PMID:10369673

  7. Characterization of zinc transport by divalent metal transporters of the ZIP family from the model legume medicago truncatula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand how plants from the Fabaceae family maintain zinc (Zn) homeostasis, we have characterized the kinetics of the Zn transporting proteins from the ZIP family of divalent metal transporters in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MtZIP1, MtZIP5, and MtZIP6 were the only members from this ...

  8. Evolutionary Descent of Prion Genes from the ZIP Family of Metal Ion Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Ehsani, Sepehr; Watts, Joel C.; Westaway, David; Wille, Holger

    2009-01-01

    In the more than twenty years since its discovery, both the phylogenetic origin and cellular function of the prion protein (PrP) have remained enigmatic. Insights into a possible function of PrP may be obtained through the characterization of its molecular neighborhood in cells. Quantitative interactome data demonstrated the spatial proximity of two metal ion transporters of the ZIP family, ZIP6 and ZIP10, to mammalian prion proteins in vivo. A subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed the unexpected presence of a PrP-like amino acid sequence within the N-terminal, extracellular domain of a distinct sub-branch of the ZIP protein family that includes ZIP5, ZIP6 and ZIP10. Additional structural threading and orthologous sequence alignment analyses argued that the prion gene family is phylogenetically derived from a ZIP-like ancestral molecule. The level of sequence homology and the presence of prion protein genes in most chordate species place the split from the ZIP-like ancestor gene at the base of the chordate lineage. This relationship explains structural and functional features found within mammalian prion proteins as elements of an ancient involvement in the transmembrane transport of divalent cations. The phylogenetic and spatial connection to ZIP proteins is expected to open new avenues of research to elucidate the biology of the prion protein in health and disease. PMID:19784368

  9. Fractionation of families of major, minor, and trace metals across the melt-vapor interface in volcanic exhalations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.; Le Cloarec, M.-F.; Lambert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical families of metals fractionate systematically as they pass from a silicate melt across the interface with the vapor phase and on into a cooled volcanic plume. We measured three groups of metals in a small suite of samples collected on filters from the plumes of Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Etna (Sicily), and Merapi (Java) volcanoes. These were the major, minor, and trace metals of the alkali and alkaline earth families (K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba), a group of ordinarily rare metals (Cd, Cu, In, Pb, Tl) that are related by their chalcophile affinities, and the radon daughter nuclides 210Po, 210Bi, and 210Pb. The measurements show the range and some details of systematic melt-vapor fractionation within and between these groups of metals. In the plumes of all three volcanoes, the alkali metals are much more abundant than the alkaline earth metals. In the Kilauea plume, the alkali metals are at least six times more abundant than the alkaline earth metals, relative to abundances in the melt; at Etna, the factor is at least 300. Fractionations within each family are, commonly, also distinctive; in the Kilauea plume, in addition to the whole alkaline earth family being depleted, the heaviest metals of the family (Sr, Ba) are progressively more depleted than the light metal Ca. In plumes of fumaroles at Merapi, K/Cs ratios were approximately three orders of magnitude smaller than found in other earth materials. This may represent the largest observed enrichment of the "light ion lithophile" (LIL) metals. Changes in metal ratios were seen through the time of eruption in the plumes of Kilauea and Etna. This may reflect degree of degassing of volatiles, with which metals complex, from the magma bodies. At Kilauea, the changes in fractionation were seen over about three years; fractionation within the alkaline earth family increased, and that between the two families decreased, over that time. All of the ordinarily rare chalcophile metals measured are extremely abundant in

  10. Structural and mechanistic basis of proton-coupled metal ion transport in the SLC11/NRAMP family

    PubMed Central

    Ehrnstorfer, Ines A.; Manatschal, Cristina; Arnold, Fabian M.; Laederach, Juerg; Dutzler, Raimund

    2017-01-01

    Secondary active transporters of the SLC11/NRAMP family catalyse the uptake of iron and manganese into cells. These proteins are highly conserved across all kingdoms of life and thus likely share a common transport mechanism. Here we describe the structural and functional properties of the prokaryotic SLC11 transporter EcoDMT. Its crystal structure reveals a previously unknown outward-facing state of the protein family. In proteoliposomes EcoDMT mediates proton-coupled uptake of manganese at low micromolar concentrations. Mutants of residues in the transition-metal ion-binding site severely affect transport, whereas a mutation of a conserved histidine located near this site results in metal ion transport that appears uncoupled to proton transport. Combined with previous results, our study defines the conformational changes underlying transition-metal ion transport in the SLC11 family and it provides molecular insight to its coupling to protons. PMID:28059071

  11. Structural and mechanistic basis of proton-coupled metal ion transport in the SLC11/NRAMP family.

    PubMed

    Ehrnstorfer, Ines A; Manatschal, Cristina; Arnold, Fabian M; Laederach, Juerg; Dutzler, Raimund

    2017-01-06

    Secondary active transporters of the SLC11/NRAMP family catalyse the uptake of iron and manganese into cells. These proteins are highly conserved across all kingdoms of life and thus likely share a common transport mechanism. Here we describe the structural and functional properties of the prokaryotic SLC11 transporter EcoDMT. Its crystal structure reveals a previously unknown outward-facing state of the protein family. In proteoliposomes EcoDMT mediates proton-coupled uptake of manganese at low micromolar concentrations. Mutants of residues in the transition-metal ion-binding site severely affect transport, whereas a mutation of a conserved histidine located near this site results in metal ion transport that appears uncoupled to proton transport. Combined with previous results, our study defines the conformational changes underlying transition-metal ion transport in the SLC11 family and it provides molecular insight to its coupling to protons.

  12. Aqueous batteries based on mixed monovalence metal ions: a new battery family.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Leyuan; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-08-01

    As existing battery technologies struggle to meet the requirements for widespread use in the field of large-scale energy storage, new concepts are urgently needed to build batteries with high energy density, low cost, and good safety. Here, we demonstrate two new aqueous batteries based on two monovalence metal ions (Li(+) /K(+) and Na(+) /K(+) ) as charge-transfer ions, Ni1 Zn1 HCF/TiP2 O7 and Ni1 Zn1 HCF/NaTi2 (PO4 )3 . These new batteries are unlike the conventional "rocking-chair" aqueous metal-ion batteries based on the migration of one type of shuttle ion between cathode and anode. They can deliver specific energy of 46 Wh kg(-1) and 53 Wh kg(-1) based on the total mass of active materials; this is superior to current aqueous battery systems based on sodium-ion and/or potassium-ion technologies. These two new batteries together with the previously developed Li(+) /Na(+) mixed-ion battery not only constitute a new battery family for energy storage, but also greatly broaden our horizons for battery research.

  13. P(1B)-ATPases--an ancient family of transition metal pumps with diverse functions in plants.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lorraine E; Mills, Rebecca F

    2005-10-01

    P(1B)-ATPases form a distinct evolutionary sub-family of P-type ATPases, transporting transition metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Co across membranes in a wide range of organisms, including plants. Structurally they are distinct from other P-types, possessing eight transmembrane helices, a CPx/SPC motif in transmembrane domain six, and putative transition metal-binding domains at the N- and/or C-termini. Arabidopsis has eight P(1B)-ATPases (AtHMA1-AtHMA8), which differ in their structure, function and regulation. They perform a variety of important physiological tasks relating to transition metal transport and homeostasis. The crucial roles of plant P(1B)-ATPases in micronutrient nutrition, delivery of essential metals to target proteins, and toxic metal detoxification are discussed.

  14. Lead and other heavy metals in dust fall from single-family housing demolition.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David E; Cali, Salvatore; Welch, Alison; Catalin, Bogdan; Dixon, Sherry L; Evens, Anne; Mucha, Amy P; Vahl, Nicole; Erdal, Serap; Bartlett, John

    2013-01-01

    We measured lead and other heavy metals in dust during older housing demolition and effectiveness of dust suppression. We used American Public Housing Association Method 502 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methods SW3050B and SW6020 at 97 single-family housing demolition events with intermittent (or no) use of water to suppress dust at perimeter, non-perimeter, and locations without demolition, with nested mixed modeling and tobit modeling with left censoring. The geometric mean (GM) lead dust fall during demolition was 6.01 micrograms of lead per square foot per hour (μg Pb/ft(2)/hour). GM lead dust fall was 14.18 μg Pb/ft(2)/hour without dust suppression, but declined to 5.48 μg Pb/ft(2)/hour (p=0.057) when buildings and debris were wetted. Significant predictors included distance, wind direction, and main street location. At 400 feet, lead dust fall was not significantly different from background. GM lead concentration at demolition (2,406 parts per million [ppm]) was significantly greater than background (GM=579 ppm, p=0.05). Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, and manganese demolition dust fall was significantly higher than background (p<0.001). Demolition of approximately 400 old housing units elsewhere with more dust suppression was only 0.25 μg Pb/ft(2)/hour. Lead dust suppression is feasible and important in single-family housing demolition where distances between houses are smaller and community exposures are higher. Neighbor notification should be expanded to at least 400 feet away from single-family housing demolition, not just adjacent properties. Further research is needed on effects of distance, potential water contamination, occupational exposures, and water application.

  15. Lead and Other Heavy Metals in Dust Fall from Single-Family Housing Demolition

    PubMed Central

    Cali, Salvatore; Welch, Alison; Catalin, Bogdan; Dixon, Sherry L.; Evens, Anne; Mucha, Amy P.; Vahl, Nicole; Erdal, Serap; Bartlett, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective We measured lead and other heavy metals in dust during older housing demolition and effectiveness of dust suppression. Methods We used American Public Housing Association Method 502 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methods SW3050B and SW6020 at 97 single-family housing demolition events with intermittent (or no) use of water to suppress dust at perimeter, non-perimeter, and locations without demolition, with nested mixed modeling and tobit modeling with left censoring. Results The geometric mean (GM) lead dust fall during demolition was 6.01 micrograms of lead per square foot per hour (μg Pb/ft2/hour). GM lead dust fall was 14.18 μg Pb/ft2/hour without dust suppression, but declined to 5.48 μg Pb/ft2/hour (p=0.057) when buildings and debris were wetted. Significant predictors included distance, wind direction, and main street location. At 400 feet, lead dust fall was not significantly different from background. GM lead concentration at demolition (2,406 parts per million [ppm]) was significantly greater than background (GM=579 ppm, p=0.05). Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, and manganese demolition dust fall was significantly higher than background (p<0.001). Demolition of approximately 400 old housing units elsewhere with more dust suppression was only 0.25 μg Pb/ft2/hour. Conclusions Lead dust suppression is feasible and important in single-family housing demolition where distances between houses are smaller and community exposures are higher. Neighbor notification should be expanded to at least 400 feet away from single-family housing demolition, not just adjacent properties. Further research is needed on effects of distance, potential water contamination, occupational exposures, and water application. PMID:24179257

  16. Metagenomics analysis reveals a new metallothionein family: Sequence and metal-binding features of new environmental cysteine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Ziller, Antoine; Yadav, Rajiv Kumar; Capdevila, Mercè; Reddy, Mondem Sudhakara; Vallon, Laurent; Marmeisse, Roland; Atrian, Silvia; Palacios, Òscar; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence

    2017-02-01

    Metallothioneins are cysteine-rich proteins, which function as (i) metal carriers in basal cell metabolism and (ii) protective metal chelators in conditions of metal excess. Metallothioneins have been characterized from different eukaryotic model and cultivable species. Presently, they are categorized in 15 families but evolutionary relationships between these metallothionein families remain unresolved. Several cysteine-rich protein encoding genes that conferred Cd-tolerance in Cd-sensitive yeast mutants have previously been isolated from soil eukaryotic metatranscriptomes. They were called CRPs for "cysteine-rich proteins". These proteins, of unknown taxonomic origins, share conserved cysteine motifs and could be considered as metallothioneins. In the present work, we analyzed these CRPs with respect to their amino acid sequence features and their metal-binding abilities towards Cd, Zn and Cu metal ions. Sequence analysis revealed that they share common features with different known metallothionein families, but also exhibit unique specific features. Noticeably, CRPs display two separate cysteine-rich domains which, when expressed separately in yeast, confer Cd-tolerance. The N-terminal domain contains some conserved atypical Cys motifs, such as one CCC and two CXCC ones. Five CRPs were expressed and purified as recombinant proteins and their metal-binding characteristics were studied. All these CRPs chelated Cd(II), Zn(II) and Cu(I), although displaying a better capacity for Zn(II) coordination. All CRPs are able to confer Cd-tolerance, and four of them confer Zn-tolerance in the Zn-sensitive zrc1Δ yeast mutant. We designated these CRPs as environmental metallothioneins belonging to a new formerly undescribed metallothionein family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy metal-associated isoprenylated plant protein (HIPP): characterization of a family of proteins exclusive to plants.

    PubMed

    de Abreu-Neto, João Braga; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Valter; Zanettini, Maria Helena Bodanese; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2013-04-01

    Metallochaperones are key proteins for the safe transport of metallic ions inside the cell. HIPPs (heavy metal-associated isoprenylated plant proteins) are metallochaperones that contain a metal binding domain (HMA) and a C-terminal isoprenylation motif. In this study, we provide evidence that proteins of this family are found only in vascular plants and may be separated into five distinct clusters. HIPPs may be involved in (a) heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification mechanisms, especially those involved in cadmium tolerance, (b) transcriptional responses to cold and drought, and (c) plant-pathogen interactions. In particular, our results show that the rice (Oryza sativa) HIPP OsHIPP41 gene is highly expressed in response to cold and drought stresses, and its product is localized in the cytosol and the nucleus. The results suggest that HIPPs play an important role in the development of vascular plants and in plant responses to environmental changes.

  18. A family of metal-dependent phosphatases implicated in metabolite damage-control

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lili; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Petit, Pierre; Flick, Robert; Zallot, Rémi; Balmant, Kelly; Ziemak, Michael J.; Shanklin, John; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Fiehn, Oliver; Gregory, Jesse F.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2016-06-20

    DUF89 family proteins occur widely in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but their functions are unknown. Here we define three DUF89 subfamilies (I, II, and III), with subfamily II being split into stand-alone proteins and proteins fused to pantothenate kinase (PanK). We demonstrated that DUF89 proteins have metal-dependent phosphatase activity against reactive phosphoesters or their damaged forms, notably sugar phosphates (subfamilies II and III), phosphopantetheine and its S-sulfonate or sulfonate (subfamily II-PanK fusions), and nucleotides (subfamily I). Genetic and comparative genomic data strongly associated DUF89 genes with phosphoester metabolism. The crystal structure of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) subfamily III protein YMR027W revealed a novel phosphatase active site with fructose 6-phosphate and Mg2+ bound near conserved signature residues Asp254 and Asn255 that are critical for activity. These findings indicate that DUF89 proteins are previously unrecognized hydrolases whose characteristic in vivo function is to limit potentially harmful buildups of normal or damaged phosphometabolites.

  19. Unusual intracranial stab wounds inflicted with metal tent stakes for a case involving a family murder suicide.

    PubMed

    Oki, Takahito; Asamura, Hideki; Hayashi, Tokutaro; Ota, Masao

    2010-10-10

    This article presents a highly unusual homicide involving intracranial stab wounds. Of three members of a family killed by intracranial stab wounds apparently inflicted with metal tent stakes, two also showed signs of wounds inflicted during an apparent struggle with the assailant. A wooden mallet appears to be the implement use to drive the metal stakes into the cranial cavity. In all victims, toxicological analysis indicated the presence of brotizolam at concentrations ranging from 30 to 50ngml(-1). The one victim who showed no signs of wounds incurred during a defensive struggle was found to have blood alcohol levels of 2.87mgml(-1). The assailant, another family member with a history of major psychiatric disorders, apparently committed suicide by drowning following the attacks.

  20. Heavy Metals Need Assistance: The Contribution of Nicotianamine to Metal Circulation Throughout the Plant and the Arabidopsis NAS Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Mara; Bauer, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the regulated inter- and intra-cellular metal circulation is one of the challenges in the field of metal homeostasis. Inside organisms metal ions are bound to organic ligands to prevent their uncontrolled reactivity and to increase their solubility. Nicotianamine (NA) is one of the important ligands. This non-proteinogenic amino acid is synthesized by nicotianamine synthase (NAS). NA is involved in mobilization, uptake, transport, storage, and detoxification of metals. Much of the progress in understanding NA function has been achieved by studying mutants with altered nicotianamine levels. Mild and strong Arabidopsis mutants impaired in nicotianamine synthesis have been identified and characterized, namely nas4x-1 and nas4x-2. Arabidopsis thaliana has four NAS genes. In this review, we summarize the structure and evolution of the NAS genes in the Arabidopsis genome. We summarize previous results and present novel evidence that the four NAS genes have partially overlapping functions when plants are exposed to Fe deficiency and nickel supply. We compare the phenotypes of nas4x-1 and nas4x-2 and summarize the functions of NAS genes and NA as deduced from the studies of mutant phenotypes.

  1. Isolation and characterization of nanosheets containing few layers of the Aurivillius family of oxides and metal-organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sreedhara, M.B.; Prasad, B.E.; Moirangthem, Monali; Murugavel, R.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2015-04-15

    Nanosheets containing few-layers of ferroelectric Aurivillius family of oxides, Bi{sub 2}A{sub n−1}B{sub n}O{sub 3n+3} (where A=Bi{sup 3+}, Ba{sup 2+} etc. and B=Ti{sup 4+}, Fe{sup 3+} etc.) with n=3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 have been prepared by reaction with n-butyllithium, followed by exfoliation in water. The few-layer samples have been characterized by Tyndall cones, atomic force microscopy, optical spectroscopy and other techniques. The few-layer species have a thickness corresponding to a fraction of the c-parameter along which axis the perovskite layers are stacked. Magnetization measurements have been carried out on the few-layer samples containing iron. Few-layer species of a few layered metal-organic compounds have been obtained by ultrasonication and characterized by Tyndall cones, atomic force microscopy, optical spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Significant changes in the optical spectra and magnetic properties are found in the few-layer species compared to the bulk samples. Few-layer species of the Aurivillius family of oxides may find uses as thin layer dielectrics in photovoltaics and other applications. - Graphical abstract: Exfoliation of the layered Aurivillius oxides into few-layer nanosheets by chemical Li intercalation using n-BuLi followed by reaction in water. Exfoliation of the layered metal-organic compounds into few-layer nanosheets by ultrasonication. - Highlights: • Few-layer nanosheets of Aurivillius family of oxides with perovskite layers have been generated by lithium intercalation. • Few-layer nanosheets of few layered metal-organic compounds have been generated by ultrasonication. • Few-layer nanosheets of the Aurivillius oxides have been characterized by AFM, TEM and optical spectroscopy. • Aurivillius oxides containing Fe show layer dependent magnetic properties. • Exfoliated few-layer metal-organic compounds show changes in spectroscopic and magnetic properties compared with bulk materials.

  2. First Principle Calculations of a Family of Noble Metal Nitrides and Carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linyan

    The structural and electronic properties of selected noble metal nitrides and carbides are studied using the local density approximation and the generalized gradient approximation. The zinc-blende and rock-salt structures are employed. The nitride and carbide of palladium have high bulk modulus. From the DOS, the MX (M = Pd, Ag, Au; X = N, C) compound display metallic nature.

  3. A new family of Ln₇ clusters with an ideal D(3h) metal-centered trigonal prismatic geometry, and SMM and photoluminescence behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mazarakioti, Eleni C; Poole, Katye M; Cunha-Silva, Luis; Christou, George; Stamatatos, Theocharis C

    2014-08-14

    The first use of the flexible Schiff base ligand N-salicylidene-2-aminocyclohexanol in metal cluster chemistry has afforded a new family of Ln7 clusters with ideal D(3h) point group symmetry and metal-centered trigonal prismatic topology; solid-state and solution studies revealed SMM and photoluminescence behaviors.

  4. An expanded family of dysprosium-scandium mixed-metal nitride clusterfullerenes: the role of the lanthanide metal on the carbon cage size distribution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Liu, Fupin; Wang, Song; Zhu, Xianjun; Popov, Alexey A; Yang, Shangfeng

    2015-04-07

    A large family of dysprosium-scandium (Dy-Sc) mixed-metal nitride clusterfullerenes (MMNCFs), Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n (x = 1, 2, 2n = 68, 70, 76-86) have been successfully synthesized and isolated. Among these, the C70 and C82-based MMNCFs are two new cages that have never been isolated for MMNCFs. Synthesis of Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n was accomplished by the "selective organic solid" route using guanidinium thiocyanate as the nitrogen source, and their isolation was fulfilled by recycling HPLC. UV/Vis-NIR spectroscopic study indicates that almost all Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n MMNCFs are kinetically stable fullerenes with optical band gaps beyond 1 eV. This feature is distinctly different to their counterparts Dy3N@C2n (78≤2n≤88), whose for optical band-gaps are below 1 eV for relatively large cages such as C84 and C86. An FTIR spectroscopic study in combination with DFT calculations enables reasonable assignments of the cage isomeric structures of all isolated Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n (x = 1, 2, 2n = 68, 70, 76-86) MMNCFs. The carbon cage size distribution of Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n (2n = 68, 70, 76-86) is compared to the reported Dy3N@C2n (78≤2n≤8) homogeneous NCF and Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n (78≤2n≤88) MMNCF families, revealing that the medium-sized Dy metal plays a crucial role on the expanded cage size distribution of MMNCFs. As a result, Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n MMNCFs are the largest MMNCF family reported to date.

  5. CFA-7: an interpenetrated metal-organic framework of the MFU-4 family.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Phillip; Grzywa, Maciej; Denysenko, Dmytro; Hambach, Manuel; Volkmer, Dirk

    2015-08-07

    The novel interpenetrated metal-organic framework CFA-7 (Coordination Framework Augsburg University-7), [Zn5Cl4(tqpt)3], has been synthesized containing the organic linker {H2-tqpt = 6,6,14,14-tetramethyl-6,14-dihydroquinoxalino[2,3-b]phenazinebistriazole}. Reaction of H2-tqpt and anhydrous ZnCl2 in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) yields CFA-7 as pseudo-cubic crystals. CFA-7 serves as precursor for the synthesis of isostructural frameworks with redox-active metal centers, which is demonstrated by postsynthetic metal exchange of Zn(2+) by different M(2+) (M = Co, Ni, Cu) ions. The novel framework is robust upon solvent removal and has been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, TGA and IR spectroscopy, as well as gas sorption (Ar, CO2 and H2).

  6. New Family of Quantum Spin Hall Insulators in Two-dimensional Transition-Metal Halide with Large Nontrivial Band Gaps.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liujiang; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Yan; Felser, Claudia; Hu, Feiming; Shan, Guangcun; Smith, Sean C; Yan, Binghai; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2015-12-09

    Topological insulators (TIs) are promising for achieving dissipationless transport devices due to the robust gapless states inside the insulating bulk gap. However, currently realized two-dimensional (2D) TIs, quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulators, suffer from ultrahigh vacuum and extremely low temperature. Thus, seeking for desirable QSH insulators with high feasibility of experimental preparation and large nontrivial gap is of great importance for wide applications in spintronics. On the basis of the first-principles calculations, we predict a novel family of 2D QSH insulators in transition-metal halide MX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, and I) monolayers, especially, which is the first case based on transition-metal halide-based QSH insulators. MX family has the large nontrivial gaps of 0.12-0.4 eV, comparable with bismuth (111) bilayer (0.2 eV), stanene (0.3 eV), and larger than ZrTe5 (0.1 eV) monolayers and graphene-based sandwiched heterstructures (30-70 meV). Their corresponding 3D bulk materials are weak topological insulators from stacking QSH layers, and some of bulk compounds have already been synthesized in experiment. The mechanism for 2D QSH effect in this system originates from a novel d-d band inversion, significantly different from conventional band inversion between s-p, p-p, or d-p orbitals. The realization of pure layered MX monolayers may be prepared by exfoliation from their 3D bulk phases, thus holding great promise for nanoscale device applications and stimulating further efforts on transition metal-based QSH materials.

  7. Bioaccumulation of metals in fish of Salmonidae family and the impact on fish meat quality.

    PubMed

    Alibabić, Vildana; Vahcić, Nada; Bajramović, Melisa

    2007-08-01

    The study was aimed at determining the levels of metals in water samples and muscles of the fish caught in the Una River basin, located in the northwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. For that purpose, three fish species: Brown Trout (Salmo trutta m. fario), Grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Californian Trout (Salmo gairdneri), together with stem water samples, were analyzed for metal concentrations (Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Se, Co, Sn, Zn, Fe, Ca, P) during a 2-year period. The fish was captured using electric fishing, nets or fishing equipment. The capture was undertaken on three sites (the river source, the middle flow and the river mouth) of each of the five biggest rivers belonging to the Una River basin (Unac, Krusnica, Sana, Klokot, and Una). The concentrations of metals in each sample were determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In the tested waters, the presence of Mn in concentrations higher than permitted (0.07 mg/l) had been detected. In the tested meat, the following average concentrations of metals (mg/kg) had been found: Pb (0.67), Cd (0.06), Mn (0.65), Ni (0.15), Cu (0.79), Cr (1.05), Se (0.03), Zn (8.92), Fe (5.40), Ca (14.68), and P (10.85). The correlation between Mn concentrations identified in the tested waters and those identified in the meat of Brown Trout was revealed to be statistically significant, which confirms that, over time, bioaccumulation of metals took place. Even though the results were not indicative of contamination, they strongly suggest that constant monitoring of the ecosystems in reference should be implemented.

  8. Tuning interfacial spin filters from metallic to resistive within a single organic semiconductor family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingying; Deloach, Andrew; Jiang, Wei; Papa, Christopher M.; Myahkostupov, Mykhaylo; Castellano, Felix N.; Liu, Feng; Dougherty, Daniel B.

    2017-06-01

    A metallic spin filter is observed at the interface between Al q3 adsorbates and a Cr(001) surface. It can be changed to a resistive (i.e., gapped) filter by substituting Cr ions to make Cr q3 adsorbates. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy show these spin-dependent electronic structure changes with single molecule resolution. Density functional theory calculations highlight the structural and electronic differences at the interfaces. For Al q3 , a charge-transfer interaction with the substrate leads to a metallic spin filter. For Cr q3 , direct covalent interactions mix molecular orbitals with the substrate surface state to make two well-separated interfacial hybrid orbitals.

  9. Cloning and characterization of the OsNramp family from Oryza sativa, a new family of membrane proteins possibly implicated in the transport of metal ions.

    PubMed

    Belouchi, A; Kwan, T; Gros, P

    1997-04-01

    The mammalian Nramp1 protein is an integral membrane protein expressed exclusively in macrophages, where it plays a critical role in the ability of these cells to destroy ingested microbes. The bactericidal mechanism of action of Nramp1 remains unknown. We report the identification and characterization of cDNA clones corresponding to three homologues of the mammalian Nramp1 gene from the genome of Oryza sativa, OsNramp1, OsNramp2, and OsNramp3. These three genes encode a novel group of highly similar hydrophobic polypeptides sharing between 64% and 75% sequence similarity, that show similar hydropathy profiles, and predicted secondary structure, including the same number, position, and sequence characteristics (including conserved charges) of transmembrane domains. Together, these define a highly conserved membrane associated hydrophobic core. The three plant proteins show a remarkable degree of sequence similarity with their mammalian counterpart (60% to 70% similarity), including primary and secondary structure elements previously described in ion transporters and channels. Expression studies in normal plant tissues indicate that while OsNramp1 is expressed primarily in roots, and OsNramp2 is primarily expressed in leaves, OsNramp3 is expressed in both tissues. The recent discovery that the yeast Nramp homologue SMF1 functions as a manganese transporter raises the exciting possibility that OsNramp encodes a family of metal ion transporters in plants.

  10. Nicotianamine synthase gene family as central components in heavy metal and phytohormone response in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei-Liang; Qi, Lei-Peng; Pang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Zhi; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shao, Ji-Rong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2013-06-01

    Nicotianamine (NA) is an important divalent metal chelator and the main precursor of phytosiderophores. NA is synthesized from S-adenosylmethionine in a process catalyzed by nicotianamine synthase (NAS). In this study, a set of structural and phylogenetic analyses have been applied to identify the maize NAS genes based on the maize genome sequence release. Ten maize NAS genes have been mapped; seven of them have not been reported to date. Phylogenetic analysis and expression pattern from microarray data led to their classification into two different orthologous groups. C-terminal fusion of ZmNAS3 with GFP was found in the cytoplasm of Arabidopsis leaf protoplast. Expression analysis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed ZmNAS genes are responsive to heavy metal ions (Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cd), and all 10 ZmNAS genes were only observed in the root tissue except of ZmNAS6. The promoter of ZmNAS genes was analyzed for the presence of different cis-element response to all kinds of phytohormones and environment stresses. We found that the ZmNAS gene expression of maize seedlings was regulated by jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid. Microarray data demonstrated that the ZmNAS genes show differential, organ-specific expression patterns in the maize developmental steps. The integrated comparative analysis can improve our current view of ZmNAS genes and facilitate the functional characterization of individual members.

  11. Experimental Evidence of Negative Linear Compressibility in the MIL-53 Metal-Organic Framework Family

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Stavitski, Eli; Juan-Alcañiz, Jana; Kapteijn, Freek; Coudert, François-Xavier; Gascon, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    We report a series of powder X-ray diffraction experiments performed on the soft porous crystals MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) in a diamond anvil cell under different pressurization media. Systematic refinements of the obtained powder patterns demonstrate that these materials expand along a specific direction while undergoing total volume reduction under an increase in hydrostatic pressure. The results confirm for the first time the Negative Linear Compressibility behaviour of this family of materials recently predicted from quantum chemical calculations. PMID:25722647

  12. Gas adsorption and structural diversity in a family of Cu(II) pyridyl-isophthalate metal-organic framework materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Jamie A.; Athwal, Harprit Singh; Blake, Alexander J.; Lewis, William; Hubberstey, Peter; Champness, Neil R.; Schröder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    A family of Cu(II)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized using three pyridyl-isophthalate ligands, H2L1 (4'-(pyridin-4-yl)biphenyl-3,5-dicarboxylic acid), H2L2 (4''-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-3,5-dicarboxylic acid) and H2L3 (5-[4-(pyridin-4-yl)naphthalen-1-yl]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid). Although in each case the pyridyl-isophthalate ligands adopt the same pseudo-octahedral [Cu2(O2CR)4N2] paddlewheel coordination modes, the resulting frameworks are structurally diverse, particularly in the case of the complex of Cu(II) with H2L3, which leads to three distinct supramolecular isomers, each derived from Kagomé and square nets. In contrast to [Cu(L2)] and the isomers of [Cu(L3)], [Cu(L1)] exhibits permanent porosity. Thus, the gas adsorption properties of [Cu(L1)] were investigated with N2, CO2 and H2, and the material exhibits an isosteric heat of adsorption competitive with leading MOF sorbents for CO2. [Cu(L1)] displays high H2 adsorption, with the density in the pores approaching that of liquid H2. This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  13. Gas adsorption and structural diversity in a family of Cu(II) pyridyl-isophthalate metal-organic framework materials.

    PubMed

    Gould, Jamie A; Athwal, Harprit Singh; Blake, Alexander J; Lewis, William; Hubberstey, Peter; Champness, Neil R; Schröder, Martin

    2017-01-13

    A family of Cu(II)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized using three pyridyl-isophthalate ligands, H2L(1) (4'-(pyridin-4-yl)biphenyl-3,5-dicarboxylic acid), H2L(2) (4''-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-3,5-dicarboxylic acid) and H2L(3) (5-[4-(pyridin-4-yl)naphthalen-1-yl]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid). Although in each case the pyridyl-isophthalate ligands adopt the same pseudo-octahedral [Cu2(O2CR)4N2] paddlewheel coordination modes, the resulting frameworks are structurally diverse, particularly in the case of the complex of Cu(II) with H2L(3), which leads to three distinct supramolecular isomers, each derived from Kagomé and square nets. In contrast to [Cu(L(2))] and the isomers of [Cu(L(3))], [Cu(L(1))] exhibits permanent porosity. Thus, the gas adsorption properties of [Cu(L(1))] were investigated with N2, CO2 and H2, and the material exhibits an isosteric heat of adsorption competitive with leading MOF sorbents for CO2 [Cu(L(1))] displays high H2 adsorption, with the density in the pores approaching that of liquid H2This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. In situ synthesized 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) constructed from transition metal cations and tetrazole derivatives: a family of insensitive energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuangang; Liu, Wei; Li, Dongxue; Chen, Houhe; Lu, Ming

    2017-08-22

    The combination of the hydrothermal method with in situ synthesis has been successfully employed to prepare a family of tetrazole-based energetic metal-organic frameworks (EMOFs) ([Ag(Mtta)]n, 1; [Cd5(Mtta)9]n, 2; [Pb3(bta)2(O)2(H2O)]n, 3; and [Pb(tztr)2(H2O)]n, 4) through [2 + 3] cycloaddition of azide anions and nitrile groups. All the synthesized EMOFs were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA), different scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TG). Both complexes 1 and 4 consist of reticular two-dimensional (2D) layers that are linked by π-π overlap interactions between the ligands in neighbouring layers to form 3D supramolecular structures. In contrast, complexes 2 and 3 are 3D frameworks. The in situ formation of ligands bta and tztr has been described for the first time. Remarkably, thermogravimetric measurements demonstrated that the EMOFs 1-4 possess excellent thermostabilities with high decomposition temperatures up to 354, 389, and 372 °C for 1, 2, and 4, respectively. Sensitivity tests revealed that all the EMOFs are extremely insensitive.

  15. From cyanate to cyanurate: cyclotrimerization reactions towards the novel family of metal cyanurates.

    PubMed

    Kalmutzki, Markus; Ströbele, Markus; Meyer, H-Jürgen

    2013-09-28

    The novel metal cyanurates LiSr(O3C3N3) and Li3Sr2F(O3C3N3)2 were prepared by exothermic solid state metathesis reactions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystalline powders were prepared by reactions of alkali earth halides (SrCl2 and SrF2) with Li(OCN) in 1:3 molar ratios, at 450 and 575 °C. The reaction with chloride yielded LiSr(O3C3N3), and the reaction starting from the fluoride yielded LiSr(O3C3N3)·1/2LiF, containing additional LiF in the structure. Both crystal structures revealed the presence of the (O3C3N3)(3-) ions which were formed by cyclotrimerization reaction of (OCN)(-) ions. The reactions were monitored by differential thermal analysis. Infrared spectra of the compounds are reported.

  16. A family of metal-dependent phosphatases implicated in metabolite damage-control

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Lili; Shanklin, John; Khusnutdinova, Anna; ...

    2016-06-20

    DUF89 family proteins occur widely in pro- and eukaryotes but their functions are unknown. Here we define three DUF89 subfamilies (I, II, and III), subfamily II being split into standalone proteins and proteins fused to pantothenate kinase (PanK). We demonstrated that DUF89 proteins have metaldependent phosphatase activity against reactive phosphoesters or their damaged forms, notably sugar phosphates (subfamilies II and III), phosphopantetheine and its S-sulfonate or sulfonate (subfamily II-PanK fusions), and nucleotides (subfamily I). Genetic and comparative genomic data strongly associated DUF89 genes with phosphoester metabolism. The crystal structure of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) subfamily III protein YMR027W revealed amore » novel phosphatase active site with fructose 6-phosphate and Mg2+ bound near conserved signature residues Asp254 and Asn255 that are critical for activity. These findings indicate that DUF89 proteins are previously unrecognized hydrolases whose characteristic in vivo function is to limit potentially harmful buildups of normal or damaged phosphometabolites.« less

  17. A family of metal-dependent phosphatases implicated in metabolite damage-control

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lili; Shanklin, John; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Petit, Pierre; Flick, Robert; Zallot, Remi; Balmant, Kelly; Ziemak, Michael J.; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie; Fiehn, Oliver; Gregory, III, Jesse F.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexie; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2016-06-20

    DUF89 family proteins occur widely in pro- and eukaryotes but their functions are unknown. Here we define three DUF89 subfamilies (I, II, and III), subfamily II being split into standalone proteins and proteins fused to pantothenate kinase (PanK). We demonstrated that DUF89 proteins have metaldependent phosphatase activity against reactive phosphoesters or their damaged forms, notably sugar phosphates (subfamilies II and III), phosphopantetheine and its S-sulfonate or sulfonate (subfamily II-PanK fusions), and nucleotides (subfamily I). Genetic and comparative genomic data strongly associated DUF89 genes with phosphoester metabolism. The crystal structure of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) subfamily III protein YMR027W revealed a novel phosphatase active site with fructose 6-phosphate and Mg2+ bound near conserved signature residues Asp254 and Asn255 that are critical for activity. These findings indicate that DUF89 proteins are previously unrecognized hydrolases whose characteristic in vivo function is to limit potentially harmful buildups of normal or damaged phosphometabolites.

  18. A family of metal-dependent phosphatases implicated in metabolite damage-control

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lili; Shanklin, John; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Petit, Pierre; Flick, Robert; Zallot, Remi; Balmant, Kelly; Ziemak, Michael J.; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie; Fiehn, Oliver; Gregory, III, Jesse F.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexie; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2016-06-20

    DUF89 family proteins occur widely in pro- and eukaryotes but their functions are unknown. Here we define three DUF89 subfamilies (I, II, and III), subfamily II being split into standalone proteins and proteins fused to pantothenate kinase (PanK). We demonstrated that DUF89 proteins have metaldependent phosphatase activity against reactive phosphoesters or their damaged forms, notably sugar phosphates (subfamilies II and III), phosphopantetheine and its S-sulfonate or sulfonate (subfamily II-PanK fusions), and nucleotides (subfamily I). Genetic and comparative genomic data strongly associated DUF89 genes with phosphoester metabolism. The crystal structure of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) subfamily III protein YMR027W revealed a novel phosphatase active site with fructose 6-phosphate and Mg2+ bound near conserved signature residues Asp254 and Asn255 that are critical for activity. These findings indicate that DUF89 proteins are previously unrecognized hydrolases whose characteristic in vivo function is to limit potentially harmful buildups of normal or damaged phosphometabolites.

  19. Electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power, and ESR of a new family of molecular conductors, dicyanoquinonediimine-metal [(DCNQI)2M] compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takehiko; Inokuchi, Hiroo; Kobayashi, Akiko; Kato, Reizo; Kobayashi, Hayao

    1988-09-01

    A new family of organic molecules, 2-R1-5-R2-DCNQI (with R1,R2=CH3, CH3O, Cl, or Br; DCNQI=N,N'-dicyanoquinonediimine) works as a ligand as well as an electron acceptor to form highly conducting, charge-transfer and coordination compounds as (2-R1-5-R2-DCNQI)2M (with M=Cu, Ag, Li, Na, K, or NH4). These salts are investigated by the measurements of electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power, and electron spin resonance, which are appropriately understood by classifying them into three groups. Group-I DCNQI salts consisting of the salts with cations M other than Cu, undergo the Peierls transitions between 50 and 100 K. Their thermoelectric power is interpreted by the large-U limit of the Hubbard model. Group-II DCNQI salts, the Cu salts of the halogen-substituted DCNQI, also exhibit the Peierls transitions between 150 and 250 K, followed by the antiferromagnetic transitions around 10 K. With the one-dimensional tight-binding approximation, the bandwidth is estimated to be 0.4-0.5 eV. Group-III DCNQI salts, the Cu salts with R1=R2=CH3 or CH3O retain metallic conductivity down to 1.5 K, whereas a magnetic transition takes place at 5.5 K. This may be the first organic conductor in which metallic conduction and a magnetic order coexist. The magnetic order is attributed to the comparatively localized Cu2+ spins present independently of the conduction electrons on DCNQI, where the average oxidation state of Cu has been estimated to be Cu1.3+. .AE

  20. A Family of Routes to Substituted Phenols, Including Meta-Substituted Phenols.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenjie; Clive, Derrick L J

    2015-12-18

    A new family of routes to substituted phenols has been developed. 2-Bromo-3-methoxycyclohex-2-en-1-ones are readily deprotonated at C-6, and the resulting anions react smoothly with a variety of electrophiles; treatment with DBU in PhMe at room temperature then results in efficient aromatization to benzene derivatives of a regiochemically defined substitution pattern. This sequence affords phenolic azides (ArN3), sulfides (ArSR, ArSAr'), selenides (ArSePh), alcohols [ArCH(OH)R], amino derivatives [ArCH(NHSO2Ar')R), and 1,2-benzenediols. A complementary set of substitution patterns is obtained by DIBAL-H reduction or reaction with a Grignard reagent before aromatization; the latter process gives compounds in which the newly introduced substituent is meta to the phenolic hydroxyl.

  1. Influence of species and sex on metal residues in freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) from the St. Lawrence River, with implications for biomonitoring programs

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe-Smith, J.L. . Rivers Research Branch)

    1994-09-01

    The implementation of freshwater mussel watch programs has been hindered by a lack of information on biological factors affecting the levels of contaminants accumulated by these organisms. This study investigated the influence of species and sex on metal residues in Elliptio complanata and Lampsilis radiata radiata (Family Unionidae) from the St. Lawrence River. Mussels were collected from sites representing a wide range of types and degrees of metal pollution. Composite samples of five specimens (males and females combined) per species per site and five specimens per sex per species per site were analyzed for residues of 12 metals in the soft tissues to determine the effects of species and sex, respectively, on variability in the data. Interspecific differences in bioaccumulation were observed for most metals; however, concentrations were frequently correlated between species and the differences could therefore be quantified. Elliptio complanata demonstrated a broader response range to the same exposures than Lampsilis radiata radiata for most metals, suggesting that it may be more sensitive to changes in pollution status. Differences in metal uptake between the sexes were less pronounced than differences between species, and male specimens displayed less variability than females. Consideration of these factors in mussel biomonitoring programs should greatly improve sensitivity and precision.

  2. Pathways to a family of low-cost, high-performance, metal matrix composites based on aluminum diboride in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher

    The continued development of a new family of metal matrix composites based on the in-situ formation of AlB2 flakes in liquid aluminum is described. First, a new synthesis technique for the preparation of high aspect ratio AlB2 is demonstrated. Borax and B2O 3 were reacted with molten aluminum to prepare high aspect ratio AlB 2. The focus then shifts to further understanding the Al-B alloy system. Work on the Al-B alloy system concentrated on the Al(L) + AlB 2 → Al(L) + AlB12 peritectic transformation and the growth of AlB2 in aluminum. The equilibrium peritectic transformation temperature was redetermined and found to be 950 +/- 5°C. The kinetics of the peritectic transformation were measured and reported for the first time. Cu, Fe, and Si additions were made to the alloy, and their effect on the peritectic reaction was investigated. All three elements shorten the time required for the peritectic reaction to occur. The effect of these three elements on flake growth was also investigated. They each caused a reduction in the size of growing AlB2 flakes. Finally two samples containing more than 30v% AlB2 in aluminum were prepared. Their properties were measured. The sample containing 40v% AlB2 exhibited a flexural strength of 200 MPa. The 35v% sample exhibited a flexural strength of 150 MPa. When the 35v% sample was tested in compression, it exhibited an ultimate strength close to 200 MPa. Its modulus varied from 200--300 GPa depending on the orientation of the loading axis with respect to the flake reinforcement.

  3. Metal binding properties of Escherichia coli YjiA, a member of the metal homeostasis-associated COG0523 family of GTPases.

    PubMed

    Sydor, Andrew M; Jost, Marco; Ryan, Katherine S; Turo, Kaitlyn E; Douglas, Colin D; Drennan, Catherine L; Zamble, Deborah B

    2013-03-12

    GTPases are critical molecular switches involved in a wide range of biological functions. Recent phylogenetic and genomic analyses of the large, mostly uncharacterized COG0523 subfamily of GTPases revealed a link between some COG0523 proteins and metal homeostasis pathways. In this report, we detail the bioinorganic characterization of YjiA, a representative member of COG0523 subgroup 9 and the only COG0523 protein to date with high-resolution structural information. We find that YjiA is capable of binding several types of transition metals with dissociation constants in the low micromolar range and that metal binding affects both the oligomeric structure and GTPase activity of the enzyme. Using a combination of X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis, we identify, among others, a metal-binding site adjacent to the nucleotide-binding site in the GTPase domain that involves a conserved cysteine and several glutamate residues. Mutations of the coordinating residues decrease the impact of metal, suggesting that metal binding to this site is responsible for modulating the GTPase activity of the protein. These findings point toward a regulatory function for these COG0523 GTPases that is responsive to their metal-bound state.

  4. Metal Binding Properties of Escherichia coli YjiA, a Member of the Metal Homeostasis-Associated COG0523 Family of GTPases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    GTPases are critical molecular switches involved in a wide range of biological functions. Recent phylogenetic and genomic analyses of the large, mostly uncharacterized COG0523 subfamily of GTPases revealed a link between some COG0523 proteins and metal homeostasis pathways. In this report, we detail the bioinorganic characterization of YjiA, a representative member of COG0523 subgroup 9 and the only COG0523 protein to date with high-resolution structural information. We find that YjiA is capable of binding several types of transition metals with dissociation constants in the low micromolar range and that metal binding affects both the oligomeric structure and GTPase activity of the enzyme. Using a combination of X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis, we identify, among others, a metal-binding site adjacent to the nucleotide-binding site in the GTPase domain that involves a conserved cysteine and several glutamate residues. Mutations of the coordinating residues decrease the impact of metal, suggesting that metal binding to this site is responsible for modulating the GTPase activity of the protein. These findings point toward a regulatory function for these COG0523 GTPases that is responsive to their metal-bound state. PMID:24449932

  5. A single serine residue determines selectivity to monovalent metal ions in metalloregulators of the MerR family.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, María M; Checa, Susana K; Soncini, Fernando C

    2015-05-01

    MerR metalloregulators alleviate toxicity caused by an excess of metal ions, such as copper, zinc, mercury, lead, cadmium, silver, or gold, by triggering the expression of specific efflux or detoxification systems upon metal detection. The sensor protein binds the inducer metal ion by using two conserved cysteine residues at the C-terminal metal-binding loop (MBL). Divalent metal ion sensors, such as MerR and ZntR, require a third cysteine residue, located at the beginning of the dimerization (α5) helix, for metal coordination, while monovalent metal ion sensors, such as CueR and GolS, have a serine residue at this position. This serine residue was proposed to provide hydrophobic and steric restrictions to privilege the binding of monovalent metal ions. Here we show that the presence of alanine at this position does not modify the activation pattern of monovalent metal sensors. In contrast, GolS or CueR mutant sensors with a substitution of cysteine for the serine residue respond to monovalent metal ions or Hg(II) with high sensitivities. Furthermore, in a mutant deleted of the Zn(II) exporter ZntA, they also trigger the expression of their target genes in response to either Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), or Co(II). Specificity in a stressor's recognition is essential for mounting an appropriate response. MerR metalloregulators trigger the expression of specific resistance systems upon detection of heavy metal ions. Two groups of these metalloregulators can be distinguished, recognizing either +1 or +2 metal ions, depending on the presence of a conserved serine in the former or a cysteine in the latter. Here we demonstrate that the serine residue in monovalent metal ion sensors excludes divalent metal ion detection, as its replacement by cysteine renders a pan-metal ion sensor. Our results indicate that the spectrum of signals detected by these sensors is determined not only by the metal-binding ligand availability but also by the metal-binding cavity flexibility

  6. A Single Serine Residue Determines Selectivity to Monovalent Metal Ions in Metalloregulators of the MerR Family

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, María M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT MerR metalloregulators alleviate toxicity caused by an excess of metal ions, such as copper, zinc, mercury, lead, cadmium, silver, or gold, by triggering the expression of specific efflux or detoxification systems upon metal detection. The sensor protein binds the inducer metal ion by using two conserved cysteine residues at the C-terminal metal-binding loop (MBL). Divalent metal ion sensors, such as MerR and ZntR, require a third cysteine residue, located at the beginning of the dimerization (α5) helix, for metal coordination, while monovalent metal ion sensors, such as CueR and GolS, have a serine residue at this position. This serine residue was proposed to provide hydrophobic and steric restrictions to privilege the binding of monovalent metal ions. Here we show that the presence of alanine at this position does not modify the activation pattern of monovalent metal sensors. In contrast, GolS or CueR mutant sensors with a substitution of cysteine for the serine residue respond to monovalent metal ions or Hg(II) with high sensitivities. Furthermore, in a mutant deleted of the Zn(II) exporter ZntA, they also trigger the expression of their target genes in response to either Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), or Co(II). IMPORTANCE Specificity in a stressor's recognition is essential for mounting an appropriate response. MerR metalloregulators trigger the expression of specific resistance systems upon detection of heavy metal ions. Two groups of these metalloregulators can be distinguished, recognizing either +1 or +2 metal ions, depending on the presence of a conserved serine in the former or a cysteine in the latter. Here we demonstrate that the serine residue in monovalent metal ion sensors excludes divalent metal ion detection, as its replacement by cysteine renders a pan-metal ion sensor. Our results indicate that the spectrum of signals detected by these sensors is determined not only by the metal-binding ligand availability but also by the metal-binding cavity

  7. A metal-binding member of the late embryogenesis abundant protein family transports iron in the phloem of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Claudia; Berkowitz, Oliver; Stephan, Udo W; Hell, Rudiger

    2002-07-12

    The transport of metal micronutrients to developing organs in a plant is mediated primarily by the sieve elements. Ligands are thought to form complexes with the free ions in order to prevent cellular damage, but no binding partners have been unequivocally identified from plants so far. This study has used the phloem-mediated transport of micronutrients during the germination of the castor bean seedling to identify an iron transport protein (ITP). It is demonstrated that essentially all (55)Fe fed to seedlings is associated with the protein fraction of phloem exudate. It is shown that ITP carries iron in vivo and binds additional iron in vitro. ITP was purified to homogeneity from minute amounts of phloem exudate using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. It preferentially binds to Fe(3+) but not to Fe(2+) and also complexes Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+) in vitro. The corresponding cDNA of ITP was cloned using internal peptide fragments. The deduced protein of 96 amino acids shows high similarity to the stress-related family of late embryogenesis abundant proteins. Its predicted characteristics and its RNA expression pattern are consistent with a function in metal ion binding. The ITP from Ricinus provides the first identified micronutrient binding partner for phloem-mediated long distance transport in plants and is the first member of the late embryogenesis abundant protein family shown to have such a function.

  8. Loss of in vitro metal ion binding specificity in mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutases associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goto, J J; Zhu, H; Sanchez, R J; Nersissian, A; Gralla, E B; Valentine, J S; Cabelli, D E

    2000-01-14

    The presence of the copper ion at the active site of human wild type copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) is essential to its ability to catalyze the disproportionation of superoxide into dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Wild type CuZnSOD and several of the mutants associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) (Ala(4) --> Val, Gly(93) --> Ala, and Leu(38) --> Val) were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Purified metal-free (apoproteins) and various remetallated derivatives were analyzed by metal titrations monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, histidine modification studies using diethylpyrocarbonate, and enzymatic activity measurements using pulse radiolysis. From these studies it was concluded that the FALS mutant CuZnSOD apoproteins, in direct contrast to the human wild type apoprotein, have lost their ability to partition and bind copper and zinc ions in their proper locations in vitro. Similar studies of the wild type and FALS mutant CuZnSOD holoenzymes in the "as isolated" metallation state showed abnormally low copper-to-zinc ratios, although all of the copper acquired was located at the native copper binding sites. Thus, the copper ions are properly directed to their native binding sites in vivo, presumably as a result of the action of the yeast copper chaperone Lys7p (yeast CCS). The loss of metal ion binding specificity of FALS mutant CuZnSODs in vitro may be related to their role in ALS.

  9. First record of anisakid juveniles (Nematoda) in the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax (family: Moronidae), and their role as bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Quraishy, Saleh Al; El-Mahdi, Magda; Al-Ghamdi, Ali; Mostafa, Nesma

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the anisakid nematode distribution pattern in the fish collected from coasts of Mediterranean Sea, Egypt, during the period September 2010-April 2011. Two hundred thirty out of 300 (76.7%) Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass) marine fishes belonging to family Moronidae were dissected and found to be infected with larva three nematodes. The larvae had been studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The present work represents the first record of the presence of the parasite in this fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni) in parasites as well as in tissues of fish were measured. The presented results showed that the nematode parasites are able to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues and in some cases that they are able to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in a higher amount than host tissues. This demonstrated their sustainability as bioindicators of environmental pollution by removing heavy metals and help in the survival of fish.

  10. BlmB and TlmB provide resistance to the bleomycin family of antitumor antibiotics by N-acetylating metal-free bleomycin, tallysomycin, phleomycin, and zorbamycin.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Jane M; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Wang, Liyan; Unsin, Claudia; Galm, Ute; Yang, Dong; Tao, Meifeng; Shen, Ben

    2014-11-11

    The bleomycin (BLM) family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics consists of BLMs, tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycins (PLMs), and zorbamycin (ZBM). The self-resistant elements BlmB and TlmB, discovered from the BLM- and TLM-producing organisms Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, respectively, are N-acetyltransferases that provide resistance to the producers by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotics required for activity. Although each member of the BLM family of antibiotics possesses a conserved metal-binding domain, the structural differences between each member, namely, the bithiazole moiety and C-terminal amine of BLMs, have been suggested to instill substrate specificity within BlmB. Here we report that BlmB and TlmB readily accept and acetylate BLMs, TLMs, PLMs, and ZBM in vitro but only in the metal-free forms. Kinetic analysis of BlmB and TlmB reveals there is no strong preference or rate enhancement for specific substrates, indicating that the structural differences between each member of the BLM family play a negligible role in substrate recognition, binding, or catalysis. Intriguingly, the zbm gene cluster from Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892 does not contain an N-acetyltransferase, yet ZBM is readily acetylated by BlmB and TlmB. We subsequently established that S. flavoviridis lacks the homologue of BlmB and TlmB, and ZbmA, the ZBM-binding protein, alone is sufficient to provide ZBM resistance. We further confirmed that BlmB can indeed confer resistance to ZBM in vivo in S. flavoviridis, introduction of which into wild-type S. flavoviridis further increases the level of resistance.

  11. Is there a difference in metal ion-based inhibition between members of thionin family: Molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Oard, Svetlana; Karki, Bijaya; Enright, Frederick

    2007-10-01

    Thionins have a considerable potential as antimicrobial compounds although their application may be restricted by metal ion-based inhibition of membrane permeabilizing activity. We previously reported the properties associated with the proposed mechanism of metal ion-based inhibition of beta-purothionin. In this study, we investigated the effects of metal ions on alpha-hordothionin which differs from beta-purothionin by eight out of 45 residues. Three of the differing residues are thought to be involved in the mechanism of metal ion-based inhibition in beta-purothionin. The structure and dynamics of alpha-hordothionin were explored using unconstrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water as a function of metal ions. Although the global fold is almost identical to that of beta-purothionin, alpha-hordothionin displays reduced fluctuating motions. Moreover, alpha-hordothionin is more resistant to the presence of metal ions than beta-purothionin. Mg(+2) ions do not affect alpha-hordothionin, whereas K(+) ions induce perturbations in the alpha2 helix, modify dynamics and electrostatic properties. Nevertheless, these changes are considerably smaller than those in beta-purothionin. The proposed mechanism of metal ion-based inhibition involves the hydrogen bonding network of Arg5-Arg30-Gly27, which regulates dynamic unfolding of the alpha2 C-end which is similar to beta-purothionin response. The key residues responsible for the increased resistance for alpha-hordothionin are Gly27 and Gly42 which replace Asn27 and Asp42 involved into the mechanism of metal ion-based inhibition in beta-purothionin. Comparison of MD simulations of alpha-hordothionin with beta-purothionin reveals dynamic properties which we believe are intrinsic properties of thionins with four disulphide bonds.

  12. Structural Insights into Complete Metal Ion Coordination from Ternary Complexes of B Family RB69 DNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Shuangluo; Wang, Mina; Blaha, Gregor; Konigsberg, William H.; Wang, Jimin

    2011-10-20

    We have captured a preinsertion ternary complex of RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69pol) containing the 3' hydroxyl group at the terminus of an extendable primer (ptO3') and a nonhydrolyzable 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-{alpha},{beta}-substituted triphosphate, dUpXpp, where X is either NH or CH{sub 2}, opposite a complementary templating dA nucleotide residue. Here we report four structures of these complexes formed by three different RB69pol variants with catalytically inert Ca{sup 2+} and four other structures with catalytically competent Mn{sup 2+} or Mg{sup 2+}. These structures provide new insights into why the complete divalent metal-ion coordination complexes at the A and B sites are required for nucleotidyl transfer. They show that the metal ion in the A site brings ptO3' close to the {alpha}-phosphorus atom (P{alpha}) of the incoming dNTP to enable phosphodiester bond formation through simultaneous coordination of both ptO3' and the nonbridging Sp oxygen of the dNTP's {alpha}-phosphate. The coordination bond length of metal ion A as well as its ionic radius determines how close ptO3' can approach P{alpha}. These variables are expected to affect the rate of bond formation. The metal ion in the B site brings the pyrophosphate product close enough to P{alpha} to enable pyrophosphorolysis and assist in the departure of the pyrophosphate. In these dUpXpp-containing complexes, ptO3' occupies the vertex of a distorted metal ion A coordination octahedron. When ptO3' is placed at the vertex of an undistorted, idealized metal ion A octahedron, it is within bond formation distance to P{alpha}. This geometric relationship appears to be conserved among DNA polymerases of known structure.

  13. Cupin-Type Phosphoglucose Isomerases (Cupin-PGIs) Constitute a Novel Metal-Dependent PGI Family Representing a Convergent Line of PGI Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Schlichting, Bettina; Felgendreher, Martina; Schönheit, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Cupin-type phosphoglucose isomerases (cPGIs) were identified in some archaeal and bacterial genomes and the respective coding function of cpgi's from the euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Methanosarcina mazei, as well as the bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Ensifer meliloti, was proven by functional overexpression. These cPGIs and the cPGIs from Pyrococcus and Thermococcus spp. represent the cPGI family and were compared with respect to kinetic, inhibitory, thermophilic, and metal-binding properties. cPGIs showed a high specificity for the substrates fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate and were inhibited by millimolar concentrations of sorbitol-6-phosphate, erythrose-4-phosphate, and 6-phosphogluconate. Treatment of cPGIs with EDTA resulted in a complete loss of catalytic activity, which could be regained by the addition of some divalent cations, most effectively by Fe2+ and Ni2+, indicating a metal dependence of cPGI activity. The motifs TX3PX3GXEX3TXGHXHX6-11EXY and PPX3HX3N were deduced as the two signature patterns of the novel cPGI family. Phylogenetic analysis suggests lateral gene transfer for the bacterial cPGIs from euryarchaeota. PMID:15716432

  14. Identification of polymorphisms in genes from the ZIP family of divalent metal transporters utilizing natural populations of Medicago truncatula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants require divalent metal micronutrients, and these micronutrients must be obtained from the soil and redistributed throughout the plant in order to maintain optimal growth. The ability of plants to maintain micronutrient homeostasis is extremely important due to their participation in many dive...

  15. The effects of endophytic bacterium SaMR12 on Sedum alfredii Hance metal ion uptake and the expression of three transporter family genes after cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengshan; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Wang, Qiong; Ye, Jiayuan; Meng, Qian; Wu, Yingjie; Chen, Bao; Cao, Xuerui; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-02-23

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of an endophytic bacterium SaMR12 on Sedum alfredii Hance metal ion accumulation, chlorophyll concentration, and the expression of three metal transporter families, zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP); natural resistance-associated macrophage protein; and heavy metal ATPase (HMA) at different Cd treatment levels. The results showed that at relatively low Cd conditions (≤25 μM), SaMR12 demonstrated a 19.5-27.5% increase in Fe, a 46.7-90.7% increase in Zn, and a 7.9-43.7% increase in Cu content in the shoot and elevated expression of SaIRT1, SaZIP3, SaHMA2, and SaNramp3 in the shoot and SaZIP1, SaHMA2, SaNramp1, and SaNramp3 in the root. At high Cd conditions (100 and 400 μM), SaMR12 demonstrated a 16.4-18.5% increase in leaf chlorophyll concentration, a 18.9-23.2% increase in Fe, and a 15.4-17.5% increase in Mg content in the shoot and elevated expression of SaZIP3, SaNramp6, SaHMA2, and SaHMA3 in the shoot and SaZIP3, SaNarmp1, SaNarmp3, and SaNarmp6 in the root. These results indicated that SaMR12 can elevate essential metal ion uptake and regulate the expression of transport genes to promote plant growth and enhance Cd tolerance and uptake to improve Cd accumulation up to 118-130%.

  16. Cytosolic Ni(II) sensor in cyanobacterium: nickel detection follows nickel affinity across four families of metal sensors.

    PubMed

    Foster, Andrew W; Patterson, Carl J; Pernil, Rafael; Hess, Corinna R; Robinson, Nigel J

    2012-04-06

    Efflux of surplus Ni(II) across the outer and inner membranes of Synechocystis PCC 6803 is mediated by the Nrs system under the control of a sensor of periplasmic Ni(II), NrsS. Here, we show that the product of ORF sll0176, which encodes a CsoR/RcnR-like protein now designated InrS (for internal nickel-responsive sensor), represses nrsD (NrsD is deduced to efflux Ni(II) across the inner membrane) from a cryptic promoter between the final two ORFs in the nrs operon. Transcripts initiated from the newly identified nrsD promoter accumulate in response to nickel or cobalt but not copper, and recombinant InrS forms specific, Ni(II)-inhibited complexes with the nrsD promoter region. Metal-dependent difference spectra of Ni(II)- and Cu(I)-InrS are similar to Cu(I)-sensing CsoR and dissimilar to Ni(II)/Co(II)-sensing RcnR, consistent with factors beyond the primary coordination sphere switching metal selectivity. Competition with chelators mag-fura-2, nitrilotriacetic acid, EDTA, and EGTA estimate K(D) Ni(II) for the tightest site of InrS as 2.05 (±1.5) × 10(-14) m, and weaker K(D) Ni(II) for the cells' metal sensors of other types: Zn(II) co-repressor Zur, Co(II) activator CoaR, and Zn(II) derepressor ZiaR. Ni(II) transfer to InrS occurs upon addition to Ni(II) forms of each other sensor. InrS binds Ni(II) sufficiently tightly to derepress Ni(II) export at concentrations below K(D) Ni(II) of the other sensors.

  17. An alternate conformation and a third metal in PstP/Ppp, the M. tuberculosis PP2C-Family Ser/Thr protein phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Pullen, Kristi E; Ng, Ho-Leung; Sung, Pei-Yi; Good, Matthew C; Smith, Stephen M; Alber, Tom

    2004-11-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatases are central mediators of phosphorylation-dependent signals in eukaryotes and a variety of pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure of the intracellular catalytic domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PstPpp, a membrane-anchored phosphatase in the PP2C family. Despite sharing the fold and two-metal center of human PP2Calpha, the PstPpp catalytic domain binds a third Mn(2+) in a site created by a large shift in a previously unrecognized flap subdomain adjacent to the active site. Mutations in this site selectively increased the Michaelis constant for Mn(2+) in the reaction of a noncognate, small-molecule substrate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The PstP/Ppp structure reveals core functional motifs that advance the framework for understanding the mechanisms of substrate recognition, catalysis, and regulation of PP2C phosphatases.

  18. Halogen-bonding in a new family of tris(haloanilato)metallate(III) magnetic molecular building blocks.

    PubMed

    Atzori, Matteo; Artizzu, Flavia; Sessini, Elisa; Marchiò, Luciano; Loche, Danilo; Serpe, Angela; Deplano, Paola; Concas, Giorgio; Pop, Flavia; Avarvari, Narcis; Mercuri, Maria Laura

    2014-05-21

    Here we report on new tris(haloanilato)metallate(III) complexes with general formula [A]3[M(X2An)3] (A = (n-Bu)4N(+), (Ph)4P(+); M = Cr(III), Fe(III); X2An = 3,6-dihalo derivatives of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone (H4C6O4), chloranilate (Cl2An(2-)), bromanilate (Br2An(2-)) and iodanilate (I2An(2-))), obtained by a general synthetic strategy, and their full characterization. The crystal structures of these Fe(III) and Cr(III) haloanilate complexes consist of anions formed by homoleptic complexes formulated as [M(X2An)3](3-) and (Et)3NH(+), (n-Bu)4N(+), or (Ph4)P(+) cations. All complexes exhibit octahedral coordination geometry with metal ions surrounded by six oxygen atoms from three chelate ligands. These complexes are chiral according to the metal coordination of three bidentate ligands, and both Λ and Δ enantiomers are present in their crystal lattice. The packing of [(n-Bu)4N]3[Cr(I2An)3] (5a) shows that the complexes form supramolecular dimers that are held together by two symmetry related I···O interactions (3.092(8) Å), considerably shorter than the sum of iodine and oxygen van der Waals radii (3.50 Å). The I···O interaction can be regarded as a halogen bond (XB), where the iodine behaves as the XB donor and the oxygen atom as the XB acceptor. This is in agreement with the properties of the electrostatic potential for [Cr(I2An)3](3-) that predicts a negative charge accumulation on the peripheral oxygen atoms and a positive charge accumulation on the iodine. The magnetic behaviour of all complexes, except 5a, may be explained by considering a set of paramagnetic non-interacting Fe(III) or Cr(III) ions, taking into account the zero-field splitting effect. The presence of strong XB interactions in 5a are able, instead, to promote antiferromagnetic interactions among paramagnetic centers at low temperature, as shown by the fit with the Curie-Weiss law, in agreement with the formation of halogen-bonded supramolecular dimers.

  19. Route to a family of robust, non-interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks with pto-like topology.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nicole; Senkovska, Irena; Baburin, Igor A; Grünker, Ronny; Stoeck, Ulrich; Schlichtenmayer, Maurice; Streppel, Barbara; Mueller, Uwe; Leoni, Stefano; Hirscher, Michael; Kaskel, Stefan

    2011-11-11

    A combination of topological rules and quantum chemical calculations has facilitated the development of a rational metal-organic framework (MOF) synthetic strategy using the tritopic benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate (btb) linker and a neutral cross-linker 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy). A series of new compounds, namely [M(2)(bipy)](3)(btb)(4) (DUT-23(M), M = Zn, Co, Cu, Ni), [Cu(2)(bisqui)(0.5)](3)(btb)(4) (DUT-24, bisqui = diethyl (R,S)-4,4'-biquinoline-3,3'-dicarboxylate), [Cu(2)(py)(1.5)(H(2)O)(0.5)](3)(btb)(4) (DUT-33, py = pyridine), and [Cu(2)(H(2)O)(2)](3)(btb)(4) (DUT-34), with high specific surface areas and pore volumes (up to 2.03 m(3)  g(-1) for DUT-23(Co)) were synthesized. For DUT-23(Co), excess storage capacities were determined for methane (268 mg g(-1) at 100 bar and 298 K), hydrogen (74 mg g(-1) at 40 bar and 77 K), and n-butane (99 mg g(-1) at 293 K). DUT-34 is a non-cross-linked version of DUT-23 (non-interpenetrated pendant to MOF-14) that possesses open metal sites and can therefore be used as a catalyst. The accessibility of the pores in DUT-34 to potential substrate molecules was proven by liquid phase adsorption. By exchanging the N,N donor 4,4'-bipyridine with a substituted racemic biquinoline, DUT-24 was obtained. This opens a route to the synthesis of a chiral compound, which could be interesting for enantioselective separation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Impact of metal pollution, food availability, and excessive fishing on Rhabdosargus haffara stock (family: Sparidae) in Timsah lake.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Sahar F; Abd El-Azim, Hoda; Belal, Aisha A

    2016-08-01

    The lakes' fisheries play an important role in Egyptian economy. In 1980s, they provided more than 50 % of harvested fish in Egypt but now their contribution to the Egypt fish production decreased to only 12.5 % in 2012. Lake Timsah, one of the Suez Canal lakes, faced many challenges that lead to serious changes in its water and fish quality, fish production, as well as the catch composition. The present work investigated the impact of pollution, food availability, and excessive fishing mortality on the haffara production in lake Timsah. The distribution of four heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe) was detected seasonally in water and in muscles, gills, and livers of Rhabdosargus haffara, during 2012 through 2013. Fe and Zn were presented by high values in liver, while Pb and Ni in gills. Generally, the lowest concentrations of all metals were found in muscles. The recorded crustacean organisms (the main food of haffara) decreased from 12 species and 32,079 organisms⁄m(2) in 2012 to only 7 species and 7290 organisms⁄m(2) in 2013 while the amphipods completely disappeared. This serious change was due to the severe pollution in the lake. A logistic surplus production model was fitted to the catch per unit effort indices, to estimate the maximum sustainable yield and the optimum level of fishing effort. The results revealed that haffara stock at lake Timsah is overfished, and the estimated precautionary target reference points advised the reduction of fishing effort by about 30-50 %.

  1. Pneumoconiosis and malignant mesothelioma in a family operated metal casting business that used industrial talc from New York state.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Murray M

    2013-05-01

    The United States is second only to the People's Republic of China in annual talc production. U.S. talc is used in the production of ceramics, paint, paper, plastics, roofing, rubber, cosmetics, flooring, caulking, and agricultural applications. A number of U.S. talc deposits consistently contain talc intergrown with amphiboles such as tremolite and/or anthophyllite. It has long been recognized that miners and millers of talc deposits are at risk for pneumoconiosis and it has recently been reported that it is prudent, on the balance of probabilities, to conclude that dusts from New York State talc ores are capable of causing mesothelioma in exposed workers. This is a report of the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and mesothelioma in a husband and wife who operated a small metal casting business that used industrial talc from New York as a parting agent. Case reports, including medical records and exposure histories, were provided by an attorney who had also commissioned laboratory investigation of the industrial talc product used in the factory. Mrs X was diagnosed with pneumoconiosis characterized by interstitial fibrosis and heavily calcified pleural plaques. Mr X had calcified pleural plaques and developed a fatal pleural mesothelioma. Samples of the industrial talc contained fibrous tremolite and anthophyllite. The author concludes that end users of industrial talc from New York State may be at risk of pneumoconiosis and malignant disease. End users of talcs from other regions of the United States, where talc formation arose from processes driven by regional metamorphism, might also be at risk. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A New Structural Form in the SAM/Metal-Dependent O-methyltransferase Family: MycE from the Mycinamycin Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Akey, David L.; Li, Shengying; Konwerski, Jamie R.; Confer, Laura A.; Bernard, Steffen M.; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    O-linked methylation of sugar substituents is a common modification in the biosynthesis of many natural products, and is catalyzed by multiple families of S-adenosyl-L-methioine (SAM or AdoMet) dependent methyltransferases. Mycinamicins, potent antibiotics from Micromonospora griseorubida, can be methylated at two positions on a 6-deoxyallose substituent. The first methylation is catalyzed by MycE, a SAM- and metal-dependent methyltransferase. Crystal structures were determined for MycE bound to the product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH or AdoHcy) and magnesium, both with and without the natural substrate, mycinamicin VI. This represents the first structure of a natural product sugar methyltransferase in complex with its natural substrate. MycE is a tetramer of a two-domain polypeptide, comprising a C-terminal catalytic methyltransferase domain and an N-terminal auxiliary domain, which is important for quaternary assembly and for substrate binding. The symmetric MycE tetramer has a novel methyltransferase organization in which each of the four active sites is formed at the junction of three monomers within the tetramer. The active site structure supports a mechanism in which a conserved histidine acts as a general base, and the metal ion helps to position the methyl acceptor, and to stabilize a hydroxylate intermediate. A conserved tyrosine is suggested to support activity through interactions with the transferred methyl group from the SAM methyl donor. The structure of the free enzyme reveals a dramatic order-disorder transition in the active site relative to the SAH complexes, suggesting a mechanism for product/substrate exchange through concerted movement of five loops and the polypeptide C-terminus. PMID:21884704

  3. A New Structural Form in the SAM/Metal-Dependent O;#8209;Methyltransferase Family: MycE from the Mycinamicin Biosynthetic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Akey, David L.; Li, Shengying; Konwerski, Jamie R.; Confer, Laura A.; Bernard, Steffen M.; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L.

    2012-08-01

    O-linked methylation of sugar substituents is a common modification in the biosynthesis of many natural products and is catalyzed by multiple families of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM or AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTs). Mycinamicins, potent antibiotics from Micromonospora griseorubida, can be methylated at two positions on a 6-deoxyallose substituent. The first methylation is catalyzed by MycE, a SAM- and metal-dependent MT. Crystal structures were determined for MycE bound to the product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) and magnesium, both with and without the natural substrate mycinamicin VI. This represents the first structure of a natural product sugar MT in complex with its natural substrate. MycE is a tetramer of a two-domain polypeptide, comprising a C-terminal catalytic MT domain and an N-terminal auxiliary domain, which is important for quaternary assembly and for substrate binding. The symmetric MycE tetramer has a novel MT organization in which each of the four active sites is formed at the junction of three monomers within the tetramer. The active-site structure supports a mechanism in which a conserved histidine acts as a general base, and the metal ion helps to position the methyl acceptor and to stabilize a hydroxylate intermediate. A conserved tyrosine is suggested to support activity through interactions with the transferred methyl group from the SAM methyl donor. The structure of the free enzyme reveals a dramatic order-disorder transition in the active site relative to the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine complexes, suggesting a mechanism for product/substrate exchange through concerted movement of five loops and the polypeptide C-terminus.

  4. Identification of the N-terminal region of TjZNT2, a Zrt/Irt-like protein family metal transporter, as a novel functional region involved in metal ion selectivity.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Sho; Morinaga, Yasuhiro; Obata, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2011-03-01

    The Zrt/Irt-like protein (ZIP) family of transporter proteins is involved in the uptake of essential metal elements in plants. Two homologous ZIP genes from Thlaspi japonicum, TjZNT1 and TjZNT2, encode products that share high amino acid sequence similarity except at the N-terminus and the cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane domains III and IV, and that have been shown to be Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) transporters, respectively. To identify the region that determines the ion selectivity of these transporters, we constructed a series of TjZNT1 and TjZNT2 chimeric genes and assayed for the Zn(2+) uptake of yeast cells expressing them. As a result, the extracellular N-terminal ends were identified as regions involved in Zn(2+) selectivity. TjZNT2 possesses a 36 amino acid hydrophilic extension at its N-terminus that is absent in native TjZNT1, and a mutant TjZNT2 lacking the N-terminal extension was shown to possess Zn(2+) uptake activity. This suggests that the extended N-terminal region inhibits Zn(2+) transport by TjZNT2. Further studies showed that it is the first 25 amino acid region of the N-terminus that is important for the inhibition of Zn(2+) transport. Furthermore, the N-terminal truncated TjZNT2 lacked Mn(2+) uptake activity. These findings suggest that the N-terminal region is a novel substrate selector in the ZIP family of transporters. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  5. Enrichment of members of the family Geobacteraceae associated with stimulation of dissimilatory metal reduction in uranium-contaminated aquifer sediments.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dawn E; Finneran, Kevin T; O'Neil, Regina A; Lovley, Derek R

    2002-05-01

    Stimulating microbial reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) shows promise as a strategy for immobilizing uranium in uranium-contaminated subsurface environments. In order to learn more about which microorganisms might be involved in U(VI) reduction in situ, the changes in the microbial community when U(VI) reduction was stimulated with the addition of acetate were monitored in sediments from three different uranium-contaminated sites in the floodplain of the San Juan River in Shiprock, N.Mex. In all three sediments U(VI) reduction was accompanied by concurrent Fe(III) reduction and a dramatic enrichment of microorganisms in the family Geobacteraceae, which are known U(VI)- and Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. At the point when U(VI) reduction and Fe(III) reduction were nearing completion, Geobacteraceae accounted for ca. 40% of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences recovered from the sediments with bacterial PCR primers, whereas Geobacteraceae accounted for fewer than 5% of the 16S rDNA sequences in control sediments that were not amended with acetate and in which U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction were not stimulated. Between 55 and 65% of these Geobacteraceae sequences were most similar to sequences from Desulfuromonas species, with the remainder being most closely related to Geobacter species. Quantitative analysis of Geobacteraceae sequences with most-probable-number PCR and TaqMan analyses indicated that the number of Geobacteraceae sequences increased from 2 to 4 orders of magnitude over the course of U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction in the acetate-amended sediments from the three sites. No increase in Geobacteraceae sequences was observed in control sediments. In contrast to the predominance of Geobacteraceae sequences, no sequences related to other known Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms were detected in sediments. These results compare favorably with an increasing number of studies which have demonstrated that Geobacteraceae are important components of the

  6. Enrichment of Members of the Family Geobacteraceae Associated with Stimulation of Dissimilatory Metal Reduction in Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Dawn E.; Finneran, Kevin T.; O'Neil, Regina A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2002-01-01

    Stimulating microbial reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) shows promise as a strategy for immobilizing uranium in uranium-contaminated subsurface environments. In order to learn more about which microorganisms might be involved in U(VI) reduction in situ, the changes in the microbial community when U(VI) reduction was stimulated with the addition of acetate were monitored in sediments from three different uranium-contaminated sites in the floodplain of the San Juan River in Shiprock, N.Mex. In all three sediments U(VI) reduction was accompanied by concurrent Fe(III) reduction and a dramatic enrichment of microorganisms in the family Geobacteraceae, which are known U(VI)- and Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. At the point when U(VI) reduction and Fe(III) reduction were nearing completion, Geobacteraceae accounted for ca. 40% of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences recovered from the sediments with bacterial PCR primers, whereas Geobacteraceae accounted for fewer than 5% of the 16S rDNA sequences in control sediments that were not amended with acetate and in which U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction were not stimulated. Between 55 and 65% of these Geobacteraceae sequences were most similar to sequences from Desulfuromonas species, with the remainder being most closely related to Geobacter species. Quantitative analysis of Geobacteraceae sequences with most-probable-number PCR and TaqMan analyses indicated that the number of Geobacteraceae sequences increased from 2 to 4 orders of magnitude over the course of U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction in the acetate-amended sediments from the three sites. No increase in Geobacteraceae sequences was observed in control sediments. In contrast to the predominance of Geobacteraceae sequences, no sequences related to other known Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms were detected in sediments. These results compare favorably with an increasing number of studies which have demonstrated that Geobacteraceae are important components of the

  7. Arsenic Sensing and Resistance System in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    López-Maury, Luis; Florencio, Francisco J.; Reyes, José C.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic is one of the most important global environmental pollutants. Here we show that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 contains an arsenic and antimony resistance operon consisting of three genes: arsB, encoding a putative arsenite and antimonite carrier, arsH, encoding a protein of unknown function, and arsC, encoding a putative arsenate reductase. While arsB mutant strains were sensitive to arsenite, arsenate, and antimonite, arsC mutants were sensitive only to arsenate. The arsH mutant strain showed no obvious phenotype under the conditions tested. In vivo the arsBHC operon was derepressed by oxyanions of arsenic and antimony (oxidation state, +3) and, to a lesser extent, by bismuth (oxidation state, +3) and arsenate (oxidation state, +5). In the absence of these effectors, the operon was repressed by a transcription repressor of the ArsR/SmtB family, encoded by an unlinked gene termed arsR. Thus, arsR null mutants showed constitutive derepression of the arsBHC operon. Expression of the arsR gene was not altered by the presence of arsenic or antimony compounds. Purified recombinant ArsR protein binds to the arsBHC promoter-operator region in the absence of metals and dissociates from the DNA in the presence of Sb(III) or As(III) but not in the presence of As(V), suggesting that trivalent metalloids are the true inducers of the system. DNase I footprinting experiments indicate that ArsR binds to two 17-bp direct repeats, with each one consisting of two inverted repeats, in the region from nucleotides −34 to + 17 of the arsBHC promoter-operator. PMID:12949088

  8. Heavy metal tolerant Metalliresistens boonkerdii gen. nov., sp. nov., a new genus in the family Bradyrhizobiaceae isolated from soil in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Noisangiam, Rujirek; Nuntagij, Achara; Pongsilp, Neelawan; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Ronson, Clive; Teaumroong, Neung

    2010-11-01

    Bacterial strains from inoculated soybean field soil in Thailand were directly isolated using Bradyrhizobium japonicum selective medium (BJSM), on the basis of Zn(2+) and Co(2+) resistance of B. japonicum and B. elkanii. The isolates were classified into symbiotic and non-symbiotic groups by inoculation assays and Southern hybridization of nod and nif genes. In this study, a nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the non-symbiotic isolates were more closely related to members of Rhodopseudomonas and to a number of uncultured bacterial clones than to members of Bradyrhizobium. Therefore, a polyphasic study was performed to determine the taxonomic positions of four representatives of the non-symbiotic isolates. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of individual genes and a combination of the 16S rRNA and three housekeeping genes (atpD, recA and glnII) supported the placement of the non-symbiotic isolates in a different genus. The ability of heavy metal resistance in conjunction with phenotypic analyses, including cellular fatty acid content and biochemical characteristics, showed that the non-symbiotic isolates were differentiated from the other related genera in the family Bradyrhizobiaceae. Therefore, the non-symbiotic isolates represented a novel genus and species, for which the name Metalliresistens boonkerdii gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NS23 (= NBRC 106595(T)=BCC 40155(T)).

  9. Comprehensive analysis of regulatory elements of the promoters of rice sulfate transporter gene family and functional characterization of OsSul1;1 promoter under different metal stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smita; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Dubey, Rama Shanker; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions including heavy metal stress impose severe effects on the plant growth and development limiting productivity and yield. Studies demonstrated that changes in genome-wide expression modulate various biochemical processes and molecular components in response to heavy metal stress in plants. Some of the key components involved in such a regulation are the transcription initiation machinery, nucleotide sequence of promoters and presence of cis-acting elements. Therefore, identification of the putative cis-acting DNA sequences involved in gene regulation and functional characterization of promoters are important steps in understanding response of plants to heavy metal stress. In this study, comprehensive analysis of the proximal promoters of members of rice sulfate transporter gene family which is an essential component of stress response has been carried out. Analysis suggests presence of various common stress related cis-acting elements in the promoters of members of this gene family. In addition, transcriptional regulation of the arsenic-responsive high affinity sulfate transporter, OsSul1;1, has been studied through development of Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing reporter gene encoding β-glucuronidase under the control of OsSul1;1 promoter. Analysis of the transgenic lines suggests differential response of the OsSul1;1 promoter to various heavy metals as well as other abiotic stresses.

  10. R3Au(6+x)Al26T (R = Ca, Sr, Eu, Yb; T = early transition metal): a large family of compounds with a stuffed BaHg11 structure type grown from aluminum flux.

    PubMed

    Latturner, Susan E; Bilc, Daniel; Mahanti, S D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2009-02-16

    A collection of new quaternary intermetallic compounds with a cubic, stuffed BaHg(11) structure type has been synthesized by the combination of a divalent rare earth or alkaline earth metal R, an early transition metal T, and gold in an excess of molten aluminum. Structural characterization of these R(3)Au(6+x)Al(26)T compounds by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that the unit cell varies with the radii of the early transition metal T and the rare earth/alkaline earth R as expected. The element T (where T = group 4, 5, 6, and 7 element) appears to be responsible for the stabilization of up to 43 different members of the R(3)Au(6+x)Al(26)T family of compounds. Varying amounts of disorder and trends in partial occupancies of the Au stuffed site--the site that is vacant in the parent compound BaHg(11)--are also indicated by the diffraction studies of this family of compounds. Magnetic susceptibility data reveals that the transition metal atoms in these materials do not possess local magnetic moments. For the magnetic rare earth containing materials, the europium compounds undergo a ferromagnetic transition at 10 K, and the ytterbium analogues show mixed valent behavior. Band structure calculations also support a mixed valent state for Yb in these compounds.

  11. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  12. Apoprotein Structure and Metal Binding Characterization of a de Novo Designed Peptide, α3DIV, that Sequesters Toxic Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Plegaria, Jefferson S; Dzul, Stephen P; Zuiderweg, Erik R P; Stemmler, Timothy L; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2015-05-12

    De novo protein design is a biologically relevant approach that provides a novel process in elucidating protein folding and modeling the metal centers of metalloproteins in a completely unrelated or simplified fold. An integral step in de novo protein design is the establishment of a well-folded scaffold with one conformation, which is a fundamental characteristic of many native proteins. Here, we report the NMR solution structure of apo α3DIV at pH 7.0, a de novo designed three-helix bundle peptide containing a triscysteine motif (Cys18, Cys28, and Cys67) that binds toxic heavy metals. The structure comprises 1067 NOE restraints derived from multinuclear multidimensional NOESY, as well as 138 dihedral angles (ψ, φ, and χ1). The backbone and heavy atoms of the 20 lowest energy structures have a root mean square deviation from the mean structure of 0.79 (0.16) Å and 1.31 (0.15) Å, respectively. When compared to the parent structure α3D, the substitution of Leu residues to Cys enhanced the α-helical content of α3DIV while maintaining the same overall topology and fold. In addition, solution studies on the metalated species illustrated metal-induced stability. An increase in the melting temperatures was observed for Hg(II), Pb(II), or Cd(II) bound α3DIV by 18-24 °C compared to its apo counterpart. Further, the extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis on Hg(II)-α3DIV produced an average Hg(II)-S bond length at 2.36 Å, indicating a trigonal T-shaped coordination environment. Overall, the structure of apo α3DIV reveals an asymmetric distorted triscysteine metal binding site, which offers a model for native metalloregulatory proteins with thiol-rich ligands that function in regulating toxic heavy metals, such as ArsR, CadC, MerR, and PbrR.

  13. Ecological Interactions Between Metals and Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan E.

    2005-06-01

    Analysis of Lead Resistant Arthrobacter sp. SI-1 Arthrobacter sp. SI-1 was isolated from contaminated soils at the Seymour site, and was found to be resistant to Pb at concentrations near its solubility limit (150 micromolar). The genetic region that confers lead resistance is located on a plasmid (PSI-1)has been cloned. We have continued to analyze the sub-clones from the pSI-1 region. Initially we had predicted that ORF1-ORF5 were involved in lead resistance because their organization suggest a potential operon. In addition these same five genes have been found in a similar organization on a plasmid from Arthrobacter FB24, while the pAA1 plasmid from A. aurescens TC1 contains three of the five genes. In order to determine the minimum genes required for lead resistance a series of deletion mutants were constructed from the 14.7 kb clone pKJ60. Deletion of ORFs 3-5 did not have any measurable effect on the ability of the cloned fragment to rescue the lead resistance phenotype in a lead sensitive strain of E. coli (RW3110). The construct pKJ65 was generated by removing approximately 200 bp from the center region of ORF2, which codes for the P-Type ATPase; as expected this deletion resulted in a lead sensitive phenotype. While the genes downstream of ORF 2 do not appear to play a significant role in lead resistance the same cannot be said for ORF1 which is upstream. Based on amino acid sequence homology a BLAST search indicates ORF1 is likely a regulatory protein from the ArsR family. When ORF1 is removed (pKJ64, pKJ67), a lead sensitive phenotype occurs. Approximately 100 bp from the sequence of ORF1 was deleted (pKJ70) in order to test if ORF1 is required for lead resistance, or if the cells require something in the upstream non-coding region (binding site, promoter). Cells with pKJ70 show some limited growth in the presence lead, but it is generally much slower than the lead resistant constructs where ORF1 is present. These results suggest that ORF1 has a positive

  14. Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve ... organizations? Do you have specialty training in family psychotherapy? What is your experience with my family's type ...

  15. Characterization of a Single b-type Heme, FAD, and Metal Binding Sites in the Transmembrane Domain of Six-transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate (STEAP) Family Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Kleven, Mark D.; Dlakić, Mensur; Lawrence, C. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 3 (Steap3) is the major ferric reductase in developing erythrocytes. Steap family proteins are defined by a shared transmembrane domain that in Steap3 has been shown to function as a transmembrane electron shuttle, moving cytoplasmic electrons derived from NADPH across the lipid bilayer to the extracellular face where they are used to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ and potentially Cu2+ to Cu1+. Although the cytoplasmic N-terminal oxidoreductase domain of Steap3 and Steap4 are relatively well characterized, little work has been done to characterize the transmembrane domain of any member of the Steap family. Here we identify high affinity FAD and iron biding sites and characterize a single b-type heme binding site in the Steap3 transmembrane domain. Furthermore, we show that Steap3 is functional as a homodimer and that it utilizes an intrasubunit electron transfer pathway through the single heme moiety rather than an intersubunit electron pathway through a potential domain-swapped dimer. Importantly, the sequence motifs in the transmembrane domain that are associated with the FAD and metal binding sites are not only present in Steap2 and Steap4 but also in Steap1, which lacks the N-terminal oxidoreductase domain. This strongly suggests that Steap1 harbors latent oxidoreductase activity. PMID:26205815

  16. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  17. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  18. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysms » Diagnosis » Family History A- A A+ Family History Familial intracranial aneurysms are generally defined as the ... patients with an Intracranial Aneurysm (IA) have a history of smoking at some time in their life. ...

  19. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  20. Windmill Co4 {Co4 (μ4 -O)} with 16 Divergent Branches Forming a Family of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Organic Metrics Control Topology, Gas Sorption, and Magnetism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Xue, Wei; Lin, Jian-Bin; Wei, Yong-Sheng; Yin, Zheng; Zeng, Ming-Hua; Kurmoo, Mohamedally; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2016-08-16

    A series of highly connected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Co8 (O)(OH)4 (H2 O)4 (ina)8 ](NO3 )2 ⋅2 C2 H5 OH⋅4 H2 O (1), [Co8 (O)(OH)4 (H2 O)4 (pba)8 ](NO3 )2 ⋅8 C2 H5 OH⋅28 H2 O (2), and [Co8 (O)(OH)4 (H2 O)4 (pbba)8 ](NO3 )2 ⋅guest (3), in which ina=isonicotinate, pba=4-pyridylbenzoate, and pbba=4-(pyridine-4-yl)phenylbenzoate, is reported. These MOFs contain a new secondary building unit (SBU), with a square Co4 (μ4 -O) central unit having the rare μ4 -O(2-) motif, which is decorated by the other four peripheral cobalt atoms through μ3 -OH in a windmill-like shape. This SBU holds 16 divergent connecting organic ligands, pyridyl-carboxylates, to form three different frameworks. The high porosity of desolvated 2 is shown by the efficient gas absorption of N2 , CO2 , CH4 , and H2 . In addition, 1 and 2 exhibit unusual canted antiferromagnetic behavior with spin-glass-like relaxation, with blocking temperatures that are fairly high, 20 K (1) and 10 K (2), for cobalt materials. The relationship between the metal clusters and linkers has been studied, in which the size and rotational degrees of freedom of the ligands are found to control the topology, gas sorption, and magnetic properties.

  1. Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that family literacy programs can provide opportunities for educational success for parents and children. The benefits reaped by the children in family literacy workshops are presented.

  2. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  3. Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Charles W., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the impact of learning disabilities within families, specifically families with low literacy skills. It explores the effectiveness of family literacy programs, examines the connection between the field of family literacy and learning disabilities (LD), and offers suggestions on how to work with students with…

  4. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  5. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  6. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-02-07

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  7. Organic Superconductor, Made without Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The discovery of a superconducting organic compound is reported. The compound, (TMTSF)-2, has no metal in its composition, and the author believes that it is the precursor of a family of superconducting organics. (Author/SA)

  8. Organic Superconductor, Made without Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The discovery of a superconducting organic compound is reported. The compound, (TMTSF)-2, has no metal in its composition, and the author believes that it is the precursor of a family of superconducting organics. (Author/SA)

  9. A family of Group 4 metal alkoxo complexes with an M3(mu3-O) core relevant to Ziegler-Natta catalyst intermediates.

    PubMed

    Utko, Józef; Przybylak, Szymon; Jerzykiewicz, Lucjan B; Szafert, Sławomir; Sobota, Piotr

    2003-01-03

    Reactions of [Mg(thffo)(2)] (1) or [Ca(thffo)(2)] (2) with ZrCl(4) or HfCl(4) in a CH(2)Cl(2)/THF/CH(3)CN mixture give thermally stable neutral heterobimetallic tetranuclear complexes [M(3)M'(mu(x)-O)(mu,eta(2)-thffo)(6)(Cl)(6)] (thffo=tetrahydrofurfuroxide; M/M'/x: 3, Zr/Mg/3; 4, Hf/Mg/3; 5, Zr/Ca/4; 6, Hf/Ca/4) as colorless crystals in 75-82 % yield. X-ray diffraction studies show complexes 3-5 to contain oxo-bridged M(3) triangles that are capped by an alkaline earth metal-containing moiety to form species of C(3) symmetry. Reactions of ZrCl(4) and HfCl(4) with pure tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol in EtOH and MeOH provide ionic complexes [M(3)(mu(3)-O)(mu,eta(2)-thffo)(3)(L)(3)(Cl)(6)]Cl (M/L: 8, Zr/EtOH; 9, Hf/EtOH; 10, Zr/MeOH) in 66-79 % yield. Complexes 8-10 consist of M(3) triangles that are analogous to those in 3-6 and possess similar overall symmetry, as shown by X-ray crystallography. Changes in the reaction conditions afforded the asymmetric neutral dimer [Zr(2)(mu-thffo)(2)(thffoH)(Cl)(6)] (7) and the homometallic [Zr(3)(mu(3)-O)(mu,eta(2)-thp)(3)(thf)(2)(Cl)(7)] (11).

  10. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  11. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF04016 (DUF364) reveals enolase and Rossmann-like folds that combine to form a unique active site with a possible role in heavy-metal chelation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mitchell D.; Aravind, L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Rife, Christopher L.; Carlton, Dennis; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of Dhaf4260 from Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) to a resolution of 2.01 Å using the semi-automated high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) as part of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). This protein structure is the first representative of the PF04016 (DUF364) Pfam family and reveals a novel combination of two well known domains (an enolase N-terminal-like fold followed by a Rossmann-like domain). Structural and bioinformatic analyses reveal partial similarities to Rossmann-like methyltransferases, with residues from the enolase-like fold combining to form a unique active site that is likely to be involved in the condensation or hydrolysis of molecules implicated in the synthesis of flavins, pterins or other siderophores. The genome context of Dhaf4260 and homologs additionally supports a role in heavy-metal chelation. PMID:20944207

  12. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family and Friends Talking About Cancer Family Life Parenting While Living With Cancer How A Child Understands ... Learn more about how to get support for parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication ...

  13. Family Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... help. About Military OneSource Benefits Home and Family Finances Legal Issues Personal Financial Management and Taxes Taxes ... Surveys Site Map Categories Confidential Help Family & Relationships Finance & Legal Health & Wellness Education & Employment On & Off-Base ...

  14. Familial gigantism

    PubMed Central

    de Herder, Wouter W.

    2012-01-01

    Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas. PMID:22584702

  15. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the…

  16. Family Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherstone, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Emphasizing the family as the center of political/policy debates is the result of the tradition of romanticizing family virtues and a set of events ("the sixities"). Author sees the family emerging as a symbol in communal social policy development. Warns of dangers inherent in seeking private solutions to collective problems. (Author/CSS)

  17. Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontos, Lynn Balster

    1992-01-01

    Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

  18. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  19. Metal aminoboranes

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  20. Italian families and family interventions.

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, as in many countries, relatives are closely involved in caring for persons with physical and mental disorders. The Italian scenario lends itself to routine involvement of family members in psychiatric treatment because, despite becoming smaller and smaller, Italian families keep close ties, and men and women do not leave the parental home until relatively late. The authors describe the impact of international family psychosocial research on the Italian mental health services (MHSs) and the main psychosocial interventions currently in use, including family psychoeducational interventions and the "Milan family therapy approach." They also highlight the contribution Italian researchers have given to the study of important variables in integrated mental disorder care, such as family burden of care, relatives' attitudes, family functioning, and satisfaction with the MHSs. Finally, they discuss the difficulties of implementing and disseminating family interventions within the Italian MHS, despite the growing evidence of their effectiveness.

  1. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of…

  2. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  3. Family Potyviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  4. Family, Extended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jessica Rae

    2006-01-01

    Parents are a child's first and most influential teacher. People hear this truism often, yet nowhere has the author seen it more taken to heart than at Tower Street Elementary School. The school's efforts to form a true partnership with students' families--from involving families in the first day of school, to the principal making home visits, to…

  5. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  6. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  7. Family Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Reunifying children placed in foster care with their birth parents is a primary goal of the child welfare system. Yet, relatively little is known about the reunification process. This article analyzes new data on trends in family reunification and discovers: (1) Although most children still exit foster care through family reunification, exit…

  8. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  9. Metal inks

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  10. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  11. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  12. Asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Bottke, William F.; Vokrouhlický, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert

    An asteroid family is a group of asteroids with similar orbits and spectra that was produced by a collisional breakup of a large parent body. To identify asteroid families, researchers look for clusters of asteroid positions in the space of proper orbital elements. These elements, being more constant over time than osculating orbital elements, provide a dynamical criterion of whether a group of bodies has a common ancestor. More than fifty asteroid families have been identified to date. Their analysis produced several important insights into the physics of large scale collisions, dynamical processes affecting small bodies in the Solar System, and surface and interior properties of asteroids.

  13. Metallization failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, R.

    1971-01-01

    Metallization-related failure mechanisms were shown to be a major cause of integrated circuit failures under accelerated stress conditions, as well as in actual use under field operation. The integrated circuit industry is aware of the problem and is attempting to solve it in one of two ways: (1) better understanding of the aluminum system, which is the most widely used metallization material for silicon integrated circuits both as a single level and multilevel metallization, or (2) evaluating alternative metal systems. Aluminum metallization offers many advantages, but also has limitations particularly at elevated temperatures and high current densities. As an alternative, multilayer systems of the general form, silicon device-metal-inorganic insulator-metal, are being considered to produce large scale integrated arrays. The merits and restrictions of metallization systems in current usage and systems under development are defined.

  14. METAL PHTHALOCYANINES

    DOEpatents

    Frigerio, N.A.

    1962-03-27

    A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

  15. FAMILY PIOPHILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Pérez, Sandra; Grisales, Diana

    2016-06-14

    Piophilidae is a little family poorly known in Colombia, with only Piophila casei (L.) and Stearibia nigriceps Meigen reported so far. This catalogue expands the distribution of these species to other localities in the country.

  16. Unusual families.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan

    2005-03-01

    The introduction of assisted reproduction has led to unusual forms of procreation. This article describes the social consequences of lesbian motherhood and of families headed by single heterosexual mothers.

  17. Silicone metalization

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  18. Silicone metalization

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  19. Silicone metalization

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  20. Family dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hayaki, Chie; Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have shown differences in the psychosocial factors related to chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). However, no studies have done an evaluation of differences between CLP and CWP from the viewpoint of family functioning. We did a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care setting to investigate possible differences in the relation of CWP and CLP to family functioning. Patients with CLP (N = 126) or CWP (N = 75) were assessed for family functioning by the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and a comparison was done. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations of family functioning subscales with pain status (CWP vs CLP), controlling for demographic variables, pain variables; pain duration, pain ratings, pain disability, and psychological factors; depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. The odds ratios (ORs) for the presence of CWP were calculated. Compared to patients with CLP, patients with CWP showed a lower functional status for Roles and Affective Involvement. The ORs for CWP were significantly higher in lower functioning Roles (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.21–4.65) and Affective Involvement (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.56–5.24) after adjusting for demographic variables. The significant association of CWP to Roles and Affective Involvement remained after controlling for the pain variables and psychological factors. This study shows that the families of patients with CWP have poorer family functioning than those with CLP. Our findings suggest that early identification and interventions for the family dysfunction of chronic pain patients are important to the treatment and prevention of CWP. PMID:27930535

  1. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > The Importance of Family ...

  2. Family welfare.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  3. Variational calculation of barriers for metal-vacuum-metal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, E.; Orosz, L.

    1990-11-01

    A (quasi-self-consistent) variational calculation of (static) barriers for metal-vacuum-metal (MVM) junctions is presented. A simple family of trial functions for the electron density at metal surfaces (in jellium model) as proposed by Schmickler and Henderson is applied for minimizing the energy functional incorporating the image potential proposed by Serena, Soler and Garcia. Tunnel barriers for a tungsten-vacuum-gold arrangement are calculated on the basis of this model. The results of the presented model calculation are compared to those of Binnig et al. The present variational method is more simple than correct self-consistent models, nevertheless reasonable results are obtained in this way.

  4. Genome-wide responses to carbonyl electrophiles in Bacillus subtilis: control of the thiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase AdhA and cysteine proteinase YraA by the MerR-family regulator YraB (AdhR).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thu Huyen; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Mäder, Ulrike; Liebeke, Manuel; Lalk, Michael; Hecker, Michael; Helmann, John D; Antelmann, Haike

    2009-02-01

    Quinones and alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls are naturally occurring electrophiles that target cysteine residues via thiol-(S)-alkylation. We analysed the global expression profile of Bacillus subtilis to the toxic carbonyls methylglyoxal (MG) and formaldehyde (FA). Both carbonyl compounds cause a stress response characteristic for thiol-reactive electrophiles as revealed by the induction of the Spx, CtsR, CymR, PerR, ArsR, CzrA, CsoR and SigmaD regulons. MG and FA triggered also a SOS response which indicates DNA damage. Protection against FA is mediated by both the hxlAB operon, encoding the ribulose monophosphate pathway for FA fixation, and a thiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (AdhA) and DJ-1/PfpI-family cysteine proteinase (YraA). The adhA-yraA operon and the yraC gene, encoding a gamma-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase, are positively regulated by the MerR-family regulator, YraB(AdhR). AdhR binds specifically to its target promoters which contain a 7-4-7 inverted repeat (CTTAAAG-N4-CTTTAAG) between the -35 and -10 elements. Activation of adhA-yraA transcription by AdhR requires the conserved Cys52 residue in vivo. We speculate that AdhR is redox-regulated via thiol-(S)-alkylation by aldehydes and that AdhA and YraA are specifically involved in reduction of aldehydes and degradation or repair of damaged thiol-containing proteins respectively.

  5. Improved alkali-metal/silicate binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of inorganic binders utilizes potassium or sodium oxide/silicate dispersion and employs high mole ratio of silicon dioxide to alkali-metal binder. Binders are stable, inexpensive, extremely water resistant, and easy to apply.

  6. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  7. FAMILY TYMOVIRIDAE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article provides a brief review of the taxonomic structure, virion properties, genome organization and replication strategy, antigenic properties, and biological properties of viruses in the family Tymoviridae. Criteria for demarcation of genus and species are provided. A brief review of each...

  8. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    MedlinePlus

    A diet low in cholesterol and saturated fat and rich in unsaturated fat may help to control your LDL level. People with a family history of this condition, particularly if both parents carry the defective gene, may want to seek genetic counseling.

  9. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  10. Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgen, Carol, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This quarterly publication, issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), contains articles dealing with family violence and alcohol abuse, children of alcoholic parents, training programs for counselors, and confidentiality of client records. The three articles on alcohol abuse suggest that: (1) there is a clear…

  11. My Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State-Operated Schools, Anchorage.

    This elementary reader is designed for use in a bilingual Inupiat-English program in Buckland and Deering, Alaska. It is the story of a small boy named Paul and his family. The Inupiat text and its English equivalent are never in opposition. The Inupiat text is presented on a picture page, with the English on the back. The illustrations, by J.…

  12. FAMILY SCATHOPHAGIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Grisales, Diana; Nihei, Silvio S

    2016-06-14

    Scathophagidae (Diptera, Calyptratae) is an uncommon group of flies. In Colombia there was no scientific record of this family until now. In this paper we report for the first time the genus Scatogera and the species S. primogenita Albuquerque, collected over 3000m. and previously collected in Ecuador.

  13. FAMILY ASILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2016-06-14

    Asilidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 7,000 recognized species worldwide. All their species are predators on arthropods, mainly insects. This catalogue presents 71 species distributed in 26 genera, ten tribes or generic groups and four subfamilies. For each species we present the available geographical information and relevant references.

  14. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  15. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  16. Familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Gusella, James F

    2002-06-01

    Familial dysautonomia is a developmental disorder of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. Recent studies have shown that two mutations in the gene IKBKAP are responsible for the disease. IKAP, the IKBKAP-encoded protein, is a member of the recently identified human Elongator complex. The major FD mutation is a splice mutation that results in aberrant tissue-specific mRNA splicing.

  17. FAMILY LAUXANIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vera Cristina

    2016-06-14

    An updated Catalogue of the Lauxaniidae of Colombia is presented. This acalyptratae family is poorly known in Colombia, with only 36 described species in 33 genera. This paper expands the distribution of 24 species to Colombia. At total, 63 species are reported here for Colombia.

  18. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

  19. [Family violence].

    PubMed

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  20. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  1. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  2. Metal Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  3. Family Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-30

    quality service delivery to meet the needs of the DoD personnel and their families, in accordance with DoD Directive 1342.17 (reference (a)). 4...facility, and program standards. f. Develop and forward to ASD(FM&P), for review and approval, a comprehensive evaluation system to measure the...of future services and the continuation, expansion, or termination of others. (3) Service-wide measurement criteria for monitoring and evaluating the

  4. [Familial hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Turpin, G; Bruckert, E

    1999-12-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by a high plasma LDL-cholesterol level. The low-density particles are the end-product of the triglyceride-rich particles, i.e. VLDL, synthetized by the liver. These triglyceride-rich particles are subsequently transformed into intermediate density lipoprotein by the lipoprotein lipase and LDL after further triglyceride hydrolysis by the hepatic lipase. The LDL particles are taken up in all cells by the mean of the LDL receptor. A large body of evidence (including experimental, clinical, epidemiological data as well as the results of large trial with lipid lowering drugs) has accumulated to establish that these particles are one of the major causative factor of atherosclerosis and its complications. Two different mechanisms may be at work in the familial hypercholesterolemia: a mutation in the LDL receptor or a single mutation in the apolipoprotein B100. Specific therapeutic intervention should be undertaken to decrease the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, mainly coronary heart disease. The therapeutic intervention includes both a diet low in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and statins which are now the first line therapy. Fibrates are proposed to those who do not tolerate statins and LDL-apheresis is associated to statin in the rare homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Tiwari, Prabhat

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  6. Metal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, General Magnaplate Corporation developed process techniques for bonding dry lubricant coatings to space metals. The coatings were not susceptible to outgassing and offered enhanced surface hardness and superior resistance to corrosion and wear. This development was necessary because conventional lubrication processes were inadequate for lightweight materials used in Apollo components. General Magnaplate built on the original technology and became a leader in development of high performance metallurgical surface enhancement coatings - "synergistic" coatings, - which are used in applications from pizza making to laser manufacture. Each of the coatings is designed to protect a specific metal or group of metals to solve problems encountered under operating conditions.

  7. From Family Therapy to Family Intervention.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Allan M

    2015-07-01

    For many, family therapy refers to sessions in which all family members are present. Yet in contemporary psychiatry there are many ways to work with families in addition to this classic concept. This article proposes family intervention as an encompassing term for a new family paradigm in child and adolescent psychiatry. Developmental psychopathology is a guiding principle of this paradigm. A full range of ways to work with families clinically is described with clinical examples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G.; Boensch, F.D.; Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M.

    1993-05-01

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  9. Family and family therapy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Karin; Baars, Jan

    2012-04-01

    This article describes how families are functioning in the Netherlands, and how family therapy is used in mental healthcare. In the open Dutch society, new ideas are easily incorporated, as exemplified by the rapid introduction and growth of family therapy in the 1980s. In recent decades, however, family therapy has lost ground to other treatment models that are more individually orientated, and adhere to stricter protocols. This decline of family therapy has been exacerbated by recent budget cuts in mental healthcare. In regular healthcare institutes family therapy now has a marginal position at best, although family treatment models are used in specific areas such as forensic treatments. In addition, the higher trained family therapists have found their own niches to work with couples and families. We argue that a stronger position of family therapy would be beneficial for patients and for families, in order to counteract the strong individualization of Dutch society.

  10. Metals--Endangered Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, William W.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests activities for elementary teachers to use in teaching about metals and their use. Specific areas addressed include: history of metals, metal use, consumption statistics, beauty of metals, sources of metals, conservation, and other projects. (JMB)

  11. Metal site occupancy and allosteric switching in bacterial metal sensor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Alfredo J.; Giedroc, David P.

    2012-01-01

    All prokaryotes encode a panel of metal sensor or metalloregulatory proteins that govern the expression of genes that allows an organism to quickly adapt to toxicity or deprivation of both biologically essential transition metal ions, e.g., Zn, Cu, Fe, and heavy metal pollutants. As such, metal sensor proteins can be considered arbiters of intracellular transition metal bioavailability and thus potentially control the metallation state of the metalloproteins in the cell. Metal sensor proteins are specialized allosteric proteins that regulate transcription as a result direct binding of one or two cognate metal ions, to the exclusion of all others. In most cases, the binding of the cognate metal ion induces a structural change in a protein oligomer that either activates or inhibits operator DNA binding. A quantitative measure of the degree to which a particular metal drives metalloregulation of operator DNA-binding is the allosteric coupling free energy, ΔGc. In this review, we summarize recent work directed toward understanding metal occupancy and metal selectivity of these allosteric switches in selected families of metal sensor proteins and examine the structural origins of ΔGc in the functional context a thermodynamic “set-point” model of intracellular metal homeostasis. PMID:22178748

  12. Roles within the Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting ... Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. Each family has its own ways of deciding ...

  13. Metallic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvera, Isaac; Zaghoo, Mohamed; Salamat, Ashkan

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the Universe. At high pressure it is predicted to transform to a metal with remarkable properties: room temperature superconductivity, a metastable metal at ambient conditions, and a revolutionary rocket propellant. Both theory and experiment have been challenged for almost 80 years to determine its condensed matter phase diagram, in particular the insulator-metal transition. Hydrogen is predicted to dissociate to a liquid atomic metal at multi-megabar pressures and T =0 K, or at megabar pressures and very high temperatures. Thus, its predicted phase diagram has a broad field of liquid metallic hydrogen at high pressure, with temperatures ranging from thousands of degrees to zero Kelvin. In a bench top experiment using static compression in a diamond anvil cell and pulsed laser heating, we have conducted measurements on dense hydrogen in the region of 1.1-1.7 Mbar and up to 2200 K. We observe a first-order phase transition in the liquid phase, as well as sharp changes in optical transmission and reflectivity when this phase is entered. The optical signature is that of a metal. The mapping of the phase line of this transition is in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions for the long-sought plasma phase transition to metallic hydrogen. Research supported by the NSF, Grant DMR-1308641, the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656, and NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Award NNX14AP17H.

  14. FAMILY DROSOPHILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Tidon, Rosana; Almeida, Jonathan Mendes De

    2016-06-14

    This catalogue presents 176 species distributed in 17 genera and four tribes of Drosophilidae in Colombia, with both subfamilies, Drosophilinae and Steganinae, represented in the Colombian territory. This is probably an underestimate of the real richness of drosophilid species in the country, for two reasons. First, there are relatively few collections of Drosophilidae in Colombia, resulting in significant spatial gaps in the sampling of these flies. Second, we have not considered here species that have already been recorded in neighbour countries but not in Colombia. Consequently, there are certainly several described species, as well as new species, that occur in this area but are not listed here. We hope that this catalogue will stimulate new inventories of drosophilids in Colombia, contributing to fill gaps in the knowledge of this family of flies in the country.

  15. Familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2004-03-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder within the larger classification of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies, each caused by a different genetic error. The FD gene has been identified as IKBKAP. Mutations result in tissue-specific expression of mutant IkappaB kinase-associated protein (IKAP). The genetic error probably affects development, as well as maintenance, of neurons because there is neuropathological and clinical progression. Pathological alterations consist of decreased unmyelinated and small-fiber neurons. Clinical features reflect widespread involvement of sensory and autonomic neurons. Sensory loss includes impaired pain and temperature appreciation. Autonomic features include dysphagia, vomiting crises, blood pressure lability, and sudomotor dysfunction. Central dysfunction includes emotional lability and ataxia. With supportive treatment, prognosis has improved greatly. About 40% of patients are over age 20 years. The cause of death is usually pulmonary failure, unexplained sudden deaths, or renal failure. With the discovery of the genetic defect, definitive treatments are anticipated.

  16. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  17. The Family Hero in Black Alcoholism Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisbane, Francis L.

    1989-01-01

    Uses data from 20 case studies of Black adult female children of alcoholic parents to discuss Family Hero role often assumed by oldest or only female child in Black alcoholism families. Explains how female-dominated survival role of Family Hero in Black families is significantly more related to racial and cultural factors than numbers alone may…

  18. Integrating Family Resilience and Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.

    2002-01-01

    The construct, family resilience, is defined differently by practitioners and researchers. This study tries to clarify the concept of family resilience. The foundation is family stress and coping theory, particularly the stress models that emphasize adaptation processes in families exposed to major adversities. (JDM)

  19. Positive Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Marvin B.

    The persistence of the nuclear family as the primary social unit in the United States and most all other societies, especially complex ones, is a fact. Values shape the definition of family, especially the "good family," and the "great debate" of this period on family failure, family corruption and the family's near demise originates in…

  20. Family reunion--the ZIP/prion gene family.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Sepehr; Huo, Hairu; Salehzadeh, Ashkan; Pocanschi, Cosmin L; Watts, Joel C; Wille, Holger; Westaway, David; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; St George-Hyslop, Peter H; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2011-03-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals which, in addition to sporadic and familial modes of manifestation, can be acquired via an infectious route of propagation. In disease, the prion protein (PrP(C)) undergoes a structural transition to its disease-causing form (PrP(Sc)) with profoundly different physicochemical properties. Surprisingly, despite intense interest in the prion protein, its function in the context of other cellular activities has largely remained elusive. We recently employed quantitative mass spectrometry to characterize the interactome of the prion protein in a murine neuroblastoma cell line (N2a), an established cell model for prion replication. Extensive bioinformatic analyses subsequently established an evolutionary link between the prion gene family and the family of ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like protein) metal ion transporters. More specifically, sequence alignments, structural threading data and multiple additional pieces of evidence placed a ZIP5/ZIP6/ZIP10-like ancestor gene at the root of the PrP gene family. In this review we examine the biology of prion proteins and ZIP transporters from the viewpoint of a shared phylogenetic origin. We summarize and compare available data that shed light on genetics, function, expression, signaling, post-translational modifications and metal binding preferences of PrP and ZIP family members. Finally, we explore data indicative of retropositional origins of the prion gene founder and discuss a possible function for the prion-like (PL) domain within ZIP transporters. While throughout the article emphasis is placed on ZIP proteins, the intent is to highlight connections between PrP and ZIP transporters and uncover promising directions for future research.

  1. Family Orientation in Family Medicine Training

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Yves R.; Tannenbaum, David

    1990-01-01

    Teaching about the family has become an important part of the family medicine curriculum. The family orientation index, a 39-item questionnaire, was designed to evaluate the family orientation of services and care provided as well as the teaching and research. The questionnaire was distributed to 55 program directors at 16 Canadian universities. The response rate was 84%. The results indicate that the family orientation of services is less than optimal. PMID:21233938

  2. [Familial incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Tomasz; Mazur, Grzegorz; Pyszel, Angelika; Biedroń, Monika; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz

    2006-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous group of clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cells, which manifestation is cytopenia and hypercellular, dysplastic bone marrow, often with increased amount of blasts. The pathogenesis of majority of MDS remains unexplained. It is regarded that genetic predisposition and exposure to toxic environmental agents contribute to genetic mutations in MDS. Molecular abnormalities have attracted interest over past years because of their presence in most cases of MDS, even without noticeable disorders in kariotype. Familial incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes may be helpful in understanding genetic factors of the disease. We describe two families in which MDS occurred in siblings (3 brothers; sister and brother). Kariotype abnormalities have been noted only in one person of each family. The rest of patients had a normal kariotype. This suggests that molecular abnormalities are the cause of their disease. The occupational exposure to precise mutagens (aluminium, greases, diesels, petrol, metals) was noted in two persons in the first family and correspondingly in one person in the second. There was absence of one mutagen common for every member of two reported families.

  3. Family ties: constructing family time in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Carolyn Y; Roy, Kevin M; Burton, Linda M

    2005-03-01

    "Family time" is reflected in the process of building and fortifying family relationships. Whereas such time, free of obligatory work, school, and family maintenance activities, is purchased by many families using discretionary income, we explore how low-income mothers make time for and give meaning to focused engagement and relationship development with their children within time constraints idiosyncratic to being poor and relying on welfare. Longitudinal ethnographic data from 61 low-income African American, European American, and Latina American mothers were analyzed to understand how mothers construct family time during daily activities such as talking, play, and meals. We also identify unique cultural factors that shape family time for low-income families, such as changing temporal orientations, centrality of television time, and emotional burdens due to poverty. Implications for family therapy are also discussed.

  4. Metallized Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the early 1960's, virtually all NASA spacecraft have used metallized films for a variety of purposes, principally thermal radiation insulation. King Seeley manufactures a broad line of industrial and consumer oriented metallized film, fabric, paper and foam in single layer sheets and multi-layer laminates. A few examples, commercialized by MPI Outdoor Safety Products, are the three ounce Thermos Emergency Blanket which reflects and retains up to 80 percent of the user's body heat helping prevent post accident shock or keeping a person warm for hours under emergency cold weather conditions.

  5. Familial hyperargininaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Terheggen, H G; Lowenthal, A; Lavinha, F; Colombo, J P

    1975-01-01

    A third case of hyperargininaemia occurring in one family was studied from birth. In cord blood serum arginine concentration was only slightly raised, but arginase activity in red blood cell haemolysates was very low. In the urine on day 2 a typical cystinuria pattern was present. Arginine concentration in serum increased to 158 mumol/100 ml on the 41st day of life. Later determinations of the arginase activity in peripheral blood showed values below the sensitivity of the method. Blood ammonia was consistently high, and cystinuria was present. The enzymatic defect was further displayed by intravenous loading tests with arginine. Serum urea values were predominantly normal or near the lower limit of normal, suggesting the presence of other metabolic pathways of urea synthesis. In urine there was no excretion of guanidinosuccinic acid, while the excretion of other monosubstituted guanidine derivatives was increased, pointing to a connexion with hyperargininaemia. Owing to parental attitude, a low protein diet (1-5 g/kg) was introduced only late. The infant developed severe mental retardation, athetosis, and spasticity. PMID:1124944

  6. Metallic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvera, Isaac F.; Dias, Ranga; Noked, Ori; Salamat, Ashkan; Zaghoo, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    One of the great challenges in condensed matter physics has been to produce metallic hydrogen (MH) in the laboratory. There are two approaches: solid molecular hydrogen can be compressed to high density at extreme pressures of order 5-6 megabars. The transition to MH should take place at low temperatures and is expected to occur as a structural first-order phase transition with dissociation of molecules into atoms, rather than the closing of a gap. A second approach is to produce dense molecular hydrogen at pressures of order 1-2 megabars and heat the sample. With increasing temperature, it was predicted that molecular hydrogen first melts and then dissociates to atomic metallic liquid hydrogen as a first-order phase transition. We have observed this liquid-liquid phase transition to metallic hydrogen, also called the plasma phase transition. In low-temperature studies, we have pressurized HD to over 3 megabars and observed two new phases. Molecular hydrogen has been pressurized to 4.2 megabars. A new phase transition has been observed at 3.55 megabars, but it is not yet metallic.

  7. Heavy Metal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)

  8. METAL COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1959-02-01

    Alloys of uranium which are strong, hard, and machinable are presented, These alloys of uranium contain bctween 0.1 to 5.0% by weight of at least one noble metal such as rhodium, palladium, and gold. The alloys may be heat treated to obtain a product with iniproved tensile and compression strengths,

  9. Heavy Metal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)

  10. Composite metal membrane

    DOEpatents

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  11. Composite metal membrane

    DOEpatents

    Peachey, Nathaniel M.; Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.; Birdsell, Stephan A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  12. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2004-08-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214 family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal “quasiparticles” and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  13. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized.

  14. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  15. Bequeathing Family Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that many children who experience abuse, family disruption, or poverty reach adulthood with a strong commitment to family life. Questions whether changes in American families are indicators of pathology, deterioration, and instability; and asks how dysfunctional families transmit commitment to the concept of family to succeeding generations.…

  16. Family Therapy and Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Guillermo; Ysern, Eduardo

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the family and the enterprise of family therapy are social systems and under the influence of the ideology particular to a given society. The strategic family therapy treatment of a family with a drug-addicted member serves as an example to clarify the ideological themes of contemporary family therapy. (Author/BL)

  17. Effects of family connection and family individuation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda G; Bell, David C

    2009-09-01

    This prospective longitudinal study explores the differential effects of family connection and family individuation measured during adolescence on later midlife well-being. Home interviews were held in the 1970s with 99 families of 245 adolescents. Connection and individuation in the family system were measured by self-report, a projective exercise, and coding of taped family interactions. Twenty-five years later, telephone interviews were conducted with 54 men and 120 women (representing 82 families) who had been adolescents in the 1970s interviews. Family connection (measured during adolescence) was associated with self-acceptance and positive relationships at midlife partially mediated by marriage. Family individuation (measured during adolescence) was associated with personal autonomy at midlife.

  18. Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

  19. Revamping Family Preservation Services for Native Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Heather; Unrau, Yvonne A.; Manyfingers, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Examines the philosophy and program structures of family preservation services (FPS) in the context of providing services to Native American families with child welfare issues. Explores Native cultural concepts of family, child rearing, time, and spirituality. Outlines cross-cultural training needs for FPS workers related to cultural awareness,…

  20. Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

  1. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... have good news and bad news for military families. MORE Military Families Brace for What’s Next In Syria President Trump ordered an airstrike in Syria leaving military families wondering what's next. More April is the Month ...

  2. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  3. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  4. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  5. Clad metal joint closure

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, O.W.

    1985-04-09

    A plasma arc spray overlay of cladding metals is used over joints between clad metal pieces to provide a continuous cladding metal surface. The technique permits applying an overlay of a high melting point cladding metal to a cladding metal surface without excessive heating of the backing metal.

  6. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Test Family Health History Quiz Family Health History Quiz Family health history is an important risk ... Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family health history is important. Here ...

  7. Familial mesothelioma: a report of two families

    SciTech Connect

    Hammar, S.P.; Bockus, D.; Remington, F.; Freidman, S.; LaZerte, G.

    1989-02-01

    Five reports of familial mesothelioma in which mesotheliomas occurred in two or more family members have been recorded in the medical literature. In this report, we describe two examples of familial mesothelioma. In one family, three brothers who worked in the asbestos insulation industry developed mesothelioma. In the second family, the father, who was occupationally exposed to asbestos, died from a tubulopapillary peritoneal mesothelioma 11 years before his son died from an identical histologic type of peritoneal mesothelioma. Our report, as with those previously recorded, suggests that genetic factors may be important in the genesis of some mesotheliomas.

  8. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients & Visitors Giving For Professionals Treatment & Programs Health Information Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Familial ...

  9. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  10. Family hardship, family instability, and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Schoon, Ingrid; Jones, Elizabeth; Cheng, Helen; Maughan, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Associations between the characteristics of the family environment, in particular poverty and family structure, and cognitive development are well established, yet little is known about the role of timing and accumulation of risk in early childhood. The aim of this paper is to assess the associations between income poverty, family instability and cognitive development in early childhood. In particular, it tests the relative role of family economic hardship compared with family instability in affecting cognitive functioning at the age of 5 years. The study draws on data from the UK Millennium Cohort, linking data collected in infancy, age 3, and age 5 years. Cognitive ability was directly assessed at age 5 years with the British Ability Scales. Using regression models we examine associations between persistent income poverty, family transitions, and children's cognitive ability, controlling for family demographics and housing conditions, as well as child characteristics. The findings suggest that the experience of persistent economic hardship as well as very early poverty undermines cognitive functioning at 5 years of age. Family instability shows no significant association with cognitive functioning after controlling for family poverty, family demographics, housing and a set of control variables indicating child characteristics. Persistent poverty is a crucial risk factor undermining children's cognitive development--more so than family instability.

  11. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9–12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families. PMID:20871785

  12. Family psychology and family therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kameguchi, K; Murphy-Shigematsu, S

    2001-01-01

    The development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan has occurred mostly since the 1980s. This development was originally activated by the major social issue in contemporary Japan of school refusal, in which more than 127,000 children either overtly refuse to or claim that they cannot go to school. From a family perspective, this problem is analyzed as it relates to the confusion that children experience from unbalanced and unclear boundaries in family relations or "membranes." An approach to family therapy that adapts systems theory and integrates a clay sculpting medium has been developed to work with Japanese families confronting this problem. The design and implementation of preventative family psychology programs applied at the community level are also an important part of the future development in these fields.

  13. Metal hydrides as negative electrode materials for Ni- MH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yartys, V.; Noreus, D.; Latroche, M.

    2016-01-01

    Structural, thermodynamical and electrochemical properties of metallic hydrides belonging to the pseudo-binary family A-Mg-Ni ( A: rare earths) are reviewed and compared. Technology aspects of bipolar cells are also discussed.

  14. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures.

    PubMed

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V; Krivovichev, Sergey V; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-08-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals.

  15. Metal-binding peptides: Their role in responses to metal stress

    SciTech Connect

    Rauser, W.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Excess metals are one stress that plants may encounter. The metals Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn are considered because of concern for their entry into the foodchain of animals and man. Studies of metal tolerant plants and cell cultures suggest three types of responses: exclusion of metal from protoplasts by binding to cell walls, differential membrane transport reducing metal exposure of enzymes, and intracellular chelation of metal in innocuous forms. One group of compounds involved in the latter response are metal-binding peptides designated phytochelatins. They are a family of small peptides composed of five kinds of amino acids, including 2 to 11 cysteines which provide thiols for selective binding of metal. Metals induce the synthesis of phytochelatins through unknown enzymes involving glutathione. In plant cell cultures the peptides bind about 90% of the intracellular Cd. In roots of young plants up to half of the metal is bound by phytochelatins. Intact plants probably use a combination of responses to deal with excess metals, phytochelatins may dominate in certain cases.

  16. Altered selectivity in an Arabidopsis metal transporter.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E E; Eide, D J; Guerinot, M L

    2000-10-24

    Plants require metals for essential functions ranging from respiration to photosynthesis. These metals also contribute to the nutritional value of plants for both humans and livestock. Additionally, plants have the ability to accumulate nonessential metals such as cadmium and lead, and this ability could be harnessed to remove pollutant metals from the environment. Designing a transporter that specifically accumulates certain cations while excluding others has exciting applications in all of these areas. The Arabidopsis root membrane protein IRT1 is likely to be responsible for uptake of iron from the soil. Like other Fe(II) transporters identified to date, IRT1 transports a variety of other cations, including the essential metals zinc and manganese as well as the toxic metal cadmium. By heterologous expression in yeast, we show here that the replacement of a glutamic acid residue at position 103 in wild-type IRT1 with alanine increases the substrate specificity of the transporter by selectively eliminating its ability to transport zinc. Two other mutations, replacing the aspartic acid residues at either positions 100 or 136 with alanine, also increase IRT1 metal selectivity by eliminating transport of both iron and manganese. A number of other conserved residues in or near transmembrane domains appear to be essential for all transport function. Therefore, this study identifies at least some of the residues important for substrate selection and transport in a protein belonging to the ZIP gene family, a large transporter family found in a wide variety of organisms.

  17. Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Froes, Francis H.; Eranezhuth, Baburaj G.; Prisbrey, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

  18. Characterization of poplar ZIP family members ZIP1 and ZNT1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A plant must regulate heavy metals to maintain adequate resources for plant processes while protecting against excess metal damage. Regulation of heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) has been attributed to the Zn transporter ZNT1 gene and other members of its larger ZIP transporter family. However, these ...

  19. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  20. Families in Transition .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  1. Family Participation in Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Elizabeth, Ed.; Blankenship, Kelly, Ed.; McManus, Marilyn, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin focuses on family participation in mental health policymaking and highlights state efforts to increase family involvement. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Family Member Involvement in Children's Mental Health Policy Making Bodies," which describes how different states are promoting family member involvement in various statutory and…

  2. Black Families. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say…

  3. Black Families. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say…

  4. The Family in Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Jean D.

    This paper describes Laurelhurst Manor's family treatment program to help families affected by chemical dependency, a 7-month program which treats family members from the perspective of developmental stages and family roles. The center, located in Portland, Oregon, is a 40-bed, free-standing facility having a 20-bed adolescent unit and a 20-bed…

  5. The Changing Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand:…

  6. Heavy metal music and reckless behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arnett, J

    1991-12-01

    Adolescents who liked heavy metal music were compared to those who did not on a variety of outcome variables, particularly focusing on reckless behavior. Boys who liked heavy metal music reported a higher rate of a wide range of reckless behavior, including driving behavior, sexual behavior, and drug use. They were also less satisfied with their family relationships. Girls who liked heavy metal music were more reckless in the areas of shoplifting, vandalism, sexual behavior, and drug use, and reported lower self-esteem. Both boys and girls who liked heavy metal music were higher in sensation seeking and more self-assured with regard to sexuality and dating. In regression analyses, the relation between reckless behavior and liking heavy metal music was sustained for five out of twelve variables concerning reckless behavior, including three of four among girls, when sensation seeking and family relationships were entered into the equation before liking or not liking heavy metal music.

  7. A Process for Making Bulk Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This invention relates to the preparation of glasses, and, in particular, relates to the preparation of heavy metal fluoride glasses with...reproducible high optical qualities. Considerable effort has been expended to develop heavy metal fluoride glasses ( HMFG ) as a viable family of infrared

  8. Identification of Family Specific Fingerprints in β-Lactamase Families

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Abhishikha; Goel, Manisha; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh; Kumar, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactamases are a superfamily of enzymes which degrade the β-lactam class of antibiotics. They are produced endogenously by the bacterial cells, which when exposed to the β-lactam class of antibiotics inactivate them by cleaving the β-lactam ring. Based on the presence or absence of metallic ligand, β-lactamases have been divided into two broad functional classes. β-Lactamases are a constitutively evolving and expanding superfamily of enzymes, which could be further subdivided on the basis of presence/absence of conserved motifs. In the present study we have used the MEME/MAST suit to identify the patterns/motifs which are specific to a particular family or subfamily of β-lactamases. The family specific patterns/motifs can be also useful in recognizing and assigning newly discovered β-lactamases to one or the other family or subfamily. Cross-validation showed that the proposed method is highly sensitive and specific. We have also designed a webserver, LactFP, for this purpose. PMID:24678282

  9. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  10. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  11. Neurotoxicity of metals.

    PubMed

    Caito, Samuel; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metals are frequently used in industry and represent a major source of toxin exposure for workers. For this reason governmental agencies regulate the amount of metal exposure permissible for worker safety. While essential metals serve physiologic roles, metals pose significant health risks upon acute and chronic exposure to high levels. The central nervous system is particularly vulnerable to metals. The brain readily accumulates metals, which under physiologic conditions are incorporated into essential metalloproteins required for neuronal health and energy homeostasis. Severe consequences can arise from circumstances of excess essential metals or exposure to toxic nonessential metal. Herein, we discuss sources of occupational metal exposure, metal homeostasis in the human body, susceptibility of the nervous system to metals, detoxification, detection of metals in biologic samples, and chelation therapeutic strategies. The neurologic pathology and physiology following aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, mercury, and trimethyltin exposures are highlighted as classic examples of metal-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Metals production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Theodore S.

    1992-01-01

    Existing procedures for design of electrochemical plants can be used for design of lunar processes taking into consideration the differences in environmental conditions. These differences include: 1/6 Earth gravity, high vacuum, solar electrical and heat source, space radiation heat sink, long days and nights, and different availability and economics of materials, energy, and labor. Techniques have already been developed for operation of relatively small scale hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems used in the U.S. lunar landing program. Design and operation of lunar aqueous electrolytic process plants appears to be within the state-of-the-art. Finding or developing compatible materials for construction and designing of fused-magma metal winning cells will present a real engineering challenge.

  13. Metals production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Theodore S.

    1992-02-01

    Existing procedures for design of electrochemical plants can be used for design of lunar processes taking into consideration the differences in environmental conditions. These differences include: 1/6 Earth gravity, high vacuum, solar electrical and heat source, space radiation heat sink, long days and nights, and different availability and economics of materials, energy, and labor. Techniques have already been developed for operation of relatively small scale hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems used in the U.S. lunar landing program. Design and operation of lunar aqueous electrolytic process plants appears to be within the state-of-the-art. Finding or developing compatible materials for construction and designing of fused-magma metal winning cells will present a real engineering challenge.

  14. The potential for heavy metal decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.J.M.; McGrath, S.P.; Sidoli, C.M.D.; Reeves, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Preliminary trials to assess the ability of plant species to extract metals are presented. A range of zinc and nickel hyperaccumulator plants from the Brassicaceae family, collected from diverse populations in Europe, were grown on plots along with nonaccumulating crop plants from the same family. Extraction efficiencies and the number of croppings required to reduce the total zinc in the soil to a concentration of 300 mg/kg are tabulated. Zinc accumulation remained high over a wide range of soil metal concentration. However, the concentration of nickel in the hyperaccumulators increased in accordance with increasing total nickel concentrations in the soil. Calculations suggest that there is an excellent potential for using hyperaccumulator species to remove metals from the rhizosphere where remediation can be considered over a period of years and multiple cropping is a viable option.

  15. Nontraditional family romance.

    PubMed

    Corbett, K

    2001-07-01

    Family stories lie at the heart of psychoanalytic developmental theory and psychoanalytic clinical technique, but whose family? Increasingly, lesbian and gay families, multiparent families, and single-parent families are relying on modern reproductive technologies to form families. The contemplation of these nontraditional families and the vicissitudes of contemporary reproduction lead to an unknowing of what families are, including the ways in which psychoanalysts configure the family within developmental theory. This article focuses on the stories that families tell in order to account for their formation--stories that include narratives about parental union, parental sexuality, and conception. The author addresses three constructs that inform family stories and that require rethinking in light of the category crises posed by and for the nontraditional family: (1) normative logic, (2) family reverie and the construction of a family romance, and (3) the primal scene. These constructs are examined in tandem with detailed clinical material taken from the psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy and his two mothers.

  16. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  17. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  18. The Family Relationships Grid: Measuring Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Anne P.; And Others

    This study examined the Family Relationships Grid (FRG), a new measure of family structure that evaluates alliances, identification, isolation, and the relative strength of sibling and marital relationships. Subjects were 52 female and 35 male adolescents who were recruited through a university course and who each had at least one sibling.…

  19. Family Roles, Alcoholism, and Family Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Karola M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines family roles in college undergraduates (N=748). Comparing role identification found no differences between children of alcoholics (ACOA) and non-ACOAs. Differences were found in participants from dysfunctional families. Results suggest a need for clinicians to re-think the use of role conceptualization in therapeutic work with ACOAs, with…

  20. Family Therapy for the "Truncated" Nuclear Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H.

    1980-01-01

    The truncated nuclear family consists of a two-generation group in which conflict has produced a polarization of values. The single-parent family is at special risk. Go-between process enables the therapist to depolarize sharply conflicted values and reduce pathogenic relating. (Author)

  1. Putting the "family" back into family therapy.

    PubMed

    Breunlin, Douglas C; Jacobsen, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the field of family therapy by drawing a distinction between two forms of practice: Whole Family Therapy (WFT), defined as treating the whole family, and Relational Family Therapy (RFT), defined as working with a subsystem of the family or an individual while retaining a systemic lens. Our thesis is that the practice of WFT has been in decline for some time and steps must be taken to keep it from becoming a defunct practice. We consider the trajectory of WFT and RFT throughout the development of family therapy through reference to the people, the literature, training, and practice patterns associated with family therapy. We remind the reader of the many benefits of WFT and suggest that today WFT is likely to be practiced in conjunction with RFT and individual therapy. Since training of family therapists today is largely located in degree-granting programs, we identify constraints to including WFT in such programs. We conclude by offering suggestions that can enhance a program's ability to train students in WFT. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  2. Family perspective on a family care program.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Rosales, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the family's perspective on a family care program to better understand the challenges and potential capacities for changing the health care model. A qualitative study was carried out to assess the Family Health Program in the city of São Sebastião, Brasília, Brazil. Data was collected through direct systematic observations of the workflow developed by the program's team, and through focal groups with family members. The discourse of the collective subject was used in data analysis and showed that health prevention and promotion actions and the relationship between providers and consumers were positively evaluated while access to health services, drugs and providers was negatively evaluated. There is no assurance of comprehensive and continuous care to the family, which points to the need of reviewing the strategies of health service organization for more effective involvement of the community to meet their health needs.

  3. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  4. Invest in Family*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The family is an integral part of one's life. It is very essential that every individual employed or unemployed invests time therein. The family is a source of support and growth for an individual, and the lack of family support or loneliness may be a causative factor in the genesis of psychiatric disorders, especially depression. In India, family plays a paramount role when it comes to mental health of the individual. Tips on how one should invest time in one's family along with the role of a family in one's personal and social structure are discussed. PMID:25838732

  5. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  6. Government and the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Walter F.

    1975-01-01

    In order to deal successfully with the changes and pressures placed upon families, article considered the extent government policies are helping or hurting families, and what kind of support services are available. (Author/RK)

  7. Unique Family Living Situations

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the family home changes for reasons of divorce, death, or economics? Factors, such as shifting between ... blending families when a parent remarries after a divorce or death of a spouse, or moving in ...

  8. Choosing a Family Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and ...

  9. Assessing Postpartum Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Midmer, Deana; Talbot, Yves

    1988-01-01

    The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

  10. Family Caregiver Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... on your schedule. Look for our launch soon! FAMILY CARE NAVIGATOR ─ Click on Your State AL AK ... County Smart Patients Caregivers Community In partnership with Family Caregiver Alliance Learn more Caregiver Research Veterans suffer ...

  11. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  12. Families in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Bron B., Ed.; Smith, Suzanna, Ed.

    Covering contemporary Third World as well as Western families, this teaching text addresses topics essential for developing a multicultural perspective on the family. It is an ideal text for comparative family courses and includes exercises (as well as exercise guidelines for instructors) developed to challenge students' existing viewpoints and…

  13. Treatment of violent families.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C. C.; Chance-Hill, G.

    1991-01-01

    Family violence is responsible for a significant proportion of homicides, a major cause of premature deaths in African-Americans. This article reviews the prevalence of family violence and explores associated risk factors. Principles and tips of treatment, along with a cognitive framework to guide the actual therapy, are outlined. Finally, issues of preventing family violence are discussed. PMID:2038079

  14. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  15. Families in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of "Emphasis" deals with families in transition, providing some model programs for the new family and some historical perspectives on how families have developed over time. Articles include: (1) "Nostalgia on the Right" (Nancy Theriot); (2) "Heart to Heart" (Nancy Harrington-MacLennan); (3) "The Media Get the Message" (Janet Alyn); (4)…

  16. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  17. Books in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinger, Alice K.

    1989-01-01

    Opportunities for parents to encourage reading in the family are noted and ways to enhance the reading experience are discussed, including writing letters to book characters, singing combined with reading aloud, supplementing school subjects with enjoyable reading, sharing books at family gatherings, and using family experiences for book…

  18. Year of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Agriculture, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue focuses on problems and challenges confronting the California family and on research and extension efforts to provide at least partial answers. Research briefs by staff include "Challenges Confront the California Family" (state trends in poverty, divorce, single-parent families, child abuse, delinquency, teen births,…

  19. Family Violence: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    Family violence is a widespread problem; research has shown multiple factors are associated with family violence. Types of family violence include spouse abuse; elder abuse and neglect; child abuse and neglect; parent abuse; and sibling abuse. There are three types of spouse abuse: physical abuse, sexual violence, and psychological/emotional…

  20. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  1. Single Mothers "Do" Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Margaret K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how single mothers both incorporate others into family life (e.g., when they ask others to care for their children) and simultaneously "do families" in a manner that holds out a vision of a "traditional" family structure. Drawing on research with White, rural single mothers, the author explores the manner in which these women…

  2. Changing Family Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, M. Therese; Willetts, Marion C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the definition of family. Considers three facets of the contemporary family measured by U.S. Census statistics: (1) marriage and divorce trends; (2) declining fertility; and (3) the rise in single-headed families. Addresses the societal changes (economic, cultural, legal, and technological) that have influenced the changes in family…

  3. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  4. Launching Family Message Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollman-Bonilla, Julie

    This lesson introduces Family Message Journals, a tool for encouraging family involvement and supporting writing to reflect and learn. First and second graders are led into composing through demonstration, guided writing, and finally independent writing of messages that they will bring home for family to read and write a reply. During the three…

  5. Fatherhood and Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

  6. Family Planning & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This publication is an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) annotated bibliography of books and articles concerned with family planning and literacy. The subject is divided into four major listings: (1) Literacy; (2) Education; (3) Literacy and Family Planning; and (4) Functional Literacy/Family Planning Projects and Programs.…

  7. Family Support Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.; Ahsan, Nilofer, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The Family Resource Coalition of America (FRCA) and the National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice convened a meeting of evaluators, policymakers, and program practitioners to discuss the issue of evaluation in the field of family support. The goal was to bring together those who were implementing programs, evaluating programs, and…

  8. Families in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Bron B., Ed.; Smith, Suzanna, Ed.

    Covering contemporary Third World as well as Western families, this teaching text addresses topics essential for developing a multicultural perspective on the family. It is an ideal text for comparative family courses and includes exercises (as well as exercise guidelines for instructors) developed to challenge students' existing viewpoints and…

  9. Toward the Postmodern Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, Edward

    1976-01-01

    Examines three aspects of family life that are evolving in directions that have no historical precedent--adolescent indifference to the family's identity that shows up in the discontinuity of values from parents to children, instability in the life of the couple, and systematic demolition of the nuclear family. (Author/IRT)

  10. The Resiliency of Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, T. R.

    According to researchers, the family may be changing but it is still one of the central institutions in society. Studies report a shift in more than 20 attitudes and values, most of which relate to the context of family life. Specifically, these include attitudes toward marriage, divorce, childbearing, childrearing, working women, family violence,…

  11. Strengthening America's Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

    2000-01-01

    Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

  12. Doing Better for Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    All OECD governments want to give parents more choice in their work and family decisions. This book looks at the different ways in which governments support families. It seeks to provide answers to questions like: Is spending on family benefits going up, and how does it vary by the age of the child? Has the crisis affected public support for…

  13. A story of family.

    PubMed

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2010-07-01

    The author of this column gives a vivid description of Parse's humanbecoming family model as lived in community. The story of M'Barek (Mark), who was imprisoned for 18 years, draws readers to a new understanding of family and community. Through the process of storytelling, Parse's essences of family are discussed.

  14. Management of Melanoma Families

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Wilma; Gruis, Nelleke A.

    2010-01-01

    In this review we have aimed to focus on the clinical management of familial melanoma patients and their relatives. Along this line three major topics will be discussed: (1) management/screening of familial melanoma families: what is advised and what is the evidence thereof; (2) variability of families worldwide with regard to clinical phenotype, including cancer spectrum and likelihood of finding germline mutations and (3) background information for clinicians on the molecular biology of familial melanoma and recent developments in this field. PMID:24281082

  15. Family traditions and generations.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Gerald; Barrera, Maru

    2009-01-01

    Currently, traditional family values that have been passed down through generations appear to be at risk. This has significant implications for the stability and health of individuals, families, and communities. This article explores selected issues related to intergenerational transmission of family values and cultural beliefs, with particular reference to Western culture and values that are rooted in Jewish and Christian traditions. It also examines family values and parenting styles as they influence the developing perspective of children and the family's adaptation to a changing world.

  16. [Familial erythermalgia treated with pizotifen].

    PubMed

    Guillet, M H; Le Noach, E; Milochau, P; Sassolas, B; Guillet, G

    1995-01-01

    Primary erythermalgia is a rare acrosyndrome due to paroxystic arteriolar dilatation of extremities that become red and congested with warmth and burning sensation or pain. We report herein the observation of a primary erythermalgia affecting 3 degrees in the same family (grandfather, uncle/mother, and children with early onset at 6 years): pizotifene, an antiserotoninergic drug proved to be effective in mother and 14-year-old child who had never drawn benefit from any previous treatment. Several etiologies may be responsible for erythermalgia according to the clinical type: primary erythermalgia with pediatric onset, and secondary erythermalgia as a reaction to myeloproliferation, other diseases, drug or heavy metal poisoning. Pathophysiology of primary erythermalgia is not clearly understood and the main concern is therapy: in this respect, pizotifene deserves to be considered as a valuable possibility.

  17. Search for a Differentiated Asteroid Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Lim, Lucy F.; Trilling, David E.; Moskovitz, Nicholas

    2014-08-01

    Dynamical asteroid families resulting from catastrophic disruptions represent the interiors of their former parent bodies. Differentiation of a large initially chondritic parent body is expected to produce an ``onion shell" object with a metal core, a thick olivine-rich mantle, and a thin basaltic crust. However, instead of the mineralogical diversity expected from the disruption of a differentiated parent body, most asteroid families tend to show similar spectra among the members. Moreover, spectra of metal-like materials and olivine-dominated assemblages have not been detected in asteroid families in the Main Belt and the expected mantle material is missing from the meteorite record. The deficit of olivine-rich mantle material in the meteorite record and in asteroid observations is known as the ``Missing Mantle" problem. For years the best explanation for the lack of mantle material has been the ``battered to bits" hypothesis that states that all differentiated parent bodies (aside from Vesta) were disrupted very early in the solar system and the resulting olivine-rich material was collisionally broken down until the object diameters fell below our observational limits. However, in a new, competing, hypothesis, Elkins-Tanton et al. (2013) has suggested that previous work has overestimated the amount of olivine produced by the differentiation of a chondritic parent body. We propose to obtain visible spectra of asteroids within the Massalia, Merxia, and Agnia S-type families to search for compositional variations that are indicators of differentiation and to quantitatively constrain the two competing ``Missing Mantle" hypotheses.

  18. Light metals 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains a cross section of the most important developments in the light metals field. The papers detail the latest solutions to problems in alumina and bauxite; carbon technology; cast shop technology; reduction technology; and reactive metals. Nearly every important company and research facility in the aluminum industry is represented. Light Metals 1989 is a reference for anyone in light metals technology.

  19. Ceramic to metal seal

    DOEpatents

    Snow, Gary S.; Wilcox, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  20. Familial colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lung, M S; Trainer, A H; Campbell, I; Lipton, L

    2015-05-01

    Identifying individuals with a genetic predisposition to developing familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial to the management of the affected individual and their family. In order to do so, the physician requires an understanding of the different gene mutations and clinical manifestations of familial CRC. This review summarises the genetics, clinical manifestations and management of the known familial CRC syndromes, specifically Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated neoplasia, juvenile polyposis syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. An individual suspected of having a familial CRC with an underlying genetic predisposition should be referred to a familial cancer centre to enable pre-test counselling and appropriate follow up. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Family practice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozsahin, Akatli Kursad

    2014-03-01

    The national project 'Transformation in Health' was started in 2005 to provide expert primary care by family physicians, and decrease expenses in Turkey. The number of family physicians was far below the need, so public physicians were promoted to family physician status after a 10-day intensive course. The government declared some satisfactory results, but privately paid family physicians were not accepted into the system. Furthermore, the government stopped paying for their services from private settings. Some family physicians became unemployed as the major payer for all forms of medical care in Turkey denied their services. The process showed it's value in time. Nevertheless, family physicians should be the core of this transformation as family medicine is an academic and a scientific discipline and a primary care-oriented specialty with its own specific educational content, research and base of evidence, which cannot be achieved through standard medical education.

  2. Metalloproteins and metal sensing.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Kevin J; Rutherford, Julian C; Ford, Dianne; Robinson, Nigel J

    2009-08-13

    Almost half of all enzymes must associate with a particular metal to function. An ambition is to understand why each metal-protein partnership arose and how it is maintained. Metal availability provides part of the explanation, and has changed over geological time and varies between habitats but is held within vital limits in cells. Such homeostasis needs metal sensors, and there is an ongoing search to discover the metal-sensing mechanisms. For metalloproteins to acquire the right metals, metal sensors must correctly distinguish between the inorganic elements.

  3. Fabrication of metal nanoshells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoshells are fabricated by admixing an aqueous solution of metal ions with an aqueous solution of apoferritin protein molecules, followed by admixing an aqueous solution containing an excess of an oxidizing agent for the metal ions. The apoferritin molecules serve as bio-templates for the formation of metal nanoshells, which form on and are bonded to the inside walls of the hollow cores of the individual apoferritin molecules. Control of the number of metal atoms which enter the hollow core of each individual apoferritin molecule provides a hollow metal nonparticle, or nanoshell, instead of a solid spherical metal nanoparticle.

  4. Titanium in the family automobile: The cost challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Friedrich, H.; Kiese, J.; Bergoint, D.

    2004-02-01

    With advances in extraction/fabrication techniques and ever-increasing gasoline prices, the advantage of using lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and titanium in automobiles continues to increase, particularly for the first two metals. The major drawback for titanium, much more so than the other light metals, is high cost. However, innovative extraction and fabrication approaches are leading to decreased cost. This paper discusses the present status and future potential for titanium use in the family automobile.

  5. Multiplex families with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Afawi, Zaid; Oliver, Karen L.; Kivity, Sara; Mazarib, Aziz; Blatt, Ilan; Neufeld, Miriam Y.; Helbig, Katherine L.; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Misk, Adel J.; Straussberg, Rachel; Walid, Simri; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Kahana, Esther; Masalha, Rafik; Kramer, Uri; Ekstein, Dana; Shorer, Zamir; Wallace, Robyn H.; Mangelsdorf, Marie; MacPherson, James N.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Jackson, Graeme D.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Bahlo, Melanie; Gecz, Jozef; Heron, Sarah E.; Corbett, Mark; Mulley, John C.; Dibbens, Leanne M.; Korczyn, Amos D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical syndromes and inheritance patterns of multiplex families with epilepsy toward the ultimate aim of uncovering the underlying molecular genetic basis. Methods: Following the referral of families with 2 or more relatives with epilepsy, individuals were classified into epilepsy syndromes. Families were classified into syndromes where at least 2 family members had a specific diagnosis. Pedigrees were analyzed and molecular genetic studies were performed as appropriate. Results: A total of 211 families were ascertained over an 11-year period in Israel. A total of 169 were classified into broad familial epilepsy syndrome groups: 61 generalized, 22 focal, 24 febrile seizure syndromes, 33 special syndromes, and 29 mixed. A total of 42 families remained unclassified. Pathogenic variants were identified in 49/211 families (23%). The majority were found in established epilepsy genes (e.g., SCN1A, KCNQ2, CSTB), but in 11 families, this cohort contributed to the initial discovery (e.g., KCNT1, PCDH19, TBC1D24). We expand the phenotypic spectrum of established epilepsy genes by reporting a familial LAMC3 homozygous variant, where the predominant phenotype was epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, and a pathogenic SCN1A variant in a family where in 5 siblings the phenotype was broadly consistent with Dravet syndrome, a disorder that usually occurs sporadically. Conclusion: A total of 80% of families were successfully classified, with pathogenic variants identified in 23%. The successful characterization of familial electroclinical and inheritance patterns has highlighted the value of studying multiplex families and their contribution towards uncovering the genetic basis of the epilepsies. PMID:26802095

  6. Metals and metal derivatives in medicine.

    PubMed

    Colotti, Gianni; Ilari, Andrea; Boffi, Alberto; Morea, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    Several chemical elements are required by living organisms in addition to the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen usually present in common organic molecules. Many metals (e.g. sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, molybdenum and selenium) are known to be required for normal biological functions in humans. Disorders of metal homeostasis and of metal bioavailability, or toxicity caused by metal excess, are responsible for a large number of human diseases. Metals are also extensively used in medicine as therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents. In the past 5000 years, metals such as arsenic, gold and iron have been used to treat a variety of human diseases. Nowadays, an ever-increasing number of metal-based drugs is available. These contain a broad spectrum of metals, many of which are not among those essential for humans, able to target proteins and/or DNA. This mini-review describes metal-containing compounds targeting DNA or proteins currently in use, or designed to be used, as therapeutics against cancer, arthritis, parasitic and other diseases, with a special focus on the available information, often provided by X-ray studies, about their mechanism of action at a molecular level. In addition, an overview of metal complexes used for diagnosing diseases is presented.

  7. Metal phthalocyanine polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Metal 4, 4', 4", 4"'=tetracarboxylic phthalocyanines (MPTC) are prepared by reaction of trimellitic anhydride, a salt or hydroxide of the desired metal (or the metal in powdered form), urea and a catalyst. A purer form of MPTC is prepared than heretofore. These tetracarboxylic acids are then polymerized by heat to sheet polymers which have superior heat and oxidation resistance. The metal is preferably a divalent metal having an atomic radius close to 1.35A.

  8. Amorphous metal composites

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Martin A.; Lupinski, John H.

    1984-01-01

    An improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

  9. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner...

  10. Opening Doors: Understanding School and Family Influences on Family Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Erin; Stanley, Lindsey; Kemple, Kristen Mary

    2005-01-01

    Family involvement in schooling can benefit young children, teachers, and families. Family involvement in schools can be influenced by both school-related and family-related factors. School-related factors include teachers' attitudes toward families, and school and teacher expectations. Family-related factors include ethnicity, prior school…

  11. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner is...

  12. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner is...

  13. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner is...

  14. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner is...

  15. Extended family medicine training

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  16. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for Health A family health history is a ... family members grew up. It's like a family tree for health. Click for more information What a ...

  17. Creating a family health history

    MedlinePlus

    Family health history; Create a family health history; Family medical history ... Many factors affect your health. These include your: Genes Diet and exercise habits Environment Family members tend to share certain behaviors, genetic traits, and habits. ...

  18. Family dynamics and family psychotherapy of psychosomatic.

    PubMed

    Wirsching, M; Stierlin, H

    1979-01-01

    Family therapy of psychosomatic disorders is oftern difficult and comparable to the therapy of psychotic patients. Nonetheless, the results published today by authors such as Minuchin and Selvini and our own experiences are promising indeed. We have found that what seemed to be a deep-rooted psychic structure changed rapidly and enduringly if the relationship field changed. Amelioration of symptoms is in many cases easily attained if they are understood in their function within a relational system. Also, we regard the system or family approach as a chance for medical practice. The general practioner who usually deals with family systems has, in our view, an ideal position to bring about change if he uses his authority and trust properly. He has to obtain a positive, not pathology-oriented view and should use family and social resources in spite of engaging in an often fruitless and endless contact with the designated patient, which only serves to maintain and even to increase the homeostatic lock of the family system.

  19. Organically Doped Metals: A New Family of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    direction has been achieved and was published recently in Nature-Chemistry [11a]. Specifically, a Pd coin doped with 1% cinchonidine alkaloid was shown...removed; the alkaloid modifier is necessary, in this case, for obtaining enantioselective catalysis. References [1] H. Behar-Levy and D. Avnir

  20. Interfacing liquid metals with stretchable metal conductors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongsoo; Jang, Jaehyeok; You, Insang; Park, Jaeyoon; Shin, SangBaie; Jeon, Gumhye; Kim, Jin Kon; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-04-22

    Highly stretchable conductors are essential components in deformable electronics. Owing to their high stretchability and conductivity, liquid metals have attracted significant attention for use as circuits and interconnections. However, their poor wettability to stretchable metal electrodes prevents the formation of stable electrical connections. This study examined two approaches for creating a stable interface between a liquid metal (EGaIn) and stretchable metal electrodes via: (i) the use of honeycomb-structured stretchable metal electrodes and (ii) the addition of a conducting polymer interlayer. The line width of the honeycomb had a significant influence on the formation of a stable interface. The liquid metal formed a stable film layer on honeycomb metal electrodes, which have line widths of less than 50 μm. Coating PSS with a nonionic surfactant lowered the interfacial energy of EGaIn with flat stretchable metal surfaces; hence EGaIn was coated uniformly on the stretchable metal surfaces. Strain sensors were fabricated as a demonstrative example of an application that utilizes the stable interface.

  1. Predicting dietborne metal toxicity from metal influxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Dietborne metal uptake prevails for many species in nature. However, the links between dietary metal exposure and toxicity are not well understood. Sources of uncertainty include the lack of suitable tracers to quantify exposure for metals such as copper, the difficulty to assess dietary processes such as food ingestion rate, and the complexity to link metal bioaccumulation and effects. We characterized dietborne copper, nickel, and cadmium influxes in a freshwater gastropod exposed to diatoms labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes. Metal influxes in Lymnaea stagnalis correlated linearly with dietborne metal concentrations over a range encompassing most environmental exposures. Dietary Cd and Ni uptake rate constants (kuf) were, respectively, 3.3 and 2.3 times higher than that for Cu. Detoxification rate constants (k detox) were similar among metals and appeared 100 times higher than efflux rate constants (ke). Extremely high Cu concentrations reduced feeding rates, causing the relationship between exposure and influx to deviate from linearity; i.e., Cu uptake rates leveled off between 1500 and 1800 nmol g-1 day-1. L. stagnalis rapidly takes up Cu, Cd, and Ni from food but detoxifies the accumulated metals, instead of reducing uptake or intensifying excretion. Above a threshold uptake rate, however, the detoxification capabilities of L. stagnalis are overwhelmed.

  2. Advancing family psychology.

    PubMed

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year.

  3. Studies on the optimization of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Tim W.

    1994-01-04

    A methodology for the production of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites from hyper-eutectic copper-chromium alloys was developed. This methodology was derived from a basic study of the precipitation phenomena in these alloys encompassing evaluation of microstructural, electrical, and mechanical properties. The methodology developed produces material with a superior combination of electrical and mechanical properties compared to those presently available in commercial alloys. New and novel alloying procedures were investigated to extend the range of production methods available for these material. These studies focused on the use of High Pressure Gas Atomization and the development of new containment technologies for the liquid alloy. This allowed the production of alloys with a much more refined starting microstructure and lower contamination than available by other methods. The knowledge gained in the previous studies was used to develop two completely new families of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. These composites are based on immissible alloys with yttrium and magnesium matrices and refractory metal reinforcement. This work extends the physical property range available in deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. Additionally, it also represents new ways to apply these metals in engineering applications.

  4. The Growth of a Family

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Biringer, Anne

    1991-01-01

    Caring for a family during pregnancy and birth is an ideal opportunity for family physicians to assess family functioning and help the family adjust to the birth of a new child. Stress and support systems can influence the course of pregnancy, including obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A family-centered approach can help patients during this critical stage of family development. PMID:21229107

  5. State of family planning.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Traxler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Family planning and reproductive health services are uniquely impacted by policy and politics in the United States. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented number of abortion restrictions, and research funding has decreased in related areas. Despite this, both the science and the implementation of improved family planning and abortion methods have progressed in the past decade. This article reviews the current state of family planning, as well as technologies and patient care opportunities for the future.

  6. Asteroid family ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoto, Federica; Milani, Andrea; Knežević, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with ∼384,000 numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. For the 45 dynamical families with >250 members identified in this classification, we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing ages for 37 collisional families. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. The results are presented separately for the families originated in fragmentation or cratering events, for the young, compact families and for the truncated, one-sided families. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are provided, and the results are discussed and compared with the literature. The ages of several families have been estimated for the first time, in other cases the accuracy has been improved. We have been quite successful in computing ages for old families, we have significant results for both young and ancient, while we have little, if any, evidence for primordial families. We found 2 cases where two separate dynamical families form together a single V-shape with compatible slopes, thus indicating a single collisional event. We have also found 3 examples of dynamical families containing multiple collisional families, plus a dubious case: for these we have obtained discordant slopes for the two sides of the V-shape, resulting in distinct ages. We have found 2 cases of families containing a conspicuous subfamily, such that it is possible to measure the slope of a distinct V-shape, thus the age of the secondary collision. We also provide data on the central gaps appearing in

  7. The Hoffmeister asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Novaković, B.; Aljbaae, S.

    2017-03-01

    The Hoffmeister family is a C-type group located in the central main belt. Dynamically, it is important because of its interaction with the ν1C nodal secular resonance with Ceres, which significantly increases the dispersion in inclination of family members at a lower semimajor axis. As an effect, the distribution of inclination values of the Hoffmeister family at a semimajor axis lower than its centre is significantly leptokurtic, and this can be used to set constraints on the terminal ejection velocity field of the family at the time it was produced. By performing an analysis of the time behaviour of the kurtosis of the vW component of the ejection velocity field [γ2(vW)], as obtained from Gauss' equations, for different fictitious Hoffmeister families with different values of the ejection velocity field, we were able to exclude that the Hoffmeister family should be older than 335 Myr. Constraints from the currently observed inclination distribution of the Hoffmeister family suggest that its terminal ejection velocity parameter VEJ should be lower than 25 m s-1. Results of a Yarko-YORP Monte Carlo method to family dating, combined with other constraints from inclinations and γ2(vW), indicate that the Hoffmeister family should be 220^{+60}_{-40} Myr old, with an ejection parameter VEJ = 20 ± 5 m s-1.

  8. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  9. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  10. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  11. Strengthening Families: Exploring the Impacts of Family Camp Experiences on Family Functioning and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy K.; Seidel, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that family camp experiences can enhance family relationships. Families often participate in family camp experiences for a vacation, as part of a therapeutic and/or intervention strategy, or to gain general enrichment or engagement. To better understand the impacts of family camp experiences on family functioning, a mixed-methods…

  12. Strengthening Families: Exploring the Impacts of Family Camp Experiences on Family Functioning and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy K.; Seidel, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that family camp experiences can enhance family relationships. Families often participate in family camp experiences for a vacation, as part of a therapeutic and/or intervention strategy, or to gain general enrichment or engagement. To better understand the impacts of family camp experiences on family functioning, a mixed-methods…

  13. Family Sense of Coherence and Family Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonovsky, Aaron; Sourani, Talma

    1988-01-01

    Administered family Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale to 60 married Israeli males who were disabled by injury or illness and to their spouses. Data provide strong support for hypothesis that strength of SOC would be associated with adaptation, and showed considerable degree of consensus among spouses. (Author/NB)

  14. The Rafita asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljbaae, S.; Carruba, V.; Masiero, J. R.; Domingos, R. C.; Huaman, M.

    2017-05-01

    The Rafita asteroid family is an S-type group located in the middle main belt, on the right-hand side of the 3J:-1A mean-motion resonance. The proximity of this resonance to the family left-hand side in the semimajor axis caused many former family members to be lost. As a consequence, the family shape in the (a, 1/D) domain is quite asymmetrical, with a preponderance of objects on the right-hand side of the distribution. The Rafita family is also characterized by a leptokurtic distribution in inclination, which allows the use of methods of family age estimation recently introduced for other leptokurtic families such as Astrid, Hansa, Gallia and Barcelona. In this work, we propose a new method based on the behaviour of an asymmetry coefficient function of the distribution in the (a, 1/D) plane to date incomplete asteroid families such as Rafita. By monitoring the time behaviour of this coefficient for asteroids simulating the initial conditions at the time of the family formation, we were able to estimate that the Rafita family should have an age of 490 ± 200 Myr, in good agreement with results from independent methods such as Monte Carlo simulations of Yarkovsky and YORP dynamical induced evolution and the time behaviour of the kurtosis of the sin (i) distribution. Asteroids from the Rafita family can reach orbits similar to 8 per cent of the currently known near-Earth objects. During the final 10 Myr of the simulation, ≃1 per cent of the simulated objects are present in NEO space, and thus would be comparable to objects in the present-day NEO population.

  15. The Rafita asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljbaae, S.; Carruba, V.; Masiero, J. R.; Domingos, R. C.; Huaman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Rafita asteroid family is an S-type group located in the middle main belt, on the right side of the 3J:-1A mean-motion resonance. The proximity of this resonance to the family left side in semi-major axis caused many former family members to be lost. As a consequence, the family shape in the (a, 1/D) domain is quite asymmetrical, with a preponderance of objects on the right side of the distribution. The Rafita family is also characterized by a leptokurtic distribution in inclination, which allows the use of methods of family age estimation recently introduced for other leptokurtic families such as Astrid, Hansa, Gallia, and Barcelona. In this work we propose a new method based on the behavior of an asymmetry coefficient function of the distribution in the (a, 1/D) plane to date incomplete asteroid families such as Rafita. By monitoring the time behavior of this coefficient for asteroids simulating the initial conditions at the time of the family formation, we were able to estimate that the Rafita family should have an age of 490 ± 200 Myr, in good agreement with results from independent methods such as Monte Carlo simulations of Yarkovsky and Yorp dynamical induced evolution and the time behaviour of the kurtosis of the sin (i) distribution. Asteroids from the Rafita family can reach orbits similar to 8% of the currently known near Earth objects. ≃1% of the simulated objects are present in NEO-space during the final 10 Myr of the simulation, and thus would be comparable to objects in the present-day NEO population.

  16. When VSEPR fails: experimental and theoretical investigations of the behavior of alkaline-earth-metal acetylides.

    PubMed

    Guino-o, Marites A; Alexander, Jacob S; McKee, Michael L; Hope, Håkon; Englich, Ulrich B; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin

    2009-11-09

    The synthesis, structural, and spectral characterization as well as a theoretical study of a family of alkaline-earth-metal acetylides provides insights into synthetic access and the structural and bonding characteristics of this group of highly reactive compounds. Based on our earlier communication that reported unusual geometry for a family of triphenylsilyl-substituted alkaline-earth-metal acetylides, we herein present our studies on an expanded family of target derivatives, providing experimental and theoretical data to offer new insights into the intensively debated theme of structural chemistry in heavy alkaline-earth-metal chemistry.

  17. When VSEPR Fails: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of the Behavior of Alkaline-Earth-Metal Acetylides

    PubMed Central

    Guino-o, Marites A.; Alexander, Jacob S.; McKee, Michael L.; Hope, Håkon; Englich, Ulrich B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis, structural, and spectral characterization as well as a theoretical study of a family of alkaline-earth-metal acetylides provides insights into synthetic access and the structural and bonding characteristics of this group of highly reactive compounds. Based on our earlier communication that reported unusual geometry for a family of triphenylsilyl-substituted alkaline-earth-metal acetylides, we herein present our studies on an expanded family of target derivatives, providing experimental and theoretical data to offer new insights into the intensively debated theme of structural chemistry in heavy alkaline-earth-metal chemistry. PMID:19844925

  18. The metal-non-metal transition in compressed metal vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensel, F.; Marceca, E.; Pilgrim, W. C.

    1998-12-01

    Knowledge of the properties of hydrogen and helium and their mixtures, at temperatures and pressures prevailing in the giant planets is of considerable interest for planetary modelling. In the light of the unfavourable outlook for reliable measurements under these extreme conditions effort has been spent investigating the high-temperature high-pressure properties of fluid metals which are experimentally accessible in the laboratory and which might serve as models for compressed fluid hydrogen. The main emphasis of the paper is on the density dependence of the dynamic structure factor 0953-8984/10/49/026/img1 of liquid rubidium which reveals that a monoatomic-molecular transition occurs in the metal-non-metal transition region of the expanded liquid analogous to that suggested to occur in shock compressed hydrogen. Additional emphasis is on new results of the phase behaviour of dilute mixtures of helium in the near critical metal mercury.

  19. Metal-on-metal hip joint tribology.

    PubMed

    Dowson, D; Jin, Z M

    2006-02-01

    The basic tribological features of metal-on-metal total hip replacements have been reviewed to facilitate an understanding of the engineering science underpinning the renaissance of these hard-on-hard joints. Metal-on-polymer hip replacements operate in the boundary lubrication regime, thus leading to the design guidance to reduce the femoral head diameter as much as is feasible to minimize frictional torque and volumetric wear. This explains why the gold-standard implant of this form from the past half-century had a diameter of only 22.225 mm (7/8 in). Metal-on-metal implants can operate in the mild mixed lubrication regime in which much of the applied load is supported by elastohydrodynamic films. Correct tribological design leads to remarkably low steady state wear rates. Promotion of the most effective elastohydrodynamic films calls for the largest possible head diameters and the smallest clearances that can reasonably be adopted, consistent with fine surface finishes, good sphericity and minimal structural elastic deformation of the cup on its foundations. This guidance, which is opposite in form to that developed for metal-on-polymer joints, is equally valid for solid (monolithic) metallic heads on metallic femoral stems and surface replacement femoral shells. Laboratory measurements of friction and wear in metal-on-metal joints have confirmed their potential to achieve a very mild form of mixed lubrication. The key lies in the generation of effective elastohydrodynamic lubricating films of adequate thickness compared with the composite roughness of the head and cup. The calculation of the film thickness is by no means easy, but the full procedure is outlined and the use of an empirical formula that displays good agreement with calculations based upon the full numerical solutions is explained. The representation of the lambda ratio, lambda, embracing both film thickness and composite roughness, is described.

  20. Education and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Leonard, Ed.

    This book is the report of the Family Ties Commission, which was established by the Association of Teacher Educators to study the relationship between home and school. Following the preface and two introductory essays, "Education and My Family" (K.B. O'Rourke as told to E. Johnson) and "Preparing for Successful Children" (B. Clawson), the book is…

  1. Families, Risk, and Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael, Ed.; Feiring, Candice, Ed.

    The problems of studying families arise from the difficulty in studying systems in which there are multiple elements interacting with each other and with the child. This book attests to the growing sophistication of the conceptualization and measurement techniques for understanding family processes. Chapters in the first part of the book,…

  2. Narrative Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  3. Golden Matrix Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Anne; Hurley, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This student research project explores the properties of a family of matrices of zeros and ones that arises from the study of the diagonal lengths in a regular polygon. There is one family for each n greater than 2. A series of exercises guides the student to discover the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices, which leads in turn to…

  4. The Family Constellation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemire, David

    The Family Constellation Scale (FC Scale) is an instrument that assesses perceived birth order in families. It can be used in counseling to help initiate conversations about various traits and assumptions that tend to characterize first-born, middle-born children, youngest-born, and only children. It provides both counselors and clients insights…

  5. Family Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Holly; Alderman, Helen Christine

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Family Science Night (FSN) described in this article was to involve culturally and linguistically diverse families in school life so that students would be more vocal, successful, and interactive in science class. The project would also demonstrate to the students that their teacher valued their input in the classroom. The setting…

  6. Marinating the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Karen A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the New York Aquarium's program specifically designed for family learning and teaching. The program's goal is to create an environment where child-parent roles are dropped and where the philosophy that no one of us is as smart as all of us prevails. Strategies for family involvement are outlined. (MH)

  7. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  8. Family Violence: Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ellen R.; And Others

    Problems related to family violence are complex and multi-faceted and involve large numbers of people in this country. A number of types of violence in families are identified initially; however, the manual focuses on the concerns of battered women, or interspousal abuse. Information focuses on: (1) the nature, causes and effects of family…

  9. Measuring Family Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunce, Joseph T.; Priesmeyer, Marydeth L.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated dimensions of family dynamics via test construction and cross validation, with a developmental sample (N=93) and a validity generalization sample (N=65). Developed two scales that correlated significantly with perceptions of family stability and quality in the developmental and validity generalization samples. (BH)

  10. Family Support and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Lou Ann

    2013-01-01

    Family involvement is essential to the developmental outcome of infants born into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In this article, evidence has been presented on the parent's perspective of having an infant in the NICU and the context of family. Key points to an educational assessment are also reviewed. Throughout, the parent's concerns and…

  11. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du…

  12. Democratization of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    Discusses several issues related to a modern approach in the interpretation of civil freedom and its relationship to the notion of family. First, presents some definitions and distinctions regarding the sociology of political freedom, which it suggests should become the sociology of citizenship. Then, applies those ideas to families, particularly…

  13. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education…

  14. Intervention in Disintegrating Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wootton, Ray W.

    A special demonstration project attempted to find means of assisting hard-core multi-problem families in a predominantly rural Idaho county. A single agency was formed to coordinate community activities and provide a variety of services for the needs of the total family. Project personnel included a director, social worker, home economist, public…

  15. Chronology of asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoto, Federica; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Knezevic, Zoran

    2015-08-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with ~384.000 numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. In this classification we identified 45 dynamical families with more than 250 members, and we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing 37 collisional family ages. The computed ages are obtained with a single and uniform methodology, thus the ages of different families can be compared, providing a first example of collisional chronology of the asteroid main belt. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the (proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter) plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are provided. The ages of several families have been estimated for the first time, in other cases the accuracy has been improved. We have been quite successful in computing ages for old families, we have significant results for both young and ancient, while we have little, if any, evidence for primordial families.

  16. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  17. Family Support and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Lou Ann

    2013-01-01

    Family involvement is essential to the developmental outcome of infants born into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In this article, evidence has been presented on the parent's perspective of having an infant in the NICU and the context of family. Key points to an educational assessment are also reviewed. Throughout, the parent's concerns and…

  18. Education and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Leonard, Ed.

    This book is the report of the Family Ties Commission, which was established by the Association of Teacher Educators to study the relationship between home and school. Following the preface and two introductory essays, "Education and My Family" (K.B. O'Rourke as told to E. Johnson) and "Preparing for Successful Children" (B. Clawson), the book is…

  19. Family History Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser);…

  20. Families, Risk, and Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael, Ed.; Feiring, Candice, Ed.

    The problems of studying families arise from the difficulty in studying systems in which there are multiple elements interacting with each other and with the child. This book attests to the growing sophistication of the conceptualization and measurement techniques for understanding family processes. Chapters in the first part of the book,…

  1. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  2. Explaining Family Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Mary Anne, Ed.; Vangelisti, Anita L., Ed.

    A detailed review of current research and state-of-the-art ideas concerning both communication processes and family functioning is presented in this collection of articles. The volume is organized around three sections. Part 1, "The Development of Family Communication Patterns," contains: (1) "Communication in Infancy"…

  3. Explaining Family Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Mary Anne, Ed.; Vangelisti, Anita L., Ed.

    A detailed review of current research and state-of-the-art ideas concerning both communication processes and family functioning is presented in this collection of articles. The volume is organized around three sections. Part 1, "The Development of Family Communication Patterns," contains: (1) "Communication in Infancy"…

  4. Democratization of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    Discusses several issues related to a modern approach in the interpretation of civil freedom and its relationship to the notion of family. First, presents some definitions and distinctions regarding the sociology of political freedom, which it suggests should become the sociology of citizenship. Then, applies those ideas to families, particularly…

  5. Home and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces children to different aspects of Iowa History. Each issue contains articles to provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is homes and family life in Iowa history. Selections address what has been important to Iowa's families over time and what homes were like…

  6. Latino Families Learning Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterling, Jorge P.; Violand-Sanchez, Emma; von Vacano, Marcela

    1999-01-01

    The push for the English-only literacy approach sends the wrong message to language-minority families. The Arlington (Virginia) Public Schools have established first-language pilot programs to accelerate Latino students' academic achievement and have welcomed community-based educational initiatives. A family-literacy program motivates parents to…

  7. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  8. Golden Matrix Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Anne; Hurley, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This student research project explores the properties of a family of matrices of zeros and ones that arises from the study of the diagonal lengths in a regular polygon. There is one family for each n greater than 2. A series of exercises guides the student to discover the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices, which leads in turn to…

  9. The Borromean Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardis, Panos D.

    This paper attempts to contribute an original approach to the study of the "anti-family movement." A more objective approach to this issue is necessary due to the preponderance of value judgements put forth by both the mass media and social scientists. The paper presents discussions on family functions, divorce, sex, and communes. The author then…

  10. Workshops on Family Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Kathleen M.

    Intended to help speech communication professionals become involved in developing, implementing, and evaluating marital or family enrichment programs, this booklet discusses the theory and practice of using marital enrichment programs to increase family harmony. The first section contains an overview of selected enrichment programs, as well as…

  11. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  12. Marinating the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Karen A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the New York Aquarium's program specifically designed for family learning and teaching. The program's goal is to create an environment where child-parent roles are dropped and where the philosophy that no one of us is as smart as all of us prevails. Strategies for family involvement are outlined. (MH)

  13. The Working Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boethius, Monica

    1984-01-01

    The working family is today by far the most common family type in Sweden. However, just over 50 percent of the children of working parents have access to day care. Because Swedish income tax policy is based on the concept that all adults will support themselves and does not take into account the number of persons supported on an income, one parent…

  14. THE URBAN NEGRO FAMILY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, JOSEPH H.

    IN TRACING THE MOVEMENT OF THE NEGRO FAMILY TOWARD A MIDDLE-CLASS ORIENTATION AND TOWARD URBANIZATION, THIS ARTICLE NOTES THAT THE PATTERN IS BECOMING SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE GENERAL AMERICAN FAMILY. NEGROES HAVE LEFT THEIR SOUTHERN RURAL FARMS FOR BOTH SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN URBAN AREAS AND HAVE TENDED TO SETTLE IN THE INNER CORE OF THE LARGEST…

  15. Employers, Families and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    Family involvement in education is good for business, critical to children's school achievement, and important in creating strong and vibrant communities. This report discusses the role of businesses and employers in helping partners and family members be more involved in children's learning. Throughout the report, programs at specific companies…

  16. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  17. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  18. The National Family Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popenoe, David

    1993-01-01

    Responds to readers' comments concerning author's original article on the decline of the American family over the past 30 years. Considers reasons for the controversy over the notion of family decline. Contends that resolving ideological disputes is a much more difficult task than settling empirical disagreements since ideological disputes can…

  19. Therapy for Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmann, Michael R.

    A family therapy model, based on a conceptualization of the family as a behavioral system whose members interact adaptively so that an optimal level of functioning is maintained within the system, is described. The divergent roots of this conceptualization are discussed briefly, as are the treatment approaches based on it. The author's model,…

  20. America's Family Time Famine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Jr., William R.

    1990-01-01

    Parents spend increasingly less time with their children because of the pressures of dual careers and single parenthood. Economic pressures and social values have affected sharing of family time. Studies show both parents and children consider spending time together the most important element in improving family life. (BC)

  1. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table…

  2. Narrative Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  3. Family Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Holly; Alderman, Helen Christine

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Family Science Night (FSN) described in this article was to involve culturally and linguistically diverse families in school life so that students would be more vocal, successful, and interactive in science class. The project would also demonstrate to the students that their teacher valued their input in the classroom. The setting…

  4. America's Family Time Famine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Jr., William R.

    1990-01-01

    Parents spend increasingly less time with their children because of the pressures of dual careers and single parenthood. Economic pressures and social values have affected sharing of family time. Studies show both parents and children consider spending time together the most important element in improving family life. (BC)

  5. Family-Friendly Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Patterson; Garcia, Maria

    2004-01-01

    In the late 1980s, the Denver Art Museum initiated efforts to make the museum a destination for families. From 1997 to 2001, with a generous grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts, these efforts came to fruition. From the moment they walk through the doors, families' needs are anticipated. For example, they can pick up a welcoming brochure, Free…

  6. Changing Families, Changing Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

  7. Families on the Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Irene K.; Phillips, Marjorie M.

    This correspondence course was designed to help parents better understand their growing children and themselves as parents. The introduction briefly sketches the importance of the family in child development. Each of the five illustrated lessons contains 7 to 12 pages on one aspect of family life. Each lesson contains a set of objectives, a…

  8. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  9. Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is a metabolic disorder that is passed down through families. Babies with ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Jaundice Metabolic Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  10. Families under Economic Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Glen H., Jr.; And Others

    The economic decline of rural America has widespread consequences for families, children, and education. Broad changes in farming and in the rural nonfarm sector have pushed the poverty rate for rural areas in the 1980s higher than the central cities rate. Projections indicate that by the mid-1990s, one-half of all farm families in the midwest may…

  11. Metal finishing and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Enzminger, J.D. )

    1990-06-01

    This article reviews the finishing and processing of metal wastes for land disposal. Topics of discussion include regulatory aspects, heavy metal treatment, cyanide treatment, waste minimization programs and techniques, and sludge treatment.

  12. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  13. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1994-01-01

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  14. The Low Metallicity ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung

    2013-04-01

    We present the results from our cosmological simulations of the low metallicity ISM. The first generation of stars in the universe synthesized the first metal during their stellar evolution. Later, the newly forged metal was dispersed to the primordial gas through supernova explosions and formed into the low metallicity ISM. We use cosmological simulations considering the relevant physical processes of early universe to study the formation of low metallicity ISM. For better modeling the physical and chemical properties of the low metallicity ISM, we apply the realistic stellar feedback by using updated stellar models of the first stars and supernovae in our cosmological simulations. Our simulations take the initial conditions from the WMAP data, evolve through the birth of the first ever star and its supernova, until the low metallicity ISM formed. We will discuss the chemical enrichment inside the low metallicity environment and its relation to the later star formation.

  15. Economic Geology (Metals)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gair, Jacob E.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews metalliferous ore-deposit research reported in 1971. Research was dominated by isotopic studies, and worldwide metals exploration was marked by announcements of important new discoveries of base metals, iron ore, nickel, titanium, and uranium. (Author/PR)

  16. Economic Geology (Metals)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gair, Jacob E.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews metalliferous ore-deposit research reported in 1971. Research was dominated by isotopic studies, and worldwide metals exploration was marked by announcements of important new discoveries of base metals, iron ore, nickel, titanium, and uranium. (Author/PR)

  17. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-10-11

    A new composition of matter is described which is an alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  18. Self-consistent structure of metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, D. M.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1977-01-01

    A calculation is presented of the total energy of metallic hydrogen for a family of face-centered tetragonal lattices carried out within the self-consistent phonon approximation. The energy of proton motion is large and proper inclusion of proton dynamics alters the structural dependence of the total energy, causing isotropic lattices to become favored. For the dynamic lattice the structural dependence of terms of third and higher order in the electron-proton interaction is greatly reduced from static lattice equivalents.

  19. Familial central serous retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, J A

    1996-05-01

    To study the familial occurrence of central serous retinopathy (CSR). We pooled data from eight eye clinics in Western Europe. We collected 11 families that each had two to four members with CSR. In 10 families siblings and in one family a mother and son were affected. Sixty percent of the patients were male and 40% female. CSR was found in 55 (92%) of 60 eyes, 44 (80%) showing a chronic course. In 25 patients (83%) both eyes were affected. Most recent visual acuity was 0.5 or less in 17 (39%) and 0.2 or less in 8 (18%) of the eyes with chronic CSR. Our findings of familial occurrence and a chronic disorder that is progressive, diffuse, and bilateral suggest an inborn disposition to develop a clinically manifest disintegration of the retinal pigment epithelium in adulthood.

  20. Nanochemistry of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Gleb B.

    2001-10-01

    The results of studies on the nanochemistry of metals published in recent years are generalised. Primary attention is centred on the methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their chemical reactions. The means of stabilisation of nanoparticles which involve individual metals and incorporate atoms of several metals are considered as well as their physicochemical properties. Self-assembling processes of nanoparticles are described. The prospects of using metal nanoparticles in semiconductor devices, catalysis, biology and medicine are discussed. The bibliography includes 165 references.

  1. Family Forward: Promoting Family Adaptation Following Pediatric Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Lyndal; Anderson, Vicki; Jordan, Brigid

    2016-08-15

    This article describes a new and innovative social work intervention, Family Forward, designed to promote early adaptation of the family system after the onset of a child's acquired brain injury. Family Forward is integrated into inpatient rehabilitation services provided to the injured child and recognizes the important role of family in child rehabilitation outcomes and the parallel process of recovery for the child and family following an injury. Family Forward is informed by clinical practice, existing research in family adaptation after pediatric acquired brain injury, the resiliency model of family adjustment and adaptation, and family therapy theories and approaches.

  2. Metal Sensing by DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Saran, Runjhun; Liu, Juewen

    2017-06-28

    Metal ions are essential to many chemical, biological, and environmental processes. In the past two decades, many DNA-based metal sensors have emerged. While the main biological role of DNA is to store genetic information, its chemical structure is ideal for metal binding via both the phosphate backbone and nucleobases. DNA is highly stable, cost-effective, easy to modify, and amenable to combinatorial selection. Two main classes of functional DNA were developed for metal sensing: aptamers and DNAzymes. While a few metal binding aptamers are known, it is generally quite difficult to isolate such aptamers. On the other hand, DNAzymes are powerful tools for metal sensing since they are selected based on catalytic activity, thus bypassing the need for metal immobilization. In the last five years, a new surge of development has been made on isolating new metal-sensing DNA sequences. To date, many important metals can be selectively detected by DNA often down to the low parts-per-billion level. Herein, each metal ion and the known DNA sequences for its sensing are reviewed. We focus on the fundamental aspect of metal binding, emphasizing the distinct chemical property of each metal. Instead of reviewing each published sensor, a high-level summary of signaling methods is made as a separate section. In principle, each signaling strategy can be applied to many DNA sequences for designing sensors. Finally, a few specific applications are highlighted, and future research opportunities are discussed.

  3. Double metalization for VLSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trotter, J. D.; Wade, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Postsintering process increases yield of double-layer metal conductors to almost 100 percent. When wafers containing double-metalized chips are sintered, metal layers react with oxide film remaining in insulation layer holes, breaking it up so that it no longer impedes electric current. Cooling also mechanically disrupts oxide film.

  4. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOEpatents

    Schissel, Paul O.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Shinton, Yvonne D.; Goggin, Rita M.

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  5. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOEpatents

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  6. Metal etching composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otousa, Joseph E. (Inventor); Thomas, Clark S. (Inventor); Foster, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a chemical etching composition for etching metals or metallic alloys. The composition includes a solution of hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ethylene glycol, and an oxidizing agent. The etching composition is particularly useful for etching metal surfaces in preparation for subsequent fluorescent penetrant inspection.

  7. PRODUCTION OF METALS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1961-09-19

    A process is described producing metallic thorium, titanium, zirconium, or hafnium from the fluoride. In the process, the fluoride is reduced with alkali or alkaline earth metal and a booster compound (e.g. iodine or a decomposable oxysalt) in a sealed bomb at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature above the melting point of the metal to be produced.

  8. Liquid metal cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal being provided with a hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal which acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly.

  9. Family Reconstruction: The Family within-a Group Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satir, Virginia; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents Virginia Satir's Family Reconstruction, a group therapy experience that blends and extends her 1982 process therapy and 1983 conjoint family therapy approaches. Describes the family reconstruction process, the review of family reconstruction data in the pregroup interview, the family reconstruction process in the counseling group, and the…

  10. 75 FR 17946 - Family Report, MTW Family Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Family Report, MTW Family Report AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... understand demographic, family profile, income, and housing information for participants in the Public... Following Information Title of Proposal: Family Report, MTW Family Report. OMB Approval Number:...

  11. Family Reconstruction: The Family within-a Group Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satir, Virginia; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents Virginia Satir's Family Reconstruction, a group therapy experience that blends and extends her 1982 process therapy and 1983 conjoint family therapy approaches. Describes the family reconstruction process, the review of family reconstruction data in the pregroup interview, the family reconstruction process in the counseling group, and the…

  12. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures

    PubMed Central

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals. PMID:27532051

  13. Family planning education.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1983-02-01

    17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology

  14. Family intervention for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

    2014-01-01

    Background People with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of emotions. Forms of psychosocial intervention, designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families, are now widely used. Objectives To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared with standard care. Search strategy We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (September 2008). Selection criteria We selected randomised or quasi-randomised studies focusing primarily on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention with standard care. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data and calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR), the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for binary data, and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). Main results This 2009-10 update adds 21 additional studies, with a total of 53 randomised controlled trials included. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (n = 2981, 32 RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.5 to 0.6, NNT 7 CI 6 to 8), although some small but negative studies might not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may also reduce hospital admission (n = 481, 8 RCTs, RR 0.78 CI 0.6 to 1.0, NNT 8 CI 6 to 13) and encourage compliance with medication (n = 695, 10 RCTs, RR 0.60 CI 0.5 to 0.7, NNT 6 CI 5 to 9) but it does not obviously affect the tendency of individuals/families to leave care (n = 733, 10 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.0). Family intervention also seems to improve general social impairment and the levels of

  15. Family demands, social support and family functioning in Taiwanese families rearing children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, C-Y

    2014-06-01

    Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and social support relate to family functioning as well as the potential mediating effect of social support on the relationship between family demands and family functioning in Taiwanese families of children with DS. One hundred and fifty-five parents (80 mothers and 75 fathers) from 83 families independently completed mailed questionnaires. Data were analysed using a principal component analysis and mixed linear modelling. Families having older children with DS, greater parental education, higher family income, fewer family demands and greater social support contributed to healthier family functioning. Social support partially mediated the effects of family demands on family functioning. Family demographics, family demands and social support appear to be important factors that may play a critical role in how Taiwanese families respond to the birth of a child with DS. Care of children with DS and their families is likely to be more effective if professionals working with these families are aware of factors that contribute to healthy family functioning. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Metal-Matrix/Hollow-Ceramic-Sphere Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Dean M.

    2011-01-01

    A family of metal/ceramic composite materials has been developed that are relatively inexpensive, lightweight alternatives to structural materials that are typified by beryllium, aluminum, and graphite/epoxy composites. These metal/ceramic composites were originally intended to replace beryllium (which is toxic and expensive) as a structural material for lightweight mirrors for aerospace applications. These materials also have potential utility in automotive and many other terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for lightweight materials that have high strengths and other tailorable properties as described below. The ceramic component of a material in this family consists of hollow ceramic spheres that have been formulated to be lightweight (0.5 g/cm3) and have high crush strength [40.80 ksi (.276.552 MPa)]. The hollow spheres are coated with a metal to enhance a specific performance . such as shielding against radiation (cosmic rays or x rays) or against electromagnetic interference at radio and lower frequencies, or a material to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the final composite material, and/or materials to mitigate any mismatch between the spheres and the matrix metal. Because of the high crush strength of the spheres, the initial composite workpiece can be forged or extruded into a high-strength part. The total time taken in processing from the raw ingredients to a finished part is typically 10 to 14 days depending on machining required.

  17. Rules and trends of metal cation driven hydride-transfer mechanisms in metal amidoboranes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Lee, Han Myoung; Seo, Jongcheol; Shin, Seung Koo; Kim, Kwang S

    2010-01-01

    Group I and II metal amidoboranes have been identified as one of the promising families of materials for efficient H(2) storage. However, the underlying mechanism of the dehydrogenation of these materials is not well understood. Thus, the mechanisms and kinetics of H(2) release in metal amidoboranes are investigated using high level ab initio calculations and kinetic simulations. The metal plays the role of catalyst for the hydride transfer with formation of a metal hydride intermediate towards the dehydrogenation. In this process, with increasing ionic character of the metal hydride bond in the intermediate, the stability of the intermediate decreases, while the dehydrogenation process involving ionic recombination of the hydridic H with the protic H proceeds with a reduced barrier. Such correlations lead directly to a U-shaped relationship between the activation energy barrier for H(2) elimination and the ionicity of metal hydride bond. Oligomerized intermediates are formed by the chain reaction of the size-driven catalytic effects of metals, competing with the non-oligomerization pathway. The kinetic rates at low temperatures are determined by the maximum barrier height in the pathway (a Lambda-shaped relation), while those at moderately high temperatures are determined by most of multiple-barriers. This requires kinetic simulations. At the operating temperatures of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, the metal amidoboranes with lithium and sodium release H(2) along both oligomerization and non-oligomerization paths. The sodium amidoboranes show the most accelerated rates, while others release H(2) at similar rates. In addition, we predict that the novel metal amidoborane-based adducts and mixtures would release H(2) with accelerated rates as well as with enhanced reversibility. This comprehensive study is useful for further developments of active metal-based better hydrogen storage materials.

  18. A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.

    PubMed

    Carder, M

    1974-01-01

    The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters.

  19. Shining a light on transition metal chalcogenides for sustainable photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Peter D.; McNaughter, Paul D.; Lewis, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal chalcogenides are an important family of materials that have received significant interest in recent years as they have the potential for diverse applications ranging from use in electronics to industrial lubricants. One of their most exciting properties is the ability to generate electricity from incident light. In this perspective we will summarise and highlight the key results and challenges in this area and explain how transition metal chalcogenides are a good choice for future sustainable photovoltaics. PMID:28626562

  20. Shining a light on transition metal chalcogenides for sustainable photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Peter D; McNaughter, Paul D; Lewis, David J; O'Brien, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Transition metal chalcogenides are an important family of materials that have received significant interest in recent years as they have the potential for diverse applications ranging from use in electronics to industrial lubricants. One of their most exciting properties is the ability to generate electricity from incident light. In this perspective we will summarise and highlight the key results and challenges in this area and explain how transition metal chalcogenides are a good choice for future sustainable photovoltaics.

  1. [Family oriented nursing care].

    PubMed

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquin Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta; Sáez-Bueno, Africa

    2009-01-01

    Nursing has experienced an important methodological development, in which it gives priority to the individual, although at a socioeconomic level a marked interest is seen in the health care of the family unit and the NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association), NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) and NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) nursing guidelines, using diagnoses, criteria of results and interventions orientated towards this aim. We consider to the family as an opened system consisted of human elements, with a common history, which they form a functional unit been ruled by own procedure. In this paper we look at those aspects that must be taken into account in nursing assessment of families from a systemic perspective, including some tools for data collection and analysis of information. In addition, we identify specific areas of intervention. We believe that the family must be studied from a nursing care point of view with its own characteristics as opposed to those possessed individually by each of its members. We also believe that, when assessment is centred on the Henderson unaided activities study or the Gordon functional health patterns, they are not useful in assessing the family unit. This work offers an assessment method centred on the family unit, which helps to identify the nursing diagnoses applicable to it. Our proposal, which has been successfully used by nursing students over the last few years, hopes to contribute to quality clinical practice with a tool orientated towards the family.

  2. Identification of weed plants excluding the uptake of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Xin

    2005-08-01

    Using the field pot-culture and sample-analysis method, 54 weed species belonging to 20 families and 31 weed species belonging to 17 families were systematically examined as to whether they can exclude the uptake of heavy metals. After a systematic identification, it was determined that Oenothera biennis and Commelina communis were Cd-excluders and Taraxacum mongolicum was a Zn-excluder. O. biennis is a potential Cd-excluder, but also a potential Cu-excluder. The research raises the possibility of making a major breakthrough in the application of metal excluders for safe agro-production in the future.

  3. Electrolytic purification of metals

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Kenneth A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of electrolytically separating metal from impurities comprises providing the metal and impurities in a molten state in a container having a porous membrane therein, the membrane having a thickness in the range of about 0.01 to 0.1 inch, being capable of containing the molten metal in the container, and being permeable by a molten electrolyte. The metal is electrolytically transferred through the membrane to a cathode in the presence of the electrolyte for purposes of separating or removing impurities from the metal.

  4. Silica Embedded Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.

    1998-08-01

    A method to produce silica embedded metal hydride was developed. The product is a composite in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a matrix of silica. The silica matrix is highly porous. Hydrogen gas can easily reach the embedded metal hydride particles. The pores are small so that the metal hydride particles cannot leave the matrix. The porous matrix also protects the metal hydride particles from larger and reactive molecules such as oxygen, since the larger gas molecules cannot pass through the small pores easily. Tests show that granules of this composite can absorb hydrogen readily and withstand many cycles without making fines.

  5. Ethnic family structure.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, P

    1989-04-01

    Using information from large-scale statistical collections and elaborations from ethnographic studies, this paper examines the underlying social processes and structures of migrant families in Australia. Migrants in Australia are often confronted by family values and behavior which run counter to their own. For some migrants, particularly those from the United Kingdom and Western European countries, there is little conflict as Australian family values and behavior approximate their own; the feminine conception of the family is not foreign to them. On the other hand, migrants from Mediterranean countries and from Asia are likely to face a clash between the masculine conception of the family and the dominant feminine conception they find in Australia. Economic structure also often forces an accommodation to the feminine conception of the family. For example, migrant women in Australia are heavily involved in the work force outside the family circle, and, in the main, have relatively low fertility. Age at marriage is increasing and many single women of migrant origin are being educated at the tertiary level and are working before marriage. These changes necessarily expose women and youths to the dominant social values and increase their economic independence, thus disrupting the conventional male family authority. There is evidence of a degree of accommodation to Australian patterns of behavior in migrant groups more inclined to a masculine conception of the family. In other areas, however, which are less directly related to economic pressure, migrant values have been far less accommodating. There is still a high level of endogamy, the 1st birth occurs soon after marriage, divorce rates are low, and the aged are very likely to live with their children. Large migrant groups have been able to maintain these patterns of behavior through the formation of ethnic substructures that form their principal social environment. In the longer term, however, their children are

  6. Families Get Involved! Learning Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Media and Information Services.

    Noting that families who are involved in their children's education make a difference in their child's performance, this two-page information sheet encourages families to get involved by listing the benefits of family involvement on one side and the ways adult family members can help in the school on the other. As a result of family participation:…

  7. Canadian Families (Les Familles Canadiennes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Structural changes that have taken place in Canadian families in recent decades are described in this booklet. Topical sections are as follows: (1) What Counts in Canadian Families (importance of (importance of family); (2) The Family--Variations on a Theme origins, family structure, seniors aged 60 and over, how lives are spent, religion); (3)…

  8. At the Table with Family and Making Family Meals Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... in his highchair. Family Meal Preparation and Encouraging Responsibility Who prepares the meals at home most often? ... entire family. Wonderfully, many families have shared cooking responsibilities, which includes all of the children in the ...

  9. Recognizing the Incestuous Family

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark S.

    1983-01-01

    Family physicians are in the best position to diagnose incest because of the nature of their practice. Yet many cases of incest are not recognized by the medical community and many incest victims are thus untreated. There are several behavioral and medical clues to incest, which the family physician needs to know in order to recognize incest early and improve the prognosis. Treatment is directed at the whole family, rather than just the active participants. Further research is needed to improve the application of various treatment modalities. PMID:6631984

  10. Family Centered Maternity Care

    PubMed Central

    Enkin, Murray W.

    1973-01-01

    Current practices of obstetrical care tend to hinder rather than facilitate family development and maturation. A program of family centred maternity care is described. Husbands are invited to prenatal visits, and are involved in intensive preparation for labor and delivery. Their presence and active participation in labor, delivery, and postpartum course are encouraged. This, along with a rooming-in policy for the baby, and the utilization of the postpartum period for an intensive training in parenthood, appears to produce a safe and satisfying obstetrical experience for the family. PMID:20468914

  11. Metals and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949

  12. Metal pad instabilities in liquid metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2016-11-01

    Strong variations between the electrical conductivities of electrolyte and metal layers in a liquid metal battery indicate the possibility of 'metal pad' instabilities. Deformations of the electrolyte-metal interfaces cause strong perturbations of electric currents, which, hypothetically, can generate Lorentz forces enhancing the deformations. We investigate this possibility using two models: a mechanical analogy and a two-dimensional linearized approximation. It is found that the battery is prone to instabilities of two types. One is similar to the sloshing-wave instability observed in the Hall-Héroult aluminum reduction cells. Another is new and related to the interactions of current perturbations with the azimuthal magnetic field induced by the base current. Financial support was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant CBET 1435269).

  13. Molecularly doped metals.

    PubMed

    Avnir, David

    2014-02-18

    The many millions of organic, inorganic, and bioorganic molecules represent a very rich library of chemical, biological, and physical properties that do not show up among the approximately 100 metals. The ability to imbue metals with any of these molecular properties would open up tremendous potential for the development of new materials. In addition to their traditional features and their traditional applications, metals would have new traits, which would merge their classical virtues such as conductivity and catalytic activity with the diverse properties of these molecules. In this Account, we describe a new materials methodology, which enables, for the first time, the incorporation and entrapment of small organic molecules, polymers, and biomolecules within metals. These new materials are denoted dopant@metal. The creation of dopant@metal yields new properties that are more than or different from the sum of the individual properties of the two components. So far we have developed methods for the doping of silver, copper, gold, iron, palladium, platinum, and some of their alloys, as well as Hg-Ag amalgams. We have successfully altered classical metal properties (such as conductivity), induced unorthodox properties (such as rendering a metal acidic or basic), used metals as heterogeneous matrices for homogeneous catalysts, and formed new metallic catalysts such as metals doped with organometallic complexes. In addition, we have created materials that straddle the border between polymers and metals, we have entrapped enzymes to form bioactive metals, we have induced chirality within metals, we have made corrosion-resistant iron, we formed efficient biocidal materials, and we demonstrated a new concept for batteries. We have developed a variety of methods for synthesizing dopant@metals including aqueous homogeneous and heterogeneous reductions of the metal cations, reductions in DMF, electrochemical entrapments, thermal decompositions of zerovalent metal carbonyls

  14. Magnetic and Metal-Insulator Transition in natural Transition Metal Sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renxiong; Metz, Tristin; Liu, I.-Lin; Wang, Kefeng; Wang, Xiangfeng; Jeffries, J. R.; Saha, S. R.; Greene, R. L.; Paglione, J.; Santelli, C. C.; Post, J.,

    In collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, we present detailed studies of a class of natural minerals with potential to harbor correlated behavior. Transition metal sulfide minerals, such as Bornite (Cu5FeS4), are an important family of compounds known for their thermoelectric properties. We will present low temperature experimental studies of magnetic transitions and focus on a compound that exhibits a metal to insulator transition concident with entrance to an antiferromagnetic ground state, suggesting a potentially interesting system with promise for realizing new correlated states of matter in a naturally occurring mineral.

  15. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  16. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  17. Circular Metal/Semiconductor/Metal Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, James A.; Towe, Elias; Bishop, William L.; Wang, Liang-Guo

    1995-01-01

    Metal/semiconductor/metal (MSM) photodetectors with multiple concentric circular electrodes developed. Some electrical characteristics expected superior to those of older MSM photodetectors containing interdigitated straight electrodes. Response times smaller and shorter, and breakdown voltages larger. Decrease in capacitance allows greater signal-detection bandwidth. Important advantage in fiber-optic telecommunication systems, in which photodectors central components in receiver circuits. Increasing bandwidth of such photodetector enables receiver to handle larger number of channels or increased information rate in each channel.

  18. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this time. Seek additional counseling services as necessary. Communication Skills Family members also can help the person ... aphasia develop new skills to compensate for the communication problems. Some suggestion include: Continue to talk to ...

  19. Family troubles - resources

    MedlinePlus

    The following organizations are good resources for information on child abuse , incest, domestic violence, and family troubles: National Domestic Violence Hotline -- www.thehotline.org Prevent Child Abuse America -- ...

  20. Children and Families: 1984?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1981-01-01

    In order to develop normally, children need emotional involvement and shared activities with one or more adult(s). Public policy in the United States, unlike that of most industrialized societies, is not supportive of family life. (Author/GC)

  1. Balancing Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Describes the responses of some companies to increasing demands for family-work balance in terms of flexibility in working hours and leave policies, child care, and fringe benefits. Identifies some of the effects on the "bottom line." (SK)

  2. Asbestos: Protect Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Protect Your Family How to Identify Materials That May Contain Asbestos ... Improper removal may actually increase your and your family’s exposure to asbestos fibers. Top of Page Asbestos ...

  3. Uranus - Family Portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-22

    This family portrait of Uranus five largest moons was compiled from images sent back Jan. 20, 1986, by NASA Voyager 2 spacecraft. Even in these distant views, the satellites exhibit distinct differences in appearance.

  4. General Dynamics Atlas family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, James

    Developments concerning the Atlas family of launch vehicles over the last three or four years are summarized. Attention is given to the center of gravity, load factors, acoustics, pyroshock, low-frequency sinusoidal vibration, and high-frequency random vibration.

  5. The Family Training Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Gwendolyn H.

    1974-01-01

    The author describes a program in which the families of migrant workers were educated, trained, and placed in permanent jobs. This program also provided health, counseling, and child care services. (RWP)

  6. Familial calcific periarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Hajiroussou, V J; Webley, M

    1983-01-01

    A family of 4 is described in which both children had calcific periarthritis affecting the shoulders, and the mother had radiological evidence of periarticular calcification near the left greater trochanter. PMID:6882045

  7. Building Extended Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKain, Barbara; McKain, Michael

    1970-01-01

    Discusses need for dissolution of the couple" relationship with substitution of the extended family which would permit each member to maintain individuality and to function on own merit. Suggests group living as preferable alternative. (CJ)

  8. Family Treatment for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    FALLOON, IAN R. H.; MCGILL, CHARISTINE W.; MATTHEWS, SUSAN M.; KEITH, SAMUEL J.; SCHOOLER, NINA R.

    1996-01-01

    The NIMH Treatment Strategies in Schizophrenia (TSS) collaborative study group investigated the efficacy of antisychotic drug maintenance strategies involving reduced medication exposure in interaction with applied and supportive family management for the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. Therapy was provided at five centers by 25 clinicians who did not participate in the development of the therapies. They were trained by two of the authors, I.R.H.F and C.W.M, in applied family management, a homebased treatment derived from the behavioral family therapy developed by them. Clinicians’ characteristics, selection, and training methods, as well as patient rehospitalization rates, are reported for the two family management conditions. The TSS study represents a bridge between the development of a novel therapy and its dissemination in general clinical practice. PMID:22700264

  9. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... don't use genetic tests as the sole method of diagnosing familial Mediterranean fever. There's no cure ... may be options, though these treatments are considered experimental. Other medications include rilonacept (Arcalyst) and anakinra (Kineret). ...

  10. Collaboration in Family Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tuerk, Elena Hontoria; McCart, Michael R.; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes and illustrates the collaboration strategies used by several family therapies. The strategies used within multisystemic therapy (MST) are emphasized because it has demonstrated high rates of treatment completion and favorable outcomes in multiple clinical trials. Many of the collaboration strategies in family work are common to other forms of evidence-based psychotherapy (e.g., reflective listening, empathy, reframing, and displays of authenticity and flexibility); however, some strategies are unique to family systems treatments, such as the identification of strengths across multiple systems in the youth’s social ecology and the maintenance of a family (versus a child) focus during treatment. A case example illustrates collaboration and engagement in the context of MST. PMID:23616297

  11. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  12. Family Therapy, Family Practice, and Child and Family Poverty: Historical Perspectives and Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Harvy; Frankel, Sid

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the engagement of family therapy and family practice with families with children, who are living in poverty. It analyzes four promising models from two perspectives. The first perspective relates to critiques, which have been made of the practice of family therapy with families living in poverty; and the second relates to the…

  13. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  14. The changing American family.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A; Freedman, D

    1983-10-01

    This Bulletin documents recent changes in American family patterns resulting both from longterm trends in urbanization, industrialization, and economic growth and the disruption of the Great Depression and World War 2, as well as changed attitudes toward marriage, parenthood, divorce, and the roles of women. Following a postwar boom in the 1950s and 1960s, marriage rates have now fallen to levels observed in the early 20th century. Since 1970, the number of unmarried couples living together has more than tripled to 1.9 million in 1983. The divorce rate has now stabilized after more than doubling since 1960, but at the current level, 1/2 of all recent marriages will end in divorce. Most divorced persons remarry fairly quickly, often creating complex families of "step-relatives." With 19% of households with minor children now headed by a women with no husband present, up to 1/2 of all children will live for sometime in a fatherless family before age 18. Over 1/2 of all married women, including 49% of married mothers of preschool children, now hold a paid job outside the home. Working wives boost a family's income by an average 40% but still are expected to shoulder most responsiblility for home and childcare. White women now in their 20s say they expect to have an average of 2 children, but are delaying childbearing to such an extent that 29% could end up childless. Most of the elderly live on their own but usually near children whom they see frequently. Despite changes in traditional family patterns, Americans consistently report that a happy marriage and good family are the most important aspects of life. And though most Americans now live with few or no family members, they maintain active contact with a large network of family.

  15. Swedish Family Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrstrom, Staffan

    1986-01-01

    Family policy remains one of the leading issues of Swedish domestic politics. All parties are agreed that families with children must be given a better deal in the wake of the economic crisis. But how is this to be done and how quickly can it be achieved? Is the expansion of day nursery facilities to be speeded up, or are parents to be given a…

  16. [Counseling of immigrant families].

    PubMed

    Pavkovic, G

    2001-04-01

    The quality and efficiency in the process of psychological counseling with migrant families depends on the counselor's insight in the constellations of migration and culture. Both have a special influence on the way of coping with problems and the relation between client and counselor during the therapy. It is therefore necessary to adapt the own therapeutical approach to the migrant's experiences and abilities of comprehension. The author presents one example of intercultural family counseling by three short case explorations.

  17. Familiality in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Familiality in brain tumors is not definitively substantiated. Methods: We used the Utah Population Data Base (UPDB), a genealogy representing the Utah pioneers and their descendants, record-linked to statewide cancer records, to describe the familial nature of primary brain cancer. We examined the familial clustering of primary brain tumors, including subgroups defined by histologic type and age at diagnosis. The UPDB includes 1,401 primary brain tumor cases defined as astrocytoma or glioblastoma, all with at least three generations of genealogy data. We tested the hypothesis of excess relatedness of brain tumor cases using the Genealogical Index of Familiality method. We estimated relative risks for brain tumors in relatives using rates of brain tumors estimated internally. Results: Significant excess relatedness was observed for astrocytomas and glioblastomas considered as a group (n = 1,401), for astrocytomas considered separately (n = 744), but not for glioblastomas considered separately (n = 658). Significantly increased risks to first- and second-degree relatives for astrocytomas were identified for relatives of astrocytomas considered separately. Significantly increased risks to first-degree relatives, but not second degree, were observed for astrocytoma and glioblastoma cases considered together, and for glioblastoma cases considered separately. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a familial contribution to primary brain cancer risk. There is evidence that this familial aspect includes not only shared environment, but also a heritable component. Extended high-risk brain tumor pedigrees identified in the UPDB may provide the opportunity to identify predisposition genes responsible for familial brain tumors. GLOSSARY GBM = glioblastoma; GIF = Genealogical Index of Familiality; HGG = high-grade gliomas; ICD-O = International Classification of Disease–Oncology; LGG = low-grade gliomas; RR = relative risks; SEER = Surveillance

  18. Finding Family Support Resource Card

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients rfamilies. This conversation can cate families about palliative sure clear communication provider and family, and build ... from any eworking in any setting engage ctive palliative care discussions iatric patients and their families. ot ...

  19. Welfare Policies and Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trader, Harriet Peat

    1979-01-01

    The family is an important resource for minority persons, and many minority families depend on public welfare for their survival. This article offers a compact analysis of how welfare policies often work to the disadvantage of poor Black families. (Author)

  20. Contributions of Five Secondary Metal Uptake Systems to Metal Homeostasis of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Andreas; Herzberg, Martin; Voigt, Alexander; Seravalli, Javier; Grass, Gregor; Scherer, Judith; Nies, Dietrich H.

    2011-01-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans is adapted to high concentrations of transition metal cations and is a model system for studying metal homeostasis in difficult environments. The elemental composition of C. metallidurans cells cultivated under various conditions was determined, revealing the ability of the bacterium to shield homeostasis of one essential metal from the toxic action of another. The contribution of metal uptake systems to this ability was studied. C. metallidurans contains three CorA members of the metal inorganic transport (MIT) protein family of putative magnesium uptake systems, ZupT of the ZRT/IRT protein, or ZIP, family, and PitA, which imports metal phosphate complexes. Expression of the genes for all these transporters was regulated by zinc availability, as shown by reporter gene fusions. While expression of zupT was upregulated under conditions of zinc starvation, expression of the other genes was downregulated at high zinc concentrations. Only corA1 expression was influenced by magnesium starvation. Deletion mutants were constructed to characterize the contribution of each system to transition metal import. This identified ZupT as the main zinc uptake system under conditions of low zinc availability, CorA1 as the main secondary magnesium uptake system, and CorA2 and CorA3 as backup systems for metal cation import. PitA may function as a cation-phosphate uptake system, the main supplier of divalent metal cations and phosphate in phosphate-rich environments. Thus, metal homeostasis in C. metallidurans is achieved by highly redundant metal uptake systems, which have only minimal cation selectivity and are in combination with efflux systems that “worry later” about surplus cations. PMID:21742896

  1. The untreatable family.

    PubMed

    Jones, D P

    1987-01-01

    The untreatable family is defined as one in which it is unsafe to permit an abused child to live. Despite the fact that many families turn out to be resistive to treatment, they have received very little attention. In the field of physical abuse, 16-60% of parents reabuse their children following the initial incident. Sexual reabuse is estimated to occur in 16% of cases. Treatment of abusive families also aims to alter family functioning. From studies in physical abuse we find 20-87% of families are unchanged or worse at the end of treatment. In sexual abuse the equivalent figures are 16-38%. Parental factors associated with a poor outcome include parental history of severe childhood abuse, persistent denial of abusive behavior, refusal to accept help, severe personality disorder, mental handicap complicated by personality disorder, parental psychosis with delusions involving the child, and alcohol/drug abuse. Parents lack empathy for their child and fail to see the child's needs as separate from their own. Severe forms of abuse (fractures, burns, scalds, premeditated infliction of pain, vaginal intercourse or sexual sadism) are more likely to prove untreatable. Munchausen by proxy, nonaccidental poisoning, and severe forms of nonorganic failure to thrive are similarly resistant. An early recognition of untreatability may help to reduce burnout by diverting precious resources from the untreatable to the families for whom there is relatively more hope.

  2. Mandolin Family Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  3. Family planning and vocations.

    PubMed

    Burke, C

    1989-01-01

    In many Western countries the number of vocations has fallen to as low as 1/10 what it was a generation ago. The author blames several factors for this occurrence. An identity crisis among the members of the faith that is a result of broken homes is seen as a factor. The growth of materialism and the consumer mentality is seen as another factor leading people away from the life of sacrifices for God. But the author feels that the strongest force behind this fact is the use of family planning without a serious reason. Catholics are only allowed to use family planning if they have a serious health or financial reason for doing so, and then it can only be a natural method. Large families reinforce the ideals and attitudes necessary to create a person that is willing to seek a vocation. People from broken homes are not usually accepted because the matter of perseverance becomes a problem. When a child grows up in a large family it learns to make sacrifices. It also sees its parents making sacrifices for the children. It is the author's opinion what without this atmosphere of sacrifice at home, one is not prepared for the sacrifices that go with a vocation. It is also the author's opinion that families in the 3rd World tend to be larger, poorer yet still happier then Western families. Further, vocations in the 3rd World are abundant.

  4. [Family, Suicide and Mourning].

    PubMed

    Garciandía Imaz, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Death is an event that always breaks into family life in a surprising way. Of all the deaths, suicide is the one which more strongly questions the functionality of a family and increases the risk of difficulties in the mourning process. Families in which a suicide has occurred are exposed to a greater possibility of disintegration, disorganization and pathological expressions in their members. To present a reduced and circumscribed narrative revision, restricted to examine the relationship between suicide and the mourning process in the family. The suicide of a loved one is an event that may contribute to pathological grief and mental dysfunctions in surviving relatives. Death in the family is a natural phenomenon. However, death by suicide is one of the phenomena that can generate more alterations in the structure and organization of the family, due to the difficulty related to the mourning process. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metal music and adolescent suicidality: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Scheel, K R; Westefeld, J S

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among 121 high school students. Heavy metal fans had less strong reasons for living (especially male fans) and had more thoughts of suicide (especially female fans). For a large majority, listening to music (all types) had a positive effect on mood. Overall, the results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be a "red flag" for increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggest that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial characteristics than in any direct effects of the music. Implications for intervention and for future research are discussed.

  6. Heavy metal pumps in plants. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    'Plants have been proposed as a bioremediation tool to help remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated land and water. However, little is known about how plants take up heavy metals from the soil and transport them to different parts of the plant. An important long term goal is to understand how heavy metals, such as copper and cadmium, are transported across the plasma membrane of plant cells. The proposed research is focused on a putative heavy metal uptake pump, AXA2p [Arabidopsis X (unknown heavy metal) ATPase, isoform 2 protein], identified in a model plant, Arabidopsis. AXA belongs to a super-family of ion-translocating P-type ATPases and is the first heavy metal pump cloned from plants. AXA2 is most similar to a subfamily of pumps recently identified in bacteria, yeast and humans which appear to pump heavy metals such as copper and cadmium. Three specific aims are proposed: (1) Determine the ion specificity of the AXA2 pump, (2) Determine how pumping activity is regulated, and (3) Determine if an increased uptake of specific heavy metals can be achieved by engineering a transgenic plant with a hyper-active pump. The hypothesis being tested is that AXA2 encodes a high affinity uptake pump for copper, with lower affinity for metals such as cadmium, zinc and nickel. Fundamental research on heavy metal transporters may eventually permit transgenic plants to be engineered with specific heavy metal uptake systems useful for bioremediation. The long term goal of the proposed research is to understand how heavy metals, such as copper and cadmium, are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The focus is on a putative heavy metal pump, AXA2p [Arabidopsis X (unknown heavy metal) ATPase, isoform 2 protein], identified in a model plant, Arabidopsis. AXA2 belongs to a large family of ion-translocating P-type ATPases. AXA2p is the first heavy metal pump cloned from plants and is most similar to a subfamily of heavy metal pumps recently identified in

  7. Familial Fahr disease in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Kotan, Dilcan; Aygul, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Fahr syndrome refers to a rare syndrome characterized by symmetrical and bilateral intracranial calcification. We present a 42-year-old woman with Fahr disease, but lacking extrapyramidal symptoms or a metabolic disorder. Her neurological examination was normal. Computed tomographic scans demonstrated symmetrical calcification over the basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. No underlying cause for the bilateral calcification was found. When screening other family members, we detected Fahr syndrome in her two daughters and three brothers, revealing that the disease was an autosomal dominant trait. Fahr disease may be clinically asymptomatic, but have pronounced positive brain imaging findings. Computed tomographic scanning remains the most effective screening tool for adult relatives.

  8. Family Efficacy within Ethnically Diverse Families: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsui-Sui A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2017-03-01

    Family efficacy, which refers to a family's belief in its ability to produce a desired outcome, has been shown to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors. Few studies have examined family efficacy within diverse populations, however, and understanding of how efficacy is framed and formed within the context of cultural and familial values is limited. This descriptive qualitative study examined sources of family efficacy within ethnically and socioeconomically diverse families, evaluating how such families develop and exercise family efficacy with the intent to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors (i.e., marijuana and alcohol use and early sexual activity). We collected qualitative data via two semi-structured interviews, 4-6 months apart, with 31 adolescents (ages 12-14) and their parent/s, for total of 148 one-on-one interviews. Thematic analysis identified three distinct domains of family efficacy: relational, pragmatic, and value-laden. Prior experiences and cultural background influenced the domain/s utilized by families. Significantly, families that consistently tapped into all three domains were able to effectively manage personal and family difficulties; these families also had family strategies in place to prevent adolescents from risky behaviors. Health professionals could utilize this concept of multidimensional family efficacy to promote health within culturally diverse families. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  9. FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1958-12-16

    Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

  10. Changing families, changing workplaces.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income distribution. Between 1975 and 2009, the labor force rate of mothers with children under age eighteen increased from 47.4 percent to 71.6 percent. Mothers today also return to work much sooner after the birth of a child than did mothers half a century ago. High divorce rates and a sharp rise in the share of births to unmarried mothers mean that more children are being raised by a single parent, usually their mother. Workplaces too have changed, observes Bianchi. Today's employees increasingly work nonstandard hours. The well-being of highly skilled workers and less-skilled workers has been diverging. For the former, work hours may be long, but income has soared. For lower-skill workers, the lack of "good jobs" disconnects fathers from family obligations. Men who cannot find work or have low earnings potential are much less likely to marry. For low-income women, many of whom are single parents, the work-family dilemma is how to care adequately for children and work enough hours to support them financially. Jobs for working-class and lower middle-class workers are relatively stable, except in economic downturns, but pay is low, and both parents must work full time to make ends meet. Family income is too high to qualify for government subsidized child care, but too low to afford high-quality care in the private market. These families struggle to have a reasonable family life and provide for their family's economic well-being. Bianchi concludes that the "work and family" problem has no one solution because it is not one problem. Some workers need more work and more money. Some need to take time off around the birth of a child

  11. A predictive structural model for bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Laws, K. J.; Miracle, D. B.; Ferry, M.

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses, but there is still no clear connection between atomic structure and glass-forming ability. Here we give new insights into perhaps the most important question in the field of amorphous metals: how can glass-forming ability be predicted from atomic structure? We give a new approach to modelling metallic glass atomic structures by solving three long-standing problems: we discover a new family of structural defects that discourage glass formation; we impose efficient local packing around all atoms simultaneously; and we enforce structural self-consistency. Fewer than a dozen binary structures satisfy these constraints, but extra degrees of freedom in structures with three or more different atom sizes significantly expand the number of relatively stable, ‘bulk' metallic glasses. The present work gives a new approach towards achieving the long-sought goal of a predictive capability for bulk metallic glasses. PMID:26370667

  12. A predictive structural model for bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Laws, K J; Miracle, D B; Ferry, M

    2015-09-15

    Great progress has been made in understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses, but there is still no clear connection between atomic structure and glass-forming ability. Here we give new insights into perhaps the most important question in the field of amorphous metals: how can glass-forming ability be predicted from atomic structure? We give a new approach to modelling metallic glass atomic structures by solving three long-standing problems: we discover a new family of structural defects that discourage glass formation; we impose efficient local packing around all atoms simultaneously; and we enforce structural self-consistency. Fewer than a dozen binary structures satisfy these constraints, but extra degrees of freedom in structures with three or more different atom sizes significantly expand the number of relatively stable, 'bulk' metallic glasses. The present work gives a new approach towards achieving the long-sought goal of a predictive capability for bulk metallic glasses.

  13. Dietary heavy metal uptake by the least shrew, Cryptotis parva

    SciTech Connect

    Brueske, C.C.; Barrett, G.W. )

    1991-12-01

    Heavy metals from sewage sludge have been reported to concentrate in producers, in primary consumers, and in detritivores. Little research, however, has focused on the uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge by secondary consumers. The Family Soricidae represents an ideal mammalian taxonomic group to investigate rates of heavy metal transfer between primary and secondary consumers. The least shrew (Cryptotis parva) was used to evaluate the accumulation of heavy metals while maintained on a diet of earthworms collected from long-term sludge-treated old-field communities. This secondary consumer is distributed widely through the eastern United States and its natural diet includes earthworms which makes it a potentially good indicator of heavy metal transfer in areas treated with municipal sludge.

  14. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.

  15. Closed cell metal foam method

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Foamed metals and metal alloys which have a closed cellular structure are prepared by heating a metal body containing entrapped inert gas uniformly distributed throughout to a temperature above the melting point of the metal and maintaining the body at this temperature a period of time sufficient to permit the entrapped gas to expand, forming individual cells within the molten metal, thus expanding and foaming the molten metal. After cell formation has reached the desired amount, the foamed molten metal body is cooled to below the melting temperature of the metal. The void area or density of the foamed metal is controlled by predetermining the amount of inert gas entrapped in the metal body and by the period of time the metal body is maintained in the molten state. This method is useful for preparing foamed metals and metal alloys from any metal or other material of which a body containing entrapped inert gas can be prepared.

  16. Family planning Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Singarimbun, M

    1968-06-01

    The growth of family planning activities in Indonesia in the Postwar period is traced; and future prospects for family planning are assessed. Transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and supported by President Sukarno after Indonesian independence as a means of decreasing population pressure on the island of Java, are identified as the only official response to the population problem until 1965. In the face of the government's opposition to the idea of birth control as a population control measure, the activities of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) after its founding in 1957 were limited to advising mothers on spacing of their children for health reasons. Statements made in support of a national family planning program by government officials at a 1967 IPPA Congress and on other occasions are noted. The major components of an approved national family planning program to start in 1969 are described. However, the government's policy as of late 1967 and early 1968 is characterized as one of mainly benevolent encouragement and help to voluntary organizations. The chief impediment to family planning in Indonesia is said to be a lack of motivation and the force of traditional values that favor large families. On the positive side are: 1) Studies showing considerable interest in birth control by the rural population; 2) A long history of traditional birth control practices; 3) The absence of outright opposition by religious groups to the principle of family planning. However, financial costs, the need for the training of personnel, and a general unawareness of the magnitude of the task lying ahead constitute other formidable obstacles.

  17. Familial classic trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Fernández Rodríguez, B; Simonet, C; Cerdán, D M; Morollón, N; Guerrero, P; Tabernero, C; Duarte, J

    2017-03-24

    The classic form of trigeminal neuralgia is usually sporadic (no familial clustering). However, around 2% of all cases of trigeminal neuralgia may be familial. Describing this entity may be useful for diagnosing this process and may also be key to determining the underlying causes of sporadic classical trigeminal neuralgia. We report on cases in a series of 5 families with at least 2 members with classic trigeminal neuralgia, amounting to a total of 11 cases. We recorded cases of familial classical trigeminal neuralgia between March 2014 and March 2015 by systematically interviewing all patients with a diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia who visited the neurology department on an outpatient basis. In our sample, most patients with familial classic trigeminal neuralgia were women. Mean age at onset was 62.9±13.93 years, decreasing in subsequent generations. V2 was the most frequently affected branch. Most of our patients responded well to medical treatment, and surgery was not effective in all cases. These family clusters support the hypothesis that classic trigeminal neuralgia may have a genetic origin. Several causes have been suggested, including inherited anatomical changes affecting the base of the skull which would promote compression of the trigeminal nerve by vascular structures, familial AHT (resulting in tortuous vessels that would compress the trigeminal nerve), and mutations in the gene coding for calcium channels leading to hyperexcitability. Classic trigeminal neuralgia may be an autosomal dominant disorder displaying genetic anticipation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal and cofactor insertion.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Ralf R; Smith, Alison G; Marquet, Andree; Warren, Martin J

    2007-10-01

    Cells require metal ions as cofactors for the assembly of metalloproteins. Principally one has to distinguish between metal ions that are directly incorporated into their cognate sites on proteins and those metal ions that have to become part of prosthetic groups, cofactors or complexes prior to insertion of theses moieties into target proteins. Molybdenum is only active as part of the molybdenum cofactor, iron can be part of diverse Fe-S clusters or of the heme group, while copper ions are directly delivered to their targets. We will focus in greater detail on molybdenum metabolism because molybdenum metabolism is a good example for demonstrating the role and the network of metals in metabolism: each of the three steps in the pathway of molybdenum cofactor formation depends on a different metal (iron, copper, molybdenum) and also the enzymes finally harbouring the molybdenum cofactor need additional metal-containing groups to function (iron sulfur-clusters, heme-iron).

  19. Light metal production

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  20. Metal Foam Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the ballistic performance of metallic foam sandwich structures with honeycomb structures. Honeycomb sandwich structures, consisting of metallic or composite facesheets and honeycomb cores, are often used in spacecraft construction due to their light-weight and structural stiffness. Honeycomb panels, however, are considered rather poor candidates for protection from micrometeoroid orbital debris (MMOD) particles because the honeycomb channels the debris cloud from MMOD impacts on outer facesheet causing a concentrated load on the second facesheet. Sandwich structures with light-weight, open-cell metallic cores and metal or composite facesheets provide improved MMOD protection because channeling does not occur and because the core is more effective at disrupting hypervelocity impacts then honeycomb. This paper describes hypervelocity impact tests on metallic foam sandwich structures (aluminum and titanium) with metallic facesheets, compare them to equivalent mass and thickness honeycomb panels, based on the results of hypervelocity impact tests.

  1. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  2. Supported metal alloy catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Barrera, Joseph; Smith, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A process of preparing a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride including reacting a Group IV, V, or VI metal amide complex with ammonia to obtain an intermediate product; and, heating the intermediate product to temperatures and for times sufficient to form a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride is provided together with the product of the process and a process of reforming an n-alkane by use of the product.

  3. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  4. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

  5. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  6. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to...

  7. Engaging Families in In-Home Family Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald W.; Koley, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Boys Town has created a program called In-Home Family Services to deliver help to families in stress. In-home family intervention programs have become widely used to help more families who are at risk and experiencing difficulties with a wide range of problems including domestic violence, child behavior problems, parent-child and family…

  8. Family Theme Group: Networking Skills, the Family and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John N.; And Others

    This paper describes the family-theme group, a group approach to working with schizophrenics based on the assumptions that: (1) family dynamics are important variables in the development and maintenance of schizophrenia; (2) schizophrenic families have numerous maladaptive qualities not present in normal families; and (3) hospitalization of…

  9. Family Support & Health Care: Working Together for Healthy Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.; Ahsan, Nilofer, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Family Resource Coalition of America examines partnerships between family support programs and health care providers, forged to ensure that the comprehensive needs of families are met. The report begins with two articles, "Family Support and the Emerging Health System" and "Social and Economic Issues Affecting…

  10. Family Support and Resources in Families Having Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew J.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study designed to assess two measures of family functioning for families with children with disabilities: the Family Support Scale (FSS) and the Family Resource Scale (FRS). The FSS is an 18-item questionnaire that measures the amount of perceived support given to the parents of young children with…

  11. Mervyn's Family-to-Family Initiative in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Lori; And Others

    Family-to-Family, a collaboration between community colleges, public agencies, and businesses that is funded by Mervyn's department stores, is a two-year effort to enhance the quality of family child care in Oregon. Its goals are to train at least 450 family child care providers, help at least 60 providers achieve national accreditation, and…

  12. Education, Parenting and Family: The Social Geographies of Family Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainwright, Emma; Marandet, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between education, parenting and family through the prism and particularities of family learning. Family learning is an example of an educational initiative, primarily aimed at parents and linked to wider policy concerns, which can be explored through a mapping of its social geographies; family learning is…

  13. We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

  14. Engaging Families in In-Home Family Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald W.; Koley, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Boys Town has created a program called In-Home Family Services to deliver help to families in stress. In-home family intervention programs have become widely used to help more families who are at risk and experiencing difficulties with a wide range of problems including domestic violence, child behavior problems, parent-child and family…

  15. Use of family management styles in family intervention research.

    PubMed

    Alderfer, Melissa A

    2006-01-01

    Family management styles (FMSs) explain some of the complexities embedded in a family with a child who has chronic illness. The FMS typologies provide descriptions of family adjustment and management of care. These 5 distinct patterns may be valuable in tailoring and evaluating family interventions in research.

  16. Family Life and Sex Education Among Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Martha McClenny

    A sample of 218 black low-income mothers is used to investigate the mothers' perception of their need for family life and sex education for their entire family, attitude toward public school, family life and sex education, and the concept of the population crisis. This study focuses on low income families because this population has been most…

  17. Family Development and the Family Life Cycle: An Empirical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham; And Others

    The concept of family life cycle has become increasingly prominent in the study of family development--the formation, maintenance, change, and dissolution of marriage and family relations. An evaluation of this concept is accomplished by examining the relationships between three possible stratification schemes: stage of the family life cycle,…

  18. Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

  19. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution leaving a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180.degree. C. whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles.

  20. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-yi; Xu, Yun-fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-da; Wang, Hao-an; Wang, Wen-bo; Meng, Fan-guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-peng

    2015-02-24

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members.

  1. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-Yi; Xu, Yun-Fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-Da; Wang, Hao-An; Wang, Wen-Bo; Meng, Fan-Guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2015-02-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members.

  2. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-yi; Xu, Yun-fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-da; Wang, Hao-an; Wang, Wen-bo; Meng, Fan-guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-peng

    2015-01-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members. PMID:25708299

  3. Attitudes toward family planning.

    PubMed

    Gille, H

    1984-06-01

    Many of the 135 countries participating in the 1974 UN World Population Conference were far from accepting the basic human right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education, and means to do so. Considerable progress has been made since then, and the number of developing countries that provide direct government support for family planning has increased to over 60%. Many have liberalized laws and regulations which restricted access to modern contraceptive methods, and a growing number provide family planning services within their health care programs. A few have recognized the practice of family planning as a constitutional right. In late 1983 at the Second African Population Conference, recognition of family as a human right was strongly contested by several governments, particularly those of West Africa. in developed countries most of the women at risk of unwanted pregnancy are using contraceptives. Of the major developing regions the highest use level is in Latin America, wherein most countries 1/3 to 1/2 of married women are users. Levels in Asian countries range from up to 10% in Afghanistan, Nepal, and Pakistan to up to 40% in the southeastern countries. China, a special case, now probably exceeds an overall use level of 2/3 of married women. Contraceptive use is lowest in Africa. There is room for improvement even among many of the successful family planning programs, as access to contraceptives usually is not sufficient to overcome limiting factors. To ensure the individual's free choice and strengthen the acceptability and practice of family planning, all available methods should be provided in service programs and inluded in information and education activities. Family planning programs should engage local community groups, including voluntary organizations, in all aspects of planning, management, and allocation of resources. At the government level a clear political commitment to family

  4. Family meals and body weight. Analysis of multiple family members in family units.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jeffrey C; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-10-01

    Prior research suggests that frequent family meals are associated with lower body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents. The primary focus of this study was examining associations of reported frequency of family meals with reported BMI for multiple members of family units that included adults and adolescents. A secondary focus was examining settings for family meals and body weight (home and away from home). A cross-sectional survey recruited 327 individuals in 103 family units visiting one U.S. University. Results revealed that for individuals, frequency of family meals at home was inversely related with BMI, while frequency of family meals away from home was directly related with BMI. Family role analyses showed that frequency of family meals eaten by fathers and sons at home was inversely related to BMI, while for only fathers the frequency of family meals away from home was directly related to BMI. Full family unit analyses summed family member characteristics and found associations between family meal frequency and family BMI at home were inverse, but they were direct away from home. Multilevel regression models indicated that family level characteristics accounted for a substantial portion of the variability in body weight measures both at home and away from home. These findings reveal that meal settings, family roles, and full family units help to understand family meals and body weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metallic fuel safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Dunn, F. E.; Fenske, G. R.; Gabor, J. D.; Gruber, E. E.; Hughes, T. H.; Kalimullah, none; Kramer, J. M.; Miles, K. J.; Pedersen, D. R.; Spencer, B. W.; Tentner, A. M.; Tilbrook, R. W.; Wright, A. E.

    1989-02-01

    A survey of experimental and analytical results from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) safety program are presented, with a focus on metallic fuel safety performance. Experimental results from laboratory and in-pile tests are reviewed. Models of metallic fuel behavior for prediction of performance in reactor transients and accidents are summarized. Analyses of metallic fuel response in design basis accidents and anticipated transients without scram are presented. The experimental and analytical databases demonstrate the superior safety performance of metallic fuel in IFR design concepts.

  6. Light metals 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, W.

    1996-10-01

    Light Metals 1996 presents the proceedings of the technical sessions of the TMS Light Metals Committee at the 125th TMS Annual Meeting held in Anaheim, California, February 4--8, 1996. Developments and innovation in the aluminum and reactive metals industries were covered including basic studies as well as their use and fabrication. The topics encompassed ore and its processing, aluminum reduction, carbon technology, casting technology, recycling, reactive metals, separation processes and waste processing. A number of papers involved mathematical modeling while others were about equipment and applications. One hundred and seventy nine papers were processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aljabali, Alaa A A; Barclay, J Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P; Evans, David J

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. ≤35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.

  8. Metal Contacts on Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    alkali metal Na. The transition metals are all highly reactive with clean InP, and give a range of Schottky barriers between ohmic and 0.4 eV. We have...also investigated Schottky barriers for thick films of these metals deposited on clean cleaved (110) InP, surfaces, by I-V and C-V technLqueSg) This...interesting case. When deposited on clean GaAs (110) surfaces it yields a Schottky barrier height comparable with those for metals such as A, Ni, Ap and Au

  9. Effective family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A G

    1973-01-01

    Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly.

  10. [The LDL receptor family].

    PubMed

    Meilinger, Melinda

    2002-12-29

    The members of the LDL receptor family are structurally related endocytic receptors. Our view on these receptors has considerably changed in recent years. Not only have new members of the family been identified, but also several interesting observations have been published concerning the biological function of these molecules. The LDL receptor family members are able to bind and internalize a plethora of ligands; as a consequence, they play important roles in diverse physiological processes. These receptors are key players in the lipoprotein metabolism, vitamin homeostasis, Ca2+ homeostasis, cell migration, and embryonic development. Until recently, LDL receptor family members were thought to be classic endocytic receptors that provide cells with metabolites on one hand, while regulating the concentration of their ligands in the extracellular fluids on the other hand. However, recent findings indicate that in addition to their cargo transport function, LDL receptor family members can act as signal transducers, playing important roles in the development of the central nervous system or the skeleton. Better understanding of physiological and pathophysiological functions of these molecules may open new avenues for the treatment or prevention of many disorders.

  11. [Familial multiple cavernomatosis].

    PubMed

    Terriza, F; Amrani, Y; Asencio, J J; Goberna, E; Casado, A; Peralta, J I

    1997-04-01

    We present a family study of multiple cavernomatosis which affected a boy of six, his mother and two brothers. It was seen clinically as epileptic crises, focal neurological defects and frequent headaches. In our case, the condition started as a syndrome of intracranial hypertension with progressive headache and vomiting. During the illness, localizing neurological signs due to bleeding were seen. Amongst these were acute left hemiparesia and paralysis of vertical gaze. Other members of the family remain symptom-free. In a search for angiomas at other sites none were found in the patient or his family. Recently the gene giving rise to the familial cerebral cavernosa malformation has been found to be a locus on chromosome 7. We discuss the findings on neuro-imaging, emphasizing the importance of magnetic resonance (MR) both in diagnosis and finding affected asymptomatic family members, because of its great sensitivity and specificity. Angiography is not a suitable technique for this since they behave as hidden malformations. We also point out its importance as a way of following-up the illness and for evaluation of possible complications due to progressive growth or sudden haemorrhage, which may indicate the need for treatment. Finally we emphasize the different characteristics of MR signals in this type of lesion since cavernomatasa malformations are dynamic lesions.

  12. Differing ability to transport non-metal substrates by two RND-type metal exporters

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Otakuye; Kim, Eun-Hae; McEvoy, Megan M.; Rensing, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The metal-exporting systems CusCFBA of Escherichia coli and GesABC of Salmonella are RND-type multi-protein systems responsible for detoxification during metal stress. In this study the substrate range was determined for each metal transport system and possible amino acid residues important in substrate specificity identified. The Ges system, previously identified as a gold-efflux system, conferred resistance to the greatest number and variety of organic chemicals including chloramphenicol, not previously recognized as a substrate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GesB is most closely related to a class of RND transporters including MexF that have been shown to be responsible for exporting fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and biocides. However, many of the closest homologs of GesABC appear to have a role in metal resistance judging from the genetic context. In contrast, CusCFBA belongs to a distinct family of RND-type monovalent metal exporter systems containing a number of essential metal-binding methionines resulting in a much narrower substrate range. PMID:20497225

  13. Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.

    PubMed

    Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members.

  14. Fostering families' and children's rights to family connections.

    PubMed

    Landsman, Miriam J; Boel-Studt, Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Recent federal legislation strengthens children's and families' rights to family-centered practice by increasing the responsibility of child welfare agencies to identify and engage extended family members in providing care and support to children placed out of the home. Preliminary results from an experimental study of a federally funded family finding project found greater involvement of family, kin, and informal supports and a higher likelihood of reunification or relative placement compared with standard child welfare services.

  15. Ataxia telangiectasia: Family management

    PubMed Central

    Seshachalam, Arun; Cyriac, Sanju; Reddy, Neelesh; Gnana, Sagar T.

    2010-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive disease resulting in progressive degeneration of multiple systems in the body. Both A-T homozygote and heterozygote are at increased risk of developing malignancy. We report a family in which three generations were affected by this disorder. Our index case is a 12-year-old female child, born of second degree consanguineous marriage diagnosed to have ataxia telangiectasia at the age of four years, now presented with fever and neck swelling of one month duration. Family history suggestive of ataxia telangiectasia in maternal uncle and younger sibling was present. History of premature coronary artery disease and death in paternal grandfather was present. On evaluation, child was diagnosed to have Alk negative anaplastic large T cell lymphoma. Management included genetic counseling, examination of all the family members, identification of A-T homozygote and providing appropriate care, regular surveillance of the heterozygote for malignancy. PMID:20838492

  16. Characterizing gene family evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene families are widely used in comparative genomics, molecular evolution, and in systematics. However, they are constructed in different manners, their data analyzed and interpreted differently, with different underlying assumptions, leading to sometimes divergent conclusions. In systematics, concepts like monophyly and the dichotomy between homoplasy and homology have been central to the analysis of phylogenies. We critique the traditional use of such concepts as applied to gene families and give examples of incorrect inferences they may lead to. Operational definitions that have emerged within functional genomics are contrasted with the common formal definitions derived from systematics. Lastly, we question the utility of layers of homology and the meaning of homology at the character state level in the context of sequence evolution. From this, we move forward to present an idealized strategy for characterizing gene family evolution for both systematic and functional purposes, including recent methodological improvements. PMID:19461954

  17. [Familial hypercholesterolemia in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Jelassi, A; Jguirim, I; Najah, M; Maatouk, F; Ben Hamda, K; Slimane, M N

    2009-07-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia or autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia is characterized by raised serum LDL (low density lipoproteins)-cholesterol levels, which result in excess deposition of cholesterol in tissues, leading to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. Familial hypercholesterolemia results from defects in the hepatic uptake and degradation of LDL via the LDL receptor pathway. Familial hypercholesterolemia is commonly caused by a loss of function in the LDL receptor gene, or by a mutation in the gene encoding apolipoprotein B (APOB) or PCSK9 gene. In Tunisia, the frequency of this disease is about one of 165 for heterozygote. It is a higher frequency compared to most European countries, which is about one of 500 for heterozygote. Only five mutations in the LDLR gene were reported in this population. No mutations in the APOB or PCSK9 gene were reported.

  18. The sulfatase gene family.

    PubMed

    Parenti, G; Meroni, G; Ballabio, A

    1997-06-01

    During the past few years, molecular analyses have provided important insights into the biochemistry and genetics of the sulfatase family of enzymes, identifying the molecular bases of inherited diseases caused by sulfatase deficiencies. New members of the sulfatase gene family have been identified in man and other species using a genomic approach. These include the gene encoding arylsulfatase E, which is involved in X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata, a disorder of cartilage and bone development. Another important breakthrough has been the discovery of the biochemical basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a severe of all sulfatase activities. These discoveries, together with the resolution of the crystallographic structure of sulfatases, have improved our understanding of the function and evolution of this fascinating family of enzymes.

  19. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training.

  20. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…