Küpper Cardoso Perseguini, Juliana Morini; Chioratto, Alisson Fernando; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Moraes; Costa Mondego, Jorge Mauricio; Gazaffi, Rodrigo; Franco Garcia, Antonio Augusto; de Campos, Tatiana; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Rubiano, Luciana Benchimol
A wide array of molecular markers has been used to investigate the genetic diversity among common bean species. However, the best combination of markers for studying such diversity among common bean cultivars has yet to be determined. Few reports have examined the genetic diversity of the carioca bean, commercially one of the most important common beans in Brazil. In this study, we examined the usefulness of two molecular marker systems (simple sequence repeats – SSRs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms – AFLPs) for assessing the genetic diversity of carioca beans. The amount of information provided by Roger’s modified genetic distance was used to analyze SSR data and Jaccards similarity coefficient was used for AFLP data. Seventy SSRs were polymorphic and 20 AFLP primer combinations produced 635 polymorphic bands. Molecular analysis showed that carioca genotypes were quite diverse. AFLPs revealed greater genetic differentiation and variation within the carioca genotypes (Gst = 98% and Fst = 0.83, respectively) than SSRs and provided better resolution for clustering the carioca genotypes. SSRs and AFLPs were both suitable for assessing the genetic diversity of Brazilian carioca genotypes since the number of markers used in each system provided a low coefficient of variation. However, fingerprint profiles were generated faster with AFLPs, making them a better choice for assessing genetic diversity in the carioca germplasm. PMID:21637550
Extruded products were prepared from a corn flour and dehulled carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) flour blend using a single-screw extruder. A central composite rotate design was used to evaluate the effects of extrusion process variables: screw speed (318.9-392.9 rpm), feed moisture (10.9-21.0 g...
de Castro Gomes, Vitor; Landeira-Fernandez, J
Rats selectively bred for high or low levels of emotionality represent an important and powerful tool to investigate the role of genetic variables in the occurrence of different anxiety disorders. In the present study, albino rats were selectively bred for differences in defensive freezing behavior in response to contextual cues previously associated with footshock, an animal model of general anxiety disorder. The results indicate that these two new lines of rats, which we refer to as Carioca High-Freezing (CHF) and Carioca Low-Freezing (CLF), show a reliable difference in conditioned freezing after three generations of selection. CHF and CLF rats did not present any differences during baseline or post-shock periods. Males from both lines consistently exhibit more conditioned freezing to contextual cues than females. A second experiment used male rats from the fourth generation to investigate the participation of the amygdala during contextual fear conditioning in the CHF and CLF lines. The results indicate that post-training amygdaloid electrolytic lesions lead to similar disruptions in conditioned freezing behavior in both animal lines.
Mousovich-Neto, F; Lourenço, A L; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Corrêa da Costa, V M
The aim of this study was to characterize Carioca High-conditioned Freezing rats (CHF) regarding their endocrine and metabolic backgrounds. We found an increase in serum corticosterone (CTRL: 96.7 ± 21.65 vs CHF: 292.0 ± 4 0.71 ng/ml) and leptin (CTRL: 9.5 ± 1.51 vs CHF: 19.2 ± 4.32 ng/ml). Serum testosterone (CTRL: 3.3 ± 0.29 vs CHF: 2.0 ± 0.28 ng/ml) and T3 (CTRL: 52.4 ± 2.74 vs CHF: 42.7 ± 2.94 ng/dl) were decreased in the CHF group, but serum TSH and T4 were unaffected. Body weight and food intake were unchanged, nevertheless retroperitoneal fat (CTRL: 2.2 ± 0.24 vs CHF: 4.8 ± 0.64 g) and epididymal fat (CTRL: 2.6 ± 0.20 vs CHF: 4.8 ± 0.37 g) depot weights were around 2-fold higher in CHF animals. BAT weight was similar in both groups. Serum triglycerides (CTRL: 41.4 ± 6.03 vs CHF: 83.2 ± 17.09 mg/dl) and total cholesterol (CTRL: 181.6 ± 5.61 vs CHF: 226.4 ± 13.04 mg/dl) were higher in the CHF group. Fasting glycemia (CTRL: 68.7 ± 3.04 vs CHF: 82.3 ± 2.99 mg/dl) was also higher in the CHF group, however glucose tolerance test response and serum insulin levels were similar between the groups. Oxygen consumption (CTRL: 10.5 ± 0.40 vs CHF: 7.9 ± 0.58 VO2ml/min/kg(0.75)) and BAT D2 activity (CTRL: 0.7 ± 0.17 vs CHF: 0.3 ± 0.04 fmolT4/min/mg ptn) were lower in the CHF group. Our data show that anxiety could impair endocrine and metabolic functions and may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases.
Hassan, Waseem; Gomes, Vitor de Castro; Pinton, Simone; Batista Teixeira da Rocha, Joao; Landeira-Fernandez, J
We recently reported two novel breeding lines of rats known as Carioca high-and low-conditioned freezing (CHF and CLF), based on defensive freezing responses to contextual cues previously associated with electric footshock. The anxiety-like profile of these animals from the 7th generation was tested in the elevated plus maze. The results indicated that CHF animals presented a significantly more "anxious" phenotype compared with CLF animals. Animals from the 12th generation were used to evaluate the oxidative stress status of the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) were evaluated using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA; a sensor of reactive oxygen species [ROS]), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an early marker of lipid peroxidation, were assessed. The results indicated that free radical concentrations and MDA levels were significantly higher in all three brain structures in CHF rats compared with CLF rats. Our data also showed that the hippocampus had the highest reactive species and MDA concentrations compared with the cortex and cerebellum in CHF rats. Animals from the 16th generation were used to evaluate the antioxidant enzyme activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) within these three brain structures. The results indicated that CAT activity was lower in the cortex and hippocampus in CHF rats compared with CLF rats. No significant difference was observed in the cerebellum. The enzymatic activity of GPx was significantly decreased in all three structures in CHF rats compared with CLF rats. The hippocampus exhibited the highest GPx activity compared with the other two brain structures. These findings suggest the involvement of a redox system in these two bidirectional lines, and the hippocampus might be one of the prime brain structures involved in this state of oxidative stress imbalance.
Merlivat, L.; Boutin, J.; d'Ovidio, F.
The Kerguelen Plateau region in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean supports annually a large-scale phytoplankton bloom which is naturally fertilized with iron. As part of the second Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study expedition (KEOPS2) in austral spring (October-November 2011), one CARbon Interface OCean Atmosphere (CARIOCA) buoy was deployed east of the Kerguelen Plateau. It drifted eastward downstream along the Kerguelen plume. Hourly surface measurements of pCO2, O2 and ancillary observations were collected between 1 November 2011 and 12 February 2012 with the aim of characterizing the spatial and temporal variability of the biological net community production, NCP, downstream the Kerguelen Plateau, assessing the impact of iron-induced productivity on the biological inorganic carbon consumption and consequently on the CO2 flux exchanged at the air-sea interface. The trajectory of the buoy up to mid-December was within the longitude range 72-83° E, close to the polar front and then in the polar frontal zone, PFZ, up to 97° E. From 17 November to 16 December, the buoy drifted within the Kerguelen plume following a filament carrying dissolved iron, DFe, for a total distance of 700 km. In the first part of the trajectory of the buoy, within the iron plume, the ocean surface waters were always a sink for CO2 and a source for O2, with fluxes of respective mean values equal to -8 mmol CO2 and +38 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. To the east, as the buoy escaped the iron-enriched filament, the fluxes were in the opposite direction, with respective mean values of +5 mmol CO2 and -48 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. These numbers clearly indicate the strong impact of biological processes on the biogeochemistry in the surface waters within the Kerguelen plume in November-mid-December, while it is undetectable to the east in the PFZ from mid- December to mid-February. While the buoy follows the Fe-enriched filament, simultaneous observations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and
Merlivat, L.; Boutin, J.; d'Ovidio, F.
The Kerguelen Plateau region in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean supports annually a large-scale phytoplankton bloom which is naturally fertilized with iron. As part of the second Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study expedition (KEOPS2) in austral spring (October-November 2011), one Carioca buoy was deployed east of the Kerguelen plateau. It drifted eastward downstream in the Kerguelen plume. Hourly surface measurements of pCO2, O2 and ancillary observations were collected between 1 November 2011 to 12 February 2012 with the aim of characterizing the spatial and temporal variability of the biological Net Community Production (NCP) downstream the Kerguelen plateau, assess the impact of iron-induced productivity on the biological carbon consumption and consequently on the CO2 flux exchanged at the air-sea interface. The trajectory of the buoy until mid-December was within the longitude range, 72-83° E, close to the polar front and then in the polar frontal zone, PFZ, until 97° E. From 17 November to 16 December, the buoy drifted within the Kerguelen plume following a filament carrying dissolved iron, DFe, for a total distance of 700 km. In the first part of the trajectory, the ocean surface waters are a sink for CO2 and a source for CO2, with fluxes of respective mean values equal to -8 and +38 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1. Eastward, as the buoy escapes the iron enriched filament, the fluxes are in opposite direction, with respective mean values of +5 and -48 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. These numbers clearly indicate the strong impact of biological processes on the biogeochemistry in the surface waters within the Kerguelen plume in November-mid-December, while it is undetectable eastward in the PFZ from mid-December to mid-February. While the buoy follows the Fe enriched filament, simultaneous observations of dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC, and dissolved oxygen, O2, highlight biological events lasting from 2 to 4 days. Stoichiometric ratios, O2/C, between 1.1 and 1.4 are
In this article, the author describes a gourd art project for her art club. Prior to students actually working on the gourds, the author and her art volunteer did a joint demonstration on the process students would go through to create their project. The volunteer brought in and explained her gourd art and shared information about the drying and…
Rogers, John R., Ed.
The special issue presents 13 articles dealing with art education and art therapy for special groups. Included are the following titles and authors: "Art Education for Special Groups: The Emotionally Disturbed" (E. Ulman); "You Are The Early Warning System" (C. Stember); "School Art Therapist Rationale for DPI Certification" (V. Minar); "Art…
Meilach, Dona Z.
Discusses car art and its appeal to boys and girls. Describes the popularity of customizing cars, focusing on this as a future career for students. Includes a list of project ideas that focuses on car art. (CMK)
Art English is a combination of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL)/English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) and art content. As a new instructional area, it faces several challenges: as with all English for Special Purposes (ESP), exchange of information among programs; development of a suitable combination of art content and ESL, due to lack of…
Henn, Cynthia A.
There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…
BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991
Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and…
McGinley, Connie Q.
The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…
BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991
These articles focus on art as a component of interdisciplinary integration. (1) "Integrated Curriculum and the Visual Arts" (Anna Kindler) considers various aspects of integration and implications for art education. (2) "Integration: The New Literacy" (Tim Varro) illustrates how the use of technology can facilitate…
This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…
Kovács, Emese; Simon, Lajos
The authors in this article explor the most important steps of the development of the research on the psychopathology of expression. They introduce the development of Art Brut and it's place in art history. They deal with the characteristics of art therapy.
Bullot & Reber (B&R) begin asking if the study of the mind's inner life can provide a foundation for a science of art. Clearly there are many epistemological problems involved in the study of the cognitive and affective basis of art appreciation. I argue that context is key. I also propose that as long as the "mind's life" continues to be perceived as an "inner" intracranial phenomenon, little progress can be made. Mind and art are one.
Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.
Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P
Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific
Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans
Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Glahn, Raymond P.
Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3–glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific
In this article, the author discusses how parents can be involved in a developmentally appropriate art program for very young children. "Art Playgroup," a program for children ages two to five and their parents is one suggestion. Operating under the auspices of DTA Center for Learning & Growing, a nonprofit in Ellsworth, Maine, DTA…
Castellano, Richard J.; Fleming, Mary Ann
Educational goals and objectives, student activities, and visual aids are included in this guide to a three-dimensional design unit that combines creative art and industrial arts skills. Course goals include challenging students' creative skills, encouraging student interaction and successful group work, and providing an atmosphere of fun and…
Linda Lomahaftewa, a noted painter, has taught at much bigger places than the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA). But Lomahaftewa, who is Hopi-Choctaw, and others on the faculty of IAIA are intensely devoted to the mission of this small but unique school. IAIA--the nation's only four-year fine arts institution devoted to American Indian and…
Though people may like different types of music, everyone likes music. In middle school, music and art are of key importance for students to express and define what kind of person they are. In this article, the author presents an art project where students are asked to create their own guitars. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)
Towler, Alan L.
This guide to teaching graphic arts, one in a series of instructional materials for junior high industrial arts education, is designed to assist teachers as they plan and implement new courses of study and as they make revisions and improvements in existing courses in order to integrate classroom learning with real-life experiences. This graphic…
Merlivat, L.; Boutin, J.; Antoine, D.
On a mean annual basis, the Southern Ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2. However the seasonality of the air-sea CO2 flux in this region is poorly documented. We investigate processes regulating air-sea CO2 flux in a large area of the Southern Ocean (38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E) that represents nearly one third of the subantarctic zone. A seasonal budget of CO2 partial pressure, pCO2 and of dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC in the mixed layer is assessed by quantifying the impacts of biology, physics and thermodynamical effect on seawater pCO2. A focus is made on the quantification at a monthly scale of the biological consumption as it is the dominant process removing carbon from surface waters. In situ biological carbon production rates are estimated from high frequency estimates of DIC along the trajectories of CARIOCA drifters in the Atlantic and Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during four spring-summer seasons over the 2006-2009 period. Net community production (NCP) integrated over the mixed layer is derived from the daily change of DIC, and mixed layer depth estimated from Argo profiles. Eleven values of NCP are estimated and range from 30 to 130 mmol C m- 2 d- 1. They are used as a constraint for validating satellite net primary production (NPP). A satellite data-based global model is used to compute depth integrated net primary production, NPP, for the same periods along the trajectories of the buoys. Realistic NCP/NPP ratios are obtained under the condition that the SeaWiFS chlorophyll are corrected by a factor of ≈ 2-3, which is an underestimation previously reported for the Southern Ocean. Monthly satellite based NPP are computed over the 38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E area. pCO2 derived from these NPP combined with an export ratio, and taking into account the impact of physics and thermodynamics is in good agreement with the pCO2 seasonal climatology of Takahashi (2009). On an annual timescale, mean NCP values, 4.4 to 4.9 mol C m- 2 yr- 1 are ≈ 4-5 times
In July 2004, The National Endowment for the Arts released the results of a survey entitled "Reading at Risk." The survey covered a 20-year period from 1982 to 2002 and documented a dramatic decline in the reading of literary works by all age groups during that period. The steepest decline of 28 percent was found among the youngest age group of…
Describes an art activity for use in a unit on agriculture in which third grade students create packing crate labels. Students compare examples of packing crate labels, identifying the name, image, product description, and visual elements such as color and balance. Discusses the process of creating the labels. (CMK)
Whether one views art as a cultural record, a political or religious instrument, a celebration of form and color, or an instinctual force, it is a given that sharing diverse expressions of creativity with children plants fresh understandings and pathways for their own questions and drives. It is impossible to do justice to the many outstanding…
Henderson, Anne; Wilson, Mary Ellen
Provides instructional strategies and materials designed to introduce students to Spanish art. Includes four lesson plans with student objectives, background information, and step-by-step instructional procedures. Also includes four full-page color reproductions of paintings by Murillo, Picasso, El Greco, and de Goya. (CFR)
Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.
The language arts course content guides presented in this manual cover English, oral communications, and journalism in grades 9-12 and provide a framework from which a curriculum can be built. Within each subject area and at each grade level, skills are identified at three instructional levels: basic, developmental, and extension. The basic skills…
Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris
In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…
Sterling, Vicki; And Others
Over 60 art activities, designed to enhance environmental awareness and incorporate environmental concepts, are outlined in this document. A sample of the activities presented are: decorated notepaper and cards with feathers or weeds; wall plaques of prairie plants; methods of flower preservation; water plant prints; construction of dolls,…
Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark
Discusses the use of fine arts as sources to enrich the study of history. Suggests that such works will serve as barometers of change, examples of cross-cultural influences, and political messages. Includes suggestions of works and artists from different historic periods. (DK)
In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…
Keener, Paul L.
Capitalizing on the resources available in an urban city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents a resource list and objectives and activities relative to teaching language arts (reading, English, listening, speaking, and writing). The resource list is comprised of approximately 150 physical facilities (e.g.,…
It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…
A new class of polyimides, synthesized by Langley Research Center, has been evaluated by the Getty Conservation Institute's Materials Science Group for possible art conservation applications. Polyimides are noted for resistance to high temperature, wear and radiation. They are thermally stable and soluble in some common solvents. After testing under simulated exposures for changes in color, permeability and flexibility, one coating, ODPA-3, 3-ODA may be used to protect bronze statues from corrosion. A test on stained glass windows was unsuccessful.
Silverman, Ronald H.
This is an experimental textbook for teaching about the visual arts at the elementary level. The content answers five questions about art: what is art; who makes art; what are the sources for art; why is art important to you; and why is art important to society. At the end of each section of the text is a set of questions and suggestions for…
... from art therapy? Art therapy is practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational, forensic, wellness, private practice and community settings with diverse client populations in ...
Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.
This guide to Utah's requirements for students in secondary visual arts is organized and based upon a student achievement portfolio for each course. Foundation I, the required junior high/middle school visual arts course, is designed to provide an overview of visual arts while studying various art tools and materials. With an emphasis on studio…
Seiferth, Berniece B; And Others
Learning to appreciate religious art and to understand the interdependence of history and art are basic to the foundations of culture. Students need to be exposed to the art of the diverse adherents of all major religions in order to understand the beliefs and practices of others. Students can examine religious art from ancient times, including…
Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)
When small art images are incorporated into the curriculum, students are afforded opportunities to slow down, observe minute details, and communicate ideas about art and artists. This sort of purposeful art contemplation takes students beyond the day-to-day educational practice. It is through these sorts of art activities that students develop…
Moon, Bruce L.
This viewpoint asserts that art therapy education is a form of performance art. By designing class sessions as performance artworks, art therapy educators can help their students become more fully immersed in their studies. This view also can be extended to conceptualizing each semester--and the entire art therapy curriculum--as a complex and…
... 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What are the steps for an ART cycle ... 37MB] Section 3: ART Cycles using frozen nondonor embryos Did implantation rates differ by a womanâ€™s age? [ ...
Starr, Douglas P.
The nature of the National Endowment of the Arts (NEA), its birth, growth, and uncertain future, are examined. What the arts community is doing to insure a national arts environment is discussed. (RM)
... more My AATA Collaborate Types & Benefits Local Chapters Education Art Therapy Education ...Read more Educational Standards Approved Art Therapy Master’s ... Art Therapy Credentials Board (ATCB) Institute for Continuing Education (ICE) Ethics Multicultural Conference Conference Information ...Read more ...
Discusses a type of visual art called grotesque art and includes four different examples of grotesque art: (1) the painting "Head of Medusa" by Peter Paul Rubens; (2) Rangda, the widow witch from Bali (Indonesia); (3) totem poles; and (4) grotesque sculptures from the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Paris, France). (CMK)
Shimshon-Santo, Amy R.
Arts Impact summarizes lessons learned at the ArtsBridge Program. It is informed by in-depth participant observation, logic modeling, and quantitative evaluation of program impact on K-12 students in inner city schools and arts students at the University of California Los Angeles over a two year period. The case study frames its analysis through a…
Young, Terrence E., Jr.
When budgets are tightened, the school library media specialists and/or the arts programs are often considered expendable. No Child Left Behind legislation means increasing academic time for core subjects, which translates into cutting time for arts education. As money becomes tight, frills are cut (i.e., the arts). Schools don't seem able to fill…
Levine, Donald N.
Liberal arts and the martial arts are compared from the perspective that courses of training in the martial arts often constitute exemplary educational programs and are worth examining closely. Program characteristics, individual characteristics fostered by them, the relationship between liberal and utilitarian learning, and the moral…
Examines the conceptions of educating beginning art teachers with specific reference to Canadian art education. Addresses the use of the visual journal, which demonstrates visual and verbal thinking, by preservice teachers at the University of British Columbia as a means to develop an artistic understanding of their growth as art teachers. (CMK)
Collins, Georgia; Sandell, Renee
Sex equity issues and efforts in art and art education are examined in five major focus areas: (1) "Matters of Conscious and Consciousness" deals with problematic relationships between women, art and education. (2) "Matters of Protest and Progress" explores the sex equity progress made in art and education. (3) "Matters of Herstory and Heritage"…
San Diego County Office of Education, CA.
This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…
Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.
The findings summarized in this report are intended to shed light on what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, why it is necessary and important to cultivate this demand, and what state arts agencies (SAAs) and other arts and education policymakers can do to help. The research considered only the benchmark arts central to public policy:…
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.
In this annual edition selected cultural arts organizations from across the state are featured, with a specific focus on how these organizations have aided local school systems as they implemented the arts education component of North Carolina's Basic Education Program. The following arts organizations are featured: Winston-Salem Arts Council;…
Since the nineteenth century's interest in "art for art's sake," many thinkers have argued that art would supplant traditional religion as the spiritual locus of the increasingly secular society of Western modernity. If art can capture the sort of spirituality, idealism, and expressive community of traditional religions but without being ensnared…
The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…
Del Giacco, Maureen
The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…
Moore, Dan W.
Describes Southeastern Community College's efforts to focus on the arts, which included a campus visit by the artist Kenneth Larson and events centered on his Heroic Individual prints; a performing arts series supported by local corporations; an Associate in Fine Arts degree; regular art exhibits; and an artist-in-residence program. (DMM)
Interdisciplinary programs which use art to improve or enhance another subject are being developed, perhaps in an attempt to save art education in an era of budget constraints. It is suggested that this trend must not be allowed to destroy the magic of art for art's sake. (KC)
The idea of an open art studio or art mini-course to serve a need above and beyond the regularly scheduled art classes is important and necessary to a school program that is designed to meet the needs of the general intellectual and cultural growth of the child. Describes the art mini-course introduced at the Willow Ridge School in Tonawanda, New…
Pistone, Kathleen A.
The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…
Winarski, Diana L.
Describes activities of kindergarten through grade-four students in an art classroom that emphasizes expression of creative process along with the product. Explores interconnections between art, thinking, and writing as expressed by a former language arts teacher who transfers her knowledge of language, words, and creative expression to art. (BAC)
Furney, Trudy; And Others
The development of students in various art fields is the focus of this K-12 art curriculum guide. The philosophy of the art program and the roles of administrator, teacher, and parent are outlined. The underlying school community relationships, and the objective, goals, and purposes of art education are described. Phases of child development in…
Boone, Pierre M.
Art and science are separated by a very large distance nowadays. Long ago, e.g. in Renaissance, or even earlier, in classic Greece and Rome, or still earlier in Egypt or Mesopotamia, arts and sciences were united. Today they seem to go separate paths: science for the industry, arts for the gallery. Holography is an exception: no art without science, but also no science without art.
Danic, B; Lefrère, J-J
In the different forms of art developed by Humanity over the centuries, artists have at times chosen themes from the world of medicine or health, such as blood donation or transfusion. In order to illustrate this, we have looked at three artistic domains: painting, movies and body art.
Discusses spirals in nature, man-made objects, and art. Focuses on art that incorporates the spiral, including works by M. C. Escher and Frank Lloyd Wright, an African headdress, and a burial urn. Describes activities to help students make spirals of their own, such as constructing a coil clay pot. (CMK)
Brigham, Don L.
Basic arts education must give students the essence of their civilization, the civilizations that contributed to it, and the more distant civilizations that enriched world civilizations as a whole. All students are potentially capable of experiencing and analyzing the fundamental qualitativeness of art; therefore, it is realistic to propose…
Jacobson, Linda, Ed.
This book takes the position that CyberArts(TM) is the new frontier in creativity, where the worlds of science and art meet. Computer technologies, visual design, music and sound, education and entertainment merge to form the new artistic territory of interactive multimedia. This diverse collection of essays, articles, and commentaries…
The basis for my article is how, and if, a collaborative land art project can provide opportunities for such co-creating as suggested in the national framework plan for preschools, which explicitly states the child as a co-creator of a shared expressive culture. I further wish to propose land art as a meaningful cultural practice, closely…
Lists recommended book titles for children on art, crafts, artists, optical illusions, and drawing. Provides the address for a Web site featuring art activities and information about artists for children. (PEN)
Orna, Mary Virginia
Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)
Franklin, Michael; Farrelly-Hansen, Mimi; Marek, Bernie; Swan-Foster, Nora; Wallingford, Sue
Addresses the task of training future art therapists through a unique branch of transpersonal psychology referred to as "contemplative education." Discusses contemplative practices, such as meditation, and their relationship to creating art. Offers a definition of transpersonal art therapy as well as a literature review. (Contains 80…
Dugan, Gene, Ed.
This directory lists over 250 non-profit and for-profit arts organizations in 90 Alaskan communities. Compiled as a resource guide for artists, arts administrators, and teachers, this document offers information that assist them in sharing resources, communicating, and coordinating arts activities. It contains information from and about arts…
Ensign, Arselia, Ed.
This pamphlet examines what art can mean to a child with a disability and offers "how-to's" for involving students in the creation of art. It emphasizes that the outcome of an art activity can be more than just the finished piece of work and that emphasis should be placed on involvement with the materials rather than on design or abstract concepts…
Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.
This collection of papers on women art educators reveals the variety of roles played by those women, from anonymous art teachers to leaders in their profession. "Mary Rouse: A Remembrance" (G. Hubbard) is a personal perspective on Rouse, the development of her career, and her considerable impact in the field of art education. "The…
Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl
Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)
Degge, Rogena M., Ed.
This document presents three papers by scholars who participated in a lecture series on current controversies regarding politics and the arts. Judith H. Balfe argues in her paper, "Affinities of Art and Politics: Gilt by Association," that despite a history of institutional separateness, art and politics are linked with one another because they…
Designed for Montessori teachers with little background in the plastic arts, this discussion points out that, while the Montessori program has many features that support creative development, presently, no art curriculum exists. The article indicates the limitations of Maria Montessori's ideas and attitudes about the role of art in the education…
Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Humanities and Secondary Administration.
The contributions of art experiences to special education are discussed and guidelines for integrating art into the curriculum are provided. Art is seen to have potential for developing handicapped children's self expression, independence, sensory stimulation and motivation, perception discrimination, skill development, and career and personal…
Lamal, Pauline Dove
Art has always adapted technological advances to its own uses. In the last 15 years, art has turned to color photocopiers, computers, mimeograph machines, and thermofax copiers. With this in mind, Central Piedmont Community College began offering a course in 1982 called "Art and Technology" which focused on the application of office…
Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.
Intended to help compensatory education personnel better understand the role of the arts in cognitive growth, this booklet provides practical suggestions for using arts strategies in basic education. Following a discussion of the role of the arts in the learning process, the booklet presents a number of activities that involve the interaction of…
In this paper, the author offers lesson plan ideas that are designed to guide teachers of art and science to encourage their students to see connections between art images and physics principles. The four works of art discussed are examples that can be linked visually and conceptually to physics properties in mathematics, space, energy, and light.…
Leishear, Christina Chiddo
There is a lot of creative energy between students and their art materials. In this lesson, the author discusses materials an artist may use to create a work of art--paint, a paintbrush, a palette, crayons, markers, pastels, and so on. Each student sketched a picture of themselves holding some tools that can be used in art. The objectives of this…
Manner, Jane Carol
Describes how curriculum integration can help art enhance learning during times when the arts may be considered dispensable and removed from education, presenting examples of how classroom teachers have examined art as a link to expanded understanding of history, science, math, reading, current events, geography, cultural studies, emotions,…
Feldman, Edmund Burke
Throughout European history, artists have celebrated the values of their patrons. Today, the schools are the largest employer of artists. To justify art education according to current Back-to-Basics values, art teachers should explain visual art as a language, which they can teach students to read and use. (SJL)
Rohs, C. Renee
Numerous connections between the visual arts and sciences are evident if we choose to look for them. In February 2006, students and faculty from the Art and Geol/Geog departments at NW Missouri State University put together an exhibit at a local art gallery featuring works that were born out of science, inspired by science, or exploring the…
The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…
Brown, Jill Harris
Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…
During the 2002-03 fiscal crisis in Massachusetts, Gov. Mitt Romney proposed sweeping changes for public colleges in the state. Among them was a proposal to privatize three highly specialized colleges, including the Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt), the nation's only independent public college of art and design. The rationale was…
This monograph, part of an ongoing series, discusses the need for school arts programs and provides some examples of how the arts can be infused into the regular curriculum at the elementary level. Support systems for such programs are also discussed. Properly conceived, the arts constitute a great integrating force in the curriculum. To achieve…
Grauer, Kit, Ed.
An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John…
The purpose of this article is to make the argument that when viewed as mutually supportive processes of inquiry, art and research have the potential to put the agency of educational change well within reach of artists and art teachers. As researchers well schooled in studio practices of many kinds, artists and art teachers understand that, as we…
Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.
The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.
... skills, improve reality orientation, reduce anxiety, and increase self-esteem. A goal in art therapy is to improve ... supports federal and state policies, legislation, regulations, judicial actions, and initiatives that encourage, promote, and support efforts ...
Barr-Johnson, Virginia; Brockmyer, James J.
Suggests ways of turning the art room into a microenvironment of sensory intensification--a place where a student steps into a new world of color, sound, and smell that delights the eye and inspires the imagination. (Author/SJL)
Chang, C W David
Definitions of beauty and art have been turned upside down when trying to describe 20th century and postmodern art. The classical sense of beauty looks toward the replication of nature as its inspiration. The development of Impressionist art and modern art forced the rules of aesthetics to be rethought and revised. Old standards of aesthetics were brought into question with each successive artistic challenge. This article endeavors to explore the meaning of beauty and the aesthetic experience as it relates to defining art.
Green, Gaye Leigh
Explains that performance art incorporates different artistic forms, emphasizes the process of art over the product, and blurs the line between life and art. Discusses the history of performance art, highlights the Performance Art, Culture, and Pedagogy Symposium, and provides examples of how to use performance art in the classroom. (CMK)
Deaver, Sarah P.
This mixed methods research study examined the use of art-based teaching methods in master's level art therapy graduate education in North America. A survey of program directors yielded information regarding in which courses and how frequently art-based methods (individual in-class art making, dyad or group art making, student art projects as…
Art projects are appropriate building blocks for visual art curriculum because good art projects encode complex aesthetic strategies, giving students tools to investigate and make meaning. Art made in schools will inevitably be some form of "school art," defined by Arthur Efland in "The School Art Style: a Functional Analysis,"…
Article discussed the practicalities in art education from the current economic squeeze on art programs to the overworked elementary art teacher attempting to implement art programs of dubious merit. (RK)
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
The curriculum guide details a unified sequential art program for grades 7-12 and clearly outlines specific objectives and descriptions of concepts and experiences. The objectives are designed to accommodate sequential learning and are derived from the goals and philosophy of the program. The format describes appropriate objectives and concepts…
Terry, Charles M
Given the increasing popularity of the martial arts, it is likely that physicians in all specialties encounter patients who participate. From pediatric patients, to geriatric patients, to those living with various disabilities, the martial arts may offer physical, psychologic, and therapeutic benefits. An appreciation of the physical demands of the martial arts is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of injury as well as to planning treatment and prevention strategies and to determining safe return to participation after injury.
Presents four lesson plans centered around artworks involving Japanese clothing. Instructional materials include color plates of a 19th century print showing women's clothing, two beautifully handcrafted coats, and a coverlet in kimono form. The lesson plans discuss Japanese clothing, art, society, and culture. (MJP)
Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne
High school teachers are often challenged to motivate students who have little or no interest in a subject and are bored with traditional instruction. This unique book is designed to help educators make chemistry classes more interesting and links art curriculum to practical applications, integrating the two subjects through scores of hands-on…
Stephens, Pamela Geiger; Shaddix, Robin K.
Presents an activity for upper-elementary students that correlates the actions of archaeologists, patrons, and artists with the sequencing of events in a logical order. Features ancient Egyptian art images. Discusses the preparation of materials, motivation, a pre-writing activity, and writing a story in sequence. (CMK)
The concept of integrating mathematics and art course work broadens an appreciation of the connection between the two. Although calculations and getting the right answer have traditionally been the focus of mathematics at the secondary level, other topics have recently begun to be addressed, such as mathographics, or the relationship between art…
Provides various activities that museum docents use to help students "see" rather than "look" at art objects. Ideas include playing a looking game, using the five senses to describe the painting, creating stories about the art object, and having a treasure hunt while visiting a museum. (CMK)
Illustrates the benefits of an aggressive library program of regularly scheduled and professionally curated art exhibitions and related events. Describes the Visual Arts Program at the Pacific Beach branch library (San Diego). A sidebar by Debra Wilcox Johnson discusses libraries' development of cultural programming for adults. (AEF)
In an era that is rife with aggression and hostility, most art educators hold close to their hearts the belief that they, and their students, can contribute to making the world a better place. Through their acts as teachers and the daily work of art education, they often strive toward creating a space of "non-violence." For K-12…
Bailey, Jane M.; And Others
This document brings together six papers on language skills and language arts teaching of gifted students. "The State of the Art Issues in Language Study for High Ability Learners: Thinking about Language with Gifted Children" (Michael Clay Thompson) considers two areas traditionally included in discussions of language study--grammar and…
A mini-course of nine weeks was organized as a laboratory course to survey relationships in literature, music, and art. Three periods in the arts (Romanticism, Impressionism, and Contemporary) were matched with three major activities; the basic areas of study and activity were poetry, short story, and novel. (Author)
Grauer, Kit, Ed.
This journal issue provides a cogent look at general issues in art teacher education, specific teacher education programs and particular agendas as they are played out in a number of different countries. The topic is introduced in the Editorial, "The Education of Educators: Art Teacher Education around the World" (Kit Grauer). Articles…
Describes an art project in which beginning art students created ceramic vegetables that are supposed to be functional, such as a container. Explains how the teacher can demonstrate the process of creating the ceramic vegetables. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)
Art educators can "critique" senseless violence--mistreatment, exclusion, intimidation, bullying, violation, abuse, corruption, murder, and war--by unleashing the power of students' creativity. In this article, the author, sharing her philosophical context, discusses how art is preventative medicine with the power to transform the cycle…
In this article, the author focuses on secondary students with cognitive or intellectual disabilities. She discusses that these students can be successfully included into the classroom community if schools can provide the appropriate tools such literacy in the arts. Here, she cites the number of reasons why arts can meet the varied needs and…
Blandy, Doug, Ed.; Congdon, Kristin G., Ed.
Society truly cannot be democratic unless the educational systems function democratically. Art education has a role to play in this process. The perceptions of many different groups in a pluralistic society must be considered in a new multicultural approach to the teaching of art. A "Foreword" (June King McFee) and "Introduction" (Doug Blandy;…
Parks, Nancy Schien; Maxedon, G. Edward
Presents background material, suggested teaching activities, and four color plates illustrating the folk art of the Oceania islands (Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia). The background material is incorporated into an interview with two Oceanic art specialists from Indiana University who discuss the culture of the islands. (MJP)
Reichardt, Jasia, Ed.
The essays in this volume deal with the relationship of the computer and the arts, especially the exploration and demonstration of connections between creativity and technology, the links between scientific or mathematical approaches, intuitions, and the more irrational and oblique urges associated with the making of music, art, and poetry. The…
Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…
Mulholland, Matthew J.
Spider Man and the Green Lantern are not the first images that most people conjure up when someone mentions "important art." In the world of fine art, comic books are often viewed as the bottom rung of the artistic ladder. In the early half of the 1900s, such an assessment would not have been unreasonable. With their rudimentary visuals and…
Jones, Jean Ellen, Ed.
Reviews research on the place of the arts in programs for the elderly. In nine articles deals with characteristics and attitudes of adult students in art and music, dance therapy, and creativity. Discusses the aging advocacy movement and suggests it can be useful to program planners and gerontologists. (JAC)
Provides an art project for use with eighth-grade students, who choose a work of art and recreate it in an interpretive and informative manner. Explains that students re-create the background of the artwork and then the students become a part of the painting via characters or objects. (CMK)
In this brief article, the author describes a lesson plan on Mola art she used in her elementary classroom. Using four examples of Kuna Indian molas, the teacher introduced students to the beautiful, colorful, creative art form of molas. The Kuna women have been making these layered pieces of cloth for more than one hundred years. They use a…
The structure of higher education today, in conjunction with those actively trying to devalue a liberal arts degree in the public sphere, has set the table for what seems like a completely rational solution: finding a "niche." Broadly speaking, colleges offering a liberal arts education identify their "niche market" in terms of…
Smith, Ralph A.
In considering the relation of art with society the author comments on the ideas of the American philosopher, John Dewey, the art historian, Lord Kenneth Clark, a popular humanistic educator, Clifton Fadiman, and a major cultural critic, Jacques Barzun. (Author/RK)
Valladares, Clarival Do Prado
Class differences in Brazil explain the inequality between the art produced in the high strata of society and that originating in the economically inferior communities. Genuine expression of art degenerates for two reasons: the influence of modern industrial civilization and the tendency to satisfy the taste of the acquisitive group. (Author/MF)
Gardner, Nancy C., Ed.; Thompson, Christine, Ed.
This document consists of the two issues of the journal "Visual Arts in Research" published in 1994. This journal focuses on the theory and practice of visual arts education from educational, historical, philosophical, and psychological perspectives. Number 1 of this volume includes the following contributions: (1) "Zooming in on the Qualitative…
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.
This chart is intended for use in documenting the fact that a student participating in a culinary arts program has achieved the performance standards specified in the Missouri Competency Profile for culinary arts. The chart includes space for recording basic student and instructor information and the student's on-the-job training and work…
Purpose: This paper explores the way in which art education advances the goals of citizenship education. In the first section of this paper the similarities between ethical and aesthetic concepts will be outlined and the visual art symbol system will be carefully examined. Findings: It will be argued that the transference of a value-adaptive…
This relationship is omnipresent to those who appreciate the shared attributes of these two areas of creativity. The dynamic nature of media, and further study, enable mathematicians and artists to present new and exciting manifestations of the "mathematics in art", and the "art in mathematics". The illustrative images of the relationship--that…
pidgin isn’t the antidote for strategic illiteracy. The military arts of strategy, operations, and tactics are merely the creative bridges that allow...Strategic pidgin isn’t the antidote for strategic illiteracy. about military arts and sciences is not merely a ’question of rhetorical clarity. Indeed
Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.
The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…
Wurst, Douglas; Jones, Dana; Moore, Jim
State-mandated, high-stakes testing is the primary means by which schools are judged. Whether this is a fair and accurate way of judging the performance of schools may remain in debate for a long time. Some school districts have gone so far as reducing or eliminating "special" classes--in particular art and music. Art teachers can help prepare…
Orend, Richard J.
Socialization is a process by which children learn the attitudes and orientations that will guide their behavior as adults. The analyses described in this report use this socialization model as a basis for describing the relationship between childhood and early adult arts-related experiences and current arts-related leisure participation. Three…
Discusses the Art and Architecture program that involves K-12 students in the creation of public art. The program provides students with a sense of ownership through design and construction assignments created as part of an integrated curriculum, including mock bids and interpreting a floor plan into an elevation. Tips on how architects can start…
Henry, David J.
Examines four works of art, created for public spaces, to help students understand the value of public art in the community. Illustrates work by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Siah Armajani, Jackie Ferrara, and Deborah Butterfield. Outlines lesson activities for elementary and secondary students. (KM)
Gardner, Nancy C., Ed.; Thompson, Christine, Ed.
This document consists of the two issues of the journal "Visual Arts Research" published in 1995. This journal focuses on the theory and practice of visual arts education from educational, historical, philosophical, and psychological perspectives. Number 1 of this volume includes the following contributions: (1) "Children's Sensitivity to…
Challenging one's brain is the beginning of making great art. Tangrams are a great way to keep students thinking about their latest art project long after leaving the classroom. A tangram is a Chinese puzzle. The earliest known reference to tangrams appears in a Chinese book dated 1813, but the puzzles existed long before that date. The puzzle…
Rosenfeld, Malke; Johnson, Marquetta; Plemons, Anna; Makol, Suzanne; Zanskas, Meghan; Dzula, Mark; Mahoney, Meg Robson
Writing about the teaching artist practice should mean writing about art making. As both teacher and artist, the authors are required to be cognizant of their own art-making processes, both how it works and why it is important to them, in order to make this process visible to their students. They also need the same skills to write about how and…
Every year, fourth graders at Sterling Morton Elementary School in Ohio present a talking art museum for the school and community. In this article, the author describes a lesson on art history which culminates in an activity showcasing all the students' finished paintings in gold frames. A student stands behind the painting and pokes his or her…
Discusses a project that aimed at educating the public about art by bringing art to the people. Explains that students selected their favorite artwork and made a t-shirt displaying their artwork. States that the students went into their community and also created a mural. (CMK)
Advocates introducing young students to realistic nature drawing as a way of integrating art and science. Describes an earthworm art project using a salt dough model and a realistic drawing. This activity should begin with a view of the real subject whenever possible before proceeding to the actual artwork. (AIM)
Gustav Klimt (1862-1918), a Viennese painter, was the founder of the Vienna Secession, the Austrian Art Nouveau movement. Art Nouveau is characterised by flowing lines and flat designs based on organic structures. This style is found in the symbolic aspect of Klimt's later work, and in the works of other artists of the late 1890s and early 1900s…
Caucutt, Allen, Ed.
This collection of writings addresses the issue of developing a generation of aesthetically aware and involved individuals. Each of the 19 articles emphasizes art education as an indispensable force in the total school program. Together these writings form sources of inspiration and ideas for the elementary art teacher. Divided into four…
Newton Unified School District 373, KS.
GRADES OR AGES: Primary Grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Art. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide begins with a list of topics for art expression. The main body of the guide contains 15 color-coded sections on the following subjects: 1) mobiles and folded paper; 2) collage and photo montage; 3) square paper and mosaics; 4) wax paper and…
Stellflue, Pat; Allen, Marie; Gerber, D. Timothy
This article describes a collaborative effort that included a botany professor, an art teacher, and a science teacher, called,"Plants, Pots, and Paints." This interdisciplinary project was successful in connecting content across disciplines (science to art) and for motivating fourth-and fifth-grade students to create something beautiful both they…
POPOLIZIO, VINCENT J.; AND OTHERS
FACILITIES FOR CARRYING OUT AN ART PROGRAM MUST BE DESIGNED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF STUDENTS IN SCHOOL AND THOSE ENROLLED IN ADULT PROGRAMS. PROVISIONS MUST BE INCLUDED FOR PAINTING AND DRAWING, THE GRAPHIC ARTS, GENERAL CRAFTS, MODELING, SCHULPTURING, PHOTOGRAPHY, SERIGRAPHY, AND MECHANICAL DRAWING. WORK CENTERS AND TRAFFIC FLOW NEED CAREFUL…
A three-year grant program at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City encourages teachers to draw connections between curricular topics and works of art. In this article, museum educator Nicola Giardina describes how the program uses inquiry-based lessons to create meaningful learning experiences for underserved students. She highlights…
This theme issue reviews and confirms the connection between thinking skills and art education. Articles offer possible teaching approaches and specific lesson plans dealing with thinking skills. The issue includes: (1) "Editor's View" (Sharon McCoubrey); (2) "Critical and Creative Thinking and Making Art" (Carol Fineberg); (3)…
Dr. Robert F. Sabol, professor of visual and performing arts at Purdue University says that art education has suffered some serious setbacks since No Child Left Behind--the landmark federal education law that put a greater emphasis on high-stakes testing. Since No Child Left Behind became law in 2002, school systems--under increased pressure to…
This viewpoint presents a reflection on a meaningful relationship that developed between a university art education department and a local art therapy studio. Such partnerships are desirable and mutually beneficial because of the significant interest many art educators have in the field of art therapy. The author, an art educator, describes the…
National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, 2011
Supporting lifelong learning in the arts is a top priority for state arts agencies. By supporting arts education in the schools, state arts agencies foster young imaginations, address core academic standards, and promote the critical thinking and creativity skills essential to a 21st century work force. State arts agencies also support…
The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.
Geering, Adrian D.
This document contains 10 essays which focus on various aspects of art education in the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary educational institutions of Australia. Titles are "Art Education in Australia," The Visual Arts and Society,""The Parallels Between Primitive Art and Child Art,""The Mildura Sculpture…
Argues that art education does not meet its objective of creativity and instead is replicative rather than original. Contends educational journals such as "Instructor" and "Good Apple" reduce fine art to its antithesis, popular art. Concludes that art educators must work diligently to protect fine art from becoming "dumb…
Are these halcyon days for arts education, or are we at least in an auspicious or opportune period for the field? One encounters good news on a daily basis; arts advocates and policymakers are actively promoting the arts and arts education. Yet many in the arts education community do not feel that they are experiencing a renaissance period. What…
Molenaar, Peter C.M.; Raijmakers, Maartje E.J.
In this article we introduce a continuous time implementation of adaptive resonance theory (ART). ART designed by Grossberg concerns neural networks that self-organize stable pattern recognition categories of arbitrary sequences of input patterns. In contrast to the current implementations of ART we introduce a complete implementation of an ART network, including all regulatory and logical functions, as a system of ordinary differential equations capable of stand-alone running in real time. This means that transient behavior is kept in tact. This implementation of ART is based on ART 2 and is called Exact ART. Exact ART includes an implementation of a gated dipole field and an implementation of the orienting sub-system. The most important features of Exact ART, which are the design principles of ART 2, are proven mathematically. Also simulation studies show that Exact ART self-organizes stable recognition codes that agree with the classification behavior of ART 2. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Critics and artists influenced by the tenets of queer theory have dismissed much of the artwork made in the 1970s from a lesbian feminist perspective. The result has been very little being known or written about this pioneering work. This article is concerned with exploring an often overlooked aspect of lesbian art history: the activities and events associated with the Lesbian Art Project (LAP) founded by Terry Wolverton and Arlene Raven at the Woman's Building in Los Angeles. I argue that what is most significant about the LAP is the way in which the participants articulated lesbian identity and lesbian community through performance, art making, and writing.
May, Brittany Nixon; Robinson, Nicole R.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and attitudes of the Beverley Taylor Sorenson Arts Learning Program (BTSALP) arts specialists on arts integration. BTSALP arts specialists (N = 50) throughout the state of Utah responded to a 20-item survey. Results indicated that a majority of BTSALP arts specialists believe that arts…
Describes a touring exhibit of posters which has been used to promote cultural events in California since 1976. Many art forms and disciplines were represented, including all the visual arts, photography, film, folk arts, music, theater, and dance. (AM)
Discusses the concrete and spiritual aspects of teaching workshops on survival skills or primitive arts. Gives details on lostproofing, or ways to teach a child not to get lost in the outdoors; building a survival shelter; and wilderness cooking. (CDS)
American Vocational Journal, 1974
The article reports on the assignments and activities of Dean Griffin, one of four American Vocational Association associates directors; highlighted is a conversation of Griffin's with Art Linkletter, who addressed the Minnesota Vocational Association in October. (AJ)
Nicholson, Jeffrey A.
Describes an elementary art project in which students create a "mud cloth." States that the project was inspired by the clothing worn by teachers at the City School District (Rochester, New York). Includes a list of additional resources. (CMK)
Discusses the activities of the Education Department at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, including the local education outreach program and the Partners in Education program promoting school-community partnerships. (SR)
... Control and Prevention compiles annual reports on the success rates of ART. These reports can be accessed ... the chance of pregnancy in some cases. The success of IUI depends on the cause of the ...
As part of a unit on Native American art studies, students researched Navajo sand painting. They used Navajo image resources to develop designs for their sand paintings. The process and precautions for this lesson are described in this article.
Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George
Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art.
Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H
Roy Calne (1930-) has elegantly cultivated the science and art of transplantation. Throughout his medical and artistic career his eyes have remained fully open not only to science and scientific advances but to any new developments that would enhance his art of painting as applied to his patients, colleagues, events and surgical operations related to transplantation. Calne contributed to and developed a new field through art in the understanding of the lives of his patients, the working of his colleagues and the application of surgical principles to the specialty in which he labours, surgical transplantation. The application of "Art, Surgery and Transplantation" should in many ways be the fountain of information and support for those seeking this way of therapy.
Allan, John; Clark, Mary
Describes the use of art counseling in elementary schools, illustrated with a case study. The sessions involved serial drawing, in which the counselor asks the child to draw a house, tree, and person, as well as free drawings. (JAC)
At two of the Smithsonian Institution's museums in Washington, D. C. special places have been designed for children to enjoy the rich experiences that works of art can provide and to investigate a room filled with touchable exhibits. (CS)
Feldman, Edmund Burke
Describes the four main types of British art curricula. The content, objectives, and underlying principles are examined. Available from Carfax Publishing Company, P.O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 1RW England. (AM)
Feldman, Edmund Burke; Woods, Don
The authors review a body of theory and accumulating evidence which suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading. (Author/SJL)
Described are various arts and crafts ideas, mostly with a February theme. Included are: ceramic boxes, valentine ideas, and patriotic projects--symbols of our country, silhouettes of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, and stars and stripes. (KC)
Describes how high school students are involved in using natural materials found in the local environment for art projects. The materials used include wood, clay, and natural fibers. Provides photographs of ten students' projects. (JDH)
James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…
Throughout the history of mankind the birth of a child with congenital malformation raised anxiety and torment, along with attempts to explain its origins. It is possible to find relics of such events in prehistoric rock drawings and primitive sculptures, in numerous art pieces produced through the centuries up to modern sculptures, paintings and drawings. The aim of the present article is to show how dwarfs were portrayed in a variety of art forms at different moments in the history of our world.
Bhangoo, Kulwant S.
Sophisticated marketing and practice-enhancing strategies can help bring patients to a surgeon's practice. However, the ability to retain these patients and also convert the consultations into surgical procedures depends on the art of consultation. This very important aspect of clinical practice is seldom taught in the medical school. In this paper, the author discusses many aspects of the art of consultation, which he has learned in his practice over the years. PMID:25190910
Chen, Vivien; Granger, Lenny
The Alliance for Arts Education, formed by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Education and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (Washington, D.C.), aims to advance arts education for all U.S. students through networking activities. This article highlights center activities, suggests fine arts leadership strategies, and…
Balfe, Judith H., Ed.; Heine, Joni Cherbo, Ed.
The 13 seminar papers presented in this collection discuss various avenues used for educating adults in the arts in order to enrich existing arts audiences and to educate the widest possible adult population in the practice and history of art and aesthetics. These efforts will ensure that the quality and quantity of arts participation and support…
Online Submission, 2015
This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…
In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.
Brouillette, Liane R.; Burns, Maureen A.
This article examines the origin of ArtsBridge America, a K-12 school/university arts education partnership. It also summarizes findings from a research study on the effect that ArtsBridge participation had on a sample of university arts students. The study indicated that the transition from student to teaching artist required transformation of…
McGraw, Mary K.
Describes the history and development of the Art Studio, a studio-based art therapy program in Cleveland, Ohio, and discusses specific patient needs that are uniquely addressed by the Art Studio model. The Art Studio was developed for use by medically ill and physically disabled persons, and is the result of a unique cooperative relationship…
Barrow, John D.
Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.
In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659
Lopes, Dominic M. McIver
Developments in the art world seem always to keep one step ahead of philosophical attempts to characterize the nature and value of art. A pessimist may conclude that theories of art are doomed to failure. But those more optimistic about the prospects for progress in philosophy may retort that avant-garde art does philosophers a great service. It…
Stake, Robert; Munson, April
Exploring the complicated issues of assessment in the arts, the authors discuss assessment of arts education and arts programs from a qualitative perspective: experiential, naturalistic, and ethnographic interpretation. With special attention to the practices of teaching, learning, and administration of education in the arts, quality is sought…
Although art therapists readily recognize the value of artmaking for their clients and for themselves, do they utilize its potentialities for professional self-processing? In the hope of encouraging art therapists to use this valuable resource, this paper presents examples of art expressions for professional processing by many art therapists…
National Art Education Association, 2009
The National Art Education Association (NAEA) is committed to ensuring student access to a highly qualified, certified visual arts educator in every K-12 public school across the United States, recognizing that effective arts instruction is a core component to a 21st-century education. "Standards for Art Teacher Preparation" represents the…
The image-making properties of digital art can enhance many art therapy techniques while introducing new elements to practice. However, there are things that digital media cannot do in art therapy. Unconditional support for one medium or idea limits the full spectrum of possibilities. Computer art will never replace the three-dimensional presence…
While the arts in the United States are themselves often controversial, arts in public schools rarely are. That is to say that teachers, administrators, parents, students, and community members tend to agree that the opportunity to participate in the arts is beneficial to students and to the wider society. Whether discipline-based arts education…
Muth, Helen, Ed.
The "Bulletin of the Caucus on Social Theory and Art Education" is an annual publication, with each issue devoted to a unified theme. The theme of this issue is the social ramifications of the teaching of art. This issue focuses on art teachers to gain a perspective on the art education process as a socially relevant experience. The volume…
National Assessment Governing Board, 2008
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for the arts measures students' knowledge and skills in creating, performing, and responding to works of music, theatre, and visual arts. This framework document asserts that dance, music, theatre and the visual arts are important parts of a full education. When students engage in the arts,…
Feldman, Edmund Burke, Ed.
This volume of 11 articles contains a comprehensive statement about the visual arts as they are encountered in post-secondary education. The articles are: (1) "Art and the Liberal Arts: A Trivial, Artificial, Irrelevant Antagonism" by Albert Bush-Brown; (2) "The Arts in Higher Education: A Question of Priorities" by Lawrence Dennis; (3) "Access to…
The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…
Cahan, Susan; Kocur, Zoya
Argues that much of what is used currently to teach about multiculturalism in art consists of art made "long ago" or "far away." Presents four contemporary art works incorporating elements of mass media, popular culture, and diverse artistic traditions. Includes four full-page color photographs of the art works. (CFR)
Michael Burke is an artist who's work combines scientific principles with aesthetic goals. He will describe how he became an artist after careers in astronomy and city planning, and discuss the supposed separation of science and art. The talk will be illustrated with photographs of his work, including an installation in an Etruscan tomb and one at the port city of Savona in Italy. Mr. Burke sees a romance in science equivalent to that of art, and will argue that the two should not be so resolutely separated.
Ruiz, María Isabel; Aceituno, David; Rada, Gabriel
Art therapy is used as a complementary treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. However, its effectiveness is not clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified five systematic reviews including 20 studies overall, of which four were randomized trials. We extracted data and prepared summary of findings tables using the GRADE method. We concluded it is not clear whether art therapy leads to clinical improvement in schizophrenia because the certainty of the evidence is very low.
Conklin, Nancy Faires; Patraka, Vivian M.
An interdisciplinary course on women in the fine arts for college-level women's studies programs is presented in five units. The course raises questions about women as artists in a sexist society, then examines the vision of women artists in the personal and political spheres, and concludes with a study of great women artists. Unit 1 provides a…
Needler, Toby; Goodman, Bonnie
The eight units in this volume are designed for use by an art teacher/specialist. Thematic ideas are presented, while skills, techniques, and materials are not dictated. The lessons encourage students to compare and contrast cultures, understand their own cultural experiences, and explore differences and commonalities among cultures. The materials…
Classroom teachers are provided with ideas and procedures for teaching art in grades one through six. The activities encourage individuality, creativity, and aesthetic awareness in the child. For grades one through three, activity suggestions include two-dimensional painting, painting stuffed animals, and painting with sponges; paper tearing and…
Lang, April Hulse
Anna Mary Robertson Moses, popularly known as Grandma Moses, may be the most famous American folk artist. A fortuitous combination of original vision, innate talent, spunky character, and long life, Moses is known for her landscapes that depict nostalgic views of country life. In this article, the author describes an art activity she introduced to…
While teaching science in an alternative arts high school, the author continuously addresses the challenge of welcoming creative, right-brained students into the world of systematic inquiry. Busily mixing paint colors, choreographing futuristic dances, performing comedic theater, and practicing the banjo, the students rarely initiate authentic…
Kelin, Daniel A., II
This article presents a critical and comparative look at how two theatre programs help young people develop an artistic voice and sense of self as an artist. Each program begins with art. Individuals explore basic tenets of dramatic expression through foundational activities. As they play and experiment, the individuals discover their capacity for…
A computer-assisted learning/teaching model is conceived with implications of constructivist theory and an analogy between the traditional art form Shuanghuang and the teaching/learning environment. The virtual character of the model interacts with the learner, in the form of human behavior and speech supported by recognition biometrics,…
"What if?" might be the most powerful question in education. NAESP and Crayola challenge schools with that question every year in their Champion Creatively Alive Children grant competition. Schools are encouraged to ask questions such as: What if arts-infused learning thrived every day in schools? What if schools relied more on project-based…
The passage of the No Child Left Behind law in 2001, which measures student achievement based on English and math scores, has pressured schools to cut the arts. A 2006 survey by the Center on Education Policy found that 44 percent of school districts had increased time for English and math while cutting time for other subjects. And a follow-up…
Modern aesthetic theory maintains that a work is an artwork if it is intended to afford aesthetic experiences that are valuable for their own sake. The author claims that such a definition eliminates from art most of the poetry, novels, films, and music that have been produced in the world. The author examines several responses to his claim from…
This paper seeks to answer two questions: What are the trends in schooling today? and How can the arts help translate these trends into practice? It is said that the successful curriculum of the future will be one that helps students collaboratively perceive, analyze, interpret, and discover a whole new range of meanings. The paper focuses on…
Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia
Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video…
Ahovi, Jonathan; Viverge, Agathe
Teenagers need to interpret the world around them, sometimes in a completely different way to that in which, as children, they represented external reality. Some like drawing. They can use it to express their thoughts on death, sexuality or freedom. Their creative capacities are immense: they are creating art.
Psychiatrists would undoubtedly support the notion of promoting such qualities as empathy, sensitivity and caring in the pursuit of good clinical practice. However, cultivating what we may call the "art of psychiatry" is not straightforward, since the qualities that constitute it are elusive. I propose that the means by which we can accomplish the goal of relating empathically and compassionately to our patients and their families is by regarding the humanities and the sciences as of equal relevance and as complementary. The humanities, particularly literature, the visual arts, film and music, are most suited to promoting empathic skills when they are woven into the clinical scenario. Examples are provided to demonstrate how this may be achieved. Were we to succeed in highlighting the art of psychiatry in our educational programs, and as part of continuing professional development, I surmise that our patients and their families would be the beneficiaries. We cannot merely vow to act empathically and sensitively. Instead, we should embark on a lifelong journey through the wonderful world of literature, the visual arts, film and music. The experience will not only prove appealing and engaging, but it will also go far to enrich our personal and professional lives. PMID:16633530
Barth, Patte, Ed.
This issue of "Basic Education" presents articles that discuss, respectively, defining the language arts, an agenda for English, the benefits of two languages, a new teacher (presently teaching English in a foreign country) looking ahead, and the Shaker Fellowships awarded by the school district in Shaker Heights, Ohio. Articles in the…
Young, Bernard, Ed.
The 20 articles in this volume provide varying perspectives on the concepts of multiculturalism, multiethnicity, and global literacy and how to correct art curricula to include the diversity. The development and application of viable multiethnic curricula is a function of the interrelationship of pedagogy and social-cultural realities. The…
Leighninger, Robert D., Jr.
Looks at the historical origins of science, and notes that the most obvious difference between artistic and scientific communities is the higher press for orthodoxy among the latter. If there is no one all-embracing science, we may use museums devoted to scientific theory building and we might redesign our museums of art more along ethnographic…
New Mexico Western States Small Schools Project, Santa Fe.
The 1963 language arts project in Wagon Mound, New Mexico, was designed to make administrators and teachers aware of and concerned about the problems of teaching English to Spanish-speaking children in grades 1-12. General and specific objectives and instructional techniques stressed improvement of oral and written communication. An analysis of…
Newsom, Iris, Ed.
Liberally illustrated with photographs and drawings, this book is comprised of articles on the history of the performing arts at the Library of Congress. The articles, listed with their authors, are (1) "Stranger in Paradise: The Writer in Hollywood" (Virginia M. Clark); (2) "Live Television Is Alive and Well at the Library of…
One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy.
Wildman, Jul; Schumacher, Leni
Organized in eight chapters, this interdisciplinary resource packet highlights the relationship between art and archaeology. Chapter 1 presents the vocabulary and several introductory activities that prepare students to participate in the subsequent chapters. These chapters focus on (2) "Lascaux Cave Paintings"; (3) "Life Along the…
Meilach, Dona Z.
Provides historical background on the art of blacksmithing focusing on various artists, such as Victor Horta and Hector Guimard. Includes working definitions of terms and equipment. Suggests activities to help students gain awareness of ironwork and the scope of the artist-blacksmith output. (CMK)
In this article "teacher as public art" is used as a metaphor to describe and explain the all-too-common perceptions and experiences of professors of color, especially women, within the academy. Highlighted throughout this discussion are: (1) the relevance of locating self within the context of people and place; and (2) the importance of bringing…
Almanzar, Victor B.
The author, Victor B. Almanzar, reports on his introduction to the arts while growing up in New York as a young teenager. He felt like an outcast from society due to his language barrier and numerous ethnic groups different from his. He became involved with other students who, like himself, were harassed and suffered from bullying due to their…
Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…
Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.
These seven projects comprise the reading and language arts section of a report on Elementary Secondary Education Act Title IV programs for the state of Illinois. Complete descriptions are furnished for the following: a multi-text, individualized reading skills program for grades four through eight; a reading program which stresses phonetic and…
Meakins, J L
The earliest images of medicine and surgery in Western art are from the late Middle Ages. Although often attractive, at that time they were illustrative and mirrored the text on how to diagnose or treat a specific condition. These drawings in medieval manuscripts represent management of abscesses, perianal infection and fistulas, amputation, and wound dressings. With the Renaissance, art in all its forms flourished, and surgeons were represented at work draining carbuncles, infected bursae, and mastoiditis; managing ulcers, scrofula, and skin infections; and performing amputations. Specific diagnosis can be made, such as streptococcal infection in the discarded leg of the miraculous transplantation performed by Saints Cosmas and Damian and in the works of Rembrandt van Rijn and Frederic Bazille. Evocations of cytokine activity are evident in works by Albrecht Dürer, Edvard Munch, and James Tissot. The iconography of society's view of a surgeon is apparent and often not complimentary. The surgeon's art is a visual art. Astute observation leads to early diagnosis and better results in surgical infection and the septic state. Learning to see what we look at enhances our appreciation of the world around us but, quite specifically, makes us better clinicians.
A number of art projects are currently tackling the medical domain. This activity stems from a perceived need to increase the transparency and democracy of the medical domain, and it often questions the power relations and the one-dimensionality in current medical practices. This article sheds light on how artists process medical themes,…
Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…
Williams, Patterson; Garcia, Maria
In the late 1980s, the Denver Art Museum initiated efforts to make the museum a destination for families. From 1997 to 2001, with a generous grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts, these efforts came to fruition. From the moment they walk through the doors, families' needs are anticipated. For example, they can pick up a welcoming brochure, Free…
For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!
Edwards, Gerald D.
To many students the complex technical problems of computer graphics seem to put them beyond reach. Computer technology can be reduced to the bare basics, however. In this activity elementary art students add an intriguing dimension to a crayon drawing by completing a computer image counterpart of a previously drawn image. (RM)
Macaulay, Sara Grove
Discusses a fresco assignment taught during a workshop for an art history class where students created their own fresco paintings. Provides background information on the fresco technique and the materials that are used. Describes the process of creating the frescos and lists the needed materials. (CMK)
Crane, Diane, Ed.
Five different art activities, using different media, are described: (1) "mystery molds," using plaster and discarded packaging materials; (2) "calico cottages," using boxes and fabric; (3) "foam friends," using plastic foam packing pieces; (4) "bauble boxes," using spray can tops and papier mache; and (5) "soft stuff," using old clothing. (CJ)
Gore, Deborah, Ed.
This journal issue highlights a style of U.S. art and literature generally referred to as regionalism and focuses on Iowa's historical role in its development. Compiled to encourage student understanding about how people lived in the Midwest during the 1920s and 1930s, the depression years are featured through presentations; the study of the…
Virtual reality art at the turn of the millenium saw an explosion of creative exploration around this nascent technoloy. Though VR art has much in common with media art in general, the affordances of the technology gave rise to unique experiences, discourses, and artistic investigations. Women artists were at the forefront of the medium, shaping its aesthetic and technical development, and VR fostered a range of artistic concerns and experimentation that was largely distinct from closely related forms such as digital games. Today, a new wave of consumer technologies including 3D TV's, gestural and motion tracking interfaces, and headmount displays as viable, low-cost gaming peripherals drives a resurgence in interest in VR for interactive art and entertainment. Designers, game developers, and artists working with these technologies are in many cases discovering them anew. This paper explores ways of reconnecting this current moment in VR with its past. Can the artistic investigations begun in previous waves of VR be continued? How do the similarities and differences in contexts, communities, technologies, and discourses affect the development of the medium?
This report describes alternative assessment approaches to elementary visual art studies at an inner-city school in a large city in the Midwest. Sixth-grade neighborhood students participated in the study. Data revealed that sixth-grade students have spent little time on alternative assessment. Time constraints, a lack of curriculum addressing…
Art to Zoo: Teaching With the Power of Objects, 1995
Throughout history, in all parts of the world, people have struggled with the problem of loss. Moving words have been written and beautiful objects created to preserve the memory of people and their achievements. This theme issue explores the different ways that people have been praised and remembered in works of art. An introduction suggests a…
Students are often required to create work in a vacuum, handing in papers to an inauthentic audience for the purpose of receiving a grade. As a result, students often neglect to consider the effects that their work can have on others. In this article, the author highlights an art project from her middle school in Kings Park, New York, that…
Densmore, Marycay; Kolecki, Joseph C.; Miller, Allan; Petersen, Ruth; Terrell, Mike
Science Through ARts (STAR) is a free, international, cross-curricular program thematically aligned with "The Vision for Space Exploration," a framework of goals and objectives published by NASA in February 2004. Through the STAR program, students in grades 5 through 12 are encouraged to apply their knowledge in creative ways as they approach a…
Andrade, Magdalena; Sones, Mary
This publication presents three suggested language arts curriculum units. They represent a cross-section of materials that have been developed to deal with the learning problems of students with special language difficulties. Originally developed for grades 7-12, these units may be adapted for use in adult education or at other grade levels. They…
Hughes, Anna May
Argues for the inclusion of the arts in the curriculum because they involve elements of sound, movement, color, mass, energy, line, space, shape, and language, as well as emotion. Classes encourage perception of the cultural, aesthetic, and social development of man through a medium of personal expression. (JMF)
Paul, Rebecca K.
Describes the production of a dramatic musical, Chimera: A Journey to Redoubtia, at Chapman Elementary School in Anchor Point, Alaska. Student participation in the project, and students' rewards from participation, are detailed. Benefits of the integration of dramatics into the language arts curriculum are listed. (BB)
Interdisciplinary teaching is a great way to focus on overarching concepts and help students make connections across disciplines. Historically, art and science have been connected disciplines. The botanical prints of the 18th and 19th centuries and early work with microscopes are two examples of a need for strong artistic skills in the science…
Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others
Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…
Dean, Diane R.; Milam, Debora
Presents examples of independent study units for gifted high school students in a resource room setting. Both art appreciation and technique are covered in activities concerned with media (basics of pencil, India ink, pastels, crayons, oil, acrylics, and watercolors), subject matter (landscapes, animals, the human figure), design and illustration…
PETTY, WALTER T.
VERY LITTLE IMPORTANT RESEARCH HAS BEEN DONE IN THE FIELD OF LANGUAGE ARTS, AND THE RESEARCH INTEREST IN THAT FIELD ENDS WITH THE PUBLICATION OF RESEARCH REPORTS WHICH OFFER PRONOUNCEMENTS RATHER THAN RESEARCH EVIDENCE. THE PURPOSES OF RESEARCH OR HOW ITS FINDINGS COULD BE USED HAVE NOT BEEN CLARIFIED. THERE IS ALSO BLIND ACCEPTANCE OF WHAT…
Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth
The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.
Intended to help administrators and theatre teachers provide a theatre arts program accessible to disabled actors, technicians, and audiences, the guide focuses on ways to alleviate limitations in the theatre. The following topics are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): awareness (use of improvisations and simulations); acclimatization…
Cosier, Kimberly; Sanders, James H., III
This article sounds a call to action and addresses the challenges of creating inclusive, queer-affirming art teacher education curricula. We examine such challenges through case study vignettes of our varied US university settings and explore the perils of teaching in an increasingly queer-hostile culture. Strategies are given for avoiding attacks…
Heiman, Marilyn; And Others
Investigated effect of alexithymia upon person's art production. Administered Toronto Alexithymia Scale and 100-mm analog scales for depression and anxiety to 100 psychiatric patients. Each subject drew and identified his/her illness. All subjects, even those quantified as alexithymic, were able to graphically communicate their illness using these…
In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…
Meadow Woods Elementary in Orlando, Florida has a garden ceremony at the end of each year. This is a time when the whole school gathers together to celebrate another successful school year. The classrooms are built around the garden, so it is the centerpiece of the school. Students always do an art project for this ceremony. One year, students…
Matthew, Kathy, Ed.
This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A.…
Demarin, Vida; Bedeković, Marina Roje; Puretić, Marijana Bosnar; Pašić, Marija Bošnjak
Art is a product of human creativity; it is a superior skill that can be learned by study, practice and observation. Modern neuroscience and neuroimaging enable study of the processes during artistic performance. Creative people have less marked hemispheric dominance. It was found that the right hemisphere is specialized for metaphoric thinking, playfulness, solution finding and synthesizing, it is the center of visualization, imagination and conceptualization, but the left hemisphere is still needed for artistic work to achieve balance. A specific functional organization of brain areas was found during visual art activities. Marked hemispheric dominance and area specialization is also very prominent for music perception. Brain is capable of making new connections, activating new pathways and unmasking secondary roads, it is "plastic". Music is a strong stimulus for neuroplasticity. fMRI studies have shown reorganization of motor and auditory cortex in professional musicians. Other studies showed the changes in neurotransmitter and hormone serum levels in correlation to music. The most prominent connection between music and enhancement of performance or changing of neuropsychological activity was shown by studies involving Mozart's music from which the theory of "The Mozart Effect" was derived. Results of numerous studies showed that listening to music can improve cognition, motor skills and recovery after brain injury. In the field of visual art, brain lesion can lead to the visuospatial neglect, loss of details and significant impairment of artistic work while the lesions affecting the left hemisphere reveal new artistic dimensions, disinhibit the right hemisphere, work is more spontaneous and emotional with the gain of artistic quality. All kinds of arts (music, painting, dancing...) stimulate the brain. They should be part of treatment processes. Work of many artists is an excellent example for the interweaving the neurology and arts.
De Paulis, D.
AstroArts is the international, online cultural platform of Astronomers Without Borders (AWB). Cofounded in 2012 by visual artist Daniela de Paulis (IT/NL) and astronomer Thilina Heenatigala (Sri Lanka), AstroArts features creative works inspired by astronomy . AstroArts is an international initiative - lead by professionals working in different fields - and includes the 'guest artist of the month' and the Global Astronomy Month programmes. For the 'guest of the month', we feature one artist through a series of weekly blog posts and a Google Hangout on the last week of each month. The Hangout usually includes guests from several of the AWB ongoing programmes, together with the artist, in order to foster collaboration and interdisciplinary discussion. The 'guest of the month' programme is currently expanding to include a virtual residency initiative, which will allow one artist at the time to develop a project in collaboration with scientists affiliated with the AWB network. The projects developed as part of the virtual residency will foster global participation, making the most of online resources. Global Astronomy Month (GAM) is the most popular project of Astronomers Without Borders: founded in 2009 as a follow up of the International Year of Astronomy, GAM is a global platform for astronomy related events that take place every year in April. During GAM, AstroArts is widely featured through online panel discussions with artists and scientists, live film screenings and live performances, often especially designed for web streaming. More information on AstroArts can be found on: http://astronomerswithoutborders.org/news.htm
Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Sitek, Emilia J; Martinez Castrillo, Juan Carlos
Dystonia has a recent history in medicine. Focal dystonia was described in the 19th century by classic authors including Gowers, whilst generalized dystonia was described at the turn of the century. However, it is possible to find precise descriptions of dystonia in art, centuries before the medical definition. We have reviewed several pieces of art (sculpture, painting and literature) across the history that might represent descriptions of dystonia, from ancient period to nowadays. In classic times, the first reference to abnormal postures can be tracked back to the new Empire of Egypt (equinus foot), not to mention some recently described examples of dystonia from the Moche sculptures in Peru or Veracruz culture from Mexico. In Middle Ages it is possible to find many examples of sculptures in European cathedrals representing peasants with dramatic, presumably dystonic postures that coexist with amputation of limbs. This unique combination of dystonia and limb amputation probably represents ergotism. The painters Brueghel, Ribera and Velazquez also represented figures with postures likely to be dystonic. Literature is also a source of precise pre-neurological descriptions, especially during the 19th century. In David Copperfield, Dickens depicts characters with generalized dystonia (Uriah Heep), cervical dystonia (Mr. Sharp) and spasmodic dysphonia (Mr Creakle). Finally, even in modern Art (19th and 20th centuries), there are dramatic descriptions of abnormal postures that are likely to be dystonic, such as painful cervical dystonia (Brancusi), cervical dystonia with sensory trick (Modigliani) and upper limb dystonia (Wyspianski). However some postures presented in works of art may simply be a form of artistic expression and only bear unintentional resemblance to the dystonic postures. Art may be a source of neurological information, and that includes primary and secondary dystonia.
Dobbs, Stephen Mark
Author described the life and times of the San Francisco Art Institute and reviewed the forces that made San Francisco a city of more than ordinary awareness of the arts in its civic and civil existence. (Editor/RK)
Asserts that visual literacy will increase in importance as mass communication continues to exploit the use of images as the basic conveyors of information. Explores the role of visual literacy and art production in discipline-based art education. (JDH)
Gladding, Samuel T.
In this book counseling approaches with a variety of populations are examined using these creative arts: music; dance/movement; imagery; visual arts; literature; drama; and play and humor. It is noted that all of these arts are process-oriented, emotionally sensitive, socially directed, and awareness-focused. Chapter 1 discusses the history,…
In this lively and groundbreaking book, arts educator Marit Dewhurst examines why art is an effective way to engage students in thinking about the role they might play in addressing social injustice. Based on interviews and observations of sixteen high schoolers participating in an activist arts class at a New York City museum, Dewhurst identifies…
Kohl, MaryAnn F.; Ramsey, Renee; Bowman, Dana
Acknowledging that toddlers and 2-year-olds explore art as a learning experience or an experiment and are more interested in "doing" art than in making a finished product, this guide for caregivers compiles 75 art experiences, with over 100 variations, and tips for making the activities run smoothly. Following an introduction that includes…
Peppler, Kylie A.
Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…
Morris, Frances Johanna; Willis-Rauch, Mallori
Social Empowerment Art Therapy (SEAT) aims to address the stigma of mental illness through the artistic empowerment of participants. The model was developed within an inpatient psychiatric setting from observations of a shared governance structure that empowered residents. Incorporating an open art studio approach and social action art therapy,…
Hartle, Lynn C.; Pinciotti, Patricia; Gorton, Rebecca L.
Teaching to meet the diverse learning needs of twenty-first century, global learners can be challenging, yet a growing body of research points to the proved successes of arts-infused and integrated curricula, especially for building capacity for learning and motivation. This article presents the ArtsIN: Arts Integration and Infusion framework, a…
Parallels between martial arts and mathematics are explored. Misguided public perception of both disciplines, students' misconceptions, and the similarities between proofs and katas are among the striking commonalities between martial arts and mathematics. The author also reflects on what he has learned in his martial arts training, and how this…
Can going to an art museum make elementary school students better learners? It can if they are participating in Thinking Through Art, an innovative partnership uniting the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA), Boston Public Schools (BPS), and Visual Understanding in Education (VUE), a nonprofit educational research group committed to improving…
Herbert Read's "Education through Art" (henceforth ETA) is a pioneering attempt to provide empirical evidence for the need for art in the public school system. Rooting for art education, Read applies the conclusions of the newly evolving psychological research to his thesis on education, which he holds to be a contemporary revival of…
Connecting art and language arts, this guide offers creative lessons for more than 140 favorite children's books, most of which have been published within the last 10 years. The lessons help teachers inspire students in grades K-5 to create art projects related to a book's story. In the first part of the book, the author explains more than 50 art…
Alter-Muri, Simone; Klein, Linda
This brief report discusses the relevance of postmodern art to contemporary art therapy practice. Postmodernism is defined by art that breaks or blurs the boundaries between product and process, individual and group creation, and artist and viewer. A discussion of contemporary artists who use a postmodern framework, including Anselm Kiefer, Jenny…
Curticapean, Dan; Israel, Kai
The paper focuses on the work of an interdisciplinary project between photonics and digital art. The result is a poster collection dedicated to the International Year of Light 2015. In addition, an internet platform was created that presents the project. It can be accessed at http://www.magic-of-light.org/iyl2015/index.htm. From the idea to the final realization, milestones with tasks and steps will be presented in the paper. As an interdisciplinary project, students from technological degree programs were involved as well as art program students. The 2015 Anniversaries: Alhazen (1015), De Caus (1615), Fresnel (1815), Maxwell (1865), Einstein (1905), Penzias Wilson, Kao (1965) and their milestone contributions in optics and photonics will be highlighted.
A secondary art teacher describes how, when faced with district budget cuts, she developed links with local businesses willing to donate supplies, grants, and display spaces for her art program. (SJL)
This article describes VISTA (Video Instruction for Students in the Teaching of Art), a pilot program which presents videotaped art lessons to kindergarten through third-grade children in School District #12, Adams County, Colorado. (Author/SJL)
provides ten principal characteristics of operational art. First, aim provides direction to operationally minded forces. A cognitive tension exists...commanders to begin visualizing and describing possible combinations of actions to reach the desired end state, given the tensions identified in the...strategic continuities.85 The Iraq invasion of Kuwait in August of 1990 appeared as a " bolt from the blue" to regional Arab nations and their western
Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast.Both artists and scientists rely on the principles of mathematics and physics, whether consciously or intuitively, to achieve their goals.And, at the same time, both science and art rely on the creative questioner to ask, "Why do we do it this way?" and "Why not try something else and see what happens?"
Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast.Both artists and scientists rely on the principles of mathematics and physics, whether consciously or intuitively, to achieve their goals.And, at the same time, both science and art rely on the creative questioner to ask, "Why do we do it this way?" and "Why not try something else and see what happens?"
Ce livre revisite l'histoire de l'art dans ce qu'elle a de plus universel : son rapport au ciel. De l'Orient à l'Occident, de l'Antiquité à l'époque contemporaine, du classique au plus inattendu, il crée un espace singulier où se mêlent art et science, un musée imaginaire croisant sensibilité intime et compréhension du Cosmos, un jeu sans cesse réinventé...; car il n'y a pas une seule manière de regarder les étoiles. Bien sûr, le ciel possède un énorme pouvoir évocateur, une force inspiratrice à nulle autre pareille, mais l'inspiration n'est pas la seule des relations entre l'art et l'astronomie. En effet, les artistes peuvent apporter leur grain de sel aux révolutions scientifiques, tandis que l'astronomie peut aider à comprendre certaines œuvres. Avec près de 600 illustrations, cet ouvrage n'a pas pour but d'égrener la liste exhaustive des représentations de ciel étoilé, clair de lune, ambiance crépusculaire ou soleil de midi, mais plutôt d'aborder les multiples relations entre l'art et la science. Il s'agit d'une invitation à un voyage aux frontières mouvantes et incertaines des plus belles réalisations de l'esprit humain.
Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.
A three-part teacher's guide outlines methods of incorporating active art education and art appreciation into the elementary curriculum. The section on Arts and Learning contains readings on art and culture, art in education, and art as active learning as well as an introduction to the guide. The Arts and Teaching section contains four groups of…
Humanism and art - To what extent does art have a major role to play in twenty-first-century humanism? Greek philosophers believed that its purpose was ethical, serving to improve people by confronting them with evil and purging their passions. Nineteenth-century literature saw it as edifying and utilitarian, and for two centuries it was associated with the principles of goodness, truth, freedom and resistance to oppression, part of a general movement towards greater human solidarity based on shared experience. Literature and, more recently, cinema have been the most effective at defending human values. But the role of culture is not purely ethical: it also encourages a purely aesthetic reflection that has become the sole truth of creation. The aspiration to beauty reminds us that mankind is no ordinary species, but a reminiscence of the ideal objectified in works of art. The quest for the absolute is that of artists who draw on the lessons of history to come closer to the essence of spirituality and the cosmic centre of the world. Artistic vision is the ultimate vocation of humanity, achieving greatness and dignity in a constant quest for illumination, engaging in dialogue with the transcendent, and perhaps even transcending our own finiteness.
This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazić (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maletić (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djukić, Nenad Jeremić, Olivera Obradović, Romana Vujasinović, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.
Cocciolone, Kathy R.
Discusses an international art exchange project designed to teach fifth-grade students that the culture of a country is reflected in its art and that art is a universal language. Describes the contributions from Scotland, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Japan, and India. Points out ways to use materials in schools. (KO)
Examines the ambiguities of copyright legislation in regard to art, the origins and intractability of the attitude toward the graphic arts of the American public, and the ways in which librarians, individually and through their professional organizations, can attempt to meet the problem of art censorship. (Author)
Clark, Robin E.
Explains that evaluating student work in the arts must be balanced between student engagement in creation and quality of the finished product or performance, noting that art teachers must be ready with creative and effective means of evaluation. The paper defines performance assessment, examines the many forms of assessment used in art education,…
Pease, Ted, Ed.; McIntire, Lynnette, Ed.
Fourteen magazine articles pertaining to the state of the liberal arts are presented. After an introduction by Ted Pease, "Poet or Plumber?" (Pat Blakely) considers the value of a liberal arts degree. "CLA Profile" summarizes results of a study of College of Liberal Arts students and features five CLA students, while "The…
Martinez, Margaret Perea
In accordance with the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools' curriculum planning process, a language arts program evaluation was conducted during the 1986-87 school year in order: (1) to provide a comprehensive overview of the language arts program; (2) to determine if the language arts program meets the needs of students and parents; and (3)…
Compared to other subject areas, the arts seem more difficult to classify and evaluate. However, the arts' methods and content place them at the forefront of evaluation techniques that are beginning to permeate academic subject areas. Effective evaluation of arts programs depends not on principals' artistic expertise but on their ability to manage…
Cowley, W. H.
The so called "seven liberal arts" (grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music) basis of some colleges is criticized in this speech. It is noted that the Greeks had no knowledge of the seven liberal arts, which were also unknown to Romans during their era of domination. The liberal arts did not become seven until the…
This paper explores the art and craft of teaching in higher education. It presents a model of the relationship between art and craft drawn from the author's theoretical and empirical work, and provides examples from the higher education context to illustrate the model. It discusses the characteristics of teaching as art and craft and…
Lowe, Seana S.
Examines the ritualistic nature of community art, distinguishing elements and qualities essential for it to effectively generate private, organic relationships in settings where public independent relationships prevail. Research on two community art projects indicates that community art provides a ritual framework for social interaction by…
Discusses the use of pillows as an art form for children to explore. Addresses ways pillows can be used in art, such as: building things with pillows and using pillows and pillowcases to learn about design, to create portraits and figures, and to serve as a canvas for art. (CMK)
Gregoire, Michele A.; Lupinetti, Jude
The arts are the great equalizer in education. Regardless of native language, ability, or disability, music, art, and drama are accessible to all. Because the arts are largely nonverbal and focus on creativity, students in any classroom can participate in various satisfying ways. Further, this participation can lead to better understanding and…
Laurie, Frank, Comp.
Intended for professionals interested in incorporating arts activities into the educational programs for disabled students, Part One of the document contains arts activities contributed by clinician-presenters in the 1978 Illinois series of Very Special Arts Festivals; while Part Two contains activities contributed by clinician-presenters and…
As a child, the author saw that art held a daily purpose for her family. It inspired her grandmother to worship and communicate to God and her many saints. This art uplifted them with spiritual, miraculous images that taught them morals based on the narratives of the image. The first work of art she owned was a painting given to her by her Tia…
Saunders, Robert J.
Lists the presidents of the National Art Education Association (NAEA) since its founding and describes their messages in "Art Education." Many messages dealt with NAEA activities or with attempts to increase membership. The latest president, Edmund B. Feldman, has issued a call for getting "art into the mainstream of…
Mauck, Marchita B.
Reviews attitudes toward art in the early Catholic Church, considering the ability of art to influence those who experience it. Highlights the spiritualism of the Russian painter, Wassily Kandinsky. Suggests ways in which today's religious institutions can use art as a form of outreach to bring greater meaning to members of their congregations.…
Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.
The guide presents instructions for art activities to be used by parents at home, particularly with handicapped children. The objective is to encourage parents to bring the arts into the lives of these children on a regular basis and also to help them develop basic learning skills, self-esteem, and an interest in the arts. The guide is divided…
Surgenor, Peter; And Others
Three camp directors discuss their policies regarding body art and body piercing. Only one director reported a strict policy prohibiting tattoos or body art based on standards that the camp portrays to families. However, all directors enforced policies prohibiting clothing or body art that mentions alcohol, tobacco, drug use, or inappropriate…
Rettig, Perry R.; Rettig, Janet L.
Reviews recent brain research in education. Provides five implications for teaching in art: (1) use emotion; (2) use different sense; (3) promote student self-direction; (4) enable social learning; and (5) encourage pattern finding. Describes two sample art units demonstrating how the five implications and art instruction can be integrated. (CMK)
As a new teacher in 2008, the author inherited an awesome advocacy tool from her predecessor, art educator Stephania Crowder, via her annual sidewalk art activity. In this activity, students recreate art masterpieces on a 4-5' (1-1.5 m) scale on the sidewalk leading to the front entrance of the school. This project never fails to garner positive…
Students often have a hard time equating time spent on art history as time well spent in the art room. Likewise, art teachers struggle with how to keep interest in their classrooms high when the subject turns to history. Some teachers show endless videos, with the students nodding sleepily along to the narrator. Others try to incorporate small…
This 5-part video lesson deals with discipline-based art education in the elementary school. The video features a university professor who is a specialist in methods and the integration of art into the elementary classroom; each part of the video lesson is 30 minutes in length. First defining discipline-based art education as an approach, not a…
South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Curriculum Development Section.
This handbook describes the nature and content of art education and includes some suggested possibilities for implementing art programs. It is directed to principals, directors of instruction, superintendents, and boards of education, and is intended to help school districts improve, expand, and develop an art curriculum that is suitable to each…
The author first decided to take art classes out of curiosity, but art gradually changed her perspective on life and became a medium through which she saw herself. This hobby became a process by which she began to create an artwork of her own life. This article describes what the author has learned about her own life through art and how it has…
Characterizes the use of recycling "junk" as a means for creating art by exploring various recycling traditions that are present in the United States. Demonstrates to students that "junk" can be fashioned into beautiful works of art. Offers four works of art and provides discussion questions and project ideas for each artwork. (CMK)
Guilfoil, Joanne K.
The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers…
American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.
The 30th annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Minneapolis in 1968. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "A Fresh Look at Industrial Arts," (2) "New Curricular Concepts," (3) "Making Education Relevant," (4) "Industrial Arts in an Educational System for the Seventies," (5) "New Concepts in…
Johnson, Mark M.
The Smithsonian American Art Museum has created and will tour an exhibition on a most unusual but extremely popular art form--"The Art of Video Games." As one of the largest and first of its type, this exhibition will document and explore a 40-year evolution of video games as an artistic medium, with a focus on striking visual effects and the…
Passow, Harry; And Others
This panel interview from the Indiana University Summer Arts Institute contrasts notions about a traditional Bauhaus foundation with a flexible, organic curriculum model. Directed instruction is also compared to problem-solving approaches. Peer teaching, science for art majors, and art for science majors are also discussed. (Author/PB)
Before "applied science" and "technology" became keywords, the concept of art was central to discourse about material culture and its connections to natural knowledge. By the late nineteenth century, a new discourse of applied science had replaced the older discourse of art. This older discourse of art, especially as presented in Enlightenment encyclopedias, addressed the relationship between art and science in depth. But during the nineteenth century the concept of fine art gradually displaced the broader meanings of "art," thus undermining the utility of the term for discourse on the relationship between knowledge and practice. This narrowed meaning of "art" obscured key aspects of the industrial world. In effect, middle-class agents of industrialism, including "men of science," used the rhetoric of "applied science" and, later, "technology" to cement the exclusion of artisanal knowledge from the discourse of industrial modernity.
Ediriweera, Damjee D.; Marshall, Ian W.
Fuzzy ART has been proposed for learning stable recognition categories for an arbitrary sequence of analogue input patterns. It uses a match based learning mechanism to categorise inputs based on similarities in their features. However, this approach does not work well for neural control, where inputs have to be categorised based on the classes which they represent, rather than by the features of the input. To address this we propose and investigate ReART, a novel extension to Fuzzy ART. ReART uses a feedback based categorisation mechanism supporting class based input categorisation, online learning, and immunity from the plasticity stability dilemma. ReART is used for online control by integrating it with a separate external function which maps each ReART category to a desired output action. We test the proposal in the context of a simulated wireless data reader intended to be carried by an autonomous mobile vehicle, and show that ReART training time and accuracy are significantly better than both Fuzzy ART and Back Propagation. ReART is also compared to a Naïve Bayesian Classifier. Naïve Bayesian Classification achieves faster learning, but is less accurate in testing compared to both ReART, and Bach Propagation.
Pictured is NASA's poster art for the X-34 technology Demonstrator. The X-34 was part of NASA's Pathfinder Program which demonstrated advanced space transportation technologies through the use of flight experiments and experimental vehicles. These technology demonstrators and flight experiments would support the Agency's goal of dramatically reducing the cost of access to space and would define the future of space transportation pushing technology into a new era of space development and exploration at the dawn of the new century. The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.
Evolution is one of the most interesting and creative processes we currently understand, so it should come as no surprise that artists and designers are embracing the use of evolution in problems of artistic creativity. The material in this section illustrates the diversity of approaches being used by artists and designers in relation to evolution at the boundary of art and science. While conceptualising human creativity as an evolutionary process in itself may be controversial, what is clear is that evolutionary processes can be used to complement, even enhance human creativity, as the chapters in this section aptly demonstrate.
The use of radiation detectors in the analysis of art objects represents a very special application in a true interdisciplinary field. Radiation detectors employed in this field detect, e.g., x-rays, γ-rays, β particles, and protons. Analyzed materials range from stones, metals, over porcelain to paintings. The available nondestructive and noninvasive analytical methods cover a broad range of techniques. Hence, for the sake of brevity, this chapter will concentrate on few techniques: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE).
Ostwald, P F; Baron, B C; Byl, N M; Wilson, F R
Arts medicine has come of age, resulting from 3 important developments over the past decade: improved methods of diagnosis and treatment, an awareness that artists suffer from special problems related to their occupation and lifestyle, and the establishment of health programs emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach to these patients. We focus on the patterns of illness afflicting performing artists, specifically dancers, singers, actors, and instrumental musicians, and explain some of the things a health care team can do in treating these patients. The conditions governing these patients' lives--early exposure to high expectations of excellence, incessant demands for perfection, long periods of intense practicing, fierce competition, high levels of anxiety associated with performance, and uncertain careers--need to be understood. Levels of disease and disability are remarkably high, but artists often ignore symptoms. We discuss the musculoskeletal, neurologic, vocal, psychological, and other syndromes found among performers and some of the difficulties in treating them. The prevention of injury, conservative management, collaboration with teachers, and a psychotherapeutic approach are desirable. Arts medicine programs for professional consultation exist in several major cities of the United States and abroad. Although research is needed regarding the effectiveness of health care services for performing artists, the scientific literature devoted to this field is growing. PMID:8128702
Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?
Arts and climate science have more in common points than it appears at first glance. Artistic works can help us to directly or indirectly learn about climatic conditions and weather events in the past, but are also very efficient in raising awareness about climate change nowadays. Long scientific articles get very little response among general public, because most people don't want to read long articles. There is a need to communicate climate change issues more powerfully and more directly, with simple words, pictures, sculptures, installations. Artistic works can inspire people to take concrete action. A number of communication media can fit this purpose. Artists can speak to people on an emotional and intellectual level; they can help people to see things from another perspective and in new ways. Artists can motivate change; they have the freedom to weave facts, opinions, thoughts, emotion and colour all together. Paintings are witnesses of the past climatic conditions. We can learn from paintings, architectural constructions and sculptures about the vegetation, weather events, animals, and way of living. Mentioning only some few examples: old paintings in caves, also Flemish painters are often shown for their winter landscapes, and paintings are very useful to illustrate how fast glaciers are melting. At the end, we shall not forget that dilapidation of art masterpieces often depends on climatic conditions.
Bukvic, Nenad; Elling, John W
"Healing is best accomplished when art and science are conjoined, when body and spirit are probed together", says Bernard Lown, in his book "The Lost Art of Healing". Art has long been a witness to disease either through diseases which affected artists or diseases afflicting objects of their art. In particular, artists have often portrayed genetic disorders and malformations in their work. Sometimes genetic disorders have mystical significance; other times simply have intrinsic interest. Recognizing genetic disorders is also an art form. From the very beginning of my work as a Medical Geneticist I have composed personal "algorithms" to piece together evidence of genetics syndromes and diseases from the observable signs and symptoms. In this paper we apply some 'gestalt' Genetic Syndrome Diagnostic algorithms to virtual patients found in some art masterpieces. In some the diagnosis is clear and in others the artists' depiction only supports a speculative differential diagnosis.
Fine art is good medicine. It comforts, elevates the spirit, and affirms life and hope. Art in the healthcare setting, combined with outstanding care and service, creates an environment that encourages healing and supports the work of medical professionals. As one of the world’s great medical centers, Cleveland Clinic has always included the arts in its healing environment. The four founders and subsequent leadership encouraged artistic and musical expression by employees. Distinguished artworks have long hung on the walls. In 1983, an Aesthetics Committee was officially formed at Cleveland Clinic to address issues of art and design in Cleveland Clinic facilities. PMID:24282686
Fine art is good medicine. It comforts, elevates the spirit, and affirms life and hope. Art in the healthcare setting, combined with outstanding care and service, creates an environment that encourages healing and supports the work of medical professionals. As one of the world's great medical centers, Cleveland Clinic has always included the arts in its healing environment. The four founders and subsequent leadership encouraged artistic and musical expression by employees. Distinguished artworks have long hung on the walls. In 1983, an Aesthetics Committee was officially formed at Cleveland Clinic to address issues of art and design in Cleveland Clinic facilities.
Fitzner, Dale H.
Described is a program designed by the Arts Education Collaborative (AEC) in Tucson, Arizona. It combines the best of art programs by art educators, artists-in-schools programs, and resources from the arts community, culminating in a comprehensive school arts program, including art, theater, opera, dance, and museums. (KC)
Szekely, George; Bucknam, Julie Alsip
"Art Teaching" speaks to a new generation of art teachers in a changing society and fresh art world. Comprehensive and up-to-date, it presents fundamental theories, principles, creative approaches, and resources for art teaching in elementary through middle-school. Key sections focus on how children make art, why they make art, the unique…
This article discusses how art activities can be adapted for students with visual impairments, focusing on textural art, sculpture, sound art, smell, taste, kinetic art, dioramas and maps, and computer art. Suggestions for adapting visual arts are also offered, by using good contrast in projects or by enlarging or simplifying pictures. (JDD)
Betts, J. David; And Others
This study describes two years of research with the Arts Integration Program (AIP) of the Tucson Pima Arts Council, Tucson, AZ. AIP supports teachers in integrating fine arts activities into their classrooms. AIP provides lesson outlines and demonstration lessons by arts specialists in music, dance, theater arts, and visual arts. The initial phase…
Dorn, Charles M.
The art education literature has recently given a good deal of attention to the topic of Visual Culture in Art Education (VCAE). VCAE appears to some art educators as the next new emphasis in art education following Discipline-Based Art Education. At least four recent theme issues of Art Education have addressed the topic in various ways. All of…
Law, Sophia S. M.
Background: Under the challenge of many post-modern theories and critics on art and art history, the boundaries and definition of art has becoming more diverse. Conventional art appreciation no longer covers all the debates and issues arising from the complex meaning of art in the modern world. Art education today must widen students' vision of…
Falls, Sarah E.
Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks... financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... Arts (state folk arts projects review) meeting, scheduled for January 19-20, 2012 in Room 714....
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by teleconference...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel; Meetings Pursuant to... given that four meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at... are approximate): Arts Education (application review): October 4-5, 2010 in Room 716. A portion...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks..., evaluation, and recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by teleconference at...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by teleconference...
Koh, T C
Wushu (Martial Arts), mistakenly known in the West as Kung-Fu, is a system of Chinese boxing which is closely linked with the traditional practice of Chinese medicine. Many of the masters (Sifu) are Chinese physicians who often recommend health exercises and the soft form of martial arts to their patients, while the hard form is suitable for sport and self-defense. Martial arts is a great discipline for body and mind, suitable for all who treasure physical and mental health.
Wertz, S. K.
A look at Danto's many discussions of the end of art and its meaning. Also examined is Hegel's idea of the end of art and his use of the dialectic to explain it. Both philosophers sought the meaning of art in the object or artwork--more so for Danto, because he thinks the object is a material one that would exclude conceptual artists' thought…
This book uses Caldecott Award winning books as a resource for classroom teachers to provide students with experiences that combine art with children's literature. The book contains three lessons for each of the 57 Caldecott books from 1938-1994. Lessons examine the key art concepts contained in the illustrations of the Caldecott books. These…
Erickson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.
Written by teachers from the United States and Canada, these lesson plans focus on integrating the teaching of history and art history. Seventeen lesson plans cover the topics of (1) Slavery, Henry Ossawa Tanner, and His Family--Grades: Elementary; (2) Chinese Landscape Painting--Grades: Elementary; (3) Regionalism: American Art of the Great…
McBride, Robert, Jr.
Endorses the television series entitled "Culture Shock" that views controversial art as an artifact suggesting that the arts, and controversies surrounding them, can help viewers think critically about the issues of past and present societies. Focuses on "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," the painting "Olympia,"…
Unrath, Kathy; Luehrman, Mick
A commitment to providing students with multiple learning venues is the foundation of the Art Education program at the University of Missouri. Integral to the curriculum is the belief that all students, university and K-12 alike, should have the opportunity to view original works of art. Having access to museums at an early age sets the tone for…
Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne
This textbook integrates chemistry and art with hands-on activities and fascinating demonstrations that enable students to see and understand how the science of chemistry is involved in the creation of art. It investigates such topics as color integrated with electromagnetic radiation, atoms, and ions; paints integrated with classes of matter,…
Apps, Linda; Mamchur, Carolyn
The task of writing about the process of making and contextualising art can be overwhelming for some graduate students. While the challenge may be due in part to limited time and attention to the practice of writing, in a practice-based arts thesis there is a deeper issue: how the visual and written components are attended to in a manner that…
Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.
This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in graphic arts. Addressed in the individual sections are basic graphic arts (composition, stone and press work, offset printing, silk screen, and photography) and allied graphic…
Needle, Andrew; Corbo, Christopher; Wong, Denise; Greenfeder, Gary; Raths, Linda; Fulop, Zoltan
Two of this article's authors--an art professor and a biology professor--shared a project for advanced biology, art, nursing, and computer science majors involving scientific research that used digital imaging of the brain of the zebrafish, a newly favored laboratory animal. These contemporary and innovative teaching and learning practices were a…
Discusses the role of visual images in the classification of art objects and the research needs of art historians in the context of the design of current printed resources and online databases in this discipline. The topics covered include the need for illustrated online reference works and appropriate indexing for access to bibliographic sources.…
Davis, Diane; Tadrick, Christine
This module is the first of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on fundamentals of commercial art are six instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit…
Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.
GRADES OR AGES: Junior and senior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: Art. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide has four main sections: 1) "Aims of the Art Program"; 2) "Function of the Guide"; 3) "Course Descriptions"; and 4) "References, Source Materials, Aids." The course descriptions in section 3 are arranged in chart form with six…
Díaz, Erin M.
Supplementing the foreign language curriculum with the incorporation of art museum visits has benefits for students, faculty, the campus art gallery, and the institution. Such a collaborative program serves to expand the classroom and complement instruction by providing learners with a new space to engage in authentic practice in the target…
Many airports have transformed empty waiting spaces into mini malls, children's play areas, and displays of beautiful art, making a long wait a bit more pleasant. For the modern airport, showcasing art has become an important component, with perks including a built-in global audience, as well as the vast spaces of modern architecture. For the art…
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... nine meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): State and Regional/Arts Education (review of State Arts Agency Partnership Agreements):...
Theories in art education with a western origin have been applied in Egypt to support the revival of folkloric art. There are three important phases in the teaching of a unit on applique, a decorative craft dating back to the earliest Egyptian history. (AM)
Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students which also can be used with other grade levels. Explains that the artwork of Wassily Kandinsky served as inspiration for this lesson. Explains that the students learned about abstract art and used watercolors to create their own paintings in the style of Kandinsky. (CMK)
Art is all about the process of exploration. The final results are less important than what a child imagines, experiences, and learns along the way. Packed with a year's worth of art projects kids can create out of everyday objects and recycled materials. From buttons to Bubble Wrap and rocks to socks, the author shows how to plan exciting art…
In this article, an art teacher relates how she uses her enthusiasm for collecting aesthetic objects to transform or generate ideas for art problems for her students, in the belief that teachers teach best about that which they are most enthusiastic. In her classes, she introduces the idea of collecting by asking students to discuss what they…
Singer, Carla Michalove
Science and art have much in common. Artists as well as scientists carefully observe and communicate their subjects. Throughout time, artists have been involved in experimentation, an important scientific method which can lead to new discoveries. Both scientific developments and the ongoing history of art are cumulative. This learning packet is an…
In February and March 2007, the author investigated the possibilities of visual culture art education in two Greek Primary schools in Athens with students in Grades 5 and 6. One of her goals was to determine whether or not the telenovela genre was appropriate as curriculum content in primary art education. She chose telenovelas because they are a…
Anand, Susan Ainlay; Anand, Vinod K.
Reports on the experiences of patients with laryngeal cancer who used art therapy. Drawing on 14 years of experience and 109 laryngeal cancer patients, describes treatment results and the case material substantiating the distinct role of art therapy. Provides an overview of the special medical and therapeutic needs of this group. (RJM)
Hetrick, Laura J.
In this commentary, Laura Hetrick focuses on what is inherently missing from the art education literature about teaching future teachers of art--of addressing nascent teachers' personal, pedagogical, and professional desires. Specifically, she considers teachers' desires for power and recognition, their desires to love and be loved, and…
Guided by its arts educators, every school can learn to design activities that foster the serious play of a creatively invested learner. Bring arts educators into one's planning meetings; give them opportunities at faculty meetings to catalyze teachers' creative instincts. This effort does not require a new program or new curriculum. Teachers…
Jaramillo, Nathalia E.
In this essay, the author examines the art of rebellion in the context of the 2014 Venezuelan student uprising. Utilizing the lens of Latin American decolonial thought and examining the processes of developing popular power among youth, the author looks into the various ways that youth produce art to communicate and enforce the ideas and values…
Talley, Clarence, Sr.
Art has a way of helping students better understand and appreciate the world around them, particularly the things that are most important to them. Hip hop is one of those generational genres that capture the attention of young students like few other things do. Drawing on this genre to get students to create art is an excellent way to demonstrate…
The author discusses the potential hazards of working with fibers, dyes, and wax in textile art projects: bacteria, dust, poisons, allergies, and fumes. Safety precautions for working with dyes are listed. This article is one of seven in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)
Roman, Harry T.
One hears quite frequently how the arts continually suffer in the academic day. Many long-time technology education champions certainly know what this is all about; but there may be some ways to use technology education to bring the arts into the classroom. This article offers a series of activities and suggestions that will help students better…
This paper is an enquiry into the unpredictability of the liberally educated mind. We are all familiar with the value placed on the word "critical" when it figures prominently in justifications for liberal arts pedagogy, as in "a liberal arts education should foster the capacity for critical thinking." However, depending on the…
Le Tendre, Mary Jean
Argues that although improving academic achievement is the crux of Title I, the arts can contribute to enhancing academic achievement in at-risk students. An example of this approach is provided via partnership between the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and Washington (DC) metropolitan school districts. (GR)
York Borough Board of Education, Toronto (Ontario).
Over 20 ideas for planning art programs for grades 1 through 6 are included in this planning guide. Introductory comments stress the individuality of children and caution art teachers not to judge by adult standards and not to direct lessons step-by-step or show how things should be drawn. Outdoor sketching is recommended as a way to develop…
Franks, Anton; Thomson, Pat; Hall, Chris; Jones, Ken
What are possible overlaps between arts practice and school pedagogy? How is teacher subjectivity and pedagogy affected when teachers engage with arts practice, in particular, theatre practices? We draw on research conducted into the Learning Performance Network (LPN), a project that involved school teachers working with the Royal Shakespeare…
Ulman, Elinor, Ed.; Dachinger, Penny, Ed.
The essays in this collection are grounded in theoretical underpinnings which range from Freud to Montessori. The focus encompasses educational and psychiatric concerns. Essays are organized in 4 parts. Part 1, "Theory of Art Therapy," includes: (1) "Art Therapy: Problems of Definition" (Elinor Ulman); (2) "Therapy is Not Enough: The Contribution…
Although television presentations of theater, ballet and opera often lose something of the original, it can equally well be argued that almost any presentation of these arts on television provides large number of people with some access to arts which would otherwise be inaccessible. In addition, even though direct presentations of many works of…
For most students, classes in the arts are more than just a means of gathering credits, they are about getting involved in what the students like, at least for a period. They feel that the classes are a healthy escape, a time to recuperate and do what they do well. In the art classrooms, music studios, and video labs, students feel they are part…
Barley, Steven D.
Six basic rationales for teaching art must be fused together if we are to reach the objective of helping non-artists achieve sensitivity in reacting to and acting upon their environment. The historical rationale reasons that if we can see the importance of art in previous cultures, we must transmit that importance in our culture by educating…
Provides six lesson outlines to help teachers motivate high school students to discuss basic questions about the meaning and function of art, aesthetic responses cultural context, and artistic skill. Illustrates artwork from the Museum of Modern Art by Marcel Duchamp, Pablo Picasso, Jackson Pollock, and Meret Oppenheim. (KM)
Sunderland, Jaqueline Tippett
The potential force for the mutual enrichment of the arts on the lives of older people was investigated by an advisory committee representing the John F. Kennedy Center for Performing Arts and The National Council on the Aging. This prospectus, a report of the committee findings, includes a review of a representative spectrum of cultural programs…
In 1971, members of the Naples Art Association (NAA) in Naples, Florida, initiated a scholarship program designed to encourage local young artists to realize their dreams of becoming professionals in the visual arts. Since then, awards have been given annually by the NAA to Collier County high-school students in conjunction with an exhibition of…
The art room can become a canvas, covered in white paper from floor to ceiling. Doors, windows--even the sink--can play a role as a canvas. One may begin by dressing everything in white. When students get dressed in white paper clothing, watch out--they have become walking canvases ready for painting. Beyond the art room, one imagines draping…
Jacobus, Peter H.
The liberal arts have always been considered the purest form of education and its proponents have vigorously defended it against the encroachments of "practicalism." But if we can legitimately claim that liberal arts are truly an education for life, we must remind ourselves that work is the most significant ingredient of our post-educational…
Lynn, David H., Ed.
The elementary secondary curriculum in the United States could benefit from redefining the arts as a discipline to be interwoven into the school's curriculum. Four essays in this issue explore the question of the arts in education. John Holdren comments in "Will the Band Play On?" that music educators must stress the serious study of music as its…
In their 2005 exhibit of John Biggers' work, the New Orleans Museum of Art described it as being inspired by "African art and culture, the injustices of a segregated United States, the stoic women in his own family, and the heroes of everyday survival." In this article, the author describes how her students reinterpreted Biggers' work.…
Describes felting as the process of making felt using sheep's wool from fibers without weaving or knitting. Explains that teachers can incorporate felting into a lesson exploring the background behind this process, as an extension of collage or textile arts, as a means to studying abstract art, or in a fashion design unit. (CMK)
Merrion, Margaret Dee; Boothby, Paula R.
To integrate the arts and basic curriculum, teachers used advertising as a theme. Viewing it as a form of communication, they developed an integrated reading/language arts and music unit to strengthen both right and left brain modes of knowing. (LHW)
James Hamilton's "The Art of Theater" is a careful and imaginative scrutiny of the art of theater done at the very highest level. In this article, the author comments on a number of issues raised by Hamilton's work. These include: the definition of theatrical enactment; the place of pretending and imagining in theatrical performance; the nature of…
Lewis, Hilda P., Ed.
This book is addressed primarily to those who facilitate early learning in art education. It consists of essays by writers whose background enables them to speak insightfully on their topic. Several essays are written by teachers of preprimary children. Others were written by research workers who have studied the art of young children. Articles…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
This study was made within the art education programme adopted by the Unesco General Conference at its fifteenth session. Its purpose is to provide educational administrators, students, teachers and the general public with information showing what countries are thinking and doing about art education. Twelve member nations were selected to reflect…
Many of the most popular genres of narrative art are designed to elicit negative emotions: emotions that are experienced as painful or involving some degree of pain, which people generally avoid in their daily lives. Traditionally, the question of why people seek out such experiences of painful art has been presented as the paradox of tragedy, and…
The chairs of four arts education professional organizations--Jane Bonbright of the National Dance Education Organization, Michael Butera of the National Association for Music Education, Lynne Kingsley of the American Alliance for Theatre and Education, and Deborah Reeve of the National Art Education Association--were individually interviewed for…
The arts have long been valued for their aesthetic contributions to education, and studies have been conducted to demonstrate their contribution to academic performance in an attempt to justify their inclusion in the curriculum. Art integration involves learning core content subjects (math, reading, language, science, social studies) through the…
Hughes, Thomas A., Jr.; And Others
This guidebook presents facility guidelines to aid the school planner in determining appropriate facilities for a model curriculum. The first of four major sections, The Intent of Industrial Arts, discusses the mission and goals, instructional objectives, function of industrial arts, and the model curriculum. Section 2 focuses on facilities for…
The booklet provides information and resources for cultural organizations and institutions interested in making the arts accessible to deaf citizens. Preliminary information includes a discussion of deafness in America and the deaf in the history of the arts and notes that the era of silent films was the golden age of cinema. Listed are 36…
Dobbs, Stephen Mark
Looks at reasons for the relatively low status of art education, and developments pointing to a hopeful trend for improving the prospects of art education (e.g., the evolution of a professional field, the creation of organizations with diverse interests, growth of curriculum research, private and public programming, and the utilization of new…
Skills, jobs, and even self-enrichment were not historically regarded as the ultimate goals of the liberal arts; they were byproducts. The reason liberal arts education was called "liberal" in the first place was because it was supposed to cultivate a free human being. Education on the liberal model aimed to liberate. The goal of liberal…
Feller, Thomas R., Jr.; Gibbs-Griffith, Brian; D'Acquisto, Linda; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Croley, Cynthia B.
Policymakers sometimes view arts education and experiential learning as distractions from the goal of enabling all students to master rigorous content standards. The three school programs described in this article, however, demonstrate that content standards can be integrated into engaging, motivating curriculums based on the arts and authentic…
Blandy, Doug, Ed.; Congdon, Kristin G., Ed.
Contributors to this anthology analyze the contemporary academic methods for critiquing art and suggest new ways that might further the understandings of art created by diverse individuals and groups. Essays are organized into three sections. Part 1, "Changes and Extensions in Critical Approaches" includes essays: (1) "Beyond Universalism in Art…
This article promotes the field of disability studies as a valuable resource for expanding art education's concept of disability and as a promising venue for interdisciplinary dialogue. While art education has persistently supported special education since its inception, disability advocacy has advanced in the past two decades toward…
Miller, Carol L.
Investigated effects of art history enrichment of art therapy task on anxiety, time on task, and art product quality among 13 chronic adult psychiatric day hospital patients. Results indicated art history enrichment task reduced anxiety and increased time on task. Art organization level tended toward significant increase compared with control…
Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo
Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century.
Ladino, Lady Diana; Hunter, Gary; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco
The impact of health and disease has led many artists to depict these themes for thousands of years. Specifically, epilepsy has been the subject of many famous works, likely because of the dramatic and misunderstood nature of the clinical presentation. It often evokes religious and even mythical processes. Epilepsy surgical treatment has revolutionized the care of selected patients and is a relatively recent advance. Epilepsy surgery has been depicted in very few artistic works. The first portrait showing a potential surgical treatment for patients with epilepsy was painted in the 12th century. During the Renaissance, Bosch famously provided artistic commentary on traditional beliefs in "The stone of madness". Several of these works demonstrate a surgeon extracting a stone from a patient's head, at one time believed to be the source of all "folly", including epileptic seizures, psychosis, intellectual disability, depression, and a variety of other illnesses. There are some contemporary art pieces including themes around epilepsy surgery, all of them depicting ancient Inca Empire procedures such as trepanning. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with epilepsy surgery and also its historical context at the time the work was produced. We also present a painting from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino that represents the patient's journey through refractory epilepsy, investigations, and ultimately recovery. Through this work, the artist intends to communicate hope and reassurance to patients going through this difficult process.
Roberts, E.; Morgan, R.; King, D.; Clerkin, L.
Funduscopy is an integral part of the physical examination, especially in older patients in whom visual problems and systemic diseases affecting the fundi (eg, diabetes mellitus) are more common. We have assessed the views of hospital doctors to funduscopy via a questionnaire survey, reviewed the case notes to see whether or not funduscopy is carried out on older patients, and assessed the views of older patients on vision via a questionnaire survey. Review of the case notes showed only three of 100 patients had had funduscopy. Most patients reported a visual problem on specific enquiry. Whilst most hospital doctors believed funduscopy was important, many felt they had insufficient training in this procedure and felt their skills could be improved. We conclude that older patients are missing out on routine funduscopy. Hospital doctors should be aware that not all patients complain of visual problems and specific enquiry should be made. The issue of training and encouragement to perform funduscopy needs to be addressed before funduscopy becomes a forgotten art. Keywords: funduscopy; visual impairment; audit PMID:10533632
Heart is of great importance in maintaining the life of the body. Enough to stop working for a few minutes to cause death, and hence the great importance in physiology, medicine, and research. This fact was already emphasized in the Bible in the Book of Proverbs, chapter 4 verse 23: "Keep your heart with all diligence, for out of it is the wellspring of life." Art was able to demonstrate the heart from various aspects; realistically, as done by Leonardo de Vinci who demonstrated the halves of the heart and its blood vessels. Symbolically, as a source of life, the heart was demonstrated by the artist Mrs. Erlondeiel, as a caricature by Salvador Dali, as an open heart by Sawaya, etc. Finally, it should be emphasized that different demonstrations of the human heart by many artworks make this most important organ of our body (that cannot be seen from outside) more familiar and clearer to us. And this is the purpose of this article-to demonstrate the heart through a large number of artworks of different kinds.
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, 2006
As professionals, arts education teachers must model ethical use both when working with students and when preparing materials for classroom use. This document provides arts educators with guiding principles for managing a classroom where they both model and teach appropriate, ethical behavior, in adherence to copyright policy, legislation, and the…
What types of considerations are appropriate for selecting artists to represent key themes in the history of art? How do minority artists in the United States fit into this selection process? Previously, most art history courses and texts emphasized the highlights of significant creative expression as evolving in the Western world antiquity. In…
Welter, Cole H., Ed.
The inaugural issue of this annual journal explores issues affecting art education practices in Alaska and seeks to contribute to a national dialogue on art education policy. "Art as General Education" (Harry S. Broudy) addresses the essential value and nature of the arts in general education. It argues for visual arts education as a key…
The pedagogy of performing arts courses in theatre, film, music, and dance programs found in most liberal arts curricula is clearly experiential insofar as the making of art involves active engagement in classroom activities or events that are staged or filmed. But because many educators outside the arts perceive performing arts programs as solely…
The visual arts can be an important and rich domain of learning for young children. In PreK education, The Task Force on Children's Learning and the Arts: Birth to Age Eight ("Young children and the arts: Making creative connections", Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership, 1998) recommends that art experiences for young children…
Kula, Judith A., Ed.
This document provides art information with a range of applications for Arizona preschool teachers, administrators, and parents to guide them in their development of an appropriate, preschool art curriculum. Three primary goals are endorsed: (1) making art; (2) looking at and talking about art; and (3) art in culture and history. Instruction in…
Anderson, Frances E.; And Others
The document reports on a project to develop increased communication between art and special education teachers about common problems in educating handicapped children in art, to expand knowledge via "hands on" art experiences, to develop ways to utilize art to assist learning in other academic areas, and to familiarize art teachers with current…
Zuk, Bill; Dalton, Robert
This paper examines the arguments for and against inclusion of advertising art in art education programs, and presents a case for the educational benefits of critically examining advertising art based on museum masterpieces. A search for examples of fine art masterpieces used in advertising art examined which masterpieces are commonly used in…
Ohio schools have developed a Balanced Comprehensive Art Curriculum (BCAC) that includes art history, art criticism, and art in society as well as traditional art production. Students in kindergarten through 12th grade receive equitable instruction in all four curriculum areas. Includes a resource list and table. (MD)
Graham, Mark A.
An important problem for high school art teachers is deciding what belongs in the art curriculum. What works of art, media, or ideas will inspire their students to more fully develop their own artistic potential and critically engage with contemporary art and culture? What artifacts of art, visual culture, or material culture should be included…
Roche, Mark W.
This chapter provides a rationale for the value of a liberal arts education, addressing briefly the recent history of the liberal arts, explaining the value of the liberal arts in diverse educational settings as opposed to simply residential liberal arts colleges, and exploring a contemporary rationale for the liberal arts.
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice--additional information. Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... additional information regarding the previously announced open session of the Media Arts panel, scheduled...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks..., discussion, evaluation, and recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the...
...: 2010-11812] NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts... amended, notice is hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks Center, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20506...
'un artiste doue. Liais nous retournerons encore a cet argument. Avec un objet d'art l'artiste registe un seul moment dune serie de mouvements de son sujet, spit en deux dimensions, s'il est peintre on graveur , dessinateur etc., spit en trois dimensions s'il est sculpteur.i:algre cela , il y a beaucoup d'oeuvresd'art dyna-miques, qui donnent l'impression de mouvement.On pent produire cet effetavec la ROMDOSi-tion des mouvements non simultanees , comme par exemple sur les tableaux de XIX 'si8cle representant des concours hyppiques, on les extremit-ees des chevaux sort distandue an maximum en avant et en arriere; c'est un mode de galop inexistant, mais malgr6, qu'il est faux, it suggere la vitesse.
Fitzner, Dale H.; Rush, Jean C.
Contends that a community-based support group can do much to enhance the art education program in a school district. Describes the organization and goals of one such group active in Tucson, Arizona. (Author/JM)
Moss, Gloria Siegel
Describes a program which has incorporated effective and enduring arts education practices since 1937. Available from American Theatre Assoc., 1000 Vermont Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005; single copy $4.00. (PD)
Vajda, Gyorgy M.
Examines the background to and the stylistic characteristics of the Art Nouveau movement in its literary and artistic manifestations, emphasizing its nature as a synthesis of various contemporary, artistic, and intellectual trends. (SJL)
Moore, John W.
David W. Galenson, a professor of economics at the University of Chicago, has used quantitative tools to describe whether teaching is an art or a science. Galenson's work has indicated that scientific methods can help in improving teaching.
Murray, William Breen
Rock art is often used as evidence for the earliest phases of prehistoric celestial knowledge and sky observation. Like the sky, rock art is a global phenomenon and it is also one of the earliest manifestations of human cognitive awareness. Similarities in iconography and visual context may provide evidence of sky-watching activity, and in some cases, ethnographic analogies, ethnohistoric documentation, and surviving archaeological evidence may confirm that these activities were related to rock art production. Nevertheless, the problem of random matches makes proofs of intentional relation more complicated. Probabilities are measured differently in archaeology and astronomy and can sometimes lead to ambiguous or contradictory conclusions.
Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.
Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)
In this interdisciplinary art and science program elementary school children visited a planetarium, learned about astronomy, and created cosmic art. Integrating art and science allows students to take a more unified look at the many parts of the world. (RM)
Feldman, Edmund Burke
Adapted from the presidential address to the National Art Education Association in the Spring of 1983, this article discusses the professional identity of art teachers and why art belongs "in the mainstream" of education. (RM)
Bergonzi, Louis; Smith, Julia
Using data from the 1992 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA92), research focused on the question: "Does arts education make arts participation more accessible to Americans?" The effects of both school-based arts education and community-based arts education were considered and compared. Art forms considered in this…
Currently there is a scarcity of information in the art education literature about purchasing art. This article examines how art acquires economic and social value, as well as how consumers make decisions when purchasing a piece of art. Where does an art student, or the general public learn about buying art? How much, if any, of this process is…
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... twelve meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy.... each day, will be closed. Arts Education (application review): November 1-5, 2010 in Room 716....
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... three meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as amended,...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eleven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Folk and Traditional Arts (application review): June 1-2, 2011 in Room 716. This meeting, from...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks...): Media Arts (application review): January 24-26, 2012 in Room 716. A portion of this meeting, from 3...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eleven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate). All meetings will be closed. Visual Arts (application review): July 6-8, 2011 in Room...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... nine meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...:30 p.m. EDT, will be closed. Folk and Traditional Arts (application review): June 3-4, 2010 in...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... three meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as amended, including information given...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...): Arts Education (application review): April 14, 2011, by teleconference. This meeting, from 1 p.m. to...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...): Arts Education (application review): October 24-26, 2011 in Room 627. This meeting, from 9 a.m. to 6...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... ten meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Arts Education (application review): November 29-December 2, 2011 in Room 714. This...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eleven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Visual Arts (application review): November 30-December 2, 2010 in Room 716. This meeting, from...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eleven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Media Arts (application review): January 10-12, 2012 in Room 627. This meeting, from 9 a.m. to...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy..., evaluation, and recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... nine meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of...
American School and University, 1982
A multipurpose building for a private school contains a cafeteria, art studios, and a combination auditorium and Quaker meeting room that is used for theatrical performances, movies, and worship. (Author/MLF)
Describes a project in which high school student volunteers designed art activities for blind children. Students incorporated the sensation of motion and texture into their designs for toys, puzzles, games, and story illustrations. (AM)
... also usually have recurrent infections, especially involving the respiratory system. Because of these infections and their complications, affected ... large amount of energy, such as the nervous system, resulting in the neurological problems ... in Arts syndrome is unclear. Learn more ...
For decades, virtual reality artwork has existed in a small but highly influential niche in the world of electronic and new media art. Since the early 1990's, virtual reality installations have come to define an extreme boundary point of both aesthetic experience and technological sophistication. Classic virtual reality artworks have an almost mythological stature - powerful, exotic, and often rarely exhibited. Today, art in virtual environments continues to evolve and mature, encompassing everything from fully immersive CAVE experiences to performance art in Second Life to the use of augmented and mixed reality in public space. Art in Virtual Reality 2010 is a public exhibition of new artwork that showcases the diverse ways that contemporary artists use virtual environments to explore new aesthetic ground and investigate the continually evolving relationship between our selves and our virtual worlds.
Ruthrof, H. G.
It is the aim of this paper to make a few suggestions concerning the application of the epistemological apparatus as developed by Edmund Husserl and his successors to one section within the area of art - namely, imaginative literature. (Author)
A program to reward exceptional art teachers, sponsored by the Chroma Acrylics Corporation, is described. Application procedures, conditions, award winners, and the projects they plan with the award money are covered. (IS)
Ewy, Gordon A
The use of digoxin in the therapy of systolic heart failure and certain supraventricular tachycardias is controversial. This review of the art and science of digoxin presents information needed by physicians considering digoxin therapy for these common cardiovascular disorders.
Rademaker, Linnea L.
In this article, the author revisits a case study presented in "Arts Education Policy Review" 105(1) in September/October 2003. The author discusses Arts Collaborator's Incorporated's (ACI) efforts to educate the community about art and about arts opportunities in River City. Themes visited in the discussion are community development through the…
Bequette, James W.; Brennan, Colleen
Since the mid-1980s, arts policymakers in Minnesota have positioned "media arts"--defined as the "study and practice of examining human communication through photography, film or video, audio, computer or digital arts, and interactive media"--within the realm of aesthetic education and considered it one of six arts areas. This…
Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria
This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.
Warger, Cynthia L.; Cuskaden, Eileen C.
This booklet, based on the Transition Through the Arts project developed by Very Special Arts, describes the successes that project instructors have achieved in using the arts to assist individuals with developmental disabilities reach employment. The project uses the arts as a vehicle to teach and reinforce the social and personal skill…
This article identifies recent, mainly Nordic, research approaches to visual arts education. A concept map was developed as a heuristic tool in order to highlight salient traits and blind spots. Contemporary research typically has its origin either in "education" or in "the art world", with an emphasis either on art "as language" or on "art as…
While people might not be familiar with the term "voluntary arts", they are probably either involved with some voluntary arts activity themselves or they know someone who is. They use "voluntary arts" to mean any situation in which someone is voluntarily participating in an art form for pleasure, social reasons, skills…
Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Div. of Curriculum Development.
Guidelines are offered for implementing an art education program fostering art knowledge, art appreciation, and personal creativity. Six chapters cover goals, content, curriculum planning, resources, evaluation and administration. Chapter 1 identifies 5 objectives of art education--perceptual awareness, values development, creative development,…
The author describes a parent art program, how it works, and ways to implement it. She emphasizes the strengths of parent programs as a way to support and enrich existing arts education, not as a replacement. Hansen describes the art kit--the adult's teaching resource--and the basic four-part process: presentation, demonstration, an art activity,…
Youngblood, Michael S.
Argues all humans are profoundly capable of learning about, appreciating, and making art. Points out that for decades educators have stressed a nondirective approach to elementary art education in order to encourage self-expression. Concludes this approach should be re-examined; that art educators must constructively criticize children's art and…
Environmental art (aka land art, green art, earthworks) aims to interpret nature and to inspire audiences to re-envision people's relationship with nature. Some artists see their work as a springboard for reclaiming and remediating damaged environments. Art began keenly grounded in nature--think of cave paintings of animals, in charcoal and…
Davis, Jessica Hoffman
Summarizes eight roles that the arts can play in education, focusing on the "arts cultura" model. Describes the Harvard University Graduate School of Education program that explores the arts from a variety of perspectives. Discusses the arts' place in the curriculum. (CMK)
International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).
Papers on art libraries, librarianship, and documentation presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The Tyranny of Distance: Art Libraries in Canada," a description by Mary F. Williamson of Canada's regional art libraries which serve both art students and the general public;…
Brew, Charl Anne
Art instructors are ever mindful of the need to introduce and encourage the possibilities of careers in the art field. The longer the author has been teaching art, the more aware she has become of the many wonderful art-related jobs and careers that exist. Fashion design, marketing and retail are three areas in which many students--male and…
If visual art is to be taught as a substantive part of the public school curriculum, then it's content and structure need to be translated into a curriculum that provides continuous cognitive and psychological growth and development. While discipline based art education (DBAE) acknowledges the values of art production, the content of art should…
It is possible to connect art and language arts using traditional Japanese art. After explaining the Japanese art forms of Haiku poetry and sumi-e painting, the article describes a project in which students write haiku on special paper then illustrate their poems with gung and shey strokes. (SM)
Gnezda, Nicole M.
At the end of the 20th century, dialogue in art education shifted the goals of art teaching from a primary focus on studio production to an aesthetics and culture driven curriculum. Discipline-Based Art Education and, more recently, Visual Culture Art Education (VCAE) have provided students with a rich background for intellectualizing about art…
North Carolina Arts Council, Raleigh.
The mission of the North Carolina Arts Council is to enrich cultural life and to nurture and support excellence in the arts. The professional staff provides services to artists, art organizations, and supporters of the arts. The council offers grant assistance for specific activities by funding programs designed to support particular groups of…
Argues that, if higher education is serious about achieving sustained policy to support the arts, it must build consensus about the value of art, artists, and artistic freedom. Politically, more attention is given to tactics than to underlying philosophy. Trend data for National Endowment for the Arts funding and state arts funding in New England…
Sartorius, Tara Cady
Describes the work of art titled "Aftermath" by Michael Olszewski, who has described it as the aftermath of intense anger. Includes background information on Olszewski. Includes activities in science and chemistry, art history, social studies/psychology, mathematics, visual arts, and language arts. (CMK)
This article examines how altered books can be used in art therapy with adolescents. An altered book is a published book that has been changed into a new work of visual art through various art processes such as painting, drawing, collage, writing, and embellishment. Books are discussed as an art canvas on which to provide stimulation, structure,…
This article describes the development and assessment of a graduate level online art therapy class. An introduction briefly defines art therapy and the need for distance learning in this field. The challenges inherent in teaching art therapy online, including working with art media and developing appropriate interpersonal skills and group…
National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, 2011
National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) is the authority on state arts agency funding and grant making. NASAA publications provide extensive information on strategic planning, needs assessment and program evaluation methods specifically adapted to public arts agencies. This document presents the total number of arts education grant awards…
Hallmark, Elizabeth F.
An immediate critical task of the arts education field is to resolve the polarities of low-quality integrative and overly marginalized discipline-specific approaches to teaching in schools. In pursuing this challenge, the author defines three teaching approaches--arts as craftsmanship, arts as play, and arts as inquiry--and calls for re-weighted…
Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.
This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…
Feldman, Edmund Burke
Provides a series of recommendations to prospective and current art teachers. Contends that studying art of prehistoric and preliterate cultures helps teachers understand art produced by their students. Encourages art teachers to resist temptations to change their career path toward counseling or administration. (CFR)
Tamaqua Area School District, PA.
This publication describes, in three sections, a high school Communication Arts Curriculum (CAC) program designed to further students' communication skills as they participate in student-centered learning activities in the fine arts, the practical arts, and the performing arts. "Program Operation" includes a course outline and inventories for…
Hume, Helen D.
This teaching resource provides information about specific artists, art materials, art history, and museums. There are many reproducible pages, and resources for art publication and materials. Information on portfolio preparation, how to photograph artwork, writing for publication, and resources for art publication and materials is provided.…
Dunn, Phillip C.; And Others
This publication provides art educators with a plan for becoming effective advocates for school art programming and management. Chapter 1 is designed to stimulate change in programs that train art educators, to offer practical guidelines and techniques for obtaining operational support for school art programs, and to describe various marketing…
This document examines the events surrounding a controversial art exhibit that was held at Santa Fe Community College (SFCC), Gainesville, Florida, in 2002. The author asks the following questions: (1) What is the role of the arts on a community college campus? (2) What are a community college arts program's responsibilities to the Fine Arts and…
Borges, Maria José; Chaves, Anabela; Costa, Manuela; Pereira, Emília Sá
Visual art, music and literature, are part of the culture. Thus Art shows the interactions between different cultures. The aim of the article is to present some activities to include intercultural issues in Art and Mother Language classes. Art classes also give the opportunity to do Media Education.
Teacher-developed units which integrate art with other subject areas in the elementary grades are described. The program creates an integrated wholeness by having students study units focusing on a central theme, which can be explored through different subject areas, including art. Reasons for art education are listed; for example, art develops…
Miranda, Maria Eugenia
During the multiculturalist wave that started in the 1950s, traditional ethnic art flowed in from across the globe. Today, that wave has receded as contemporary art has gained momentum. The trend toward contemporary art became more palpable in the 1990s. Baby Boomers had been exposed to ethnic art through programs like the Peace Corps. However, as…
States that paying attention to the mail children receive, the items that are contained, and how children prepare and send mail is an excellent lesson for art teachers interested in advancing the "mail arts" as an authentic form of child's art. Describes mail art as created by children. (CMK)
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice--meeting. Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, notice is hereby given that a meeting of the...
... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended, notice is hereby given that two meetings of the...
... Doc No: 2011-26421] NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, notice is hereby given that thirteen meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...
Kalin, Nadine M.
This article contributes to conversations concerning art education futures through engaging alternative relations between art, education, and democracy that mobilize education as art projects associated with the "pedagogical turn" as sites of liminality and paradox. An analysis of the art project, Pedagogical Factory, is used to outline…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...
Art has always been linked to healthcare and medicine: at the beginning of time, art was considered to be therapeutic. Over time, the dominance of religion and then the development of sciences and medicine deprived art of its therapeutic role, before it was reintroduced in the 19th century, with the rapid development of psychiatry. Today, art has found a new place in healthcare.
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...
Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…
Chessin, Debby; Zander, Mary Jane
A Mrs. Jefferson, a sixth-grade lead science teacher, wandered through her students' art show, she enjoyed the creative drawings that her students did in art class. Next year, due to budget cuts, the art teacher would be shared with several other schools and would not have time for weekly art classes for every grade. The principal understood the…
This article provides a rationale for integrating folk art in an urban K-12 art classroom to provide meaningful instruction for all students. The integration of folk art can provide a safe, nurturing environment for all students to learn by acknowledging the value of art in the community. It can prepare students for participation in a democratic…
Chung, Sheng Kuan; Ortiz, Christy
Showcasing the many forms and functions of art helps to articulate the fundamental importance of art education, whether it is to enhance the child or to support society. In illuminating the importance of art education, educators can eloquently argue about its value and contributions through an institutional tunnel, or they can take art education…
Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)