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Sample records for art programmes evidence

  1. Art engagement and mental health: experiences of service users of a community-based arts programme at Tate Modern, London.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Eamonn; Weir, Hannele; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Ellis, Liz; Kyratsis, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    To examine the experiences of mental health service users who took part in an arts-based programme at Tate Modern, a major London art gallery. Exploratory qualitative design. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 10 mental health service users who had taken part in a community-based programme at Tate Modern. Additionally, six art educators from Tate Modern were interviewed. Concepts that emerged from the text were identified using thematic analysis. All participants valued the gallery-based programme. The three overarching thematic areas were: the symbolic and physical context in which the programme workshops were located; the relational and social context of the programme workshops; and reflections on the relationship between the arts-based programme and subsequent mental health. Art galleries are increasingly seen to function as vehicles for popular education with mental health service users. This study adds to the growing body of evidence related to how mental health service users experience and reflect on arts-related programmes targeted at them. This study indicates that emphasis on how users experience gallery-based programmes may contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between art and mental health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parenting Programmes: The Best Available Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Parenting programmes have been provided to a wide range of child and parent groups across a number of countries, but are they effective? This aim of this paper is to examine the findings from a number of systematic reviews that summarise the best available research evidence on the impact of these programmes on a range of parental and child…

  3. Community Arts for Health: An Evaluation of a District Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of a community arts for health programme in the UK involving the delivery of three separate projects targeted at disadvantaged areas. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation plans were drawn up for each project, which linked long-term goals, objectives, indicators of success and data…

  4. Improving Student Engagement in Commercial Art and Design Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford

    2015-01-01

    The continued viability of art and design programmes depends on our ability to produce graduates able to contribute successfully and confidently to the future of the creative industries. This in turn depends on our ability to lead students to develop both the ability and the motivation to learn. A significant proportion of our students however,…

  5. Exploring the theoretical foundations of visual art programmes for people living with dementia.

    PubMed

    Windle, Gill; Gregory, Samantha; Howson-Griffiths, Teri; Newman, Andrew; O'Brien, Dave; Goulding, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing international innovations for visual arts interventions in dementia care, limited attention has been paid to their theoretical basis. In response, this paper explores how and why visual art interventions in dementia care influence changes in outcomes. The theory building process consists of a realist review of primary research on visual art programmes. This aims to uncover what works, for whom, how, why and in what circumstances. We undertook a qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives of art programmes, and then synthesised these two pieces of work alongside broader theory to produce a conceptual framework for intervention development, further research and practice. This suggests effective programmes are realised through essential attributes of two key conditions (provocative and stimulating aesthetic experience; dynamic and responsive artistic practice). These conditions are important for cognitive, social and individual responses, leading to benefits for people with early to more advanced dementia. This work represents a starting point at identifying theories of change for arts interventions, and for further research to critically examine, refine and strengthen the evidence base for the arts in dementia care. Understanding the theoretical basis of interventions is important for service development, evaluation and implementation.

  6. Coffee, Cake & Culture: Evaluation of an art for health programme for older people in the community.

    PubMed

    Roe, Brenda; McCormick, Sheila; Lucas, Terri; Gallagher, Wendy; Winn, Andrea; Elkin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life. Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection. Museums and galleries are increasingly required to justify their expenditure, reach and impact and some are working in partnership with local councils, hospitals, schools and communities to improve access to their collections. There is a body of literature emerging that describes such initiatives but empirical evidence of their benefits is less developed. This article reports an evaluation of an art for health initiative - Coffee, Cake & Culture organised and delivered by Whitworth Art Gallery and Manchester Museum in 2012 for older people living in a care home and a supported living facility. The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss - dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff. The findings demonstrate there were benefits to the older people and their care staff in terms of wellbeing, social engagement, learning, social inclusion and creativity. These benefits were immediate and continued in the short term on their return home. The majority of older people and care staff had not previously been to the art gallery or museum and the programme encouraged creative arts and cultural appreciation which promoted social inclusion, wellbeing and quality of life. The programme is feasible and important lessons were identified for future planning. Further research involving partnerships of researchers, arts for health curators, artists, care staff, older people and their families is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Evaluation of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related counselling in a workplace-based ART implementation programme, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stenson, A L; Charalambous, S; Dwadwa, T; Pemba, L; Du Toit, J D; Baggaley, R; Grant, A D; Churchyard, G J

    2005-11-01

    Counselling about antiretroviral therapy (ART) is thought important to prepare patients for treatment and enhance adherence. A workplace-based HIV care programme in South Africa instituted a three-step ART counselling protocol with guidelines prompting issues to be covered at each step. We carried out an early evaluation of ART counselling to determine whether patients understood key information about ART, and the perceptions that patients and health care professionals (HCP) had of the process. Among 40 patients (median time on ART 83 days), over 90% answered 6/7 HIV/ART knowledge-related questions correctly. 95% thought counselling sessions were good. 93% thought ongoing counselling was important. Recommendations included the need for continuing education about HIV/ART, being respectful, promoting HIV testing and addressing the issues of infected partners and stigma. 24 participating HCP identified additional training needs including counselling of family and friends, family planning, sexually transmitted infections and running support groups. 90% of HCP thought that counselling guidelines were helpful. The programme appears to be preparing patients well for ART. Counselling should be offered at every clinic visit. Counselling guidelines were a valuable tool and may be useful elsewhere. The evaluation helped to assess the quality of the programme and to suggest areas for improvement.

  8. A fuller picture: evaluating an art therapy programme in a multidisciplinary mental health service.

    PubMed

    Brady, Catherina; Moss, Hilary; Kelly, Brendan D

    2017-03-01

    Art therapy has a long history in mental healthcare, but requires an enhanced evidence base in order to better identify its precise role in contemporary services. This paper describes an evaluation of an art therapy programme in an acute adult psychiatry admission unit in Ireland. A mixed method research design was used. Quantitative data were collected through a survey of 35 staff members and 11 service users. Qualitative data included free text comments collected in the survey and individual feedback from service users. Both methods aimed to assess the role of art therapy as part of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Thematic content analysis was employed to analyse qualitative data. Staff demonstrated overwhelming support for art therapy as one element within multidisciplinary services available to patients in the acute psychiatry setting, Qualitative feedback associated art therapy with improvements in quality of life and individual support, and emphasised its role as a non-verbal intervention, especially useful for those who find talking therapy difficult. Creative self-expression is valued by staff and service users as part of the recovery process. Recommendations arising from the research include continuing the art therapy service, expanding it to include patients under rehabilitation, provision of information and education sessions to staff, and further research to identify other potential long-term effects. The low response of staff and small sample in this study, however, must be noted as limitations to these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The Arts and Higher Education. Programme of Study into the Future of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ken, Ed.

    Issues concerning arts in higher education are considered in discussion papers, group reports, and recommendations from the fifth seminar of the Leverhulme Programme of the Study into the Future of Higher Education. In "The Issues," Peter Brinson and Ken Robinson suggest that the arts are vitally important for the quality of national…

  10. Art and Science Education Collaboration in a Secondary Teacher Preparation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-Jerez, William; Dambekalns, Lydia; Middleton, Kyndra V.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to record and measure the level of involvement and appreciation that prospective teachers in art and science education programmes demonstrated during a four-session integrated activity. Art and science education prospective teachers from a Rocky Mountain region university in the US worked in…

  11. Challenges in adopting evidence-based school drug education programmes.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Helen W

    2007-11-01

    The paper discusses the school-based challenges that may moderate the implementation of evidence-based drug education in schools. Knowledge about what constitutes an effective evidence-based drug education programme is discussed in relation to the challenge of delivery in the school setting. Research demonstrates that drug education should be engaging, incorporate interactive learning strategies, stimulate higher-order thinking, promote learning and be transferable to real life circumstances. This may difficult to accomplish in practice, as a range of contextual challenges and ideological assumptions may moderate the teacher's capacity to deliver a programme of this nature. Collaborative learning strategies are not the norm in schools and therefore teachers may find interactive drug education programmes difficult to adopt. Conflicting ideological assumptions about effective epistemological approaches to drug education may also direct the way in which teachers modify programmes in the local context. Teachers need professional training and support if they are to adopt successfully evidence-based school drug education programmes. This support may be enhanced if it includes whole school approaches to effective pedagogy and the development of pro-social classroom environments. Drug education research should take account of the complexities of implementation in the school setting and investigate further the professional and organisational support that teachers require in order to maintain high-quality provision in the school context.

  12. ESA and the arts: A programme in the making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, David

    2007-01-01

    Space exploration is arguably the greatest voyage of discovery ever undertaken and just as artists have traditionally accompanied the great ocean and land voyages of the past, so artists have been and are at the forefront of space voyages of the future. Increasingly, the European Space Agency (ESA) is being asked to support or participate in artistic and cultural events, largely as a result of its study into science fiction literature and artwork. The paper first gives an overview of the relationship between space and art by discussing art that has been sent into space, orbital sculptures, art on Earth seen from space, and performance art and dance in zero gravity. The paper then provides an update on ESA's involvement in some activities in this domain including the organization of science fiction and space art exhibitions, workshops and competitions, and a recently launched study into how ESA might use the European components of the International Space Station for artistic and cultural events to enable the public to better share the human experience of space missions and interact with the sights and sounds of space.

  13. Changes and Challenges in Music Education: Reflections on a Norwegian Arts-in-Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    With a recent research study on a Norwegian arts-in-education programme "The Cultural Rucksack" as its starting point, this article addresses policy changes in the fields of culture and education and possible implications these could have on music education in schools. Familiar debates on the quality of education and the political…

  14. Changes and Challenges in Music Education: Reflections on a Norwegian Arts-in-Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    With a recent research study on a Norwegian arts-in-education programme "The Cultural Rucksack" as its starting point, this article addresses policy changes in the fields of culture and education and possible implications these could have on music education in schools. Familiar debates on the quality of education and the political…

  15. Optimizing HIV/AIDS resources in Armenia: increasing ART investment and examining HIV programmes for seasonal migrant labourers

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sherrie L; Shattock, Andrew J; Kerr, Cliff C; Stuart, Robyn M; Papoyan, Arshak; Grigoryan, Trdat; Hovhannisyan, Ruben; Grigoryan, Samvel; Benedikt, Clemens; Wilson, David P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV prevalence is declining in key populations in Armenia including in people who inject drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men, prison inmates, and female sex workers (FSWs); however, prevalence is increasing among Armenians who seasonally migrate to work in countries with higher HIV prevalence, primarily to the Russian Federation. Methods We conducted a modelling study using the Optima model to assess the optimal resource allocation to meet targets from the 2013 to 2016 national strategic plan to minimize HIV incidence and AIDS-related deaths by 2020. Demographic, epidemiological, behavioural, and programme cost data from 2000 through 2014 were used to inform the model. The levels of coverage that could be attained among targeted populations with different investments, as well as their expected outcomes, were determined. In the absence of evidence of the efficacy of HIV programmes targeted at seasonal labour migrants, we conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine the cost-effective funding threshold for the seasonal labour migrant programme. Results The optimization analysis revealed that shifts in funding allocations could further minimize incidence and deaths by 2020 within the available resource envelope. The largest emphasis should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the optimal investment to increase treatment coverage by 40%. Optimal investments also involve increases in opiate substitution therapy and FSW programmes, as well as maintenance of other prevention programmes for PWID and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Additional funding for these increases should come from budgets for general population programmes. This is projected to avert 17% of new infections and 29% of AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to a baseline scenario of maintaining 2013 spending. Our sensitivity analysis demonstrated that, at current spending, coverage of annual testing among migrants of at least 43% should be achieved to warrant continuation

  16. Art and science education collaboration in a secondary teacher preparation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Jerez, William; Dambekalns, Lydia; Middleton, Kyndra V.

    2012-07-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to record and measure the level of involvement and appreciation that prospective teachers in art and science education programmes demonstrated during a four-session integrated activity. Art and science education prospective teachers from a Rocky Mountain region university in the US worked in partnership to produce a science-related art piece using a silk batik painting technique. This project incorporated the use of two hands-on activities (a sampler and a final piece). In addition, pre- and post-activity surveys helped researchers investigate whether an integrated activity led to changes in attitudes towards collaborative instruction among students from art and science education. A practical implication of these results could guide students' teaching assignments and professional careers. Sample: This project involved the participation of 34 prospective teachers enrolled in secondary art and science education pedagogical content courses at a public university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Design and method: Prospective teachers in art and science education programmes worked together in a four-session integrated activity for three consecutive years. Participants were tasked with the design of art pieces addressing a core concept from the secondary school science curriculum using the batik painting technique. This project included two hands-on activities (a sampler and a final piece). In addition, they responded to pre- and post-activity surveys. Results: Overall, the data show significant variation at pre- and post-survey, indicating that students had more knowledge after the study than before regarding the integration of art and science in the secondary school curriculum. The mean of interdisciplinary teaching ratings increased on all four target survey items according to the 10-point rating scale. Based on the results, the integrated art and science instructional approach significantly

  17. Exploring the Links Between Visual Arts and Environmental Education: Experiences of Teachers Participating in an In-Service Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savva, Andri; Trimis, Eli; Zachariou, Aravella

    2004-01-01

    An in-service teachers' training programme was designed aiming to encourage art teachers to learn through theoretical and artistic experiential activities in a specific environmental setting (Lemithou environmental education centre, Cyprus). The programme was based on the use of the environment as an educational resource, and sought to develop…

  18. Exploring the Links Between Visual Arts and Environmental Education: Experiences of Teachers Participating in an In-Service Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savva, Andri; Trimis, Eli; Zachariou, Aravella

    2004-01-01

    An in-service teachers' training programme was designed aiming to encourage art teachers to learn through theoretical and artistic experiential activities in a specific environmental setting (Lemithou environmental education centre, Cyprus). The programme was based on the use of the environment as an educational resource, and sought to develop…

  19. [An art education programme for groups in the psycho-oncological after-care].

    PubMed

    Geue, Kristina; Buttstädt, Marianne; Richter, Robert; Böhler, Ursula; Singer, Susanne

    2011-03-01

    In this paper the formal and contentual structure of the outpatient art education programme for oncological patients is presented. The group intervention was comprised of 22 separate sessions. The course consisted of 3 phases. The first unit helped to foster mutual understanding and to learn various experimental drawing techniques using a given topic. The second unit merged into the shaping of personal thoughts and feelings with the aim of encouraging self-perception and reflection. The aim in the third phase is to create a personal book. The effects of the intervention for the participants were examined in studies. The art therapist as well as the supervisor sees development of better coping strategies, contact with other patients and enhancement of scope of action through the regular activities as main effects. Participants reported the enlargement of means of expression, emotional stabilization, coping with illness, personal growth and contacts with other patients as meanings. This art education course enlarges the field of psycho-oncological interventions in outpatient care with a low-treshhold and resource-oriented creative programme.

  20. Ethnographic Evidence of an Emerging Transnational Arts Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Anni

    2015-01-01

    This article reports new ethnographic research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City. Noting the value of an ethnographic approach, the study investigated whether commonalities discovered in practitioners’ approaches are significant enough to constitute a generalisable participatory arts methodology, transcending significant contextual differences, and recognisable across national boundaries. Shared characteristics emerged in practitioners’ modes of engagement with groups, and strategies for catalysing change; clear convergences from which a core methodology in community-based participatory arts for change is distilled. It suggests the opening of liminal spaces in which participants can reflect, rehearsing fresh ways of engaging in transformative dialogues in relation to the world in which they live. This article presents the study findings as a grounded characterisation of ‘participatory arts practice’: a complex but potentially powerful mechanism, in use within numerous community health projects, and evident in diverse settings, despite little or no exchange of ideas between practitioners. PMID:26045637

  1. Acceptability and challenges of rapid ART initiation among pregnant women in a pilot programme, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Black, Samantha; Zulliger, Rose; Marcus, Rebecca; Mark, Daniella; Myer, Landon; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a critical intervention in the prevention-of-mother-to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. In South Africa, many HIV-infected pregnant women commence ART late in pregnancy, and as a result, the duration of ART prior to delivery is often insufficient to prevent vertical transmission. To address this, we designed an intervention for the rapid initiation of ART in pregnancy (RAP), where patient's ART preparation occurred during rather than before treatment commencement. Here we report on the acceptability and the challenges of the RAP programme. We conducted 7 key informant and 27 semi-structured interviews with RAP participants. Participants were purposefully selected based on ART-eligibility and stage in the pregnancy to post-partum continuum. Interviews were conducted in participants' home language by trained fieldworkers, with key informant interviews conducted by the study investigators. The data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Rapid initiation in pregnancy was acceptable to the majority of programme participants and protection of the woman's unborn child was the primary motivation for starting treatment. The key barrier was the limited time to accept the dual challenges of being diagnosed HIV-positive and eligible for life-long ART. Truncated time also limited the opportunity for disclosure to others. Despite these and other barriers, most women found the benefits of rapid ART commencement outweighed the challenges, with 91% of women initiated onto ART starting the same day treatment eligibility was determined. Many participants and key informants identified the importance of counseling and the need to make an informed, independent choice on the timing of ART initiation, based on individual circumstances. Acceptance of ART-eligibility improved with time on the programme, however, as women's principal reason for initiating ART was protection of the unborn child, monitoring and supporting adherence during

  2. The impact of an arts-based programme on the affective and cognitive components of empathic development.

    PubMed

    Zazulak, Joyce; Halgren, Camilla; Tan, Megan; Grierson, Lawrence E M

    2015-06-01

    Medical education research demonstrates that empathic behaviour is amenable to positive change when targeted through educational programmes. This study evaluates the impact of an arts-based intervention designed to nurture learner empathy through the provision of facilitated visual literacy activities. Health Sciences students (N=19) were assigned to two learning groups: a group that participated in a visual literacy programme at the McMaster Museum of Art and a control group that participated in the normal Health Sciences curriculum. All participants completed an inter-reactivity index, which measures empathy on affective and cognitive levels, prior to and following the programme. Those individuals assigned to the visual literacy programme also completed open-ended questions concerning the programme's impact on their empathic development. The index scores were subjected to independent within-group, between-test analyses. There was no significant impact of the programme on the participants' overall empathic response. However, sub-component analyses revealed that the programme had a significant positive effect on cognitive aspects of empathy. This finding was substantiated by the narrative reports. The study concludes that the affective focus of humanities-based education needs to be enhanced and recommends that learners are educated on the different components that comprise the overall empathic response.

  3. Creative arts as a public health resource: moving from practice-based research to evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Clift, Stephen

    2012-05-01

    There is growing international acceptance of the notion that participation in the creative arts can be beneficial for well-being and health. For over 30 years practical arts for health projects have been developed to support health care and promote health and well-being in communities. An increasing body of evaluation and research evidence lends weight to the value of such initiatives. However, the field of arts and health is complex and multi-faceted and there are challenges in moving beyond 'practice-based' research, towards building a progressive body of knowledge that can provide a basis for future 'evidence-based' practice in health care and public health. This paper reviews some of the population-level evidence from epidemiological studies on cultural participation and health, before considering research on active initiatives that draw on the creative arts in health care settings and communities to support health and well-being. The notion of a hierarchy of evidence is discussed in relation to arts for health initiatives and a plea is made for recognising the value of concrete case studies, qualitative research and the testimonies of participants and professionals alike in assessing both the value of creative arts activities and for understanding their impacts. Nevertheless, the need for robust controlled studies with precise measurable health outcomes is clear if we are to move towards the scaling up of arts interventions to achieve public health-level impacts from creative arts participation. A brief account of the current programme of research on singing and health that is underway at the Sidney De Haan Research Centre for Arts and Health is presented as a possible model for future research on arts and health.

  4. Assessment and the Quality of Educational Programmes: What Constitutes Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Sueellen; Jawitz, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    In a climate of growing accountability for Higher Education, there is an increased demand on assessment to play an evaluative role. National, professional and institutional quality assurance systems expect that the assessment of student performance can be used to evaluate the quality of teachers, learners, programmes and even institutions for the…

  5. Articulating Injustice: An Exploration of Young People's Experiences of Participation in a Conflict Transformation Programme That Utilises the Arts as a Form of Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on a study that explores young people's engagement with the Art: a Resource for Reconciliation Over the World (ARROW) programme. The programme utilises the arts to promote critical dialogue amongst young people growing up in divided communities around the world. Dialogue has been criticised for its inability to tackle…

  6. Articulating Injustice: An Exploration of Young People's Experiences of Participation in a Conflict Transformation Programme That Utilises the Arts as a Form of Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on a study that explores young people's engagement with the Art: a Resource for Reconciliation Over the World (ARROW) programme. The programme utilises the arts to promote critical dialogue amongst young people growing up in divided communities around the world. Dialogue has been criticised for its inability to tackle…

  7. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France-both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  8. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France—both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  9. The Impact of Part-Time Staff on Art & Design Students' Ratings of Their Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Mantz

    2014-01-01

    Art & Design receives ratings on a number of scales of the UK's National Student Survey (NSS) that are less strong than those for some other subject areas. Art & Design, along with performing arts, is characterised by a relatively high level of part-time (PT) staffing. PT staffing data are set against NSS ratings for post-92 universities…

  10. Proof of concept: Developing a peer reviewed, evidence-based, interactive e-learning programme.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Peter; Schoch, Monica; Black, Kirsten; Woods, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge and skill acquisition related to vascular access are traditionally individual institutional educational initiatives. Australia currently has no national evidence based education programme for renal nurses. A survey of Australian and New Zealand Nephrology Educators' conducted in 2009, identified the need for more effective and consistent delivery of clinical education for nurses using innovative, web-based approaches supporting the tenets of e-learning methodologies. This paper discusses the development, implementation and proposed evaluation of a peer reviewed Australasian e-learning programme on buttonhole cannulation. It will further highlight the benefits of inter-organisational partnerships and how these partnerships can facilitate positive change in teaching and learning practices. This project has unique characteristics that collectively provide value, distinction and innovation to nurses, patients and renal departments. As the e-learning programme was founded on a platform of evidence-based practice it is therefore easily transferable to an international context.

  11. Aesop: A framework for developing and researching arts in health programmes

    PubMed Central

    Fancourt, Daisy; Joss, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The field of arts in health is currently undergoing a burgeoning in activity. However, there remains a problem surrounding research into this field. Arts in health research can be confusing and is frequently misunderstood by those working in the arts and in health, artists, reviewers, researchers and funders. Aesop 1 is a framework specially devised to tackle these problems. It synthesises existing arts research methodologies, health research methodologies, health policy documents and reporting guidelines in order to guide projects right from the initial idea for an arts intervention, through the development and design of a research project, its delivery and its dissemination. This article outlines the rationale behind the framework and explains how it should be used, with the aim of facilitating the running of arts and health research projects and increasing their rigour and acceptance within both the arts and health communities. PMID:25544860

  12. Promoting evidence-based care through a clinical research fellowship programme.

    PubMed

    Milne, Donna J; Krishnasamy, Meinir; Johnston, Linda; Aranda, Sanchia

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a multidisciplinary critical appraisal and research utilization-training programme at one organization with the aim of demonstrating a potential approach to the challenge of ensuring practice is evidence based. Considerable time and attention is devoted to developing and evaluating new clinical innovations. Nevertheless, it is estimated that a quarter of patients continue to receive treatments that are unnecessary or potentially harmful. A cross-sectional qualitative evaluation survey of nurses and allied health staff participating in the training programme. After running the programme twice at this organization we sought to evaluate the impact of the programme. Participants were asked to write answers to open-ended questions to examine personal and professional outcomes of participation. All respondents found the programme to be worthwhile and beneficial to their everyday practice. Importantly, participants reported feeling more confident when discussing clinical issues within the multidisciplinary team. The majority have presented their work via oral presentations or in publications and many have gone on to enroll in higher degrees. A critical appraisal and research utilization programme, as described here, has benefits for clinicians in terms of building confidence, knowledge and skill acquisition and also for the organization in terms of provision of evidence-based care and quality and safety. It successfully addresses commonly reported barriers to research utilization. A programme such as the Clinical Research Fellowship increases clinicians' ability and confidence to generate research questions that are meaningful to practice and then investigate the issue in a rigorous and timely manner.

  13. Evidence-based medicine: the key to guidelines, disease and care management programmes.

    PubMed

    Friedman, N

    2002-07-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is based on the concept of applying best practice to the diagnosis or treatment of a single patient or clinical question, one patient at one time. Although this is useful as a practitioner seeing patients one at a time, it is limited in its application to populations or to single patients with multiple diseases. I will review how to apply EBM to the structure and implementation of population-based care management programmes. A review of the existing literature on the topic was undertaken in preparation for the First National Disease Management Conference-"Achieving seamless quality care across the continuum"-held between May 25 and 26, 2001. This material has been combined with experience and evidence of the author. EBM and practice form the basis of the development of evidence-based guidelines that help lay the path for populations of patients with specific conditions. Care and disease management are the programmes that have been developed to implement evidence-based guidelines and best practice and to produce optimal outcomes in populations with chronic conditions, either single or multiple. Examples are presented to further the understanding of the reader. To optimally improve the health of a population, chronic collaborative care programmes must be built and implemented that utilise best practice as defined by evidence in the literature.

  14. Educating Artists in Management--An Analysis of Art Education Programmes in DACH Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Christine; Strauss, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Labour force in the art sector is characterised by high qualification, but low income for those people who perform the core contribution in art, i.e. the artists. As artists are typically self-dependent in managing their business, they should have managerial skills besides those skills necessary to perform their artistic core activities. If the…

  15. Educating Artists in Management--An Analysis of Art Education Programmes in DACH Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Christine; Strauss, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Labour force in the art sector is characterised by high qualification, but low income for those people who perform the core contribution in art, i.e. the artists. As artists are typically self-dependent in managing their business, they should have managerial skills besides those skills necessary to perform their artistic core activities. If the…

  16. Art Experiments: Introducing an Artist-in-Residence Programme in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The role of the visual arts in early childhood education has long been recognised and valued as an essential component of the curriculum. The project featured in this writing stems from a collaborative relationship forged between a non-profit, community-based early education centre and community arts centre. As a result of this collaborative…

  17. The role and status of evidence and innovation in the healthy towns programme in England: a qualitative stakeholder interview study.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Denise May; Cummins, Steven; Sautkina, Elena; Ogilvie, David; Petticrew, Mark; Jones, Andy; Wheeler, Katy; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Healthy Community Challenge Fund commissioned nine 'healthy towns' in England to implement and evaluate community-based environmental interventions to prevent obesity. This paper examines the role of evidence in informing intervention development, innovation and the potential for programmes to contribute to the evidence base on the effectiveness of interventions that tackle population obesity. Twenty qualitative interviews with local programme stakeholders and national policy actors were conducted. Interview transcripts were coded and thematically analysed. Initial analyses were guided by research questions regarding the nature and role of evidence in the development and implementation of the healthy towns programme and the capacity for evidence generation to inform future intervention design, policy and practice. Stakeholders relied on local anecdotal and observational evidence to guide programme development. While the programme was considered an opportunity to trial new and innovative approaches, the requirement to predict likely health impacts and adopt evidence-based practice was viewed contradictory to this aim. Stakeholders believed there were missed opportunities to add to the existing empirical evidence base due to a lack of clarity and planning, particularly around timing, in local and national evaluations. A strong emphasis on relying on existing evidence-based practice and producing positive impacts and outcomes may have impeded the opportunity to implement truly innovative programmes because of fear of failure. Building more time for development, implementation and evaluation into future initiatives would maximise the use and generation of robust and relevant evidence for public health policy and practice.

  18. Are cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management programmes cost effective? A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, John Tayu; Lawson, Kenny D; Wan, Yizhou; Majeed, Azeem; Morris, Stephen; Soljak, Michael; Millett, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that countries implement population-wide cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management programmes. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to evaluate whether this recommendation is supported by cost-effectiveness evidence. Published economic evaluations were identified via electronic medical and social science databases (including Medline, Web of Science, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database) from inception to March 2016. Study quality was evaluated using a modified version of the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards. Fourteen economic evaluations were included: five studies based on randomised controlled trials, seven studies based on observational studies and two studies using hypothetical modelling synthesizing secondary data. Trial based studies measured CVD risk factor changes over 1 to 3years, with modelled projections of longer term events. Programmes were either not, or only, cost-effective under non-verified assumptions such as sustained risk factor changes. Most observational and hypothetical studies suggested programmes were likely to be cost-effective; however, study deigns are subject to bias and subsequent empirical evidence has contradicted key assumptions. No studies assessed impacts on inequalities. In conclusion, recommendations for population-wide risk assessment and management programmes lack a robust, real world, evidence basis. Given implementation is resource intensive there is a need for robust economic evaluation, ideally conducted alongside trials, to assess cost effectiveness. Further, the efficiency and equity impact of different delivery models should be investigated, and also the combination of targeted screening with whole population interventions recognising that there multiple approaches to prevention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. An Evidence-Based Continuous Professional Development Programme on Knowledge Integration in Physics: A Study of Teachers' Collective Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Berger, Hana; Bagno, Esther

    2008-01-01

    We describe an evidence-based continuing professional development programme on knowledge integration (KI) for high-school physics teachers. Sixteen teachers participated in the year-long programme (about 40 face-to-face lessons and in-between computerised interactions). The teachers experienced the KI activities as learners and then engaged in an…

  20. ‘A respite thing’: A qualitative study of a creative arts leisure programme for family caregivers of people with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pienaar, Lorinda

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the meanings of participating in a 5-week creative arts leisure programme designed for family caregivers of people with dementia, using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Eight carers attended and four who met the eligibility criteria agreed to be interviewed. Participants experienced the arts group as providing a sense of freedom and respite, strengthening identity through promoting achievement, offering social support through a collective focus on art- and craft-making and increasing resilience for coping with caring. Some found the 5-week programme too short. Benefits were linked to the security of knowing that loved ones with dementia were close by, being well cared for. Further research is needed into the long-term benefits of creative arts groups for promoting carer well-being. PMID:28070356

  1. Systematic review of the economic evidence on home visitation programmes for vulnerable pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Stamuli, Eugena; Richardson, Gerry; Duffy, Steven; Robling, Michael; Hood, Kerry

    2015-09-01

    A systematic review of the economic evidence on home visitation programmes for young or vulnerable pregnant women was undertaken to provide a summary of the existing literature of these interventions. Relevant studies were identified from a number of sources including large databases, free text search on Google Scholar as well as hand-searching of the obtained references. The search yielded a large number of papers, of which 12 were considered appropriate to be included in the review. These were either full or partial economic evaluations: four studies were cost-benefit analyses, three were cost-effectiveness analyses and the remaining were costing studies. The review highlighted the paucity of good quality economic evaluations in the area of home visiting programmes for young or vulnerable pregnant women. Methods varied substantially between the studies spanning from differing data sources (e.g. single randomized trials or meta-analyses) to different perspectives taken, cost items and outcomes included in the analysis. It is difficult to establish a coherent body of economic evidence for these interventions and draw a firm conclusion on their value for money. Home visiting programmes are complex interventions, with impact on the lives of mothers and their children. The funding of such interventions should be based on rigorous effectiveness and economic evidence. There is a need for well-designed economic evaluations which will follow the appropriate methodological guidelines and also take into account the complexity of such interventions. These analyses should preferably consider multiple perspectives and allow for the fact that the majority of the benefits accrue in the long-term future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. What Determines HIV Prevention Costs at Scale? Evidence from the Avahan Programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Shetty, Govindraj; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Expanding essential health services through non‐government organisations (NGOs) is a central strategy for achieving universal health coverage in many low‐income and middle‐income countries. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention services for key populations are commonly delivered through NGOs and have been demonstrated to be cost‐effective and of substantial global public health importance. However, funding for HIV prevention remains scarce, and there are growing calls internationally to improve the efficiency of HIV prevention programmes as a key strategy to reach global HIV targets. To date, there is limited evidence on the determinants of costs of HIV prevention delivered through NGOs; and thus, policymakers have little guidance in how best to design programmes that are both effective and efficient. We collected economic costs from the Indian Avahan initiative, the largest HIV prevention project conducted globally, during the first 4 years of its implementation. We use a fixed‐effect panel estimator and a random‐intercept model to investigate the determinants of average cost. We find that programme design choices such as NGO scale, the extent of community involvement, the way in which support is offered to NGOs and how clinical services are organised substantially impact average cost in a grant‐based payment setting. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26763652

  3. What Determines HIV Prevention Costs at Scale? Evidence from the Avahan Programme in India.

    PubMed

    Lépine, Aurélia; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Shetty, Govindraj; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Vassall, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Expanding essential health services through non-government organisations (NGOs) is a central strategy for achieving universal health coverage in many low-income and middle-income countries. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention services for key populations are commonly delivered through NGOs and have been demonstrated to be cost-effective and of substantial global public health importance. However, funding for HIV prevention remains scarce, and there are growing calls internationally to improve the efficiency of HIV prevention programmes as a key strategy to reach global HIV targets. To date, there is limited evidence on the determinants of costs of HIV prevention delivered through NGOs; and thus, policymakers have little guidance in how best to design programmes that are both effective and efficient. We collected economic costs from the Indian Avahan initiative, the largest HIV prevention project conducted globally, during the first 4 years of its implementation. We use a fixed-effect panel estimator and a random-intercept model to investigate the determinants of average cost. We find that programme design choices such as NGO scale, the extent of community involvement, the way in which support is offered to NGOs and how clinical services are organised substantially impact average cost in a grant-based payment setting. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessing Optimal Target Populations for Influenza Vaccination Programmes: An Evidence Synthesis and Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Baguelin, Marc; Flasche, Stefan; Camacho, Anton; Demiris, Nikolaos; Miller, Elizabeth; Edmunds, W. John

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccine policies that maximise health benefit through efficient use of limited resources are needed. Generally, influenza vaccination programmes have targeted individuals 65 y and over and those at risk, according to World Health Organization recommendations. We developed methods to synthesise the multiplicity of surveillance datasets in order to evaluate how changing target populations in the seasonal vaccination programme would affect infection rate and mortality. Methods and Findings Using a contemporary evidence-synthesis approach, we use virological, clinical, epidemiological, and behavioural data to develop an age- and risk-stratified transmission model that reproduces the strain-specific behaviour of influenza over 14 seasons in England and Wales, having accounted for the vaccination uptake over this period. We estimate the reduction in infections and deaths achieved by the historical programme compared with no vaccination, and the reduction had different policies been in place over the period. We find that the current programme has averted 0.39 (95% credible interval 0.34–0.45) infections per dose of vaccine and 1.74 (1.16–3.02) deaths per 1,000 doses. Targeting transmitters by extending the current programme to 5–16-y-old children would increase the efficiency of the total programme, resulting in an overall reduction of 0.70 (0.52–0.81) infections per dose and 1.95 (1.28–3.39) deaths per 1,000 doses. In comparison, choosing the next group most at risk (50–64-y-olds) would prevent only 0.43 (0.35–0.52) infections per dose and 1.77 (1.15–3.14) deaths per 1,000 doses. Conclusions This study proposes a framework to integrate influenza surveillance data into transmission models. Application to data from England and Wales confirms the role of children as key infection spreaders. The most efficient use of vaccine to reduce overall influenza morbidity and mortality is thus to target children in addition to older adults. Please

  5. Metacognitive training for patients with schizophrenia: preliminary evidence for a targeted, single-module programme.

    PubMed

    Balzan, Ryan P; Delfabbro, Paul H; Galletly, Cherrie A; Woodward, Todd S

    2014-12-01

    Metacognitive training is an eight-module, group-based treatment programme for people with schizophrenia that targets the cognitive biases (i.e. problematic thinking styles) thought to contribute to the genesis and maintenance of delusions. The present article is an investigation into the efficacy of a shorter, more targeted, single-module metacognitive training programme, administered individually, which focuses specifically on improving cognitive biases that are thought to be driven by a 'hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches' mechanism (e.g. jumping to conclusions, belief inflexibility, reasoning heuristics, illusions of control). It was hypothesised that a more targeted metacognitive training module could still improve performance on these bias tasks and reduce delusional ideation, while improving insight and quality of life. A sample of 28 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and mild delusions either participated in the hour-long, single-session, targeted metacognitive training programme (n = 14), or continued treatment as usual (n = 14). All patients were assessed using clinical measures gauging overall positive symptomology, delusional ideation, quality of life and insight, and completed two cognitive bias tasks designed to elucidate the representativeness and illusion of control biases. After a 2-week, post-treatment interval, targeted metacognitive training patients exhibited significant decreases in delusional severity and conviction, significantly improved clinical insight, and significant improvements on the cognitive bias tasks, relative to the treatment-as-usual controls. Performance improvements on the cognitive bias tasks significantly correlated with the observed reductions in overall positive symptomology. Patients also evaluated the training positively. Although interpretations of these results are limited due to the lack of an optimally designed, randomised controlled trial and a small sample size, the results are promising and warrant

  6. The Role of Arts-Related Information and Communication Technology Use in Problem Solving and Achievement: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Sudmalis, David

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 data set comprising over 190,000 15-year-old students in 25 countries, the current study sought to examine the role of arts-related information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' problem-solving skill and science and mathematics achievement. Structural equation…

  7. Employability, Knowledge and the Creative Arts: Reflections from an Ethnographic Study of NEET Young People on an Entry to Employment Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This paper draws on research into the experiences of young people classified as NEET (not in education, employment or training) on an employability programme in the north of England, and uses Basil Bernstein's work on pedagogic discourses to explore how the creative arts can be used to re-engage them in work-related learning. Whilst creating…

  8. The Role of Arts-Related Information and Communication Technology Use in Problem Solving and Achievement: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Sudmalis, David

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 data set comprising over 190,000 15-year-old students in 25 countries, the current study sought to examine the role of arts-related information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' problem-solving skill and science and mathematics achievement. Structural equation…

  9. Parallel Worlds of Education and Medicine: Art, Science, and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act is comprised of four pillars, one of which is "proven education methods." This paper attempts to provide a historical context for the development of evidence-based education by examining its foundation in medical practice. Next, the rationale for evidence of educational effectiveness based on a scientific…

  10. [Traces and evidence of pathology in the figurative arts].

    PubMed

    Giampalmo, A

    1994-02-01

    This study is interested in figurative works of the past in which the artist had seemingly no purpose to illustrate pathological manifestations and their display was merely casual. It deals with both scientific and humanistic aspects and is of relevance to pathologists, in that it provides further insights into the epidemiology of some disease. Also, it contributes to an ever increasing progress of knowledge of historical and geographical pathology. The author has been carrying out this study without following a definite pattern, guided only by chance and curiosity, and discovering that artists could sometimes portray to perfection malformations and morbid conditions which would later be identified and classified in medicine, thus anticipating and even emphasizing the expressiveness of descriptions in scientific works. In his study, referring to paleopathology (therefore, not necessarily only very ancient), the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases found and to dwell in particular on two conditions, dwarfishness and endemic goitre, whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts. Representations of dwarfishness, in several of their genotypic and phenotypic variations, exist particularly in ancient Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek, Roman and, in the American continent, pre-columbian art; and then, again in Europe, mostly in 15th and 16th century art, but also in the following centuries, in which statues of dwarfs and malformed people were placed even in public and private gardens as ornaments. There are mainly representations of primary digenetic dwarfishness (total or partial chondrodysplasia, Lobstein type osteopsathyrosis, Hurler and Morquio diseases and other thesaurismoses), but also secondary (dysendocrinous-hipopituitaric and hypothyroid-, and due to different types of rickets and to vertebral tuberculosis of Pott). Representations of dwarfs of different types are shown and commented, from the most ancient, through the masterpiece

  11. IGRT/ART phantom with programmable independent rib cage and tumor motion

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Olivier C. L.; Mills, John A.; Land, Imke; Mulholl, Pete; Menary, Paul; Crichton, Robert; Wilson, Adrian; Sage, John; Anna, Morenc; Depuydt, Tom

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of the Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radiation Oncology (MAESTRO) thorax phantom, a new anthropomorphic moving ribcage combined with a 3D tumor positioning system to move target inserts within static lungs. Methods: The new rib cage design is described and its motion is evaluated using Vicon Nexus, a commercial 3D motion tracking system. CT studies at inhale and exhale position are used to study the effect of rib motion and tissue equivalence. Results: The 3D target positioning system and the rib cage have millimetre accuracy. Each axis of motion can reproduce given trajectories from files or individually programmed sinusoidal motion in terms of amplitude, period, and phase shift. The maximum rib motion ranges from 7 to 20 mm SI and from 0.3 to 3.7 mm AP with LR motion less than 1 mm. The repeatability between cycles is within 0.16 mm root mean square error. The agreement between CT electron and mass density for skin, ribcage, spine hard and inner bone as well as cartilage is within 3%. Conclusions: The MAESTRO phantom is a useful research tool that produces programmable 3D rib motions which can be synchronized with 3D internal target motion. The easily accessible static lungs enable the use of a wide range of inserts or can be filled with lung tissue equivalent and deformed using the target motion system.

  12. IGRT/ART phantom with programmable independent rib cage and tumor motion

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Olivier C. L.; Mills, John A.; Land, Imke; Mulholl, Pete; Menary, Paul; Crichton, Robert; Wilson, Adrian; Sage, John; Anna, Morenc; Depuydt, Tom

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of the Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radiation Oncology (MAESTRO) thorax phantom, a new anthropomorphic moving ribcage combined with a 3D tumor positioning system to move target inserts within static lungs. Methods: The new rib cage design is described and its motion is evaluated using Vicon Nexus, a commercial 3D motion tracking system. CT studies at inhale and exhale position are used to study the effect of rib motion and tissue equivalence. Results: The 3D target positioning system and the rib cage have millimetre accuracy. Each axis of motion can reproduce given trajectories from files or individually programmed sinusoidal motion in terms of amplitude, period, and phase shift. The maximum rib motion ranges from 7 to 20 mm SI and from 0.3 to 3.7 mm AP with LR motion less than 1 mm. The repeatability between cycles is within 0.16 mm root mean square error. The agreement between CT electron and mass density for skin, ribcage, spine hard and inner bone as well as cartilage is within 3%. Conclusions: The MAESTRO phantom is a useful research tool that produces programmable 3D rib motions which can be synchronized with 3D internal target motion. The easily accessible static lungs enable the use of a wide range of inserts or can be filled with lung tissue equivalent and deformed using the target motion system.

  13. Loss to follow-up among children in pre-ART care under the National AIDS Programme, Tamil Nadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Chinnakali, P.; Rajendran, M.; Valan, A. S.; Rewari, B. B.; Swaminathan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Setting: Children aged <15 years constitute 7% of all people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in India. A previous study from an antiretroviral therapy (ART) centre in south India reported 82% loss to follow-up (LTFU) among children in pre-ART care (2006–2011). Objective: To assess the proportion of LTFU within 1 year of registration among HIV-infected children (aged < 15 years) registered in all 43 ART centres in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, during the year 2012. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study involving a review of programme records. Results: Of 656 children registered for HIV care, 20 (3%) were not assessed for ART eligibility. Of those remaining, 226 (36%) were not ART eligible and entered pre-ART care. Among these, at 1 year of registration, 50 (22%) were LTFU, 40 (18%) were transferred out and 136 (60%) were retained in care at the same centre. The child's age, sex, World Health Organization stage or occurrence of opportunistic infection were not associated with LTFU. Conclusion: One in five children registered under pre-ART care were lost to follow-up. Stronger measures to prevent LTFU and reinforce retrieval actions are necessary in the existing National HIV Programme. PMID:28695080

  14. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme.

    PubMed

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme-biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence.

  15. From evidence to action? Challenges to policy change and programme delivery for malaria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Jane; Hill, Jenny; Yartey, Juliana; Robalo, Magda; Serufilira, Antoine; Ba-Nguz, Antoinette; Roman, Elaine; Palmer, Ayo; Asamoa, Kwame; Steketee, Richard

    2007-02-01

    This paper discusses the factors that influence whether strategies for preventing and treating malaria in pregnancy are successfully translated into national policy and programme implementation, and identifies key operational research issues. Countries require guidance on how to assess the effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the context of increasing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. At the same time, data on the safety and efficacy of alternatives to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention and treatment are urgently needed. Systematic examination of the cultural and operational constraints to delivery and uptake of IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and use of insecticide-treated nets would provide a rational basis for strategies aimed at improving coverage. Standardised methodology must be used to monitor IPTp coverage and to compare different approaches for scaling-up the delivery of insecticide-treated nets to pregnant women. Adequate budgetary provision for the implementation of policy and for operational research to improve programme delivery should be included in national applications to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The provision of clear policy guidance on malaria in pregnancy and its translation into evidence-based guidelines that are made widely available at a country level are central to improving malaria control in this particularly vulnerable group.

  16. From ignorance to evidence? The use of programme evaluation in conservation: Evidence from a Delphi survey of conservation experts.

    PubMed

    Curzon, Hannah Fay; Kontoleon, Andreas

    2016-09-15

    Persistent gaps in the evidence base regarding the performance of conservation policies has put pressure on the conservation policy field to adopt 'best practice' programme evaluation methods. These are methods that account for the counterfactual and are able to attribute causality between a conservation policy and specific observable environmental and social impacts. Despite this pressure, use of such methods continues to be rare. This paper uses the Delphi technique to provide the first systematic assessment of the reasons behind the apparent hesitation of conservation practitioners to adopt rigorous policy impact evaluation methods. The Delphi study consisted of two online questionnaires conducted on conservation policy experts. The results presented confirm that the use of rigorous impact evaluation methods in conservation is still very limited but this, crucially, is not because conservationists are ignorant of these methods or their advantages. In fact, considerable effort is being made to develop and improve evidence standards but these efforts have largely been thwarted by large financial and time related constraints that mean even elementary evaluations are hard to achieve. The results from this Delphi study allow us to provide more realistic recommendations on how impact evaluation studies can be more widely embraced and implemented in conservation practice.

  17. Core components for effective infection prevention and control programmes: new WHO evidence-based recommendations.

    PubMed

    Storr, Julie; Twyman, Anthony; Zingg, Walter; Damani, Nizam; Kilpatrick, Claire; Reilly, Jacqui; Price, Lesley; Egger, Matthias; Grayson, M Lindsay; Kelley, Edward; Allegranzi, Benedetta

    2017-01-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAI) are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage. Given the limited availability of IPC evidence-based guidance and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to prioritize the development of global recommendations on the core components of effective IPC programmes both at the national and acute health care facility level, based on systematic literature reviews and expert consensus. The aim of the guideline development process was to identify the evidence and evaluate its quality, consider patient values and preferences, resource implications, and the feasibility and acceptability of the recommendations. As a result, 11 recommendations and three good practice statements are presented here, including a summary of the supporting evidence, and form the substance of a new WHO IPC guideline.

  18. Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arviso, Kathern; And Others

    Designed as a helpful guide and "how-to-do-it" outline for those on the Navajo Reservation who work with children, this guide is arranged to offer quick reference and simple projects requiring the minimum of materials. The projects are designed to meet the Navajo child's art needs based on the belief that the art program of the…

  19. Lost in translation: the question of evidence linking community-based arts and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Putland, Christine

    2008-03-01

    Reflecting a wider preoccupation with 'evidence-based-policy', the effectiveness of community-based arts practice designed to promote individual and community level health and well-being is in the spotlight. Evidence is said to remain elusive despite the proliferation of initiatives and government investment. Responses to this issue can broadly be characterized as health perspectives (calling for more scientific approaches to evaluation research that go beyond anecdote and opinion) and arts perspectives (concerned about reductive measures and narrowly prescribed social outcomes). This article seeks to advance an intersectoral dialogue by highlighting the tensions within present approaches and canvassing alternative frameworks.

  20. O knowledge, where art thou? Evidence and suspected appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Boehnert, Markus U; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2009-12-01

    Much effort goes into developing and publishing guidelines which physicians fail to implement. We feel that major discrepancies still exist between theory and reality and that the translational approach to this aspect of medical care has not yet established itself. We therefore decided to investigate in an exemplary audit how liberally inappropriate imaging is used in our emergency department (ED) to rule out acute appendicitis. Our electronic medical record ED database 'Qualicare' (http://www.qualidoc.ch) was searched using the 'appendicitis' sub data base. The frequency and accuracy of abdominal imaging was determined in patients with clinically suspected appendicitis on admission over a 5-year period at a university hospital emergency unit. In total, 272 (41.2%) of the 577 patients were male and 305 (46.3%) were female. The attending physicians ordered abdominal X-rays in 133 patients, abdominal ultrasounds in 319, and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scans in 93 patients. 125 patients underwent more than one imaging procedure. In all, 85/125 patients received a combination of X-rays, ultrasound and CT scanning! Physicians are often insecure about indications for surgery and therefore order useless imaging procedures. The reliability of such procedures in excluding acute appendicitis is limited, which was confirmed by our results. Although evidence-based medicine guidelines exist, they are neglected for many reasons. Future academic efforts should therefore focus more on knowledge translation and the implementation of existing knowledge by heightening awareness, rather than on simply creating new guidelines.

  1. [Sustainable Implementation of Evidence-Based Programmes in Health Promotion: A Theoretical Framework and Concept of Interactive Knowledge to Action].

    PubMed

    Rütten, A; Wolff, A; Streber, A

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses 2 current issues in the field of public health research: (i) transfer of scientific knowledge into practice and (ii) sustainable implementation of good practice projects. It also supports integration of scientific and practice-based evidence production. Furthermore, it supports utilisation of interactive models that transcend deductive approaches to the process of knowledge transfer. Existing theoretical approaches, pilot studies and thoughtful conceptual considerations are incorporated into a framework showing the interplay of science, politics and prevention practice, which fosters a more sustainable implementation of health promotion programmes. The framework depicts 4 key processes of interaction between science and prevention practice: interactive knowledge to action, capacity building, programme adaptation and adaptation of the implementation context. Ensuring sustainability of health promotion programmes requires a concentrated process of integrating scientific and practice-based evidence production in the context of implementation. Central to the integration process is the approach of interactive knowledge to action, which especially benefits from capacity building processes that facilitate participation and systematic interaction between relevant stakeholders. Intense cooperation also induces a dynamic interaction between multiple actors and components such as health promotion programmes, target groups, relevant organisations and social, cultural and political contexts. The reciprocal adaptation of programmes and key components of the implementation context can foster effectiveness and sustainability of programmes. Sustainable implementation of evidence-based health promotion programmes requires alternatives to recent deductive models of knowledge transfer. Interactive approaches prove to be promising alternatives. Simultaneously, they change the responsibilities of science, policy and public health practice. Existing boundaries

  2. [Web, workshops, e-learning for Quality improvement. An Evidence-based Medicine educational programme].

    PubMed

    Rabensteiner, Veronika; Hofer, Brigitte; Meier, Horand; De Fiore, Luca

    2007-03-01

    EBM is 15 years old. At present the main challenge seems to be to overcome the problems that prevent EBM from being widely adopted by physicians, nurses, and health managers. Several methods for teaching and learning EBM have been evaluated and an open debate on their efficacy is underway. EBM teaching must be considered as a preliminary step to the continuing medical education process and a prerequisite of continuing professional development aimed to making learning relational, ethical, and managerial skills easier. The Continuing Medical Education Office of the Autonomous Province of Bozen, Italy, started an educational programme aimed at disseminating the evidence-based approach in healthcare. Hospital doctors, general practitioners, nurses, psychologists and health managers must gain, apply, integrate, and share evidence-based knowledge in order to improve patient health. This paper reports the encouraging preliminary results of the Project, and explains the relevance of sharing and accessing a virtual medical library, integrated by consistent e-learning courses and by a series of educational meetings among a small number of participants. It also describes the next steps for completing the educational project.

  3. Evidence for reversion towards anthelmintic susceptibility in Teladorsagia circumcincta in response to resistance management programmes

    PubMed Central

    Leathwick, Dave M.; Ganesh, Siva; Waghorn, Tania S.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining production and economic viability in the face of resistance to multiple anthelmintic actives is a challenge for farmers in many countries. In this situation, most farmers in New Zealand rely on the use of combination products, containing multiple actives with similar spectra of activity, in order to maintain control. However, there are concerns that use of combinations, once resistance has already developed to the individual actives, could rapidly lead to complete failure of all actives. This study followed seven farms, previously diagnosed with resistance to at least two classes of anthelmintic, which were implementing a tailored programme of ‘best practice parasite management’. The aim was to ascertain whether the programmes, which included the almost exclusive use of combination anthelmintics, were able to prevent resistance from developing further. Strategies implemented on each farm varied, but had consistent underlying principles i.e. to avoid over-use of anthelmintics; to minimise parasite challenge to susceptible stock; to maintain refugia of susceptibility and to ensure that only effective anthelmintics were used. Annual faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were undertaken in lambs on all farms to monitor anthelmintic efficacy over 5 years. The efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and levamisole was calculated and the changes in efficacy against Teladorsagia circumcincta assessed. Overall, there was a significant improvement in the effectiveness of both levamisole and ivermectin against T. circumcincta, and a positive but non-significant trend in efficacy of albendazole, i.e. there was evidence for reversion towards susceptibility. Hence, the almost exclusive use of combination anthelmintics, integrated with other resistance management strategies, did not result in further resistance development despite all farms exhibiting resistance to multiple actives at the outset. What-is-more, the measured increases in anthelmintic efficacy

  4. Evidence for reversion towards anthelmintic susceptibility in Teladorsagia circumcincta in response to resistance management programmes.

    PubMed

    Leathwick, Dave M; Ganesh, Siva; Waghorn, Tania S

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining production and economic viability in the face of resistance to multiple anthelmintic actives is a challenge for farmers in many countries. In this situation, most farmers in New Zealand rely on the use of combination products, containing multiple actives with similar spectra of activity, in order to maintain control. However, there are concerns that use of combinations, once resistance has already developed to the individual actives, could rapidly lead to complete failure of all actives. This study followed seven farms, previously diagnosed with resistance to at least two classes of anthelmintic, which were implementing a tailored programme of 'best practice parasite management'. The aim was to ascertain whether the programmes, which included the almost exclusive use of combination anthelmintics, were able to prevent resistance from developing further. Strategies implemented on each farm varied, but had consistent underlying principles i.e. to avoid over-use of anthelmintics; to minimise parasite challenge to susceptible stock; to maintain refugia of susceptibility and to ensure that only effective anthelmintics were used. Annual faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were undertaken in lambs on all farms to monitor anthelmintic efficacy over 5 years. The efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and levamisole was calculated and the changes in efficacy against Teladorsagia circumcincta assessed. Overall, there was a significant improvement in the effectiveness of both levamisole and ivermectin against T. circumcincta, and a positive but non-significant trend in efficacy of albendazole, i.e. there was evidence for reversion towards susceptibility. Hence, the almost exclusive use of combination anthelmintics, integrated with other resistance management strategies, did not result in further resistance development despite all farms exhibiting resistance to multiple actives at the outset. What-is-more, the measured increases in anthelmintic efficacy suggests

  5. School-based vaccination programmes: a systematic review of the evidence on organisation and delivery in high income countries.

    PubMed

    Perman, Sarah; Turner, Simon; Ramsay, Angus I G; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Utley, Martin; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-03-14

    Many countries have recently expanded their childhood immunisation programmes. Schools are an increasingly attractive setting for delivery of these new immunisations because of their ability to reach large numbers of children in a short period of time. However, there are organisational challenges to delivery of large-scale vaccination programmes in schools. Understanding the facilitators and barriers is important for improving the delivery of future school-based vaccination programmes. We undertook a systematic review of evidence on school-based vaccination programmes in order to understand the influence of organisational factors on the delivery of programmes. Our eligibility criteria were studies that (1) focused on childhood or adolescent vaccination programmes delivered in schools; (2) considered organisational factors that influenced the preparation or delivery of programmes; (3) were conducted in a developed or high-income country; and (4) had been peer reviewed. We searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2015 using MEDLINE and HMIC electronic databases. Additional studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Library and bibliographies. We extracted data from the studies, assessed quality and the risk of bias, and categorised findings using a thematic framework of eight organisational factors. We found that most of the recent published literature is from the United States and is concerned with the delivery of pandemic or seasonal flu vaccination programmes at a regional (state) or local level. We found that the literature is largely descriptive and not informed by the use of theory. Despite this, we identified common factors that influence the implementation of programmes. These factors included programme leadership and governance, organisational models and institutional relationships, workforce capacity and roles particularly concerning the school nurse, communication with parents and students, including methods for obtaining consent

  6. Rapid Reviews in Health Policy: A Study of Intended Use in the New South Wales' Evidence Check Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gabriel Mary; Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Haines, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Rapid reviews of research are a key way in which policy makers use research. This paper examines 74 rapid reviews commissioned by health policy agencies through the Sax Institute's Evidence Check programme. We examine what prompted policy makers to commission rapid reviews, their purpose, how and when they intended to use them, and how this varied…

  7. Rapid Reviews in Health Policy: A Study of Intended Use in the New South Wales' Evidence Check Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gabriel Mary; Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Haines, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Rapid reviews of research are a key way in which policy makers use research. This paper examines 74 rapid reviews commissioned by health policy agencies through the Sax Institute's Evidence Check programme. We examine what prompted policy makers to commission rapid reviews, their purpose, how and when they intended to use them, and how this varied…

  8. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  9. The liberal arts and nursing programme at the University of Maine, 1939-1956. A study of leadership behaviours and organisational structure.

    PubMed

    Hart, V

    2001-01-01

    The trend for nursing programmes affiliated with universities in the US began in 1909 but did not gain momentum until the 1960s with the demise of hospital schools of nursing. During the period of time covered in this study, beginning in the 1930s, a hybrid of the present day university-based nursing programme began to appear. These 'cooperative' programmes often sandwiched traditional hospital experience between years of university course work and involved a five-year commitment on the part of students. In 1939 a liberal arts and nursing programme was established at the University of Maine. It continued to operate until 1956 and then ceased to exist. In this descriptive historical study the author investigates why this particular programme was initiated, of what it consisted, and why it had failed. Primary sources accessed included original correspondence, curriculum descriptions, faculty and students reports, and administrative policies. Leadership and organisational behaviour theory was utilised as well as identification of the historical nursing backdrop. Oral history was also utilised for the purpose of verification of written data. Analysis of the data suggests implications for nursing educators and administrators, as well as telling a story of the power of nursing when viewed in the context of constituency groups in a sociopolitical model of organisations. This paper was first presented at the History of Nursing Millennium Conference in Edinburgh in July 2000.

  10. Cash transfer programme, productive activities and labour supply: Evidence from randomized experiment in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Solomon; Davis, Benjamin; Dewbre, Josh; Handa, Sudhanshu; Winters, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports analysis of the impact of Kenya’s Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme on the household decisions on productive activities using data from a randomized experimental design. Results show that the programme had a positive and significant impact on food consumption coming from home production, accumulation of productive assets, especially on the ownership of small livestock and on formation of nonfarm enterprise, especially for females. The programme has provided more flexibility to families in terms of labour allocation decisions, particularly for those who are geographically isolated. The programme was also found to have reduced child labour, an important objective of the programme. However we find very little impact of the programme on direct indicators of crop production. PMID:25663712

  11. Cash transfer programme, productive activities and labour supply: Evidence from randomized experiment in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Solomon; Davis, Benjamin; Dewbre, Josh; Handa, Sudhanshu; Winters, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports analysis of the impact of Kenya's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme on the household decisions on productive activities using data from a randomized experimental design. Results show that the programme had a positive and significant impact on food consumption coming from home production, accumulation of productive assets, especially on the ownership of small livestock and on formation of nonfarm enterprise, especially for females. The programme has provided more flexibility to families in terms of labour allocation decisions, particularly for those who are geographically isolated. The programme was also found to have reduced child labour, an important objective of the programme. However we find very little impact of the programme on direct indicators of crop production.

  12. Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, V.; Kanki, B.; Cousens, S.; Diallo, I.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sangaré, M.; Nikiema, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. FINDINGS: After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. CONCLUSION: Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time. PMID:11436473

  13. Visual art in hospitals: case studies and review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lankston, Louise; Cusack, Pearce; Fremantle, Chris; Isles, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Summary In 2006 a Department of Health Working Group on Arts and Health reported that the arts have ‘a clear contribution to make and offer major opportunities in the delivery of better health, wellbeing and improved experience for patients, service users and staff alike’. In this review we examine the evidence underpinning this statement and evaluate the visual art of three of Scotland's newest hospitals: the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, the new Stobhill Hospital, and the new Victoria Infirmary in Glasgow. We conclude that art in hospitals is generally viewed positively by both patients and staff, but that the quality of the evidence is not uniformly high. Effects may be mediated by psychological responses to colour hue, brightness and saturation. Colours that elicit high levels of pleasure with low levels of arousal are most likely to induce a state of calm, while those causing displeasure and high levels of arousal may provoke anxiety. The fact that patients frequently express a preference for landscape and nature scenes is consistent with this observation and with evolutionary psychological theories which predict positive emotional responses to flourishing natural environments. Contrary to a view which may prevail among some contemporary artists, patients who are ill or stressed about their health may not always be comforted by abstract art, preferring the positive distraction and state of calm created by the blues and greens of landscape and nature scenes instead. PMID:21127332

  14. Visual art in hospitals: case studies and review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Lankston, Louise; Cusack, Pearce; Fremantle, Chris; Isles, Chris

    2010-12-01

    In 2006 a Department of Health Working Group on Arts and Health reported that the arts have 'a clear contribution to make and offer major opportunities in the delivery of better health, wellbeing and improved experience for patients, service users and staff alike'. In this review we examine the evidence underpinning this statement and evaluate the visual art of three of Scotland's newest hospitals: the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, the new Stobhill Hospital, and the new Victoria Infirmary in Glasgow. We conclude that art in hospitals is generally viewed positively by both patients and staff, but that the quality of the evidence is not uniformly high. Effects may be mediated by psychological responses to colour hue, brightness and saturation. Colours that elicit high levels of pleasure with low levels of arousal are most likely to induce a state of calm, while those causing displeasure and high levels of arousal may provoke anxiety. The fact that patients frequently express a preference for landscape and nature scenes is consistent with this observation and with evolutionary psychological theories which predict positive emotional responses to flourishing natural environments. Contrary to a view which may prevail among some contemporary artists, patients who are ill or stressed about their health may not always be comforted by abstract art, preferring the positive distraction and state of calm created by the blues and greens of landscape and nature scenes instead.

  15. Balancing health care evidence and art to meet clinical needs: policymakers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Parker, Louise E; Ritchie, Mona J; Kirchner, Joann E; Owen, Richard R

    2009-12-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Although many believe that evidence-based practice (EBP) has great potential, critics have identified limitations including a focus on randomized clinical trial (RCT) evidence to the exclusion of other evidence types and a disregard for the art of medicine. Others have argued, however, that proper application of EBP involves reasoned consideration of a wide variety of information; thus, the dichotomy between medical science and art may be false. We explore the views of executive-level policymakers from the Veterans Health Administration, a leader in the EBP movement, regarding what constitutes evidence and the relative importance of evidence versus practical needs when determining clinical policy. Method We conducted 26 semi-structured qualitative interviews and performed a content analysis. Results Although informants generally believed in the value of EBP and the role of RCTs within it, they also valued other types of evidence. Further, they had concerns that were sometimes antithetical with strict adherence to an evidence-based approach. These included practical concerns, fit with organizational values and with local circumstances, resources, political pressures and patient needs. They were especially concerned about how to address medical conditions that affect many individuals or high-risk populations that have no evidence-based treatment. Conclusion When possible, health care practice should be evidence-based. When this is not possible, health care providers must turn to the art of medicine by using consensus-based best practices. Further, it is important for policymakers and researchers to work in concert to develop EBPs that are practical and meet needs.

  16. Learning about Teachers' Accomplishment in "Learning Skills for Science" Practice: The Use of Portfolios in an Evidence-Based Continuous Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherz, Zahava; Bialer, Liora; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2008-01-01

    The study in this paper was carried out in the framework of an evidence-based continuous professional development (CPD) programme in which teachers documented evidence about their practice in a portfolio. The context of the CPD was related to the "Learning Skills for Science" (LSS) programme, which advocates the incorporation of…

  17. Protocol for developing the evidence base for a national salt reduction programme for India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Praveen, Deversetty; Woodward, Mark; Maulik, Pallab K; Shivashankar, Roopa; Amarchand, Ritvik; Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Thout, Sudhir Raj; MacGregor, Graham; He, Feng; Reddy, K Srinath; Krishnan, Anand; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The scientific evidence base in support of salt reduction is strong but the data required to translate these insights into reduced population salt intake are mostly absent. The aim of this research project is to develop the evidence base required to formulate and implement a national salt reduction programme for India. Methods and analysis The research will comprise three components: a stakeholder analysis involving government, industry, consumers and civil society organisations; a population survey using an age-stratified and sex-stratified random samples drawn from urban (slum and non-slum) and rural areas of North and South India; and a systematic quantitative evaluation of the nutritional components of processed and restaurant foods. The stakeholder interviews will be analysed using qualitative methods to summarise the main themes and define the broad range of factors influencing the food environment in India. The population survey will estimate the mean daily salt consumption through the collection of 24 h urine samples with concurrent dietary surveys identifying the main sources of dietary sodium/salt. The survey of foods will record the nutritional composition of the chief elements of food supply. The findings from this research will be synthesised and proposals for a national salt reduction strategy for India will be developed in collaboration with key stakeholders. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the University of Sydney and the Centre for Chronic Disease Control in New Delhi, and also by the Indian Health Ministry's Screening Committee. The project began fieldwork in February 2014 and will report the main results in 2016. The findings will be targeted primarily at public health policymakers and advocates, but will be disseminated widely through other mechanisms including conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications, as well as to the participating communities. PMID

  18. The Impact of School Leadership Development: Evidence from the "New Visions" Programme for Early Headship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Briggs, Ann R. J.; Middlewood, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of one leadership development programme, drawing on a model developed by Leithwood and Levin (2004) for the Department of Education and Skills. The New Visions programme, offered by the National College for School Leadership, is aimed at new headteachers and adopts a process rich approach to leadership development.…

  19. Becoming ADEPT (Applying Diagnosis, Etiology, Prognosis, and Therapy Programme): delivering distance learning on evidence-based medicine for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hicks, A; Booth, A; Sawers, C

    1998-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) brings new challenges and opportunities for librarians. However, their ability to respond to this agenda is constrained by their difficulties in acquiring the requisite new skills and techniques while continuing to work in a busy information practice setting. The authors describe a joint initiative, between a specialist evidence-based healthcare information unit and a regional library network, to deliver training materials using a mixed workshop and distance learning format. The Applying Diagnosis, Etiology, Prognosis, and Therapy filters (ADEPT) Programme draws upon research conducted at McMaster University, Canada and, using techniques adapted from the teaching evidence-based medicine paradigm, seeks to equip health care librarians with the skills and techniques required to support evidence-based practice locally. The authors describe the thinking behind the programme, its main features, the extensive evaluation mechanisms incorporated into the course, the results of the evaluation and the lessons learnt. They conclude with a description of the way forward for participants on the programme who are adapting their newly acquired knowledge to their work situations. Further planned developments from the course's designers are also outlined briefly.

  20. Improving ART programme retention and viral suppression are key to maximising impact of treatment as prevention - a modelling study.

    PubMed

    McCreesh, Nicky; Andrianakis, Ioannis; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Strong, Mark; Vernon, Ian; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Oakley, Jeremy E; Goldstein, Michael; Hayes, Richard; White, Richard G

    2017-08-09

    UNAIDS calls for fewer than 500,000 new HIV infections/year by 2020, with treatment-as-prevention being a key part of their strategy for achieving the target. A better understanding of the contribution to transmission of people at different stages of the care pathway can help focus intervention services at populations where they may have the greatest effect. We investigate this using Uganda as a case study. An individual-based HIV/ART model was fitted using history matching. 100 model fits were generated to account for uncertainties in sexual behaviour, HIV epidemiology, and ART coverage up to 2015 in Uganda. A number of different ART scale-up intervention scenarios were simulated between 2016 and 2030. The incidence and proportion of transmission over time from people with primary infection, post-primary ART-naïve infection, and people currently or previously on ART was calculated. In all scenarios, the proportion of transmission by ART-naïve people decreases, from 70% (61%-79%) in 2015 to between 23% (15%-40%) and 47% (35%-61%) in 2030. The proportion of transmission by people on ART increases from 7.8% (3.5%-13%) to between 14% (7.0%-24%) and 38% (21%-55%). The proportion of transmission by ART dropouts increases from 22% (15%-33%) to between 31% (23%-43%) and 56% (43%-70%). People who are currently or previously on ART are likely to play an increasingly large role in transmission as ART coverage increases in Uganda. Improving retention on ART, and ensuring that people on ART remain virally suppressed, will be key in reducing HIV incidence in Uganda.

  1. How have ART treatment programmes changed the patterns of excess mortality in people living with HIV? Estimates from four countries in East and Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Slaymaker, Emma; Todd, Jim; Marston, Milly; Calvert, Clara; Michael, Denna; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Crampin, Amelia; Lutalo, Tom; Herbst, Kobus; Zaba, Basia

    2014-01-01

    Background Substantial falls in the mortality of people living with HIV (PLWH) have been observed since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, access and uptake of ART have been variable in many countries. We report the excess deaths observed in PLWH before and after the introduction of ART. We use data from five longitudinal studies in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda, members of the network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA). Methods Individual data from five demographic surveillance sites that conduct HIV testing were used to estimate mortality attributable to HIV, calculated as the difference between the mortality rates in PLWH and HIV-negative people. Excess deaths in PLWH were standardized for age and sex differences and summarized over periods before and after ART became generally available. An exponential regression model was used to explore differences in the impact of ART over the different sites. Results 127,585 adults across the five sites contributed a total of 487,242 person years. Before the introduction of ART, HIV-attributable mortality ranged from 45 to 88 deaths per 1,000 person years. Following ART availability, this reduced to 14–46 deaths per 1,000 person years. Exponential regression modeling showed a reduction of more than 50% (HR =0.43, 95% CI: 0.32–0.58), compared to the period before ART was available, in mortality at ages 15–54 across all five sites. Discussion Excess mortality in adults living with HIV has reduced by over 50% in five communities in sub-Saharan Africa since the advent of ART. However, mortality rates in adults living with HIV are still 10 times higher than in HIV-negative people, indicating that substantial improvements can be made to reduce mortality further. This analysis shows differences in the impact across the sites, and contrasts with developed countries where mortality among PLWH on ART can be similar to that of the

  2. Self-transfer and mortality amongst adults lost to follow-up in ART programmes in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Lynne S; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Ajose, Olawale; Ford, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    To ascertain estimates of adult patients, recorded as lost to follow-up (LTFU) within antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, who have self-transferred care, died or truly stopped ART in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, LILACS, IndMed and AIM databases (2003-2013) and IAS/AIDS conference abstracts (2011-2013) were searched for tracing studies reporting the proportion of traced patients found to have self-transferred, died or stopped ART. These estimates were then combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Twenty eight studies were eligible for inclusion, reporting true outcomes for 10,806 traced patients attending approximately 258 ART facilities. None were from outside sub-Saharan Africa. Twenty three studies reported 4.5-54.4% traced LTFU patients self-transferring care, providing a pooled estimate of 18.6% (95% CI 15.8-22.0%). A significant positive association was found between rates of self-transfer and LTFU in the ART cohort. The pooled estimates for unreported deaths were 38.8% (95% CI 30.8-46.8%; 27 studies) and 28.6% (95% CI 21.9-36.0%; 20 studies) for patients stopping ART. A significant decrease in unreported deaths from 50.0% (95% CI 41.5-58.4%) to 30.0% (95% CI 21.1-38.9%) was found comparing study periods before and after 31 December 2007. Substantial unaccounted for transfers and deaths amongst patients LTFU confirms that retention and mortality is underestimated where the true outcomes of LTFU patients are not ascertained. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Beneficial effects of a woman-focused development programme on child survival: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mushtaque

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports results from a prospective study of the impact of a woman-focused development programme on child survival in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. The programme was targeted to households owning less than 50 decimals of land and members selling more than 100 days of labour for living in a year. Programme components included formation of women's groups for saving and credit, training on skill development, functional literacy including legal and social awareness, and technical and marketing support to projects undertaken with the loan money from the organization. A total of 13,549 children born alive during 1988-97 in the study area were included in the study. Hazards of mortality during pre- and post-intervention periods were compared among the programme participants and non-participants controlling the effects of other relevant variables. There has been a substantial reduction in mortality during the post-intervention period; however, the reduction was much greater for infants whose mothers participated in the development programme compared to infants of non-participant mothers from similar socioeconomic background. In a relative sense, there has been a 52% reduction of the pre-intervention level hazard of death of children during infancy of participant mothers compared to 31% reduction for the infants of non-participant mothers from similar socioeconomic background. There had also been a substantial reduction in hazard of death during childhood (1-4 year age group), however, the reduction was statistically similar for all groups of children irrespective of their mothers' participation in the development programmes.

  4. An Implementation Study of Two Evidence-Based Exercise and Health Education Programmes for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Hip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, O. R. W.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E. C. M. P.; Klazinga, N. S.

    2004-01-01

    Implementation studies are recommended to assess the feasibility and effectiveness in real-life of programmes which have been tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We report on an implementation study of two evidence-based exercise and health education programmes for older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip. Three types of…

  5. An Implementation Study of Two Evidence-Based Exercise and Health Education Programmes for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Hip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, O. R. W.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E. C. M. P.; Klazinga, N. S.

    2004-01-01

    Implementation studies are recommended to assess the feasibility and effectiveness in real-life of programmes which have been tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We report on an implementation study of two evidence-based exercise and health education programmes for older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip. Three types of…

  6. Effective Programmes in Reading and Mathematics: Lessons from the Best Evidence Encyclopaedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarises findings from systematic reviews of research on primary and secondary mathematics, primary and secondary reading, and programmes for struggling readers. All reviews used a common set of procedures, requiring comparisons with control groups and duration of at least 12 weeks. Across hundreds of qualifying studies, a clear…

  7. Critical Factors Underlying Students' Choice of Institution for Graduate Programmes: Empirical Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbawuni, Joseph; Nimako, Simon Gyasi

    2015-01-01

    The growth in higher education industry has caused a tremendous increase in the number and type of colleges, polytechnics and universities offering similar academic programmes especially in business disciplines in Ghana. The resultant competition in the education industry makes it crucial for education managers to understand the latent factors…

  8. UN Global Action Programme and Education for Sustainable Development: A Critical Appraisal of the Evidence Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Daniel; Aubrecht, Elisabeth Lena; Brück, Maria; Ditges, Laura; Gathen, Lea; Jahns, Maximilian; Petersmann, Moritz; Rau, Jörn; Wellmann, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) proclaimed the years 2005 to 2014 the World Decade on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). As a follow up on the World Decade, the UN launched a Global Action Programme (GAP) that is designed to set the framework for international activities on ESD. The GAP focuses on five priority areas that are of high relevance…

  9. Teacher Performance and Student Learning: Linking Evidence from Two National Assessment Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Valencia, Edgar; Palacios, Diego; Santelices, Maria V.; Jiménez, Daniela; Manzi, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of a national, standards-based teacher evaluation programme by examining the relationship between teachers' evaluation results and their students' learning progress. We used census achievement data that assessed the same cohort of students at the end of 8th and 10th grade. We applied multilevel modelling and…

  10. Teacher Performance and Student Learning: Linking Evidence from Two National Assessment Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Valencia, Edgar; Palacios, Diego; Santelices, Maria V.; Jiménez, Daniela; Manzi, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of a national, standards-based teacher evaluation programme by examining the relationship between teachers' evaluation results and their students' learning progress. We used census achievement data that assessed the same cohort of students at the end of 8th and 10th grade. We applied multilevel modelling and…

  11. Obstacles to prior art searching by the trilateral patent offices: empirical evidence from International Search Reports.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tetsuo

    Despite many empirical studies having been carried out on examiner patent citations, few have scrutinized the obstacles to prior art searching when adding patent citations during patent prosecution at patent offices. This analysis takes advantage of the longitudinal gap between an International Search Report (ISR) as required by the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and subsequent national examination procedures. We investigate whether several kinds of distance actually affect the probability that prior art is detected at the time of an ISR; this occurs much earlier than in national phase examinations. Based on triadic PCT applications between 2002 and 2005 for the trilateral patent offices (the European Patent Office, the US Patent and Trademark Office, and the Japan Patent Office) and their family-level citations made by the trilateral offices, we find evidence that geographical distance negatively affects the probability of capture of prior patents in an ISR. In addition, the technological complexity of an application negatively affects the probability of capture, whereas the volume of forward citations of prior art affects it positively. These results demonstrate the presence of obstacles to searching at patent offices, and suggest ways to design work sharing by patent offices, such that the duplication of search costs arises only when patent office search horizons overlap.

  12. The EmbARK Programme: Project Update: DCI, the Harvard University Art Museums and EmbARK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notman, Andrea T.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the history of automation at the Harvard University Art Museums, the collaboration between the museum and a vendor in developing a collections management system, and the current status of the project from the museum's perspective. Topics include imaging technology and image management; file structure; and management of change. (LRW)

  13. Teaching Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities Non-Representational Art Using a New Pictorial and Musical Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddoch, Jane V.; Waugh, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed pictorial and musical program was used to teach abstract art to 12 elementary students with severe intellectual disabilities and 12 controls. There was a significant main instructional effect favoring pictorial with classical music over both pictorial only and pictorial with rock music. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Community participation and sustainability--evidence over 25 years in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Margareta; Blomstedt, Yulia; Lönnberg, Göran; Nyström, Lennarth; Stenlund, Hans; Wall, Stig; Weinehall, Lars

    2012-12-17

    Selection bias and declining participation rates are of concern in many long-term epidemiological studies. The Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) was launched in 1985 as a response to alarming reports on elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden. The VIP invites women and men to a health examination and health counselling during the year of their 40th, 50th, and 60th birthdays. To evaluate trends in participation rates and determinants of participation in the VIP from 1990 to 2006. Registry data on socio-economic status from Statistics Sweden, and mortality and hospitalisation data from the National Board of Health and Welfare, both covering the whole Swedish population, were linked to the VIP and analysed for participants and non-participants. During 1990-2006, 117,710 individuals were eligible to participate in the VIP, and 40,472 of them were eligible to participate twice. There were 96,560 observations for participants and 61,622 for non-participants. The overall participation rate increased from 56 to 65%. Participants and non-participants had minimal differences in education and age. Initial small differences by sex and degree of urban residence decreased over time. Despite an increasing participation rate in all groups, those with low income or who were single had an approximately 10% lower participation rate than those with high or medium-income or who were married or cohabitating. Sustainability of the VIP is based on organisational integration into primary health care services and targeting of the entire middle-aged population. This enables the programme to meet population expectations of health promotion and to identify high-risk individuals who are then entered into routine preventive health care services. This has the potential to increase participation rates, to minimise social selection bias, and to reinforce other community-based interventions.

  15. Community participation and sustainability - evidence over 25 years in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Margareta; Blomstedt, Yulia; Lönnberg, Göran; Nyström, Lennarth; Stenlund, Hans; Wall, Stig; Weinehall, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Selection bias and declining participation rates are of concern in many long-term epidemiological studies. The Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) was launched in 1985 as a response to alarming reports on elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden. The VIP invites women and men to a health examination and health counselling during the year of their 40th, 50th, and 60th birthdays. To evaluate trends in participation rates and determinants of participation in the VIP from 1990 to 2006. Registry data on socio-economic status from Statistics Sweden, and mortality and hospitalisation data from the National Board of Health and Welfare, both covering the whole Swedish population, were linked to the VIP and analysed for participants and non-participants. During 1990-2006, 117,710 individuals were eligible to participate in the VIP, and 40,472 of them were eligible to participate twice. There were 96,560 observations for participants and 61,622 for non-participants. The overall participation rate increased from 56 to 65%. Participants and non-participants had minimal differences in education and age. Initial small differences by sex and degree of urban residence decreased over time. Despite an increasing participation rate in all groups, those with low income or who were single had an approximately 10% lower participation rate than those with high or medium-income or who were married or cohabitating. Sustainability of the VIP is based on organisational integration into primary health care services and targeting of the entire middle-aged population. This enables the programme to meet population expectations of health promotion and to identify high-risk individuals who are then entered into routine preventive health care services. This has the potential to increase participation rates, to minimise social selection bias, and to reinforce other community-based interventions.

  16. A report on the Zimbabwe Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) programme progress towards achieving MGD6 target 6B: achievement and challenges.

    PubMed

    Apollo, T; Takarinda, K; Mugurungi, O; Chakanyuka, C; Simbini, T; Harries, A D

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwe's target to achieve Universal Access to treatment for HIV and AIDS, was severely affected by a decade long economic recession that threatened to reverse all the country's social and economic indicators. Despite these challenges, by September 2010, 282,916 adults and children (47.7% of those in need of treatment) were on treatment at 509 sites countrywide since national scale up started. ART services are predominantly offered through the public sector, with the private sector being an untapped potential resource for ART services for the future. Challenges of skilled and adequately trained human resources have hindered progress towards service availability. Providing access to children in particular has been constrained by lack of clinical mentorship for health workers, weak systems for support supervision, and inadequate HIV diagnostic services especially for children under 18 months and challenges with follow up of the HIV-exposed infants. Though the country has not met its target of Universal Access by 2010, significant progress has been made with over a 30-fold increase in service availability.

  17. Advances in childhood immunisation in South Africa: where to now? Programme managers’ views and evidence from systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) is one of the most powerful and cost-effective public health programmes to improve child survival. We assessed challenges and enablers for the programme in South Africa, as we approach the 2015 deadline for the Millennium Development Goals. Methods Between September 2009 and September 2010 we requested national and provincial EPI managers in South Africa to identify key challenges facing EPI, and to propose appropriate solutions. We collated their responses and searched for systematic reviews on the effectiveness of the proposed solutions; in the Health Systems Evidence, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases. We screened the search outputs, selected systematic reviews, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included reviews (using AMSTAR) and the quality of the evidence (using GRADE) in duplicate; resolving disagreements by discussion and consensus. Results Challenges identified by EPI managers were linked to healthcare workers (insufficient knowledge of vaccines and immunisation), the public (anti-immunisation rumours and reluctance from parents), and health system (insufficient financial and human resources). Strategies proposed by managers to overcome the challenges include training, supervision, and audit and feedback; strengthening advocacy and social mobilisation; and sustainable EPI funding schemes, respectively. The findings from reliable systematic reviews indicate that interactive educational meetings, audit and feedback, and supportive supervision improve healthcare worker performance. Structured and interactive communication tools probably increase parents’ understanding of immunisation; and reminders and recall, use of community health workers, conditional cash transfers, and mass media interventions probably increase immunisation coverage. Finally, a national social health insurance scheme is a potential EPI financing mechanism; however, given the absence of high

  18. Examining the evidence of under-five mortality reduction in a community-based programme in Gaza, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Edward, Anbrasi; Ernst, Pieter; Taylor, Carl; Becker, Stan; Mazive, Elisio; Perry, Henry

    2007-08-01

    Effective implementation of programmes with the community Integrated Management of Childhood Illness model has demonstrated improvements in care-seeking behaviours and utilisation of health services. The child survival programme implemented in Chokwe district of Gaza province, Mozambique, achieved high coverage for bed net use (80%), oral rehydration therapy for children with diarrhoea (94%) and prompt care-seeking from trained providers for children with danger signs. The project also instituted a community-based vital registration and health information system for routine surveillance of births, deaths and childhood illnesses using an extensive network of 2300 volunteers. Evidence from this system indicated a 66% reduction in infant mortality and a 62% reduction in under-five mortality. To check the reliability of the findings, an independent mortality assessment was carried out using a pregnancy history questionnaire with a sample population of 998 women using standard methodologies applied in the Demographic and Health Surveys. The mortality survey showed reductions of 49% and 42% in infant and under-five mortality, respectively. The leading causes of death identified by verbal autopsies were malaria (30%), neonatal causes (17%) and pneumonia (21.3%). These findings suggest that effective community-based partnerships that support the delivery of health services can contribute to mortality reductions.

  19. How much does the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program alleviate food insecurity? Evidence from recent programme leavers.

    PubMed

    Nord, Mark

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the effect of the US Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on the food security (consistent access to adequate food) of recipients, net of the effect of the self-selection of more food-needy households into the programme. The food security of current SNAP recipients and recent leavers is compared in cross-sectional survey data, adjusting for economic and demographic differences using multivariate logistic regression methods. A similar analysis in 2-year longitudinal panels provides additional control for selection on unobserved variables based on food security status in the previous year. Household survey data collected for the US Department of Agriculture by the US Census Bureau. Households interviewed in the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplements from 2001 to 2009. The odds of very low food security among households that continued on SNAP through the end of a survey year were 28 % lower than among those that left SNAP prior to the 30-d period during which food security was assessed. In 2-year panels with controls for the severity of food insecurity in the previous year, the difference in odds was 45 %. The results are consistent with, or somewhat higher than, the estimates from the strongest previous research designs and suggest that the ameliorative effect of SNAP on very low food security is in the range of 20-50 %.

  20. Reading a Critical Review of Evidence: Notes and Queries on Research Programmes in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alan D.; Nikel, Jutta

    2003-01-01

    Explores the notion that a review communicates a research program and how it might extend and disrupt readings of Rickinson's (2001) review of the evidence base for environmental education learning. Investigates, through a series of notes and queries using Lakatos's ideas, the production and possibilities of the review rather than the findings.…

  1. Reading a Critical Review of Evidence: Notes and Queries on Research Programmes in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alan D.; Nikel, Jutta

    2003-01-01

    Explores the notion that a review communicates a research program and how it might extend and disrupt readings of Rickinson's (2001) review of the evidence base for environmental education learning. Investigates, through a series of notes and queries using Lakatos's ideas, the production and possibilities of the review rather than the findings.…

  2. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  3. Incorporating sex, gender and vulnerable populations in a large multisite health research programme: The Ontario Pharmacy Evidence Network as a case study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Martin; Waite, Nancy; Cook, Katie; Milne, Emily; Chang, Feng; McCarthy, Lisa; Sproule, Beth

    2017-03-20

    Funders now frequently require that sex and gender be considered in research programmes, but provide little guidance about how this can be accomplished, especially in large research programmes. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate a model for promoting sex- and gender-based analysis (SGBA) in a large health service research programme, the Ontario Pharmacy Evidence Network (OPEN). A mixed method study incorporating (1) team members' critical reflection, (2) surveys (n = 37) and interviews (n = 23) at programme midpoint, and (3) an end-of-study survey in 2016 with OPEN research project teams (n = 6). Incorporating gender and vulnerable populations (GVP) as a cross-cutting theme, with a dedicated team and resources to promote GVP research across the programme, was effective and well received. Team members felt their knowledge was improved, and the programme produced several sex- and gender-related research outputs. Not all resources were well used, however, and better communication of the purposes and roles of the team could increase effectiveness. The experience of OPEN suggests that dedicating resources for sex and gender research can be effective in promoting SGBA research, but that research programmes should also focus on communicating the importance of SGBA to their members.

  4. A Hole in the Heart: confronting the drive for evidence-based impact research in arts and health

    PubMed Central

    Raw, A; Lewis, S; Russell, A; Macnaughton, J

    2013-01-01

    The field of arts and health, and associated academic discussion, is beset by a number of interlinked challenges which make it vulnerable to academic dismissal or, at best, poor visibility. One of these is a preoccupation with developing an evidence base of impact. This is compounded by resistance to definitions, disagreement over what constitutes appropriate evidence of success, and inadequate consideration of the mechanisms of arts and health practice, as opposed to outcomes. We argue that increased attention should be paid to the description, analysis and theorising of the practice itself as the basis upon which the findings of impact studies can be understood and accepted. A literature review identifies some important emerging themes in community arts and health practice, and some lacunae in need of further investigation. We conclude that an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for the practice could make a valuable contribution to the academic status of the field. PMID:24244217

  5. A Hole in the Heart: confronting the drive for evidence-based impact research in arts and health.

    PubMed

    Raw, A; Lewis, S; Russell, A; Macnaughton, J

    2012-06-01

    The field of arts and health, and associated academic discussion, is beset by a number of interlinked challenges which make it vulnerable to academic dismissal or, at best, poor visibility. One of these is a preoccupation with developing an evidence base of impact. This is compounded by resistance to definitions, disagreement over what constitutes appropriate evidence of success, and inadequate consideration of the mechanisms of arts and health practice, as opposed to outcomes. We argue that increased attention should be paid to the description, analysis and theorising of the practice itself as the basis upon which the findings of impact studies can be understood and accepted. A literature review identifies some important emerging themes in community arts and health practice, and some lacunae in need of further investigation. We conclude that an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for the practice could make a valuable contribution to the academic status of the field.

  6. How can we maximize nursing students' learning about research evidence and utilization in undergraduate, preregistration programmes? A discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Christie, Janice; Hamill, Conal; Power, John

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a discussion on how to maximize nursing students' learning about research for evidence-based practice in undergraduate, preregistration programmes. Evidence-based practice may use information from many sources, including research. Research utilization concerns the translation of research findings into practice. Thus, while evidence-base practice may not be solely research-based and hence more than research utilization, research remains an important ingredient in ensuring quality and cost-effective care and an academic requirement for nursing students undertaking a science degree-level qualification. Nevertheless, how educators can best support research-related learning and application remains uncertain and requires discussion. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index, British Nursing Index, and Intute were searched for papers published 1980-2011 using the following search terms: research, research utilization, evidence-based practice, learning, teaching, education, training, nursing, health, and social care. Nursing students need to be able to value the relevance, authority, and utility of nursing research for patient care through embedding research learning in both academic and practice-based settings. Students can be supported in learning how to access, understand, and appraise the authority of research through weaving these skills into enquiry-based learning. Furthermore, encouraging students to undertake research-based practice change projects can support research utilization and development skills. Research should be fully embedded throughout nursing curricula beyond the confines of 'research classes', integrating learning in academic and practice-based settings. Although this requires synergistic and integrated support of student learning by nurse educators, managers, clinical practitioners, researchers and policymakers; nurse educators have a pivotal role. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. State of the Art in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: An Update on Current Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jefferson R; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Kim, Jun; Shamji, Mohammed F; Harrop, James S; Mroz, Thomas; Cho, Samuel; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction that confronts clinicians on a daily basis. Research performed over the past few decades has provided improved insight into the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of this disorder. We aim to provide clinicians with an update regarding the state of the art in DCM, focusing on more recent research pertaining to pathophysiology, natural history, treatment, consideration of the minimally symptomatic patient, surgical outcome prediction, and outcome measurement. Current concepts of pathophysiology focus on the combination of static and dynamic elements leading to breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier at the site of compression resulting in local inflammation, cellular dysfunction, and apoptosis. With respect to treatment, although there is a dearth of high-quality studies comparing surgical to nonoperative treatment, several large prospective studies have recently associated surgical management with clinically and statistically significant improvement in functional, disability, and quality of life outcome at long-term follow-up. When selecting the specific surgical intervention for a patient with DCM, anterior (discectomy, corpectomy, hybrid discectomy/corpectomy), posterior (laminectomy and fusion, laminoplasty), and combined approaches may be considered as options depending on the specifics of the patient in question; evidence supporting each of these approaches is reviewed in detail. Recently developed clinical prediction models allow for accurate forecasting of postoperative outcomes, permitting enhanced communication and management of patient expectations in the preoperative setting. Finally, an overview of outcome measures recommended for use in the assessment of DCM patients is provided.

  8. A realist synthesis of the evidence on outreach programmes for health improvement of Traveller Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lhussier, M.; Carr, S.M.; Forster, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving the health of Traveller Communities is an international public health concern but there is little evidence on effective interventions. This study aimed to explain how, for whom and in what circumstances outreach works in Traveller Communities. Methods A realist synthesis was undertaken. Systematic literature searches were conducted between August and November 2011. Grey literature was sought and key stakeholders were involved throughout the review process. Iterative steps of data extraction, analysis and synthesis, followed by additional searches were undertaken. Results An explanatory framework details how, why and in what circumstances participation, behaviour change or social capital development happened. The trust status of outreach workers is an important context of outreach interventions, in conjunction with their ability to negotiate the intervention focus. The higher the outreach worker's trust status, the lower the imperative that they negotiate the intervention focus. A ‘menu’ of reasoning mechanisms is presented, leading to key engagement outcomes. Conclusions Adopting a realist analysis, this study offers a framework with explanatory purchase as to the potential of outreach to improve health in marginalized groups. PMID:26232206

  9. Do Liberal Arts Colleges Make Students More Liberal? Some Initial Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jana M.; Weeden, Dustin D.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Blaich, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The effect of attending college on students' political ideology has been a controversial topic for many decades. In this study, we explored the relationship between attending a liberal arts college and students' political views. Compared to their counterparts at other 4-year institutions, liberal arts college students began postsecondary education…

  10. Liberal Arts Colleges and Good Practices in Undergraduate Education: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Tricia A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Goodman, Kathleen M.; Salisbury, Mark H.; Blaich, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Liberal arts colleges have prided themselves on providing students with a quality undergraduate education among a scholarly community who are interested in their holistic development. Past research has found students who attended liberal arts colleges more frequently experienced Chickering and Gamson's (1987, 1991) good practices in undergraduate…

  11. Effect of an evidence-based education programme on ED discharge advice for febrile children.

    PubMed

    Considine, Julie; Brennan, Denise

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of an educational intervention on discharge advice given to parents leaving the emergency department with a febrile child. Childhood fever is a common reason to seek emergency care. Many children are discharged from the emergency department with fever as a significant component of their illness; therefore, it is vital that emergency department medical and nursing staff provide accurate and reliable information about childhood fever management. A pre/post-test design was used. The outcome measure was parental advice regarding paediatric fever management and the intervention for the study was an educational intervention for emergency department nursing staff that consisted of two tutorials. Data were collected using structured telephone interviews. Data were collected from 22 families during the pretest period and 18 families during the post-test period. The number of parents leaving the emergency department with no advice decreased by 48% (p = 0.002). Reports of written advice increased by 69.7% (p < 0.001) and there was a 38.4% increase in reports of verbal advice (p = 0.014). Parents leaving the emergency department with both written and verbal advice increased from 0 to 55.6% (p < 0.001). Reports of advice by nursing staff increased by 52% (p < 0.001) and there were significant increases in specific instructions related to oral fluid administration (22.7 vs. 77.8, p = 0.001) and use of antipyretic medications (27.2 vs. 77.8, p = 0.001). Evidence-based education of emergency nurses improved both the amount and quality of discharge advice for parents of febrile children. Parents and health care professionals alike need to better understand the physiological benefits of fever and the potential harmful effects of aggressive and often unwarranted treatment of fever.

  12. The practice of physicians and nurses in the Brazilian Family Health Programmeevidences of change in the delivery health care model

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Ellen M; Andrade, Ana M; Dal Poz, Mario R; Grande, Nuno R

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes the practice of physicians and nurses working on the Family Health Programme (Programa de Saúde da Família or PSF, in Portuguese). A questionnaire was used to assess the evidences of assimilation of the new values and care principles proposed by the programme. The results showed that a great number of professionals seem to have incorporated the practice of home visits, health education actions and planning of the teams' work agenda to their routine labour activities. PMID:17107622

  13. Evidence for Technology Interventions to Promote ART Adherence in Adult Populations: a Review of the Literature 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    Amico, K Rivet

    2015-12-01

    Leveraging technology to enhance antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and factors associated with it, has tremendous appeal as a low-cost, generalizable strategy to offer high-quality adherence support given an increasingly limited workforce. As the numbers of individuals living with HIV entering care and initiating ART are expected to increase substantially worldwide in the next decade, capacity to support ART adherence is needed and use of computers, internet, and mobile phones has the potential to offer those efficiencies-provided they are effective. This review summarizes recent advances in the evidence base for technology-driven, technology-delivered, or technology-enhanced ART adherence intervention approaches. A PubMed search limited to January 2013 through July 2015 identified 13 qualifying studies evaluating computer-delivered interventions, internet approaches, mobile phone technologies, and electronic dose monitoring with triggered messaging and data-informed counseling. Considerable support for each area has emerged, with the majority of studies reviewed demonstrating significant effects on ART adherence and clinical outcomes. Gaps are identified and recommendations offered.

  14. Evidence for Technology Interventions to Promote ART Adherence in Adult Populations: A review of the literature 2012 - 2015

    PubMed Central

    Amico, K. Rivet

    2015-01-01

    Leveraging technology to enhance antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and factors associated with it, has tremendous appeal as a low-cost, generalizable strategy to offer high-quality adherence support given an increasingly limited workforce. As the numbers of individuals living with HIV entering care and initiating ART are expected to increase substantially worldwide in the next decade, capacity to support ART adherence is needed and use of computers, internet and mobile phones has the potential to offer those efficiencies--providing they are effective. This review summarizes recent advances in the evidence base for technology-driven, -delivered or -enhanced ART adherence intervention approaches. A Pubmed search limited to January 2013 through July 2015 identified 13 qualifying studies evaluating computer-delivered interventions, internet approaches, mobile phone technologies, and electronic dose monitoring with triggered messaging and data-informed counseling. Considerable support for each area has emerged, with the majority of studies reviewed demonstrating significant effects on ART adherence and clinical outcomes. Gaps are identified and recommendations offered. PMID:26412085

  15. The Evidence Base for Early Childhood Education and Care Programme Investment: What We Know, What We Don't Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Linda A.; Prentice, Susan; Perlman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    An expanding body of research demonstrates that high quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) programmes generate positive outcomes for children; in response, policy makers in a number of countries are making significant programme investments. No research consensus, however, has emerged around the specific types of policy intervention…

  16. Martial arts as a mental health intervention for children? Evidence from the ECLS-K.

    PubMed

    Strayhorn, Joseph M; Strayhorn, Jillian C

    2009-10-14

    Martial arts studios for children market their services as providing mental health outcomes such as self-esteem, self-confidence, concentration, and self-discipline. It appears that many parents enroll their children in martial arts in hopes of obtaining such outcomes. The current study used the data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten class of 1998-1999, to assess the effects of martial arts upon such outcomes as rated by classroom teachers. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study used a multistage probability sampling design to gather a sample representative of U.S. children attending kindergarten beginning 1998. We made use of data collected in the kindergarten, 3rd grade, and 5th grade years. Classroom behavior was measured by a rating scale completed by teachers; participation in martial arts was assessed as part of a parent interview. The four possible combinations of participation and nonparticipation in martial arts at time 1 and time 2 for each analysis were coded into three dichotomous variables; the set of three variables constituted the measure of participation studied through regression. Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between martial arts participation and change in classroom behavior from one measurement occasion to the next. The change from kindergarten to third grade was studied as a function of martial arts participation, and the analysis was replicated studying behavior change from third grade to fifth grade. Cohen's f2 effect sizes were derived from these regressions. The martial arts variable failed to show a statistically significant effect on behavior, in either of the regression analyses; in fact, the f2 effect size for martial arts was 0.000 for both analyses. The 95% confidence intervals for regression coefficients for martial arts variables have upper and lower bounds that are all close to zero. The analyses not only fail to reject the null hypothesis, but also render unlikely a population

  17. Martial arts as a mental health intervention for children? Evidence from the ECLS-K

    PubMed Central

    Strayhorn, Joseph M; Strayhorn, Jillian C

    2009-01-01

    Background Martial arts studios for children market their services as providing mental health outcomes such as self-esteem, self-confidence, concentration, and self-discipline. It appears that many parents enroll their children in martial arts in hopes of obtaining such outcomes. The current study used the data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten class of 1998-1999, to assess the effects of martial arts upon such outcomes as rated by classroom teachers. Methods The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study used a multistage probability sampling design to gather a sample representative of U.S. children attending kindergarten beginning 1998. We made use of data collected in the kindergarten, 3rd grade, and 5th grade years. Classroom behavior was measured by a rating scale completed by teachers; participation in martial arts was assessed as part of a parent interview. The four possible combinations of participation and nonparticipation in martial arts at time 1 and time 2 for each analysis were coded into three dichotomous variables; the set of three variables constituted the measure of participation studied through regression. Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between martial arts participation and change in classroom behavior from one measurement occasion to the next. The change from kindergarten to third grade was studied as a function of martial arts participation, and the analysis was replicated studying behavior change from third grade to fifth grade. Cohen's f2 effect sizes were derived from these regressions. Results The martial arts variable failed to show a statistically significant effect on behavior, in either of the regression analyses; in fact, the f2 effect size for martial arts was 0.000 for both analyses. The 95% confidence intervals for regression coefficients for martial arts variables have upper and lower bounds that are all close to zero. The analyses not only fail to reject the null hypothesis, but also

  18. A Clinically Integrated Post-Graduate Training Programme in Evidence-Based Medicine versus ‘No Intervention’ for Improving Disability Evaluations: A Cluster Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Rob; Hoving, Jan L.; Smits, Paul B. A.; Ketelaar, Sarah M.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have shown that teaching EBM is effective in improving knowledge, at present, there is no convincing evidence that teaching EBM also changes professional behaviour in practice. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinically integrated post-graduate training programme in EBM on evidence-based disability evaluation. Methods and Findings In a cluster randomised controlled trial, fifty-four case-based learning groups consisting of 132 physicians and 1680 patients were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups. A clinically integrated, post-graduate, 5-day training programme in evidence-based medicine, consisting of (home) assignments, peer teaching, interactive training in searching databases, lectures and brainstorming sessions was provided to the intervention group. The control group received no training. The primary outcome was evidence-based disability evaluation, as indicated by the frequency in use of evidence of sufficient quality in disability evaluation reports. There are no general EBM behaviour outcome measures available. Therefore, we followed general guidelines for constructing performance indicators and defined an a priori cut-off for determination of sufficient quality as recommended for evaluating EB training. Physicians trained in EBM performed more evidence-based disability evaluations compared to physicians in the control group (difference in absolute proportion 9.7%, 95% CI 3.5 to 15.9). The primary outcome differences between groups remained significant after both cluster-adjusted analysis and additional sensitivity analyses accounting for subjects lost to follow-up. Conclusions A EBM programme successfully improved the use of evidence in a non-hospital based medical specialty. Our findings support the general recommendations to use multiple educational methods to change physician behaviour. In addition, it appeared important that the professional context

  19. [Interactive Knowledge to Action in Health Promotion: The GESTALT Project. Initial Results of a Pilot Study on Sustainable Implementation of an Evidence-Based Programme].

    PubMed

    Rütten, A; Wolff, A; Streber, A

    2016-06-01

    The present article outlines a pilot study to demonstrate the concept of the interactive knowledge to action approach in order to foster sustainable implementation of an evidence-based physical activity programme for dementia prevention into practice. The approach and procedures will be introduced, and initial results of the pilot study "GESTALT", with special regard to the interplay of science, politics and prevention practice, will be outlined. In the GESTALT project (2011-2014) the concept of interactive knowledge to action was realised through a cooperative planning approach that systematically engaged and involved stakeholders from science, politics and practice. Evaluation of the project's sustainability focused on 3 dimensions: target group, organisations and context. Target group analysis included assessment of changes in physical activity behaviour (n=75). Organisational and context evaluations included an analysis of relevant documentation of cooperative planning meetings, conduction of the programme, bilateral talks and further meetings. In relation to the target group, the majority of participants (60%) were committed to an active lifestyle 6 months after completion of the GESTALT programme. Regarding organisations and context, 14 partner organisations maintained active engagement in cooperative planning processes. After adapting the GESTALT programme to the context and needs of the organisations and participants, 5 organisations were able to implement it. These same organisations also continued to provide exercise classes for ex-participants of the initial GESTALT programme. Through developing partnerships, increasing publicity and attracting policy makers, resources for the sustainable implementation of the GESTALT project were obtained. The pilot study GESTALT shows that the concept of interactive knowledge to action has substantially contributed to the sustainability of a physical activity programme in the field of dementia prevention. For this

  20. Training, supervision and quality of care in selected integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes: A scoping review of programmatic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bosch–Capblanch, Xavier; Marceau, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe the training, supervision and quality of care components of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) programmes and to draw lessons learned from existing evaluations of those programmes. Methods Scoping review of reports from 29 selected iCCM programmes purposively provided by stakeholders containing any information relevant to understand quality of care issues. Results The number of people reached by iCCM programmes varied from the tens of thousands to more than a million. All programmes aimed at improving access of vulnerable populations to health care, focusing on the main childhood illnesses, managed by Community Health Workers (CHW), often selected bycommunities. Training and supervision were widely implemented, in different ways and intensities, and often complemented with tools (eg, guides, job aids), supplies, equipment and incentives. Quality of care was measured using many outcomes (eg, access or appropriate treatment). Overall, there seemed to be positive effects for those strategies that involved policy change, organisational change, standardisation of clinical practices and alignment with other programmes. Positive effects were mostly achieved in large multi–component programmes. Mild or no effects have been described on mortality reduction amongst the few programmes for which data on this outcome was available to us. Promising strategies included teaming–up of CHW, micro–franchising or social franchising. On–site training and supervision of CHW have been shown to improve clinical practices. Effects on caregivers seemed positive, with increases in knowledge, care seeking behaviour, or caregivers’ basic disease management. Evidence on iCCM is often of low quality, cannot relate specific interventions or the ways they are implemented with outcomes and lacks standardisation; this limits the capacity to identify promising strategies to improve quality of care. Conclusion Large, multi–faceted, iCCM programmes, with strong

  1. The art of medicine: arts-based training in observation and mindfulness for fostering the empathic response in medical residents.

    PubMed

    Zazulak, Joyce; Sanaee, May; Frolic, Andrea; Knibb, Nicole; Tesluk, Eve; Hughes, Edward; Grierson, Lawrence E M

    2017-09-01

    Empathy is an essential attribute for medical professionals. Yet, evidence indicates that medical learners' empathy levels decline dramatically during medical school. Training in evidence-based observation and mindfulness has the potential to bolster the acquisition and demonstration of empathic behaviours for medical learners. In this prospective cohort study, we explore the impact of a course in arts-based visual literacy and mindfulness practice (Art of Seeing) on the empathic response of medical residents engaged in obstetrics and gynaecology and family medicine training. Following this multifaceted arts-based programme that integrates the facilitated viewing of art and dance, art-making, and mindfulness-based practices into a practitioner-patient context, 15 resident trainees completed the previously validated Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Compassion, and Mindfulness Scales. Fourteen participants also participated in semistructured interviews that probed their perceived impacts of the programme on their empathic clinical practice. The results indicated that programme participants improved in the Mindfulness Scale domains related to self-confidence and communication relative to a group of control participants following the arts-based programme. However, the majority of the psychometric measures did not reveal differences between groups over the duration of the programme. Importantly, thematic qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed that the programme had a positive impact on the participants' perceived empathy towards colleagues and patients and on the perception of personal and professional well-being. The study concludes that a multifaceted arts-based curriculum focusing on evidence-based observation and mindfulness is a useful tool in bolstering the empathic response, improving communication, and fostering professional well-being among medical residents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  2. Alumni Giving at a Small Liberal Arts College: Evidence from Consistent and Occasional Donors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunnava, Phanindra V.; Lauze, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Study of determinates of consistent and occasional alumni giving at a small, private liberal arts college over a 23-year period. Finds several similar determinants for both groups: For example, volunteering for the college, playing varsity sports. Occasional donors were male, members of either fraternities or sororities, and close to retirement.…

  3. Parents and Family Members in the Era of ART: Evidence from Cambodia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Knodel, John; Hak, Sochanny; Khuon, Chandore; So, Dane; McAndrew, John

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring treatment adherence is critical for the success of ART programs in developing countries. Enlisting NGOs or PLHA group members as treatment supporters is one common strategy. Less attention is given to family members and especially older-age parents. Yet ART patients often live with other family members who are highly motivated to ensure treatment success. This study examines the role of family members and especially parents in assisting adherence in Cambodia and Thailand among adult ART patients. Most have a living parent and many live with or near a parent. Family members including parents commonly remind patients to take medications, particularly if coresident in the same household. Parents also remind patients to get resupplies and accompany them to appointments. Some contrasts between Cambodia and Thailand emerged. Fewer Cambodian than Thai patients had a living parent. However, among those who did, equal shares lived with parents. Cambodian parents more commonly reminded patients to take medications and get resupplies and accompanied them when doing so. In both countries correct knowledge of ART among parents was associated with the amount of advice from program personnel. The results underscore both the need to more explicitly incorporate close family members, including parents, into efforts to promote adherence and need for PLHA peers and home based care teams to provide them with adequate information, training and resources to increase their effectiveness. PMID:21726159

  4. Alumni Giving at a Small Liberal Arts College: Evidence from Consistent and Occasional Donors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunnava, Phanindra V.; Lauze, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Study of determinates of consistent and occasional alumni giving at a small, private liberal arts college over a 23-year period. Finds several similar determinants for both groups: For example, volunteering for the college, playing varsity sports. Occasional donors were male, members of either fraternities or sororities, and close to retirement.…

  5. Understanding the State of the Art for Measurement in Chemistry Education Research: Examining the Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arjoon, Janelle A.; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    education community are relatively new. Because psychometric evidence dictates the validity of interpretations made from test scores, gathering and reporting validity and reliability evidence is of utmost importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate what…

  6. Understanding the State of the Art for Measurement in Chemistry Education Research: Examining the Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arjoon, Janelle A.; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    education community are relatively new. Because psychometric evidence dictates the validity of interpretations made from test scores, gathering and reporting validity and reliability evidence is of utmost importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate what…

  7. [How much is "evidence-based"? An overview of the state of the art in research].

    PubMed

    Neises, G; Windeler, J

    2001-02-01

    The proportion of evidence-based health care gives rise to controversy. Estimates range from 4%-20%. Studies trying to ascertain the proportion of evidence-based healthcare show wide variations in the results depending on design, setting, subject, main outcome measures, methodology and definition of evidence from 11-82%. The results should not be generalized to community health care and should not be misused in public discussions.

  8. Which adherence measure - self-report, clinician recorded or pharmacy refill - is best able to predict detectable viral load in a public ART programme without routine plasma viral load monitoring?

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Legese A; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2016-07-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses viral replication to an undetectable level if a sufficiently high level of adherence is achieved. We investigated which adherence measurement best distinguishes between patients with and without detectable viral load in a public ART programme without routine plasma viral load monitoring. We randomly selected 870 patients who started cART between May 2009 and April 2012 in 10 healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Six hundred and sixty-four (76.3%) patients who were retained in HIV care and were receiving cART for at least 6 months were included and 642 had their plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration measured. Patients' adherence to cART was assessed according to self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill measures. Multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify the predictors of detectable viremia. Model accuracy was evaluated by computing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 9.2% and 5.5% of the 642 patients had a detectable viral load of ≥40 and ≥400 RNA copies/ml, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, younger age, lower CD4 cell count at cART initiation, being illiterate and widowed, and each of the adherence measures were significantly and independently predictive of having ≥400 RNA copies/ml. The ROC curve showed that these variables altogether had a likelihood of more than 80% to distinguish patients with a plasma viral load of ≥400 RNA copies/ml from those without. Adherence to cART was remarkably high. Self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill non-adherence were all significantly predictive of detectable viremia. The choice for one of these methods to detect non-adherence and predict a detectable viral load can therefore be based on what is most practical in a particular setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ottawa Panel Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Patient Education Programmes in the Management of Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines and recommendations on patient education programmes of any type, targeted specially to individuals with OA and which were designed to improve the clinical effectiveness of managing OA. Methods: The Ottawa Methods Group contacted specialized organizations that focus on management for…

  10. Empowering women to obtain high quality care: evidence from an evaluation of Mexico's conditional cash transfer programme.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah L; Gertler, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Mexico's conditional cash transfer programme on the quality of health care received by poor women. Quality is measured by maternal reports of prenatal care procedures received that correspond with clinical guidelines. The data describe retrospective reports of care received from 892 women in poor rural communities in seven Mexican states. The women were participating in an effectiveness study and randomly assigned to incorporation into the programme in 1998 or 1999. Eligible women accepted cash transfers conditional on obtaining health care and nutritional supplements, and participated in health education sessions. Oportunidades beneficiaries received 12.2% more prenatal procedures compared with non-beneficiaries (adjusted mean 78.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 77.5-80.3; P < 0.001). The Oportunidades conditional cash transfer programme is associated with better quality of prenatal care for low-income, rural women in Mexico. This result is probably a manifestation of the programme's empowerment goal, by encouraging beneficiaries to be informed and active health consumers.

  11. Empowering women to obtain high quality care: evidence from an evaluation of Mexico's conditional cash transfer programme

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah L; Gertler, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of Mexico's conditional cash transfer programme on the quality of health care received by poor women. Quality is measured by maternal reports of prenatal care procedures received that correspond with clinical guidelines. Methods The data describe retrospective reports of care received from 892 women in poor rural communities in seven Mexican states. The women were participating in an effectiveness study and randomly assigned to incorporation into the programme in 1998 or 1999. Eligible women accepted cash transfers conditional on obtaining health care and nutritional supplements, and participated in health education sessions. Results Oportunidades beneficiaries received 12.2% more prenatal procedures compared with non-beneficiaries (adjusted mean 78.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 77.5–80.3; P < 0.001). Conclusion The Oportunidades conditional cash transfer programme is associated with better quality of prenatal care for low-income, rural women in Mexico. This result is probably a manifestation of the programme's empowerment goal, by encouraging beneficiaries to be informed and active health consumers. PMID:19022854

  12. Ottawa Panel Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Patient Education Programmes in the Management of Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines and recommendations on patient education programmes of any type, targeted specially to individuals with OA and which were designed to improve the clinical effectiveness of managing OA. Methods: The Ottawa Methods Group contacted specialized organizations that focus on management for…

  13. Generating demand for and use of evaluation evidence in government health ministries: lessons from a pilot programme in Uganda and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Witter, Sophie; Kardan, Andrew; Scott, Molly; Moore, Lucie; Shaxson, Louise

    2017-10-02

    The Demand-Driven Evaluations for Decisions (3DE) programme was piloted in Zambia and Uganda in 2012-2015. It aimed to answer evaluative questions raised by policymakers in Ministries of Health, rapidly and with limited resources. The aim of our evaluation was to assess whether the 3DE model was successful in supporting and increasing evidence-based policymaking, building capacity and changing behaviour of Ministry staff. Using mixed methods, we compared the ex-ante theory of change with what had happened in practice, why and with what results (intended and unintended), including a qualitative assessment of 3DE's contribution. Data sources included a structured quality assessment of the five impact evaluations produced, 46 key informant interviews at national and international levels, structured extraction from 170 programme documents, a wider literature review of relevant topics, and a political economy analysis conducted in Zambia. We found that 3DE had a very limited contribution to changing evidence-based policymaking, capacity and behaviour in both countries as a result of having a number of aspirations not all compatible with one another. Co-developing evaluation questions was more time-consuming than anticipated, Ministry evidence needs did not fit neatly into questions suitable for impact evaluations and constricted timeframes for undertaking trials did not necessarily produce the most effective results and value for money. The evaluation recommended a focusing of objectives and a more strategic approach to strengthening evaluative demand and capacity. Lessons emerge that are likely to apply in other low- and middle-income settings, such as the importance of supporting evaluative thinking and capacity within wider institutions, of understanding the political economy of evidence use and its uptake, and of allowing for some flexibility in terms of programme targets. Fixating on one type of evidence is unhelpful in the context of institutions like ministries

  14. Art and Advanced Practice Nursing: Evidence Supporting Its Relevance in Graduate Education.

    PubMed

    Mokel, Melissa J

    2017-08-01

    Nurses spend more time with health care consumers than any other health care professional and are the largest, most trusted group of health care providers in the U.S. health care system. At the same time, an increasingly diverse and complex society requires that nurses possess a unique capacity to care for consumers using culturally congruent and ethical approaches to care. This challenges nurse educators to provide learning experiences that teach emotional and affective forms of learning that complement the clinical skills acquired through the student's educational experience. This article describes an educational innovation using art pedagogy in a course on ethical issues in advanced practice nursing. Learners were able to use art to articulate their ideas about feminism, women's health, and race relations in a nonthreatening and creative venue. The findings demonstrate the relevance of this educational innovation in achieving learning outcomes for an underreported group-the graduate-level nurse. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(8):501-504.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Opinion editorials: the science and art of combining evidence with opinion

    PubMed Central

    Marchildon, Gregory P; Verma, Jennifer Y; Roos, Noralou

    2013-01-01

    In the policy environment, the news media play a powerful and influential role, determining not only what issues are on the broad policy agenda, but also how the public and politicians perceive these issues. Ensuring that reporters and editors have access to information, that is, credible and evidence-based is critical for stimulating healthy public discourse and constructive political debates. EvidenceNetwork.ca is a non-partisan web-based project that makes the latest evidence on controversial health-policy issues available to the Canadian news media. This article introduces EvidenceNetwork.ca, the benefits it offers to journalists and researchers, and the important niche it occupies in working with the news media to build a more productive dialogue around healthcare. PMID:23143923

  16. Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology: State of the Art and Directions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutkin, Terry B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of this special journal issue, designed to provide a current snapshot of the accomplishments and controversies pertaining to evidence-based intervention in school psychology. (GCP)

  17. Challenging question: is treating inflammatory bowel disease an art or strictly an evidence-based matter?

    PubMed

    Khanna, Reena; Mosli, Mahmoud H; Feagan, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the gold standard for clinical practice, misconceptions among health care providers regarding EBM are common. The medical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has advanced substantially over the last 20 years as a direct result of the wealth of new evidence generated by randomized controlled trials. Integrating EBM and traditional clinical skills results in optimal care tailored to the individual patient. This article addresses the role of EBM in the management of IBD and dispels some of the common misconceptions about the use of EBM in practice. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The catcher in the why: developing an evidence-based approach to the organization, delivery and evaluation of pre-registration nurse educational programmes.

    PubMed

    Warne, T; Holland, K; McAndrew, S

    2011-03-01

    Changes to the pedagogy of pre-registration nurse education and training have become a global phenomenon. However, the evidence base to inform responses to these changes and the impact on nursing practice is limited. This paper explores the outcomes of an innovative approach aimed at ensuring responses to these drivers for change, particularly in curriculum development, the organisation, management and delivery of programmes and the enhancement of the student experience, are evidence based. This paper reports on an organisational change project undertaken in a School of Nursing in the North West of England, UK. The project involved 12 interrelated work streams used to explore aspects of the student journey from recruitment through progression to eventual employment. An evidence base was developed through a methodological bricolage that drew upon a robust and authentic mixture of systematic literature reviews, contemporaneous analysis of educational practice and evaluation of the student experience. This was used to underpin the decision making processes required to promote innovation in programme design, to increase the involvement of students in the facilitation and evaluation of their learning experiences, and helped shape the organisational changes required for embedding an evidenced-based culture in the School. Consistent and transformational leadership has been key to the project's success in communicating and managing the changes.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of lay health worker programmes to improve access to maternal and child health: qualitative evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Glenton, Claire; Colvin, Christopher J; Carlsen, Benedicte; Swartz, Alison; Lewin, Simon; Noyes, Jane; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-10-08

    Lay health workers (LHWs) perform functions related to healthcare delivery, receive some level of training, but have no formal professional or paraprofessional certificate or tertiary education degree. They provide care for a range of issues, including maternal and child health. For LHW programmes to be effective, we need a better understanding of the factors that influence their success and sustainability. This review addresses these issues through a synthesis of qualitative evidence and was carried out alongside the Cochrane review of the effectiveness of LHWs for maternal and child health. The overall aim of the review is to explore factors affecting the implementation of LHW programmes for maternal and child health. We searched MEDLINE, OvidSP (searched 21 December 2011); MEDLINE Ovid In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, OvidSP (searched 21 December 2011); CINAHL, EBSCO (searched 21 December 2011); British Nursing Index and Archive, OvidSP (searched 13 May 2011). We searched reference lists of included studies, contacted experts in the field, and included studies that were carried out alongside the trials from the LHW effectiveness review. Studies that used qualitative methods for data collection and analysis and that focused on the experiences and attitudes of stakeholders regarding LHW programmes for maternal or child health in a primary or community healthcare setting. We identified barriers and facilitators to LHW programme implementation using the framework thematic synthesis approach. Two review authors independently assessed study quality using a standard tool. We assessed the certainty of the review findings using the CerQual approach, an approach that we developed alongside this and related qualitative syntheses. We integrated our findings with the outcome measures included in the review of LHW programme effectiveness in a logic model. Finally, we identified hypotheses for subgroup analyses in future updates of the review of effectiveness. We

  20. Outcomes and Impact of HIV Prevention, ART and TB Programs in Swaziland – Early Evidence from Public Health Triangulation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L.; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Swaziland’s severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Methods Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. Results By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4<350/mm3, with progressively improving patient retention and survival. As of 2010, 88% of health facilities providing antenatal care offered comprehensive PMTCT services. The HTC program recorded a halving in the proportion of adults tested who were HIV-infected; similarly HIV infection rates among HIV-exposed babies halved from 2007 to 2010. Case fatality rates among hospital patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS started to decrease from 2005–6 in adults and especially in children, contrasting with stable case fatality for other causes including TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005–6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. Conclusion Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future

  1. Evidence to support church-based health promotion programmes for African Canadians at risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Sherldine

    2011-12-01

    High quality management of cardiovascular disease is a critical health issue for people of African descent as this group is more likely than the general population to have greater coexisting cardiovascular comorbidities. The higher than average rates of cardiovascular conditions among Black populations are a cause for concern. In an effort to combat the disproportionate number of African Americans experiencing cardiovascular conditions a significant number of churches within the African American community have initiated health promotion programmes and/or services. Health organisations and agencies in the United States are keen to support and encourage these programmes for cardiovascular disease risk populations (i.e. African Americans and other minority groups, such as the Hispanic community). Indeed these health organisations and agencies recognise the need to promote healthier habits among African Americans and other minority groups as statistics continue to show health disparities among these populations within the US health care system. This paper attempts to encourage Canadian health agencies, organizations and practitioners to support similar CBHPPs initiatives for the African Canadian population. The historical significance of the church in Black Canadian communities is also examined.

  2. Evidence-Based Carotid Interventions for Stroke Prevention: State-of-the-art Review.

    PubMed

    Morris, Dylan R; Ayabe, Kengo; Inoue, Takashi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Bulbulia, Richard; Halliday, Alison; Goto, Shinya

    2017-04-03

    Carotid artery stenosis is responsible for between 10-20% of all ischaemic strokes. Interventions, such as carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting, effectively reduce the risk of stroke in selected individuals. This review describes the history of carotid interventions, and summarises reliable evidence on the safety and efficacy of these interventions gained from large randomised clinical trials.Early trials comparing carotid endarterectomy to medical therapy alone in symptomatic patients, and asymptomatic patients, demonstrated that endarterectomy halved the risk of stroke and perioperative death in these two unique populations. The absolute risk reduction was smaller in the asymptomatic carotid trials, consistent with their lower absolute stroke risk. More recent trials in symptomatic patients, suggest that carotid stenting has similar long term durability to carotid endarterectomy, but possibly has higher procedural hazards dominated by non-disabling strokes. The Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial-2, along with individual patient data meta-analysis of all asymptomatic trials, will provide reliable evidence for the choice of intervention in asymptomatic patients in whom a decision has been made for carotid revascularisation. Given improvements in effective cardiovascular medical therapy, in particular lipid-lowering medications, there is renewed uncertainty as to whether carotid interventions still provide meaningful net reductions in stroke risk in asymptomatic populations. Four large trials in Europe and the US are currently underway, and are expected to report long-term results in the next decade.It is essential that surgeons, interventionalists, and physicians continue to randomise large numbers of patients from around the world to clarify current uncertainty around the management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

  3. Teachers' Facility with Evidence-Based Classroom Management Practices: An Investigation of Teachers' Preparation Programmes and In-Service Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficarra, Laura; Quinn, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, teachers' self-reported knowledge and competency ratings for the evidence-based classroom management practices were analysed. Teachers also reflected on how they learned evidence-based classroom management practices. Results suggest that teachers working in schools that implement Positive Behavioural Interventions and…

  4. Addressing barriers to maternal nutrition in low- and middle-income countries: A review of the evidence and programme implications.

    PubMed

    Kavle, Justine A; Landry, Megan

    2017-08-24

    Adequate maternal nutrition during the "first 1,000 days" window is critical from conception through the first 6 months of life to improve nutritional status and reduce the risk of poor birth outcomes, such as low birthweight and preterm birth. Unfortunately, many programmes have targeted implementation and monitoring of nutrition interventions to infants and young children, rather than to women during pregnancy or post-partum. A literature review was conducted to identify barriers to food choice and consumption during pregnancy and lactation and to examine how low- and middle-income countries have addressed maternal nutrition in programmes. A literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted, and titles and abstracts reviewed by authors. Twenty-three studies were included in this review. Barriers to adequate nutrition during pregnancy included cultural beliefs related to knowledge of quantity of food to eat during pregnancy, amount of weight to gain during pregnancy, and "eating down" during pregnancy for fear of delivering a large baby. Foods considered inappropriate for consumption during pregnancy or lactation contributed to food restriction. Drivers of food choice were influenced by food aversions, economic constraints, and household food availability. Counselling on maternal diet and weight gain during pregnancy was seldom carried out. Programming to support healthy maternal diet and gestational weight gain during pregnancy is scant. Tailored, culturally resonant nutrition education and counselling on diet during pregnancy and lactation and weight gain during pregnancy, as well as monitoring of progress in maternal nutrition, are areas of needed attention. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Evidence-based creativity: Working between art and science in the field of fine dining.

    PubMed

    Borkenhagen, Chad

    2017-08-01

    This article examines how scientific knowledge drives creativity in the small but influential culinary movement of 'modernist cuisine'. Originating in the mid-1990s, modernist cuisine began with a small group of avant-garde chefs using science to produce wildly innovative culinary creations. Since then, many of the movement's innovations, as well as its more general 'science-based' approach to cooking, have gained adoption among a diverse range of culinary professionals. But while science has enabled modernist chefs to produce a wide array of innovations and refinements, the group's embrace of scientific values poses a potential threat to the subjective, intuition-driven logic of culinary creativity. Using data gathered through interviews and participant observation, I describe how modernist chefs navigate the potential challenges of using science in a creative field. I find that advocates of modernist cuisine address these challenges by adopting two separate rhetorical repertoires - one emphasizing science-based cooking's advantages over traditional methods, and another that minimizes the differences between these approaches. Observing the strategic deployment of these repertoires illustrates the challenges to incorporating science into creative fields and reveals a complex and nuanced relationship between objectivity, evidence, and aesthetic judgement.

  6. Pre-implantation genetic testing in ART: who will benefit and what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Vaiarelli, Alberto; Cimadomo, Danilo; Capalbo, Antonio; Orlando, Giovanna; Sapienza, Fabio; Colamaria, Silvia; Palagiano, Antonio; Bulletti, Carlo; Rienzi, Laura; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria

    2016-10-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy testing (PGD-A) is a tool to identify euploid embryos during IVF. The suggested populations of patients that can benefit from it are infertile women of advanced maternal age, with a history of recurrent miscarriages and/or IVF failures. However, a general consensus has not yet been reached.After the clinical failure of its first version based on cleavage stage biopsy and 9 chromosome-FISH analysis, PGD-A is currently performed by 24 chromosome screening techniques on trophectoderm (TE) biopsies. This approach has been clearly demonstrated to involve a higher clinical efficiency with respect to the standard care, in terms of sustained pregnancy rate per transfer and lower miscarriage rate. However, data about PGD-A efficacy calculated on a per intention-to-treat basis, as well as an analysis of its cost-effectiveness, are still missing.TE biopsy is a safe and extensively validated approach with low biological and technical margin of error. Firstly, the prevalence of mosaic diploid/aneuploid blastocysts is estimated to be between 0 and 16 %, thus largely tolerable. Secondly, all the comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) technologies adapted to, or designed to conduct PGD-A are highly concordant, and qPCR in particular has been proven to show the lowest false positive error rate (0.5 %) and a clinically recognizable error rate per blastocyst of just 0.21 %.In conclusion, there is a sufficient body of evidence to support the clinical application of CCS-based PGD-A on TE biopsies. The main limiting factor is the need for a high-standard laboratory to conduct blastocyst culture, biopsy and vitrification without impacting embryo viability.

  7. Reluctant empiricists: community mental health nurses and the art of evidence-based praxis.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Paul; Brown, Brian; Anthony, Paul; Hicks, Carolyn

    2002-07-01

    The National Service Framework for Mental Health (1999) emphasizes the need for a culture of evidence-based practice (EBP) in mental health care. However, there is relatively little research addressing EBP from the perspective of community mental health nurses and we are still unsure of why the uptake of this style of working has been slow. This paper suggests that rather than thinking in terms of 'barriers' to the uptake of EBP, the issue may best be conceptualized as a form of praxis on the part of nurses, as they seek to manage the diversity of ideologies and practices in their working lives. From an interview and focus group study, we identify how practitioners' narrow definition of EBP itself, their formulation of how EBP was at odds with the nurse's professional activity and the organizational constraints within which they work were perceived to inhibit access to information and offer little time and managerial support for information seeking. Those who attempt to further the involvement of community mental health staff in EBP will have to reconceptualize the reasons why staff have yet to incorporate it fully, and acknowledge that this does not occur because staff are simply 'ignorant Luddites', but that this resistance enables them to retain a sense of control over their working lives and retain a focus on work with clients. Future EBP initiatives will have to address these ideological and organizational factors in order for uptake to be accelerated. This may involve changing organizational cultures and work roles and even encouraging activism on the part of the practitioners so as to enable them to learn from each other and educate and change their work environments.

  8. 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC). building evidence for improving communication about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a programme of research.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Simon; Hill, Sophie; Abdullahi, Leyla H; de Castro Freire, Sara Bensaude; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Glenton, Claire; Hussey, Gregory D; Jones, Catherine M; Kaufman, Jessica; Lin, Vivian; Mahomed, Hassan; Rhoda, Linda; Robinson, Priscilla; Waggie, Zainab; Willis, Natalie; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2011-12-02

    Effective provider-parent communication can improve childhood vaccination uptake and strengthen immunisation services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Building capacity to improve communication strategies has been neglected. Rigorous research exists but is not readily found or applicable to LMICs, making it difficult for policy makers to use it to inform vaccination policies and practice.The aim of this project is to build research knowledge and capacity to use evidence-based strategies for improving communication about childhood vaccinations with parents and communities in LMICs. This project is a mixed methods study with six sub-studies. In sub-study one, we will develop a systematic map of provider-parent communication interventions for childhood vaccinations by screening and extracting data from relevant literature. This map will inform sub-study two, in which we will develop a taxonomy of interventions to improve provider-parent communication around childhood vaccination. In sub-study three, the taxonomy will be populated with trial citations to create an evidence map, which will also identify how evidence is linked to communication barriers regarding vaccination. In the project's fourth sub-study, we will present the interventions map, taxonomy, and evidence map to international stakeholders to identify high-priority topics for systematic reviews of interventions to improve parent-provider communication for childhood vaccination. We will produce systematic reviews of the effects of high-priority interventions in the fifth sub-study. In the sixth and final sub-study of the project, evidence from the systematic reviews will be translated into accessible formats and messages for dissemination to LMICs. This project combines evidence mapping, conceptual and taxonomy development, priority setting, systematic reviews, and knowledge transfer. It will build and share concepts, terms, evidence, and resources to aid the development of communication

  9. 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC). building evidence for improving communication about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a programme of research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective provider-parent communication can improve childhood vaccination uptake and strengthen immunisation services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Building capacity to improve communication strategies has been neglected. Rigorous research exists but is not readily found or applicable to LMICs, making it difficult for policy makers to use it to inform vaccination policies and practice. The aim of this project is to build research knowledge and capacity to use evidence-based strategies for improving communication about childhood vaccinations with parents and communities in LMICs. Methods and design This project is a mixed methods study with six sub-studies. In sub-study one, we will develop a systematic map of provider-parent communication interventions for childhood vaccinations by screening and extracting data from relevant literature. This map will inform sub-study two, in which we will develop a taxonomy of interventions to improve provider-parent communication around childhood vaccination. In sub-study three, the taxonomy will be populated with trial citations to create an evidence map, which will also identify how evidence is linked to communication barriers regarding vaccination. In the project's fourth sub-study, we will present the interventions map, taxonomy, and evidence map to international stakeholders to identify high-priority topics for systematic reviews of interventions to improve parent-provider communication for childhood vaccination. We will produce systematic reviews of the effects of high-priority interventions in the fifth sub-study. In the sixth and final sub-study of the project, evidence from the systematic reviews will be translated into accessible formats and messages for dissemination to LMICs. Discussion This project combines evidence mapping, conceptual and taxonomy development, priority setting, systematic reviews, and knowledge transfer. It will build and share concepts, terms, evidence, and resources to aid

  10. 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and sedentary prevention: a cross-sectional strategy to develop evidence-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Liliana; Ripamonti, Ennio; Cereda, Danilo; Gelmi, Giusi; Pirrone, Lucia; Rebecchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sector, life-course, and setting approaches are identified in the 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan (PRP) of Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) as valuable strategies to ensure the efficacy and sustainable prevention of the non-communicable disease (NCDs). The involvement of non-health sectors in health promotion activities represents a suitable strategy to affect on social, economic, and political determinants and to change environmental factors that could cause NCDs. A dialogue among communities, urban planning, and prevention know-how is a prerequisite to develop a system of policies suitable to promote healthy lifestyle in general and, specifically, active lifestyles. The 2015-2018 Lombardy PRP pursues its aims of health promotion and behavioural risk factors for NCDs prevention through programmes that implement their own setting networks (Health Promoting Schools - SPS; Workplace Health Promotion - WHP) and develop new networks. Sedentary lifestyle prevention and active lifestyle promotion are performed through the approach promoted by the Healthy Cities Programme (WHO), encouraging two main processes: 1. creating integrated capacity-building among health and social prevention services, academic research, and local stakeholders on different urban planning and design issues; 2. promoting community empowerment through active citizens participation. Through this process, Lombardy Region aims to orient its services developing evidence-based programmes and enhancing advocacy and mediating capacity skills in order to create a profitable partnership with non-health sectors. This paper reports the main impact data: 26,000 children that reach school by foot thanks to walking buses, 57% of 145 companies joining WHP are involved in promoting physical activity, 18,891 citizens who attend local walking groups.

  11. An evidence-based shared decision making programme on the prevention of myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: protocol of a randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Buhse, Susanne; Heller, Tabitha; Kasper, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Müller, Ulrich Alfons; Lehmann, Thomas; Lenz, Matthias

    2013-10-19

    Lack of patient involvement in decision making has been suggested as one reason for limited treatment success. Concepts such as shared decision making may contribute to high quality healthcare by supporting patients to make informed decisions together with their physicians.A multi-component shared decision making programme on the prevention of heart attack in type 2 diabetes has been developed. It aims at improving the quality of decision-making by providing evidence-based patient information, enhancing patients' knowledge, and supporting them to actively participate in decision-making. In this study the efficacy of the programme is evaluated in the setting of a diabetes clinic. A single blinded randomised-controlled trial is conducted to compare the shared decision making programme with a control-intervention. The intervention consists of an evidence-based patient decision aid on the prevention of myocardial infarction and a corresponding counselling module provided by diabetes educators. Similar in duration and structure, the control-intervention targets nutrition, sports, and stress coping. A total of 154 patients between 40 and 69 years of age with type 2 diabetes and no previous diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or stroke are enrolled and allocated either to the intervention or the control-intervention. Primary outcome measure is the patients' knowledge on benefits and harms of heart attack prevention captured by a standardised knowledge test. Key secondary outcome measure is the achievement of treatment goals prioritised by the individual patient. Treatment goals refer to statin taking, HbA1c-, blood pressure levels and smoking status. Outcomes are assessed directly after the counselling and at 6 months follow-up. Analyses will be carried out on intention-to-treat basis. Concurrent qualitative methods are used to explore intervention fidelity and to gain insight into implementation processes. Interventions to facilitate evidence-based shared decision

  12. An evidence-based shared decision making programme on the prevention of myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: protocol of a randomised-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of patient involvement in decision making has been suggested as one reason for limited treatment success. Concepts such as shared decision making may contribute to high quality healthcare by supporting patients to make informed decisions together with their physicians. A multi-component shared decision making programme on the prevention of heart attack in type 2 diabetes has been developed. It aims at improving the quality of decision-making by providing evidence-based patient information, enhancing patients’ knowledge, and supporting them to actively participate in decision-making. In this study the efficacy of the programme is evaluated in the setting of a diabetes clinic. Methods/Design A single blinded randomised-controlled trial is conducted to compare the shared decision making programme with a control-intervention. The intervention consists of an evidence-based patient decision aid on the prevention of myocardial infarction and a corresponding counselling module provided by diabetes educators. Similar in duration and structure, the control-intervention targets nutrition, sports, and stress coping. A total of 154 patients between 40 and 69 years of age with type 2 diabetes and no previous diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or stroke are enrolled and allocated either to the intervention or the control-intervention. Primary outcome measure is the patients’ knowledge on benefits and harms of heart attack prevention captured by a standardised knowledge test. Key secondary outcome measure is the achievement of treatment goals prioritised by the individual patient. Treatment goals refer to statin taking, HbA1c-, blood pressure levels and smoking status. Outcomes are assessed directly after the counselling and at 6 months follow-up. Analyses will be carried out on intention-to-treat basis. Concurrent qualitative methods are used to explore intervention fidelity and to gain insight into implementation processes. Discussion Interventions to

  13. Evidence of a transnational arts and health practice methodology? A contextual framing for comparative community-based participatory arts practice in the UK and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Anni; Mantecón, Ana Rosas

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper draws on new research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City to discuss contextual influences on artists’ practice, and whether a common practice model can be identified. The international comparison is used to interrogate whether such a practice model is transnational, displaying shared characteristics that transcend contextual differences. Methods The study used multi-site ethnography to investigate the participatory practice of more than 40 artists. Participant observation and extended individual and group dialogues provided data on practice in a diverse range of art forms and settings, analysed using open coding and grounded theory principles. Results Findings locate differences in practitioners’ motivations, and perceptions of the work’s function; however, key similarities emerge across both sites, in practitioners’ workshop methodologies and crucially in their creative strategies for catalysing change. A model is presented distilling the key elements of a common practice methodology, found across the study and across art forms. Conclusions The discussion notes where divergences echo nationalities of contributors, drawing inferences about the level of influence of national context in this work, and concludes with the implications of these findings for potential international collaboration, to face challenges within the community arts and health sector globally. PMID:25729411

  14. A Comparison of Self-Reported Educational Technology Integration Proficiencies and Evidence-Based Educational Technology Integration Practices among Select Elementary Language Arts Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Monika R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a variety of techniques and data sources, to describe and to compare the self-reported educational technology integration proficiency levels with the evidence-based educational technology integration practices among select elementary language arts teachers. A collective case study design (Stake, 1995) was used…

  15. A Comparison of Self-Reported Educational Technology Integration Proficiencies and Evidence-Based Educational Technology Integration Practices among Select Elementary Language Arts Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Monika R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a variety of techniques and data sources, to describe and to compare the self-reported educational technology integration proficiency levels with the evidence-based educational technology integration practices among select elementary language arts teachers. A collective case study design (Stake, 1995) was used…

  16. Leadership Challenges in International Schools in the Asia Pacific Region: Evidence from Programme Implementation of the International Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four decades, International Baccalaureate (IB) schools have become increasingly important in the global market of international education. This is especially evident in Asia Pacific, which has evidenced the fastest growth in IB schools, as well as international schools more generally, across the world over the last decade. Despite…

  17. Leadership Challenges in International Schools in the Asia Pacific Region: Evidence from Programme Implementation of the International Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four decades, International Baccalaureate (IB) schools have become increasingly important in the global market of international education. This is especially evident in Asia Pacific, which has evidenced the fastest growth in IB schools, as well as international schools more generally, across the world over the last decade. Despite…

  18. The changing impact of the AIDS epidemic on older-age parents in the era of ART: evidence from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Knodel, John

    2012-03-01

    Previous research makes clear that before antiretroviral therapy (ART), when HIV led to disabling illness and certain death, many older persons as parents of infected adults experienced adverse emotional, material and social consequences. The present study examines how widespread access to ART is transforming the situation in Thailand. Interviews with parents of adult ART recipients reveal that major improvements in the health of their adult children under treatment is associated with major reductions in parental caregiving and expenses associated with their HIV-infected child although parents continue to provide psychological support. Parents own worry about their child's health also declines. Most adult children on ART are able to continue or resume economic activity and many contribute to support of the parental household. ART appears to reduce negative community reaction. Nevertheless, given uncertainty surrounding how long ART can protect against fatal illnesses, whether the adverse impacts of the AIDS epidemic on parents are being eliminated or only postponed remains an open question.

  19. The cost-effectiveness of an eradication programme in the end game: Evidence from guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Sankara, Dieudonné P; Agua, Junerlyn Farah; Jonnalagedda, Lakshmi; Rumi, Filippo; Weiss, Adam; Braden, Matthew; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Kruse, Nicole; Braband, Kate; Biswas, Gautam

    2017-10-01

    Of the three diseases targeted for eradication by WHO, two are so-called Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)-guinea worm disease (GWD) and yaws. The Guinea Worm Eradication Programme (GWEP) is in its final stages, with only 25 reported in 2016. However, global eradication still requires certification by WHO of the absence of transmission in all countries. We analyze the cost-effectiveness of the GWEP in the end game, when the number of cases is lower and the cost per case is higher than at any other time. Ours is the first economic evaluation of the GWEP since a World Bank study in 1997. Using data from the GWEP, we estimate the cost of the implementation, pre-certification and certification stages. We model cost-effectiveness in the period 1986-2030. We compare the GWEP to two alternative scenarios: doing nothing (no intervention since 1986) and control (only surveillance and outbreak response during 2016-2030). We report the cost per case averted, cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted and cost per at-risk life year averted. We assess cost-effectiveness against a threshold of about one half GDP per capita (less than US$ 500 in low income countries). All costs are expressed in US$ of 2015. The GWEP cost an estimated US$ 11 (95% uncertainty interval, 4.70-12.49) per case averted in the period 1986-2030. The pre-certification and certification phases can cost as much as US$ 0.0041 and US$ 0.0015 per capita per year. The cost per DALY averted by the GWEP relative to doing nothing is estimated at US$ 222 (118-372) in 1986-2030. The GWEP is probably more cost-effective than control by the year 2030. The GWEP is certainly more cost-effective than control if willingness to pay for one year of life lived without the risk of GWD exceeds US$ 0.10. Even if economic costs are two times as high as the financial costs estimated for the period to 2020, the GWEP will still be cost-effective relative to doing nothing. Whether the GWEP turns out to be the most cost

  20. Tracing of patients lost to follow-up and HIV transmission: Mathematical modelling study based on two large ART programmes in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Estill, Janne; Tweya, Hannock; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles; Feldacker, Caryl; Johnson, Leigh F.; Blaser, Nello; Vizcaya, Luisa Salazar; Phiri, Sam; Keiser, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment as prevention depends on retaining HIV-infected patients in care. We investigated the effect on HIV transmission of bringing patients lost to follow up (LTFU) back into care. Design Mathematical model. Methods Stochastic mathematical model of cohorts of 1000 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), based on data from two clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. We calculated cohort viral load (CVL; sum of individual mean viral loads each year) and used a mathematical relationship between viral load and transmission probability to estimate the number of new HIV infections. We simulated four scenarios: ‘no LTFU’ (all patients stay in care); ‘no tracing’ (patients LTFU are not traced); ‘immediate tracing’ (after missed clinic appointment); and, ‘delayed tracing’ (after six months). Results About 440 of 1000 patients were LTFU over five years. CVL (million copies/ml per 1000 patients) were 3.7 (95% prediction interval [PrI] 2.9-4.9) for no LTFU, 8.6 (95% PrI 7.3-10.0) for no tracing, 7.7 (95% PrI 6.2-9.1) for immediate, and 8.0 (95% PrI 6.7-9.5) for delayed tracing. Comparing no LTFU with no tracing the number of new infections increased from 33 (95% PrI 29-38) to 54 (95% PrI 47-60) per 1000 patients. Immediate tracing prevented 3.6 (95% PrI -3.3-12.8) and delayed tracing 2.5 (95% PrI -5.8-11.1) new infections per 1000. Immediate tracing was more efficient than delayed tracing: 116 and to 142 tracing efforts, respectively, were needed to prevent one new infection. Conclusion Tracing of patients LTFU enhances the preventive effect of ART, but the number of transmissions prevented is small. PMID:24326599

  1. WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide: a systematic review of evidence from low and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Keynejad, Roxanne C; Dua, Tarun; Barbui, Corrado; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-09-13

    Despite mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders being highly prevalent, there is a worldwide gap between service need and provision. WHO launched its Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) in 2008, and the Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) in 2010. mhGAP-IG provides evidence-based guidance and tools for assessment and integrated management of priority MNS disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), using clinical decision-making protocols. It targets a non-specialised primary healthcare audience, but has also been used by ministries, non-governmental organisations and academics, for mental health service scale-up in 90 countries. This review aimed to identify evidence to date for mhGAP-IG implementation in LMICs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO/Web of Science, Cochrane, Pubmed databases and Google Scholar for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of mhGAP-IG in LMICs, in any language. Data were extracted from included papers, but heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of evidence to date, of mhGAP-IG implementation and evaluation in LMICs. Thirty-three included studies reported 15 training courses, 9 clinical implementations, 3 country contextualisations, 3 economic models, 2 uses as control interventions and 1 use to develop a rating scale. Our review identified the importance of detailed reports of contextual challenges in the field, alongside detailed protocols, qualitative studies and randomised controlled trials. The mhGAP-IG literature is substantial, relative to other published evaluations of clinical practice guidelines: an important contribution to a neglected field. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Cash transfers, maternal depression and emotional well-being: Quasi-experimental evidence from India's Janani Suraksha Yojana programme.

    PubMed

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Pereira, Shreya K; Dutt, Varun; Tougher, Sarah; Haldar, Kaveri; Kumar, Paresh

    2016-08-01

    Maternal depression is an important public health concern. We investigated whether a national-scale initiative that provides cash transfers to women giving birth in government health facilities, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), reduced maternal depression in India's largest state, Uttar Pradesh. Using primary data on 1695 women collected in early 2015, our quasi-experimental design exploited the fact that some women did not receive the JSY cash due to administrative problems in its disbursement - reasons that are unlikely to be correlated with determinants of maternal depression. We found that receipt of the cash was associated with an 8.5% reduction in the continuous measure of maternal depression and a 36% reduction in moderate depression. There was no evidence of an association with measures of emotional well-being, namely happiness and worry. The results suggest that the JSY had a clinically meaningful effect in reducing the burden of maternal depression, possibly by lessening the financial strain of delivery care. They contribute to the evidence that financial incentive schemes may have public health benefits beyond improving uptake of targeted health services.

  3. Effects of evidence-based strategies to reduce the socioeconomic gradient of uptake in the English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (ASCEND): four cluster-randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Halloran, Stephen P; Smith, Samuel G; McGregor, Lesley M; Vart, Gemma; Howe, Rosemary; Snowball, Julia; Handley, Graham; Logan, Richard F; Rainbow, Sandra; Smith, Steve; Thomas, Mary C; Counsell, Nicholas; Morris, Steve; Duffy, Stephen W; Hackshaw, Allan; Moss, Sue; Atkin, Wendy; Raine, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Uptake in the national colorectal cancer screening programme in England varies by socioeconomic status. We assessed four interventions aimed at reducing this gradient, with the intention of improving the health benefits of screening. Methods All people eligible for screening (men and women aged 60–74 years) across England were included in four cluster-randomised trials. Randomisation was based on day of invitation. Each trial compared the standard information with the standard information plus the following supplementary interventions: trial 1 (November, 2012), a supplementary leaflet summarising the gist of the key information; trial 2 (March, 2012), a supplementary narrative leaflet describing people's stories; trial 3 (June, 2013), general practice endorsement of the programme on the invitation letter; and trial 4 (July–August, 2013) an enhanced reminder letter with a banner that reiterated the screening offer. Socioeconomic status was defined by the Index of Multiple Deprivation score for each home address. The primary outcome was the socioeconomic status gradient in uptake across deprivation quintiles. This study is registered, number ISRCTN74121020. Findings As all four trials were embedded in the screening programme, loss to follow-up was minimal (less than 0·5%). Trials 1 (n=163 525) and 2 (n=150 417) showed no effects on the socioeconomic gradient of uptake or overall uptake. Trial 3 (n=265 434) showed no effect on the socioeconomic gradient but was associated with increased overall uptake (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·07, 95% CI 1·04–1·10, p<0·0001). In trial 4 (n=168 480) a significant interaction was seen with socioeconomic status gradient (p=0·005), with a stronger effect in the most deprived quintile (adjusted OR 1·11, 95% CI 1·04–1·20, p=0·003) than in the least deprived (1·00, 0·94–1·06, p=0·98). Overall uptake was also increased (1·07, 1·03–1·11, p=0·001). Interpretation Of four evidence

  4. Arts, health & wellbeing: reflections on a national seminar series and building a UK research network

    PubMed Central

    Stickley, Theo; Parr, Hester; Atkinson, Sarah; Daykin, Norma; Clift, Stephen; De Nora, Tia; Hacking, Sue; Camic, Paul M; Joss, Tim; White, Mike; Hogan, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An account is provided of a UK national seminar series on Arts, Health and Wellbeing funded by the Economic and Social Research Council during 2012–13. Four seminars were organised addressing current issues and challenges facing the field. Details of the programme and its outputs are available online. A central concern of the seminar programme was to provide a foundation for creating a UK national network for researchers in the field to help promote evidence-based policy and practice. With funding from Lankelly Chase Foundation, and the support of the Royal Society for Public Health, a Special interest Group for Arts, Health and Wellbeing was launched in 2015. PMID:28163778

  5. Arts, health & wellbeing: reflections on a national seminar series and building a UK research network.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Theo; Parr, Hester; Atkinson, Sarah; Daykin, Norma; Clift, Stephen; De Nora, Tia; Hacking, Sue; Camic, Paul M; Joss, Tim; White, Mike; Hogan, Susan J

    2017-01-02

    An account is provided of a UK national seminar series on Arts, Health and Wellbeing funded by the Economic and Social Research Council during 2012-13. Four seminars were organised addressing current issues and challenges facing the field. Details of the programme and its outputs are available online. A central concern of the seminar programme was to provide a foundation for creating a UK national network for researchers in the field to help promote evidence-based policy and practice. With funding from Lankelly Chase Foundation, and the support of the Royal Society for Public Health, a Special interest Group for Arts, Health and Wellbeing was launched in 2015.

  6. Uses of Evidence in Local Cultural Policy: Performance, Legitimation, Problem Representation, and Learning in Two Australian Municipalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomkamp, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Taking an interpretive approach to evidence-based policy, this article illustrates the rhetorical and situated uses of evidence in two case studies of local cultural policy. Broadly defined as policy-relevant knowledge, evidence is selectively used by council officers in the development, delivery, and evaluation of arts programmes at two…

  7. Arts-based interventions in healthcare education.

    PubMed

    Osman, Magda; Eacott, Bella; Willson, Suzy

    2017-08-19

    Healthcare education institutions are increasingly including arts-based interventions in their programmes. We analysed 62 studies of arts-based interventions to understand how these interventions may be beneficial, and why providing evidence continues to be a challenge for the field.Our analysis highlighted two issues. We found that 79% of the included studies reported that their interventions were successful, but without always defining this success or how it was measured. This lack of clarity was apparent in descriptions of both what arts-based interventions aimed to do, and in descriptions of how they might do this. We also found that only 34% of studies involved a collaboration with artists or arts educators, raising questions over who had the necessary experience and specialism in the arts to design and deliver such interventions.Our analysis revealed that arts-based interventions are failing to acknowledge, and subsequently capture through assessment, the process of learning in the moment. This is particularly important because arts-based pedagogies typically use embodied, practical, physical methods, in which what is being learnt cannot be separated from the process of learning. Involving artists and arts educators throughout the process of designing and delivering these interventions may help to bring clarity over what arts-based interventions are aiming to do and how they may do this, and ensure that appropriate evaluation methods are used. We suggest that close observation with feedback, and the use of reflective portfolios are two ways of assessing the process of learning in arts-based interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The Impact of a Multi-Year, Multi-School District K-6 Professional Development Programme Designed to Integrate Science Inquiry and Language Arts on Students' High-Stakes Test Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shymansky, James A.; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard A.; Yore, Larry D.; Everett, Susan A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper is a report of a quasi-experimental study on the impact of a systemic 5-year, K-6 professional development (PD) project on the 'high stakes' achievement test scores of different student groups in rural mid-west school districts in the USA. The PD programme utilized regional summer workshops, district-based leadership teams and distance delivery technologies to help teachers learn science concepts and inquiry teaching strategies associated with a selection of popular science inquiry kits and how to adapt inquiry science lessons in the kits to teach and reinforce skills in the language arts-i.e. to teach more than science when doing inquiry science. Analyses of the school district-level pre-post high-stakes achievement scores of 33 school districts participating in the adaptation of inquiry PD and a comparative group of 23 school districts revealed that both the Grade 3 and Grade 6 student-cohorts in the school districts utilizing adapted science inquiry lessons significantly outscored their student-cohort counterparts in the comparative school districts. The positive school district-level high-stakes test results, which serve as the basis for state and local decision making, suggest that an inquiry adaptation strategy and a combination of regional live workshop and distance delivery technologies with ongoing local leadership and support can serve as a viable PD option for K-6 science.

  9. Content and Language Integrated Learning Next in Asia: Evidence of Learners' Achievement in CLIL Education from a Taiwan Tertiary Degree Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wenhsien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates learners' performance in a Taiwanese tertiary content and language integrated learning (CLIL) programme. Learners' English proficiency was measured immediately after entering the programme and before their industrial placement, i.e. after two years. As in previously reported cases, the learners showed a significant…

  10. Content and Language Integrated Learning Next in Asia: Evidence of Learners' Achievement in CLIL Education from a Taiwan Tertiary Degree Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wenhsien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates learners' performance in a Taiwanese tertiary content and language integrated learning (CLIL) programme. Learners' English proficiency was measured immediately after entering the programme and before their industrial placement, i.e. after two years. As in previously reported cases, the learners showed a significant…

  11. [Development of an evidence-based self-management programme for patients in the first year after renal transplantation with a focus on prevention of weight gain, physical exercise and drug adherence].

    PubMed

    Schmid-Mohler, Gabriela; Fehr, Thomas; Witschi, Patrick; Albiez, Thomas; Biotti, Beatrice; Spirig, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    In the first year after kidney transplantation patients are challenged with incorporating new behaviour patterns into their daily lives. Due to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease amongst kidney transplant recipients, behaviours such as preventing undesired weight gain, exercising, avoiding smoking, and managing medications take on crucial importance. The aim of the project was to develop a programme based on prevailing evidence to promote self-management skills in this patient population. To this end a participatory action research approach was chosen. The programme was developed with inter-professional collaboration under the direction of an advanced practice nurse. As theoretical framework for the development of the intervention models of behaviour change and self-management were chosen. The content is based on current literature and includes the viewpoints of both patients and nursing experts. The programme consists of three elements: 1) Educational brochures developed through inter-professional collaboration and evaluated in a pilot survey. These brochures provide a framework for appointments with nursing professionals. 2) The appointments are a forum in which the patient can gain access to relevant information and can be supported in putting sustainable health-related behaviours into practice in daily life. 3) A peer programme that uses treatment plans to encourage patients deviating from preferred health-related behaviours to make changes in their behaviour. The programme evaluation started in May of 2012. Results of the pilot study are expected in 2014.

  12. Art Meets Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohs, C. Renee

    2007-01-01

    Numerous connections between the visual arts and sciences are evident if we choose to look for them. In February 2006, students and faculty from the Art and Geol/Geog departments at NW Missouri State University put together an exhibit at a local art gallery featuring works that were born out of science, inspired by science, or exploring the…

  13. Generalists to Specialists: Transformative Evidences and Impediments to Student-Centered Practices of Primary Music and Art Teachers in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costes-Onishi, Pamela; Caleon, Imelda

    2016-01-01

    This article fills in the knowledge gap in the student-centered practices of generalist music and art teachers to prepare 21st century learners. The study shows that generalists, after completing a specialist professional development program, struggle the most in connecting subject matter knowledge to pedagogical knowledge, specifically…

  14. Prestige, Charitable Deductions and Other Determinants of Alumni Giving: Evidence from a Highly Selective Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Private institutions of higher education are highly dependent on alumni support to cover operating expenses, fund endowments and fuel large capital campaigns. For example, in 2004, alumni at private liberal arts colleges generated nearly 43% of total voluntary support and funded 21.5% of total institutional expenditures. This paper uses 15 years…

  15. Transporting evidence-based interventions across cultures: using focus groups with teachers and parents of pre-school children to inform the implementation of the Incredible Years Teacher Training Programme in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Baker-Henningham, H

    2011-09-01

    Evidence-based programmes to prevent and treat conduct problems in young children are available, but there is limited information on the extent to which they can be effectively transported to developing countries. This study used focus group discussions with parents and teachers of pre-school children to investigate whether an evidence-based programme - the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Training Programme - could be transported to the Jamaican pre-school setting. Ten focus group discussions were held with 50 pre-school teachers and 47 parents of pre-school children. For each focus group, a semi-structured questioning guide was used to explore parents' and teachers' perceptions of the dimensions and causes of problem behaviour in young children and strategies used to manage child behaviour. All focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Parents and teachers shared similar views of what constitutes good behaviour and poor behaviour, and both parents and teachers believed that the major influences on children's behaviour are factors in the home. Many appropriate and useful strategies for managing child behaviour were used including showing children affection, spending time with children, using praise, incentives and rewards and withdrawing privileges and using timeout as consequences for misbehaviour. Some inappropriate strategies were also used, especially corporal punishment, although there was a general consensus within all groups that this is not desirable or effective. Through the focus groups, it was clear that parents and teachers were familiar with many of the strategies and principles introduced through the IY Teacher Training Programme, and the programme was largely compatible with their values and beliefs. However, some topics require additional emphasis thus lengthening the time required for training. It was also evident that there is a strong perceived need for training in child behaviour

  16. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  17. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  18. Food-based recommendations to reduce fat intake: an evidence-based approach to the development of a family-focused child weight management programme.

    PubMed

    Gehling, R K; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2005-03-01

    To develop food-based recommendations to lower fat and energy intake for use in a family-focussed weight management programme for 6-9 year old children. Secondary analysis of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (NNS95) informed the development of food-based recommendations aiming to reduce fat and energy intake. Each recommendation was used to progressively modify a model 3-day high fat dietary intake with the accumulative effect on energy and nutrient intake of each recommendation assessed. Six to nine-year-olds in the NNS95 consuming 35-45% energy as fat (n= 280) consumed more total energy (mean +/- SD, 8671 +/- 2741 vs. 7571 +/- 2328 kJ/day) than children consuming a 'low fat' (23-27% energy as fat, n= 85) diet (P < 0.002). Food-based recommendations found to be most effective for reducing energy and fat intake included; changing to reduced fat milk, reducing intake of cereal-based and snack foods and replacing juice or soft drink with water. These changes, together with avoiding adding fat to vegetables and using sources of lean meat, reduced energy intake by approximately 10%, total fat intake by approximately 30% and saturated fat intake by 53%. Modifying six areas of food choices results in a moderate reduction in fat and energy intake. An eating pattern that is consistent with Australian dietary guidelines and uses foods commonly eaten by children is achievable for children aged 6-9 years. These food-based recommendations provide an evidence-based dietary framework for prevention and management of overweight in children.

  19. Spatial spillover effects of a community action programme targeting on-licensed premises on violent assaults: evidence from a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Brännström, Lars; Trolldal, Björn; Menke, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Spatial dependencies may influence the success of community action strategies to prevent and reduce harmful alcohol use. This study examined the effectiveness of a multicomponent Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) programme targeting on-licensed premises on police-recorded assaults in Swedish municipalities. It was expected that the implementation of the programme within any given municipality had an indirect effect by reducing violent assaults in adjacent municipalities. This study was a natural experiment exploiting the temporal and spatial variation in the implementation of the RBS programme to predict change in the rate of violent assaults in all Swedish municipalities during 1996-2009 (n=288; T=14; N=4 032). Yearly police-recorded violent assaults per 100,000 inhabitants aged 15 and above committed on weekend nights were used as a dependent variable. Programme fidelity was identified by means of survey data. A semilogarithmic fixed-effects spatial panel regression model was used to estimate the direct, indirect and total effects of the programme. The direct, indirect and total effects were -1.8% (95% CI -4.4% to 0.8%), -5.8% (95% CI -11.5% to -0.1%) and -7.6% (95% CI -13.2% to -2.2%), respectively. Averaged over time and across all municipalities, implementing one additional programme component in all municipalities will thus reduce violent assaults in one typical municipality by nearly 8%. The indirect effect of the programme was three times larger than its direct effect. Failing to account for such local spillover effects can result in a considerable underestimation of the programme's total impact and may lead to erroneous policy recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Refuah Shlema: a cross-cultural programme for promoting communication and health among Ethiopian immigrants in the primary health care setting in Israel: evidence and lessons learned from over a decade of implementation.

    PubMed

    Levin-Zamir, Diane; Keret, Sandra; Yaakovson, Orit; Lev, Boaz; Kay, Calanit; Verber, Giora; Lieberman, Niki

    2011-03-01

    The Refuah Shlema programme was established to reduce health disparities, promote health literacy and health indicators of the Ethiopian immigrant community in Israel, and included: (i) integrating Ethiopian immigrant liaisons in primary care as inter-cultural mediators; (ii) in-service training of clinical staff to increase cultural awareness and sensitivity; and (iii) health education community activities. Qualitative and quantitative evidence showed improvements in: (i) clinic staff–patient relations; (ii) availability and accessibility of health services, and health system navigation without increasing service expenditure; (iii) perception of general well-being; and (iv) self-care practice with regards to chronic conditions. Evidence significantly contributed to sustaining the programme for over 13 years.

  1. Art Education: An International Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This study was made within the art education programme adopted by the Unesco General Conference at its fifteenth session. Its purpose is to provide educational administrators, students, teachers and the general public with information showing what countries are thinking and doing about art education. Twelve member nations were selected to reflect…

  2. Art Education: An International Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This study was made within the art education programme adopted by the Unesco General Conference at its fifteenth session. Its purpose is to provide educational administrators, students, teachers and the general public with information showing what countries are thinking and doing about art education. Twelve member nations were selected to reflect…

  3. When Challenging Art Gets Liked: Evidences for a Dual Preference Formation Process for Fluent and Non-Fluent Portraits.

    PubMed

    Belke, Benno; Leder, Helmut; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Although fluency theory predominates psychological research on human aesthetics, its most severe limitation may be to explain why art that challenges or even violates easy processing can nevertheless be aesthetically rewarding. We discuss long-standing notions on art's potential to offer mental growth opportunities and to tap into a basic epistemic predisposition that hint at a fluency counteracting aesthetic pleasure mechanism. Based on divergent strands of literature on empirical, evolutionary, and philosophical aesthetics, as well as research on disfluency, we presumed that challenging art requires deliberate reflexive processing at the level of "aboutness" in order to be experientially pleasing. Here, we probed such a cognitive mastering mechanism, achieved by iterative cycles of elaboration, as predicted by our model of aesthetic experiences. For the study, two kinds of portraits were applied, one associable to a high fluency and one to a high stimulation potential (according to results of an extensive rating study). In Experiment 1, we provided a repeated evaluation task, which revealed a distinctive preference effect for challenging portraits that was absent in the visual exposition conditions of a familiarity and a mere exposure task (Experiment 2). In a follow-up task (Experiment 3) this preference effect was observed with a novel and more encompassing pool of portraits, which corroborated its stability and robustness. In an explorative stimulus-transfer task (Experiment 4), we investigated the presumed underlying mechanism by testing whether the observed effect would generalize onto novel portraits of the same artist-specific styles. Results discounted an alternative interpretation of a perceptual adaptation effect and hinted at meaning-driven mental activity. Conjointly, findings for inexperienced viewers were indicative of an elaboration based mastering mechanism that selectively operated for mentally challenging portraits. Moreover, findings were in

  4. Museums and art galleries as partners for public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Camic, Paul M; Chatterjee, Helen J

    2013-01-01

    The majority of public health programmes are based in schools, places of employment and in community settings. Likewise, nearly all health-care interventions occur in clinics and hospitals. An underdeveloped area for public health-related planning that carries international implications is the cultural heritage sector, and specifically museums and art galleries. This paper presents a rationale for the use of museums and art galleries as sites for public health interventions and health promotion programmes through discussing the social role of these organisations in the health and well-being of the communities they serve. Recent research from several countries is reviewed and integrated into a proposed framework for future collaboration between cultural heritage, health-care and university sectors to further advance research, policy development and evidence-based practice.

  5. When Challenging Art Gets Liked: Evidences for a Dual Preference Formation Process for Fluent and Non-Fluent Portraits

    PubMed Central

    Belke, Benno; Leder, Helmut; Carbon, Claus Christian

    2015-01-01

    Although fluency theory predominates psychological research on human aesthetics, its most severe limitation may be to explain why art that challenges or even violates easy processing can nevertheless be aesthetically rewarding. We discuss long-standing notions on art’s potential to offer mental growth opportunities and to tap into a basic epistemic predisposition that hint at a fluency counteracting aesthetic pleasure mechanism. Based on divergent strands of literature on empirical, evolutionary, and philosophical aesthetics, as well as research on disfluency, we presumed that challenging art requires deliberate reflexive processing at the level of “aboutness” in order to be experientially pleasing. Here, we probed such a cognitive mastering mechanism, achieved by iterative cycles of elaboration, as predicted by our model of aesthetic experiences. For the study, two kinds of portraits were applied, one associable to a high fluency and one to a high stimulation potential (according to results of an extensive rating study). In Experiment 1, we provided a repeated evaluation task, which revealed a distinctive preference effect for challenging portraits that was absent in the visual exposition conditions of a familiarity and a mere exposure task (Experiment 2). In a follow-up task (Experiment 3) this preference effect was observed with a novel and more encompassing pool of portraits, which corroborated its stability and robustness. In an explorative stimulus-transfer task (Experiment 4), we investigated the presumed underlying mechanism by testing whether the observed effect would generalize onto novel portraits of the same artist-specific styles. Results discounted an alternative interpretation of a perceptual adaptation effect and hinted at meaning-driven mental activity. Conjointly, findings for inexperienced viewers were indicative of an elaboration based mastering mechanism that selectively operated for mentally challenging portraits. Moreover, findings were

  6. Is there evidence for the use of art therapy in treatment of psychosomatic disorders, eating disorders and crisis? A comparative study of two different systems for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Gärd; Lundqvist Persson, Cristina

    2012-02-01

    A comparative study of two different systems for evaluation. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 47-53. As with any type of treatment the requirement for evidence based practice (EBP) has also affected art therapy (AT) when used as an intervention. This review evaluates the available evidence for using AT for psychosomatic disorders, eating disorders and crisis. The search in Cochrane, Best Practice, AMED, CINAHL, PION, PsycINFO and PubMed from 1987 until now resulted in a huge number of articles but only 32 articles met our criteria for evaluations. The articles were assessed with two evaluation systems, the GRADE system used by the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU) and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF/Task Force). When comparing the results we found that the GRADE evaluation system rejected the quality in 84% of the 32 studies and the USPSTF/Task Force 41% of these studies. An evidence base for AT was found only according to the criteria of USPSTF/Task Force. Hence, the evidence concept is not explicit, which means that effective treatments run a risk of not being implemented in health care. We suggest a broader view of what constitutes evidence in order to make it possible to include different types of research designs and methods.

  7. Evidence for validity of a national physician and patient-reported, cross-sectional survey in China and UK: the Disease Specific Programme

    PubMed Central

    Babineaux, S M; Curtis, B; Holbrook, T; Milligan, G; Piercy, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes represents a significant challenge for Chinese healthcare providers. Healthcare decision-making is generally based on many data sources, including randomised controlled and real-world studies; however, good-quality data from Chinese diabetes patients are scarce. We performed an initial validation to assess the representativeness of one source of real-world data—the Diabetes Adelphi Disease Specific Programme (DSP) in China. Setting China, UK. Participants The Chinese DSP included 2060 patients with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) sampled by 200 physicians. The reference Chinese population comprised 238 639 patients with previously diagnosed T2DM. The UK DSP contained 1481 patients with T2DM sampled by 125 physicians; the reference UK population comprised 289 patients with diabetes. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was comparison of unweighted China DSP and reference data for sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), patients achieving glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)<7%, total cholesterol, coronary heart disease and dyslipidaemia. The secondary outcome was comparison of weighted UK DSP and reference data for BMI, BP, mean HbA1c, total cholesterol, smoking and insulin status. Results Comparison of unweighted China DSP and reference data revealed statistical equivalence for BMI, systolic BP, proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7%, total cholesterol, coronary heart disease and dyslipidaemia. Sex, age, diabetes duration, diastolic BP and mean HbA1c level were not equivalent, although differences were generally small. Weighting of data did not substantially affect the results. A similar pattern was observed for UK data. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the methodology used for the China and UK parts of the Diabetes DSP produces representative samples that are comparable with other independent sources of patient treatment outcomes data, which may ultimately inform public health decision

  8. [Art in undergraduate medical education].

    PubMed

    Fjellstad, Kenneth; Isaksen, Tor Olav; Frich, Jan C

    2003-08-28

    During the last decades attempts have been made at integrating art in medical education. What should be the form, content and objectives of such teaching? We address this question on the basis of a review of articles in medical journals from 1990 until May 2001 about art and undergraduate medical education. A common reason for integrating art in undergraduate medical education is that art may act as a balance to the dominance of natural science. One pedagogical approach is to use art as a tool for training skills. Many articles emphasise that teaching art should also contribute to the personal and professional development of medical students. The majority of articles report on courses in literature and medicine. Art is often taught in small or medium-sized groups; courses may last from single lessons to programmes over years. The aim of art courses may be the development of skills, but also one of facilitating personal growth and professional development.

  9. A graduate programme for academic family physicians.

    PubMed

    Brennan, M; McWhinney, I R; Stewart, M; Weston, W

    1985-09-01

    The paper describes a graduate studies programme designed to prepare outstanding family physicians for academic leadership and reports an evaluation of the programme. The programme aims to produce academic family physicians who exhibit certain qualities: outstanding clinical skills, professional interest in the organization and transmission of knowledge, and a scholarly approach through research and skills of leadership. The course includes clinical and teaching practice, formal course work and a scholarly thesis; the emphasis is on teaching and learning, theoretical foundations of family medicine, whole person medicine, research design and techniques, ethical decision making, and administration of organizations. A survey of the first 30 graduates of the programme indicated that the majority did more clinical teaching, small group teaching, research, writing and administration than before the course. The graduates' opinions of the programme indicated the extent to which the programme goals have been met; to provide a coherent learning experience integrating the art, science and technology of the discipline of family medicine.

  10. Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Language Acquisition through Motor Planning (LAMP) Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedwani, Mary-Ann Naguib; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often have restricted verbal communication. For children who do not use functional speech, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices can be an important support. We evaluated the effectiveness of one AAC programme, the Language Acquisition through Motor Planning (LAMP) using a Vantage…

  11. Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Language Acquisition through Motor Planning (LAMP) Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedwani, Mary-Ann Naguib; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often have restricted verbal communication. For children who do not use functional speech, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices can be an important support. We evaluated the effectiveness of one AAC programme, the Language Acquisition through Motor Planning (LAMP) using a Vantage…

  12. [Vaccination programmes].

    PubMed

    Varela, M Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Immunization is a highly cost-effective intervention that saves many lives. Its objective is to control and eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases (when the characteristics of the disease and the vaccine make it possible), resulting in improvements in the health of the population. In Spain, the first vaccination schedule was introduced in 1975 and currently coverages > 95% are achieved in children aged < 2 years of age. Before deciding to introduce a vaccination programme in a community or country, a series of aspects should be considered, including the disease burden in the population, the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the changes in the dynamics of the infection when the vaccine is introduced, the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, the theoretical potential of elimination/eradication of the disease and the existence of other preventive or therapeutic measures. Once the programme has been introduced it should be subject to evaluation, considering aspects such as the coverage, effectiveness, safety and the impact on the population. This work defines different vaccination strategies for three diseases for which efficacious and safe vaccines are available: hepatitis A, influenza and varicella.

  13. The Mirror and the Canyon: Reflected Images, Echoed Voices How Evidence of GW's Performing Arts Integration Model Is Used to Build Support for Arts Education Integration and to Promote Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellrodt, John Charles; Fico, Maria; Harnett, Susanne; Ramsey, Lori Gerstein; Lopez, Angelina

    2014-01-01

    The Global Writes (GW) model is a well-designed performing arts integrated literacy program that builds local and global support among students, teachers, and arts partners through the use of innovative technologies. Through local partnerships between schools and arts organizations forged by GW, classroom teachers and local teaching artists build…

  14. The intersection of antiretroviral therapy, peer support programmes, and economic empowerment with HIV stigma among HIV-positive women in West Nile Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Nicole Coffey; Gnauck, Katherine

    2016-12-01

    HIV stigma remains a major problem of the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Women fear impending social stigma including blame, isolation and abuse. HIV infection and HIV stigma interact cyclically, creating and reinforcing economic and social exclusion for individuals living with HIV. Evidence suggests that interventions for people living with HIV infection that include, in combination, antiretroviral therapy (ART), peer support and economic empowerment are likely to be more effective than if used alone. We report a qualitative study in West Nile Uganda that explored perceptions of HIV stigma among fifty-four HIV-positive women who had similar access to ART and HIV peer support programmes, but varying levels of participation (full-time, intermittent, none) in economic empowerment programmes. Our study found that access to ART, peer support groups, and economic empowerment programmes helped to curb perceptions of deep-seated HIV stigma for participants. More expressions of usefulness, hope and psychological well-being prevailed with participants who had increased participation in economic empowerment programmes. Our findings underscore the value of HIV outreach programmes which combine ART, peer support and economic empowerment to alleviate HIV stigma. Further research to quantify the interaction of these factors is warranted.

  15. Evaluation of the Start Programme: Case-Study Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Shona; Sharp, Caroline; Weaving, Harriet; Smith, Robert; Wheater, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This report presents five case studies of long-term partnerships (over three years) between arts organisations and schools. The Start programme enables arts venues and schools to work together to offer disadvantaged young people opportunities to engage in creative activities that inspire them and enhance their experience of the arts. It is…

  16. Radiotherapy for non-malignant disorders: state of the art and update of the evidence-based practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Micke, O; Muecke, R

    2015-01-01

    Every year in Germany about 50,000 patients are referred and treated by radiotherapy (RT) for “non-malignant disorders”. This highly successful treatment is applied only for specific indications such as preservation or recovery of the quality of life by means of pain reduction or resolution and/or an improvement of formerly impaired physical body function owing to specific disease-related symptoms. Since 1995, German radiation oncologists have treated non-malignant disorders according to national consensus guidelines; these guidelines were updated and further developed over 3 years by implementation of a systematic consensus process to achieve national upgraded and accepted S2e clinical practice guidelines. Throughout this process, international standards of evaluation were implemented. This review summarizes most of the generally accepted indications for the application of RT for non-malignant diseases and presents the special treatment concepts. The following disease groups are addressed: painful degenerative skeletal disorders, hyperproliferative disorders and symptomatic functional disorders. These state of the art guidelines may serve as a platform for daily clinical work; they provide a new starting point for quality assessment, future clinical research, including the design of prospective clinical trials, and outcome research in the underrepresented and less appreciated field of RT for non-malignant disorders. PMID:25955230

  17. Where does brain neural activation in aesthetic responses to visual art occur? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M; Barbetti, S; Piccardi, L; Guariglia, C; Ferlazzo, F; Giannini, A M; Zaidel, D W

    2016-01-01

    Here we aimed at finding the neural correlates of the general aspect of visual aesthetic experience (VAE) and those more strictly correlated with the content of the artworks. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 47 fMRI experiments described in 14 published studies. We also performed four separate ALE analyses in order to identify the neural substrates of reactions to specific categories of artworks, namely portraits, representation of real-world-visual-scenes, abstract paintings, and body sculptures. The general ALE revealed that VAE relies on a bilateral network of areas, and the individual ALE analyses revealed different maximal activation for the artworks' categories as function of their content. Specifically, different content-dependent areas of the ventral visual stream are involved in VAE, but a few additional brain areas are involved as well. Thus, aesthetic-related neural responses to art recruit widely distributed networks in both hemispheres including content-dependent brain areas of the ventral visual stream. Together, the results suggest that aesthetic responses are not independent of sensory, perceptual, and cognitive processes.

  18. Radiotherapy for non-malignant disorders: state of the art and update of the evidence-based practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Seegenschmiedt, M H; Micke, O; Muecke, R

    2015-07-01

    Every year in Germany about 50,000 patients are referred and treated by radiotherapy (RT) for "non-malignant disorders". This highly successful treatment is applied only for specific indications such as preservation or recovery of the quality of life by means of pain reduction or resolution and/or an improvement of formerly impaired physical body function owing to specific disease-related symptoms. Since 1995, German radiation oncologists have treated non-malignant disorders according to national consensus guidelines; these guidelines were updated and further developed over 3 years by implementation of a systematic consensus process to achieve national upgraded and accepted S2e clinical practice guidelines. Throughout this process, international standards of evaluation were implemented. This review summarizes most of the generally accepted indications for the application of RT for non-malignant diseases and presents the special treatment concepts. The following disease groups are addressed: painful degenerative skeletal disorders, hyperproliferative disorders and symptomatic functional disorders. These state of the art guidelines may serve as a platform for daily clinical work; they provide a new starting point for quality assessment, future clinical research, including the design of prospective clinical trials, and outcome research in the underrepresented and less appreciated field of RT for non-malignant disorders.

  19. Establishing a workplace antiretroviral therapy programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, S; Grant, A D; Day, J H; Pemba, L; Chaisson, R E; Kruger, P; Martin, D; Wood, R; Brink, B; Churchyard, G J

    2007-01-01

    Ways to expand access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low income settings are being sought. We describe an HIV care programme including ART in an industrial setting in South Africa. The programme uses guidelines derived from local and international best practice. The training component aims to build capacity among health care staff. Nurses and doctors are supported by experienced HIV clinicians through telephone consultation and site visits. Patients undergo a three-stage counselling procedure prior to starting ART. Drug regimens and monitoring are standardised and prophylaxis against opportunistic infections (isoniazid and cotrimoxazole) is offered routinely. Laboratory and pharmacy services, using named-patient dispensing, are centralized. The programme is designed to ensure that data on clinical and economic outcomes will be available for programme evaluation. Between November 2002-December 2004, ART delivery has been established at 70 ART workplace ART sites. The sites range from 200 to 12000 employees, and from small occupational health clinics and general practitioner rooms to larger hospital clinics. During this period, 2456 patients began ART. Of those on treatment for at least three months, 1728 (78%) have been retained on the programme and only 38 (1.7%) patients have failed the first-line ART regimen. This model for delivery of ART is feasible and successful in an industrial setting. The model may be generalizable to other employment health services in settings of high HIV prevalence, and as a model for implementing ART in other types of health-care settings.

  20. Assessing the impact of scaling-up bednet coverage through agricultural loan programmes: evidence from a cluster randomised controlled trial in Katete, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Fink, Günther; Masiye, Felix

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of scaling-up existing bednet distribution campaigns, a randomised controlled trial with 516 farming households in Katete District, a rural area with highly endemic malaria in Zambia's Eastern Province, was evaluated. In the trial, selected farmers were assigned to bednet programmes that allowed them to obtain additional bednets for free or at subsidised prices through agricultural loan programmes. On average, 2.4 nets were distributed in the free distribution group and 0.9 in the net loan group. The marginal health impact of additional nets appears large, reducing the odds of self-reported all-cause morbidity by 40-42% and the odds of self-reported confirmed malaria by 53-60%. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experience Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Brenda

    This Arkansas art education curriculum guide for grades 1 to 6 covers basic concepts, vocabulary, activities, and evaluation for each grade. The basic concepts to be taught throughout these grades include line, shape, color, space, drawing, painting, printing, art history, and art careers. Specific art techniques and types of arts are introduced…

  2. Evidence-based medicine for all: what we can learn from a programme providing free access to an online clinical resource to health workers in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Valtis, Yannis K; Rosenberg, Julie; Bhandari, Sudip; Wachter, Keri; Teichman, Marie; Beauvais, Sophie; Weintraub, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly changing landscape of medical knowledge and guidelines requires health professionals to have immediate access to current, reliable clinical resources. Access to evidence is instrumental in reducing diagnostic errors and generating better health outcomes. UpToDate, a leading evidence-based clinical resource is used extensively in the USA and other regions of the world and has been linked to lower mortality and length of stay in US hospitals. In 2009, the Global Health Delivery Project collaborated with UpToDate to provide free subscriptions to qualifying health workers in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the provision of UpToDate access to health workers by analysing their usage patterns. Since 2009, ∼2000 individual physicians and healthcare institutions from 116 countries have received free access to UpToDate through our programme. During 2013–2014, users logged into UpToDate ∼150 000 times; 61% of users logged in at least weekly; users in Africa were responsible for 54% of the total usage. Search patterns reflected local epidemiology with ‘clinical manifestations of malaria’ as the top search in Africa, and ‘management of hepatitis B’ as the top search in Asia. Our programme demonstrates that there are barriers to evidence-based clinical knowledge in resource-limited settings we can help remove. Some assumed barriers to its expansion (poor internet connectivity, lack of training and infrastructure) might pose less of a burden than subscription fees. PMID:28588926

  3. Mobilizing communities to implement evidence-based practices in youth violence prevention: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Backer, Thomas E; Guerra, Nancy G

    2011-09-01

    Community mobilization can increase the effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in youth violence prevention. These strategies bring together people and organizations in a community to try to solve or reduce a problem. They help communities address the challenges of identifying EBPs, disseminating them to local decision-makers, and then implementing and sustaining them if they are successful. Science-based systems for implementing EBPs such as PROSPER and Communities That Care can help to integrate this complex work in communities. Further insight about implementing EBPs in youth violence prevention is being developed through the CDC-funded Academic Centers for Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention. Community mobilization approaches for seven of these programs are discussed, highlighting successful approaches and challenges encountered.

  4. Art Criticism and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edmund Burke; Woods, Don

    1981-01-01

    The authors review a body of theory and accumulating evidence which suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading. (Author/SJL)

  5. AstroArts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paulis, D.

    2014-04-01

    AstroArts is the international, online cultural platform of Astronomers Without Borders (AWB). Cofounded in 2012 by visual artist Daniela de Paulis (IT/NL) and astronomer Thilina Heenatigala (Sri Lanka), AstroArts features creative works inspired by astronomy . AstroArts is an international initiative - lead by professionals working in different fields - and includes the 'guest artist of the month' and the Global Astronomy Month programmes. For the 'guest of the month', we feature one artist through a series of weekly blog posts and a Google Hangout on the last week of each month. The Hangout usually includes guests from several of the AWB ongoing programmes, together with the artist, in order to foster collaboration and interdisciplinary discussion. The 'guest of the month' programme is currently expanding to include a virtual residency initiative, which will allow one artist at the time to develop a project in collaboration with scientists affiliated with the AWB network. The projects developed as part of the virtual residency will foster global participation, making the most of online resources. Global Astronomy Month (GAM) is the most popular project of Astronomers Without Borders: founded in 2009 as a follow up of the International Year of Astronomy, GAM is a global platform for astronomy related events that take place every year in April. During GAM, AstroArts is widely featured through online panel discussions with artists and scientists, live film screenings and live performances, often especially designed for web streaming. More information on AstroArts can be found on: http://astronomerswithoutborders.org/news.htm

  6. A systematic review of interventions to improve postpartum retention of women in PMTCT and ART care

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Yapa, H Manisha N; Vaikath, Maria; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Fox, Matthew P; Essajee, Shaffiq M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1) retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes after birth, (2) transitioning from PMTCT to general ART programmes in the postpartum period, and (3) retention of postpartum women in general ART programmes. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the regional World Health Organization databases and conference abstracts for data published between 2002 and 2015. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Results and Discussion After screening 8324 records, we identified ten studies for inclusion in this review, all of which were from sub-Saharan Africa except for one from the United Kingdom. Two randomized trials found that phone calls and/or text messages improved early (six to ten weeks) postpartum retention in PMTCT. One cluster-randomized trial and three cohort studies found an inconsistent impact of different levels of integration between antenatal care/PMTCT and ART care on postpartum retention. The inconsistent results of the four identified studies on care integration are likely due to low study quality, and heterogeneity in intervention design and outcome measures. Several randomized trials on postpartum retention in HIV care are currently under way. Conclusions Overall, the evidence base for interventions to improve postpartum retention in HIV care is weak. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that phone-based interventions can improve retention in PMTCT in the first one to three months postpartum. PMID:27118443

  7. Evaluating the health impacts of participation in Australian community arts groups.

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Berman, Naomi; Curry, Steve; Joubert, Lindy; Johnson, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of three well-established community arts programmes in Victoria, Australia, on the mental health and well-being outcomes of participants typically from disadvantaged backgrounds during 2006-07. It employs a theoretical framework that reconciles evidence-based practice in health and the phenomenological nature of community arts practice. Self-determination theory (SDT) was used to do this with SDT-derived psychometric instruments [arts climate and Basic Psychological Needs Scales (BPNS)]. Self-administered surveys using these instruments as well as a measure of social support were undertaken on two occasions. Two overlapping but distinct samples were defined and analysed cross-sectionally. These were a (pre-)survey at the commencement of rehearsals for the annual performance (n = 103) and a (post-)survey following the performance (n = 70). The most significant change (MSC) technique was used to study the arts-making process and how it contributes to outcomes. Using these mixed-methods approach, impacts on the climate of the arts organizations, participant access to supportive relationships and participant's mental health and well-being were studied. There were positive changes in the BPNS (p = 0.00), as well as its autonomy (p = 0.04) and relatedness (p = 0.00) subscales. Social support increased from 65.3% in the pre-survey to 82.4% in the post-survey (p = 0.03). MSC data indicated that the supportive, collaborative environment provided by the arts organizations was highly valued by participants and was perceived to have mental health benefits.Overall, the study demonstrated the potential health promoting effects of community arts programmes in disadvantaged populations. Its multi-method approach should be further studied in evaluating other community arts programmes.

  8. Art Conquers All? Herbert Read's "Education through Art"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchana-Lorand, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Herbert Read's "Education through Art" (henceforth ETA) is a pioneering attempt to provide empirical evidence for the need for art in the public school system. Rooting for art education, Read applies the conclusions of the newly evolving psychological research to his thesis on education, which he holds to be a contemporary revival of…

  9. Art Conquers All? Herbert Read's "Education through Art"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchana-Lorand, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Herbert Read's "Education through Art" (henceforth ETA) is a pioneering attempt to provide empirical evidence for the need for art in the public school system. Rooting for art education, Read applies the conclusions of the newly evolving psychological research to his thesis on education, which he holds to be a contemporary revival of…

  10. Gourdeous Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a gourd art project for her art club. Prior to students actually working on the gourds, the author and her art volunteer did a joint demonstration on the process students would go through to create their project. The volunteer brought in and explained her gourd art and shared information about the drying and…

  11. Gourdeous Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a gourd art project for her art club. Prior to students actually working on the gourds, the author and her art volunteer did a joint demonstration on the process students would go through to create their project. The volunteer brought in and explained her gourd art and shared information about the drying and…

  12. Problematising Multicultural Art Education in the Context of Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on the experience of working with Taiwanese art educators. The data I revisit comes from participation in four art education conferences between 1995 and 2001, a three-month period of residence at Changhua University of Education teaching a master's programme, three intensive summer programmes organised for Taiwanese art…

  13. Empowered to change: evidence from a qualitative exploration of a user-informed psycho-educational programme for people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Booker, S; Morris, M; Johnson, A

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a user-informed psycho-educational programme for people with type 1 diabetes. Qualitative data derived from repeated interviews and diaries enabled an appraisal of participants' unique, individual experiences. Thematic analysis elicited a number of themes from each type of data (interview and diaries) which bore similarities in their representation of a process whereby change was desired, solutions were found to bring about that change, and then the process was planned or embarked upon. The acquisition of trustworthy information and a repertoire of coping skills accompanied by regular contact with other people with type 1 diabetes meant that participants achieved an increased sense of control in their lives and were empowered to change.

  14. Development and assessment of an evidence-based prostate cancer intervention programme for black men: the W.O.R.D. on prostate cancer video.

    PubMed

    Odedina, Folakemi; Oluwayemisi, Awoyemi O; Pressey, Shannon; Gaddy, Samuel; Egensteiner, Eva; Ojewale, Ezekiel O; Moline, Olivia Myra; Martin, Chloe Marie

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the numerous prostate cancer (CaP) intervention programmes that have been implemented to address the disparities experienced by black men, CaP prevention, risk reduction, and early detection behaviours remain low among black men. The lack of formal theoretical frameworks to guide the development and implementation of interventions has been recognised as one of the primary reasons for the failure of health interventions. Members of the Florida Prostate Cancer Health Disparity (CaPHD) group employed the Personal Model of Prostate Cancer Disparity (PIPCaD) model and the Health Communication Process Model to plan, implement, and evaluate an intervention programme, the 'Working through Outreach to Reduce Disparity (W.O.R.D. on Prostate Cancer)' video for black men. The location for the video was in a barbershop, a popular setting for the targeted group. The video starred CaP survivors, CaP advocates, a radio personality, and barbers. In addition, remarks were provided by a CaP scientist, a urologist, a CaP advocate, a former legislator, and a minister. The W.O.R.D. video was developed to assist black men in meeting the Healthy People 2020 goal for the United States of America. The efficacy of the W.O.R.D. video was successfully established among 143 black men in Florida. Exposure to the video was found to statistically increase CaP knowledge and intention to participate in CaP screening. Furthermore, exposure to the video statistically decreased participants' perception of the number of factors contributing to decision, uncertainty about CaP screening. Participants were highly satisfied with the video content and rated the quality of the video to be very good. Participants also rated the video as credible, informative, useful, relevant, understandable, not too time consuming, clear, and interesting.

  15. Development and assessment of an evidence-based prostate cancer intervention programme for black men: the W.O.R.D. on prostate cancer video

    PubMed Central

    Odedina, Folakemi; Oluwayemisi, Awoyemi O; Pressey, Shannon; Gaddy, Samuel; Egensteiner, Eva; Ojewale, Ezekiel O; Moline, Olivia Myra; Martin, Chloe Marie

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the numerous prostate cancer (CaP) intervention programmes that have been implemented to address the disparities experienced by black men, CaP prevention, risk reduction, and early detection behaviours remain low among black men. The lack of formal theoretical frameworks to guide the development and implementation of interventions has been recognised as one of the primary reasons for the failure of health interventions. Members of the Florida Prostate Cancer Health Disparity (CaPHD) group employed the Personal Model of Prostate Cancer Disparity (PIPCaD) model and the Health Communication Process Model to plan, implement, and evaluate an intervention programme, the ‘Working through Outreach to Reduce Disparity (W.O.R.D. on Prostate Cancer)’ video for black men. The location for the video was in a barbershop, a popular setting for the targeted group. The video starred CaP survivors, CaP advocates, a radio personality, and barbers. In addition, remarks were provided by a CaP scientist, a urologist, a CaP advocate, a former legislator, and a minister. The W.O.R.D. video was developed to assist black men in meeting the Healthy People 2020 goal for the United States of America. The efficacy of the W.O.R.D. video was successfully established among 143 black men in Florida. Exposure to the video was found to statistically increase CaP knowledge and intention to participate in CaP screening. Furthermore, exposure to the video statistically decreased participants’ perception of the number of factors contributing to decision, uncertainty about CaP screening. Participants were highly satisfied with the video content and rated the quality of the video to be very good. Participants also rated the video as credible, informative, useful, relevant, understandable, not too time consuming, clear, and interesting. PMID:25228916

  16. Art Education/Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John R., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The special issue presents 13 articles dealing with art education and art therapy for special groups. Included are the following titles and authors: "Art Education for Special Groups: The Emotionally Disturbed" (E. Ulman); "You Are The Early Warning System" (C. Stember); "School Art Therapist Rationale for DPI Certification" (V. Minar); "Art…

  17. Creative art and medical student development: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elizabeth K; Kittendorf, Anne L; Kumagai, Arno K

    2017-02-01

    Although many medical schools include arts-based activities in their curricula, empirical evidence is lacking regarding how the creation of art might impact medical students and their professional development. We used a qualitative research design in order to understand this process. We conducted and analysed interviews with 16 medical students who had created and presented original artwork in the context of a required narrative-based undergraduate medical education programme. Teams of students collaborated to create interpretive projects based on common themes arising from conversations with individuals with chronic illness and their families. Open-ended questions were utilised to explore the conceptualisation and presentation of the projects, the dynamics of teamwork and the meaning(s) they might have for the students' professional development. We identified themes using repeated contextual reading of the transcripts, which also enhanced accuracy of the interpretations and ensured saturation of themes. Several major themes and sub-themes were identified. The creation of art led to a sense of personal growth and development, including reflection on past life experiences, self-discovery and an awareness of art as a creative outlet. Students also reported an enhanced sense of community and the development of skills in collaboration. Lastly, students reflected on the human dimensions of illness and medical care and identified an enhanced awareness of the experience of those with illness. A programme involving the creation of art based on stories of illness encouraged students' explorations of conceptions of the self, family and society, as well as illness and medical care, while enhancing the development of a collaborative and patient-centred worldview. Creative art can be a novel educational tool to promote a reflective, humanistic medical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  18. The Need for a Manifesto for Educational Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, John; Kushner, Saville

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the progress of educational programme evaluation over three decades through the lens of a group of evaluators primarily from the UK and the US who met periodically from 1972 to 2004 to review the state of the art of educational programme evaluation--what it could and could not do--in relation to the complexity of programme…

  19. Professional Learning and Agency in an Identity Coaching Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vähäsantanen, Katja; Hökkä, Päivi; Paloniemi, Susanna; Herranen, Sanna; Eteläpelto, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the professional learning that occurred in an identity coaching programme. The arts-based programme aimed to enhance the participants' professional learning, notably through helping them to process their professional identities. Professional learning was seen as resourced by the participants' professional agency, and by the…

  20. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and high client volumes, were found

  1. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Methods Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Results Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and

  2. The Ambiguity of Perception: Virtual Art Museology, Free-Choice Learning, and Children's Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Christine Susan

    2010-01-01

    With many art museums uploading web-based art activities for youngsters, an online phenomenon is burgeoning, and a research domain is emerging. In an effort to contribute empirical evidence to an area of educational research that I refer to as "virtual art museology," or the study of art museum's online art activities for young people, this…

  3. Safe Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Though most art materials are safe for children (and labelled accordingly), parents and teachers should follow recommended safety guidelines, such as those presented in this article, when choosing, using, and storing children's art materials. (SM)

  4. Car Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses car art and its appeal to boys and girls. Describes the popularity of customizing cars, focusing on this as a future career for students. Includes a list of project ideas that focuses on car art. (CMK)

  5. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  6. Art English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Art English is a combination of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL)/English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) and art content. As a new instructional area, it faces several challenges: as with all English for Special Purposes (ESP), exchange of information among programs; development of a suitable combination of art content and ESL, due to lack of…

  7. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  8. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  9. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  10. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and…

  11. Art English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Art English is a combination of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL)/English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) and art content. As a new instructional area, it faces several challenges: as with all English for Special Purposes (ESP), exchange of information among programs; development of a suitable combination of art content and ESL, due to lack of…

  12. Integrating Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These articles focus on art as a component of interdisciplinary integration. (1) "Integrated Curriculum and the Visual Arts" (Anna Kindler) considers various aspects of integration and implications for art education. (2) "Integration: The New Literacy" (Tim Varro) illustrates how the use of technology can facilitate…

  13. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  14. Les programmes revises: Amenagement forestier, interpretation theatrale. Avis a la ministre de l'Enseignement superieur et de la Science (Revised Programs: Forest Management, Theater Arts. Advisory to the Minister of Higher Education and Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conseil des Colleges, Quebec (Quebec).

    This two-part report contains an analyses conducted by the Council of Colleges, in Quebec, of proposed revisions to programs in Forestry Management and Theater Arts offered by the province's public colleges. First, the report considers existing and proposed forestry programs in terms of their relationship to the current practices in the forestry…

  15. Variations in the management of the axilla in screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ: evidence from the UK NHS breast screening programme audit of screen detected DCIS.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S; Hanby, A; Clements, K; Kearins, O; Lawrence, G; Dodwell, D; Bishop, H; Thompson, A

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and surgical management of screen-detected Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) remains controversial including a range of axillary approaches and consequent morbidity. This study examined the management of the axilla in all patients with DCIS presenting through the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (UK NHS BSP). Retrospective analysis of the UK NHS BSP identified 26,696 women initially diagnosed with DCIS over the 8 years 1 April 2003-31 March 2011. The final breast pathology of these women was upgraded to invasive ductal cancer in 5564 (20.8%) women or micro-invasive cancer in 1031 (3.9%) women. At first operation, 5290 (26.3%) of the 20,094 women who had a final post-operative diagnosis of DCIS only underwent axillary surgery (72.4% at the time of mastectomy, 23.8% breast conservation surgery, 3.8% axillary surgery alone). Performance of axillary surgery reflected increasing tumour size, micro-invasion or increasing nuclear grade for the final diagnosis of DCIS. More extensive nodal surgery was performed in those undergoing mastectomy; 10.8% of women had more than 8 nodes removed. Overall, 12.0% of women with invasive cancer, 1.7% with micro-invasion, and 0.2% with DCIS alone, were ultimately node positive. Improved pre-operative sampling of DCIS, axillary assessment by ultrasound with needle biopsy for suspected metastases, risk stratification for sentinel node biopsy (for high grade or extensive DCIS) and avoiding axillary clearance for a pre-operative diagnosis of DCIS alone should reduce unnecessary axillary surgery. Standards using such criteria for axillary surgery in screen-detected DCIS should be integrated into the NHS BSP. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of qualitative methodologies used to explore patient perceptions of arts and healthcare.

    PubMed

    Moss, Hilary; Donnellan, Claire; O'Neill, Desmond

    2012-12-01

    Although the importance of the arts in healthcare is increasingly recognised, further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms by which arts and health programmes achieve their impact. An overview of the qualitative methods used to explore patients' perceptions of these interventions is lacking. We reviewed the literature to gain insights into the qualitative methods used to explore patients' perceptions of the role of arts in healthcare with a view to identifying the most common methodologies used and to guide researchers embarking on research regarding patients' perceptions of arts in healthcare. Our results indicate a paucity of qualitative studies, a variety of methods used and variability of methodological rigour. Grounded theory and phenomenology were the most common approaches adopted, mixed methods approaches were relatively frequent, and versions of 'thematic' or 'content' analysis were commonly cited. Semi-structured interviews were the most popular data collection method. The emphasis of all of the studies was on active or participative arts engagement, with no focus on receptive engagement with the arts and aesthetics. It was concluded that careful consideration of appropriate methodology is important when researching such an exploratory and sensitive area. Individual interviews were most popular and might be appropriate when exploring personal, sensitive experiences. Mixed method studies possibly provide a comprehensive approach which might satisfy both the arts and healthcare settings need for evidence. It seems important to pay attention to rigour in any methodology chosen and a greater focus on receptive engagement with the arts might be encouraged in future research.

  17. The art of being healthy: a qualitative study to develop a thematic framework for understanding the relationship between health and the arts

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Christina R; Knuiman, Matthew; Wright, Peter; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective In recent years the health–arts nexus has received increasing attention; however, the relationship is not well understood and the extent of possible positive, negative and unintended outcomes is unknown. Guided by the biopsychosocial model of health and theories of social epidemiology, the aim of this study was to develop a framework pertaining to the relationship between arts engagement and population health that included outcomes, confounders and effect modifiers. A health–arts framework is of value to researchers seeking to build the evidence base; health professionals interested in understanding the health–arts relationship, especially those who use social prescribing for health promotion or to complement treatments; in teaching medical, nursing and health-science students about arts outcomes, as well as artists and health professionals in the development of policy and programmes. Design A qualitative study was conducted. Semistructured interviews were analysed thematically. Setting Western Australia. Participants 33 Western Australian adults (18+ years). Participants were randomly selected from a pool of general population nominees who engaged in the arts for enjoyment, entertainment or as a hobby (response rate=100%). Results A thematic analysis was conducted using QSR-NVivo10. The resulting framework contained seven outcome themes and 63 subthemes. Three themes specifically related to health, that is, mental, social and physical health, while economic, knowledge, art and identity outcomes were classified as health determinants. Within each theme, positive, negative and unintended outcomes (subthemes) were identified and categorised as relating to the individual and/or to the community. A list of confounding and/or effect modifying factors, related to both the arts and health, was identified. Conclusions Given the increasing pressure on health resources, the arts have the potential to assist in the promotion of health and healing. This

  18. The art of being healthy: a qualitative study to develop a thematic framework for understanding the relationship between health and the arts.

    PubMed

    Davies, Christina R; Knuiman, Matthew; Wright, Peter; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-04-25

    In recent years the health-arts nexus has received increasing attention; however, the relationship is not well understood and the extent of possible positive, negative and unintended outcomes is unknown. Guided by the biopsychosocial model of health and theories of social epidemiology, the aim of this study was to develop a framework pertaining to the relationship between arts engagement and population health that included outcomes, confounders and effect modifiers. A health-arts framework is of value to researchers seeking to build the evidence base; health professionals interested in understanding the health-arts relationship, especially those who use social prescribing for health promotion or to complement treatments; in teaching medical, nursing and health-science students about arts outcomes, as well as artists and health professionals in the development of policy and programmes. A qualitative study was conducted. Semistructured interviews were analysed thematically. Western Australia. 33 Western Australian adults (18+ years). Participants were randomly selected from a pool of general population nominees who engaged in the arts for enjoyment, entertainment or as a hobby (response rate=100%). A thematic analysis was conducted using QSR-NVivo10. The resulting framework contained seven outcome themes and 63 subthemes. Three themes specifically related to health, that is, mental, social and physical health, while economic, knowledge, art and identity outcomes were classified as health determinants. Within each theme, positive, negative and unintended outcomes (subthemes) were identified and categorised as relating to the individual and/or to the community. A list of confounding and/or effect modifying factors, related to both the arts and health, was identified. Given the increasing pressure on health resources, the arts have the potential to assist in the promotion of health and healing. This framework expands on current knowledge, further defines the health-arts

  19. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  20. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  1. [Art therapy and "art brut"].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Emese; Simon, Lajos

    2010-01-01

    The authors in this article explor the most important steps of the development of the research on the psychopathology of expression. They introduce the development of Art Brut and it's place in art history. They deal with the characteristics of art therapy.

  2. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  3. Patient satisfaction with HIV and TB treatment in a public programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal: evidence from patient-exit interviews.

    PubMed

    Chimbindi, Natsayi; Bärnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-23

    dissatisfaction hidden in the global assessments of satisfaction. A wide range of patient satisfaction variables could be reduced to a few underlying factors that align broadly with concepts previously identified in the literature as affecting access to healthcare. Increases in health systems resources for HIV and TB, but also improvements in facility maintenance, staff attitudes and communication, are likely to substantially improve HIV and TB patients' satisfaction with the care they receive in public-sector treatment programmes in rural communities in South Africa.

  4. HIV/AIDS patient satisfaction with a food assistance programme in Sofala province, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Posse, Mariana; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the main factors affecting access and adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in middle- and low-income countries. To mitigate this problem, food assistance interventions are being integrated in ART programmes. As evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed, evaluating their implementation is important. We measured the satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients with a food assistance programme in Sofala province in Mozambique. This was an observational study that used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. HIV/AIDS patients receiving food assistance took part in focus group discussions (FDGs) and completed a semi-structured questionnaire about their opinions about the programme. Data were analysed using content and factor analysis, percentages of the maximum attainable scores (PMAS) and regression. Patients were satisfied with food assistance and rated it well above 60% of PMAS. Four factors were identified as underlying factors of satisfaction with food assistance. From these factors, patients were satisfied with 2, product availability and the distribution process, and rated these above 60%. They were dissatisfied with the other 2, quantity of products and the enrolment period, and rated these below 60%. From the four factors, only the distribution process was significantly associated with satisfaction with food assistance (p = 0.001). Satisfaction and the helpfulness of food assistance in adherence to ART, as perceived by patients, were significantly associated (p < 0.001). Patients were satisfied with food assistance. Programme managers should focus on the distribution process, quantity of products and enrolment period to further improve satisfaction of patients receiving food assistance.

  5. Eudaimonic well-being and community arts participation.

    PubMed

    Swindells, Rachel; Lawthom, Rebecca; Rowley, Kevin; Siddiquee, Asiya; Kilroy, Amanda; Kagan, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This article considers eudaimonic models of psychological well-being in relation to qualitative data previously gathered as part of Manchester Metropolitan University's Invest to Save Arts in Health programme (2004-07). The research draws from 21 interviews with participants involved in Invest to Save arts projects for older people and adults with a mental health diagnosis. Using a collaborative team approach, a hybrid thematic analysis was undertaken alongside an updated literature review framed by positive psychology and with a focus on well-being. The analysis identified eudaimonic themes of autonomy/intrinsic motivation and challenge to be particularly pertinent to participants' experiences of the scheme. Findings suggest that the programme provided a sense of purposeful occupation, cognitive and creative challenge and opportunities for autonomous self-expression and heightened concentration (flow). Many participants identified with the arts activities on offer and, while not necessarily aspiring to achieve any particular status, were intrinsically motivated to develop what they considered to be their innate creative potential. Some also reported that sustained engagement was important to their continued psychological well-being. Arts and health researchers might usefully draw from theories of well-being from positive psychology. Both fields are compatible in that they share an interest in human flourishing and understanding of wellness as more than an absence of dysfunction or disease. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the limited results presented here are representative of other populations. What does seem evident is that arts projects have a broad appeal and can be highly inclusive, accommodating participants with diverse needs. More generally the investigation raises questions about the cultural scaffolds that are in place to support eudaimonic well-being across the lifespan, as well as the consequences of restricting such opportunities for

  6. Making Pictures as a Method of Teaching Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martikainen, Jari

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the affective and sensory turns in the paradigm of art history, this article discusses making pictures as a method of teaching art history in Finnish Upper Secondary Vocational Education and Training (Qualification in Visual Expression, Study Programmes in Visual and Media Arts and Photography). A total of 25 students majoring in…

  7. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes

  8. Human papillomavirus (HPV) in young women in Britain: Population-based evidence of the effectiveness of the bivalent immunisation programme and burden of quadrivalent and 9-valent vaccine types.

    PubMed

    Tanton, Clare; Mesher, David; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate; Clifton, Soazig; Panwar, Kavita; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2017-06-01

    In 2008, the UK introduced an HPV immunisation programme in girls. Population-based prevalence estimates of bivalent (HPV-16/18), quadrivalent (HPV-6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, and comparison over time, are needed to monitor impact, evaluate effectiveness and guide decision-making on vaccination strategies. The third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) in 2010-12, tested urine for HPV from 2569 sexually-experienced women aged 16-44. We report type-specific HPV prevalence and compare results with 1798 women in Natsal-2 (1999-2001) using age-adjusted prevalence ratios (APR). In Natsal-3, 4.2% of women aged 16-44y were positive for HPV-16/18 and 2.9% for HPV-6/11. In 16-20 year olds, 4.5%, 10.8% and 20.7% had at least one bivalent, quadrivalent or 9-valent vaccine type, respectively. Three-dose vaccine coverage was 52.0% in women aged 18-20y. In this age group, HPV-16/18 prevalence was lower in Natsal-3 than Natsal-2 (5.8% vs 11.2%; APR=0.48[95%CI: 0.24-0.93]), however, prevalences of HPV-6/11, HPV-31/33/45 and HPV-52/58 were unchanged. HPV-16/18 prevalence was also unchanged in women aged 21-44y (APR=0.85[0.61-1.19]). These probability surveys provide evidence of the impact of the bivalent immunisation programme. Reductions were specific to HPV-16/18 and to the age group eligible for vaccination. However, substantial vaccine-preventable HPV remains.

  9. Mindful art.

    PubMed

    Malafouris, Lambros

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) begin asking if the study of the mind's inner life can provide a foundation for a science of art. Clearly there are many epistemological problems involved in the study of the cognitive and affective basis of art appreciation. I argue that context is key. I also propose that as long as the "mind's life" continues to be perceived as an "inner" intracranial phenomenon, little progress can be made. Mind and art are one.

  10. Evaluation of quality improvement programmes

    PubMed Central

    Ovretveit, J; Gustafson, D

    2002-01-01

    

 In response to increasing concerns about quality, many countries are carrying out large scale programmes which include national quality strategies, hospital programmes, and quality accreditation, assessment and review processes. Increasing amounts of resources are being devoted to these interventions, but do they ensure or improve quality of care? There is little research evidence as to their effectiveness or the conditions for maximum effectiveness. Reasons for the lack of evaluation research include the methodological challenges of measuring outcomes and attributing causality to these complex, changing, long term social interventions to organisations or health systems, which themselves are complex and changing. However, methods are available which can be used to evaluate these programmes and which can provide decision makers with research based guidance on how to plan and implement them. This paper describes the research challenges, the methods which can be used, and gives examples and guidance for future research. It emphasises the important contribution which such research can make to improving the effectiveness of these programmes and to developing the science of quality improvement. PMID:12486994

  11. Astronomy and Rock Art Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, William Breen

    Rock art is often used as evidence for the earliest phases of prehistoric celestial knowledge and sky observation. Like the sky, rock art is a global phenomenon and it is also one of the earliest manifestations of human cognitive awareness. Similarities in iconography and visual context may provide evidence of sky-watching activity, and in some cases, ethnographic analogies, ethnohistoric documentation, and surviving archaeological evidence may confirm that these activities were related to rock art production. Nevertheless, the problem of random matches makes proofs of intentional relation more complicated. Probabilities are measured differently in archaeology and astronomy and can sometimes lead to ambiguous or contradictory conclusions.

  12. Oocyte, embryo and blastocyst cryopreservation in ART: systematic review and meta-analysis comparing slow-freezing versus vitrification to produce evidence for the development of global guidance.

    PubMed

    Rienzi, Laura; Gracia, Clarisa; Maggiulli, Roberta; LaBarbera, Andrew R; Kaser, Daniel J; Ubaldi, Filippo M; Vanderpoel, Sheryl; Racowsky, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    .81, 95% CI 0.71-4.67; P = 0.214; 47 and 19 transfers) and per warmed/thawed oocyte (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.28; P = 0.018; 260 and 238 oocytes). One RCT comparing vitrification versus fresh oocytes was analysed. In vitrification and fresh cycles, respectively, no evidence for a difference in ongoing CPR per randomized woman (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.87-1.21; P = 0.744, 300 women in each group), per cycle (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.18; P = 0.934; 267 versus 259 cycles) and per oocyte utilized (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.82-1.26; P = 0.873; 3286 versus 3185 oocytes) was reported. Findings were consistent with relevant cohort studies. Of the seven RCTs on embryo cryopreservation identified, three met the inclusion criteria (638 warming/thawing cycles at cleavage and blastocyst stage), none of which involved pronuclear-stage embryos. A higher CPR per cycle was noted with embryo vitrification compared with slow-freezing, though this was of borderline statistical significance (RR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.00-3.59; P = 0.051; three RCTs; I2 = 71.9%). LBR per cycle was reported by one RCT performed with cleavage-stage embryos and was higher for vitrification (RR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.17-4.44; P =  0.016; 216 cycles; one RCT). A secondary analysis was performed focusing on embryo cryosurvival rate. Pooled data from seven RCTs (3615 embryos) revealed a significant improvement in embryo cryosurvival following vitrification as compared with slow-freezing (RR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.30-1.93; P < 0.001; I2 = 93%). Data from available RCTs suggest that vitrification/warming is superior to slow-freezing/thawing with regard to clinical outcomes (low quality of the evidence) and cryosurvival rates (moderate quality of the evidence) for oocytes, cleavage-stage embryos and blastocysts. The results were confirmed by cohort studies. The improvements obtained with the introduction of vitrification have several important clinical implications in ART. Based on this evidence, in particular

  13. Indigenous Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Linda Lomahaftewa, a noted painter, has taught at much bigger places than the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA). But Lomahaftewa, who is Hopi-Choctaw, and others on the faculty of IAIA are intensely devoted to the mission of this small but unique school. IAIA--the nation's only four-year fine arts institution devoted to American Indian and…

  14. Graphic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Alan L.

    This guide to teaching graphic arts, one in a series of instructional materials for junior high industrial arts education, is designed to assist teachers as they plan and implement new courses of study and as they make revisions and improvements in existing courses in order to integrate classroom learning with real-life experiences. This graphic…

  15. Art Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    As evidenced by countless studies, time spent engaging in the arts has lasting effects on children of all ages, not only instilling in them a sense of creativity and innovation, but also providing them the skills needed to compete in a global economy. In May 2011, the President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities released "Reinvesting in…

  16. Creative Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Richard J.; Fleming, Mary Ann

    Educational goals and objectives, student activities, and visual aids are included in this guide to a three-dimensional design unit that combines creative art and industrial arts skills. Course goals include challenging students' creative skills, encouraging student interaction and successful group work, and providing an atmosphere of fun and…

  17. Art Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Though people may like different types of music, everyone likes music. In middle school, music and art are of key importance for students to express and define what kind of person they are. In this article, the author presents an art project where students are asked to create their own guitars. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  18. Art Playgroup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiniger, Christina

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how parents can be involved in a developmentally appropriate art program for very young children. "Art Playgroup," a program for children ages two to five and their parents is one suggestion. Operating under the auspices of DTA Center for Learning & Growing, a nonprofit in Ellsworth, Maine, DTA…

  19. Indigenous Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Linda Lomahaftewa, a noted painter, has taught at much bigger places than the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA). But Lomahaftewa, who is Hopi-Choctaw, and others on the faculty of IAIA are intensely devoted to the mission of this small but unique school. IAIA--the nation's only four-year fine arts institution devoted to American Indian and…

  20. Graphic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Alan L.

    This guide to teaching graphic arts, one in a series of instructional materials for junior high industrial arts education, is designed to assist teachers as they plan and implement new courses of study and as they make revisions and improvements in existing courses in order to integrate classroom learning with real-life experiences. This graphic…

  1. Attitude and confidence of undergraduate medical programme educators to practice and teach evidence-based healthcare: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Young, Taryn; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Volmink, Jimmy; Clarke, Mike

    2016-06-01

    Medical student educators play critical roles in evidence-based healthcare (EBHC) teaching and learning and as role models practicing EBHC. This study assessed their confidence to practice and teach EBHC, their attitude to EBHC and barriers to practicing and teaching EBHC. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of educators of undergraduate medical students at a South African academic institution. STATA 12 was used for quantitative data analysis. Responses to open-ended questions were coded, and further interpretation done using thematic content analysis. Forty two (19%) educators from various departments responded to the invitation sent to everyone formally involved in teaching undergraduate medical students. They had high levels of knowledge and understanding of EBHC. Many had received training in teaching and learning approaches, although EBHC training received was mainly on enabling competencies. Limitations to practicing EBHC included lack of time, clinical workload, limited access to Internet and resources, knowledge and skills. One quarter of the respondents indicated that they teach EBHC. Perceived barriers to teaching EBHC reported related to students (e.g. lack of interest), context (e.g. access to databases) and educators (e.g. competing priorities). Respondents' suggestions for support included reliable Internet access, easy point-of-care access to databases and resources, increasing awareness of EBHC, building capacity to practice and facilitate learning of EBHC and a supportive community of practice. Educators play a critical role in facilitating EBHC learning not just in the classroom, but also in practice. Without adequate support, training and development, they are ill equipped to be the role models future healthcare professionals need.

  2. Attitude and confidence of undergraduate medical programme educators to practice and teach evidence-based healthcare: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Young, Taryn; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; Volmink, Jimmy; Clarke, Mike

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Medical student educators play critical roles in evidence-based healthcare (EBHC) teaching and learning and as role models practicing EBHC. This study assessed their confidence to practice and teach EBHC, their attitude to EBHC and barriers to practicing and teaching EBHC. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of educators of undergraduate medical students at a South African academic institution. STATA 12 was used for quantitative data analysis. Responses to open-ended questions were coded, and further interpretation done using thematic content analysis. Results: Forty two (19%) educators from various departments responded to the invitation sent to everyone formally involved in teaching undergraduate medical students. They had high levels of knowledge and understanding of EBHC. Many had received training in teaching and learning approaches, although EBHC training received was mainly on enabling competencies. Limitations to practicing EBHC included lack of time, clinical workload, limited access to Internet and resources, knowledge and skills. One quarter of the respondents indicated that they teach EBHC. Perceived barriers to teaching EBHC reported related to students (e.g. lack of interest), context (e.g. access to databases) and educators (e.g. competing priorities). Respondents’ suggestions for support included reliable Internet access, easy point-of-care access to databases and resources, increasing awareness of EBHC, building capacity to practice and facilitate learning of EBHC and a supportive community of practice. Conclusion: Educators play a critical role in facilitating EBHC learning not just in the classroom, but also in practice. Without adequate support, training and development, they are ill equipped to be the role models future healthcare professionals need. PMID:26626283

  3. RESEARCH IN LANGUAGE ARTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETTY, WALTER T.

    VERY LITTLE IMPORTANT RESEARCH HAS BEEN DONE IN THE FIELD OF LANGUAGE ARTS, AND THE RESEARCH INTEREST IN THAT FIELD ENDS WITH THE PUBLICATION OF RESEARCH REPORTS WHICH OFFER PRONOUNCEMENTS RATHER THAN RESEARCH EVIDENCE. THE PURPOSES OF RESEARCH OR HOW ITS FINDINGS COULD BE USED HAVE NOT BEEN CLARIFIED. THERE IS ALSO BLIND ACCEPTANCE OF WHAT…

  4. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  5. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Susan C; Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Rankin, Jocelyn A

    2008-06-01

    The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme, including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. RESULTS / OUTCOMES: NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favourable response to the programme.

  6. From Anecdote to Evidence: Assessing the Status and Condition of Arts Education at the State Level. AEP Research and Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, Sandra S.; Nelson, Andrew L.

    2006-01-01

    This research and policy brief draws on the experiences in five states, each of which has been the subject of a comprehensive arts education survey in recent years. The states are Illinois, Kentucky, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Washington. Distilled from the "lessons learned," the brief provides 20 principles designed to inform and…

  7. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area. PMID:22313631

  8. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Afework Hailemariam; Elhassan, Elizabeth; Isiyaku, Sunday; Amazigo, Uche V; Bush, Simon; Noma, Mounkaila; Cousens, Simon; Abiose, Adenike; Remme, Jan H

    2012-02-07

    Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area.

  9. The Liberal Arts Employment Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillstrom, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses five identifiable causes for the employment difficulties of liberal arts graduates. Suggests that evidence of a focused commitment and training in preparation for a professsional career are keys to success in the employment search. (JAC)

  10. Martial arts injuries.

    PubMed

    Pieter, Willy

    2005-01-01

    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.

  11. An Evaluation of Teaching-Learning of Drawing at School of Applied Arts, Takoradi Polytechnic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori-Anyinam, Sampong; Andrews, Amoako-Temeng; Ankrah, Owusu-Ansah

    2016-01-01

    Drawing is described as the bases of all art work when an art idea is conceived. It can only materialize into concrete form when it has gone through a process of designing which basically involves drawing. The ability of an artist to draw is very paramount in the art profession. The bases for selecting students to pursue an art programme is their…

  12. Bendik and Aarolilja: An Example of Arts Partnership Material for Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oltedal, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Whilst Norwegian primary school teachers are no longer required to have arts subjects in their education portfolio, schools are encouraged to host projects involving municipal art institutions and professional artists with a view to enriching pupils' contact with the arts. "The Cultural Rucksack", a national arts programme for primary…

  13. Programmes for parents with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Reupert, A; Maybery, D

    2011-04-01

    Parents with a mental illness experience the same parenting stressors that other parents do, and at the same time need to manage their mental illness. However, few programmes are designed for parents who have a mental illness, with older children (as opposed to interventions for mothers with infants). This study identified the common components across six programmes developed for parents with a mental illness who have older children. Australian clinicians, responsible for six parenting programmes for those with a mental illness, participated in individual, semi-structured interviews, during 2008. Programme manuals and evaluation reports were also sourced. Analyses involved thematic analysis, inter-rater reliability and respondent validation. Data were organized in three main areas: (1) programme description (format, goals, length and participants' inclusion criteria); (2) theoretical framework (including clinicians' beliefs and evidence underpinning programmes); and (3) evaluation designs and methodologies. It was found that clinicians facilitated education and support via a peer intervention model for parents with various mental illness diagnoses, responsive to the needs of parents and in a time flexible manner. At the same time, clinicians found it difficult to articulate the theoretical framework of their programmes and employed mostly simplistic evaluation strategies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  14. Five Ways to Integrate: Using Strategies from Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This article is for art teachers of all levels who want to teach through art and about art. The purpose of this article is twofold. It provides evidence that integration is a significant, lively and authentic art practice today and, therefore, studying about art and integrating it are compatible. It also offers teachers and students in elementary,…

  15. An evaluation of a leadership development coaching and mentoring programme.

    PubMed

    Le Comte, Lyndsay; McClelland, Beverley

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper was to determine the value and impact of the Leadership Development - Coaching and Mentoring Programme at Counties Manukau Health and understand how the skills gained are applied. Design/methodology/approach Mixed-methods approach including surveys of programme participants and senior staff and semi-structured interviews with programme participants. Findings The survey response rate was 24.4 per cent for programme participants and 30 per cent for senior staff. Eight programme participants participated in semi-structured interviews. Of the 70 programme participants, 69 utilised their learning from the programme; 45 of 70 changed their approach to managing staff; and 40 of 68 programme participants reported that meeting with peers for triad group coaching was the most challenging aspect of the programme. Key themes identified through interviews included: working with others; not owning others' problems; professional support and development; coaching and mentoring; future participants. Practical implications The majority of participants changed their leadership behaviours as a result of the programme, which has resulted in improved communication, a more supportive culture and distributed leadership. These changes contribute to better patient care. Originality value There is a paucity of evidence in the literature about the impact of coaching and mentoring programme on leadership development and how the skills gained in such programmes are applied in practice in a healthcare context. This evaluation helps to address that gap.

  16. Art therapy for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María Isabel; Aceituno, David; Rada, Gabriel

    2017-01-19

    Art therapy is used as a complementary treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. However, its effectiveness is not clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified five systematic reviews including 20 studies overall, of which four were randomized trials. We extracted data and prepared summary of findings tables using the GRADE method. We concluded it is not clear whether art therapy leads to clinical improvement in schizophrenia because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  17. Genetics in the art and art in genetics.

    PubMed

    Bukvic, Nenad; Elling, John W

    2015-01-15

    "Healing is best accomplished when art and science are conjoined, when body and spirit are probed together", says Bernard Lown, in his book "The Lost Art of Healing". Art has long been a witness to disease either through diseases which affected artists or diseases afflicting objects of their art. In particular, artists have often portrayed genetic disorders and malformations in their work. Sometimes genetic disorders have mystical significance; other times simply have intrinsic interest. Recognizing genetic disorders is also an art form. From the very beginning of my work as a Medical Geneticist I have composed personal "algorithms" to piece together evidence of genetics syndromes and diseases from the observable signs and symptoms. In this paper we apply some 'gestalt' Genetic Syndrome Diagnostic algorithms to virtual patients found in some art masterpieces. In some the diagnosis is clear and in others the artists' depiction only supports a speculative differential diagnosis.

  18. Effective home programme intervention for adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Novak, Iona

    2011-12-01

    To summarize evidence on effective home programme intervention for adults and describe characteristics of successful home programmes. A search was conducted of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, DARE, The Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, OTSeeker and Google Scholar and references in manuscripts retrieved. Two independent reviewers determined whether retrieved study abstracts met inclusion criteria: human subjects; adults; home programme intervention; systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials or controlled trials. Included papers were appraised for study design, participants, type and intensity of intervention, and outcomes. Methodological quality of trials was rated using the PEDro scale (1-10 highest). Thirty-two papers were retrieved (6 systematic reviews, 26 trials). The 23 randomized controlled trials and 3 controlled trials were appraised. All the retrieved papers were level 1a, 1b or 2b evidence. Major findings were: (a) home programme intervention was more effective than no intervention at all; (b) home programme intervention was equally effective to expert-provided therapy, except when therapeutic modalities were used; and (c) different instruction formats produced similar outcomes. Home programmes with favourable outcomes were more likely to: involve the patients in establishing the programme; intervene on the person, task and environment; and provide feedback about progress. Dose did not appear to be related to outcome. There is grade 1A evidence supporting the effectiveness of home programmes for adults. Home programmes are as effective as expert-provided therapy.

  19. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  20. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  1. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  2. Is mind-mindedness trait-like or a quality of close relationships? Evidence from descriptions of significant others, famous people, and works of art.

    PubMed

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Harris-Waller, Jayne

    2014-03-01

    The four studies reported here sought to explore the nature of the construct of mind-mindedness. In Study 1, involving 37 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children, mothers' verbal mind-minded descriptions of their children were positively correlated with their mind-minded descriptions of their current romantic partner. Participants in Studies 2 (N=114), 3 (N=173), and 4 (N=153) were young adults who provided written descriptions of: a close friend and their current romantic partner (Study 2); two specified famous people, two works of art, and a close friend (Study 3); a specified famous person, a famous person of the participant's choice, and a close friend (Study 4). Study 2 obtained paper-and-pen written descriptions, whereas participants completed descriptions in electronic format in Studies 3 and 4. Mind-minded descriptions of friends and partners were positively correlated, but there was no relation between mind-minded descriptions of a friend and the tendency to describe famous people or works of art in mind-minded terms. Levels of mind-mindedness were higher in descriptions of friends compared with descriptions of famous people or works of art. Administration format was unrelated to individuals' mind-mindedness scores. The results suggest that mind-mindedness is a facet of personal relationships rather than a trait-like quality.

  3. Sustainability science: an integrated approach for health-programme planning.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Russell L; Elliott, Julian H; Nolan, Monica L; Lawton, Paul D; Parkhill, Anne; McLaren, Cameron J; Lavis, John N

    2008-11-01

    Planning for programme sustainability is a key contributor to health and development, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. A consensus evidence-based operational framework would facilitate policy and research advances in understanding, measuring, and improving programme sustainability. We did a systematic review of both conceptual frameworks and empirical studies about health-programme sustainability. On the basis of the review, we propose that sustainable health programmes are regarded as complex systems that encompass programmes, health problems targeted by programmes, and programmes' drivers or key stakeholders, all of which interact dynamically within any given context. We show the usefulness of this approach with case studies drawn from the authors' experience.

  4. Introducing new diagnostics into STI control programmes: the importance of programme science.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David; Ballard, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Many innovative diagnostic technologies will become commercially available over the next 5-10 years. These tests can potentially transform the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections but their introduction into control programmes can be hampered by health system constraints, and political, cultural, socioeconomic and behavioural factors. We used the introduction of syphilis rapid tests to illustrate the importance of programme science to address the gap between accruing evidence of acceptable test performance and the complexity of programme design, implementation and evaluation of test deployment to address public health needs and improve patient-important outcomes.

  5. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; Van Damme, Wim; van Rensburg, Dingie; Masquillier, Caroline; Meulemans, Herman

    2012-07-09

    Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1) the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2) the growing need for comprehensive care, (3) patient empowerment, (4) and defaulter tracing; and (5) the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a potentially effective strategy to address the growing shortage of

  6. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1) the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2) the growing need for comprehensive care, (3) patient empowerment, (4) and defaulter tracing; and (5) the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a potentially effective

  7. Literacy Instruction Through Communicative and Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Hui

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the evidence suggesting the effectiveness of literacy instruction through communicative and visual arts, according to Flood, Heath, and Lapp (1997). Visual arts includes everything from dramatic performances to comic books to television viewing. The communicative arts, such as reading, writing, and…

  8. ART@CMS and SCIENCE&ART@SCHOOL: Novel Education and Communication Channels for Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Michael; Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2014-06-01

    This document presents new outreach projects set up by the CMS Collaboration at the intersection of science and the arts to act as a creative springboard for the inspiration and engagement of public and students in particle physics research. Two programmes, Art@CMS and Science&Art@School, aim to reach and engage via multiple channels, different from those traditionally used for scientific outreach events. Art@CMS is a collaboration with professional artists to trigger a dialogue between the LHC scientific community and the art world. Science&Art@School brings high-school students from arts and sciences curricula together during extended learning periods by exploring how researchers and artists work and view each other's world. Results of events, workshops and collaborations are presented to demonstrate the concept in practice and to suggest avenues for strengthening further the educational and societal impact of particle physics research.

  9. Differences in the direction of change of cerebral function parameters are evident over three years in HIV-infected individuals electively commencing initial cART.

    PubMed

    Winston, Alan; Puls, Rebekah; Kerr, Stephen J; Duncombe, Chris; Li, Patrick; Gill, John M; Ramautarsing, Reshmie; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A

    2015-01-01

    Changes in cerebral metabolite ratios (CMR) measured on 1H-MRS and changes in cognitive function (CF) are described in subjects commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), although the dynamics of such changes are poorly understood. Neuroasymptomatic, HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART were eligible. CMR were assessed in three anatomical voxels and CF assessed at baseline, week 48 and week 144. Overall differences in absolute change in CMRs and CF parameters between 0-48 and 48-144 weeks were assessed. Twenty-two subjects completed study procedures. Plasma HIV-RNA was <50 copies/mL in all at week 48 and in all, but two subjects at week 144. In general, between weeks 0-48 a rise in N-acetyl-aspartate(NAA)/Creatine(Cr) ratio and a decline in myo-Inositol(mI)/Cr ratio were observed. Between weeks 48-144, small rises in NAA/Cr ratio were observed in two anatomical voxels, whereas a rise in mI/Cr ratio was observed in all anatomical locations (0.31 (0.66) and -0.27 (1.35) between weeks 0-48 and 0.13 (0.91) and 1.13 (1.71) between weeks 48-144 for absolute changes in NAA/Cr and mI/Cr (SD) in frontal-grey voxel, respectively). Global CF score improved between weeks 0-48 and then declined between weeks 48-144 (0.63 (1.16) and -0.63 (0.1.41) for mean absolute change (SD) between weeks 0-48 and weeks 48-144, respectively). The direction of change of cerebral function parameters differs over time in HIV-infected subjects commencing cART, highlighting the need for long-term follow-up in such studies. The changes we have observed between weeks 48-144 may represent the initial development of cerebral toxicities from cART.

  10. Good practice in school based alcohol education programmes.

    PubMed

    Thom, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    To identify elements of good practice in designing and delivering alcohol education programmes in schools. Literature reviews and published programme evaluations were used to identify key elements of good practice. Principles of good practive are identified and discussed. Five main issues are highlighted: choosing a universal or targetted approach, the need for theoretical frameworks, adopting a stand-alone or multi-component approach; issues of delivery and programme fidelity, and balancing programme fidelity and cultural relevance. Programme objectives, programme fidelity and cultural context are important factors in designing programmes and will influence outcomes and evaluation of success. In developing alcohol education programmes, there is a need to draw on the evidence and experience accrued from previous efforts. Programme development and implementation can draw on results from evaluated programmes to design alcohol education programmes suited to specific contexts, the availability of resources, the perceived needs of the target group and the problem to be addressed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Numeracy Competence Requirements for Admission to Undergraduate Degree Programmes: A Case Study of a Programme to Prepare Pre-Registration Nursing Student Candidates for a Numeracy Entrance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dray, Beattie; Perkins, Andrew; Fritsch, Lynn Faller; Burke, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Some undergraduate programmes require evidence of baseline numeracy skills as a condition of entry. With a widened entry gate into higher education and a recognised "mathematics problem" in society, students wishing to enrol onto degree programmes that require evidence of numeracy often find it difficult to provide such evidence.…

  12. Numeracy Competence Requirements for Admission to Undergraduate Degree Programmes: A Case Study of a Programme to Prepare Pre-Registration Nursing Student Candidates for a Numeracy Entrance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dray, Beattie; Perkins, Andrew; Fritsch, Lynn Faller; Burke, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Some undergraduate programmes require evidence of baseline numeracy skills as a condition of entry. With a widened entry gate into higher education and a recognised "mathematics problem" in society, students wishing to enrol onto degree programmes that require evidence of numeracy often find it difficult to provide such evidence.…

  13. Art and Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Julio Wilson; Metka, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    The roots of science and art of plastic surgery are very antique. Anatomy, drawing, painting, and sculpting have been very important to the surgery and medicine development over the centuries. Artistic skills besides shape, volume, and lines perception can be a practical aid to the plastic surgeons' daily work. An overview about the interactions between art and plastic surgery is presented, with a few applications to rhinoplasty, cleft lip, and other reconstructive plastic surgeries. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  14. Nature's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Vicki; And Others

    Over 60 art activities, designed to enhance environmental awareness and incorporate environmental concepts, are outlined in this document. A sample of the activities presented are: decorated notepaper and cards with feathers or weeds; wall plaques of prairie plants; methods of flower preservation; water plant prints; construction of dolls,…

  15. Art & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmulsky, Lucinda

    2009-01-01

    In July 2004, The National Endowment for the Arts released the results of a survey entitled "Reading at Risk." The survey covered a 20-year period from 1982 to 2002 and documented a dramatic decline in the reading of literary works by all age groups during that period. The steepest decline of 28 percent was found among the youngest age group of…

  16. Spanish Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne; Wilson, Mary Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Provides instructional strategies and materials designed to introduce students to Spanish art. Includes four lesson plans with student objectives, background information, and step-by-step instructional procedures. Also includes four full-page color reproductions of paintings by Murillo, Picasso, El Greco, and de Goya. (CFR)

  17. Art & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmulsky, Lucinda

    2009-01-01

    In July 2004, The National Endowment for the Arts released the results of a survey entitled "Reading at Risk." The survey covered a 20-year period from 1982 to 2002 and documented a dramatic decline in the reading of literary works by all age groups during that period. The steepest decline of 28 percent was found among the youngest age group of…

  18. Fine Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of fine arts as sources to enrich the study of history. Suggests that such works will serve as barometers of change, examples of cross-cultural influences, and political messages. Includes suggestions of works and artists from different historic periods. (DK)

  19. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    The language arts course content guides presented in this manual cover English, oral communications, and journalism in grades 9-12 and provide a framework from which a curriculum can be built. Within each subject area and at each grade level, skills are identified at three instructional levels: basic, developmental, and extension. The basic skills…

  20. Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukehart, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Whether one views art as a cultural record, a political or religious instrument, a celebration of form and color, or an instinctual force, it is a given that sharing diverse expressions of creativity with children plants fresh understandings and pathways for their own questions and drives. It is impossible to do justice to the many outstanding…

  1. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  2. Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukehart, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Whether one views art as a cultural record, a political or religious instrument, a celebration of form and color, or an instinctual force, it is a given that sharing diverse expressions of creativity with children plants fresh understandings and pathways for their own questions and drives. It is impossible to do justice to the many outstanding…

  3. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  4. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Paul L.

    Capitalizing on the resources available in an urban city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents a resource list and objectives and activities relative to teaching language arts (reading, English, listening, speaking, and writing). The resource list is comprised of approximately 150 physical facilities (e.g.,…

  5. Producing Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes an art activity for use in a unit on agriculture in which third grade students create packing crate labels. Students compare examples of packing crate labels, identifying the name, image, product description, and visual elements such as color and balance. Discusses the process of creating the labels. (CMK)

  6. Fine Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of fine arts as sources to enrich the study of history. Suggests that such works will serve as barometers of change, examples of cross-cultural influences, and political messages. Includes suggestions of works and artists from different historic periods. (DK)

  7. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Paul L.

    Capitalizing on the resources available in an urban city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents a resource list and objectives and activities relative to teaching language arts (reading, English, listening, speaking, and writing). The resource list is comprised of approximately 150 physical facilities (e.g.,…

  8. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  9. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  10. The Implications of Programme Assessment Patterns for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessop, Tansy; Tomas, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from 73 programmes in 14 U.K universities sheds light on the typical student experience of assessment over a three-year undergraduate degree. A previous small-scale study in three universities characterised programme assessment environments using a similar method. The current study analyses data about assessment patterns using descriptive…

  11. Programmes in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

  12. IFLA's Programme of ISBDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    The article outlines the evolution, development, and current operational programme of the ISBD's (International Standard Bibliographic Description) within the framework of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations). (Author/JAB)

  13. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  14. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  15. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  16. How Can Visual Arts Help Doctors Develop Medical Insight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Kathleen; Hammond, Margaret F.

    2012-01-01

    This research project examines how using the visual arts can develop medical insight, as part of a pilot programme for two groups of medical students. It was a UK study; a collaboration between Liverpool and Glyndw University's and Tate Liverpool's learning team. Tate Liverpool is the home of the National Collection of Modern Arts in the North of…

  17. Understanding Arts and Humanities Students' Experiences of Assessment and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Joelle; McNab, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how undergraduate students on arts and humanities courses experience assessment and feedback. The research uses a detailed audit, a specially devised questionnaire (the Assessment Experience Questionnaire), and student focus group data, and the article examines results from 19 programmes, comparing those from "arts and…

  18. How Can Visual Arts Help Doctors Develop Medical Insight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Kathleen; Hammond, Margaret F.

    2012-01-01

    This research project examines how using the visual arts can develop medical insight, as part of a pilot programme for two groups of medical students. It was a UK study; a collaboration between Liverpool and Glyndw University's and Tate Liverpool's learning team. Tate Liverpool is the home of the National Collection of Modern Arts in the North of…

  19. A Qualitative Review of Walsall Arts into Health Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooris, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the context, process and findings of a qualitative review of Walsall Arts into Health Partnership, which is widely acknowledged to be one of the most progressive community-based arts and health programmes in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The research adopted a multi-method qualitative approach to…

  20. Art and Science the Inseparable Tools of Effective Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.; Thompson, L.

    The traditional view in outreach activities is to perceive space and planetary science in education as belonging to two main user groups; primary school, where space is explored as a thematic topic at a simple level, and upper secondary school where it comes into its own as a subject domain in astronomy, cosmology or as a small optional extension of a wider physics curriculum. However the arts (the wider humanities) and the sciences are closely bound together, both historically and in education practice. Traditionally men of science were also men of art and poetry and culture. They were rational and enlightened scholars. Astronomy and planetary science have not lost any of this value in modern education terms. It as relevant today to the performing arts, to history, geography, literature and language as it always has been. Historically it is only recently that sciences and arts have grown formally apart. Astronomy and space appears across the breadth and depth of formal and `hidden' curricula. It supports knowledge and skill bases; it is relevant to every subject from religion to international relations; it is evident in all manner of hands-on and field visit activities and is practiced in all countries. Using a multi disciplinary approach will increase the effectiveness of any outreach effort by a hundred fold. This paper describes the mutuality between the arts and the sciences as practiced in education; it highlights classroom interconnectivity between subject disciplines, knowledge and skill bases; it illustrates approaches and techniques for utilising surprising opportunities within formal and informal fields that considerably enhance outreach effort. It acknowledges the already heavy work load of the scientist and the very real constraints of time, mandates, resources, finance; it provides realistic methods, techniques and opportunities for the noneducation specialist to offer a wider exciting outreach and education programme.

  1. Arts, Education and Society: The Role of the Arts in Promoting the Emotional Well-being and Social Inclusion of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkou, Vassiliki; Glasman, Judy

    2004-01-01

    In our second article, Vassiliki Karkou and Judy Glasman provide an illuminating overview of current debates about the place of the arts within education. They explore the emotional and social role of the arts in school, illustrating their discussion with insights gained from the Labyrinth Project, an arts-based prevention programme developed in…

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life Dynamics of HIV-positive South African Women up to ART Initiation: Evidence from the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K.; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Karim, Salim S. Abdool

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3–6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals. PMID:24368630

  3. Health-related quality of life dynamics of HIV-positive South African women up to ART initiation: evidence from the CAPRISA 002 acute infection cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3-6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals.

  4. All About Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Ronald H.

    This is an experimental textbook for teaching about the visual arts at the elementary level. The content answers five questions about art: what is art; who makes art; what are the sources for art; why is art important to you; and why is art important to society. At the end of each section of the text is a set of questions and suggestions for…

  5. The Suffering of Arts Entrepreneurs: Will Fine Art Students Be Educated on How to Become Successfully Self-Employed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show whether, how and to what extent fine art students will be equipped with entrepreneurial skills and therefore be educated on how to make a living as a practicing artist. A comprehensive and comparative analysis of Fine Art degree programmes and extra-curricular training offerings at higher education institutions…

  6. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  7. Art Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A new class of polyimides, synthesized by Langley Research Center, has been evaluated by the Getty Conservation Institute's Materials Science Group for possible art conservation applications. Polyimides are noted for resistance to high temperature, wear and radiation. They are thermally stable and soluble in some common solvents. After testing under simulated exposures for changes in color, permeability and flexibility, one coating, ODPA-3, 3-ODA may be used to protect bronze statues from corrosion. A test on stained glass windows was unsuccessful.

  8. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  9. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Stead, Lindsay F; Carroll, Allison J; Lancaster, Tim

    2017-03-31

    Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016. Randomized trials that compared group therapy with self-help, individual counselling, another intervention or no intervention (including usual care or a waiting-list control). We also considered trials that compared more than one group programme. We included those trials with a minimum of two group meetings, and follow-up of smoking status at least six months after the start of the programme. We excluded trials in which group therapy was provided to both active therapy and placebo arms of trials of pharmacotherapies, unless they had a factorial design. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the interventions provided to the groups and the controls, including programme length, intensity and main components, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in participants smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. We analysed participants lost to follow-up as continuing smokers. We expressed effects as a risk ratio for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study and comparison, using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE criteria. Sixty-six trials met our inclusion criteria for one or more of the comparisons in the review. Thirteen trials compared a group programme with a self

  10. Promoting well-being through creativity: how arts and public health can learn from each other.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Marsaili; Crane, Nikki; Ings, Richard; Taylor, Karen

    2013-01-01

    For many years, participatory arts projects have been observed to make a significant contribution to the health and well-being of local communities - only for beneficial outcomes to disappear without trace when short-term project funding runs out. At the same time, there has been mounting evidence, commissioned by both arts and health bodies, to show that creativity and the arts do indeed make a significant difference to people's health and well-being and to how they feel about, and interact with, their neighbours. What can be done to build on and develop the evidence base? Particularly in times of austerity, there is also a need to draw on that evidence to develop principles and recommendations for bodies wishing to commission, and artists wishing to lead, participatory or public art initiatives that are most likely to result in sustained benefit to local people and communities. This paper suggests ways in which arts and public health professionals can learn from each other and go on to work more effectively together and with local communities. The paper is based on a qualitative evaluation study of a wide-ranging and innovative initiative, Be Creative Be Well (part of a wider programme, Well London) that nurtured around 100 different small participatory arts projects across 20 of London's most disadvantaged areas. Through analysis of case studies and desk research, the paper presents a summary of what exactly the artist and the creative process bring to a community context and how that can best be supported by policy makers and funders.

  11. Parenting and mental illness: a pilot group programme for parents.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Ruth; Lee, Lana; Howe, Deb; Walter, Garry

    2006-12-01

    To describe a pilot group programme for parents with a mental illness that was developed and implemented on the NSW Central Coast. The Parenting and Mental Illness Group Program is a 6-week group programme that is followed by four weekly, individual home visits. Data from the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory and Parenting Scale suggest the programme produced positive outcomes in children's behaviour and parenting practices; the programme was also viewed favourably by participants. While encouraging, these findings require replication, using larger numbers and evaluation of the programme in other sites. Supported by an evidence base, programmes such as this will be important to implement if mental health services are to improve outcomes for parents with mental health problems and their children.

  12. Policy and Strategies for ESL Pedagogy in Multilingual Classrooms: The Classroom Talk Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naicker, Shalina; Balfour, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of a specially designed programme of communicative strategies on English second language (ESL) development in a scaffolded case study that set out to promote teacher-guided, constructive learner talk in the outcomes-based education arts and culture classroom. The programme was implemented in a multilingual secondary…

  13. Evaluation of the PhunkyFoods Programme. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeman, David; Reed, Frances; Bielby, Gill; Scott, Emma; Sims, David

    2008-01-01

    The PhunkyFoods Programme (PFP), launched in 2005 by Purely Nutrition, teaches primary children key messages related to healthy eating and physical exercise in a light hearted and fun manner through art, drama, music, play and practical experience with food. It aims to enhance pupil performance, increase concentration, and improve behaviour,…

  14. The state-of-the-art of ART sealants.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E

    2014-03-01

    Sealing caries-prone pits and fissure systems is an effective caries-preventive measure. There are basically two types of sealant materials: glass-ionomer and resin-based materials. Low- and medium-viscosity glass-ionomers were initially used and showed a low level of retention. With the advent of the ART approach in the mid-nineties, high-viscosity glass-ionomers were introduced as sealant material and the retention rate of ART sealants increased substantially. As the effectiveness of a sealant is measured by its capacity to prevent (dentine) carious lesion development, sealant retention is considered a surrogate endpoint. The ART sealant protocol is described. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis covering low- medium- and high-viscosity glass-ionomer (ART) sealants have concluded that there is no evidence that either glass-ionomer or resin-based sealants prevent dentine carious lesions better. The annual dentine carious lesion development in teeth with high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART sealants over the first three years is 1%. These ART sealants have a high capacity of preventing carious lesion development. Because no electricity and running water is required, ART sealants can be placed both inside and outside the dental surgery. High-viscosity glass-ionomer ART sealants can be used alongside resin-based sealants.41:119-124

  15. [Relevance of medical rehabilitation in disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Lüngen, M; Lauterbach, K W

    2003-10-01

    Disease management programmes will increasingly be introduced in Germany due to the new risk adjustment scheme. The first disease management programmes started in 2003 for breast cancer and diabetes mellitus type II. German rehabilitation will have to face several challenges. Disease management programmes are strongly based on the notion of Evidence so that proof of the efficacy of a care giving task should be present. Verification of the evidence of the specifically German rehabilitation treatments must therefore be given. However, integration of rehabilitation in disease management programmes could lead to changes in the alignment of German rehabilitation. The essence of German rehabilitation, notably its holistic approach, could get lost with integration in disease management programmes.

  16. Nursing role on rapid recovery programmes fast-track.

    PubMed

    Sevillano-Jiménez, Alfonso; Romero-Saldaña, Manuel; Molina-Recio, Guillermo

    2017-07-27

    Rapid recovery (RR) or fast-track programmes are aimed at reducing surgical stress, leading to a reduction in nurse workload, costs and hospital stay, greater patient empowerment, early post-surgical recovery and reduced morbidity and mortality. These new protocols require the coordinated participation of a multidisciplinary team. Based on an integrative review of the literature, this paper aims to define the concept of a RR or fast track programme and show the existing evidence on the implementation of these programmes in nursing. The benefits and low incidence of damage of RR programmes in nursing justify their implementation. The programmes require greater support and diffusion in order to develop, as well as more research to increase the evidence on the effectiveness and efficiency of the protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical infection in art.

    PubMed

    Meakins, J L

    1996-12-01

    The earliest images of medicine and surgery in Western art are from the late Middle Ages. Although often attractive, at that time they were illustrative and mirrored the text on how to diagnose or treat a specific condition. These drawings in medieval manuscripts represent management of abscesses, perianal infection and fistulas, amputation, and wound dressings. With the Renaissance, art in all its forms flourished, and surgeons were represented at work draining carbuncles, infected bursae, and mastoiditis; managing ulcers, scrofula, and skin infections; and performing amputations. Specific diagnosis can be made, such as streptococcal infection in the discarded leg of the miraculous transplantation performed by Saints Cosmas and Damian and in the works of Rembrandt van Rijn and Frederic Bazille. Evocations of cytokine activity are evident in works by Albrecht Dürer, Edvard Munch, and James Tissot. The iconography of society's view of a surgeon is apparent and often not complimentary. The surgeon's art is a visual art. Astute observation leads to early diagnosis and better results in surgical infection and the septic state. Learning to see what we look at enhances our appreciation of the world around us but, quite specifically, makes us better clinicians.

  18. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from art therapy? Art therapy is practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational, forensic, wellness, private practice and community settings with diverse client populations in ...

  19. Evidence of a double peak in muscle activation to enhance strike speed and force: an example with elite mixed martial arts fighters.

    PubMed

    McGill, Stuart M; Chaimberg, Jon D; Frost, David M; Fenwick, Chad M J

    2010-02-01

    The main issue addressed here is the paradox of muscle contraction to optimize speed and strike force. When muscle contracts, it increases in both force and stiffness. Force creates faster movement, but the corresponding stiffness slows the change of muscle shape and joint velocity. The purpose of this study was to investigate how this speed strength is accomplished. Five elite mixed martial arts athletes were recruited given that they must create high strike force very quickly. Muscle activation using electromyography and 3-dimensional spine motion was measured. A variety of strikes were performed. Many of the strikes intend to create fast motion and finish with a very large striking force, demonstrating a "double peak" of muscle activity. An initial peak was timed with the initiation of motion presumably to enhance stiffness and stability through the body before motion. This appeared to create an inertial mass in the large "core" for limb muscles to "pry" against to initiate limb motion. Then, some muscles underwent a relaxation phase as speed of limb motion increased. A second peak was observed upon contact with the opponent (heavy bag). It was postulated that this would increase stiffness through the body linkage, resulting in a higher effective mass behind the strike and likely a higher strike force. Observation of the contract-relax-contract pulsing cycle during forceful and quick strikes suggests that it may be fruitful to consider pulse training that involves not only the rate of muscle contraction but also the rate of muscle relaxation.

  20. AP Studio Art as an Enabling Constraint for Secondary Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art is an influential force in secondary art education as is evident in the 31,800 portfolios submitted for review in 2008. From the perspectives of a high school educator and AP Reader, this author has observed how the constraints of the AP program can be used to generate support for high school art programs and…

  1. Benefits of pre-operative information programmes.

    PubMed

    Garretson, Sharon

    Thousands of patients undergo surgical procedures daily. Research has shown the benefits of giving pre-operative information to patients, which include decreased length of stay, less demand for analgesia post-operatively and increased patient satisfaction. However, despite this evidence, there are still many facilities with no formal policy or programme for giving pre-operative information. Nurses and managers should be made aware of the benefits and potential financial savings of pre-operative information programmes. Once education takes place, a concerted multidisciplinary effort should be made to implement a programme. This will help to ensure that patients no longer arrive at the operating theatre frightened and unaware of what will happen to them.

  2. Evidence based policy making and the 'art' of commissioning - how English healthcare commissioners access and use information and academic research in 'real life' decision-making: an empirical qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wye, Lesley; Brangan, Emer; Cameron, Ailsa; Gabbay, John; Klein, Jonathan H; Pope, Catherine

    2015-09-29

    Policymakers such as English healthcare commissioners are encouraged to adopt 'evidence-based policy-making', with 'evidence' defined by researchers as academic research. To learn how academic research can influence policy, researchers need to know more about commissioning, commissioners' information seeking behaviour and the role of research in their decisions. In case studies of four commissioning organisations, we interviewed 52 people including clinical and managerial commissioners, observed 14 commissioning meetings and collected documentation e.g. meeting minutes and reports. Using constant comparison, data were coded, summarised and analysed to facilitate cross case comparison. The 'art of commissioning' entails juggling competing agendas, priorities, power relationships, demands and personal inclinations to build a persuasive, compelling case. Policymakers sought information to identify options, navigate ways through, justify decisions and convince others to approve and/or follow the suggested course. 'Evidence-based policy-making' usually meant pragmatic selection of 'evidence' such as best practice guidance, clinicians' and users' views of services and innovations from elsewhere. Inconclusive or negative research was unhelpful in developing policymaking plans and did not inform disinvestment decisions. Information was exchanged through conversations and stories, which were fast, flexible and suited the rapidly changing world of policymaking. Local data often trumped national or research-based evidence. Local evaluations were more useful than academic research. Commissioners are highly pragmatic and will only use information that helps them create a compelling case for action.Therefore, researchers need to start producing more useful information. To influence policymakers' decisions, researchers need to 1) learn more about local policymakers' priorities 2) develop relationships of mutual benefit 3) use verbal instead of writtencommunication 4) work with

  3. Sustainable Schools Programmes: What Influence on Schools and How Do We Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickinson, Mark; Hall, Matthew; Reid, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on our experience of researching the influence of ResourceSmart Schools, a sustainable schools programme in Victoria, Australia. Drawing on ideas from programme theory and realist synthesis, we illustrate and reflect upon our approach to conceptualising, investigating and generating evidence about the programme's…

  4. Inequalities in Attendance in Organized Early Learning Programmes in Developing Societies: Findings from Household Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Loaiza, Edilberto; Engle, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    While the importance of attending early learning programmes is increasingly evident, the provision of early learning programmes in developing countries has not grown in parallel. In this paper we examine how attendance in early learning programmes for children aged 3-6 years, the recommended period, differs within and across 52 developing…

  5. Why Arts Integration Improves Long-Term Retention of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Luke; Gregory, Emma; Yarmolinskaya, Julia; Hardiman, Mariale

    2011-01-01

    Advocates of the arts agree that the K-12 curriculum should include dedicated time for arts instruction. Some have argued further that knowledge and skills acquired through the arts transfer to nonarts domains. Others claim that evidence of this kind of transfer is limited and instead argue that the arts cultivate valuable dispositions that help…

  6. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  7. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  8. Why Arts Integration Improves Long-Term Retention of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Luke; Gregory, Emma; Yarmolinskaya, Julia; Hardiman, Mariale

    2011-01-01

    Advocates of the arts agree that the K-12 curriculum should include dedicated time for arts instruction. Some have argued further that knowledge and skills acquired through the arts transfer to nonarts domains. Others claim that evidence of this kind of transfer is limited and instead argue that the arts cultivate valuable dispositions that help…

  9. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  10. Infusing Arts-Integrated Learning into Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorimer, Maureen Reilly

    2012-01-01

    Although strong arguments espousing the accolades of arts involvement are evident, the visual and performing arts continue to be underfunded and underused in K-12 schooling and teacher preparation. Valiant efforts from arts advocates have made inroads to reverse this negative trend, yet policies and practices that reflect a commitment to "arts for…

  11. Test Driven Development: Performing Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bache, Emily

    The art of Test Driven Development (TDD) is a skill that needs to be learnt, and which needs time and practice to master. In this workshop a select number of conference participants with considerable skill and experience are invited to perform code katas [1]. The aim is for them to demonstrate excellence and the use of Test Driven Development, and result in some high quality code. This would be for the benefit of the many programmers attending the conference, who could come along and witness high quality code being written using TDD, and get a chance to ask questions and provide feedback.

  12. The state of the art in non-pharmacological interventions for developmental stuttering. Part 2: qualitative evidence synthesis of views and experiences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maxine; Baxter, Susan; Blank, Lindsay; Cantrell, Anna; Brumfitt, Shelagh; Enderby, Pam; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A range of interventions have been developed to treat stuttering in recent years. The effectiveness of these interventions has largely been assessed in studies focusing on the impact of specific types of therapy on patient outcomes. Relatively little is known about the factors that influence how the delivery and impact of different types of intervention may be experienced from the perspective of both people who deliver as well as those who receive interventions. To synthesize the available evidence in relation to factors that might enhance or mitigate against successful outcomes following interventions for stuttering by identifying and synthesizing relevant qualitative research that explored the experiences of people delivering and receiving interventions that aim to improve fluency. We carried out a systematic review including research that had used in-depth interviews and focus groups and conducted a substantive qualitative analysis of the data collected. Included study populations were either adults or children affected by a diagnosed stutter and/or providers of therapy for stuttering. An iterative approach was used to search for published qualitative evidence in relevant databases from 1990 to 2014. Retrieved citations were sifted for relevance and the data from articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted. Each included paper was assessed for quality and a thematic analysis and synthesis of findings was carried out. Synthesized qualitative evidence highlights the changing experiences for people who stutter both historically and, for individuals, over the life course. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions for stuttering are encountered at the individual, intervention, interpersonal and social levels. Interventions may be particularly pertinent at certain transition points in the life course. Attention to emotional as well as practical aspects of stuttering is valued by people receiving therapy. The client

  13. Community-based dementia day programmes: Common elements and outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Weir, Annie; Fouche, Christa

    2017-04-01

    Dementia Day programmes are considered important in supporting the well-being of both people living with dementia and their caregivers. There is, however, limited evidence on the effectiveness of these programmes. This article reports on a study undertaken in New Zealand on the effectiveness of community-based dementia day programmes. The small-scale pilot study was aimed at investigating the elements that make up an effective client-focused dementia day programme and the methods employed by organisations to measure the outcomes of these programmes. A mixed methods approach was employed with multiple stakeholders. The research revealed that effective day programmes comprised five core elements, and that surveys, reporting and auditing processes are routinely used to measure the quality of outcomes of day programmes. Although these findings are reflective of a specific context, it raises concerns about the nature and availability of evidence informing decisions regarding the design and implementation of day programmes internationally.

  14. HEARTS (Higher Education, the Arts and Schools): An Experiment in Educating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Dick; Lamont, Emily

    2007-01-01

    HEARTS (Higher Education, the Arts and Schools) project was established with the intention of strengthening the arts element of initial training of primary school teachers. During the academic years 2004/6, six higher education institutes (HEIs) were given financial and practical support to introduce new programmes of arts work into their…

  15. Defining Art Appreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabolt, Betty Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the differences and goals of four areas: (1) art appreciation; (2) art history; (3) art aesthetics; and (4) art criticism. Offers a definition of art appreciation and information on how the view of art appreciation in education has changed over time. (CMK)

  16. Outsider Art and the autistic creator.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Roger

    2009-05-27

    Outsider Art (art brut) is defined as a mode of original artistic expression which thrives on its independence, shunning the public sphere and the art market. Such art can be highly idiosyncratic and secretive, and reflects the individual creator's attempt to construct a coherent, albeit strange, private world. Certain practitioners of what may be termed autistic art are examined in the light of this definition; their work is considered as evidence not of a medical condition but of an expressive intentionality entirely worthy of the interest of those drawn to the aesthetic experience.

  17. Outsider Art and the autistic creator

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Outsider Art (art brut) is defined as a mode of original artistic expression which thrives on its independence, shunning the public sphere and the art market. Such art can be highly idiosyncratic and secretive, and reflects the individual creator's attempt to construct a coherent, albeit strange, private world. Certain practitioners of what may be termed autistic art are examined in the light of this definition; their work is considered as evidence not of a medical condition but of an expressive intentionality entirely worthy of the interest of those drawn to the aesthetic experience. PMID:19528031

  18. Toward effective school-based substance abuse prevention "breaking the cycle" programme in Antigua and Barbuda.

    PubMed

    Martin, T C; Josiah-Martin, J A; Roberts, C W; Henry, H P

    2008-09-01

    The "Breaking the Cycle" programme, based on the Project Charlie programme, was developed for Antigua and Barbuda third grade students and was implemented in 2001. Aspects of the programme are compared with aspects recently proven effective in randomized studies in developed countries. The "Breaking the Cycle" programme includes life-skills training, teaches decision making skills, includes peer resistance training, uses trained teachers, interactive teaching methods, effective content and delivery, targets students prior to onset of drug use, teaches drug harm, teaches community values and is culturally sensitive, all aspects of successful programmes overseas. The cost of about $7 US per student would suggests cost-benefit effectiveness compared with overseas programmes. The "Breaking the Cycle" school-based drug and alcohol use prevention programme includes most aspects of evidence-based successful programmes overseas, appears cost effective and could serve as a model for programmes in the Caribbean region.

  19. Learning to Be: The Modelling of Art and Design Practice in University Art and Design Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Learning to be an artist or designer is a complex process of becoming. Much of the early phase of "learning to be" occurs during the time emerging artists and designers are students in university art/design programmes, both undergraduate and postgraduate. Recent research reveals that a critical role in assisting students in their…

  20. Learning to Be: The Modelling of Art and Design Practice in University Art and Design Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Learning to be an artist or designer is a complex process of becoming. Much of the early phase of "learning to be" occurs during the time emerging artists and designers are students in university art/design programmes, both undergraduate and postgraduate. Recent research reveals that a critical role in assisting students in their…

  1. History and Art: The Heart of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiferth, Berniece B; And Others

    Learning to appreciate religious art and to understand the interdependence of history and art are basic to the foundations of culture. Students need to be exposed to the art of the diverse adherents of all major religions in order to understand the beliefs and practices of others. Students can examine religious art from ancient times, including…

  2. Small Art Images--Big Art Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    When small art images are incorporated into the curriculum, students are afforded opportunities to slow down, observe minute details, and communicate ideas about art and artists. This sort of purposeful art contemplation takes students beyond the day-to-day educational practice. It is through these sorts of art activities that students develop…

  3. Art Supply Inventors. Children's Art Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)

  4. Fine Arts: Secondary Visual Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This guide to Utah's requirements for students in secondary visual arts is organized and based upon a student achievement portfolio for each course. Foundation I, the required junior high/middle school visual arts course, is designed to provide an overview of visual arts while studying various art tools and materials. With an emphasis on studio…

  5. Art Therapy Teaching as Performance Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint asserts that art therapy education is a form of performance art. By designing class sessions as performance artworks, art therapy educators can help their students become more fully immersed in their studies. This view also can be extended to conceptualizing each semester--and the entire art therapy curriculum--as a complex and…

  6. Small Art Images--Big Art Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    When small art images are incorporated into the curriculum, students are afforded opportunities to slow down, observe minute details, and communicate ideas about art and artists. This sort of purposeful art contemplation takes students beyond the day-to-day educational practice. It is through these sorts of art activities that students develop…

  7. History and Art: The Heart of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiferth, Berniece B; And Others

    Learning to appreciate religious art and to understand the interdependence of history and art are basic to the foundations of culture. Students need to be exposed to the art of the diverse adherents of all major religions in order to understand the beliefs and practices of others. Students can examine religious art from ancient times, including…

  8. Art Therapy Teaching as Performance Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint asserts that art therapy education is a form of performance art. By designing class sessions as performance artworks, art therapy educators can help their students become more fully immersed in their studies. This view also can be extended to conceptualizing each semester--and the entire art therapy curriculum--as a complex and…

  9. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  10. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  11. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  12. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  13. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  14. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  15. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  16. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  17. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  18. Farmers Functional Literacy Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

    The Farmers Training and Functional Literacy Programme, initiated by the government of India in 1968, was an effort to translate into practice the concept of linking education (not only vocational training) to development, particularly for increasing production. The project, a joint enterprise of three government ministries, provides participating…

  19. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  20. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  1. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  2. Arts practices in unreasonable doubt? Reflections on understandings of arts practices in healthcare contexts

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Sheelagh

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests that the discourse on arts and health encompass contemporary arts practices as an active and engaged analytical activity. Distinctions between arts therapy and arts practice are made to suggest that clinical evidence-based evaluation, while appropriate for arts therapy, is not appropriate for arts practice and in effect cast them in unreasonable doubt. Themes in current discourse on “arts” and “health” are broadly sketched to provide a context for discussion of arts practices. Approaches to knowledge validation in relation to each domain are discussed. These discourses are applied to the Irish healthcare context, offering a reading of three different art projects; it suggests a multiplicity of analyses beyond causal positive health gains. It is suggested that the social turn in medicine and the social turn in arts practices share some similar pre-occupations that warrant further attention. PMID:22675403

  3. Arts-based inquiry in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Casey, Briege

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the methods, processes, and experiences of using arts-based inquiry within the context of an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Exploration of these phenomena was achieved through an ethnographic study that involved participatory research among twenty second year students as they engaged in a Nursing Humanities option module. The capacity of arts-based approaches in the nursing curriculum to foster inquiry and critical thinking; essential attributes in contemporary nursing, is explored through re-presentation and analysis of student artwork/art-making processes, contextual discussions and researcher field notes. The challenges encountered in using arts-informed pedagogical approaches within current nursing curricula are made visible and possibilities for integrating aesthetic inquiry into nurse education programmes are discussed.

  4. Beyond Risk Compensation: Clusters of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Users in Sexual Networks Can Modify the Impact of ART on HIV Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Wim; Helleringer, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Concerns about risk compensation—increased risk behaviours in response to a perception of reduced HIV transmission risk—after the initiation of ART have largely been dispelled in empirical studies, but other changes in sexual networking patterns may still modify the effects of ART on HIV incidence. Methods We developed an exploratory mathematical model of HIV transmission that incorporates the possibility of ART clusters, i.e. subsets of the sexual network in which the density of ART patients is much higher than in the rest of the network. Such clusters may emerge as a result of ART homophily—a tendency for ART patients to preferentially form and maintain relationships with other ART patients. We assessed whether ART clusters may affect the impact of ART on HIV incidence, and how the influence of this effect-modifying variable depends on contextual variables such as HIV prevalence, HIV serosorting, coverage of HIV testing and ART, and adherence to ART. Results ART homophily can modify the impact of ART on HIV incidence in both directions. In concentrated epidemics and generalized epidemics with moderate HIV prevalence (≈ 10%), ART clusters can enhance the impact of ART on HIV incidence, especially when adherence to ART is poor. In hyperendemic settings (≈ 35% HIV prevalence), ART clusters can reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence when adherence to ART is high but few people living with HIV (PLWH) have been diagnosed. In all contexts, the effects of ART clusters on HIV epidemic dynamics are distinct from those of HIV serosorting. Conclusions Depending on the programmatic and epidemiological context, ART clusters may enhance or reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence, in contrast to serosorting, which always leads to a lower impact of ART on HIV incidence. ART homophily and the emergence of ART clusters should be measured empirically and incorporated into more refined models used to plan and evaluate ART programmes. PMID:27657492

  5. Programmable synchronization unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.

    1984-10-01

    A Programmable Synchronization Unit (PSU, 135-726) has been designed as an element of the new timing system for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) project to provide synchronization signals needed for various apparatus in the SLC Damping Ring, or anywhere it is necessary to monitor longer than the fiducial period (approx. = 2.8 ..mu..s). A 119 MHz pulse train derived from the 476 MHz main drive line and superimposed with 360 Hz fiducial signal is the frequency source. Following a programmable delay D of up to 4.4 ..mu..s, the PSU can deliver N pulses of width W (in increments of 8.4 ns) with a pulse period of P (in increments of 58.8 ns, the damping ring half period). The device may be programmed at any time during the interfiducial period.

  6. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.

  7. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  8. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  9. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  10. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  11. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  12. Programmability in AIPS++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjellming, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIPS++ is an Astronomical Information Processing System being designed and implemented by an international consortium of NRAO and six other radio astronomy institutions in Australia, India, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the USA. AIPS++ is intended to replace the functionality of AIPS, to be more easily programmable, and will be implemented in C++ using object-oriented techniques. Programmability in AIPS++ is planned at three levels. The first level will be that of a command-line interpreter with characteristics similar to IDL and PV-Wave, but with an intensive set of operations appropriate to telescope data handling, image formation, and image processing. The third level will be in C++ with extensive use of class libraries for both basic operations and advanced applications. The third level will allow input and output of data between external FORTRAN programs and AIPS++ telescope and image databases. In addition to summarizing the above programmability characteristics, this talk will given an overview of the classes currently being designed for telescope data calibration and editing, image formation, and the 'toolkit' of mathematical 'objects' that will perform most of the processing in AIPS++.

  13. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology.

  14. Mississippi Fine Arts Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    The Mississippi Fine Arts Framework is designed to develop K-12 students' interest and expertise in dance, music, theater arts, and visual arts. The introductory fine arts course, for secondary level students, explores the relationship and the function of the arts in both historical and contemporary culture through creative projects, performance,…

  15. Arts Education and the Newer Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jerrold

    2005-01-01

    The decline in public support for the arts is evident in diminished audience approbation as much as in support by public and, increasingly, private sources. This article postulates that the same phenomenon is taking place with the decrease of arts education in our schools. The author argues that our schools are taking on an increasingly…

  16. Toward a New Era in Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, John T., Ed.

    While it is evident that excellence exists in U.S. arts programs, there are not enough outstanding arts education programs in existence, and too few students gain the basic knowledge or skills that are requisite for the maintenance of such an important aspect of our civilization. The papers presented at this symposium reflect the opinions of a…

  17. Toward a New Era in Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, John T., Ed.

    While it is evident that excellence exists in U.S. arts programs, there are not enough outstanding arts education programs in existence, and too few students gain the basic knowledge or skills that are requisite for the maintenance of such an important aspect of our civilization. The papers presented at this symposium reflect the opinions of a…

  18. Arts Education and the Newer Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jerrold

    2005-01-01

    The decline in public support for the arts is evident in diminished audience approbation as much as in support by public and, increasingly, private sources. This article postulates that the same phenomenon is taking place with the decrease of arts education in our schools. The author argues that our schools are taking on an increasingly…

  19. Histochemical Seeing: Scientific Visualization and Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knochel, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    What are the capacities of visual arts curricula to engage learning within narrow frameworks of overly "scientistic" standards (Lather, 2007)? With growing emphasis in schools under STEM initiatives and evidence-based standards, the possible cross-pollination of effects that art education may have on a science-centric education may be a…

  20. Research Review: Arts in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbacher, Judy, Ed.; Toft, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    As teaching artists, teachers, and arts administrators, the authors are constantly looking for signs of spring: evidence that there is a growing understanding of the role artists have to play in the education of children; proof that teachers, if trained well, will see that role and wish to incorporate it into their classrooms. "Arts in the…

  1. Why Our High Schools Need the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jessica Hoffmann

    2011-01-01

    In this follow-up to her bestselling book, "Why Our Schools Need the Arts", Jessica Hoffmann Davis addresses the alarming drop-out rate in our high schools and presents a thoughtful, evidence-based argument that increasing arts education in the high school curriculum will keep kids in school. Davis shares compelling voices of teachers and their…

  2. Histochemical Seeing: Scientific Visualization and Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knochel, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    What are the capacities of visual arts curricula to engage learning within narrow frameworks of overly "scientistic" standards (Lather, 2007)? With growing emphasis in schools under STEM initiatives and evidence-based standards, the possible cross-pollination of effects that art education may have on a science-centric education may be a…

  3. THE LIBERAL ARTS--PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICE, JAMES G.

    THE STERILITY OF THE LIBERAL ARTS IN MOST COLLEGES TODAY IS BECOMING MORE EVIDENT. STUDENTS ARE TURNING TO "POT," LSD, OR IMMERSIONS IN ANOTHER CULTURE IN THEIR QUESTS TO EXPAND THEIR CONSCIOUSNESS. THE STUDENT'S NEED FOR A HEIGHTENED AWARENESS AND LARGER FRAME OF REFERENCE CAN BE FULFILLED BY A STUDY OF THE LIBERAL ARTS ONLY IF THESE STUDIES ARE…

  4. What do community football players think about different exercise-training programmes? Implications for the delivery of lower limb injury prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Doyle, Tim L A; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Elliott, Bruce C; Twomey, Dara M; White, Peta E; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Young, Warren; Lloyd, David G

    2014-04-01

    Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players' end-of-season views about the programme variants. This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players' views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future.

  5. Attainments and limitations of an early childhood programme in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J; Trujillo, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    The Growth and Development Monitoring Programme is a longstanding early childhood social intervention in Colombia. The programme's goal is the prevention and early identification of problems affecting children's health and nutrition. To achieve this aim, the programme's basic strategy is to educate parents about the overall health care of infants. The objective of this study is to measure the impact of this programme on children's nutrition and health status and maternal child-care practices. To address potential selection bias, we employ quasi-experimental techniques. This article uses data from the Demographic Health Survey of 2010. The evidence suggests that the programme improved immunization status and the likelihood of health care for acute respiratory infection or fever. As expected, the programme has a greater impact on children from among the poorest people in the country. In the most advanced regions and for the beneficiaries of private health care, the effects of the programme have tended to be negligible. In this sense, our central policy recommendation is to optimize the programme for the poorest households in the country.

  6. Leadership as a Health Research Policy Intervention: An Evaluation of the NIHR Leadership Programme (Phase 2).

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Cochrane, Gavin; Manville, Catriona; Harte, Emma; Chataway, Joanna; Jones, Molly Morgan

    2016-01-29

    In early 2012, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) leadership programme was re-commissioned for a further three years following an evaluation by RAND Europe. During this new phase of the programme, we conducted a real-time evaluation, the aim of which was to allow for reflection on and adjustment of the programme on an on-going basis as events unfold. This approach also allowed for participants on the programme to contribute to and positively engage in the evaluation. The study aimed to understand the outputs and impacts from the programme, and to test the underlying assumptions behind the NIHR Leadership Programme as a science policy intervention. Evidence on outputs and impacts of the programme were collected around the motivations and expectations of participants, programme design and individual-, institutional- and system-level impacts.

  7. Funding the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Douglas P.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the National Endowment of the Arts (NEA), its birth, growth, and uncertain future, are examined. What the arts community is doing to insure a national arts environment is discussed. (RM)

  8. Community nutrition programmes, globalization and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Herrera, José Carlos

    2006-08-01

    On an international scale, the last seventy-five years have been a period of deep social, economic and political transformation for the developing countries. They have been especially influenced by the international phenomenon of globalization, the benefits of which have been unequally distributed among countries. In this context, the strategies used to improve the general nutritional health of the population of developing countries include broad approaches integrating nutritional interventions in a context of sustainable community development, while valuing the existing relations between fields as diverse as agriculture, education, sociology, economy, health, environment, hygiene and nutrition. The community nutrition programmes are emblematic of these initiatives. Nevertheless, in spite of the increasing evidence of the potential possibilities offered by these programmes to improve the nutritional status and contribute to the development and the self-sufficiency of the community, their success is relatively limited, due to the inappropriate planning, implementation and evaluation of the programmes. In the present article, I attempt to emphasie the importance of community participation of the population of developing countries in the community nutrition programmes within the context of globalization. This process is not only an ethical imperative, but a pragmatic one. It is a crucial step in the process of liberation, democratization and equality that will lead to true sustainable development.

  9. The Liberal Arts and the Martial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Donald N.

    1984-01-01

    Liberal arts and the martial arts are compared from the perspective that courses of training in the martial arts often constitute exemplary educational programs and are worth examining closely. Program characteristics, individual characteristics fostered by them, the relationship between liberal and utilitarian learning, and the moral…

  10. Arts Impact: Lessons from ArtsBridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimshon-Santo, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    Arts Impact summarizes lessons learned at the ArtsBridge Program. It is informed by in-depth participant observation, logic modeling, and quantitative evaluation of program impact on K-12 students in inner city schools and arts students at the University of California Los Angeles over a two year period. The case study frames its analysis through a…

  11. Teaching Art with Art: Grotesque Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a type of visual art called grotesque art and includes four different examples of grotesque art: (1) the painting "Head of Medusa" by Peter Paul Rubens; (2) Rangda, the widow witch from Bali (Indonesia); (3) totem poles; and (4) grotesque sculptures from the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Paris, France). (CMK)

  12. Keeping the Arts Alive: Fine Arts Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    When budgets are tightened, the school library media specialists and/or the arts programs are often considered expendable. No Child Left Behind legislation means increasing academic time for core subjects, which translates into cutting time for arts education. As money becomes tight, frills are cut (i.e., the arts). Schools don't seem able to fill…

  13. The Liberal Arts and the Martial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Donald N.

    1984-01-01

    Liberal arts and the martial arts are compared from the perspective that courses of training in the martial arts often constitute exemplary educational programs and are worth examining closely. Program characteristics, individual characteristics fostered by them, the relationship between liberal and utilitarian learning, and the moral…

  14. The Art of Teaching Art Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1999-01-01

    Examines the conceptions of educating beginning art teachers with specific reference to Canadian art education. Addresses the use of the visual journal, which demonstrates visual and verbal thinking, by preservice teachers at the University of British Columbia as a means to develop an artistic understanding of their growth as art teachers. (CMK)

  15. Programmable Periodicity of Quantum Dot Arrays with DNA Origami Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    To fabricate quantum dot arrays with programmable periodicity, functionalized DNA origami nanotubes were developed. Selected DNA staple strands were biotin-labeled to form periodic binding sites for streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots. Successful formation of arrays with periods of 43 and 71 nm demonstrates precise, programmable, large-scale nanoparticle patterning; however, limitations in array periodicity were also observed. Statistical analysis of AFM images revealed evidence for steric hindrance or site bridging that limited the minimum array periodicity. PMID:20681601

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis: Patient and programme impact of fixed-dose combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ramjan, Rubeena; Calmy, Alexandra; Vitoria, Marco; Mills, Edward J; Hill, Andrew; Cooke, Graham; Ford, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    To compare the advantages to patients and to programmes between fixed-dose combination (FDC) antiretroviral therapy and separate tablet regimens. Three electronic databases and two conference abstract sites were searched from inception to 01 March 2013 without geographical, language or date limits. Studies were included if they reported data on clinical outcomes, patient-reported outcomes and programme-related outcomes that could be related to pill burden for adult and adolescent patients on ART. For the primary outcomes of adherence and virological suppression, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and these were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Twenty-one studies including information on 27,230 subjects were reviewed. Data from randomised trials showed better adherence among patients receiving FDCs than among patients who did not (relative risk 1.10, 95%CI 0.98-1.22); these findings were consistent with data from observational cohorts (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28). There was also a tendency towards greater virological suppression among patients receiving FDCs in randomised trials (RR 1.04, 95%CI 0.99-1.10) and observational cohort studies (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.97-1.18). In all studies reporting patient preference, FDCs were preferred. The overall quality of the evidence was rated as low. Fixed-dose combinations appear to offer multiple advantages for programmes and patients, particularly with respect to treatment adherence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pilot programme for the rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Myer, Landon; Zulliger, Rose; Black, Samantha; Pienaar, David; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2012-01-01

    Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy is an important intervention to prevent the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and to promote maternal health. Early initiation of ART is particularly important to achieve viral suppression rapidly before delivery. However, current approaches to start ART in pregnancy may be problematic in many settings, with referrals between antenatal care (ANC) and ART services, and delays for patient preparation before ART initiation. These steps contribute to a sizable proportion of women failing to receive adequate duration of ART before delivery, increasing the risk of MTCT. To address these limitations, we developed the rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy (RAP) programme. The programme featured the use of point-of-care CD4 testing to identify ART-eligible women with CD4 cell counts ≤ 350 cells/µl; immediate ART initiation in women on the same day that eligibility was determined, if possible; and intensive counselling and support for ART initiation during the first few weeks on ART. We implemented RAP in an antenatal clinic setting in Cape Town South Africa. Between February and August 2011, a total of 221 HIV-infected women were referred to the programme for CD4 cell count testing and 101 (46%) were eligible for ART. Of these, 98 women (97%) started therapy during pregnancy, 89 (91%) on the day of referral to the service. In-depth interviews suggested that although there were substantial challenges facing HIV-infected women initiating ART in pregnancy, the availability of immediate services and counselling support played an important role in addressing these. While further research is needed, this evaluation demonstrates that a novel service delivery approach may facilitate rapid ART initiation in pregnancy.

  18. Injury prevention exercise programmes in professional youth soccer: understanding the perceptions of programme deliverers

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, James; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Background There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention strategies in amateur soccer, but information from other soccer settings is scarce. This cross-sectional survey analysed the injury prevention perceptions of soccer coaches, fitness coaches and physiotherapists from 4 male teams in a professional youth soccer academy. Methods The respondents (n=18) completed a web-based survey relating to lower limb (LL) soccer injuries, the value and practicality of injury prevention exercise programmes (IPEPs) in general and, more specifically, the IPEP endorsed by FIFA, the FIFA 11+. Results There were very high levels of agreement regarding players’ susceptibility to LL injury and the seriousness of these injuries. Respondents agreed unanimously that players should perform evidence-based injury prevention exercises. Despite 61% of respondents having previously heard of the FIFA 11+, just 6% reported current use of the full programme, with a further 22% reporting modified use. 22% believed the FIFA 11+ contained adequate variation and progression for their team and 78% felt it needed improvement. Respondents identified multiple barriers and facilitators to maintaining IPEPs, relating either to the programme content (eg, exercise variation), or the delivery and support of the programme (eg, coach acceptance). Conclusions The coaches, fitness coaches and physiotherapists of professional youth teams support the use of IPEPs, but enhancing their impact requires tailoring of programme content, along with adequate delivery and support at multiple levels. The findings suggest that the FIFA 11+ needs modification for use in professional youth soccer teams. PMID:27900158

  19. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  20. Selection in backcross programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Backcrossing is a well-known and long established breeding scheme where a characteristic is introgressed from a donor parent into the genomic background of a recurrent parent. The various uses of backcrossing in modern genetics, particularly with the help of molecular markers, are reviewed here. Selection in backcross programmes is used to either improve the genetic value of plant and animal populations or fine map quantitative trait loci. Both cases are helpful in our understanding of the genetic bases of quantitative traits variation. PMID:16048792

  1. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  2. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  3. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  4. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  5. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  6. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  7. The National Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Belete; Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Fikreab; Martindale, Sarah; Hassan, Mohammed; Sime, Heven; Mackenzie, Charles; Mulugeta, Abate; Tamiru, Mossie; Sileshi, Mesfin; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre, Teshome; Fentaye, Amha; Kebede, Biruck

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring diseases common in Ethiopia and is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Mapping for LF has shown that 70 woredas (districts) are endemic and 5.9 million people are estimated to be at risk. The national government’s LF elimination programme commenced in 2009 in 5 districts integrated with the onchocerciasis programme. The programme developed gradually and has shown significant progress over the past 6 years, reaching 100% geographical coverage for mass drug administration (MDA) by 2016. To comply with the global LF elimination goals an integrated morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) guideline and a burden assessment programme has also been developed; MMDP protocols and a hydrocoele surgical handbook produced for country-wide use. In Ethiopia, almost all LF endemic districts are co-endemic with malaria and vector control aspects of the activities are conducted in the context of malaria programme as the vectors for both diseases are mosquitoes. In order to monitor the elimination, 11 sentinel and spot-check sites have been established and baseline information has been collected. Although significant achievements have been achieved in the scale up of the LF elimination programme, there is still a need to strengthen operational research to generate programme-relevant evidence, to increase access to morbidity management services, and to improve monitoring and evaluation of the LF programme. However, the current status of implementation of the LF national programme indicates that Ethiopia is poised to achieve the 2020 goal of elimination of LF. Nevertheless, to achieve this goal, high and sustained treatment coverage and strong monitoring and evaluation of the programme are essential. PMID:28878429

  8. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  9. The Sheffield outreach teaching programme.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Lennon, M A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-27

    Sheffield's School of Clinical Dentistry has developed a year-round dental outreach teaching programme of 20 weeks for each student in two or three of six already established general practices and five PCT clinics. On the programme, under local supervision, students provide comprehensive care for patients and complete associated projectwork. This paper first describes the development and management of the programme then the learning experiences of recent students.

  10. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  11. Evidence and AIDS activism: HIV scale-up and the contemporary politics of knowledge in global public health.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is widely recognised as having prompted one of the most remarkable intersections ever of illness, science and activism. The production, circulation, use and evaluation of empirical scientific 'evidence' played a central part in activists' engagement with AIDS science. Previous activist engagement with evidence focused on the social and biomedical responses to HIV in the global North as well as challenges around ensuring antiretroviral treatment (ART) was available in the global South. More recently, however, with the roll-out and scale-up of large public-sector ART programmes and new multi-dimensional prevention efforts, the relationships between evidence and activism have been changing. Scale-up of these large-scale treatment and prevention programmes represents an exciting new opportunity while bringing with it a host of new challenges. This paper examines what new forms of evidence and activism will be required to address the challenges of the scaling-up era of HIV treatment and prevention. It reviews some recent controversies around evidence and HIV scale-up and describes the different forms of evidence and activist strategies that will be necessary for a robust response to these new challenges.

  12. Experimental signature of programmable quantum annealing.

    PubMed

    Boixo, Sergio; Albash, Tameem; Spedalieri, Federico M; Chancellor, Nicholas; Lidar, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a general strategy for solving difficult optimization problems with the aid of quantum adiabatic evolution. Both analytical and numerical evidence suggests that under idealized, closed system conditions, quantum annealing can outperform classical thermalization-based algorithms such as simulated annealing. Current engineered quantum annealing devices have a decoherence timescale which is orders of magnitude shorter than the adiabatic evolution time. Do they effectively perform classical thermalization when coupled to a decohering thermal environment? Here we present an experimental signature which is consistent with quantum annealing, and at the same time inconsistent with classical thermalization. Our experiment uses groups of eight superconducting flux qubits with programmable spin-spin couplings, embedded on a commercially available chip with >100 functional qubits. This suggests that programmable quantum devices, scalable with current superconducting technology, implement quantum annealing with a surprising robustness against noise and imperfections.

  13. The Stage Life: Promoting the Inclusion of Young People through Participatory Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickley, Theodore; Crosbie, Brian; Hui, Ada

    2012-01-01

    The Stage Life was a participatory arts programme for people attending a day services provision in Nottinghamshire. The uniqueness of this programme was that it was provided in a local disused cinema acquired by the local authority for community-based activities amongst disadvantaged groups. The Stage Life aimed to build the community arts…

  14. The Stage Life: Promoting the Inclusion of Young People through Participatory Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickley, Theodore; Crosbie, Brian; Hui, Ada

    2012-01-01

    The Stage Life was a participatory arts programme for people attending a day services provision in Nottinghamshire. The uniqueness of this programme was that it was provided in a local disused cinema acquired by the local authority for community-based activities amongst disadvantaged groups. The Stage Life aimed to build the community arts…

  15. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  16. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The findings summarized in this report are intended to shed light on what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, why it is necessary and important to cultivate this demand, and what state arts agencies (SAAs) and other arts and education policymakers can do to help. The research considered only the benchmark arts central to public policy:…

  17. Art and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century's interest in "art for art's sake," many thinkers have argued that art would supplant traditional religion as the spiritual locus of the increasingly secular society of Western modernity. If art can capture the sort of spirituality, idealism, and expressive community of traditional religions but without being ensnared…

  18. Fine Arts Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanaimo School District #68 (British Columbia).

    The fine arts as defined by the Ministry of Education (British Columbia) include music, art, and drama with the curriculum focusing on two concepts: creation and appreciation. One of the aims of School District #68 (Nanaimo) is to provide students with the opportunity to gain exposure to, and experience in, fine arts. The Fine Arts Evaluation…

  19. Arts Inspire Community Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dan W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Southeastern Community College's efforts to focus on the arts, which included a campus visit by the artist Kenneth Larson and events centered on his Heroic Individual prints; a performing arts series supported by local corporations; an Associate in Fine Arts degree; regular art exhibits; and an artist-in-residence program. (DMM)

  20. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  1. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  2. Art Mini-Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Charlotte

    1976-01-01

    The idea of an open art studio or art mini-course to serve a need above and beyond the regularly scheduled art classes is important and necessary to a school program that is designed to meet the needs of the general intellectual and cultural growth of the child. Describes the art mini-course introduced at the Willow Ridge School in Tonawanda, New…

  3. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  4. Women, Art, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Georgia; Sandell, Renee

    Sex equity issues and efforts in art and art education are examined in five major focus areas: (1) "Matters of Conscious and Consciousness" deals with problematic relationships between women, art and education. (2) "Matters of Protest and Progress" explores the sex equity progress made in art and education. (3) "Matters of Herstory and Heritage"…

  5. Spotlight on Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    In this annual edition selected cultural arts organizations from across the state are featured, with a specific focus on how these organizations have aided local school systems as they implemented the arts education component of North Carolina's Basic Education Program. The following arts organizations are featured: Winston-Salem Arts Council;…

  6. Art, Reading . . . and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenberg, Irving

    1979-01-01

    Interdisciplinary programs which use art to improve or enhance another subject are being developed, perhaps in an attempt to save art education in an era of budget constraints. It is suggested that this trend must not be allowed to destroy the magic of art for art's sake. (KC)

  7. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  8. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  9. Spotlight on Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    In this annual edition selected cultural arts organizations from across the state are featured, with a specific focus on how these organizations have aided local school systems as they implemented the arts education component of North Carolina's Basic Education Program. The following arts organizations are featured: Winston-Salem Arts Council;…

  10. Art and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century's interest in "art for art's sake," many thinkers have argued that art would supplant traditional religion as the spiritual locus of the increasingly secular society of Western modernity. If art can capture the sort of spirituality, idealism, and expressive community of traditional religions but without being ensnared…

  11. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The findings summarized in this report are intended to shed light on what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, why it is necessary and important to cultivate this demand, and what state arts agencies (SAAs) and other arts and education policymakers can do to help. The research considered only the benchmark arts central to public policy:…

  12. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  13. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  14. The Language of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes activities of kindergarten through grade-four students in an art classroom that emphasizes expression of creative process along with the product. Explores interconnections between art, thinking, and writing as expressed by a former language arts teacher who transfers her knowledge of language, words, and creative expression to art. (BAC)

  15. K-12 Art Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furney, Trudy; And Others

    The development of students in various art fields is the focus of this K-12 art curriculum guide. The philosophy of the art program and the roles of administrator, teacher, and parent are outlined. The underlying school community relationships, and the objective, goals, and purposes of art education are described. Phases of child development in…

  16. Implementation of the ART approach in South Africa: an activity report.

    PubMed

    Mickenautsch, S; Rudolph, M J

    2001-07-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach has been adopted in public dental services in South Africa as an appropriate and economical means to provide basic restorative care in communities where it was not possible before. The approach also offers a less-traumatic treatment concept for fearful patients and children in the private dental practice. In 2000, the Division of Community Dentistry, University of the Witwatersrand, implemented a training, research and service programme in the ART approach. The aim of these activities was the promotion of ART at various levels within the oral health care system in the Republic of South Africa. The objectives of the programme were to initiate and provide training of oral health workers in ART, to evaluate the outcome of training and service programmes and to disseminate results. This paper describes the Division's ART activities in 2000, regarding public, private and refugee health services.

  17. What Is Art Good For? The Socio-Epistemic Value of Art.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Aleksandra; Morrissey, Clair

    2017-01-01

    Scientists, humanists, and art lovers alike value art not just for its beauty, but also for its social and epistemic importance; that is, for its communicative nature, its capacity to increase one's self-knowledge and encourage personal growth, and its ability to challenge our schemas and preconceptions. However, empirical research tends to discount the importance of such social and epistemic outcomes of art engagement, instead focusing on individuals' preferences, judgments of beauty, pleasure, or other emotional appraisals as the primary outcomes of art appreciation. Here, we argue that a systematic neuroscientific study of art appreciation must move beyond understanding aesthetics alone, and toward investigating the social importance of art appreciation. We make our argument for such a shift in focus first, by situating art appreciation as an active social practice. We follow by reviewing the available psychological and cognitive neuroscientific evidence that art appreciation cultivates socio-epistemic skills such as self- and other-understanding, and discuss philosophical frameworks which suggest a more comprehensive empirical investigation. Finally, we argue that focusing on the socio-epistemic values of art engagement highlights the important role art plays in our lives. Empirical research on art appreciation can thus be used to show that engagement with art has specific social and personal value, the cultivation of which is important to us as individuals, and as communities.

  18. What Is Art Good For? The Socio-Epistemic Value of Art

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Aleksandra; Morrissey, Clair

    2017-01-01

    Scientists, humanists, and art lovers alike value art not just for its beauty, but also for its social and epistemic importance; that is, for its communicative nature, its capacity to increase one's self-knowledge and encourage personal growth, and its ability to challenge our schemas and preconceptions. However, empirical research tends to discount the importance of such social and epistemic outcomes of art engagement, instead focusing on individuals' preferences, judgments of beauty, pleasure, or other emotional appraisals as the primary outcomes of art appreciation. Here, we argue that a systematic neuroscientific study of art appreciation must move beyond understanding aesthetics alone, and toward investigating the social importance of art appreciation. We make our argument for such a shift in focus first, by situating art appreciation as an active social practice. We follow by reviewing the available psychological and cognitive neuroscientific evidence that art appreciation cultivates socio-epistemic skills such as self- and other-understanding, and discuss philosophical frameworks which suggest a more comprehensive empirical investigation. Finally, we argue that focusing on the socio-epistemic values of art engagement highlights the important role art plays in our lives. Empirical research on art appreciation can thus be used to show that engagement with art has specific social and personal value, the cultivation of which is important to us as individuals, and as communities. PMID:28894418

  19. Role of ART in Imprinting Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Ali; Layman, Lawrence C.

    2013-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) offer revolutionary infertility treatments for millions of childless couples around the world. Currently, ART accounts for 1 to 3% of annual births in industrialized countries and continues to expand rapidly. Except for an increased incidence of premature births, these technologies are considered safe. However, new evidence published during the past decade has suggested an increased incidence of imprinting disorders in children conceived by ART. Specifically, an increased risk was reported for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Angelman syndrome (AS), Silver-Russell syndrome, and retinoblastoma. In contrast, some studies have found no association between ART and BWS, AS, Prader-Willi syndrome, transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, and retinoblastoma. The variability in ART protocols and the rarity of imprinting disorders complicate determining the causative relationship between ART and an increased incidence of imprinting disorders. Nevertheless, compelling experimental data from animal studies also suggest a link between increased imprinting disorders and ART. Further comprehensive, appropriately powered studies are needed to better address the magnitude of the risk for ART-associated imprinting disorders. Large longitudinal studies are particularly critical to evaluate long-term effects of ART not only during the perinatal period but also into adulthood. An important consideration is to determine if the implicated association between ART and imprinting disorders is actually related to the procedures or to infertility itself. PMID:22549709

  20. "Nice to Think I'm Not on My Own": Lessons from an Arts-Based Workshop in an Urban Children's Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Dave; Davies, Helen; Harris, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of an arts-based programme designed to encourage parental participation in an urban Children's Centre. The programme was aimed to explore the possible beneficial effects of arts-based activity as a means of engaging "hard to reach" parents more fully in the services of the centre. Practical workshops…

  1. Holography: science and art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Pierre M.

    1998-09-01

    Art and science are separated by a very large distance nowadays. Long ago, e.g. in Renaissance, or even earlier, in classic Greece and Rome, or still earlier in Egypt or Mesopotamia, arts and sciences were united. Today they seem to go separate paths: science for the industry, arts for the gallery. Holography is an exception: no art without science, but also no science without art.

  2. The Lidcombe Programme of early stuttering intervention: methods and issues.

    PubMed

    Onslow, M; O'Brian, S; Harrison, E

    1997-01-01

    The Lidcombe Programme is an operant intervention for early stuttering that parents administer to children in their everyday speaking environments. The treatment was developed at the Suttering Unit, Bankstown Health Service, Sydney, and The University of Sydney. Recently, staff from the Australian Stuttering Research Centre. The University of Sydney, toured universities and clinics in the UK to present lectures about this treatment. We were encouraged to write this paper because an independent survey showed that most speech and language therapists who attended the presentations were open to this treatment. Prior to and following that lecture tour, publications in the press and professional journals in the UK alluded to many positive features of the Lidcombe Programme, but also raised several issues about it. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the Lidcombe Programme and address the following criticisms of the treatment that were raised in the UK: (1) Stuttering is complex but the Lidcombe Programme is simple; (2) the Lidcombe Programme is not an operant treatment, but invokes positive changes in children's environments; (3) the Lidcombe Programme is harmful to children; and (4) the scientific evidence in support of the Lidcombe Programme is flawed. Each of these issues is addressed from logical, theoretical and empirical viewpoints.

  3. NHS Lanarkshire's leadership development programme's impact on clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Angela M; Dodd, Frances

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of a clinical leadership programme on senior clinicians within National Health Service Lanarkshire, in terms of key constituents for fostering leadership development, specific skills developed and impact this has had on clinical practice. A qualitative research design was employed over several stages, involving 44 senior clinical managers, with member validation substantiating findings and thematic analysis used to analyse data collected. The programme's impact was evident in acknowledged change to participants' attitude, behaviour and performance with examples conveyed to demonstrate both the effect on clinical practice and perceived organisational benefits gained. The use of role play, scenario planning and enquiry-based learning approaches were deemed critical in achieving such change. Time constraints merited two different cohorts being examined simultaneously during the various stages of the programme. A longitudinal study is underway encompassing the evaluations of several cohorts through various stages of the programme to enable time-based comparisons to be made and enhance the rigour and scrutiny of the programme's impact on clinical practice. The paper is foremost in determining structure and processes employed on the programme, specific leadership skills developed, subsequent effect on clinical practice and perceived organisational benefits gained but not necessarily contemplated by staff prior to embarking on the programme, such as the emergence of communities of practice.

  4. [The ethical aspects of population screening programme of rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Pàmpols Ros, Teresa; Terracini, Benedetto; de Abajo Iglesias, Francisco J; Feito Grande, Lydia; Martín-Arribas, M Concepción; Fernández Soria, José María; Redondo Martín Del Olmo, Tomás; Campos Castelló, Jaime; Herrera Carranza, Joaquín; Júdez Gutiérrez, Javier; Abascal Alonso, Moisés; Morales Piga, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The Committee on Ethics of the Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (CEIIER) of the Spanish National Institute of Health Carlos III, presents this article dealing with ethical guidelines regarding the implementation of screening population programmes with special emphasis on genetic screening. After a critical review it has been addressed 24 recommendations concerning 14 topics: evaluation of the opportunity of the programme, including ethical analysis besides scientific evidences and cost/benefits issues; the need to differentiate between research and public health intervention and to built a specific and comprehensive programme; the creation of an interdisciplinary working group which control its implementation and prepare a protocol including justification, development, therapeutic or preventive actions and follow-up activities; the review of the programme by an independent Ethical committee; the guarantee of the voluntary, universal and equitable population access, which requires sufficient information on the programme and their specific relevant facts, as incidental detection of heterozygous state in minors in newborn screening and the relevance of non directive genetic counselling specially in prenatal screening offered to pregnant women; considerations regarding future uses of samples for research purposes; total quality and periodic programme evaluation; guarantee of personal data confidentiality and the conflict of interest statement of the members of all the Committees involved in the programme.

  5. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  6. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  7. GCS programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward; Shagnea, Anita M.; Dent, Leslie A.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of instructions to be used in the development of implementations of software for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is described. This document fulfills the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification' requirements for document No. 4, which specifies the information necessary for understanding and programming the host computer, and document No. 12, which specifies the software design and implementation standards that are applicable to the software development and testing process. Information on the following subjects is contained: activity recording, communication protocol, coding standards, change management, error handling, design standards, problem reporting, module testing logs, documentation formats, accuracy requirements, and programmer responsibilities.

  8. Programmable multimode quantum networks

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Seiji; Morizur, Jean-François; Janousek, Jiri; Hage, Boris; Treps, Nicolas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-A.

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement between large numbers of quantum modes is the quintessential resource for future technologies such as the quantum internet. Conventionally, the generation of multimode entanglement in optics requires complex layouts of beamsplitters and phase shifters in order to transform the input modes into entangled modes. Here we report the highly versatile and efficient generation of various multimode entangled states with the ability to switch between different linear optics networks in real time. By defining our modes to be combinations of different spatial regions of one beam, we may use just one pair of multi-pixel detectors in order to measure multiple entangled modes. We programme virtual networks that are fully equivalent to the physical linear optics networks they are emulating. We present results for N=2 up to N=8 entangled modes here, including N=2, 3, 4 cluster states. Our approach introduces the highly sought after attributes of flexibility and scalability to multimode entanglement. PMID:22929783

  9. Arts on prescription: a qualitative outcomes study.

    PubMed

    Stickley, T; Eades, M

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, participatory community-based arts activities have become a recognized and regarded method for promoting mental health. In the UK, Arts on Prescription services have emerged as a prominent form of such social prescribing. This follow-up study reports on the findings from interviews conducted with participants in an Arts on Prescription programme two years after previous interviews to assess levels of 'distance travelled'. This follow-up study used a qualitative interview method amongst participants of an Arts on Prescription programme of work. Ten qualitative one-to-one interviews were conducted in community-based arts venues. Each participant was currently using or had used mental health services, and had been interviewed two years earlier. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed. For each of the 10 participants, a lengthy attendance of Arts on Prescription had acted as a catalyst for positive change. Participants reported increased self-confidence, improved social and communication skills, and increased motivation and aspiration. An analysis of each of the claims made by participants enabled them to be grouped according to emerging themes: education: practical and aspirational achievements; broadened horizons: accessing new worlds; assuming and sustaining new identities; and social and relational perceptions. Both hard and soft outcomes were identifiable, but most were soft outcomes. Follow-up data indicating progress varied between respondents. Whilst hard outcomes could be identified in individual cases, the unifying factors across the sample were found predominately in the realm of soft outcomes. These soft outcomes, such as raised confidence and self-esteem, facilitated the hard outcomes such as educational achievement and voluntary work. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interventions for the prevention of OHSS in ART cycles: an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Selma; Brown, Julie; Farquhar, Cindy

    2017-01-23

    one additional review as 'promising'. Of the effective interventions, all except one had no detrimental effect on pregnancy outcomes. Evidence of at least moderate quality indicates that clinicians should consider the following interventions in ART cycles to reduce OHSS rates.• Metformin treatment before and during an ART cycle for women with PCOS (moderate-quality evidence).• Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol in ART cycles (moderate-quality evidence).• GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in donor oocyte or 'freeze-all' programmes (moderate-quality evidence). Evidence of low or very low quality suggests that clinicians should consider the following interventions in ART cycles to reduce OHSS rates.• Clomiphene citrate for controlled ovarian stimulation in ART cycles (low-quality evidence).• Cabergoline around the time of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration or oocyte pickup in ART cycles (low-quality evidence).• Intravenous fluids (plasma expanders) around the time of hCG administration or oocyte pickup in ART cycles (very low-quality evidence).• Progesterone for luteal phase support in ART cycles (low-quality evidence).• Coasting (withholding gonadotrophins) - a promising intervention that needs to be researched further for reduction of OHSS.On the basis of this overview, we must conclude that evidence is currently insufficient to support the widespread practice of embryo cryopreservation. Currently, 27 reviews in the Cochrane Library were conducted to report on or to try to report on OHSS in ART cycles. We identified four review protocols but no new registered titles that can potentially be included in this overview in the future. This overview provides the most up-to-date evidence on prevention of OHSS in ART cycles from all currently published Cochrane reviews on ART. Clinicians can use the evidence summarised in this overview to choose the best treatment regimen for individual patients - a regimen that not only

  11. Creating capacity through partnership: a palliative care skills development programme.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, Kay; Brennan, Ebony; Cole, Teresa

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the development and implementation of a recurrently funded, rolling, 6-month palliative care secondment programme for NHS community staff nurses based in a rural health economy in Southwest England. The programme is a key tool in a wider development plan for improving access to, and the quality of, palliative and end-of-life care for a dispersed rural population. This is part of a much bigger programme of integration to meet the shared challenges of service capacity, equity, and sustainability that are presented by the geographical and demographical profile of the locality. The 'bigger picture' is defined and set in the context of the national drive and evidence base for integration in order to explain the reasons behind the secondment programme. This is followed by outlining the iterative process of design and implementation--the 'what?' and 'how?'--and key learning points to date are shared.

  12. Colorectal cancer screening in an expanding panorama of screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Geir

    2010-08-01

    Cervical and breast cancer screening programmes have been introduced in times when both the professional requirements for evidence based medicine and public demand for quantification of benefits may have been less explicit. The World Health Organisation has recommended cancer screening only for cervix, breast and colorectal cancer (CRC) - the latter leaving health authorities with a choice between a multitude of screening methods of which the efficacy has been proven only for fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). Although we are far from seeing the perfect screening method and screening programme, cost effectiveness for CRC screening has been estimated at least as cost-effective as established programmes for cervix and breast cancer screening. Established and imminent screening programmes should be considered as natural platforms for randomised trial with commitment and responsibility to continuously improve the quality and effectiveness of the screening service provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  14. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  15. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  16. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  17. Art Education in a Climate of Reform: The Need for Measurable Goals in Art Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Charles; Orr; Penelope

    2008-01-01

    Agreeing on what the major goals of art education should be is particularly important in an era of national school reform and accountability. The need to be accountable and to provide data that supports that accountability is evident, although not always provided. Without clear and measurable goals, art education cannot be made accountable in…

  18. Art Education in a Climate of Reform: The Need for Measurable Goals in Art Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Charles; Orr; Penelope

    2008-01-01

    Agreeing on what the major goals of art education should be is particularly important in an era of national school reform and accountability. The need to be accountable and to provide data that supports that accountability is evident, although not always provided. Without clear and measurable goals, art education cannot be made accountable in…

  19. Prioritising prevention strategies for patients in antiretroviral treatment programmes in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Spaar, A; Graber, C; Dabis, F; Coutsoudis, A; Bachmann, L; McIntyre, J; Schechter, M; Prozesky, H W; Tuboi, S; Dickinson, D; Kumarasamy, N; Pujdades-Rodriquez, M; Sprinz, E; Schilthuis, H J; Cahn, P; Low, N; Egger, M

    2010-06-01

    Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) offers opportunities to strengthen HIV prevention in resource-limited settings. We invited 27 ART programmes from urban settings in Africa, Asia and South America to participate in a survey, with the aim to examine what preventive services had been integrated in ART programmes. Twenty-two programmes participated; eight (36%) from South Africa, two from Brazil, two from Zambia and one each from Argentina, India, Thailand, Botswana, Ivory Coast, Malawi, Morocco, Uganda and Zimbabwe and one occupational programme of a brewery company included five countries (Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Burundi). Twenty-one sites (96%) provided health education and social support, and 18 (82%) provided HIV testing and counselling. All sites encouraged disclosure of HIV infection to spouses and partners, but only 11 (50%) had a protocol for partner notification. Twenty-one sites (96%) supplied male condoms, seven (32%) female condoms and 20 (91%) provided prophylactic ART for the prevention of mother-to child transmission. Seven sites (33%) regularly screened for sexually transmitted infections (STI). Twelve sites (55%) were involved in activities aimed at women or adolescents, and 10 sites (46%) in activities aimed at serodiscordant couples. Stigma and discrimination, gender roles and funding constraints were perceived as the main obstacles to effective prevention in ART programmes. We conclude that preventive services in ART programmes in lower income countries focus on health education and the provision of social support and male condoms. Strategies that might be equally or more important in this setting, including partner notification, prompt diagnosis and treatment of STI and reduction of stigma in the community, have not been implemented widely.

  20. Evidence of increasing L1014F kdr mutation frequency in Anopheles gambiae s.l. pyrethroid resistant following a nationwide distribution of LLINs by the Beninese National Malaria Control Programme

    PubMed Central

    Aïzoun, Nazaire; Aïkpon, Rock; Akogbéto, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the susceptibility status to pyrethroid in Anopheles gambiae s.l. (An. gambiae), the distribution of kdr “Leu-Phe” mutation in malaria vectors in Benin and to compare the current frequency of kdr “Leu-Phe” mutation to the previous frequency after long-lasting insecticide treated nets implementation. Methods Larvae and pupae of An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected from the breeding sites in Littoral, Zou, Borgou and Alibori provinces. CDC susceptibility tests were conducted on unfed females mosquitoes aged 2-5 d old. An. gambiae mosquitoes were identified to species using PCR techniques. Molecular assays were also carried out to identify kdr mutations in individual mosquitoes. Results The results showed that An. gambiae Malanville and Suru-lere populations were resistant to deltamethrin. Regarding An. gambiae Parakou and Bohicon populations, they were resistant to permethrin. PCR revealed 100% of mosquitoes tested were An. gambiae s.s. The L1014F kdr mutation was found in An. gambiae s.s. Malanville and Parakou at various allelic frequencies. The increase of kdr allelic frequency was positively correlated with CDC bioassays data. Conclusions : Pyrethroid resistance is widespread in malaria vector in Benin and kdr mutation is the main resistance mechanism involved. More attention may be paid for the future success of malaria control programmes based on LLINs with pyrethroids in the country. PMID:25182444

  1. Technology transfer trends in Indian space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Shoba, T. S.

    2010-10-01

    Indian space programme, whose objectives involve acceleration of economic and social development through applications of space technology, has been engaged in the development of state-of-the-art satellite systems, launch vehicles and equipment necessary for applications. Even during the early phase of evolution of this Programme, deliberate policies have been adopted by the national space agency, namely, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), to promote spin-off benefit from the technologies developed for the use of space projects. Consistently adhering to this policy, ISRO has transferred over 280 technologies till date, spanning a wide spectrum of disciplines. This has resulted in a fruitful two-way cooperation between a number of SMEs and the ISRO. In order to make the technology transfer process effective, ISRO has adopted a variety of functional and organizational policies that included awareness building measures, licensee selection methods, innovative contract systems, diverse transfer processes, post licencing services and feedback mechanisms. Besides analyzing these policies and their evolution, the paper discusses various models adopted for technology transfer and their impact on assessment. It also touches upon relevant issues relating to creating interface between public funded R&D and the private commercial enterprises. It suggests few models in which international cooperation could be pursued in this field.

  2. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme.

  3. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-12-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme.

  4. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  5. Antiretroviral treatment outcomes from a nurse-driven, community-supported HIV/AIDS treatment programme in rural Lesotho: observational cohort assessment at two years

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lesotho has the third highest HIV prevalence in the world (an adult prevalence of 23.2%). Despite a lack of resources for health, the country has implemented state-of-the-art antiretroviral treatment guidelines, including early initiation of treatment (<350 cells/mm3), tenofovir in first line, and nurse-initiated and managed HIV care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), at primary health care level. Programme approach We describe two-year outcomes of a decentralized HIV/AIDS care programme run by Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Christian Health Association of Lesotho in Scott catchment area, a rural health zone covering 14 clinics and one district hospital. Outcome data are described through a retrospective cohort analysis of adults and children initiated on ART between 2006 and 2008. Discussion and Evaluation Overall, 13,243 people have been enrolled in HIV care (5% children), and 5376 initiated on ART (6.5% children), 80% at primary care level. Between 2006 and 2008, annual enrolment more than doubled for adults and children, with no major external increase in human resources. The proportion of adults arriving sick (CD4 <50 cells/mm3) decreased from 22.2% in 2006 to 11.9% in 2008. Twelve-month outcomes are satisfactory in terms of mortality (11% for adults; 9% for children) and loss to follow up (8.8%). At 12 months, 80% of adults and 89% of children were alive and in care, meaning they were still taking their treatment; at 24 months, 77% of adults remained in care. Conclusion Despite major resource constraints, Lesotho is comparing favourably with its better resourced neighbour, using the latest international ART recommendations. The successful two-year outcomes are further evidence that HIV/AIDS care and treatment can be provided effectively at the primary care level. The programme highlights how improving HIV care strengthened the primary health care system, and validates

  6. Evaluation of the national roll-out of parenting programmes across England: the parenting early intervention programme (PEIP)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence based parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and the behaviour of children exhibiting, or at risk of developing, antisocial behaviour. In order to develop a public policy for delivering these programmes it is necessary not only to demonstrate their efficacy through rigorous trials but also to determine that they can be rolled out on a large scale. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the UK government funded national implementation of its Parenting Early Intervention Programme, a national roll-out of parenting programmes for parents of children 8–13 years in all 152 local authorities (LAs) across England. Building upon our study of the Pathfinder (2006–08) implemented in 18 LAs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first comparative study of a national roll-out of parenting programmes and the first study of parents of children 8–13 years. Methods The UK government funded English LAs to implement one or more of five evidence based programmes (later increased to eight): Triple P, Incredible Years, Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities, Families and Schools Together (FAST), and the Strengthening Families Programme (10–14). Parents completed measures of parenting style (laxness and over-reactivity), and mental well-being, and also child behaviour at three time points: pre- and post-course and again one year later. Results 6143 parents from 43 LAs were included in the study of whom 3325 provided post-test data and 1035 parents provided data at one-year follow up. There were significant improvements for each programme, with effect sizes (Cohen’s d) for the combined sample of 0.72 parenting laxness, 0.85 parenting over-reactivity, 0.79 parent mental well-being, and 0.45 for child conduct problems. These improvements were largely maintained one year later. All four programmes for which we had sufficient data for comparison were effective. There were generally larger effects on both parent and child measures

  7. Designing a "Creativity and Assessment Scale" for Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Samuel; Qiu, Xue-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Having accurate insights of teachers' conceptions of creativity and the role of assessment in arts education would inform education policy, training programmes and the measurement of learning outcomes. Yet no study has been found to examine the relationship between teachers' conceptions of creativity and their conceptions of assessment in arts…

  8. The Role of Educational Drama in Korea's Integrated Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyejoo

    2017-01-01

    During the second half of 2014 in Seoul, South Korea, the author participated in the "Integrated Culture & Arts Education Workshop," which was held for local teachers and theatre practitioners. During the workshop, a group of participants designed a programme based on theatre conventions and dealing with social issues for youth.…

  9. The UK National Arts Education Archive: Ideas and Imaginings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff; Bailey, Rowan; Walton, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The National Arts Education Archive (NAEA) is housed and maintained by the Yorkshire Sculpture Park (YSP), and managed by YSP coordinators and educators with a well-established volunteer programme. This year, 2017, as part of the celebrations of the YSP's 40th anniversary, the Archive will hold its own exhibition entitled "Treasures…

  10. Auditing emergency management programmes: Measuring leading indicators of programme performance.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Heather

    Emergency Management Programmes benefit from review and measurement against established criteria. By measuring current vs required programme elements for their actual currency, completeness and effectiveness, the resulting timely reports of achievements and documentation of identified gaps can effectively be used to rationally support prioritised improvement. Audits, with their detailed, triangulated and objectively weighted processes, are the ultimate approach in terms of programme content measurement. Although Emergency Management is often presented as a wholly separate operational mechanism, distinct and functionally different from the organisation's usual management structure, this characterisation is only completely accurate while managing an emergency itself. Otherwise, an organisation's Emergency Management Programme is embedded within that organisation and dependent upon it. Therefore, the organisation's culture and structure of management, accountability and measurement must be engaged for the programme to exist, much less improve. A wise and successful Emergency Management Coordinator does not let the separate and distinct nature of managing an emergency obscure their realisation of the need for an organisation to understand and manage all of the other programme components as part of its regular business practices. This includes its measurement. Not all organisations are sufficiently large or capable of supporting the use of an audit. This paper proposes that alternate, less formal, yet effective mechanisms can be explored, as long as they reflect and support organisational management norms, including a process of relatively informal measurement focused on the organisation's own perception of key Emergency Management Programme performance indicators.

  11. Self-management education programmes for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Féline P B; van der Burg, Lennart R A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H; Johnston, Renea V; Pitt, Veronica

    2014-01-15

    Self-management education programmes are complex interventions specifically targeted at patient education and behaviour modification. They are designed to encourage people with chronic disease to take an active self-management role to supplement medical care and improve outcomes. To assess the effectiveness of self-management education programmes for people with osteoarthritis. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PyscINFO, SCOPUS and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform were searched, without language restriction, on 17 January 2013. We checked references of reviews and included trials to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials of self-management education programmes in people with osteoarthritis were included. Studies with participants receiving passive recipients of care and studies comparing one type of programme versus another were excluded. In addition to standard methods we extracted components of the self-management interventions using the eight domains of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ), and contextual and participant characteristics using PROGRESS-Plus and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Outcomes included self-management of osteoarthritis, participant's positive and active engagement in life, pain, global symptom score, self-reported function, quality of life and withdrawals (including dropouts and those lost to follow-up). We assessed the quality of the body of evidence for these outcomes using the GRADE approach. We included twenty-nine studies (6,753 participants) that compared self-management education programmes to attention control (five studies), usual care (17 studies), information alone (four studies) or another intervention (seven studies). Although heterogeneous, most interventions included elements of skill and technique acquisition (94%), health-directed activity (85%) and self-monitoring and insight (79

  12. Evidence and AIDS activism: HIV scale-up and the contemporary politics of knowledge in global public health

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is widely recognised as having prompted one of the most remarkable intersections ever of illness, science and activism. The production, circulation, use and evaluation of empirical scientific ‘evidence’ played a central part in activists’ engagement with AIDS science. Previous activist engagement with evidence focused on the social and biomedical responses to HIV in the global North as well as challenges around ensuring antiretroviral treatment (ART) was available in the global South. More recently, however, with the roll-out and scale-up of large public-sector ART programmes and new multi-dimensional prevention efforts, the relationships between evidence and activism have been changing. Scale-up of these large-scale treatment and prevention programmes represents an exciting new opportunity while bringing with it a host of new challenges. This paper examines what new forms of evidence and activism will be required to address the challenges of the scaling-up era of HIV treatment and prevention. It reviews some recent controversies around evidence and HIV scale-up and describes the different forms of evidence and activist strategies that will be necessary for a robust response to these new challenges. PMID:24498918

  13. Focus on Fine Arts: Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Don L.

    Basic arts education must give students the essence of their civilization, the civilizations that contributed to it, and the more distant civilizations that enriched world civilizations as a whole. All students are potentially capable of experiencing and analyzing the fundamental qualitativeness of art; therefore, it is realistic to propose…

  14. CyberArts: Exploring Art and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda, Ed.

    This book takes the position that CyberArts(TM) is the new frontier in creativity, where the worlds of science and art meet. Computer technologies, visual design, music and sound, education and entertainment merge to form the new artistic territory of interactive multimedia. This diverse collection of essays, articles, and commentaries…

  15. Neolithic Art and the Art History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Muriel

    1991-01-01

    Addresses issues that might be raised in the study of art history from a critical theory perspective. Suggests that, in view of contemporary environmental and social concerns, Neolithic art would be of particular interest to students as would the possibility of having a society in which neither sex was dominant. (KM)

  16. Land Art in Preschools. An Art Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    The basis for my article is how, and if, a collaborative land art project can provide opportunities for such co-creating as suggested in the national framework plan for preschools, which explicitly states the child as a co-creator of a shared expressive culture. I further wish to propose land art as a meaningful cultural practice, closely…

  17. Inspired Spirals. Teaching Art with Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses spirals in nature, man-made objects, and art. Focuses on art that incorporates the spiral, including works by M. C. Escher and Frank Lloyd Wright, an African headdress, and a burial urn. Describes activities to help students make spirals of their own, such as constructing a coil clay pot. (CMK)

  18. ArtStreet: Joining Community Through Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm-Bottos, Janis

    1995-01-01

    ArtStreet is a group of artists, art therapists, and interested community members who collaborate to create an atmosphere in which homeless artists can create and sell their works. Artists from the community share their expertise in various media, and the project is funded by various local and national foundations. (JPS)

  19. Inspired Spirals. Teaching Art with Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses spirals in nature, man-made objects, and art. Focuses on art that incorporates the spiral, including works by M. C. Escher and Frank Lloyd Wright, an African headdress, and a burial urn. Describes activities to help students make spirals of their own, such as constructing a coil clay pot. (CMK)

  20. [Blood in art, art in blood].

    PubMed

    Danic, B; Lefrère, J-J

    2010-12-01

    In the different forms of art developed by Humanity over the centuries, artists have at times chosen themes from the world of medicine or health, such as blood donation or transfusion. In order to illustrate this, we have looked at three artistic domains: painting, movies and body art. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.