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Sample records for artemisia annua glandular

  1. Differential transcriptome analysis of glandular and filamentous trichomes in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The medicinal plant Artemisia annua is covered with filamentous trichomes and glandular, artemisinin producing trichomes. A high artemisinin supply is needed at a reduced cost for treating malaria. Artemisinin production in bioreactors can be facilitated if a better insight is obtained in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other metabolites. Therefore, metabolic activities of glandular and filamentous trichomes were investigated at the transcriptome level. Results By laser pressure catapulting, glandular and filamentous trichomes as well as apical and sub-apical cells from glandular trichomes were collected and their transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq. A de novo transcriptome was assembled (Trinity) and studied with a differential expression analysis (edgeR). A comparison of the transcriptome from glandular and filamentous trichomes shows that MEP, MVA, most terpene and lipid biosynthesis pathways are significantly upregulated in glandular trichomes. Conversely, some transcripts coding for specific sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid enzymes such as 8-epi-cedrol synthase and an uncharacterized oxidosqualene cyclase were significantly upregulated in filamentous trichomes. All known artemisinin biosynthesis genes are upregulated in glandular trichomes and were detected in both the apical and sub-apical cells of the glandular trichomes. No significant differential expression could be observed between the apical and sub-apical cells. Conclusions Our results underscore the vast metabolic capacities of A. annua glandular trichomes but nonetheless point to the existence of specific terpene metabolic pathways in the filamentous trichomes. Candidate genes that might be involved in artemisinin biosynthesis are proposed based on their putative function and their differential expression level. PMID:24359620

  2. Effect of prolonged water stress on specialized secondary metabolites, peltate glandular trichomes, and pathway gene expression in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ritesh K; Sangwan, Rajender S; Sabir, Farzana; Srivastava, Awadesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. accumulates substantial quantities of unique sesquiternoid artemisinin and related phytomolecules and characteristic essential oil in glandular trichomes, present on its leaves and inflorescence. Water stress is a major concern in controlling plant growth and productivity. In this study, our aim was to find out the modulation of artemisinin and essential oil constituents in plants grown under prolonged water stress conditions. A. annua CIM-Arogya plants grown in pots were subjected to mild (60% ± 5) and moderate (40% ± 5) water stress treatment and continued during entire developmental period. Results revealed that artemisinin, arteannuin-B, artemisinic acid, dihydroartemisinic acid and essential oil content were positively controlled by the growth and development however negatively modulated by water deficit stress. Interestingly, some of minor monoterpenes, all sesquiterpenes and other low molecular weight volatiles of essential oil components were induced by water deficit treatment. Camphor which is the major essential oil constituents did not alter much while 1, 8 cineole was modulated during development of plant as well as under water stress conditions. Water deficit stress induces a decrease in glandular trichome density and size as well. The dynamics of various secondary metabolites is discussed in the light of growth responses, trichomes and pathway gene expression in plants grown under two levels of prolonged water stress conditions.

  3. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants. PMID:26340695

  4. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Lilian A.; Korndörfer, Gaspar H.; Lana, Regina M. Q.; Rossi, Monica L.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Silva, Deise A.O.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  5. Effect of external stress on density and size of glandular trichomes in full-grown Artemisia annua, the source of anti-malarial artemisinin

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Anders; Grevsen, Kai; Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Glandular trichomes (GT) of Artemisia annua produce valuable compounds for pharmaceutical and industrial uses, most notably the anti-malarial artemisinin. Our aim was to find out whether the density, number and size of GT can be manipulated to advantage by environmental stress. A range of external stress treatments, including stress response regulators, was therefore given to fully grown plants under field and greenhouse conditions. Methodology In a field experiment (Ex1), seed-grown plants were subjected to chemical or physical stress and plants analysed after 5 weeks. In a greenhouse experiment (Ex2), three groups of clonally derived plants were stressed at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. Stress treatments included sandblasting, leaf cutting and spraying with jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), H2O2 (HP) and NaCl (SC)at different concentrations. Leaves from an upper and a lower position on the plants were analysed by fluorescence microscopy to determine the density and size of GT. Principal results Densities of GT on upper leaves of full-grown A. annua plants generally showed no response to external stress and only plants from one clone of Ex2 supported the hypothesis that increased density of GT was inducible in upper leaves by stress (significant for SC, HP and COS). The density of GT on lower leaves was not affected by stress in any experiment. Glandular trichomes were significantly smaller on the lower leaves in response to stress in Ex2, and a similar non-significant trend was observed in Ex1. Conclusions The results indicate a dynamic system in which stress treatments of large A. annua plants had a minor promoting effect on the initiation of GT in developing leaves, and a maturing effect of GT later in the lifetime of the individual GT. The hypothesis that applying stress can induce larger GT or more numerous GT was rejected. PMID:22833781

  6. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  7. Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua tissue cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez Isaza, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    Production of artemisinin was studied in both plants and tissue cultures of Artemisia annua L. Incorporation of (3{prime}-{sup 14}C) mevalonic acid sodium salt into artemisinin or arteannuin B was not found when field-grown plants were fed once with 10 or 50 {mu}Ci and harvested after 44, 144 or 288 hr. Artemisinin was not present in root organ cultures, but was present in the shoot cultures in a concentration of less than 5 mg/100 g dry weight. The content of artemisinin in a shoot culture line with elongated and indented shoots was significantly higher at p value of 0.01 from that with short and compact shoots. Induction of roots on shoot cultures was associated with increased artemisinin production. Shoot cultures that developed into plants with roots had higher artemisinin content than those shoots cultures with aerial roots, or shoots cultures with basal roots. The artemisinin content in shoot cultures apparently increased with age. Preliminary studies on the metabolism of arteannuin B demonstrated that shoot cultures absorbed the exogenous arteannuin B from the medium without an increase in artemisinin content.

  8. Artemisinin concentration and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua distillation byproduct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua is mostly known as the source of artemisinin, the raw material for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy, used against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum where malaria is endemic. Artemisinin drugs are also effective against helminthic and protozoan parasites tha...

  9. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphorus application on artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Rupam; Chaudhary, Vidhi; Bhatnagar, A K

    2007-10-01

    Annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) produces an array of complex terpenoids including artemisinin, a compound of current interest in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. However, this promising antimalarial compound remains expensive and is hardly available on the global scale. Synthesis of artemisinin has not been proved to be feasible commercially. Therefore, increase in yield of naturally occurring artemisinin is an important area of investigation. The effects of inoculation by two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus macrocarpum and Glomus fasciculatum, either alone or supplemented with P-fertilizer, on artemisinin concentration in A. annua were studied. The concentration of artemisinin was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The two fungi significantly increased concentration of artemisinin in the herb. Although there was significant increase in concentration of artemisinin in nonmycorrhizal P-fertilized plants as compared to control, the extent of the increase was less compared to mycorrhizal plants grown with or without P-fertilization. This suggests that the increase in artemisinin concentration may not be entirely attributed to enhanced P-nutrition and improved growth. A strong positive linear correlation was observed between glandular trichome density on leaves and artemisinin concentration. Mycorrhizal plants possessed higher foliar glandular trichome (site for artemisinin biosynthesis and sequestration) density compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. Glandular trichome density was not influenced by P-fertilizer application. The study suggests a potential role of AM fungi in improving the concentration of artemisinin in A. annua.

  10. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26784667

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  12. Potential ecological roles of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Knudsmark Jessing, Karina; Duke, Stephen O; Cedergreeen, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin has a complex structure that requires a significant amount of energy for the plant to synthesize. So, what are the benefits to A. annua of producing this unique compound, and what is the ecological role of artemisinin? This review addresses these questions, discussing evidence of the potential utility of artemisinin in protecting the plant from insects and other herbivores, as well as pathogens and competing plant species. Abiotic factors affecting the artemisinin production, as well as mechanisms of artemisinin release to the surroundings also are discussed, and new data are provided on the toxicity of artemisinin towards soil and aquatic organisms. The antifungal and antibacterial effects reported are not very pronounced. Several studies have reported that extracts of A. annua have insecticidal effects, though few studies have proven that artemisinin could be the single compound responsible for the observed effects. However, the pathogen(s) or insect(s) that may have provided the selection pressure for the evolution of artemisinin synthesis may not have been represented in the research thus far conducted. The relatively high level of phytotoxicity of artemisinin in soil indicates that plant/plant allelopathy could be a beneficial function of artemisinin to the producing plant. The release routes of artemisinin (movement from roots and wash off from leaf surfaces) from A. annua to the soil support the rationale for allelopathy.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Three New Monoterpene Synthases from Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ju-Xin; Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Jian; Hu, Wen-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5, and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and gibberellin, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant–environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant. PMID:27242840

  14. Artemisia annua mutant impaired in artemisinin synthesis demonstrates importance of nonenzymatic conversion in terpenoid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Czechowski, Tomasz; Larson, Tony R.; Catania, Theresa M.; Harvey, David; Brown, Geoffrey D.; Graham, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone produced by Artemisia annua glandular secretory trichomes, is the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria currently available. We identified a mutation that disrupts the amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase (CYP71AV1) enzyme, responsible for a series of oxidation reactions in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Detailed metabolic studies of cyp71av1-1 revealed that the consequence of blocking the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway is the redirection of sesquiterpene metabolism to a sesquiterpene epoxide, which we designate arteannuin X. This sesquiterpene approaches half the concentration observed for artemisinin in wild-type plants, demonstrating high-flux plasticity in A. annua glandular trichomes and their potential as factories for the production of novel alternate sesquiterpenes at commercially viable levels. Detailed metabolite profiling of leaf maturation time-series and precursor-feeding experiments revealed that nonenzymatic conversion steps are central to both artemisinin and arteannuin X biosynthesis. In particular, feeding studies using 13C-labeled dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) provided strong evidence that the final steps in the synthesis of artemisinin are nonenzymatic in vivo. Our findings also suggest that the specialized subapical cavity of glandular secretory trichomes functions as a location for both the chemical conversion and the storage of phytotoxic compounds, including artemisinin. We conclude that metabolic engineering to produce high yields of novel secondary compounds such as sesquiterpenes is feasible in complex glandular trichomes. Such systems offer advantages over single-cell microbial hosts for production of toxic natural products. PMID:27930305

  15. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource.

  16. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource. PMID:24363681

  17. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission.

  18. Flower morphology and development in Artemisia annua, a medicinal plant used as a treatment against malaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua produces a wide spectrum of bioactive phytochemicals that possess pharmacological properties including antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against multi-drug resistant Plasmodium fal...

  19. Loss of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L. to the soil environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua L. synthesizes and accumulates the secondary metabolite artemisinin, a compound with antimalarial properties. As cultivation of the plant is still the only cost effective source of artemisinin, the production takes place in monocultures of A. annua. Artemisinin is known to have inse...

  20. A non-pharmaceutical form of Artemisia annua is not effective in preventing Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Lagarce, Laurence; Lerolle, Nicolas; Asfar, Pierre; Le Govic, Yohann; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; de Gentile, Ludovic

    2016-05-01

    Non-pharmaceutical forms of Artemisia annua (a Chinese plant containing artemisinin) are used by some travellers who believe these products are safer than anti-malarial drugs. We report two cases of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria requiring hospitalization in an Intensive Care Unit following prophylaxis with non-pharmaceutical A. annua in French travellers.

  1. The content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua tea infusion.

    PubMed

    van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The traditional use of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua for the treatment of malaria entails the preparation of a tea infusion. In the scientific literature there have been some discrepancies on the quantity of the active principle, artemisinin, in the tea infusion. Due to these discrepancies, we decided to quantify artemisinin in tea infusions prepared according to different methods. We also studied the water solubility of pure artemisinin at room temperature and at 100  °C and compared it to the solubility of artemisinin from the plant material. We found that the extraction efficiency is very sensitive to temperature and that efficiencies of above 90 % can be reached. We also showed that the solubility of artemisinin is not improved by other components in the extract but that a supersaturated solution of artemisinin might be formed, which is stable for at least 24 hours.

  2. Examining the extraction of artemisinin from artemisia annua using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briars, Rhianna; Paniwnyk, Larysa

    2012-05-01

    Artemisinin suppresses the life-cycle of the plasmodium parasite which causes malaria. It is found naturally occurring within the trichome glands of the Artemisia annua plant. Traditional methods for extracting artemisinin are time-consuming and have high environmental impact due to the temperatures and organic solvents which must be employed. Ultrasound decreases these through acoustic streaming and micro-jets. But to fully utilise this technology parameters, such as frequency, temperature and the properties of leaf and solvent, must be explored. As with the extraction process there is also no set analysis method for identification of artemisinin. Therefore several methods of analysing these extracts are employed. Initial results indicate that sonication is able to enhance levels of artemisinin extracted when compared to the conventional/traditional extraction process. In addition Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) have been shown to have a high level of reproducible calibration.

  3. OSC2 and CYP716A14v2 Catalyze the Biosynthesis of Triterpenoids for the Cuticle of Aerial Organs of Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Shen, Qian; Soetaert, Sandra; Reed, James; Erffelinck, Marie-Laure; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip C.W.; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Osbourn, Anne; Thevelein, Johan M.; Deforce, Dieter; Tang, Kexuan

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the antimalarial sesquiterpenoid artemisinin. In addition to producing a variety of sesquiterpenoids, A. annua also accumulates mono-, di-, and triterpenoids, the majority of which are produced in the glandular trichomes. A. annua also has filamentous trichomes on its aerial parts, but little is known of their biosynthesis potential. Here, through a comparative transcriptome analysis between glandular and filamentous trichomes, we identified two genes, OSC2 and CYP716A14v2, encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of specialized triterpenoids in A. annua. By expressing these genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we characterized the catalytic function of these proteins and could reconstitute the specialized triterpenoid spectrum of A. annua in these heterologous hosts. OSC2 is a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase that produces α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and δ-amyrin. CYP716A14v2 is a P450 belonging to the functionally diverse CYP716 family and catalyzes the oxidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, leading to triterpenes with a carbonyl group at position C-3, thereby providing an alternative biosynthesis pathway to 3-oxo triterpenes. Together, these enzymes produce specialized triterpenoids that are constituents of the wax layer of the cuticle covering the aerial parts of A. annua and likely function in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25576188

  4. Differentially Expressed Genes during Contrasting Growth Stages of Artemisia annua for Artemisinin Content

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Priya; Misra, Amita; Singh, Alka; Shukla, Ashutosh K.; Gupta, Madan M.; Gupta, Anil K.; Gupta, Vikrant; Khanuja, Suman P. S.; Shasany, Ajit K.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua is the source of antimalarial phytomolecule, artemisinin. It is mainly produced and stored in the glandular secretory trichomes present in the leaves of the plant. Since, the artemisinin biosynthesis steps are yet to be worked out, in this investigation a microarray chip was strategized for the first time to shortlist the differentially expressing genes at a stage of plant producing highest artemisinin compared to the stage with no artemisinin. As the target of this study was to analyze differential gene expression associated with contrasting artemisinin content in planta and a genotype having zero/negligible artemisinin content was unavailable, it was decided to compare different stages of the same genotype with contrasting artemisinin content (seedling - negligible artemisinin, mature leaf - high artemisinin). The SCAR-marked artemisinin-rich (∼1.2%) Indian variety ‘CIM-Arogya’ was used in the present study to determine optimal plant stage and leaf ontogenic level for artemisinin content. A representative EST dataset from leaf trichome at the stage of maximal artemisinin biosynthesis was established. The high utility small scale custom microarray chip of A. annua containing all the significant artemisinin biosynthesis-related genes, the established EST dataset, gene sequences isolated in-house and strategically selected candidates from the A. annua Unigene database (NCBI) was employed to compare the gene expression profiles of two stages. The expression data was validated through semiquantitative and quantitative RT-PCR followed by putative annotations through bioinformatics-based approaches. Many candidates having probable role in artemisinin metabolism were identified and described with scope for further functional characterization. PMID:23573249

  5. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  6. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production

    PubMed Central

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  7. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States, and current treatment is expensive and kills also healthy cells. Affordable alternatives that kill only cancer cells are needed. Artemisinin, extracted from the Artemisia annua, has potent anticancer activity and low toxicity to normal cell...

  8. DRYING AFFECTS ARTEMISININ, DIHYDROARTEMISINIC ACID, ARTEMISINIC ACID, AND THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anti-parasitic, anti-cancer, and anti-viral sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, commercially extracted from Artemisia annua, is in high demand worldwide. However, limited information is available on how post-harvest drying procedures affect plant biochemistry leading to the biosynthesis of artem...

  9. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as antioxidants and their potential synergism with Artemisinin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since artemisinin was discovered as the active antimalarial component in a diethyl ether extract of Artemisia annua in early 1970’s, hundreds of papers have focused on the antimalarial effects of the artemisinin semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artem...

  10. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Results Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua + F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P = 0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P = 0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid. PMID:24731599

  11. Effects of ethanol extract of Artemisia annua L. against monogenean parasites of Heterobranchus longifilis.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, Albert P; Brisibe, Ebiamadon Andi

    2010-04-01

    Ethanol extract of Artemisia annua was effective in the dislodgement and mortality of monogenean parasites of juvenile Heterobranchus longifilis at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/l. Five hundred 1-week-old juvenile fish were stocked in hapa in earthen pond for 7 days to accumulate parasites. The approximate number of parasites per fish was confirmed by counting the number of parasites attached to body surfaces and the gills with a stereo-microscope before being exposed to the extract under in vivo conditions. The bioactivity of the extract was conducted in plastic Petri dishes with three replications and controls. The results obtained from A. annua extract were matched against those produced by pure artemisinin and artesunate powder, respectively, under similar experimental conditions. There was a faster effect of pure artemisinin crystals on the parasites as compared to A. annua extract and artesunate. Coagulation of parasite cells was observed with artemisinin treatment, whereas parasites were merely dislodged from their attachment organs and killed some hours later in the same concentration of A. annua. There were positive correlations between the number of parasites dislodged/killed and the concentration of A. annua extract, artemisinin, and artesunate powder, respectively, as well as the duration of exposure of affected fish to the substances. This led to the conclusion that A. annua contains substances that are effective against helminthes parasites of H. longifilis.

  12. T-shaped trichome-specific expression of monoterpene synthase ADH2 using promoter-β-GUS fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueqing; Shi, Pu; Shen, Qian; Jiang, Weimin; Tang, Yueli; Lv, Zongyou; Yan, Tingxiang; Li, Ling; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-11-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood), is extensively used in the treatment of malaria. In order to better understand the metabolism of terpenes in A. annua and the influence of terpene synthases on artemisinin yield, the expression pattern of a monoterpene alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion. ADH2 played a major role in monoterpenoid biosynthesis including carveol, borneol, and artemisia ketone through in vitro biochemical analysis. In this study, the ADH2 promoter was cloned by the genome walking method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted in promoter region, suggesting that the ADH2 is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. ADH2 gene was highly expressed in old leaves, whereas the artemisinin biosynthetic genes were mainly expressed in bud and young leaves. The expression of ADH2 gene increased quickly during leaf development, revealed by qRT-PCR. GUS expression analysis in different tissues of transgenic A. annua demonstrates that ADH2 expression is exclusively located to T-shaped trichome, not glandular secretory trichome.

  13. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Artemisinin Extracts from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Su; Choi, Woo Jin; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Woo Joong; Lee, Dong Chae; Sohn, Uy Dong; Shin, Hyoung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of artemisinin derived from water, methanol, ethanol, or acetone extracts of Artemisia annua L. were evaluated. All 4 artemisinin-containing extracts had anti-inflammatory effects. Of these, the acetone extract had the greatest inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β , IL-6, and IL-10) production. Antioxidant activity evaluations revealed that the ethanol extract had the highest free radical scavenging activity, (91.0±3.2%), similar to α-tocopherol (99.9%). The extracts had antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathic microorganisms Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, and Prevotella intermedia. This study shows that Artemisia annua L. extracts contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial substances and should be considered for use in pharmaceutical products for the treatment of dental diseases. PMID:25605993

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone 3-Hydroxylase gene from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shuo; Tian, Na; Long, Jinhua; Chen, Yuhong; Qin, Yu; Feng, Jinyu; Xiao, Wenjun; Liu, Shuoqian

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids were found to synergize anti-malaria and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, a very important economic crop in China. In order to discover the regulation mechanism of flavonoids in Artemisia annua, the full length cDNA of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were isolated from Artemisia annua for the first time by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The completed open read frame of AaF3H was 1095 bp and it encoded a 364-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.18 kDa and a pI of 5.67. The recombinant protein of AaF3H was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein, purified by Ni-NTA agrose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The results showed that the His-tagged protein (AaF3H) catalyzed naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in the present of Fe(2+). The Km for naringenin was 218.03 μM. The optimum pH for AaF3H reaction was determined to be pH 8.5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 35 °C. The AaF3H transcripts were found to be accumulated in the cultivar with higher level of flavonoids than that with lower level of flavonoids, which implied that AaF3H was a potential target for regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis in Artemisia annua through metabolic engineering.

  15. [Enhancement of artemisinin biosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. by overexpressed HDR and ADS genes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Xiong; Long, Shi-Ping; Zeng, Li-Xia; Xiang, Li-En; Lin, Zhi; Chen, Min; Liao, Zhi-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Artemisnin is a novel sesquiterpene lactone with an internal peroxide bridge structure, which is extracted from traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao). Recommended by World Health Organization, artemisinin is the first-line drug in the treatment of encephalic and chloroquine-resistant malaria. In the present study, transgenic A. annua plants were developed by overexpressing the key enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods, transgenic plants of A. annua with overexpression of both HDR and ADS were obtained through hygromycin screening. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed six transgenic lines in which both HDR and ADS were integrated into genome. The gene expression analysis given by real-time quantitative PCR showed that all the transgenic lines had higher expression levels of HDR and ADS than the non-transgenic control (except ah3 in which the expression level of ADS showed no significant difference compared with control); and the HPLC analysis of artemisinin demonstrated that transgenic A. annua plants produced artemisinin at significantly higher level than non-transgenic plants. Especially, the highest content of artemisinin was found in transgenic line ah70, in which the artemisinin content was 3.48 times compared with that in non-transgenic lines. In summary, overexpression of HDR and ADS facilitated artemisinin biosynthesis and this method could be applied to develop transgenic plants of A. annua with higher yield of artemisinin.

  16. Dried-leaf Artemisia annua: A practical malaria therapeutic for developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa; Hassanali, Ahmed; Lutgen, Pierre; Engeu, Patrick Ogwang

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua (A. annua) L, and used as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), is the current best therapeutic for treating malaria, a disease that hits children and adults especially in developing countries. Traditionally, A. annua was used by the Chinese as a tea to treat “fever”. More recently, investigators have shown that tea infusions and oral consumption of the dried leaves of the plant have prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy. The presence of a complex matrix of chemicals within the leaves seems to enhance both the bioavailability and efficacy of artemisinin. Although about 1000-fold less potent than artemisinin in their antiplasmodial activity, these plant chemicals are mainly small molecules that include other artemisinic compounds, terpenes (mainly mono and sesqui), flavonoids, and polyphenolic acids. In addition, polysaccharide constituents of A. annua may enhance bioavailability of artemisinin. Rodent pharmacokinetics showed longer T1/2 and Tmax and greater Cmax and AUC in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice treated with A. annua dried leaves than in healthy mice. Pharmacokinetics of deoxyartemisinin, a liver metabolite of artemisinin, was more inhibited in infected than in healthy mice. In healthy mice, artemisinin serum levels were > 40-fold greater in dried leaf fed mice than those fed with pure artemisinin. Human trial data showed that when delivered as dried leaves, 40-fold less artemisinin was required to obtain a therapeutic response compared to pure artemisinin. ACTs are still unaffordable for many malaria patients, and cost estimates for A. annua dried leaf tablet production are orders of magnitude less than for ACT, despite improvements in the production capacity. Considering that for > 2000 years this plant was used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of fever with no apparent appearance of artemisinin drug resistance, the evidence argues for inclusion of affordable A. annua dried leaf tablets into

  17. Dried-leaf Artemisia annua: A practical malaria therapeutic for developing countries?

    PubMed

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa; Hassanali, Ahmed; Lutgen, Pierre; Engeu, Patrick Ogwang

    2014-12-09

    Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua (A. annua) L, and used as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), is the current best therapeutic for treating malaria, a disease that hits children and adults especially in developing countries. Traditionally, A. annua was used by the Chinese as a tea to treat "fever". More recently, investigators have shown that tea infusions and oral consumption of the dried leaves of the plant have prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy. The presence of a complex matrix of chemicals within the leaves seems to enhance both the bioavailability and efficacy of artemisinin. Although about 1000-fold less potent than artemisinin in their antiplasmodial activity, these plant chemicals are mainly small molecules that include other artemisinic compounds, terpenes (mainly mono and sesqui), flavonoids, and polyphenolic acids. In addition, polysaccharide constituents of A. annua may enhance bioavailability of artemisinin. Rodent pharmacokinetics showed longer T1/2 and Tmax and greater Cmax and AUC in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice treated with A. annua dried leaves than in healthy mice. Pharmacokinetics of deoxyartemisinin, a liver metabolite of artemisinin, was more inhibited in infected than in healthy mice. In healthy mice, artemisinin serum levels were > 40-fold greater in dried leaf fed mice than those fed with pure artemisinin. Human trial data showed that when delivered as dried leaves, 40-fold less artemisinin was required to obtain a therapeutic response compared to pure artemisinin. ACTs are still unaffordable for many malaria patients, and cost estimates for A. annua dried leaf tablet production are orders of magnitude less than for ACT, despite improvements in the production capacity. Considering that for > 2000 years this plant was used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of fever with no apparent appearance of artemisinin drug resistance, the evidence argues for inclusion of affordable A. annua dried leaf tablets into the

  18. Engineering isoprenoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene: a key intermediate of taxol.

    PubMed

    Li, Meiya; Jiang, Fusheng; Yu, Xiangli; Miao, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01

    Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase) gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  19. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    PubMed

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors.

  20. Computational identification of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) microRNA and their mRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Pani, Alok; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Behera, Niranjan; Naik, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Despite its efficacy against malaria, the relatively low yield (0.01%-0.8%) of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a serious limitation to the commercialization of the drug. A better understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin and its regulation by both exogenous and endogenous factors is essential to improve artemisinin yield. Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play multiple roles in various biological processes. In this study, we used previously known miRNAs from Arabidopsis and rice against expressed sequence tag (EST) database of A. annua to search for potential miRNAs and their targets in A. annua. A total of six potential miRNAs were predicted, which belong to the miR414 and miR1310 families. Furthermore, eight potential target genes were identified in this species. Among them, seven genes encode proteins that play important roles in artemisinin biosynthesis, including HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) and cytochrome P450. In addition, a gene coding for putative AINTEGUMENTA, which is involved in signal transduction and development, was also predicted as one of the targets. This is the first in silico study to indicate that miRNAs target genes encoding enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, which may help to understand the miRNA-mediated regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisinin and Precursor Derived from In Vitro Plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed Central

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities. PMID:24575401

  2. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood) has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1) showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold) in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures). Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes). The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a negative effect on

  3. Vapour and Liquid-Phase Artemisia annua Essential Oil Activities against Several Clinical Strains of Candida.

    PubMed

    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Sacco, Cristiana; Pini, Gabriella; Flamini, Guido; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca. 19 %) and camphor (ca. 17 %). Other representative constituents were artemisia alcohol (5.9 %), α-pinene (5.7 %), and pinocarvone (3.0 %). Thujone, a typical toxic constituent of the Artemisia species, was not detected. The results are reported as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and diameter of inhibition zone obtained by the vapour diffusion assay. We tested 10 clinical Candida strains, coming from both clinical samples and international collections. The results show that the antifungal activity of A. annua is influenced by the type of method adopted. The inhibitory action of the essential oil was, in fact, higher in the vapour than in the liquid phase. Our results show an average minimum inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase of 11.88 µL/mL, while in the vapour phase, the growth of all Candida strains tested at a concentration of 2.13 µL/cm(3) was inhibited. A strain of Candida glabrata was found to be less susceptible to the liquid medium than the vapour assay (50 µL/mL vs. 0.64 µL/cm(3), respectively). Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were the most susceptible to the vapour test, while Candida parapsilosis was the most resistant.

  4. Essential Oil of Artemisia annua L.: An Extraordinary Component with Numerous Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Bilia, Anna Rita; Sacco, Cristiana; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Donato, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is native to China, now naturalised in many other countries, well known as the source of the unique sesquiterpene endoperoxide lactone artemisinin, and used in the treatment of the chloroquine-resistant and cerebral malaria. The essential oil is rich in mono- and sesquiterpenes and represents a by-product with medicinal properties. Besides significant variations in its percentage and composition have been reported (major constituents can be camphor (up to 48%), germacrene D (up to 18.9%), artemisia ketone (up to 68%), and 1,8 cineole (up to 51.5%)), the oil has been subjected to numerous studies supporting exciting antibacterial and antifungal activities. Both gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Listeria spp.), and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas spp.) and other microorganisms (Candida, Saccharomyces, and Aspergillus spp.) have been investigated. However, the experimental studies performed to date used different methods and diverse microorganisms; as a consequence, a comparative analysis on a quantitative basis is very difficult. The aim of this review is to sum up data on antimicrobial activity of A. annua essential oil and its major components to facilitate future approach of microbiological studies in this field. PMID:24799936

  5. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

  6. Artemisia annua as a self-reliant treatment for malaria in developing countries.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Sanne; van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

    2008-12-08

    Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the protozoan Plasmodium parasites. Each year, it causes disease in approximately 515 million people and kills between one and three million people, the majority of whom are young children in sub-Saharan Africa. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Due to climate change and the gradual warming of the temperate regions the future distribution of the malaria disease might include regions which are today seen as safe. Currently, malaria control requires an integrated approach comprising of mainly prevention, including vector control and the use of effective prophylactic medicines, and treatment of infected patients with antimalarials. The antimalarial chloroquine, which was in the past a mainstay of malaria control, is now ineffective in most malaria areas and resistance to other antimalarials is also increasing rapidly. The discovery and development of artemisinins from Artemisia annua have provided a new class of highly effective antimalarials. ACTs are now generally considered as the best current treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This review gives a short history of the malaria disease, the people forming a high risk group and the botanical aspects of A. annua. Furthermore the review provides an insight in the use of ART and its derivatives for the treatment of malaria. Its mechanism of action and kinetics will be described as well as the possibilities for a self-reliant treatment will be revealed. This self-reliant treatment includes the local production practices of A. annua followed by the possibilities for using traditional prepared teas from A. annua as an effective treatment for malaria. Finally, HMM will be described and the advantages and disadvantages discussed.

  7. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and +/- supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a...

  8. Protective Effect of Artemisia annua L. Extract against Galactose-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Hye; Seo, Ji Yeon; Liu, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (also called qinghao) has been well known as a source of antimalarial drug artemisinins. In addition, the herb was reported to have in vitro antioxidative activity. The present study investigated the protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Qinghao (AA extract) against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice. Feeding AA extract-containing diet lowered serum levels of malondialdehyde and 8-OH-dG that are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, respectively. Furthermore, AA extract feeding enhanced the activity of NQO1, a typical antioxidant marker enzyme, in tissues such as kidney, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. In conclusion, AA extract was found to have antioxidative activity in mouse model. PMID:24988450

  9. Nutrient deficiency in the production of artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, and artemisinic acid in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge F S

    2007-03-07

    Artemisia annua became a valuable agricultural crop after the World Health Organization recommended artemisinin as a component of ACT (artemisinin-combination based therapies) for malaria in 2001. A cloned, greenhouse-grown, A. annua (Artemis) subjected to an acidic soil and macronutrient deficit was evaluated for artemisinin production. Lack of lime (L) and macronutrients (N, P, and K) reduced leaf biomass accumulation. When L was provided (pH 5.1), the highest average leaf biomass was achieved with the "complete" (+N, +P, +K, and +L) treatment (70.3 g/plant), and the least biomass was achieved with the untreated (-N, -P, -K, and -L) treatment (6.18 g/plant). The nutrient least required for biomass accumulation per plant (g) was K (49.0 g), followed by P (36.5 g) and N (14.3 g). The artemisinin concentration (g/100 g) was significantly higher (75.5%) in -K plants when compared to plants under the complete treatment (1.62 vs 0.93%). Although the artemisinin total yield (g/plant) was 21% higher in -K plants, it was not significantly different from plants under the complete treatment (0.80 vs 0.66 g/plant). There were no marked treatment effects for concentration (g/100 g) or yield (g/plant) of both dihydroartemisinic acid and artemisinic acid, although higher levels were achieved in plants under the complete or -K treatments. There was a positive and significant correlation between artemisinin and both artemisinic acid and dihydroartemisin acid, in g/100 g and g/plant. This is the first report where potassium deficiency significantly increases the concentration (g/100 g) of artemisinin. Thus, under a mild potassium deficiency, A. annua farmers could achieve similar gains in artemisinin/ha, while saving on potassium fertilization, increasing the profitability of artemisinin production.

  10. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narendra P; Ferreira, Jorge F; Park, Ji Sun; Lai, Henry C

    2011-11-01

    Although dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and other artemisinin derivatives have selective toxicity towards cancer cells, Artemisia annua (A. annua) extracts containing artemisinin have not been evaluated for their anticancer potential. Our main goal was to assess the anticancer effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of A. annua from Brazilian and Chinese origins (with DHA as a comparison) on normal and cancer cells. Leukocytes and leukemia (Molt-4) cells were counted at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hr after treatment with extracts having artemisinin concentrations of 0, 3.48, 6.96, and 13.92 µg/mL. Also, we assessed the antioxidant capacity of these extracts using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test. Both extracts had high antioxidant capacity and toxicity towards Molt-4 cells. DHA was significantly more potent (p < 0.05) in killing Molt-4 cells than Brazilian extract at 48 and 72 hr and Chinese extract at 72 hr. In Molt-4 cells, LD₅₀ values for Brazilian and Chinese extracts were comparable at all time points and not significantly different from DHA at 24 hr. In leukocytes, DHA, Chinese extract, and Brazilian extract had LD₅₀ values of 760.42, 13.79, and 28.23 µg/mL of artemisinin, respectively, indicating a better safety index for the Brazilian extract compared to that of the Chinese extract at 24 hr. However, at 48 and 72 hr, the toxicity in leukocytes for any of the treatment groups was not significantly different. These experiments suggest that these extracts may have potential application in cancer treatment.

  11. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  12. Effect of cadmium on photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and artemisinin in hydroponically grown Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Zhao, Manxi; Guo, Lanping; Huang, Luqi

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 20, 60, and 100 micromol/L) on hydroponically grown Artemisia annua L. were investigated. Cd treatments applied for 0, 4, 12, 24, 72, 144, 216, and 336 hr were assessed by measuring the changes in photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione), while the artemisinin content was tested after 0, 12, 144, 216, and 336 hr. A significant decrease was observed in photosynthetic pigment levels over time with increasing Cd concentration. Chlorophyll b levels were more affected by Cd than were chlorophyll a or carotenoid levels. The cell membrane was sensitive to Cd stress, as MDA content in all treatment groups showed insignificant differences from the control group, except at 12 hr treatment time. Ascorbic acid (AsA) content changed slightly over time, while glutathione (GSH) content took less time to reach a maximum as Cd concentration increased. Cd was found to promote synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin, especially at concentrations of 20 and 100 micromol/L. In conclusion, Cd stress can damage to photosynthetic pigments, and vigorously growing A. annua showed a strong tolerance for Cd stress. Appropriate amounts of added Cd aided synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin.

  13. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Kmoníèková, Eva; Zídek, Zdenìk

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  14. Cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites derived from Artemisia annua L. towards cancer cells in comparison to its designated active constituent artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Efferth, Thomas; Herrmann, Florian; Tahrani, Ahmed; Wink, Michael

    2011-08-15

    Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood, qinhao) has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine. The isolation of artemisinin from Artemisia annua and its worldwide accepted application in malaria therapy is one of the showcase success stories of phytomedicine during the past decades. Artemisinin-type compounds are also active towards other protozoal or viral diseases as well as cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Nowadays, Artemisia annua tea is used as a self-reliant treatment in developing countries. The unsupervised use of Artemisia annua tea has been criticized to foster the development of artemisinin resistance in malaria and cancer due to insufficient artemisinin amounts in the plant as compared to standardized tablets with isolated artemisinin or semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives. However, artemisinin is not the only bioactive compound in Artemisia annua. In the present investigation, we analyzed different Artemisia annua extracts. Dichloromethane extracts were more cytotoxic (range of IC₅₀: 1.8-14.4 μg/ml) than methanol extracts towards Trypanosoma b. brucei (TC221 cells). The range of IC₅₀ values for HeLa cancer cells was 54.1-275.5 μg/ml for dichloromethane extracts and 276.3-1540.8 μg/ml for methanol extracts. Cancer and trypanosomal cells did not reveal cross-resistance among other compounds of Artemisia annua, namely the artemisinin-related artemisitene and arteanuine B as well as the unrelated compounds, scopoletin and 1,8-cineole. This indicates that cells resistant to one compound retained sensitivity to another one. These results were also supported by microarray-based mRNA expression profiling showing that molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance were different between artemisinin and the other phytochemicals investigated.

  15. Extracts of Artemisia annua leaves and seeds mediate programmed cell death in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Farooque, Abdullah; Dwarakanath, B S; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major tropical parasitic diseases, and the condition ranges in severity from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral manifestations. There is no vaccine available against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (also known as kala-azar in India), and current antileishmanial drugs face major drawbacks, including drug resistance, variable efficacy, toxicity and parenteral administration. We report here that n-hexane fractions of Artemisia annua leaves (AAL) and seeds (AAS) possess significant antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, with GI(50) of 14.4 and 14.6 µg ml(-1), respectively, and the IC(50) against intracellular amastigotes was found to be 6.6 and 5.05 µg ml(-1), respectively. Changes in the morphology of promastigotes and growth reversibility analysis following treatment confirmed the leishmanicidal effect of the active fractions, which presented no cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells. The antileishmanial activity was mediated via apoptosis, as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidylserine, in situ labelling of DNA fragments by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and cell-cycle arrest at the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting showed that the content of artemisinin in crude bioactive extracts (~1.4 µg per 100 µg n-hexane fraction) was too low to account for the observed antileishmanial activity. Characterization of the active constituents by GC-MS showed that α-amyrinyl acetate, β-amyrine and derivatives of artemisinin were the major constituents in AAL and cetin, EINECS 211-126-2 and artemisinin derivatives in AAS. Our findings indicate the presence of antileishmanial compounds besides artemisinin in the n-hexane fractions of A. annua leaves and seeds.

  16. Anti-adipogenic effect of Artemisia annua in diet-induced-obesity mice model

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Hye Kyung; Shim, Hyeji; Lim, Hyunmook; Shim, Minju; Kim, Chul-Kyu; Park, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yong Seok; Song, Ki-Duk; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has increased continuously in western countries during the last several decades and recently become a problem in developing countries. Currently, anti-obesity drugs originating from natural products are being investigated for their potential to overcome adverse effects associated with chemical drugs. Artemisinic acid, which was isolated from the well-known anti-malaria herb Artemisia annua (AA) L., was recently shown to possess anti-adipogenic effects in vitro. However, the anti-adipogenic effects of AA in animal models have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we conducted daily oral administration with AA water extract in a diet-induced obesity animal model and treated 3T3-L1 cells with AA to confirm the anti-adipogenic effects in the related protein expressions. We then evaluated the physiology, adipose tissue histology and mRNA expressions of many related genes. Inhibition of adipogenesis by the AA water extract was observed in vitro. In the animal model, weight gain was significantly lower in the AA treated group, but there were no changes in food intake volume or calories. Reductions in lipid droplet size and mRNA expression associated with adipogenesis were also observed in animal epididymal fat. This study is the first to report that AA has an anti-obese effects in vivo. PMID:26243598

  17. Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete associated with Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Qin, Yu-Li; Miao, Cui-Ping; Wei, Da-Qiao; Zhang, Si; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-09-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, endophytic actinomycete, designated strain YIM 63235(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of Artemisia annua L., and characterized to determine its taxonomic position. The strain YIM 63235(T) formed well-differentiated aerial and substrate mycelia on media tested. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the new isolate formed a distinct lineage within the genus Pseudonocardia, and the strain YIM 63235(T) was closely related to Pseudonocardia parietis 04-St-002(T) (99.1%). However, DNA-DNA relatedness demonstrated that strain YIM 63235(T) was distinct from the closest phylogenetic neighbor. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain YIM 63235(T) were consistent with those of the genus Pseudonocardia: the diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-8(H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(16:1) H. The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 63235(T) was 71.0 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the novel isolate was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov. (type strain YIM 63235(T) =CCTCC AA 208080(T)=DSM 45303(T)) is proposed.

  18. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    PubMed

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro.

  19. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Want, Muzamil Y.; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml-1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml-1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  20. Antiulcerogenic activity of crude ethanol extract and some fractions obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Dias, P C; Foglio, M A; Possenti, A; Nogueira, D C; de Carvalho, J E

    2001-12-01

    The resulting enriched sesquiterpene lactone fraction and the crude ethanol extract of Artemisia annua L. aerial parts, showed antiulcerogenic activity when administered orally, on the indomethacin induced ulcer in rats. The sesquiterpene lactone fraction yielded three different polarity fractions on column chromatography as follows: non-polar, medium polarity and polar fraction, When submitted to the same indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats they resulted in different levels of inhibition of the ulcerative lesion index. The participation of nitric oxide was evaluated on an ethanol-induced ulcer model which had a previous administration of L-NAME, a NO-synthase inhibitor. Under these conditions, the medium polarity fraction maintained the antiulcerogenic activity, suggesting that nitric oxide could not be involved in the antiulcerogenic activity. When the animal groups were treated with N-ethylmaleimide, an alkylator of sulphhydryl groups, using the same experimental model, the medium polarity fraction maintained its antiulcerogenic activity, suggesting that the pharmacological mechanism is not related to non-protein sulphydryl compounds. On the ethanol-induced ulcer with previous indomethacin treatment, the medium polarity fraction lost its antiulcerogenic activity indicating that the active compounds of Artemisia annua L. increase the prostaglandin levels in the gastric mucosa. This hypothesis was reinforced by an increase of adherent mucus production by the gastric mucosa, produced by the medium polarity fraction on the hypothermic restraint stress induced ulcer model.

  1. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  2. Th1-Biased Immunomodulation and Therapeutic Potential of Artemisia annua in Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Farooque, Abdullah; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Background In the absence of vaccines and limitations of currently available chemotherapy, development of safe and efficacious drugs is urgently needed for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that is fatal, if left untreated. Earlier we reported in vitro apoptotic antileishmanial activity of n-hexane fractions of Artemisia annua leaves (AAL) and seeds (AAS) against Leishmania donovani. In the present study, we investigated the immunostimulatory and therapeutic efficacy of AAL and AAS. Methodology/Principal Findings Ten-weeks post infection, BALB/c mice were orally administered AAL and AAS for ten consecutive days. Significant reduction in hepatic (86.67% and 89.12%) and splenic (95.45% and 95.84%) parasite burden with decrease in spleen weight was observed. AAL and AAS treated mice induced the strongest DTH response, as well as three-fold decrease in IgG1 and two-fold increase in IgG2a levels, as compared to infected controls. Cytometric bead array further affirmed the elicitation of Th1 immune response as indicated by increased levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in serum as well as in culture supernatant of lymphocytes from treated mice. Lymphoproliferative response, IFN-γ producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and nitrite levels were significantly enhanced upon antigen recall in vitro. The co-expression of CD80 and CD86 on macrophages was significantly augmented. CD8+ T cells exhibited CD62Llow and CD44hi phenotype, signifying induction of immunological memory in AAL and AAS treated groups. Serum enzyme markers were in the normal range indicating inertness against nephro- and hepato-toxicity. Conclusions/Significance Our results establish the two-prong antileishmanial efficacy of AAL and AAS for cure against L. donovani that is dependent on both the direct leishmanicidal action as well as switching-on of Th1-biased protective cell-mediated immunity with generation of memory. AAL and AAS could represent adjunct therapies for the treatment

  3. Effect of drying temperature on essential oil content and composition of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) growing wild in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khangholil, Shahpour; Rezaeinodehi, Ayatollah

    2008-03-15

    Studies were conducted to show the effect of different temperatures in the drying process on the amount and quality of essential oils of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.). The sweet wormwood aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time from an area around the Siahkal city in north of Iran in September 2005. In order to complete drying, the aerial parts were placed at shade (room temperature) and in oven at 35, 45, 55 and 65 degrees C temperatures. The aerial parts essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results showed that higher drying temperatures decreased the essential oil content, from 1.12% (room temperature) 0.88% (35 degrees C), 0.55% (45 degrees C) to 0.50% (55 degrees C) and 0.37% (65 degrees C). Thirty-five components were determined in essential oils, which were mostly monoterpenes. The drying temperatures had a significant effect on the essential oils composition and proportion of the various components, as when the temperature increased, the monoterpenes content gradually decreased and vice versa for sesquiterpenes. The major components were artemisia ketone and 1, 8 cineol for room and 45 degrees C; artemisia ketone, 1, 8 cineol and camphor for 35 and 55 degrees C and beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D for 65 degrees C temperatures.

  4. A Systematic Review of Anti-malarial Properties, Immunosuppressive Properties, Anti-inflammatory Properties, and Anti-cancer Properties of Artemisia Annua

    PubMed Central

    Alesaeidi, Samira; Miraj, Sepide

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua belongs to the asteraceae family, indigenous to the mild climate of Asia. The aim of this study was to overview its anti-malarial properties, immunosuppressive properties, anti-inflammatory properties and anti-cancer properties. This systematic review was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified approximately ninety eight references. In this study, forty six studies were accepted for further screening and met all of our inclusion. The search terms were “Artemisia annua”, “therapeutic properties”, “and pharmacological effects”. Artemisia annua is commonly used for its anti-malarial, immunosuppressive anti-inflammatory properties. Artemisia annua contributes to the treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema and possesses various effects such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticoccidial, and antiviral effects. Furthermore, it was said to be good for cancer treatment. In this study, anti-malarial, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory properties of this plant are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:27957318

  5. The flavonoids casticin and artemetin are poorly extracted and are unstable in an Artemisia annua tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    A number of flavonoids including casticin and artemetin from Artemisia annua have shown synergism with artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum, but it is unclear if the flavonoids are also extracted into a tea infusion of the plant. Using a tea infusion preparation protocol that was reported to be highly effective for artemisinin extraction, we measured casticin and artemetin extraction. There was only a 1.8 % recovery of casticin in the infusion while artemetin was undetectable. After 24 hr storage at room temperature, casticin yield declined by 40 %. These results show that although a tea infusion of the plant may extract artemisinin, the polymethoxylated flavonoids casticin and artemetin are poorly extracted and lost with storage at room temperature and thus, the tea infusion appears to lose synergistic value.

  6. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784

  7. Water deficit-induced oxidative stress affects artemisinin content and expression of proline metabolic genes in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Soni, Priyanka; Abdin, Malik Z

    2017-03-01

    Water stress is one of the most critical abiotic stresses that restricts growth, development, and alters physiological and biochemical mechanisms of plant. The effects of long-term water shortage-induced oxidative stress on morphophysiological parameters, proline metabolic genes, and artemisinin content were studied in Artemisia annua L. under greenhouse conditions. Plant growth, biomass accumulation, relative water content, and chlorophyll content were reduced under drought. Leaf water potential ranged from -0.3248 MPa to -1.22 MPa in stress conditions. Increased levels of proline accumulation, protein concentration, and lipid peroxidation were detected in water-stressed plants. Stage-dependent increases in activity of antioxidants including superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were observed. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes including pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthase1, 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthase2, and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylase reductase was induced, while the ornithine aminotransferase transcript showed a variable response and the expression of proline catabolic genes including proline dehydrogenase1, proline dehydrogenase1, and proline 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase was reduced by water stress. Our results indicate that the glutamine pathway is predominant under drought stress in A. annua and a reduction of catabolic gene expression is adopted as a defense strategy in adverse conditions. Higher expression of biosynthetic genes and lower expression of catabolic genes at the preflowering stage confirmed the important role of proline in flower development. Artemisinin content decreased owing to water stress, but the slightly higher amounts were detected in leaves of severely stressed plants compared with moderately stressed plants. The artemisinin content of A. annua might be regulated by controlling irrigation regimes.

  8. Variations in key artemisinic and other metabolites throughout plant development in Artemisia annua L. for potential therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Towler, Melissa J; Weathers, Pamela J

    2015-05-01

    Dried leaves of Artemisia annua show promise as an inexpensive and sustainable antimalarial therapeutic, especially for use in developing countries. Along with the potent terpene, artemisinin, many other small molecules produced by the plant seem to aid in the therapeutic response. However, little is known about the ontogenic and phenological production of artemisinin in the plant, and its plethora of other important secondary metabolites. From a consistently high artemisinin-producing A. annua clone (SAM) we extracted and analyzed by GC/MS 22 different metabolites including terpenes, flavonoids, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids as they varied during leaf development and growth of the plant from the vegetative stage through the reproductive, full flower stage. As leaves developed, the maximum amount of most metabolites was in the shoot apical meristem. Artemisinin, on the other hand, maximized once leaves matured. Leaf and apical tissues (e.g. buds, flowers) varied in their metabolite content with growth stage with maximum artemisinin and other important secondary metabolites determined to be at floral bud emergence. These results indicated that plants at the floral bud stage have the highest level of artemisinin and other therapeutic compounds for the treatment of malaria.

  9. Enhanced production of artemisinin by hairy root cultivation of Artemisia annua in a modified stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Patra, Nivedita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2014-11-01

    Artemisinin is an important drug commonly used in the treatment of malaria as a combination therapy. It is primarily produced by a plant Artemisia annua, however, its supply from plant is significantly lower than its huge demand and therefore alternative in vitro production routes are sought. Hairy root cultivation could be one such alternative production protocol. Agrobacterium rhizogenes was used to induce hairy roots of A. annua. Statistical optimization of media was thereafter attempted to maximize the biomass/artemisinin production. The growth and product formation kinetics and the significant role of O2 in hairy root propagation were established in optimized media. Mass cultivation of hairy roots was, thereafter, attempted in a modified 3-L Stirred Tank Bioreactor (Applikon Dependable Instruments, The Netherlands) using optimized culture conditions. The reactor was suitably modified to obtain profuse growth of hairy roots by segregating and protecting the growing roots from the agitator rotation in the reactor using a perforated Teflon disk. It was possible to produce 18 g biomass L(-1) (on dry weight basis) and 4.63 mg L(-1) of artemisinin in 28 days, which increased to 10.33 mg L(-1) by the addition of elicitor methyl jasmonate.

  10. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  11. Variations in key artemisinic and other metabolites throughout plant development in Artemisia annua L. for potential therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Towler, Melissa J.; Weathers, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Dried leaves of Artemisia annua show promise as an inexpensive and sustainable antimalarial therapeutic, especially for use in developing countries. Along with the potent terpene, artemisinin, many other small molecules produced by the plant seem to aid in the therapeutic response. However, little is known about the ontogenic and phenological production of artemisinin in the plant, and its plethora of other important secondary metabolites. From a consistently high artemisinin-producing A. annua clone (SAM) we extracted and analyzed by GC/MS 22 different metabolites including terpenes, flavonoids, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids as they varied during leaf development and growth of the plant from the vegetative stage through the reproductive, full flower stage. As leaves developed, the maximum amount of most metabolites was in the shoot apical meristem. Artemisinin, on the other hand, maximized once leaves matured. Leaf and apical tissues (e.g. buds, flowers) varied in their metabolite content with growth stage with maximum artemisinin and other important secondary metabolites determined to be at floral bud emergence. These results indicated that plants at the floral bud stage have the highest level of artemisinin and other therapeutic compounds for the treatment of malaria. PMID:25729214

  12. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães, Pedro Melillo de; Costa, Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Vieira, Pedro Paulo Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions.

  13. DMSO triggers the generation of ROS leading to an increase in artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid in Artemisia annua shoot cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Abdul; Liu, Chunzhao; Arsenault, Patrick R.; Towler, Melissa J.; Vail, Dan R.; Lorence, Argelia

    2010-01-01

    The antimalarial sesquiterpene, artemisinin, is in short supply; demand is not being met, and the role of artemisinin in the plant is not well established. Prior work showed that addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to seedlings increased artemisinin in their shoots and this study further investigated that serendipitous observation. When in vitro-cultured Artemisia annua rooted shoots were fed different amounts of DMSO (0–2.0% v/v), artemisinin levels doubled and showed biphasic optima at 0.25 and 2.0% DMSO. Both artemisinin and its precursor, dihydroartemisinic acid, increased with the former continuing 7 days after DMSO treatment. There was no stimulation of artemisinin production in DMSO-treated unrooted shoots. The first gene in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, amorphadiene synthase, showed no increase in transcript level in response to DMSO compared to controls. In contrast, the second gene in the pathway, CYP71AV1, did respond to DMSO but at a level of transcripts inverse to artemisinin levels. When rooted shoots were stained for the reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2, ROS increased with increasing DMSO concentration; unrooted shoots produced no ROS in response to DMSO. Both the increases in DMSO-induced ROS response and corresponding artemisinin levels were inhibited by addition of vitamin C. Together these data show that at least in response to DMSO, artemisinin production and ROS increase and that when ROS is reduced, so also is artemisinin suggesting that ROS may play a role in artemisinin production in A. annua. PMID:20084379

  14. Cloning and functional characterization of a beta-pinene synthase from Artemisia annua that shows a circadian pattern of expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shan; Xu, Ran; Jia, Jun-Wei; Pang, Jihai; Matsuda, Seiichi P T; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2002-09-01

    Artemisia annua plants produce a broad range of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, which contribute to the characteristic fragrance of this medicinal species. A cDNA clone, QH6, contained an open reading frame encoding a 582-amino acid protein that showed high sequence identity to plant monoterpene synthases. The prokaryotically expressed QH6 fusion protein converted geranyl diphosphate to (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-alpha-pinene in a 94:6 ratio. QH6 was predominantly expressed in juvenile leaves 2 weeks postsprouting. QH6 transcript levels were transiently reduced following mechanical wounding or fungal elicitor treatment, suggesting that this gene is not directly involved in defense reaction induced by either of these treatments. Under a photoperiod of 12 h/12 h (light/dark), the abundance of QH6 transcripts fluctuated in a diurnal pattern that ebbed around 3 h before daybreak (9th h in the dark phase) and peaked after 9 h in light (9th h in the light phase). The contents of (-)-beta-pinene in juvenile leaves and in emitted volatiles also varied in a diurnal rhythm, correlating strongly with mRNA accumulation. When A. annua was entrained by constant light or constant dark conditions, QH6 transcript accumulation continued to fluctuate with circadian rhythms. Under constant light, advanced cycles of fluctuation of QH6 transcript levels were observed, and under constant dark, the cycle was delayed. However, the original diurnal pattern could be regained when the plants were returned to the normal light/dark (12 h/12 h) photoperiod. This is the first report that monoterpene biosynthesis is transcriptionally regulated in a circadian pattern.

  15. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 μg/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring.

  16. Artemisia annua Leaf Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Ko, Keon-Hee; Heo, Rok Won; Yi, Chin-ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Jae-Ho; Nam, Sanghae; Kim, Hwajin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Artemisia annua L. (AA) is a well-known source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. AA also has an antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, the effect of AA extract on hepatic steatosis induced by obesity is unclear. We investigated whether AA extract prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a normal chow diet or HFD with or without AA for 12 weeks. We found that AA extract reduced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that HFD-induced expression of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in the livers was decreased by AA extract. In particular, dietary administration of AA extract decreased hepatic high-mobility group box 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HFD-fed mice. AA extract also attenuated HFD-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. These data indicate that dietary AA extract has beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26741655

  17. Overexpression of AaWRKY1 Leads to an Enhanced Content of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weimin; Fu, Xueqing; Pan, Qifang; Tang, Yueli; Shen, Qian; Lv, Zongyou; Yan, Tingxiang; Shi, Pu; Li, Ling; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin is an effective component of drugs against malaria. The regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis is at the forefront of artemisinin research. Previous studies showed that AaWRKY1 can regulate the expression of ADS, which is the first key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, AaWRKY1 was cloned, and it activated ADSpro and CYPpro in tobacco using dual-LUC assay. To further study the function of AaWRKY1, pCAMBIA2300-AaWRKY1 construct under 35S promoter was generated. Transgenic plants containing AaWRKY1 were obtained, and four independent lines with high expression of AaWRKY1 were analyzed. The expression of ADS and CYP, the key enzymes in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, was dramatically increased in AaWRKY1-overexpressing A. annua plants. Furthermore, the artemisinin yield increased significantly in AaWRKY1-overexpressing A. annua plants. These results showed that AaWRKY1 increased the content of artemisinin by regulating the expression of both ADS and CYP. It provides a new insight into the mechanism of regulation on artemisinin biosynthesis via transcription factors in the future. PMID:27064403

  18. Variation in the volatile constituents of Artemisia annua var. CIM-Arogya during plant ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2011-02-01

    The essential oils yield and composition of the aerial parts of A. annua var. CIM-Arogya grown in Uttarakhand, India were analyzed and compared by capillary GC and GC-MS at different stages of development. The analysis led to the identification of 81 constituents forming 91.0%-97.1% of the essential oils compositions. The essential oil content of the aerial parts was found to vary from 0.3% to 0.7% at different stages of growth. A. annua crop harvested at full flowering and seed setting stage gave higher yield of essential oil (0.6%, 0.7%) than that harvested at pre flowering (0.5%), late vegetative (0.4%, 0.5%), mid vegetative (0.4%, 0.4%) and early vegetative stages (0.3%, 0.3%). The essential oils at different stages of growth showed monoterpenoids (38.5%-72.0%) and sesquiterpenoids (22.2%-48.2%) as major grouped constituents. The major constituents identified were camphor (22.8%-42.6%), 1,8-cineole (3.7%-8.4%), linalool (<0.1%-11.9%), beta-caryophyllene (2.0%-9.2%), (E)-beta-farnesene (1.3%-8.5%), germacrene D (0.5%-7.3%) and 1-epi-cubenol (0.7%-5.2%) in essential oil samples collected at different crop stages.

  19. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Carbon Metabolism Favor Arsenic Tolerance in Artemisia annua, a Medicinal Plant as Revealed by Homology-Based Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sarita; Shrivastava, Alok Kumar; Pandey Rai, Shashi

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the first proteomic evidence of arsenic (As) tolerance and interactive regulatory network between primary and secondary metabolism in the medicinal plant, Artemisia annua. While chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic rate depicted mild inhibition, there was a significant enhancement in PSI activity, whole chain, ATP, and NADPH contents in 100 μM As treatments compared to the control plants. However, a decrease in the above variables was recorded under 150 μM treatments. Proteomic decoding of the survival strategy of A. annua under As stress using 2-DE followed by MALDI-MS/MS revealed a total of 46 differentially expressed protein spots. In contrast to other plants where As inhibits photosynthesis, A. annua showed appreciable photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and allocation of carbon resources at 100 μM As concentration. While an increased accumulation of ATP synthase, ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase, and FeS-rieske proteins supported the operation of cyclic electron transport, mdr ABC transporter protein and pcs gene might be involved in As detoxification. The most interesting observation was an increased accumulation of LEAFY like novel protein conceivably responsible for an early onset of flowering in A. annua under As stress. This study not only affirmed the role of energy metabolism proteins but also identified potential candidates responsible for As tolerance in plants. PMID:24868464

  20. Effects of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. on growth performance and some blood parameters of broilers exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoli; Jiang, Luyi; Zhong, Haoran; Lu, Yufang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-01-04

    To evaluate the effects of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) on growth performance and some blood parameters of broilers exposed to heat stress (HS), 320 22-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1°C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA0.75 , HS-EA1.00 and HS-EA1.25 groups were reared under HS (34 ± 1°C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1°C for 16 h/day), and fed basal diet with 0, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 g/kg EA, respectively. The experiment ended at 42 days. Dietary 1.00 and 1.25 g/kg EA decreased blood pH and elevated body weight gain, feed intake and carcass yield compared to the HS group. Broilers fed EA diets had lower serum concentrations of malondialdehyde and corticosterone and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and higher serum total superoxide dismutase activity, tri-iodothyronine concentration and tri-iodothyronine/thyroxine than the HS group. Serum catalase activity in HS-EA1.00 and HS-EA1.25 groups and activity to inhibit hydroxyl in the HS-EA1.00 group were higher than the HS group. In conclusion, dietary 0.75-1.25 g/kg EA addition alleviated HS induced impairments in broilers.

  1. Mining of miRNAs and potential targets from gene oriented clusters of transcripts sequences of the anti-malarial plant, Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Conesa, Ana; Kuo, Jimmy; López, Camilo

    2012-04-01

    miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of artemisinin, an anti-malarial compound form the plant Artemisia annua, have been identified using computational approaches to find conserved pre-miRNAs in available A. annua UniGene collections. Eleven pre-miRNAs were found from nine families. Targets predicted for these miRNAs were mainly transcription factors for conserved miRNAs. No target genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were found. However, miR390 was predicted to target a gene involved in the trichome development, which is the site of synthesis of artemisinin and could be a candidate for genetic transformation aiming to increase the content of artemisinin. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out to determinate the relation between A. annua and other plant pre-miRNAs: the pre-miRNA-based phylogenetic trees failed to correspond to known phylogenies, suggesting that pre-miRNA primary sequences may be too variable to accurately predict phylogenetic relations.

  2. Effect of long-term salinity on cellular antioxidants, compatible solute and fatty acid profile of Sweet Annie (Artemisia annua L.).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Irfan; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Ahmad, Javed; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2013-11-01

    Impact of long-term salinity and subsequent oxidative stress was studied on cellular antioxidants, proline accumulation and lipid profile of Artemisia annua L. (Sweet Annie or Qinghao) which yields artemisinin (Qinghaosu), effective against cerebral malaria-causing strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Under salinity (0.0-160 mM NaCl), in A. annua, proline accumulation, contents of ascorbate and glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) increased, but the contents of reduced forms of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate declined. The fatty-acid profiling revealed a major salinity-induced shift towards long-chain and mono-saturated fatty acids. Myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), linoleic acid (18:2) and erucic acid (22:1) increased by 141%, 186%, 34% and 908%, respectively, in comparison with the control. Contents of oleic acid (18:1), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidonic acid (22:0) and lignoceric acid (24:0) decreased by 50%, 17%, 44% and 78%, respectively. Thus, in A. annua, salinity declines ascorbate and GSH contents. However, increased levels of proline and total glutathione (GSH+GSSG), and activities of antioxidant enzymes might provide a certain level of tolerance. Modification in fatty-acid composition might be a membrane adaptation to long-term salinity and oxidative stress.

  3. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments induce physiological changes and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. - an antimalarial plant.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rashmi; Meena, Ram Prasad; Smita, Shachi Shuchi; Shukla, Aparna; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2011-12-02

    Present study was undertaken to investigate if short-term UV-B (4.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and UV-C (5.7 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), pre-treatments can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua. Twenty-one day old Artemisia seedlings were subjected to short-term (14 days) UV pre-treatment in an environmentally controlled growth chamber and then transplanted to the field under natural conditions. Treatment of A. annua with artificial UV-B and UV-C radiation not only altered the growth responses, biomass, pigment content and antioxidant enzyme activity but enhanced the secondary metabolites (artemisinin and flavonoid) content at all developmental stages as compared to non-irradiated plants. The extent of oxidative damage was measured in terms of the activities of enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Reinforcement in the antioxidative defense system seems to be a positive response of plants in ameliorating the negative effects of UV-B and UV-C radiations. While the carotenoid content was elevated, the chlorophyll content decreased under UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments. The reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes associated in artemisinin/isoprenoid biosynthesis like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) genes at different growth stages revealed UV induced significant over-expression of the above protein genes. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments, led to an increase in the concentrations of artemisinin at full bloom stage by 10.5% and 15.7% than that of the control respectively. Thus, the result of our study suggests that short term UV-B pre-treatment of seedlings in greenhouse prior to transplantation into the field enhances artemisinin production with lesser yield related damages as compared to UV-C radiation in A. annua.

  4. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  5. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (p<0.05) reduced number of excreted oocysts during the infection with no interaction to genotype. Females generally had a significantly higher shedding of oocysts than males (p<0.05). The overall body weight gain and the daily weight gain when infection was subdued showed a three-way interaction among genotype, sex and treatment - accounted mainly for the fact that Kosmos females responded

  6. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  7. Validation, transfer and measurement uncertainty estimation of an HPLC-UV method for the quantification of artemisinin in hydro alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Diawara, Hermine Zime; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Evrard, Brigitte; Leclercq, Joëlle Quetin; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Debrus, Benjamin; Hubert, Philippe; Rozet, Eric

    2011-08-25

    Malaria is the world's most important parasitic infection with 500 millions cases annually and almost 2 millions death per year. This disease is more present in Sub-Saharan Africa where 90% of the infections are found. Artemisinin and its semi synthetic derivatives (artemether, artesunate) have actually the most powerful activity on malaria, even in its complicated forms and resistance cases. Various methods have been proposed for detection and quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. by HPLC-UV, but the plant extracts used for this quantification were extracts obtained with organic solvents (toluene, petroleum ether, hexane). To be able to use crude A. annua extracts prepared at low cost to formulate antipaludic drugs, we chose the use of a mixture of water and ethanol as solvent of extraction, but no adequate analytical method for this kind of extracts is published. The main objectives of this work were first to develop an analytical method for artemisinin quantification in hydro alcoholic extracts of A. annua. Second, this method had to be thoroughly validated by the research and development laboratory and, third, the transfer of this method to the routine laboratory had to be demonstrated. The final aim was to compare the estimation of measurement uncertainty obtained during the method validation with validation standards to measurement uncertainty estimates obtained during the method transfer study with real samples. The method was validated following the accuracy profile methodology and was found to be accurate in the concentration range of 10.0-54.0 μg/ml with CV<8%. Limit of detection and of quantification were 2.73 and 10.0 μg/ml, respectively. The method was then successfully transferred to a laboratory in Benin by showing that the quality of the results that it will generate during routine application of the method is sufficient. Finally, the measurement uncertainty of the method was estimated from the validation experiments as well as from

  8. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway.

  9. Overexpression and Suppression of Artemisia annua 4-Hydroxy-3-Methylbut-2-enyl Diphosphate Reductase 1 Gene (AaHDR1) Differentially Regulate Artemisinin and Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongming; Li, Gui; Zhu, Yue; Xie, De-Yu

    2017-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) catalyzes the last step of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4- phosphate (MEP) pathway to synthesize isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). To date, little is known regarding effects of an increase or a decrease of a HDR expression on terpenoid and other metabolite profiles in plants. In our study, an Artemisia annua HDR cDNA (namely AaHDR1) was cloned from leaves. Expression profiling showed that it was highly expressed in leaves, roots, stems, and flowers with different levels. Green florescence protein fusion and confocal microscope analyses showed that AaHDR1 was localized in chloroplasts. The overexpression of AaHDR1 increased contents of artemisinin, arteannuin B and other sesquiterpenes, and multiple monoterpenes. By contrast, the suppression of AaHDR1 by anti-sense led to opposite results. In addition, an untargeted metabolic profiling showed that the overexpression and suppression altered non-polar metabolite profiles. In conclusion, the overexpression and suppression of AaHDR1 protein level in plastids differentially affect artemisinin and other terpenoid biosynthesis, and alter non-polar metabolite profiles of A. annua. Particularly, its overexpression leading to the increase of artemisinin production is informative to future metabolic engineering of this antimalarial medicine. PMID:28197158

  10. [Botany of Artemisia].

    PubMed

    Ramay, B

    1987-06-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L. belongs to the family Compositae, sub-family Corymbiferae. The genus Artemisia groups together almost 200 species, the most of them are native of Eurasia and Northern America steppe regions. Artemisia are wind-pollinated plants, the flowers do not secrete any nectar and are not visited by bees. Two species of Artemisia are widely spread through the Lyon region and are with Ambrosiaceae to blame for the pollinosis in summer and autumn: A. annua and A. vulgaris.

  11. Effect of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua crude leaf extracts on some biological and physiological characteristics of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

    2011-01-01

    The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC₅₀ and LC₂₀ values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC₅₀ treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC₂₀ treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC₅₀ dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC₅₀ was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of α-amylase and protease 48 hours post-treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract.

  12. Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

    2011-01-01

    The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of α-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

  13. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure. PMID:27152297

  14. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gustavo F D; Thamsborg, Stig M; Madeira, Alda M B N; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Magalhães, Pedro M; Demattê Filho, Luiz C; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John E

    2014-03-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative control (uninfected), a positive control (infected and untreated), chemical coccidiostats (nicarbazin+narazin and, later, salinomycin), vaccination, and a product based on oregano. Differences in performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion rate), mortality, gross intestinal lesions and oocyst excretion were investigated. Broilers given chemical coccidiostats performed better than all other groups. Broilers given the two highest dosages of the herbal mixture had intermediate lesion scores caused by Eimeria acervulina, which was higher than in broilers given coccidiostats, but less than in broilers given vaccination, oregano and in negative controls. There was a trend for lower mortality (P = 0·08) in the later stage of the growing period (23-43 days) in broilers given the highest dosage of herbal mixture compared with broilers given chemical coccidiostats. In conclusion, the delivery strategy of the herbal extracts is easy to implement at farm level, but further studies on dose levels and modes of action are needed.

  15. Extraction mechanism of ultrasound assisted extraction and its effect on higher yielding and purity of artemisinin crystals from Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Chemat, Smain; Aissa, Abdallah; Boumechhour, Abdenour; Arous, Omar; Ait-Amar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes an ultrasound-horn system for the extraction of a natural active compound "artemisinin" from Artemisia annua L. leaves as an alternative to hot maceration technique. Ultrasound leaching improves artemisinin recovery at all temperatures where only ten minutes is required to recover 70% (4.42mgg(-1)) compared to 60min of conventional hot leaching for the same yield. For instance, ultrasound treatment at 30°C produced a higher yield than the one obtained by conventional maceration at 40°C. Kinetic study suggests that the extraction pattern can be assimilated, during the first ten minutes, to a first order steady state, from which activation energy calculations revealed that each gram of artemisinin required 7.38kJ in ultrasound versus 10.3kJ in the conventional system. Modeling results indicate the presence of two extraction stages, a faster stage with a diffusion coefficient of 19×10(-5)cm(2)min(-1) for ultrasound technique at 40°C, seven times higher than the conventional one; and a second deceleration stage similar for both techniques with diffusion coefficient ranging from 1.7 to 3.1×10(-5)cm(2)min(-1). It is noted that the efficient ultrasound extraction potential implies extraction of higher amount of co-metabolites so low artemisinin crystal purity is engendered but a combination with a purification step using activated charcoal and celite adsorbents produced crystals with comparable purity for conventional and ultrasound samples.

  16. [Biochemical study of pollens of the genus Artemisia].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, J; Prum, N; Debourcieu, L

    1987-06-01

    Pollens of three Artemisia: Artemisia vulgaris, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua were separated by ion exchange chromatography and amino acids concentrations were measured. In any cases, the most important amino acid was proline, then asparagine + glutamine group, then gamma aminobutyric acid and alanine. An important level of histidine (8.1%) and hydroxyproline (6.2%) was found in Artemisia annua relative to the two other Artemisia species. The high histidine level, the precursor of histamine, found in the three kinds of Artemisia might be correlated with allergenic power of these weeds.

  17. Multivariate data analysis and metabolic profiling of artemisinin and related compounds in high yielding varieties of Artemisia annua field-grown in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Suberu, John; Gromski, Piotr S; Nordon, Alison; Lapkin, Alexei

    2016-01-05

    An improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol for rapid analysis of co-metabolites of A. annua in raw extracts was developed and extensively characterized. The new method was used to analyse metabolic profiles of 13 varieties of A. annua from an in-field growth programme in Madagascar. Several multivariate data analysis techniques consistently show the association of artemisinin with dihydroartemisinic acid. These data support the hypothesis of dihydroartemisinic acid being the late stage precursor to artemisinin in its biosynthetic pathway.

  18. Potential ecological roles of Artemisinin produced by Artemisis annua L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin is a complex structure that is requires a significant amount of energy for ...

  19. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species

    PubMed Central

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Paek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Guemsan; Lee, Mi-Young; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as “Injinho” in Korean medicinal terminology and “Yin Chen Hao” in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ between the species, we designed primers to amplify a DNA marker for A. capillaris. In addition, to detect other Artemisia species that are contaminants of A. capillaris, we designed primers to amplify DNA markers of A. japonica, A. annua, A. apiacea, and A. anomala. Moreover, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, we confirmed that primers developed in a previous study could be used to identify Artemisia species that are sources of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. By using these primers, we found that multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a reliable tool to distinguish between A. capillaris and other Artemisia species and to identify other Artemisia species as contaminants of A. capillaris in a single PCR. PMID:27313651

  20. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land.

  1. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions.

  2. Anti-allergic effect of Artemisia extract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yan; Liu, Zijun; Geng, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia apiacea (also known as Artemisia annua L) is a herb commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the early 1970s, artemisinin was isolated and identified as the active antimalarial ingredient, and thereafter, A. apiacea and artemisinin have been studied extensively, such as anti-inflammation and antipyresis, antibacteria, antiparasitic and immunosuppression effects of A. apiacea extract. The present study investigated the extracts anti-allergic effect obtained from the dried flowering tips of A. apiacea in rats. A systemic anaphylactic reaction model was induced in rats using compound 48/80. Artemisia extract was administered 1 h prior to the injection of compound 48/80. Artemisia was extracted from dried flowering tips of A. deserti using 80% ethanol. Subsequently, the systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release, scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by compound 48/80 were evaluated. The administration of Artemisia extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses suppressed the systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the Artemisia extract was able to effectively decrease systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release, scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27446332

  3. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ming; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Hexia; Liang, Junsong

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. The melting profiles of the ITS2 amplicons of the five closely related herbal species are clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The method was further applied to authenticate commercial products in powdered. HRM curves of all the commercial samples tested are similar to the botanical species as labeled. These congeneric medicinal products were also clearly separated using the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Therefore, HRM method could provide an efficient and reliable authentication system to distinguish these commonly used Artemisia herbal products on the markets and offer a technical reference for medicines quality control in the drug supply chain. PMID:27698485

  4. In vitro antiplasmodial and phytochemical study of five Artemisia species from Iran and in vivo activity of two species.

    PubMed

    Ramazani, Ali; Sardari, Soroush; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Vaziri, Behrouz

    2010-08-01

    The extract from Artemisia annua, containing artemisinin, has been proven active against multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum in previous studies. The purpose of this paper was to study five Artemisia species from Iran for their in vitro and in vivo antimalarial property and detection of artemisinin in the active species by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Dried plants were extracted by 80% ethanol, and total extracts were investigated for antiplasmodial property and artemisinin content by TLC, HPLC, and (1)H-NMR techniques. Two plants (A. annua L. and Artemisia absinthium L.) showed good antiplasmodial activity against multidrug resistant and sensitive strain of P. falciparum. A. absinthium and A. annua at concentrations of 200 mg/kg for 4 days reduced parasitemia in BALB/C mice infected with Plasmodium bergei by 94.28% and 83.28%, respectively, but we could not detect artemisinin in all plants studied in this research. The antiplasmodial property of these two herbs is possibly related to essential oils that present in high amounts in their extracts.

  5. [Pollen counts (from Ambrosia and Artemisia) in Lyon-Bron from 1982 to 1985].

    PubMed

    Dechamp, C; Hoch, D; Chouraqui, M; Bensoussan, M; Dechamp, J

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to distinguish the broad outlines of the pollen calendar in the Lyons area for the 5th year, using the same method (P. COUR) and the same location--Lyon-Bron weather station. Weekly data is given for 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985 (1986 data was not complete at the time of the conference, October 1986). This work is the fruit of numerical counts integrated into a data processing program which enables pollens tested and not tested in allergology to be identified. In Lyon, we observe 3 pollen seasons: early Spring (TREES), Spring (TREES and GRAMINEAE) and Summer-Autumn (TREES, GRAMINEAE, and COMPOSITAE). During the late the following are present: Artemisia vulgaris (last 10 days of July), RAGWEED (mid-August-1st fortnight of October), Artemisia annua (end September-early October). The particularity of our region is that not only ragweed pollen is collected but also two categories of Mugwort pollen, at different periods.

  6. Artemisia allergy research in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China.

  7. The presence of amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase, a key enzyme in artemisinin production in ten Artemisia species

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, R.; Yazdani, N.; Garoosi, GA.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicine against malaria, which is produced naturally by Artemisia annua in low yield. It is produced in a metabolic pathway, in which several genes and gene products are involved. One of the key genes in this pathway is am1, which encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of this gene in ten Artemisia species in order to increase the yield of production of Artemisinin. Methods The experiments were carried out using PCR. Specific primers were designed based on the published am1 gene sequence obtained from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527). Results The amplification of this gene by the specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, corresponding to a) pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b) aspartate rich motif (DDXXD), c) active site final lid and d) active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) ionization sites and catalytic site in the ADS enzyme, were investigated. Major conclusion The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alteration, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene for artemisinin overproduction. PMID:22615678

  8. Sexual Dimorphism in the Response of Mercurialis annua to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Orlofsky, Ezra M.; Kozhoridze, Giorgi; Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Ostrozhenkova, Elena; Winkler, J. Barbro; Schröder, Peter; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Guy, Micha; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed in a comprehensive way, by comparing morphological, biochemical and metabolomics changes in female and male plants during their development and under salinity. There were practically no differences between the genders in vegetative development and physiological parameters. However, under salinity conditions, female plants produced significantly more new reproductive nodes. Gender-linked differences in peroxidase (POD) and glutathione transferases (GSTs) were involved in anti-oxidation, detoxification and developmental processes in M. annua. 1H NMR metabolite profiling of female and male M. annua plants showed that under salinity the activity of the TCA cycle increased. There was also an increase in betaine in both genders, which may be explainable by its osmo-compatible function under salinity. The concentration of ten metabolites changed in both genders, while ‘Female-only-response’ to salinity was detected for five metabolites. In conclusion, dimorphic responses of M. annua plant genders to stress may be attributed to female plants’ capacity to survive and complete the reproductive life cycle. PMID:27128954

  9. Glandular prediction: the pride and the prejudice.

    PubMed

    Waddell, C

    2004-08-01

    For the cytologist and clinician alike, glandular lesions pose possibly the greatest challenge in cervical screening. Worldwide, with increasing confidence in cytological prediction, terminology is evolving. In the UK, with the adoption of liquid based methods, the technical aspects of cervical cytology are being addressed, it is now time to standardise our terminology in glandular reporting. Consideration of the cytological complexity, clinical needs and international protocols is essential in this endeavour.

  10. Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

  11. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  12. Multiplex PCR method to discriminate Artemisia iwayomogi from other Artemisia plants.

    PubMed

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2012-01-01

    Some plants in the genus Artemisia have been used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Artemisia iwayomogi, commonly referred to as "Haninjin," is one of the major medicinal materials used in traditional Korean medicine. By contrast, Artemisia capillaris and both Artemisia argyi and Artemisia princeps, referred to as "Injinho" and "Aeyup," respectively, are used to treat diseases different from those for which "Haninjin" is prescribed. Therefore, the development of a reliable method to differentiate each Artemisia herb is necessary. We found that a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method can be used to efficiently discriminate a few Artemisia plants from one another. To improve the reliability of RAPD amplification, we designed primer sets based on the nucleotide sequences of RAPD products to amplify a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker of A. iwayomogi. In addition, we designed two other primer sets to amplify SCAR markers of "Aeyup" (A. argyi and A. princeps) along with "Injinho" (A. capillaris) and Artemisia japonica, which are also traded in Korean herbal markets. Using these three primer sets, we developed a multiplex PCR method concurrently not only to discriminate A. iwayomogi from other Artemisia plants, but also to identify Artemisia plants using a single PCR process.

  13. New developments in endocervical glandular lesions.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn

    2013-01-01

    McCluggage W G (2012) Histopathology New developments in endocervical glandular lesions There is evidence that the prevalence of premalignant and malignant endocervical glandular lesions is increasing in real as well as in apparent terms. In this review, new developments and selected controversial aspects of endocervical glandular lesions are covered, concentrating mainly on premalignant and malignant lesions. The terminology of premalignant endocervical glandular lesions is discussed with a comparison of the World Health Organization classification and the cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) system, which is in widespread use in the United Kingdom. Primary cervical adenocarcinomas comprise a heterogeneous group of different morphological types, and while it is known that the majority of these are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), it has become clear in recent years that most of the more uncommon morphological types are unassociated with HPV, although they may sometimes be p16-positive. A spectrum of benign, premalignant and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation is now recognized; these include type A tunnel clusters, typical and atypical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, adenoma malignum and gastric-type adenocarcinoma. The latter is a recently described variant of primary cervical adenocarcinoma which has a different morphological appearance to the usual endocervical type and which is probably associated with different patterns of spread and a worse prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that 'early invasive' cervical adenocarcinomas have an excellent prognosis and are suitable for conservative management. Immunohistochemical markers of value in the distinction between a primary cervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma are discussed. While it is well known that a panel of markers comprising oestrogen receptor (ER), vimentin, p16 and monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is

  14. Volatile Constituents of Artemisia vestita Oil1.

    PubMed

    Weyerstahl, P; Kaul, V K; Weirauch, M; Marschall-Weyerstahl, H

    1987-02-01

    The essential oil of ARTEMISIA VESTITA (Compositae) was investigated by GLC, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Main constituents are alpha-, beta-, gamma-himachalene, caryophyllene, germacrene D, himachalol, allohimachalol, alpha-, gamma-atlantone, 1,8-cineole, yomogi alcohol, artemisia, and santolina alcohol and their acetates, and the thujones and thujanols. The characteristic oder of the oil is determined by the freshly smelling, 1, 8-cineole and thujone, and by the woody and sweet note of himachalol and atlantone.

  15. Malignant glandular lesions and glandular differentiation in invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Although the lumen of the urinary bladder is covered with only urothelial epithelium, malign glandular lesions (eg, nonurachal adenocarcinoma) and benign lesions (eg, cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis) can also rarely occur in this site due to its characteristic embryologic development. Glandular differentiation is uncommon in urothelial carcinomas and is even less common in noninvasive urothelial cancers. In addition, in situ urothelial carcinomas are more likely to progress in the presence of glandular differentiation toward high-grade urothelial carcinomas and/or aggressive urothelial carcinomas. Pure nonurachal adenocarcinomas and mixed carcinomas (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) are very rare, and their pathogenesis is not clear. Most of the nonurachal adenocarcinomas are thought to arise on the grounds of cystitis glandularus with intestinal metaplasia. Here, I present 2 cases with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with substantial glandular differentiation showing progression to signet ring cell carcinoma and invasive urothelial carcinoma, one case with mixed carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) and another case with pure adenocarcinoma developing from cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia, and discuss malign glandular lesions in the bladder and invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation.

  16. Effect of Gaeddongssuk (Artemisia annua L.) Powder on Quality and Shelf Stability of Emulsion Sausages during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Hyoung-Joo; Kang, Geun-Ho; Choi, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of Gaeddongssuk powder (GP) on quality characteristics and shelf stability of emulsion sausages during storage. Proximate composition properties showed no significant differences in all treatment (p>0.05). Control showed the highest cooking loss while the treatment with GP showed decreased cooking loss depending on increasing GP content (p<0.05). Apparent viscosity of batter was increased as the amount of GP increased, whereas hardness of emulsion sausages was decreased with increasing GP level. In sensory evaluation, emulsion sausage with 0.1% GP resulted in the highest score in overall acceptability. The pH values of all treatments decreased at the early storage stage, followed by gradual increase. The lightness and redness of treatments were decreased when the level of GP was increased. However, the yellowness of sausages with GP were higher than that of control (p<0.05). The addition of GP inhibited lipid oxidation of emulsion sausages during storage depending on its level. The aerobic bacteria population and VBN was unaffected by addition of GP during the storage (p>0.05). Therefore, Gaeddongssuk powder up to 0.1% has a potential as a natural antioxidant for meat products because it can inhibit lipid oxidation of sausages without decreasing their sensory properties. PMID:27857535

  17. Effect of mineral nutrition, growth regulators, and environmental stresses on biomass production and artemisinin concentration of Artemisia annua (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by different species of Plasmodium. It is the world’s most severe parasitic infection and kills almost two million people a year, afflicting more than one-third of the global population. The burden of malaria has increased by the worldwide spread of multi-d...

  18. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni,...

  19. Dried whole-plant Artemisia annua slows evolution of malaria drug resistance and overcomes resistance to artemisinin

    PubMed Central

    Elfawal, Mostafa A.; Towler, Melissa J.; Reich, Nicholas G.; Weathers, Pamela J.; Rich, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical monotherapies against human malaria have proven effective, although ephemeral, owing to the inevitable evolution of resistant parasites. Resistance to two or more drugs delivered in combination will evolve more slowly; hence combination therapies have become the preferred norm in the fight against malaria. At the forefront of these efforts has been the promotion of Artemisinin Combination Therapy, but despite these efforts, resistance to artemisinin has begun to emerge. In 2012, we demonstrated the efficacy of the whole plant (WP)—not a tea, not an infusion—as a malaria therapy and found it to be more effective than a comparable dose of pure artemisinin in a rodent malaria model. Here we show that WP overcomes existing resistance to pure artemisinin in the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii. Moreover, in a long-term artificial selection for resistance in Plasmodium chabaudi, we tested resilience of WP against drug resistance in comparison with pure artemisinin (AN). Stable resistance to WP was achieved three times more slowly than stable resistance to AN. WP treatment proved even more resilient than the double dose of AN. The resilience of WP may be attributable to the evolutionary refinement of the plant’s secondary metabolic products into a redundant, multicomponent defense system. Efficacy and resilience of WP treatment against rodent malaria provides compelling reasons to further explore the role of nonpharmaceutical forms of AN to treat human malaria. PMID:25561559

  20. Artemisia tridenata seed bank densities following wildfires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived a...

  1. Exploration and classification of chromatographic fingerprints as additional tool for identification and quality control of several Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Goedele; Pieters, Sigrid; Logie, Hans; Van Erps, Jürgen; Merino-Arévalo, Maria; Dejaegher, Bieke; Smeyers-Verbeke, Johanna; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    The World Health Organization accepts chromatographic fingerprints as a tool for identification and quality control of herbal medicines. This is the first study in which the distinction, identification and quality control of four different Artemisia species, i.e. Artemisia vulgaris, A. absinthium, A. annua and A. capillaris samples, is performed based on the evaluation of entire chromatographic fingerprint profiles developed with identical experimental conditions. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Diode Array Detection (DAD) was used to develop the fingerprints. Application of factorial designs leads to methanol/water (80:20 (v/v)) as the best extraction solvent for the pulverised plant material and to a shaking bath for 30 min as extraction method. Further, so-called screening, optimisation and fine-tuning phases were performed during fingerprint development. Most information about the different Artemisia species, i.e. the highest number of separated peaks in the fingerprint, was acquired on four coupled Chromolith columns (100 mm × 4.6 mm I.D.). Trifluoroacetic acid 0.05% (v/v) was used as mobile-phase additive in a stepwise linear methanol/water gradient, i.e. 5, 34, 41, 72 and 95% (v/v) methanol at 0, 9, 30, 44 and 51 min, where the last mobile phase composition was kept isocratic till 60 min. One detection wavelength was selected to perform data analysis. The lowest similarity between the fingerprints of the four species was present at 214 nm. The HPLC/DAD method was applied on 199 herbal samples of the four Artemisia species, resulting in 357 fingerprints. The within- and between-day variation of the entire method, as well as the quality control fingerprints obtained during routine analysis, were found acceptable. The distinction of these Artemisia species was evaluated based on the entire chromatographic profiles, developed by a shared method, and visualised in score plots by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) exploratory data

  2. Comparative functional genomic analysis of Solanum glandular trichome types.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Eric T; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors.

  3. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  4. Highly oxygenated sesquiterpenes in Artemisia alba Turra.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Danova, Kalina; Simmons, Luke; Wolfram, Evelyn; Meier, Beat; Riedl, Rainer; Evstatieva, Luba

    2015-02-01

    Ten new sesquiterpene alcohols of which seven germacranes, a eudesmane, a guaiane and an oplopane were isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia alba Turra. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by spectral methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, and MS). In addition, the known 7-hydroxycadin-4-en-3-one, centaureidin and axillarin were found for the first time in the studied species.

  5. Anticomplement activity of various solvent extracts from Korea local Artemisia spp.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Jung, Seil; Lee, Young-Choon; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-02-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of eight Artemisia plants (Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Artemisia fukudo Makino., Artemisia japonica Thunb., Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp., Artemisia keiskeana Miq., Artemisia rubripes Nakai., Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom., and Artemisia sylvatica Max.) from South Korea on the classical pathway (CP). We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from eight Artemisia plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the CP. A. rubripes and A. montana chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) values of 54.3 and 64.2 μg/mL. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Artemisia plants.

  6. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Estrada, Karla Ramirez; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01–0.8% DW). There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g), artesunate (2.24μg/g), dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g) and artemether (12.8μg/g). Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1) showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism. PMID:26444558

  7. Terpene biosynthesis in glandular trichomes of hop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Tian, Li; Aziz, Naveed; Broun, Pierre; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; King, Andrew; Zhao, Patrick X; Dixon, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L. Cannabaceae) is an economically important crop for the brewing industry, where it is used to impart flavor and aroma to beer, and has also drawn attention in recent years due to its potential pharmaceutical applications. Essential oils (mono- and sesquiterpenes), bitter acids (prenylated polyketides), and prenylflavonoids are the primary phytochemical components that account for these traits, and all accumulate at high concentrations in glandular trichomes of hop cones. To understand the molecular basis for terpene accumulation in hop trichomes, a trichome cDNA library was constructed and 9,816 cleansed expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were obtained from random sequencing of 16,152 cDNA clones. The ESTs were assembled into 3,619 unigenes (1,101 contigs and 2,518 singletons). Putative functions were assigned to the unigenes based on their homology to annotated sequences in the GenBank database. Two mono- and two sesquiterpene synthases identified from the EST collection were expressed in Escherichia coli. Hop MONOTERPENE SYNTHASE2 formed the linear monterpene myrcene from geranyl pyrophosphate, whereas hop SESQUITERPENE SYNTHASE1 (HlSTS1) formed both caryophyllene and humulene from farnesyl pyrophosphate. Together, these enzymes account for the production of the major terpene constituents of the hop trichomes. HlSTS2 formed the minor sesquiterpene constituent germacrene A, which was converted to beta-elemene on chromatography at elevated temperature. We discuss potential functions for other genes expressed at high levels in developing hop trichomes.

  8. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  9. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation for correlation analysis of average glandular dose by breast thickness and glandular ratio in breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Tae; Cho, Jung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    A glandular breast tissue is a radio-sensitive tissue. So during the evaluation of an X-ray mammography device, Average Glandular Dose (AGD) measurement is a very important part. In reality, it is difficult to measure AGD directly, Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the correlation between the AGD and breast thickness. As a result, AGDs calculated through the Monte Carlo simulation were 1.64, 1.41 and 0.88 mGy. The simulated AGDs mainly depend on the glandular ratio of the breast. With the increase of glandular breast tissue, absorption of low photon-energy increased so that the AGDs increased, too. In addition, the thicker the breast was, the more the AGD became. Consequently, this study will be used as basic data for establishing the diagnostic reference levels of mammography.

  11. Effects of flavonoids from Martynia annua and Tephrosia purpurea on cutaneous wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Santram; Jain, Avijeet; Jain, Alok Pal; Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Martynia annua L. (M. annua), (Martyniaccae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea), (Fabaceae) has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M. annua leaves and aerial parts of T. purpurea. Materials and Methods: Methanol fraction of M. annua (MAF-C) and ethyl acetate fraction of T. purpurea (TPF-A) were evaluated for healing potential in dead-space and burn wound models. An ointment (5% w/w) of MAF-C and TPF-A, pongamol (0.2 and 0.5% w/w) and luteolin (0.2 and 0.5% w/w) was applied topically twice a day. The effects were compared with Povidone Iodine ointment with respect to protein, collagen content, enzymatic assay and histopathological finding of granuloma tissues. Results: Ethanol extracts of M. annua and T. purpureawere exhibited total flavonoid contents of 126.2 ± 4.69 and 171.6 ± 6.38 mg (quercetin equivalent), respectively. HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of luteolin in M. annua and quercetin in T. purpurea. TPF-A and MAF-C ointments (5% w/w) significantly increases the hydroxyproline and protein contents. Luteolin and pongamol ointments were also found to be effective in both wound models. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5% w/w ointment of TPF-A and MAF-C fractions were more effective than isolated flavonoids in wound healing which may be due to synergistic interactions between the flavonoids and other constituents. PMID:27761428

  12. Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris: a comparative study of infusion polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Ferreira, Marília Locatelli; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia

    2014-02-15

    The aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris are used in infusions for the treatment of several diseases. Besides secondary metabolites, carbohydrates are also extracted with hot water and are present in the infusions. The plant carbohydrates exhibit several of therapeutic properties and their biological functions are related to chemical structure. In this study, the polysaccharides from infusions of the aerial parts of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris were isolated and characterized. In the A. absinthium infusion, a type II arabinogalactan was isolated. The polysaccharide had a Gal:Ara ratio of 2.3:1, and most of the galactose was (1 → 3)- and (1 → 6)-linked, as typically found in type II arabinogalactans. In the A. vulgaris infusion, an inulin-type fructan was the main polysaccharide. NMR analysis confirmed the structure of the polymer, which is composed of a chain of fructosyl units β-(2 ← 1) linked to a starting α-d-glucose unit.

  13. Endometriosis mimicking glandular atypia in a cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez–Urrego, Paula A; Dulcey–Hormiga, Isabel C; Barrera–Herrera, Luis E; Suarez–Zamora, David A; Palau–Lazaro, Mauricio A; Buritica–Cifuentes, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis involving the uterine cervix is a rare condition that can lead to diagnostic errors in the interpretation of Pap smear. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient in whom the initial Pap smear revealed three-dimensional clusters of glandular cells with elongated nuclei, occasional mitosis, and atypia, which was interpreted as atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified (NOS). The patient was taken to colposcopy and endocervical biopsy. Colposcopy was normal and the biopsy presented glands with elongated nuclei and surrounded by endometrial stroma admixed with normal endocervical glands. Immunohistochemical studies were reactive for CD10 in the stromal cells and vimentin in endometrioid glands. The findings were consistent with cervical endometriosis. Endometriosis in the cervix is an uncommon pathology that mimics malignancy and may be interpreted as atypical or glandular neoplasia in the cytology. PMID:28182083

  14. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Santram, Lodhi; Singhai, AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing. PMID:23569806

  15. Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of artemisia aucheri in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dinani, N Jafari; Asgary, Asgary; Madani, H; Naderi, Gh; Mahzoni, P

    2010-07-01

    Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Diet is one of the most important factors underlying atherosclerosis. High-cholesterol diets enhance atherosclerosis and vegetarian diets are known to slow down the process. Artemisia aucheri is an herb of the Composite family. Many species of Artemisia have proven hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. This study determine the effects of Artemisia aucheri on lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Fifteen male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Normal diet group, high-cholesterol diet group (1% cholesterol) and Artemisia aucheri group (1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg body weight the Artemisi aucheri every other day). Biochemical factors were measured at the start, end of the first and second months of the study. At the end of the study, the aorta were removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. The results indicate that Artemisia aucheri significantly reduced the level of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerids and increased HDL cholesterol. The degree of atherosclerotic thickness was significantly reduced in the treated group. Therefore, Artemisia aucheri is one of the useful herbal medicine for preventation of atherosclerosis and more studies in this regard is recommended.

  16. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  17. Glandular dose in breast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Mettivier, G; Fedon, C; Di Lillo, F; Longo, R; Sarno, A; Tromba, G; Russo, P

    2016-01-21

    The purpose of this work is to provide an evaluation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for breast computed tomography (CT) with synchrotron radiation in an axial scanning configuration with a partial or total organ volume irradiation, for the in vivo program of breast CT ongoing at the ELETTRA facility (Trieste, Italy). A Geant4 Monte Carlo code was implemented, simulating the photon irradiation from a synchrotron radiation source in the energetic range from 8 to 50 keV with 1 keV intervals, to evaluate the MGD. The code was validated with literature data, in terms of mammographic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) and with ad hoc experimental data, in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI). Simulated cylindrical phantoms of different sizes (diameter at phantom base 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16 cm, axial length 1.5 times the radius) and glandular fraction by weight (0%, 14.3%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were implemented into the code. The validation of the code shows an excellent agreement both with previously published work and in terms of DgN and CDTI measurements. The implemented simulations show a dependence of the glandular dose estimate on the vertical dimension of the irradiated zone when a partial organ irradiation was implemented. Specific normalized coefficients for calculating the MGD to the whole breast or to the single irradiated slice were reported.

  18. Clinical considerations of the glandular branch of the lacrimal artery.

    PubMed

    Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Balsiger, Heather; Scott, Gabriel; Gest, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The lacrimal artery is classically described as a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplied by the internal carotid. In this study, 25 orbits were dissected to identify variations in glandular branching and to compare them to previously published accounts. The glandular branching patterns of the lacrimal artery fall into two categories, those that branch (56%) and those that do not branch (44%). We found the medial and lateral glandular branches to be equal in diameter with a divergence of 2.67-40.58 mm proximal to the gland parenchyma. The long glandular branches run alongside the superolateral aspect of the orbit. The lateral branch runs lateral to the lateral rectus muscle. The medial branch runs superomedial to the lateral rectus muscle and lateral to the superior rectus muscle. In relation to the lacrimal gland, the medial branch enters the superior aspect of the gland parenchyma and the lateral branch enters its inferior aspect. The average branch lengths were 17.88 mm (medial) and 13.51 mm (lateral) as measured with a Mitutoyo Absolute 1/100 mm caliper. We could not confirm the existence of a third branch supplying the lacrimal gland, as posited by other authors. The key finding in this study is that the lacrimal gland is predominantly supplied by two significant arterial branches, both of which must be identified during procedures involving the lateral orbit.

  19. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. PMID:24250266

  20. A novel texture descriptor for detection of glandular structures in colon histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Snead, David R.; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    The first step prior to most analyses on most histopathology images is the detection of area of interest. In this work, we present a superpixel-based approach for glandular structure detection in colon histology images. An image is first segmented into superpixels with the constraint on the presence of glandular boundaries. Texture and color information is then extracted from each superpixel to calculate the probability of that superpixel belonging to glandular regions, resulting in a glandular probability map. In addition, we present a novel texture descriptor derived from a region covariance matrix of scattering coefficients. Our approach shows encouraging results for the detection of glandular structures in colon tissue samples.

  1. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Messaoud, Chokri; Haoues, Meriam; Neffati, Noura; Bassoumi Jamoussi, Imen; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Boussaid, Mohamed; Karoui, Habib

    2016-01-01

    We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs). Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp.), while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+). Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products. PMID:27807464

  2. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica.

  3. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y.

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  4. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: The Value of Intraepithelial Hemosiderin.

    PubMed

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Koilelat, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a relatively rare but well-described clinicopathologic entity. Its rarity and unpredictable clinical behavior are challenging to managing clinicians. Its variable and overlapping histomorphologic features are also diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Other odontogenic cysts and oral cystic neoplasms can simulate GOC. There are specific histologic criteria that help distinguish GOC from other mimickers. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of hemosiderin pigments deposition within the lining glandular epithelium of GOC has not been covered in detail or specifically reported so far in the literature. We report a case of nontraumatized anterior mandibular GOC in a middle-aged male, which histologically showed hemosiderin pigments within the lining epithelium without stromal siderophages. This finding might reflect a nonspecific spontaneous intraluminal hemorrhage. However, intraepithelial hemosiderin in GOC may be an additional helpful diagnostic clue of GOC in challenging cases since this phenomenon has not been reported in other mimicker cystic lesions.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in intra- and interspecific competitive ability of the dioecious herb Mercurialis annua.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vilas, J; Turner, A; Pannell, J R

    2011-01-01

    Males and females of dioecious plant species often show different responses to competition with individuals of the same or opposite gender, but almost no data are available on the outcome of competition with members of other species. Here, we show that male and female individuals of the wind-pollinated herb Mercurialis annua are sexually dimorphic in both their intraspecific and interspecific competitive abilities. In a controlled experiment, we found that both sexes of M. annua were negatively affected by interspecific competition, but the sensitivity of males and females depended on the identity of their competitor species, with females tending to suppress the aboveground growth of competitor species more than males. Further, we found that intrasexual and intersexual competition affected the aboveground growth of males but not that of females: only males showed a significant reduction in growth when growing with conspecific competitors (male or female). We discuss our results with reference to related studies that suggest that males and females of M. annua have different resource requirements for reproduction, which in turn affect their competitive abilities.

  6. Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marisa R

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the cervix continue to be diagnostically challenging for the surgical pathologist. This review covers a select number of these lesions that may be misinterpreted as premalignant or malignant, with an emphasis on those about which Dr Scully has advanced our knowledge. The topics covered include microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric hyperplasia, diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, and endocervical adenomyoma. The first listed entity has a greater diversity of morphology than the name might imply including, but not limited to solid growth and prominent hyaline stroma. The second entity may be remarkably diffuse within the cervical wall and reasonably result in consideration of diagnoses such as minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum), but has nonmucinous epithelium and bland cytology. The third entity, one of the least common of those considered, represents a peculiar form of reactive hyperplasia of the endocervical epithelium. The fourth entity is the one about which knowledge is still fast advancing. In pure form with no atypia it is almost certainly a clinically benign process, but a subset of cases show cytologic atypia and an occasional association with adenocarcinoma is seen. Finally, adenomyomas of the uterus in general have received much attention in recent years, mostly in the corpus, but the less common endocervical variant may be particularly problematic because mucinous epithelium in abundant myogenic stroma may be potentially confused with an infiltrating differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Although immunohistochemistry may play a role on occasion in evaluating benign endocervical glandular proliferations the mainstay of their interpretation remains conventional morphologic analysis of routinely stained slides.

  7. Bone metastasis of glandular cardiac myxoma mimicking a metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Uppin, Shantveer G; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Puri, Ajay; Kumar, Rajiv; Agarwal, Manish; Sanghvi, Darshana

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis from a cardiac myxoma is rare. We describe an extremely unusual case of a cardiac myxoma metastasing to the femur in a 46-year-old female presenting with pain in the right hip. Radiographs showed an expansile lytic lesion with pathological fracture involving the neck and proximal shaft of the right femur. Histology revealed features of cardiac myxoma with heterologous glandular elements, which was initially mistaken for a metastatic mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma.

  8. Genetic basis for glandular trichome formation in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Hu, Yan; Yang, Changqing; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Wan, Qun; Liang, Wenhua; Mei, Gaofu; Wang, Lingjian; Wang, Haiping; Ding, Linyun; Dong, Chenguang; Pan, Mengqiao; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Shuqi; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Guan, Xueying; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes originate from epidermal cells and can be classified as either glandular or non-glandular. Gossypium species are characterized by the presence of small and darkly pigmented lysigenous glands that contain large amounts of gossypol. Here, using a dominant glandless mutant, we characterize GoPGF, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor, that we propose is a positive regulator of gland formation. Silencing GoPGF leads to a completely glandless phenotype. A single nucleotide insertion in GoPGF, introducing a premature stop codon is found in the duplicate recessive glandless mutant (gl2gl3). The characterization of GoPGF helps to unravel the regulatory network of glandular structure biogenesis, and has implications for understanding the production of secondary metabolites in glands. It also provides a potential molecular basis to generate glandless seed and glanded cotton to not only supply fibre and oil but also provide a source of protein for human consumption. PMID:26795254

  9. Molecular characterization of a gender-linked DNA marker and a related gene in Mercurialis annua L.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Deepak Kumar; Nejidat, Ali; Tal, Moshe; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2005-12-01

    The dioecious Mercurialis annua L. was used as a model plant to study some aspects of the molecular basis of sex determination in plants. We report in this paper the characterization of a previously identified male specific DNA marker, OPB01-1562, from diploid dioecious M. annua. The marker co-segregated with male sex in the progeny of hormonally feminized males. Sequence analysis showed the presence of approximately 0.6 kb retrotransposon-like sequence at its 3' end. Homologous sequences were isolated from diploid female, hexaploid male and monoecious plants. These sequences contained RNaseH and integrase domains of reverse transcriptase and were most similar to pineapple retrotransposon dea1, hence were named M. annua retrotransposon-like sequences (MARL-1 to MARL-5). A 771 bp fragment isolated from a diploid female, named fem771, was homologous to the 5' end of OPB01-1562. Results from DNA blot hybridization suggested OPB01-1562 and fem771 to be from the same locus and MARL-1 from a different one. RNA blot hybridization with OPB01-1562 and MARL-1 detected an approximately 2.8 kb transcript which was expressed strongly in stems and flowers of females but not males. This transcript was named M. annua female expressed (Mafex). Sex linkage of OPB01-1562 and expression of Mafex detected by OPB01-1562 strongly suggested Mafex to be a candidate gene involved in sex determination in M. annua.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  11. Effect of varying ratios of produced water and municipal water on soil characteristics, plant biomass, and secondary metabolites of Artemisia annua and Panicum virgatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coal-bed natural gas production in the U.S. in 2012 was 1,655 billion cubic feet (bcf). A by-product of this production is co-produced water, which is categorized as a waste product by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effects of varying concentrations of coal-bed methane (produced) water wer...

  12. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  13. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana.

    PubMed

    Said Fernández, Salvador; Ramos Guerra, Monica Celina; Mata Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas Villarreal, Javier; Villarreal Treviño, Licet

    2005-07-01

    The inhabitants of Northeast of Mexico use an infusion of leaves from Artemisia ludoviciana as an antidiarrheal remedy. The aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane leaf extracts from mature plants were found to be active in vitro against the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.

  15. Clearance and metabolism of glandular kallikrein in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabito, S.F.; Seto, M.; Maitra, S.R.; Carretero, O.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the clearance of circulating rat glandular kallikrein and to determine the contribution of various organs and the urinary excretion to the removal of glandular kallikrein from the bloodstream. The authors injected either active /sup 125/I-kallikrein or kallikrein inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (/sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein) intravenously into intact or nephrectomized rats and then studied the disappearance rate of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable radioactivity from the circulation. Inactivation by PMSF markedly reduced the binding of kallikrein to plasma protease inhibitors. The removal rate of the acid-precipitable radioactivity fit a biexponential curve for both active and inactive kallikrein. In the intact rats approximately 50% of the radioactivity was removed from the circulation 30 min after the injection of active /sup 125/I-kallikrein. Removal of the kidneys did not significantly affect the clearance of active kallikrein. On the other hand, inactive /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein was removed from blood faster than active /sup 125/I-kallikrein in normal animals. Approximately 50% of the radioactivity was removed from the circulation 8 min after the injection, and the half-life of inactive /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein was markedly prolonged by bilateral nephrectomy. Active /sup 125/I-kallikrein was taken up by tissues, particularly the liver and the kidney. In urine, less than 2% of the radioactivity was excreted in 60 min as TCA-precipitable material. The authors concluded that glandular kallikrein is cleared rapidly from the circulation of the rat, probably in the form of a complex with a plasma protease inhibitor.

  16. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  17. New method for generating breast models featuring glandular tissue spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paixão, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Oliveira, M. A.; Teixeira, M. H. A.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mammography is the main radiographic technique used for breast imaging. A major concern with mammographic imaging is the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer due to the high sensitivity of breast tissue. The mean glandular dose (DG) is the dosimetric quantity widely accepted to characterize the risk of radiation induced cancer. Previous studies have concluded that DG depends not only on the breast glandular content but also on the spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. In this work, a new method for generating computational breast models featuring skin composition and glandular tissue distribution from patients undergoing digital mammography is proposed. Such models allow a more accurate way of calculating individualized breast glandular doses taking into consideration the glandular tissue fraction. Sixteen breast models of four patients with different glandularity breasts were simulated and the results were compared with those obtained from recommended DG conversion factors. The results show that the internationally recommended conversion factors may be overestimating the mean glandular dose to less dense breasts and underestimating the mean glandular dose for denser breasts. The methodology described in this work constitutes a powerful tool for breast dosimetry, especially for risk studies.

  18. Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung in a 64-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-02-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopathological diagnosis was mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma.

  19. Localization of Salvinorin A and Related Compounds in Glandular Trichomes of the Psychoactive Sage, Salvia divinorum

    PubMed Central

    SIEBERT, DANIEL J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution. • Methods Chemical analyses were performed using thin layer chromatographic and histochemical techniques. Trichomes were examined using conventional light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. • Key Results It was found that neoclerodane diterpenes are secreted as components of a resin that accumulates in peltate glandular trichomes, specifically in the subcuticular space that exists between the trichome head cells and the cuticle that encloses them. Four main types of trichomes were observed: peltate glandular trichomes, short‐stalked capitate glandular trichomes, long‐stalked capitate glandular trichomes and non‐glandular trichomes. Their morphology and distribution is described. Peltate glandular trichomes were only found on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves, stems, rachises, bracts, pedicles and calyces. This was consistent with chemical analyses, which showed the presence of neoclerodane diterpenes in these organs, but not in parts of the plant where peltate glandular trichomes are absent. • Conclusions Salvinorin A and related compounds are secreted as components of a complex resin that accumulates in the subcuticular space of peltate glandular trichomes. PMID:15087301

  20. Population Responses of Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to Insecticide in Glandular-Haired and Non-glandular-Haired Alfalfa Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sulc, R Mark; McCormick, John S; Hammond, Ronald B; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of glandular-haired alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to reduce potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, population abundance in field environments. We measured potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance and yield responses in a cultivar selected for high potato leafhopper resistance ('54H91') and in a non-glandular-haired susceptible cultivar ('54V54') with and without insecticide treatment across 3 yr. Treatments included no insecticide and insecticide applied either early or late in each summer growth cycle. Date × cultivar × treatment interactions were found for potato leafhopper population abundance. In the absence of insecticides, total potato leafhopper abundance (adults + nymphs per sweep) was lower in 54H91 than in 54V54 on 85% of sampling dates; cultivar differences were especially evident as potato leafhopper abundance peaked. Insecticide treatment reduced potato leafhopper populations in both cultivars, but populations recovered and often exceeded the normal action threshold in both cultivars within 2-3 wk of insecticide application. Yield gain from early insecticide treatment of 54V54 was >400 kg/ha in 11 of 14 summer harvests, whereas in 54H91 the yield gain was <250 kg/ha in 10 of 14 summer harvests. We conclude that glandular-haired alfalfa cultivars with high levels of potato leafhopper resistance significantly suppress potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance, reduce yield losses in the absence of insecticides, and have potential within an integrated pest management strategy to reduce insecticide use in alfalfa production systems.

  1. Flat urothelial carcinoma in situ of the bladder with glandular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Jimenez, Rafael E; Montironi, Rodolfo; Patriarca, Carlo; Blanca, Ana; Menendez, Carmen L; Algaba, Ferran; Cheng, Liang

    2011-11-01

    We present the clinicopathologic and immunonohistochemical features of 25 cases of flat urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation. Previously, cases on this category have been reported as in situ adenocarcinoma (a term not currently preferred). Fourteen of 25 cases had concurrent conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ. Five of the cases were primary carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation; twenty cases of secondary carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation were associated with urothelial carcinoma alone (n = 11) or with glandular differentiation (n = 7), discohesive (n = 1) or micropapillary carcinoma (n = 1). The individual tumor cells were columnar. The architectural pattern of the carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation consisted of 1 or more papillary, flat or cribriform glandular patterns. Univariate statistical analysis showed no survival differences between urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation and conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ (log-rank 0.810; P = .368). Carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation showed high ki-67 index and p53 accumulation, high nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression and diffuse PTEN expression, a phenotype that also characterized concurrent conventional carcinoma in situ. MUC5A, MUC2, CK20, and c-erbB2 were positive in all 25 cases of urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation, and CDX-2 was present in 19 cases; MUC1, CK7, or 34βE12 was focally present in 21, 19, and 18 cases, respectively. MUC1core was negative in all cases. We concluded that urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation is a variant of carcinoma in situ that follows the natural history of conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ. The immunophenotype suggests urothelial origin with the expression of MUC5A and CDX2 as signature for glandular differentiation.

  2. Mixed mating in androdioecious Mercurialis annua inferred using progeny arrays and diploid-acting microsatellite loci in a hexaploid background

    PubMed Central

    Korbecka, Grażyna; Hamilton, Alastair; Pannell, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The frequency at which males can be maintained with hermaphrodites in androdioecious populations is predicted to depend on the selfing rate, because self-fertilization by hermaphrodites reduces prospective siring opportunities for males. In particular, high selfing rates by hermaphrodites are expected to exclude males from a population. Here, the first estimates are provided of the mating system from two wild hexaploid populations of the androdioecious European wind-pollinated plant M. annua with contrasting male frequencies. Methods Four diploid microsatellite loci were used to genotype 19–20 progeny arrays from two populations of M. annua, one with males and one without. Mating-system parameters were estimated using the program MLTR. Key Results Both populations had similar, intermediate outcrossing rates (tm = 0·64 and 0·52 for the population with and without males, respectively). The population without males showed a lower level of correlated paternity and biparental inbreeding and higher allelic richness and gene diversity than the population with males. Conclusions The results demonstrate the utility of new diploid microsatellite loci for mating system analysis in a hexaploid plant. It would appear that androdioecious M. annua has a mixed-mating system in the wild, an uncommon finding for wind-pollinated species. This study sets a foundation for future research to assess the relative importance of the sexual system, plant-density variation and stochastic processes for the regulation of male frequencies in M. annua over space and time. PMID:21320876

  3. Human bronchial epithelial cells differentiate to 3D glandular acini on basement membrane matrix.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Peters-Hall, Jennifer R; Bose, Sumit; Peña, Maria T; Rose, Mary C

    2011-06-01

    To create a model system that investigates mechanisms resulting in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of respiratory tract submucosal glands, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) system wherein normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells differentiated into glandular acini when grown on a basement membrane matrix. The differentiation of primary HBE cells into glandular acini was monitored temporally by light microscopy. Apoptosis-induced lumen formation was observed by immunofluorescence analysis. The acinar cells expressed and secreted MUC5B mucin (marker for glandular mucous cells) and lysozyme, lactoferrin, and zinc-α2-glycoprotein (markers for glandular serous cells) at Day 22. β-Tubulin IV, a marker for ciliated cells, was not detected. Expression of mucous and serous cell markers in HBE glandular acini demonstrated that HBE cells grown on a basement membrane matrix differentiated into acini that exhibit molecular characteristics of respiratory tract glandular acinar cells. Inhibition studies with neutralizing antibodies resulted in a marked decrease in size of the spheroids at Day 7, demonstrating that laminin (a major component of the basement membrane matrix), the cell surface receptor integrin α6, and the cell junction marker E-cadherin have functional roles in HBE acinar morphogenesis. No significant variability was detected in the average size of glandular acini formed by HBE cells from two normal individuals. These results demonstrated that this in vitro model system is reproducible, stable, and potentially useful for studies of glandular differentiation and hyperplasia.

  4. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis of Solanum Glandular Trichome Types1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Eric T.; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors. PMID:21098679

  5. Anthelmintic properties of extracts from Artemisia plants against nematodes.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Afshan, K; Mirza, B; Miller, J E; Manan, A; Irum, S; Rizvi, S S R; Qayyum, M

    2015-06-01

    Artemisia plant genus, natural inhabitant of northern Punjab Pakistan, is well known for its anthelmintic properties; many Artemisia species have not been so far scientifically proved. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia indica and Artemisia roxburghiana against mixed infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study is first scientifically proven study on anthelmintic activity of A. indica and A. roxburghiana. Five different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.75 mg/mL) accompanied by negative control (PBS) and positive control (albendazole, 10%) were used to carry out the egg hatch inhibition assay, larval mortality assay and adult worm mortality assay. The Baermann technique was used first time in larval mortality assay and proved to be effective. The results revealed that methanolic extracts of both A. indica and A. roxburghiana, showed maximum anthelmintic activity at concentration of 50 mg/ml by egg hatch inhibition (85±21.2; 80±28.3), larvae mortality (18±2.8; 17±4.2) and adult worm mortality (8.5±2.1; 8±2.8) assays. However, at concentration of 50 mg/ml both plant extracts in comparison to albendazole showed statistically insignificant (p≤0.05) results. The A. indica showed higher anthelmintic activity at all concentrations as compared to A. roburghiana. It has been concluded both plants exhibit anthelmintic activity and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out to purify the active ingredients for anthelmintic activity. Moreover, the decoctions of these plants could be used to GINs after confirming anthelmintic properties through in vivo.

  6. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  7. Variation in the number of capitate glandular trichomes in wild and cultivated sunflower germplasm and potential for use in host plant resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capitate glandular trichomes of wild sunflower (Helianthus spp.) are considered an effective defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst), but cultivated sunflowers are reportedly deficient in glandular trichomes. To investigate whether glandular trichomes have a role in protect...

  8. Glandular odontogenic cyst: report of an unusual bilateral occurrence.

    PubMed

    Amberkar, Vikram S; Jahagirdar, Abhishek; Ahmed Mujib, B R

    2011-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a recently recognized rare developmental odontogenic cyst having an aggressive behavior and accounting for 0.012% to 1.3% of all jaw cysts. GOC usually presents as a painless, slow-growing swelling that tends to affect the anterior part of the jaws. It chiefly occurs in the fourth and fifth decades of life and presents as an expansion of jaws with or without pain or paresthesia. Aggressive nature of the lesion has been reported, as supported by the fact that 25 to 55% of cases recur following curettage. So far only just over 113 cases of GOC have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of bilateral GOC in the posterior region of the maxilla, in a 29-year-old male patient, which is unique, being the first case of bilateral GOC to be reported in the literature.

  9. Glandular odontogenic cyst: absence of PTCH gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Barreto, D C; De Marco, L; Castro, W H; Gomez, R S

    2001-02-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare jawbone cyst of odontogenic origin. Human patched (PTCH) is a tumour suppressor gene that has been recently associated with signalling pathways during odontogenesis. Recently alterations of this gene were found on sporadic odontogenic keratocysts. This evidence, together with the biological behaviour similarities of both lesions, and the absence of reports on molecular analysis of GOC, led us to hypothesize that PTCH gene mutations may underlie the tumorigenesis of GOC. Therefore the aim of this study was to report one additional case of GOC and investigate the PTCH gene of the cyst. No mutations were found in the splicing and coding regions of the PTCH gene. In conclusion, the PTCH gene does not seem to be involved in GOC pathogenesis.

  10. Comparison of the effects of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium growing in western Anatolia against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) in rats.

    PubMed

    Caner, Ayşe; Döşkaya, Mert; Değirmenci, Aysu; Can, Hüseyin; Baykan, Sura; Uner, Ahmet; Başdemir, Gülçin; Zeybek, Ulvi; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2008-05-01

    Trichinellosis often causing diarrhea and more rarely fever, periorbital edema and myositis in human, is commonly treated with benzimidazole derivatives. The Artemisia genus has been found to be effective against a variety of parasites. In the present study, the efficacy against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium was examined for the first time in rats. The results of trichinoscopy and artificial digestion, during the enteral (adult) phase of the illness show that 300 mg/kg doses of methanol extracts of the aerial parts of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium reduced the larval rate by 75.6% and 63.5% in tongue, 53.4% and 37.7% in diaphragm, 67.8% and 46.2% in quadriceps, and 66.7% and 60.5% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Furthermore, during the parenteral (encapsulated larvae) phase, 600 mg/kg doses of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium extracts decreased the larval rate by 66.4% and 59.9% in tongue, 57.4% and 50.0% in diaphragm, 47.6% and 43.7% in quadriceps, 60.2% and 46.4% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Analysis of antibody also showed that A. vulgaris significantly reduced the antibody response (P<0.05) during the enteral and parenteral phases. Thus, the results of the present study revealed that A. vulgaris could be an alternative drug against trichinellosis.

  11. Susceptibilities of Different Test Systems from Maize (Zea mays), Poa annua, and Festuca rubra to Herbicides That Inhibit the Enzyme Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase

    PubMed

    Herbert; Cole; Pallett; Harwood

    1996-06-01

    The susceptibilities of maize (Zea mays cv. Champ) and two graminicide-resistant grass species, Poa annua (annual meadow grass) and Festuca rubra (red fescue), to two aryloxyphenoxypropionates (quizalofop and fluazifop) and a cyclohexanedione (sethoxydim) graminicide were evaluated in leaf blades and isolated chloroplasts, and by assaying acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) in desalted leaf homogenates. The graminicide resistance of P. annua and F. rubra appeared to be at the level of ACCase. Festuca rubra ACCase was highly insensitive and P. annua ACCase was partially insensitive to the graminicides that were tested. Fatty acid synthesis in isolated maize chloroplasts was more susceptible to inhibition than was ACCase activity from whole leaves. There was a smaller difference in graminicide sensitivity between these two test systems in P. annua. The developmental pattern of ACCase specific activity and its inhibition by quizalofop was measured in maize and P. annua leaf blades. There was an age-dependent increase in the sensitivity of maize leaf ACCase activity to inhibition by quizalofop. Together with the greater susceptibility of chloroplasts compared with leaf homogenates this could imply that a graminicide-insensitive (extrachloroplastic) ACCase isoform is less highly expressed in older leaves. Poa annua ACCase did not significantly alter in sensitivity as leaves aged, consistent with the smaller difference in the level of inhibition between chloroplasts and leaf homogenates in this species. A small pyruvate carboxylase activity was detected in maize leaves after 9 days. By 38 days, when leaves were senescing, pyruvate carboxylase activity predominated over ACCase.

  12. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past.

  13. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Andrew M.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgNhetero) and homogeneous (pDgNhomo) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgNhetero coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgNhomo coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgNhetero relative to pDgNhomo of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the compressed breast width in the superior and

  14. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Andrew M.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  15. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  16. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-05

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  17. Pulmonary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma mimicking adenocarcinoma: a case study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dongliang; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Jigang; Ding, Li; Xin, Fangjie; Zhao, Han; Li, Yujun

    2013-08-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. Here we present another case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma in a 64-year-old female nonsmoker. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly papillary structures covered with squamous, glandular and transitional epithelium. Some glandular structures extending into adjacent bronchiolar and alveolar spaces with mucus were similar to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the different kinds of epithelia had similar immunophenotype. The different components were positive for cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, CAM5.2, CK5/6, CK34βE12, and TTF-1, but negative for CK20. The transitional morphology and immunohistochemistry indicate the different components likely come from a same kind of progenitor in the bronchiolar wall.

  18. [Study on characteristics of non-glandular hairs of cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-shan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-02-01

    We collected 22 cultivated population of Lonicera japonica from 17 areas. The characteristics of non-glandular hairs were observed and measured by the scanning electron microscopy. The principal components analysis and correlation analysis were conduct based on length and density of L. japonica. The results showed a significant negative correlation between length and density of non-glandular hairs, and the characteristics of non-glandular was not corrrelated significantly with latitude. The correlation results indicated that the density was a key to separate "Damaohua" and "Jizhuahua". The contribution of climate and soil was important to the cultivated population. This reminded that the characteristics of non-glandular hairs were affected by environmental and genetic interaction.

  19. Allergenicity of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is proportional to its mass.

    PubMed

    Nonotte-Varly, C

    2015-11-01

    Bee product mugwort is identified as being at the origin of allergic accidents but the biological potency of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is not well known. In this experiment, Artemisia mass was identified in bee pollen mass and after having calculated the proportion of Artemisia using the bee pollen melissopalynology spectrum. Skin reactivity to Artemisia was assessed by measuring wheal diameters (W) from skin prick tests using three serial dilutions of bee pollen on 11 allergic patients to Artemisia, in order to calculate the relationship between Artemisia mass (Massartemisia) in bee pollen and skin reactivity. The dose-response power regression curve (Wartemisia)=3.328 (Massartemisia)0.297 (R2=0.9947) and the linear function Log10 (Wartemisia)=0.297 (Log10 (Massartemisia)+0.520 (R=0.9974)) were established using a bee pollen sample with 0.246 mg of Artemisia pollen per mg. Mugwort allergens seem to be little or not altered by bee secretions and bee pollen retains its allergenic capacity. To our knowledge this is the first time it has been shown that skin reactivity of patients allergic to mugwort is proportional to the absolute mugwort mass contained in the bee pollen.

  20. Essential oil from Artemisia phaeolepis: chemical composition and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Ben Halima, Nihed; Abdelkafi, Slim; Hamdi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia phaeolepis, a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, grows on the grasslands of Mediterranean region. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia phaeolepis was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 79 components representing 98.19% of the total oil were identified, and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (11.30%), camphor (8.21%), terpine-4-ol (7.32%), germacrene D (6.39), caryophyllene oxide (6.34%), and caryophyllene (5.37%). The essential oil showed definite inhibitory activity against 10 strains of test microorganisms. Eucalyptol, camphor, terpine-4-ol, caryophyllene, germacrene D and caryophyllene oxide were also examined as the major components of the oil. Camphor showed the strongest antimicrobial activity; terpine-4-ol, eucalyptol, caryophyllene and germacrene D were moderately active and caryophyllene oxide was weakly active. The study revealed that the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components.

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    PubMed

    Irum, Shamaila; Ahmed, Haroon; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra; Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna; Qayyum, Mazhar; Simsek, Sami

    2015-09-15

    Current study was designed to evaluate in vivo and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus in comparison with ivermectin to investigate the effect of plant extracts on survival of infective L3 and adults under in vitro condition. Plant extracts were given to H. contortus infected sheep orally and it was infected with L3 stage of H. contortus at dose of 5000 larvae/sheep. Total of 25-30 larvae were incubated with plant extracts in PBS alone and ivermectin at different concentration used as positive control. It was recorded that there is a significant decrease in fecal egg count (FEC) after post-treatment period for both plants. The highest fecal egg count reduction for A. vestita was 87.2% at 100mg/kg while for A. maritima it was 84.5% on day 28 post-treatment. Investigated extracts indicated significant activity against larvae and adult worms.

  2. Glandular epithelial AR inactivation enhances PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion induces uterine pathology, whereas androgen actions via androgen receptor (AR) support uterine growth and therefore may modify uterine cancer risk. We hypothesized that the androgen actions mediated via uterine glandular epithelial AR could modify PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology. To test our hypothesis, we developed uterine glandular epithelium-specific PTEN and/or AR knockout mouse models comparing the uterine pathology among wild-type (WT), glandular epithelium-specific AR inactivation (ugeARKO), PTEN deletion (ugePTENKO), and the combined PTEN and AR knockout (ugePTENARKO) female mice. The double knockout restricted to glandular epithelium showed that AR inactivation enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology with development of intraepithelial neoplasia by 20 weeks of age. In ugePTENARKO, 6/10 (60%) developed intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas 3/10 (30%) developed only glandular hyperplasia in ugePTENKO uterus. No uterine pathology was observed in WT (n=8) and ugeARKO (n=7) uteri. Uterine weight was significantly (P=0.002) increased in ugePTENARKO (374±97 mg (mean±s.e.)) compared with WT (97±6 mg), ugeARKO (94±12 mg), and ugePTENKO (205±33 mg). Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and P-AKT expression was modified by uterine pathology but did not differ between ugePTENKO and ugePTENARKO, suggesting that its expressions are not directly affected by androgens. However, progesterone receptor (PR) expression was reduced in ugePTENARKO compared to ugePTENKO uterus, suggesting that PR expression could be regulated by glandular epithelial AR inactivation. In conclusion, glandular epithelial AR inactivation (with persistent stromal AR action) enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology possibly by downregulating PR expression in the uterus.

  3. A comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of two Artemisia species found in Nilgiris biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, J.; Elango, K.; Dhanabal, S.P.; Paramakrishnan, N.; Suresh, B.

    2007-01-01

    Artemisia pallens Wall. ex DC commonly known as “Davana” in Kannada and Artemisia abrotanum Linn. known as “Southernwood” (Asteraceae) are aromatic herbs, erect in habit, upto 60 cm tall, leaves are very small, much divided, bluish green. These plants find use in traditional systems of medicine viz., anthelmintic, tonic and antipyretic properties. Since, these species have not been scientifically evaluated; the present study was aimed to bring these plants under a suitable pharmacognostical scheme. PMID:22557262

  4. Highly oxidized sesquiterpenes from Artemisia austro-yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jun; Li, Bao-Cai; Dai, Wei-Feng; Liu, Lan; Zhang, Mi

    2016-12-01

    Eight new sesquiterpenes, including four guaianolides (1-4), one guaian sesquiterpene (5), one norguaianolide (6), one 1, 10-secoguaianolides (7), and one eudesmane sesquiterpene (8), along with fourteen known sesquiterpenes (9-22) were isolated from the whole plants of Artemisia austro-yunnanensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic date and HRESIMS analysis. All isolated sesquiterpenes (1-22) were evaluated their activities by the assay of LPS-induced NO production on RAW264.7, of which compounds 2-4, 9, 10 and 17 produced significant inhibition of NO production with IC50 values ranging from 2.38 to 10.67μM.

  5. Influence of Environment on Glandular Trichomes and Composition of Essential Oil of Perovskia abrotanoides Karel.

    PubMed Central

    Oreizi, Elaheh; Rahiminejad, Mohammad Reza; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perovskia abrotanoides Karel. is a medicinal plant used in Iranian folk medicine as a pain killer. Forty-one components have been identified in P. abrotanoides samples collected from Baluchistan Province, and 29 components have been recognized in samples collected from Khorasan Province. The leaves of P. abrotanoides have glandular trichomes (capitates and peltate) on both sides of the lamina. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the variation of oil constituents of the plant and illustrate the glandular trichomes types and then show the influence of environment on oil constituents and glandular trichomes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the plant was obtained using hydrodistillation and the analysis of oils carried out using GC-MS. The anatomical analysis of leaves was done by fixing, coloring, and photoing the sections. Results: Glandular trichomes composed of capitates and peltate trichomes. The essential oil composition differs. Viridiflora and neryl acetate were not identified in yellow glandular trichomes. Conclusions: It seems that there is no relation between anatomical characteristics of the plant leaves and its essential oil composition. PMID:25625046

  6. Establishing epithelial glandular polarity: interlinked roles for ARF6, Rac1, and the matrix microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Monteleon, Christine L; Sedgwick, Alanna; Hartsell, Alyssa; Dai, Michael; Whittington, Catherine; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial cysts comprise the structural units of the glandular epithelium. Although glandular inversion in epithelial tumors is thought to be a potential mechanism for the establishment of metastatic disease, little is known about the morphogenic cues and signaling pathways that govern glandular polarity and organization. Using organotypic cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in reconstituted basement membrane, we show that cellular depletion of the small GTP-binding protein ARF6 promotes the formation of inverted cysts, wherein the apical cell membrane faces the cyst exterior, and the basal domain faces the central lumen, while individual cell polarity is maintained. These cysts are also defective in interactions with laminin at the cyst-matrix interface. This inversion of glandular orientation is accompanied by Rac1 inactivation during early cystogenesis, and temporal activation of Rac1 is sufficient to recover the normal cyst phenotype. In an unnatural collagen I microenvironment, ARF6-depleted, inverted epithelial cysts exhibit some loss of cell polarity, a marked increase in Rho activation and Rac1 inactivation, and striking rearrangement of the surrounding collagen I matrix. These studies demonstrate the importance of ARF6 as a critical determinant of glandular orientation and the matrix environment in dictating structural organization of epithelial cysts.

  7. Aquaporins are upregulated in glandular epithelium at the time of implantation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Laura A; Murphy, Christopher R

    2007-03-01

    Regulation of luminal fluid is essential for blastocyst implantation. While it has been known for quite some time that there is a reduction in the amount of luminal fluid at the time of implantation, the mechanisms regulating this process are only just emerging. Previous studies have shown an upregulation of aquaporin (AQP) 5 channels in luminal epithelial cells at the time of implantation providing a mechanism for fluid reabsorption across the surface epithelium. However to date the contribution of fluid reabsorption by glandular epithelial cells has not been established. This study using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrates the presence of several AQP isoforms in the rat uterus at the time of implantation while immunofluorescence data demonstrates an apical distribution of AQPs5 and 9 in the glandular epithelium at the time of implantation. The presence of AQPs5 and 9 in the apical plasma membrane of the glandular epithelium seen in this study provides a mechanism for transcellular fluid transport across these glandular epithelial cells similar to that seen in luminal epithelial cells. The reabsorption of glandular fluid via AQP channels may also regulate luminal fluid volume and be involved in the reduction in luminal fluid seen at the time of implantation.

  8. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Joris J.; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Alba, Juan M.; Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Schuurink, Robert C.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. PMID:23235331

  9. Artemisia santolinifolia enhances glutamatergic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    PubMed

    Vance, Katie M; Ribnicky, David M; Rogers, Richard C; Hermann, Gerlinda E

    2014-10-17

    Artemisia extracts have been used as remedies for a variety of maladies related to metabolic and gastrointestinal control. Because the vagal afferent-nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) synapse regulates the same homeostatic functions affected by Artemisia, it is possible that these extracts may have activity at the synaptic level in the NST. Therefore, we evaluated how extracts of three common medicinal Artemisia species, Artemisia santolinifolia (SANT), Artemisia scoparia (SCO), and Artemisia dracunculus L (PMI-5011), modulate the excitability of the glutamatergic vagal afferent-NST synapse. Our in vitro live cell calcium imaging data from prelabeled vagal afferent terminals show that SANT extract is a positive modulator of vagal afferent calcium levels, as the extract significantly increased the calcium signal relative to the time control. Neither SCO nor PMI-5011 extract altered the vagal calcium signals compared to the time control. Furthermore, whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from NST neurons corroborated the vagal terminal calcium data in that SANT extract also significantly increased miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency in NST neurons. These data suggest that SANT extract could be a pharmacologically significant mediator of glutamatergic neurotransmission within the CNS.

  10. Is rapid evolution of reproductive traits in Adonis annua consistent with pollinator decline?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, M.; Imbert, E.; Cheptou, P.-O.

    2015-11-01

    Growing human footprint on the environment rapidly modifies the living conditions of natural populations. This could lead to phenotypic changes through both plasticity and evolution. Therefore, distinguishing the role of evolution in the phenotypic response to global change is a major challenge. In this study, we benefited from past and recent seeds from a population of the annual self-compatible weed Adonis annua. Seeds were sampled from the same locality at an 18 years interval and close to a region where reduction of bee pollinators' density has been reported. We used a common garden experiment to investigate evolutionary changes, between the old (1992) and the recent (2010) sample, for some reproductive traits expected to be under selection in the context of climate warming and pollinator decline. Plants of the recent sample flowered earlier, had larger flowers, but also evolved a shorter floral longevity. The capacity of plants to reproduce autonomously (autonomous selfing) was similar in the two samples. These results are consistent with adaptation of flowering phenology to climate warming and in part consistent with the evolution of increased pollinator attraction under pollinator decline. Together with other recent studies, this study provides evidence that short-term evolution is a frequent phenomenon accompanying global change.

  11. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past. PMID:28292079

  12. Mesothelial glandular structures within pseudosarcomatous proliferative funiculitis--a diagnostic pitfall: report of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2008-01-01

    We describe 17 cases of distinct benign pseudomalignant mesothelial proliferations, involving the spermatic cord. All cases revealed necrosis. The areas adjacent to the necrotic tissue comprised a cellular spindle cell proliferation with a haphazard arrangement of the myofibroblasts that in many areas revealed transitions into plump oval epithelioid cells and into cells with genuine epithelial appearances arranged in linear cords and often luminized into small microcysts. These epithelial cells formed isolated groups with glandular structures arising on the myofibroblastic background. Glandular structures were often situated deeply in the stroma of the spermatic cords. All cellular elements were strongly positive with AE1/AE3 antibody. All myofibroblasts stained with SM-actin antibody. Ultrastructurally, the spindle cells displayed features of myofibroblasts including actin microfilaments, as did the plump epithelioid cells that, additionally, had desmosomes, and the cords of the epithelial cells including those forming glandular structures had characteristics of mesothelias including the characteristic microvilli.

  13. Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma: a radioimmunoassay for its determination

    SciTech Connect

    Rabito, S.F.; Scicli, A.G.; Kher, V.; Carretero, O.A.

    1982-04-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma. To prevent the binding of radioactive kallikrein to plasma inhibitors, /sup 125/I-kallikrein was inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a procedure that maintained /sup 125/I-kallikrein immunoreactivity. Different volumes of plasma displaced /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein in a parallel fashion to the kallikrein standard curve. The sensitivity of the RIA was 200 pg, and the recovery of nonradioactive active kallikrein added to plasma was 58.7%. The concentration of immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in normal rat plasma averaged 47.1 +/- 1.7 (SE) ng/ml. Bilateral nephrectomy caused a threefold increase in circulating glandular kallikrein (50 +/- 2.7 to 167 +/- 7 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Removal of the submandibular and sublingual glands signficantly decreased its concentration from 52 +/- 2.3 to 34 +/- 1.6 ng/ml (P < 0.001). Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein was higher in the submandibular gland vein than in arterial blood (venous; 94 +/- 10.5; arterial: 64 +/- 6.3 ng/ml; P < 0.05) and was lower in the renal venous blood (venous: 44 +/- 2.2; arterial: 53 +/- 2.6 ng/ml; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that the use of /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein as tracer prevents the interference in the RIA caused by plasma protease inhibitors. It also indicates that the submandibular gland is an important source of the immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma and that the kidney probably participates in its metabolism. Glandular kallikrein released by the submandibular gland into the circulation may participate in regulating local blood flow before it is inactivated by plasma inhibitors.

  14. Genetic elaborations of glandular and non-glandular trichomes in Mentha arvensis genotypes: assessing genotypic and phenotypic correlations along with gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anand; Lal, R K; Chanotiya, C S; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2017-03-01

    Mentha arvensis (corn mint) is well known for the production of menthol, a widely used commodity in pharma and flavoring industries and provides natural fragrances and products. Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the aerial surface of vascular plants species producing specific secondary metabolite chemistry. Correlations were established among trichomes, oil yield, and major secondary metabolites. Nine improved, elite cultivars representing different M. arvensis genotypes were used for analysis. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were estimated; results indicated the presence of considerable amount of genetic variability, thereby emphasizing wide scope of selection. Positive and significant associations were found among glandular trichomes, oil yield, essential oil constituents, and leaf morphology itself, whereas morphological parameters of leaf show positive and negative correlations to average number of trichome and essential oil constituents. Average number of glandular, non-glandular trichomes, their ratios, menthol content, and trichome number showed a good heritability. Trichomes were studied microscopically in leaf parts in all varieties for analyzing their distribution pattern. The trichome number variations showed significant correlation throughout the genotypes with essential oil yield and monoterpenoid constituents. Differential changes were analyzed for Glutathione S-transferases, Glutathione reductase, Malondialdehyde, phenolics, and chlorophyll content. Gene expressions were analyzed for biosynthesis genes and selected transcription factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1), ENOLASE 1, GLABRA 3, GTL 1, NUCLEAR TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Y SUBUNIT B-6, WRKY transcription factor 22, putative WRKY 33, WRKY 17, WRKY 1, and WRKY 65-like for harnessing their relation with trichome development in M. arvensis genotypes.

  15. Clothianidin and Imidacloprid Residues in Poa annua (Poales: Poaceae) and Their Effects on Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clavet, Christopher; Requintina, Matthew; Hampton, Emily; Cowles, Richard S; Byrne, Frank J; Alm, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the amounts of the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid in Poa annua L. clippings from treated golf course fairways. Average clothianidin residues 7 d after application ranged from 674 to 1,550 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 455-2,220 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average clothianidin residues the day of application ranged from 17,100-38,800 ng/g tissue in 2014. Average imidacloprid residues 7 d after treatment ranged from 1,950-3,030 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 7,780-9,230 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average imidacloprid residues the day of application ranged from 31,500-40,400 ng/g tissue in 2014. Neonicotinoid or bifenthrin-neonicotinoid combination products applied in field plots in 2012 did not significantly reduce the numbers of larvae relative to the untreated control. However, in 2013, statistically significant reductions in the numbers of larvae recovered from treated field plots were associated with the presence of bifenthrin alone or when used in combination with neonicotinoid active ingredients. Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby) adults caged on neonicotinoid-, bifenthrin-, and bifenthrin-neonicotinoid-treated P. annua turf plugs fed on P. annua leaves, but mortality was only highly significantly different between treated and untreated foliage when weevils were placed on treated foliage the day after treatment and allowed to feed for 7 d. The modest degree of population suppression with bifenthrin in these experiments may not be adequate to justify the continued use of these products due to the increased risk of insecticide resistance and disruption of biological control.

  16. Cardiac myxoma with glandular elements: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of five new cases with an emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghui; Ding, Li; Liu, Yanhui; Xue, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper reported five new cases of cardiac myxoma with glandular components, known as glandular cardiac myxoma. The goals of this study were to analyze the clinicopathological features of this disease and to explore new features for differential diagnosis. The patient series included three women and two men. All tumors were located in the left atrium without invasion of the adjacent myocardium. Patients presented with cardiac-related or embolization symptoms. Histologically, neoplasms consisted of well-formed glandular structures and typical myxoma areas. No nuclear atypia, mitosis, or necrosis was identified in the glandular structures. Glandular lining cells were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CAM5.2 and cytokeratin 7, but were negative for some organ-specific markers, such as thyroid transcription factor-1, calretinin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, gross cystic disease fluid protein, prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeobox 2. In conclusion, glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare disease which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma. Because of its rarity, glandular cardiac myxoma must be distinguished from adenocarcinoma metastatic to the heart. The combination of histopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles should improve the diagnostic accuracy of glandular cardiac myxoma.

  17. Sex determination in dioecious Mercurialis annua and its close diploid and polyploid relatives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J R W; Pannell, J R

    2015-01-01

    Separate sexes have evolved on numerous independent occasions from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants. The mechanisms of sex determination is known for only a handful of such species, but, in those that have been investigated, it usually involves alleles segregating at a single locus, sometimes on heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In the genus Mercurialis, transitions between combined (hermaphroditism) and separate sexes (dioecy or androdioecy, where males co-occur with hermaphrodites rather than females) have occurred more than once in association with hybridisation and shifts in ploidy. Previous work has pointed to an unusual 3-locus system of sex determination in dioecious populations. Here, we use crosses and genotyping for a sex-linked marker to reject this model: sex in diploid dioecious M. annua is determined at a single locus with a dominant male-determining allele (an XY system). We also crossed individuals among lineages of Mercurialis that differ in their ploidy and sexual system to ascertain the extent to which the same sex-determination system has been conserved following genome duplication, hybridisation and transitions between dioecy and hermaphroditism. Our results indicate that the male-determining element is fully capable of determining gender in the progeny of hybrids between different lineages. Specifically, males crossed with females or hermaphrodites always generate 1:1 male:female or male:hermaphrodite sex ratios, respectively, regardless of the ploidy levels involved (diploid, tetraploid or hexaploid). Our results throw further light on the genetics of the remarkable variation in sexual systems in the genus Mercurialis. They also illustrate the almost identical expression of sex-determining alleles in terms of sexual phenotypes across multiple divergent backgrounds, including those that have lost separate sexes altogether. PMID:25335556

  18. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  19. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  20. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  1. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  2. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  3. Biochemical and histochemical localization of monoterpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    SciTech Connect

    Gershenzon, J.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R. )

    1989-04-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (-)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C{sub 10} isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (-)-limonene, hydroxylation to (-)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates.

  4. Phytotoxicity of Constituents of Glandular Trichomes and the Leaf Surface of Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby has a camphor-like odor, and its leaf surfaces contain glandular trichomes of the type shown to contain high levels of isoprenoids in other species. Phytotoxic calamenene-type sesquiterpenes (1-4, 8-10), borneol (11) and methylated flavone...

  5. [Computerized estimation of a percent glandular tissue composition in computed radiography mammography].

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Naoko; Goto, Sachiko; Azuma, Yoshiharu; Shiraishi, Junji

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of a percent glandular tissue composition (%GTC) is important in terms of the estimation of individual patient exposure dose and the prediction of malignancy, and thus a number of reports for estimating %GTC by use of a mammogram have been published. In this study, we propose a method for estimating individual %GTC by use of computed radiography (CR) mammograms. By employing breast-equivalent phantoms that are able to create breast phantom images with various combinations of fat and glandular tissue, as well as the thickness of whole breast, we determined a reference table for converting an each pixel value on CR mammography to the glandular tissue ratio. Therefore, the %GTC for individual breast was estimated by averaging glandular tissue ratio for a whole region. The clinical image data set that consisted of 49 CR mammograms were used for estimating %GTC. A paired comparison method for determining subjective ranking of the degree of breast density was employed in order to demonstrate the validity of our method. The results indicate that the average estimated %GTC was 35.0% (ranged from 12.0% to 67.0%) and they had a increased correlation with the ranking of those obtained by observer test. Therefore, it was suggested that our proposed method would be utilized for estimating the %GTC in objective manner.

  6. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2006-04-15

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT.

  7. Effects of vegetative and flowering stages on the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Abdul; Ahmed, Ibrar; Arshad, Waheed; Hussain, Izhar; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-10-01

    Artemisinin is an endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone, and has been proven to be very effective in treating drug resistant cases of malaria, cancer, etc. The compound is obtained from Artemisia species. In the current study, the effects of vegetative and flowering stages on artemisinin production were studied, to determine the proper harvesting time of naturally growing Artemisia species with the highest levels of artemisinin. Eight Artemisia species along with two varieties were selected for this analytical work. The results showed that artemisinin content was high in the leaves of Artemisia indica, A. sieversiana, A. roxburghiana var. roxburghiana, A. roxburghiana var. gratae, and A. parviflora at the flowering stage. The highest artemisinin content was measured in the leaves of A. dracunculus var. dracunculus. Upon comparisons of artemisinin content among the individual plant species, the highest amount of artemisinin was again in A. dracunculus var. dracunculus followed by A. sieversiana when harvested at the flowering stage. In overall comparisons, the plants at the flowering stage showed high levels of artemisinin, which is deemed the optimum harvesting time of Artemisia species in Pakistan for maximum artemisinin content.

  8. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

  9. Artemisia supplementation differentially affects the mucosal and luminal ileal microbiota of diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Shawna, Wicks; M., Taylor Christopher; Meng, Luo; Eugene, Blanchard IV; David, Ribnicky; T., Cefalu William; L., Mynatt Randall; A., Welsh David

    2014-01-01

    Objective The gut microbiome has been implicated in obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, most studies have focused on fecal or colonic samples. Several species of Artemisia have been reported to ameliorate insulin signaling both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to characterize the mucosal and luminal bacterial populations in the terminal ileum with or without supplementation with Artemisia extracts. Materials/Methods Following 4 weeks of supplementation with different Artemisia extracts (PMI 5011, Santa or Scopa), diet-induced obese mice were sacrificed and luminal and mucosal samples of terminal ileum were used to evaluate microbial community composition by pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA hypervariable regions. Results Significant differences in community structure and membership were observed between luminal and mucosal samples, irrespective of diet group. All Artemisia extracts increased the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio in mucosal samples. This effect was not observed in the luminal compartment. There was high inter-individual variability in the phylogenetic assessments of the ileal microbiota, limiting the statistical power of this pilot investigation. Conclusions Marked differences in bacterial communities exist dependent upon the biogeographic compartment in the terminal ileum. Future studies testing the effects of Artemisia or other botanical supplements require larger sample sizes for adequate statistical power. PMID:24985102

  10. Anticoagulant activity of some Artemisia dracunculus leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Duric, Kemal; Kovac-Besovic, Elvira E.; Niksic, Haris; Muratovic, Samija; Sofic, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Platelet hyperactivity and platelet interaction with endothelial cells contribute to the development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The impact of platelet activity with different pharmacological agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Artemisia dracunculus, L. Asteraceae (Tarragon) is used for centuries in the daily diet in many Middle Eastern countries, and it is well known for its anticoagulant activity. The present study investigates the presence of coumarins in tarragon leaves and subsequently determines the extract with a major amount of coumarin derivatives. The solvents of different polarities and different pH values were used for the purpose of purifying the primary extract in order to obtain fractions with the highest coumarin content. Those extracts and fractions were investigated for their anticoagulant activity by determining prothrombin time (PT) and the international normalized ratio (INR), expressed in relation to the coagulation time of the healthy person. Purified extracts and fractions obtained from plant residue after essential oil distillation, concentrated in coumarin derivatives, showed the best anticoagulant activity, using samples of human blood. INR maximum value (2.34) and consequently the best anticoagulant activity showed the methanol extract at concentration of 5%. The INR value of normal plasma in testing this extract was 1.05. PMID:26042507

  11. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Characterization of chemical structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xia; Wu, Fang; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-11-20

    The biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides are related to the substitution positions of functional groups. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. FT-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that SO(3-) group (S(6+), high binding energy of 168.7eV) was widely present in sulfated polysaccharides. (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed that C-2 and C-3 substitution was occurred but not fully sulfation. Meanwhile, C-6 substituted signals near 65ppm were not observed. The degree of substitution varied from 0.44 to 0.63 in SRSASP which could be attributed to the low reactivity at secondary hydroxyl. Monosaccharide composition result showed a decrease in the ratio of mannose/glucose, indicating the change of chemical composition in sulfated polysaccharides. In size-exclusion chromatograph analysis, a decrease in molecular weight and broadening of molecular weight distribution of sulfated polysaccharides was also observed. It could be attributed to the hydrolysis of polysaccharide in the sulfated reaction.

  12. Metabolic profiling of antioxidants constituents in Artemisia selengensis leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Wang, Hui; Fu, Zhi-feng; Wen, Qing-hui; Fan, Dan

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Artemisia selengensis Turcz (AST) leaves, a byproduct when processing AST stalk, and identify the antioxidant constituents by using HPLC-QTOF-MS(2). The total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidant abilities of fractions resulted from the successively partition of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were compared. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited the highest TFC (65.44 mg QuE/g fraction), n-butanol fraction (nBuF) showed the highest TPC (384.78 mg GAE/g fraction) and the best DPPH scavenging ability, ABTS(+) scavenging ability and reducing power. Totally, 57 compounds were identified or tentatively identified in nBuF and EAF, 40 of them were reported in AST for the first time. The major constituents in EAF were flavonoids, and the major constituents in nBuF were phenolic acids and organic acids. Thus, AST leaves might be a potential low-cost resource of natural antioxidants.

  13. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds.

  14. Variation in bioactive principles of Artemisia amygdalina Decne. in wild and tissue culture regenerants.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Rafia; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Akbar, Seema; Kamili, Azra Nahaid; Dar, Muhammad Younus; Masood, Akbar

    2013-05-01

    Wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina, a critically endangered and endemic plant of Kashmir and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan were screened for the amount of bioactive principles and in particular antimalarial compound artemesinin. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of terpenes, alkaloids, phenolics, tannins (polyphenolics), cardiac glycosides and steroids in wild (aerial, inflorescence) and tissue culture regenerants (in vitro grown plant, callus and green house acclimatized plants). HPLC of Artemisia amygdalina revealed the presence of artemesinin in petroleum ether extracts of wild aerial part, tissue culture raised plant and green house acclimatized plants. Acetonitrile and water in 70:30 ratios at flow rate of 1ml/min was standardised as mobile phase. Retention time for standard chromatogram was 6.7. Wild inflorescences and callus does not produce artemesinin. This is the first report of phytochemical screening and artemesinin estimation of wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of the glandular breast dose for a digital breast tomosynthesis system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Leonardo; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre Goncalves; Braz, Delson

    2015-12-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a screening and diagnostic modality that acquires images of the breast at multiple angles during a short scan. The Selenia Dimensions (Hologic, Bedford, Mass) DBT system can perform both full-field digital mammography and DBT. The system acquires 15 projections over a 15° angular range (from -7.5° to +7.5°). An important factor in determining the optimal imaging technique for breast tomosynthesis is the radiation dose. In breast imaging, the radiation dose of concern is that deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast because this is the tissue that has a risk of developing cancer. The concept of the normalised mean glandular dose (DgN) has been introduced as the metric for the dose in breast imaging. The DgN is difficult to measure. The Monte Carlo techniques offer an alternative method for a realistic estimation of the radiation dose. The purpose of this work was to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX technique to generate monoenergetic glandular dose data for estimating the breast tissue dose in tomosynthesis for arbitrary spectra as well as to observe the deposited radiation dose by projection on the glandular portion of the breast in a Selenia Dimensions DBT system. A Monte Carlo simulation of the system was developed to compute the DgN in a craniocaudal view. Monoenergetic X-ray beams from 10 to 49 keV in 1-keV increments were used. The simulation utilised the assumption of a homogeneous breast composition and three compositions (0 % glandular, 50 % glandular and 100 % glandular). The glandular and adipose tissue compositions were specified according ICRU Report 44. A skin layer of 4 mm was assumed to encapsulate the breast on all surfaces. The breast size was varied using the chest wall-to-nipple distance (CND) and compressed breast thickness (t). In this work, the authors assumed a CND of 5 cm and the thicknesses ranged from 2 to 8 cm, in steps of 2 cm. The fractional energy absorption increases (up to 44.35 % between

  16. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  17. Mayolenes: labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae).

    PubMed

    Smedley, Scott R; Schroeder, Frank C; Weibel, Douglas B; Meinwald, Jerrold; Lafleur, Katie A; Renwick, J Alan; Rutowski, Ronald; Eisner, Thomas

    2002-05-14

    Larvae of the European cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion at their tip. The fluid consists primarily of a series of chemically labile, unsaturated lipids, the mayolenes, which are derived from 11-hydroxylinolenic acid. In bioassays with the ant Crematogaster lineolata, the secretion was shown to be potently deterrent, indicating that the fluid plays a defensive role in nature.

  18. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    PubMed

    Oidovsambuu, Odgerel; Nyamsuren, Gunsmaa; Liu, Shuai; Göring, Wolfgang; Engel, Wolfgang; Adham, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Although Vsig1(-/Y) ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y) cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  19. Comparison of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beraldo Oliveira, Bruno; Paixão, Lucas; Donato da Silva, Sabrina; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-06-01

    Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) procedures. Mean glandular dose (DG) values were derived from the incident air kerma (Ki) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients. Ki values were obtained through an ionization chamber positioned in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using appropriate exposure parameters. This work contributes to determine the reliable radiation dose received by the patients and compare DG values provided by this DBT system images.

  20. Thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2013-08-01

    Twelve cases of thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation are presented. The patients were 7 men and 5 women aged between 45 and 68 years (average, 56.5 years). Clinically, the patients presented with nonspecific symptoms of chest pain, cough, and fatigue. None of the patients had a history of myasthenia gravis or other autoimmune syndrome. Thymectomy was performed in all patients. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 7 cm in greatest diameter. Macroscopically, the tumors were described as firm and light tan without areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, or cystic change. Histologically, 7 tumors were classified as spindle cell (World Health Organization type A), 2 as mixed spindle cell and conventional (A+B1), 2 as conventional (B1), and 1 as atypical thymoma (B3). In 4 cases, the tumors showed invasion into periadipose thymic tissue. All cases showed the typical growth patterns of their particular subtypes. In addition, a distinct glandular component was present in all cases showing mucinous differentiation in 4 of them. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, and Pax8 and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor 1, and epithelial membrane antigen. Calretinin showed focal weak staining in the nonmucinous glandular components in 3 cases. Follow-up information obtained in 8 patients showed that all were alive and well in a period ranging from 2 to 5 years. The possibility of a glandular component in thymomas should be kept in mind in the assessment of mediastinoscopic biopsies to avoid misdiagnosis for other neoplasms that may require different treatment modalities.

  1. Identification of glandular (preputial and clitoral) proteins in house rat (Rattus rattus) involved in pheromonal communication.

    PubMed

    Archunan, G; Kamalakkannan, S; Achiraman, S; Rajkumar, R

    2004-10-01

    Proteins (18-20 kDa) belonging to lipocalin family have been reported to act as carriers for ligands binding to pheromones in mouse urine, pig saliva, hamster vaginal fluid and human sweat, that are involved in pheromonal communication. As the preputial gland is a major pheromonal source, the present study was aimed to detect the specific protein bands (around 18-20 kDa) in the preputial and clitoral glands of the house rat, R. rattus. The amount of protein was higher in preputial gland of the male than that of female (clitoral) gland. A 20 kDa protein was noted in male and female glands; however, the intensity of the band was much higher in male than in female. In addition, 70, 60, 35 kDa bands, identified in male preputial gland, were absent in females. The presence of higher concentration of glandular proteins in the male preputial gland suggests that male rats may depend more on these glandular proteins for the maintenance of reproductive and dominance behaviours. The results further suggest that these glandular proteins (20 kDa) may act as a carrier for ligand binding.

  2. Benign müllerian glandular inclusions in men undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Gallan, Alexander J; Antic, Tatjana

    2016-11-01

    Benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in lymph nodes are commonly seen in women, but to our knowledge, there have only been 4 reported cases in men. Distinction of these glandular structures from metastatic adenocarcinoma is crucial for proper staging, prognosis, and treatment of the patient. We report 3 cases of benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in men undergoing either prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy with lymph node dissection for treatment of prostatic adenocarcinoma and/or urothelial carcinoma. None of the patients were receiving hormonal therapy. All 3 cases showed benign glands with ciliated cuboidal to columnar cells and rare secretory cells, morphologically comparable with endosalpingiosis in women. These glands were diffusely positive for PAX-8, WT-1, estrogen receptor, and progesteron receptor consistent with müllerian origin. Our study is the first to confirm müllerian origin of these glands by PAX-8 and WT-1 positivity. This finding of müllerian glands in men identical to endosalpingiosis in women supports the theory that this entity can result from müllerian metaplasia of the peritoneal mesothelium rather than displacement of tubal-type epithelium. Pathologists should also be aware that müllerian-type glands can rarely occur in men to prevent the incorrect diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma involving a lymph node.

  3. [Estimation of the Average Glandular Dose Using the Mammary Gland Image Analysis in Mammography].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomoko; Teramoto, Atsushi; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Satoru; Anno, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Currently, the glandular dose is evaluated quantitatively on the basis of the measured data using phantom, and not in a dose based on the mammary gland structure of an individual patient. However, mammary gland structures of the patients are different from each other and mammary gland dose of an individual patient cannot be obtained by the existing methods. In this study, we present an automated estimation method of mammary gland dose by means of mammary structure which is measured automatically using mammogram. In this method, mammary gland structure is extracted by Gabor filter; mammary region is segmented by the automated thresholding. For the evaluation, mammograms of 100 patients diagnosed with category 1 were collected. Using these mammograms we compared the mammary gland ratio measured by proposed method and visual evaluation. As a result, 78% of the total cases were matched. Furthermore, the mammary gland ratio and average glandular dose among the patients with same breast thickness was matched well. These results show that the proposed method may be useful for the estimation of average glandular dose for the individual patients.

  4. Glandular hairs of Sigesbeckia jorullensis Kunth (Asteraceae): morphology, histochemistry and composition of essential oil.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, G; Pfeifhofer, H W; Stabentheiner, E; Sawidis, T

    2002-04-01

    Long-stalked glandular hairs of outer and inner involucral bracts of Sigesbeckia jorullensis, which are important for epizoic fruit propagation, were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The essential oil secreted by the hairs was analysed by chromatographic methods including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and with a laser microprobe mass analyser. The glandular hairs consisted of a large multicellular stalk and a multicellular secreting head. The apical layer of glandular head cells was characterized by leucoplasts and calcium oxalate crystals. Below the apical cells there were up to six layers of cells containing many chloroplasts around the nucleus and surrounded by vacuoles filled with flavonoids and tannins. The essential oil originating in the head cells was secreted into the subcuticular space and may be liberated by rupture of the cuticle. It was mainly composed of sesqui- and diterpenes, with the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene-D as the main component. Monoterpenes, n-alkanes and their derivatives as well as flavonoid aglycones were also detected. The stickiness of the essential oil is probably associated with the high content of oxygenated sesqui- and diterpenes. In addition to long-stalked trichomes, small biseriate trichomes occurred, secreting small quantities of essential oil into a subcuticular space.

  5. INFLUENCE OF MOWING ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS ON WINTER HABITAT FOR WILDLIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the in...

  6. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  7. The effects of Artemisia aucheri extract on hepatotoxicity induced by thioacetamide in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Azam; ShekarForoush, Shahnaz; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Aqababa, Hydar; Zarei, Ali; Azizi, Maryam; Yarmahmodi, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Liver is an important organ that is exposed to many oxidant and carcinogenic agents, thus antioxidant compounds are beneficial for liver health. Artemisia contains flavonoid compounds and anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to possessing terpene and sesquiterpene compounds, this plant has antioxidant properties. This study was done to investigate the effects of Artemisia plant extract on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: For induction of hepatotoxicity, 50 mg/kg thioacetamide was injected intraperitoneally (i.p). After extraction and purification, the hydroalcoholic extract was injected i.p. at 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg doses for 21 days together with thioacetamide at 50 mg/kg dose in the last 3 days. After blood sampling and separation of serum, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and total protein concentrations were measured. Results: Significant decreases in aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and significant increases in the concentration of albumin and total protein in groups treated with the extract compared with thioacetamide-treated group were observed (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that protective effects of Artemisia extract against the thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity may be due to its ability to block the bioactivation of thioacetamide, primarily by inhibiting the activity of Cyp450 and free radicals. Artemisia possesses quercetin. Studies have demonstrated that quercetin inhibits lipid peroxidation and as an antioxidant can inhibit lipid peroxidation. PMID:25050286

  8. Antidiabetic activity of Artemisia amygdalina Decne in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfar, Khalid; Ganai, Bashir A; Akbar, Seema; Mubashir, Khan; Dar, Showkat Ahmad; Dar, Mohammad Younis; Tantry, Mudasir A

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Artemisia amygdalina. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia amygdalina were tested for their antidiabetic potentials in diabetic rats. The effect of extracts was observed by checking the biochemical, physiological, and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats. The hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts each at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b. w significantly reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. The other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL), serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatise (ALP), were found to be reduced by the hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts. The extracts also showed reduction in the feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on β -cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The current study revealed the antidiabetic potential of Artemisia amygdalina being effective in hyperglycemia and that it can effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by diabetes in rats, which seems to validate its therapeutic traditional use.

  9. Chemical and biological diversity of the volatiles of five Artemisia species from far east of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from aerial parts of Artemisia argyi, A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, A. olgensis (Asteraceae). Plants were collected in the Far East region (Primorski Krai) of the Russian Federatio...

  10. [A glimpse of the history of the genus Artemisia from pollen analyses].

    PubMed

    Méon, H

    1987-06-01

    The first certain data about the pollen grains of Artemisia have been found about the Middle Miocene. A review of the recent works concerning Western Europe and Northern Africa allows us to have some confirmation of this point of view. The pollen of Artemisia is appearing in the Miocene (Serravallian) with very poor amounts, the first important spreading of this plant, as revealed by sporopollinic analysis, comes near the Tertiary-Quaternary boundary at the time of an important deterioration of the climate. For the Quaternary, Artemisia is often present with low percentages and is only developing during the glaciation. In the Upper Quaternary, after the glaciation, the vegetation with Artemisia especially widens because of the man influence: clearing and/or breeding. This plant, which actually gives us many environmental problems, seems to have been differentiated a short time ago. It is a wind-pollinated vegetable, perhaps issued from the Compositae Anthemidae which have an echinulate pollen grain, the spines have been reduced almost to relics by adaptation to the wind dispersion.

  11. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml.

  12. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    PubMed Central

    Beirn, Lisa A.; Wang, Ruying; Clarke, Bruce B.

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli), although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen. PMID:26339538

  13. Two's Company, Three's a Crowd: Experimental Evaluation of the Evolutionary Maintenance of Trioecy in Mercurialis annua (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Laura E.; Pannell, John R.; Dorken, Marcel E.

    2012-01-01

    Trioecy is an uncommon sexual system in which males, females, and hermaphrodites co-occur as three clearly different gender classes. The evolutionary stability of trioecy is unclear, but would depend on factors such as hermaphroditic sex allocation and rates of outcrossing vs. selfing. Here, trioecious populations of Mercurialis annua are described for the first time. We examined the frequencies of females, males and hermaphrodites across ten natural populations and evaluated the association between the frequency of females and plant densities. Previous studies have shown that selfing rates in this species are density-dependent and are reduced in the presence of males, which produce substantially more pollen than hermaphrodites. Accordingly, we examined the evolutionary stability of trioecy using an experiment in which we (a) indirectly manipulated selfing rates by altering plant densities and the frequency of males in a fully factorial manner across 20 experimental plots and (b) examined the effect of these manipulations on the frequency of the three sex phenotypes in the next generation of plants. In the parental generation, we measured the seed and pollen allocations of hermaphrodites and compared them with allocations by unisexual plants. In natural populations, females occurred at higher frequencies in denser patches, a finding consistent with our expectations. Under our experimental conditions, however, no combination of plant densities and male frequencies was associated with increased frequencies of females. Our results suggest that the factors that regulate female frequencies in trioecious populations of M. annua are independent of those regulating male frequencies (density), and that the stable co-existence of all three sex phenotypes within populations is unlikely. PMID:22532862

  14. Plasticity in sex allocation in the plant Mercurialis annua is greater for hermaphrodites sampled from dimorphic than from monomorphic populations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vilas, J; Pannell, J R

    2014-09-01

    Plants are notoriously variable in gender, ranging in sex allocation from purely male through hermaphrodite to purely female. This variation can have both a genetic and an adaptive plastic component. In gynodioecious species, where females co-occur with hermaphrodites, hermaphrodites tend to shift their allocation towards greater maleness when growing under low-resource conditions, either as a result of hermaphrodites shifting away from an expensive female function, or because of enhanced siring advantages in the presence of females. Similarly, in the androdioecious plant Mercurialis annua, where hermaphrodites co-exist with males, hermaphrodites also tend to enhance their relative male allocation under low-resource conditions. Here, we ask whether this response differs between hermaphrodites that have been evolving in the presence of males, in a situation analogous to that supposed for gynodioecious populations, vs. those that have been evolving in their absence. We grew hermaphrodites of M. annua from populations in which males were either present or absent under different levels of nutrient availability and compared their reaction norms. We found that, overall, hermaphrodites from populations with males tended to be more female than those from populations lacking males. Importantly, hermaphrodites' investment in pollen and seed production was more plastic when they came from populations with males than without them, reducing their pollen production at low resource availability and increasing their seed production at high resource availability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that plasticity in sex allocation is enhanced in hermaphrodites that have likely been exposed to variation in mating opportunities due to fluctuations in the frequency of co-occurring males.

  15. Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Shigeto; Kusuda, Tomoko; Liu, Xu-Ping; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Mikami, Yoshiki; Takeshita, Morishige; Nakao, Motonao; Chochi, Yasuyo; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2008-12-01

    Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix. In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurrent chromosomal imbalances, that is, gains of chromosome 3q and a loss of 1p, which were common to MDA and MAC, in 3 of 14 LEGHs analyzed (21%). LEGHs with chromosomal imbalances showed a degree of cellular atypia in the hyperplastic glandular epithelium. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions. HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined. Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions. Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.

  16. Protective effects of Artemisia arborescens essential oil on oestroprogestative treatment induced hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ettaya, Amani; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, natural products have been shown to exhibit interesting biological and pharmacological activities and are used as chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this study, conducted on Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Artemisia arborescens oil on oestroprogestative treatment induced damage on liver. MATERIALS/METHODS A total of 36 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a control group (n = 9), a group of rats who received oestroprogestative treatment by intraperitoneal injection (n = 9), a group pre-treated with Artemisia arborescens then injected with oestroprogestative treatment (n = 9), and a group pre-treated with Artemisia arborescens (n = 9). To minimize the handling stress, animals from each group were sacrificed rapidly by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation and the livers were removed, cleaned of fat, and stored at -80℃ until use. RESULTS In the current study, oestroprogestative poisoning resulted in oxidative stress, which was demonstrated by 1) a significant increase of lipid peroxidation level in hepatic tissue 2) increased levels of serum transaminases (aspartate amino transferase and serum alanine amino transferase), alkaline phosphatase, glycemia and triglycerides and a decrease in the level of cholesterol 3) alteration of hepatic architecture. Pre-administration of Artemisia arborescens oil was found to alleviate oestroprogestative treatment induced damage by lowering lipid peroxidation level and by increasing activity of catalase, superoxide-dismutase, and glutathione-peroxidase in liver and by reducing disruption of biochemical parameters. CONCLUSION Therefore, the results obtained in this study confirmed that Artemisia essential oil protects against oestroprogestative administration induced hepatotoxicity by restoration of liver activities. PMID:26425275

  17. The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Acidic Polysaccharide from Artemisia capillaris on Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Min; Hahm, Ki-Baik; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Eun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with diverse upper gastrointestinal diseases, such as peptic and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Longstanding period of infection impose great risk of H. pylori-related gastric disease, based on the evidence that early childhood infection is responsible for ensuing atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer related to H. pylori infection. Artemisiahas been known to be beneficial for heath for a long time. In spite of well-acknowledged cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of Artemisia, the effects of the acidic polysaccharide fractions on the gastroprotection remain to be investigated. Methods: In the current study, we compared anti-inflammatory actions of the acidic polysaccharide fraction between Artemisia and Panax ginseng against H. pylori infection in vitro. The polysaccharide fractions were pretreated 1 h before H. pylori infection on normal gastric mucosal RGM-1 cells and gastric cancer MKN-28 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot was performed to check anti-inflammatory actions. Results: The expressions of inflammatory markers including COX-2, iNOS and IL-8 increased after H. pylori infection, of which levels were significantly decreased when treating with the polysaccharide fractions from Artemisia and ginseng in RGM1 and gastric cancer MKN-28 cells. In addition, the polysaccharide fractions significantly ameliorated H. pylori-induced angiogenic and invasive markers such as HIF-1α and ICAM1. Moreover, H. pylori-induced apoptosis were prevented by pretreatment with the polysaccharide fractions. The polysaccharide fraction from Artemisia showed the most protective effects among the several polysaccharide fractions used in this study. Conclusions: The polysaccharide fraction of Artemisia capillariscan is a candidate substance which can attenuate either H. pylori-induced gastritis or tumorigenesis based on potent anti-inflammatory action. PMID:25337542

  18. Responses of Poa annua and three bentgrass species (Agrostis spp.) to adult and larval feeding of annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Kostromytska, O S; Koppenhöfer, A M

    2016-12-01

    The annual bluegrass weevil (ABW), Listronotus maculicollis Kirby, is an economically important pest of short-cut turfgrass in Eastern North America. Wide spread insecticide resistance warrants the development of alternative management strategies for this pest. ABW damage typically occurs in areas with a high percentage of annual bluegrass, Poa annua L., the preferred ABW host. Damage to bentgrasses, Agrostis spp., is much rarer and usually less severe. To aid the implementation of host plant resistance as an alternative ABW management strategy we investigated the tolerance of three bentgrass species to ABW feeding. Responses of P. annua, creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera L., colonial bentgrass, Agrostis capillaris L., and velvet bentgrass, Agrostis canina L., to adult and larval feeding were compared in greenhouse experiments. Grass responses were measured as visual damage, dry weight of the grass stems and leaves, color, density and overall grass quality. To determine possible mechanisms of grass tolerance constitutive fiber and silicon content were also determined. The three bentgrass species tolerated 2-3 times higher numbers of ABW adults and larvae than P. annua before displaying any significant quality decrease. Creeping bentgrass had the lowest damage ratings. ABW infestation caused higher plant yield reduction in P. annua (up to 42%) than in bentgrasses. Observed differences among the grass species in fiber and silicon content in the plant tissue are unlikely to play a role in the resistance of bentgrasses to ABW. Our findings clearly show that A. stolonifera is the best grass species for the implementation of host plant resistance in ABW management.

  19. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  20. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-10-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  1. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  2. Rescue of glandular dysmorphogenesis in PTEN-deficient colorectal cancer epithelium by PPARγ-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Jagan, I; Fatehullah, A; Deevi, R K; Bingham, V; Campbell, F C

    2013-03-07

    Disruption of glandular architecture associates with poor clinical outcome in high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) regulates morphogenic growth of benign MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cells through effects on the Rho-like GTPase cdc42 (cell division cycle 42). This study investigates PTEN-dependent morphogenesis in a CRC model. Stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of PTEN in Caco-2 cells influenced expression or localization of cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors and inhibited cdc42 activation. Parental Caco-2 cells formed regular hollow gland-like structures (glands) with a single central lumen, in three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Conversely, PTEN-deficient Caco-2 ShPTEN cells formed irregular glands with multiple abnormal lumens as well as intra- and/or intercellular vacuoles evocative of the high-grade CRC phenotype. Effects of targeted treatment were investigated. Phosphatidinylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) modulating treatment did not affect gland morphogenesis but did influence gland number, gland size and/or cell size within glands. As PTEN may be regulated by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), cultures were treated with the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone. This treatment enhanced PTEN expression, cdc42 activation and rescued dysmorphogenesis by restoring single lumen formation in Caco-2 ShPTEN glands. Rosiglitazone effects on cdc42 activation and Caco-2 ShPTEN gland development were attenuated by cotreatment with GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist. Taken together, these studies show PTEN-cdc42 regulation of lumen formation in a 3D model of human CRC glandular morphogenesis. Treatment by the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone, but not PI3K modulators, rescued colorectal glandular dysmorphogenesis of PTEN deficiency.

  3. Phytotoxicity of constituents of glandular trichomes and the leaf surface of camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Masanori; Cantrell, Charles L; Libous-Bailey, Lynn; Duke, Stephen O

    2009-01-01

    Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby, has a camphor-like odor, and its leaf surfaces contain glandular trichomes of the type shown to contain high levels of isoprenoids in other species. Borneol (1), the phytotoxic calamenene-type sesquiterpenes (2-5, 9-11), and methylated flavones (12-15) were isolated from the dichloromethane rinsate of camphorweed aerial tissues. The strongest plant growth inhibitor against Agrostis stolonifera and Lactuca sativa seedlings, as well as duckweed (Lemna pausicostata), was 2-methoxy-calamenene-14-carboxylic acid (2). Esterification of calamenene carboxylic acids decreased their biological activity.

  4. Uncertainties involved in the estimation of mean glandular dose for women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP).

    PubMed

    Hauge, I H R; Olerud, H M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to reflect on the estimation of the mean glandular dose for women in Norway aged 50-69 y. Estimation of mean glandular dose (MGD) has been conducted by applying the method of Dance et al. (1990, 2000, 2009). Uncertainties in the thickness of approximately ±10 mm adds uncertainties in the MGD of approximately ±10 %, and uncertainty in the glandularity of ±0 % will lead to an uncertainty in the MGD of ±4 %. However, the inherent uncertainty in the air kerma, given by the European protocol on dosimetry, will add an uncertainty of 12 %. The total uncertainty in the MGD is estimated to be ∼20 %, taking into consideration uncertainties in compressed breast thickness (±10 %), the air kerma (12 %), change in HVL by -0.05 mm (-9.0 %), uncertainty in the s-factor of ±2.1 % and changing the glandularity to an age-dependent glandularity distribution (+8.4 %).

  5. North American Artemisia species from the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush): a phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Turi, Christina E; Shipley, Paul R; Murch, Susan J

    2014-02-01

    The genus Artemisia consists of between 350 and 500 species with most of the North American endemic Artemisia species contained within the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush). The reported uses of these species by Native American and First Nations peoples include analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, immunostimulation activity, as well as the treatment of afflictions from spiritual origins. Taxonomic revision for North American Sagebrush has created a number of synonyms that confuse the literature. The phytochemical diversity of the Tridentatae includes at least 220 distinct and important specialized metabolites. This manuscript reviews the current phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological understanding for the subgenus Tridentatae, and provides a foundation for future studies of the metabolomes of the Tridentatae. Modern approaches to phytochemical analysis and drug discovery are likely to provide interesting lead compounds in the near future.

  6. The génépi Artemisia species. Ethnopharmacology, cultivation, phytochemistry, and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Vouillamoz, José F; Carlen, Christoph; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Wormwoods (Artemisia species) from the génépi group are, along with Edelweiss, iconic plants of the Alpine region and true symbols of inaccessibility because of their rarity and their habitat, largely limited to moraines of glaciers and rock crevices. Infusions and liqueurs prepared from génépis have always enjoyed a panacea status in folk medicine, especially as thermogenic agents and remedies for fatigue, dyspepsia, and airway infections. In the wake of the successful cultivation of white génépi (Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.) and the expansion of its supply chain, modern studies have evidenced the occurrence of unique constituents, whose chemistry, biological profile, and sensory properties are reviewed along with the ethnopharmacology, botany, cultivation and conservation strategies of their plant sources.

  7. Two natural compounds - a benzofuran and a phenylpropane - from Artemisia dracunculus.

    PubMed

    Talbi, Mohammed; Saadali, Bouchra; Boriky, Driss; Bennani, Laila; Elkouali, M'hammed; Ainane, Tarik

    2016-08-01

    The structure elucidation of three metabolites herniarin (7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one, 1), phytoalexin (5-acetyl-6-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)benzofuran, 2), and prestragol (3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-prop-1,2-diol, 3) isolated from Artemisia dracunculus was determined on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR methods and by an X-ray crystallographic determination.

  8. Artemisia extracts activate PPARγ, promote adipogenesis, and enhance insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue of obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Burris, Thomas P.; Sanchez-Infantes, David; Wang, Yongjun; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have shown that the inability of adipose tissue to properly expand during the obese state or respond to insulin can lead to metabolic dysfunction. Artemisia is a diverse group of plants that has a history of medicinal use. This study examines the ability of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia scoparia (SCO) and Artemisia santolinifolia (SAN) to modulate adipocyte development in cultured adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Research Design & Procedures Adipogenesis was assessed using Oil Red O staining and immunoblotting. A nuclear receptor specificity assay was used to examine the specificity of SCO- and SAN-induced PPARγ activation. C57BL/6J mice, fed a high-fat diet, were gavaged with saline, SCO, or SAN for 2 weeks. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was examined using insulin tolerance tests. WAT depots were assessed via immunoblotting for markers of insulin action and adipokine production. Results We established that SCO and SAN were highly specific activators of PPARγ and did not activate other nuclear receptors. After a one-week daily gavage, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had lower insulin-induced glucose disposal rates than control mice. At the end of the 2-week treatment period, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had enhanced insulin-responsive Akt serine-473 phosphorylation and significantly decreased MCP-1 levels in visceral WAT relative to control mice; these differences were depot specific. Moreover, plasma adiponectin levels were increased following SCO treatment. Conclusion Overall, these studies demonstrate that extracts from two Artemisia species can have metabolically favorable effects on adipocytes and WAT. PMID:24985103

  9. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium on appetite in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Baghban Taraghdari, Sara; Nematy, Mohsen; Mazidi, Mohsen; Kamgar, Maryam; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05) differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract) is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05). So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Conclusion: Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant. PMID:25949948

  10. Immunohistochemical evidence: testicular and scented glandular androgen synthesis in muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Weng, J; Zhang, H; Lu, L; Ma, X; Wang, Q; Cao, H; Liu, S; Xu, M; Weng, Q; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    2011-10-19

    In order to elucidate the relationship between androgens and the function of the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) scented glands during the breeding season, we investigated immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 in the muskrat testes and scented glands. Nine adult muskrats were obtained in March (n=3), May (n=3) and July (n=3) 2010. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal P450scc, human placental 3βHSD and porcine testicular P450c17. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature-phase spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules were observed in all testes. Glandular cells, interstitial cells, epithelial cells and excretory tubules were identified in scented glands during the breeding season. P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 were only identified in Leydig cells during the breeding season; P450scc and P450c17 were observed in glandular cells of scented glands, however, 3βHSD was not found in scented glands during the breeding season. These novel findings provide the first evidence showing that scented glands of the muskrats are capable of locally synthesizing androgens and androgens acting via an endocrine, autocrine or paracrine manner may play an important role in scented gland function during the breeding season.

  11. Comparison of polyphenol oxidase expression in glandular trichomes of solanum and lycopersicon species.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Kowalski, S P; Steffens, J C

    1992-12-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble M(r) 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the M(r) 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the M(r) 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiM(r) 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed.

  12. Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens

    PubMed Central

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed. PMID:20419093

  13. Glandular epithelium as a possible source of a fertility signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    PubMed

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-04-19

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed.

  14. Comparison of Polyphenol Oxidase Expression in Glandular Trichomes of Solanum and Lycopersicon Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haifeng; Kowalski, Stanley P.; Steffens, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble Mr 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the Mr 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the Mr 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiMr 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16653213

  15. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering.

  17. Cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. A comparative morphological analysis of the entire glandular tree of the breast.

    PubMed

    Sarnelli, R; Squartini, F

    1989-01-01

    Cancerous and clinically normal autopsy obtained breasts were collected in order to compare the physiopathological profile of both types of glandular tree. Each breast was visualized by whole thin sections and observed under a stereomicroscope with removal of the more interesting changes for histology. The comparison was made between 67 atrophic cancerous breasts and 88 atrophic control breasts. The results were as follows: 25% of the cancerous breasts versus 47% of control breasts showed no changes, atypical lobules, microfoci of "in situ" and/or infiltrating cancer were present in 46% of cancerous breasts and in 16% of control breasts, showing a significant correlation with clinical cancer. All other types of functional and proliferative changes, variously associated each other, were found in 29% of cancerous and in 37% of control breasts. Our morphological data agree completely with the statements in follow-up studies carried out on benign breast biopsies. The significant differences in the physiopathological profile of the glandular tree between "normal" and cancerous breasts, confirms that some changes are causally related to clinical cancer.

  18. Biological activity of acyl glucose esters from Datura wrightii glandular trichomes against three native insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hare, J Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Datura wrightii is dimorphic for leaf trichome type in southern California. "Sticky" plants produce glandular trichomes that secrete acylsugars, whereas velvety plants produce nonglandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes confer resistance to some potential insect herbivores and are associated with reduced feeding in the field by two native coleopteran herbivores: the tobacco flea beetle, Epitrix hirtipennis, and a weevil, Trichobaris compacta. In contrast, another native beetle, Lema daturaphila, damages sticky and velvety plants similarly in the field. A series of choice and no-choice "ester removal" and "ester addition" feeding experiments were performed in the laboratory to evaluate the role of acylsugars in feeding by all three insect species. Consumption of sticky leaves after their esters were removed by washing was compared to consumption of unwashed sticky leaves and velvety leaves in ester removal experiments. Consumption of velvety leaves was measured after acylsugars were applied to those leaves in controlled amounts in the ester addition experiments. Consumption by E. hirtipennis was reduced by acylsugars in all experiments. Consumption by T. compacta was reduced by acylsugars in the ester removal experiments, but not in the ester addition experiments. The location of the acylsugars at the tip of a long trichome, rather than simply on the leaf surface, may be an important component of the biological activity of acylsugars against T. compacta in nature. Consumption by L. daturaphila was not significantly reduced by acylsugars in any experiment. The acylsugars caused no significant mortality of any of the three insect species.

  19. The flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase modulates terpenoid production in glandular trichomes of tomato.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E; Jones, A Daniel; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-03-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments.

  20. Biochemical effects, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding of rats with high fat diet containing 3% cholesterol in olein oil, for 8 weeks. Feeding of rats with high fat diet for 8 weeks, leading to a significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and a significant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, liver hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and paraoxonase-1 activities as compared to the normal control group. Treatment of high fat diet rats with Artemisia vulgaris extract for 4 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day, resulted in normalized serum lipid profile, a significant increase in paraoxonase-1 activity and decrease in serum malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α level as compared to high fat diet-treated animals. Also the extract caused a significant decrease in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity as compared with both high fat diet-treated animals and control ones. In conclusion, Artemisia vulgaris extract has hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties; it may serve as a source for the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26236098

  1. In vitro immunomodulatory properties of a sesquiterpene lactone-bearing fraction from Artemisia khorassanica.

    PubMed

    Zamanai Taghizadeh Rabe, Shahrzad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Rastin, Maryam; Tabasi, Nafise; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia species are important medicinal plants throughout the world. The present in vitro study, using a sesquiterpene lactone-bearing fraction prepared from Artemisia khorassanica (SLAK), sought to investigate immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory properties of this plant and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms for the actions. Effects of the SLAK on mitogen-induced murine splenocyte proliferation and interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion were evaluated. To assess anti-inflammatory activities, levels of inducible of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in peritoneal macrophages was examined. The results showed that SLAK noticeably was capable of suppressing PHA/LPS-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and of up-regulating production of the T-helper (TH)-2 cell cytokine IL-4 while down-regulating formation of TH1 IFNγ. In addition, while SLAK caused negligible proliferation inhibition, peritoneal macrophages displayed considerable decrease in NO and PGE2 production along with iNOS and COX-2 expression. The current experiment shows Artemisia khorasanica - a traditionally used herb - may have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. It is anticipated that the ingredients may be employed as therapeutic candidates in the regulation of some immune responses implicated in various conditions and ailments.

  2. Comparative evaluation of two different Artemisia dracunculus L. cultivars for blood sugar lowering effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Weinoehrl, Stefanie; Feistel, Bjoern; Pischel, Ivo; Kopp, Brigitte; Butterweck, Veronika

    2012-04-01

    Recent concerns about the potential carcinogenicity of estragole and methyleugenol led a number of regulatory bodies to call for restrictions on the use of herbs that contain these constituents. A number of medicinal plants produce essential oils that contain estragole and methyleugenol, including Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon). Previous studies have proven the antidiabetic properties of tarragon. In order to address the safety concerns of estragole containing tarragon extracts, an extraction procedure was developed to minimize the estragole and methyleugenol content in tarragon extracts and the ethanol versus aqueous extracts from two Artemisia dracunculus cultivars (French and Russian tarragon) were tested for blood glucose lowering effects in rats. It could be demonstrated that aqueous extracts of both Artemisia cultivars did not contain detectable amounts of estragole and methyleugenol, whereas ethanol extracts (60% v/v) of the French cultivar contained higher levels of the aforementioned compounds than those of the Russian cultivar. Further testing revealed that Russian tarragon lowered blood glucose levels in rats after glucose challenge, with the ethanol extract being as active as the aqueous extract. The results suggest that by using adequate production procedures the amount of potentially harmful compounds in extracts can be limited without affecting the overall pharmacological activities of these preparations.

  3. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and extent of the disease are features of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Güdücü, Nilgün; Sidar, Güliz; Başsüllü, Nuray; Türkmen, Ilknur; Dünder, Ilkkan

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the rate of endocervical glandular involvement, positive surgical margins, multicentricity, and disease extent between low-grade and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Pathology medical records of patients who underwent LEEP were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with negative LEEP results were excluded. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure reports of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, 2, and 3 were compared. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with CIN 1 (n=24), CIN 2 (n=27), and CIN 3 (n=64) when age and surgical margin positivity were considered. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and disease extent were higher in patients with CIN 3 (P=.001, P=.002, and P=.001, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend that patients with endocervical glandular involvement, lesions involving more than two-thirds of the LEEP specimen, and multicentricity be followed up more closely.

  4. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, the enzyme controlling marijuana psychoactivity, is secreted into the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Taura, Futoshi; Tanaka, Yumi; Ishikawa, Yu; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2005-09-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is the enzyme responsible for the production of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.). We suggest herein that THCA is biosynthesized in the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes based on the following observations. (i) The exclusive expression of THCA synthase was confirmed in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. (ii) THCA synthase activity was detected in the storage cavity content. (iii) Transgenic tobacco expressing THCA synthase fused to green fluorescent protein showed fluorescence in the trichome head corresponding to the storage cavity. These results also showed that secretory cells of the glandular trichomes secrete not only metabolites but also biosynthetic enzyme.

  5. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  6. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  7. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro.

  8. Nrf2-mediated mucoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of Artemisia extracts led to attenuate stress related mucosal damages

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biological actions between isopropanol and ethanol extracts of Artemisia including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective actions. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and confocal microscopy on lipopolysaccharide-induced RGM1 cells, cytoprotection effects evaluated by detecting heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Nf-E2 related factor2 (Nrf2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and anti-inflammatory effects investigated by measuring inflammatory mediators. Water immersion restraint stress was imposed to provoke stress related mucosal damages (SRMD) in rats. Isopropanol extracts of Artemisia showed the higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lesser LPS-induced reactive oxygen species productions and increased HO-1 expression through increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 transcription factor compared to ethanol extracts. The increased expression of HSP70 and decreased expression of endothelin-1 were only increased with isopropanol extracts. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS even at a rather lower concentration than ethanol extract was achieved with isopropanol extracts. Cytokine protein array revealed Artemisia extracts significantly attenuated the levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-16, and MCP-1. These orchestrated actions led to significant rescue from SRMD. Conclusively, Artemisia extracts imposed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity against SRMD and isopropanol extracts were superior to ethanol extracts in these beneficiary actions of Artemisia. PMID:25759519

  9. Capitate glandular trichomes of Paragutzlaffia henryi harbor new phytotoxic labdane diterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Xiao-Nian; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2015-11-18

    The morphology and chemical profile of the capitate glandular trichomes (CGTs) of Paragutzlaffia henryi (Acanthaceae) were investigated. Four new labdane diterpenoids named paraguhenryisins A-D (1-4), together with the known physacoztomatin (5), were localized to the CGTs using laser microdissection coupled with cryogenic (1)H NMR and HPLC analyses and were traced and isolated from the CGT extract of inflorescences. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Bioassays indicated significant inhibitory effect for these diterpenoids on Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and seedling root elongation. The most potent inhibitor, paraguhenryisin C (3), was interestingly detected in both the rhizosphere soil and water rinsed inflorescences extract of P. henryi but not the roots, with average contents in the rhizosphere soil relevant to its phytotoxic EC50 values. These results suggested that phytotoxic labdane diterpenoids in the CGTs might be released into the environment as a defensive measure for P. henryi against other competitive plants.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Glandular Trichomes of Solanum berthaultii.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, S P; Eannetta, N T; Hirzel, A T; Steffens, J C

    1992-10-01

    Type A glandular trichomes of the wild potato (Solanum berthaultii Hawkes) entrap insects by rapidly polymerizing the trichome contents after breakage by insect contact. Polymerization of trichome exudate appears to be driven by a soluble polyphenol oxidase (PPO). PPO constitutes up to 70% of the protein in individually collected trichomes and reaches a concentration approaching 200 mum in these organs. Trichome PPO has been purified and shown to be a monomeric copper metalloprotein with an isoelectric point of 5.5, possessing only o-diphenol oxygen oxido-reductase activity, and is larger than most other reported PPOs, with relative molecular weight of 59,000. Chlorogenic and caffeic acid were the most readily oxidized of 14 phenolic substrates tested. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the relative molecular weight 59,000 S. berthaultii trichome PPO were used to show that S. tuberosum L. trichomes express low levels of a cross-reactive protein that lacks detectable PPO activity.

  11. Chemistry of fruit flies: Glandular secretion ofBactrocera (Polistomimetes) visenda (Hardy).

    PubMed

    Krohn, S; Fletcher, M T; Kitching, W; Moore, C J; Drew, R A; Francke, W

    1992-12-01

    The major component (>90% of volatiles) of the male rectal glandular extract of the nonpest speciesBactrocera visenda (Hardy) is 3-methyl2-butenyl acetate, with minor components being the isomeric 3-methyl-3-butenyl acetate, the homologous esters, 3-methyl-2-butenyl propanoate and 3-methyl-2-butenyl formate, along with 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butenal, and 3-methylbutyl acetate. None of these compounds has been identified previously from aBactrocera species, supporting the view thatBactrocera visenda is taxonomically distant from otherBactrocera species identified from the Australian mainland. This collection of compounds adds to the known types utilized by dipteran species and emphasizes their extensive biosynthetic capability.

  12. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Streuli, Charles H

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a crucial role in determining the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and the formation of lumens in glandular tissues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. By using Cre–Lox deletion we show that β1 integrins are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and lumen formation, both in vivo and in a three-dimensional primary culture model in which epithelial cells directly contact a basement membrane. Downstream of basement membrane β1 integrins, Rac1 is not involved; however, ILK is needed to polarize microtubule plus ends at the basolateral membrane and disrupting each of these components prevents lumen formation. The integrin–microtubule axis is necessary for the endocytic removal of apical proteins from the basement-membrane–cell interface and for internal Golgi positioning. We propose that this integrin signalling network controls the delivery of apical components to the correct surface and thereby governs the orientation of polarity and development of lumens.

  13. Endometrial stromal sarcoma with smooth muscle and glandular differentiation of the feline uterus.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Maeda, H; Suzuki, A; Shibuya, H; Sakata, A; Shirai, W

    2007-05-01

    The intra-abdominal tumor developing in the uterus and lung of a domestic Shorthair cat was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The tumor showed a proliferation of both endometrial stromal and smooth muscle cells accompanied by prominent vasculature. There were well-differentiated endometrial glands, and tubuli made up a monolayer of eosinophilic cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, the spindle-shaped cells and half of the stromal-like cells reacted to caldesmon and desmin antibodies. The neoplastic epithelium expressed AE1/AE3 cytokeratin. Feline endometrial stromal tumor has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported previously and has smooth muscle and glandular components that are a unique variant to the human counterpart.

  14. Conformance of mean glandular dose from phantom and patient data in mammography.

    PubMed

    Kelaranta, A; Toroi, P; Timonen, M; Komssi, S; Kortesniemi, M

    2015-04-01

    In mammography dosimetry, phantoms are often used to represent breast tissue. The conformance of phantom- and patient-based mean glandular dose (MGD) estimates was evaluated mainly from the aspect of diagnostic reference levels. Patient and phantom exposure data were collected for eight diagnostic and three screening mammography devices. More extensive assessments were performed for two devices. The average breast thickness was close to the nationally used reference of 50 mm in diagnostic (50 mm, SD = 13 mm, n = 5342) and screening (47 mm, SD = 13 mm, n = 395) examinations. The average MGD for all breasts differed by 2% from the MGD determined for breasts in the limited compressed thickness range of 40-60 mm. The difference between phantom- and patient-based MGD estimations was up to 30%. Therefore, phantom measurements cannot replace patient dose data in MGD determination.

  15. Effect of filter on average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songsaeng, C.; Krisanachinda, A.; Theerakul, K.

    2016-03-01

    To determine the average glandular dose and entrance surface air kerma in both phantoms and patients to assess image quality for different target-filters (W/Rh and W/Ag) in digital mammography system. The compressed breast thickness, compression force, average glandular dose, entrance surface air kerma, peak kilovoltage and tube current time were recorded and compared between W/Rh and W/Ag target filter. The CNR and the figure of merit were used to determine the effect of target filter on image quality. The mean AGD of the W/Rh target filter was 1.75 mGy, the mean ESAK was 6.67 mGy, the mean CBT was 54.1 mm, the mean CF was 14 1bs. The mean AGD of W/Ag target filter was 2.7 mGy, the mean ESAK was 12.6 mGy, the mean CBT was 75.5 mm, the mean CF was 15 1bs. In phantom study, the AGD was 1.2 mGy at 4 cm, 3.3 mGy at 6 cm and 3.83 mGy at 7 cm thickness. The FOM was 24.6, CNR was 9.02 at thickness 6 cm. The FOM was 18.4, CNR was 8.6 at thickness 7 cm. The AGD from Digital Mammogram system with W/Rh of thinner CBT was lower than the AGD from W/Ag target filter.

  16. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Göpfert, Jens C; MacNevin, Gillian; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2009-01-01

    Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae) which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes as well. Conclusion This

  17. Dual-energy digital mammography: calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio.

    PubMed

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C

    2003-06-01

    Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were approximately 50 microm for the aluminum thickness and approximately 0.05 for the glandular ratio.

  18. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  19. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore. PMID:27556560

  20. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F. |; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Castillon, N.; Terryn, C.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E. , E-Mail: edith.puchelle@univ-reims.fr; Balossier, G.

    2005-10-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na{sup +} absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, P, S and Cl{sup -}) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR{sub inh}-172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF.

  1. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore.

  2. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Izdihar; Chelliah, Kanaga K.; Mustafa, Nawal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD) of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50) and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80) commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA) with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy) for two dimension (2D) and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D) images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error. PMID:26052465

  3. Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis on mined lands: Science and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Belden, S.E.

    2005-12-01

    In 1996, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality enacted regulations governing the reestablishment of woody shrubs on mined lands. The regulation required that an average density of one shrub m{sup -2} be reestablished on at least 20% of the disturbed land area and that the shrub composition must include dominant premine species. In Wyoming, and much of the Northern Great Plains, that meant that Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) had to be reestablished on mined lands. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis had proven difficult to reestablish on mined lands because of poor quality seed, seed dormancy and a poor understanding of the seedbed ecology of this species. Research in the last two decades has produced significant knowledge in the area of direct-seed establishment of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis on mined lands. Our research has shown that reducing grass seeding rates will reduce competition and result in larger sagebrush plants that are more likely to survive and provide greater structural diversity to the plant community. Economic analyses demonstrated that big sagebrush can be established at a cost of $0.01-0.05 per seedling using direct seeding methods compared to transplanting nursery grown seedlings, estimated to cost $0.72-$1.65 per seedling (depending on size) to grow and from $1.30-$2.40 to plant (flat land to 2:1 slopes). An adequate level of precipitation will be necessary to ensure successful establishment of this species no matter what method of propagation is selected and direct seeding gives greater opportunity for success because of the demonstrated longevity of the seed to germinate 3-5 years after the initial seeding.

  4. Multiple mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance are differentially expressed in ecotypes of Artemisia fragrans.

    PubMed

    Alirzayeva, Esmira; Neumann, Gunter; Horst, Walter; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Specht, Andre; Alizade, Valida

    2017-01-01

    Artemisia fragrans is a plant species with ability of growing on heavy metal-polluted soils. Ecotypes of this species naturally growing in polluted areas can accumulate and tolerate different amounts of heavy metals (HM), depending on soil contamination level at their origin. Heavy metal tolerance of various ecotypes collected from contaminated (AP, SP) and non-contaminated (BG) sites was compared by cultivation on a highly HM-contaminated river sediment and a non-contaminated agricultural control soil. Tissue-specific HM distribution was analyzed by laser ablation-inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and photosynthetic activity by non-invasive monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence. Plant-mineral analysis did not reveal ecotype-differences in concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu in shoots of Artemisia plants, suggesting no differential expression of root uptake or root to shoot translocation of HM. There was also no detectable rhizosphere effect on HM concentrations on the contaminated soil. However, despite high soil contaminations, all ecotypes accumulated Zn only in the concentration range of generally reported for normal growth of plants, while Cu and Cd concentrations were close to or even higher than the toxicity level for most plants. As a visible symptom of differences in HM tolerance, only the AP ecotype was able to enter the generative phase to complete its life cycle. Analysis of tissue-specific metal distribution revealed significantly lower concentrations of Cd in the leaf mesophyll of this ecotype, accumulating Cd mainly in the leaf petioles. A similar mesophyll exclusion was detectable also for Cu, although not associated with preferential accumulation in the leaf petioles. However, high mesophyll concentrations of Cd and Cu in the SP and BG ecotypes were associated with disturbances of the photosynthetic activity. The findings demonstrate differential expression of HM exclusion strategies in Artemisia ecotypes and suggest Cd and Cu

  5. A Survey of Therapeutic Effects of Artemisia capillaris in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eungyeong; Kim, Bum-Joon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia capillaris has been recognized as an herb with therapeutic efficacy in liver diseases and widely used as an alternative therapy in Asia. Numerous studies have reported the antisteatotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, choleretic, antiviral, antifibrotic, and antitumor activities of A. capillaris. These reports support its therapeutic potential in various liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, several properties of its various constituents, which provide clues to the underlying mechanisms of its therapeutic effects, have been studied. This review describes the scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic potential of A. capillaris and its constituents in various liver diseases. PMID:26366183

  6. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zant, David; Gubler, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia australis (A. australis), a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma. Methods The dichloromethane extract of A. australis was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement. Results The major chemical components of A. australis include eucalyptol, borneol, and caryophyllene. Conclusions The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine. PMID:25183270

  7. [Responses of spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population to the precipitation gradient on Ordos Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-shuang; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fei; Lai, Li-ming; Zhang, Li; Li, Wen-ting; Bai, Hua; Zheng, Yuan-run

    2009-09-01

    Five sites along the precipitation gradient (336-249 mm x a(-1)) from east to west in Ordos Plateau were selected to study the spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population and its responses to the precipitation gradient by the methods of variance mean ratio, aggregative index, and point pattern analysis. The reduction of precipitation affected the spatial distribution pattern of A. ordosica population significantly. With decreasing precipitation gradient, the spatial pattern of A. ordosica population changed from uniform to random in small scale, and from random to clumpy in large scale, suggesting that in the ecological restoration of Ordos Plateau, a rational arrangement of A. ordosica should be made.

  8. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code

    PubMed Central

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Background X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. Materials and Methods We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. “Midi-future” digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. Results MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. Conclusion By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD. PMID:27895876

  9. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-02-11

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome was carried out. In addition to the MVA and MEP pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPS) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (3 from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. Abbreviations - AACT, acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase; CMK, 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase; DGE, digital gene expression; DXR, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase; DXS, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase; FPPS, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase; GC, gas chromatography; GPPS, geranyl pyrophosphate synthase; GT, glandular trichome; HDR, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase; HDS, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate synthase; HMGR, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase; HMGS, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase; IDI, isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase; IPD, isopiperitenol dehydrogenase; IPI

  10. Insect communities on experimental mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) plots along an urban gradient.

    PubMed

    Denys, C; Schmidt, Holger

    1998-01-01

    We studied the ability of insect herbivores and their natural enemies to colonize exposed, potted mugwort plants (Artemisia vulgaris L.) along a rural-urban gradient in 1994 in Hamburg (northern Germany). Ectophagous insects, leafmines and galls were monitored weekly from mid-May to mid-September. Endophagous insects were counted by harvesting and dissecting the stems at the end of the growing season. The rural-urban gradient was characterized by a gradient of vegetation-free areas and increasing proportion of ground covered in concrete, tarmac, paving and other impermeable surfaces surrounding the Artemisia plots, i.e. six different zones of increasing isolation. Numbers of insect species (herbivores, parasitoids and predators) decreased along the gradient from 43 to 12. Monophagous herbivores were not more affected than polyphagous herbivores, but parasitoids, especially rare species, were more strongly affected by isolation than predators. Some dominant herbivorous species were very successful colonizers and occurred in inner city sites devoid of all natural vegetation. Sometimes their abundance increased in the inner city to significantly higher densities than in the urban fringe. Isolation appeared to be the main reason for the observed patterns, since area and soil conditions were held constant in the experiment. Microclimate and pollution were considered to play a minor role.

  11. Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Artemisia princeps Pampanini and Its Bioactive Components

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ri; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-jin; Lee, Wonhwa; Bae, Jong-Sup; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini (AP) has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea, China and Japan and reported to exhibit various beneficial biological effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-atherogenic and lipid lowering activities; however, its antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties have not been studied. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of an ethanol extract of Artemisia princeps Pampanini (EAP) and its major flavonoids, eupatilin and jaceosidin, on platelet aggregation and coagulation. To determine the antiplatelet activity, arachidonic acid (AA)-, collagen- and ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-induced platelet aggregation were examined along with serotonin and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) generation in vitro. The anticoagulant activity was determined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) in vitro. The data showed that EAP and its major flavonoids, eupatilin and jaceosidin, significantly reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation and the generation of serotonin and TXA2, although no significant change in platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was observed. Moreover, EAP significantly prolonged the PT and aPTT. The PT and/or aPTT were significantly increased in the presence of eupatilin and jaceosidin. Thus, these results suggest that EAP may have the potential to prevent or improve thrombosis by inhibiting platelet activation and blood coagulation. PMID:24471130

  12. Climate drives adaptive genetic responses associated with survival in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata).

    PubMed

    Chaney, Lindsay; Richardson, Bryce A; Germino, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation for survival in Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush). Artemisia tridentata is a widespread and foundational shrub species in western North America. This species has become extremely fragmented, to the detriment of dependent wildlife, and efforts to restore it are now a land management priority. Common-garden experiments were established at three sites with seedlings from 55 source-populations. Populations included each of the three predominant subspecies, and cytotype variations. Survival was monitored for 5 years to assess differences in survival between gardens and populations. We found evidence of adaptive genetic variation for survival. Survival within gardens differed by source-population and a substantial proportion of this variation was explained by seed climate of origin. Plants from areas with the coldest winters had the highest levels of survival, while populations from warmer and drier sites had the lowest levels of survival. Survival was lowest, 36%, in the garden that was prone to the lowest minimum temperatures. These results suggest the importance of climatic driven genetic differences and their effect on survival. Understanding how genetic variation is arrayed across the landscape, and its association with climate can greatly enhance the success of restoration and conservation.

  13. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanescu, Bianca; Miron, Anca; Corciova, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation. PMID:26495156

  14. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore Displays Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xi; Wang, Yuan-Lai; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia anomala S. Moore has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory diseases for hundreds of years. However, mechanisms associated with its anti-inflammatory effect are not clear. In this study, we prepared ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, n-BuOH, and aqueous extracts from ethanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore. Comparing anti-inflammatory effects of these extracts, we found that ethyl acetate extract of this herb (EAFA) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS/IFN γ -stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA suppressed the production of NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner without eliciting cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying EAFA's anti-inflammatory effect, we showed that EAFA increased total cellular anti-oxidant capacity while reducing the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA also suppressed the expression of IL-1 β and IL-6, whereas it elevates the level of heme oxygenase-1. These EAFA-induced events were apparently associated with NF- κ B and MAPK signaling pathways because the DNA binding activity of p50/p65 was impaired and the activities of both ERK and JNK were decreased in EFEA-treated cells comparing to untreated cells. Our findings suggest that EAFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of iNOS.

  15. Flavonoids from Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. and their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Haidan; Lu, Xuyang; Ma, Qianqian; Li, Di; Xu, Guanghua; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been demonstrated to have cytotoxic activities toward numerous human cancer cells, whereas they have little or no effect on normal cells. The numerous flavonoids in traditional Chinese herbs may be promising candidates for the development of novel anti-cancer drugs. Our previous study demonstrated that CH2Cl2 and 95% ethanol eluate (EE) fractions have the strongest cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines of the 9 fractions separated from Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb., which is widely used to prevent and treat diverse diseases in Northeast China. In the present study, 8 flavonoids were isolated from the 95% EE fraction of Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The following 5 flavonoids were isolated for the first time from this plant: Jaceosidin, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin and quercitrin. A total of 2 flavonoids from the CH2Cl2 fraction and 8 flavonoids from the 95% EE fraction were examined to evaluate their cytotoxic activities against human SK-HEP-1 hepatoma cancer cells and human HeLa cervical cancer cells, respectively. The results revealed that 2 flavonoids had marked cytotoxic activities against HeLa cells. PMID:27602097

  16. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  17. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    PubMed

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected.

  18. Weeding atypical glandular cell look-alikes from the true atypical lesions in liquid-based Pap tests: a review.

    PubMed

    Wood, Moira D; Horst, Julie A; Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify features that separate atypical glandular cells (AGC) associated with glandular neoplasia from its mimickers, both benign and neoplastic. We reviewed cases of AGC diagnosed on liquid-based Pap tests (LBP) for which corresponding histological follow-up was available. A review of the literature for similar studies in LBP tests was also conducted. We find that certain benign mimics can be reliably separated from AGC, but recommend caution in attempting to increase specificity at the risk of losing sensitivity. Although accounting for only a small percentage of diagnoses AGC require a thorough clinical evaluation, including colposcopy. Most cases are ultimately found to be benign. When evaluating smears suspicious for AGC, it is important to examine the subtle features which make truly atypical cells discernible from their numerous benign mimickers.

  19. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS: Second-harmonic generation as a DNA malignancy indicator of prostate glandular epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zheng-Fei; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Zhuo, Shuang-Mu; Yu, Bi-Ying; Deng, Xiao-Yuan

    2010-04-01

    This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a scanning region of 2.7 μm×2.7 μm in cell nuclei, SHG signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been investigated. Statistical analyses (t test) of a total of 405 measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference (p < 0.05), suggesting a potential optical method of revealing very early malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA.

  20. Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Bergau, Nick; Navarette Santos, Alexander; Henning, Anja; Balcke, Gerd U.; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. PMID:27446176

  1. Capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae): ultrastructure and cytological development.

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, produce sesquiterpene lactones (STL) and flavonoids, which are sequestered and accumulated between the apical cuticle and the wall of the tip cells. To explore the cellular structures required and putatively involved in the STL biosynthesis and secretion, the present study was focused on the development of CGT and the comparison of the ultrastructure of its different cell types. Gradual maturation of flowers in the capitulum of the sunflower provided the possibility to study the simultaneous differentiation from the primordial to the secretory stage of CGT located by light microscopy (bright field, differential interference contrast and fluorescence) as well as transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the CGT of sunflower anthers had a biseriate structure with up to 14 cell pairs. In mature trichomes, the apical cells called secretory cells were covered entirely by a large cuticle globe, which enclosed the resinous terpenoids and was specialised in thickness and structure. The secretory cells lacked chloroplasts and contained mainly smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER). Conspicuous cell wall protuberances and an accumulation of mitochondria nearby occurred in the horizontally oriented cell walls. The cytological differences between stalk cells and secretory cells indicate a different function. The dominance of sER suggests its involvement in STL biosynthesis and cell wall protuberances enlarge the surface of the plasmamembrane of secretory cells and may be involved in the secretion processes of STL into the subcuticular space.

  2. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid.

  3. Mean glandular dose in six digital mammography services in Santiago, Chile: preliminary reference levels.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Do Socorro; Dantas, Marcelino; Duran, Maria Paz; Ubeda, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate mean glandular dose levels (DG) in six digital mammography systems in Santiago, Chile, and to propose preliminary reference levels to execute mammography in Chile. The study was carried out assessing two direct digital systems and four computer-based radiography (CR) systems. Estimates of DG were calculated for different thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate according to the quality control protocol in digital mammography of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. DG values ranged between 0.64 and 7.26 mGy for a range of 20- to 70-mm thickness, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of DG was higher than the acceptable dose level and 100 % of DG was higher than the desirable level. It is therefore necessary to optimise doses. The initial proposal to establish dose reference levels for DG would range between 0.90 and 6.40 mGy for a thickness range of 20 to 70 mm.

  4. Terpene Biosynthesis in Glandular Trichomes of Hop12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guodong; Tian, Li; Aziz, Naveed; Broun, Pierre; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; King, Andrew; Zhao, Patrick X.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L. Cannabaceae) is an economically important crop for the brewing industry, where it is used to impart flavor and aroma to beer, and has also drawn attention in recent years due to its potential pharmaceutical applications. Essential oils (mono- and sesquiterpenes), bitter acids (prenylated polyketides), and prenylflavonoids are the primary phytochemical components that account for these traits, and all accumulate at high concentrations in glandular trichomes of hop cones. To understand the molecular basis for terpene accumulation in hop trichomes, a trichome cDNA library was constructed and 9,816 cleansed expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were obtained from random sequencing of 16,152 cDNA clones. The ESTs were assembled into 3,619 unigenes (1,101 contigs and 2,518 singletons). Putative functions were assigned to the unigenes based on their homology to annotated sequences in the GenBank database. Two mono- and two sesquiterpene synthases identified from the EST collection were expressed in Escherichia coli. Hop MONOTERPENE SYNTHASE2 formed the linear monterpene myrcene from geranyl pyrophosphate, whereas hop SESQUITERPENE SYNTHASE1 (HlSTS1) formed both caryophyllene and humulene from farnesyl pyrophosphate. Together, these enzymes account for the production of the major terpene constituents of the hop trichomes. HlSTS2 formed the minor sesquiterpene constituent germacrene A, which was converted to β-elemene on chromatography at elevated temperature. We discuss potential functions for other genes expressed at high levels in developing hop trichomes. PMID:18775972

  5. Coherent angular motion in the establishment of multicellular architecture of glandular tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Kandice; Mori, Hidetoshi; Mroue, Rana; Bruni-Cardoso, Alexandre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular tissues form ducts (tubes) and acini (spheres) in multicellular organisms. This process is best demonstrated in the organization of the ductal tree of the mammary gland and in 3D models of morphogenesis in culture. Here, we asked a fundamental question: How do single adult epithelial cells generate polarized acini when placed in a surrogate basement membrane 3D gel? Using human breast epithelial cells from either reduction mammoplasty or nonmalignant breast cell lines, we observed a unique cellular movement where single cells undergo multiple rotations and then maintain it cohesively as they divide to assemble into acini. This coherent angular motion (CAMo) was observed in both primary cells and breast cell lines. If CAMo was disrupted, the final geometry was not a sphere. The malignant counterparts of the human breast cell lines in 3D were randomly motile, did not display CAMo, and did not form spheres. Upon “phenotypic reversion” of malignant cells, both CAMo and spherical architecture were restored. We show that cell-cell adhesion and tissue polarity are essential for the formation of acini and link the functional relevance of CAMo to the establishment of spherical architecture rather than to multicellular aggregation or growth. We propose that CAMo is an integral step in the formation of the tissue architecture and that its disruption is involved in malignant transformation. PMID:22308439

  6. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, suggesting glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research.

  7. A solitary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Kozu, Yoshiki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (mixed papilloma) of the lung is exceedingly rare, with only 18 cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of mixed papilloma and its associated immunohistochemical and positron emission tomographic (PET) findings. A 60-year-old Japanese male with a smoking history of 40 pack-years presented with a smooth-edged pulmonary lesion in the right S5 segment on computed tomography (CT). F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET revealed abnormally increased FDG uptake in the mass (maximum standardized uptake value, 3.4). We performed right middle lobectomy and combined partial resection of the S8 segment. The 1.8-cm tumor that filled the enlarged lumen of the B5b was histologically diagnosed as mixed papilloma. Immunohistochemically, the pseudostratified columnar epithelium was positive for cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and CK7. p40 positivity was predominant in the basal and squamous cells. Thyroid transcription factor-1 and carcinoembryonic antigen were negative on immunostaining. Malignant features were absent. The postoperative course has been uneventful for 3 months after the surgery. No recurrences were reported after the surgical resection of the mixed papilloma. Therefore, surgical resection may be considered the mainstay of curative treatment.

  8. Glandular odontogenic cyst: review of literature and report of a new case with cytokeratin-19 expression.

    PubMed

    Mascitti, Marco; Santarelli, Andrea; Sabatucci, Antonio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Zizzi, Antonio; Rubini, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) was a rare jawbone cyst described in 1988 as a distinct entity. This lesion can involve either jaw, and the anterior region of the mandible was the most commonly affected area. Clinical and radiographic findings were not specific, and the diagnosis of GOC can be extremely difficult due to the rarity of this lesion. The cyst presented a wall constituted by fibrous connective tissue and was lined by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of variable thickness. Large areas of the lining epithelium presented cylinder cells, sometimes ciliated. A variable amount of mucina was occasionally noted. Due to the strong similarities, this cyst can be easily misdiag-nosed as a central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). Immunohistochemistry may be an aid in diagnosis; in fact has been demonstrated that there were differences in the expression of cytokeratins (CK) in GOC and CMEC. In this study, we reported a new case of GOC in a 38 year female patient. In addition, we carried out a review of 110 previous cases reported in literature.

  9. Single-cell analysis of glandular T cell receptors in Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Christina; Pelikan, Richard C.; Moore, Jacen S.; Pan, Zijian; Radfar, Lida; Lewis, David M.; Grundahl, Kiely M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Wiley, Graham B.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Stone, Donald U.; Scofield, R. Hal; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Thompson, Linda F.; Farris, A. Darise

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells predominate in salivary gland (SG) inflammatory lesions in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). However, their antigen specificity, degree of clonal expansion, and relationship to clinical disease features remain unknown. We used multiplex reverse-transcriptase PCR to amplify paired T cell receptor α (TCRα) and β transcripts of single CD4+CD45RA– T cells from SG and peripheral blood (PB) of 10 individuals with primary SS, 9 of whom shared the HLA DR3/DQ2 risk haplotype. TCRα and β sequences were obtained from a median of 91 SG and 107 PB cells per subject. The degree of clonal expansion and frequency of cells expressing two productively rearranged α genes were increased in SG versus PB. Expanded clones from SG exhibited complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequence similarity both within and among subjects, suggesting antigenic selection and shared antigen recognition. CDR3 similarities were shared among expanded clones from individuals discordant for canonical Ro and La autoantibodies, suggesting recognition of alternative SG antigen(s). The extent of SG clonal expansion correlated with reduced saliva production and increased SG fibrosis, linking expanded SG T cells with glandular dysfunction. Knowledge of paired TCRα and β sequences enables further work toward identification of target antigens and development of novel therapies. PMID:27358913

  10. Transcriptional profiling unravels potential metabolic activities of the olive leaf non-glandular trichome

    PubMed Central

    Koudounas, Konstantinos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Kourti, Anna; Banilas, Georgios; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2015-01-01

    The olive leaf trichomes are multicellular peltate hairs densely distributed mainly at the lower leaf epidermis. Although, non-glandular, they have gained much attention since they significantly contribute to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of olive leaves. The exact mechanisms by which olive trichomes achieve these goals are not fully understood. They could act as mechanical barrier but they also accumulate high amounts of flavonoids among other secondary metabolites. However, little is currently known about the exact compounds they produce and the respective metabolic pathways. Here we present the first EST analysis from olive leaf trichomes by using 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 5368 unigenes were identified out of 7258 high quality reads with an average length of 262 bp. Blast search revealed that 27.5% of them had high homologies to known proteins. By using Blast2GO, 1079 unigenes (20.1%) were assigned at least one Gene Ontology (GO) term. Most of the genes were involved in cellular and metabolic processes and in binding functions followed by catalytic activity. A total of 521 transcripts were mapped to 67 KEGG pathways. Olive trichomes represent a tissue of highly unique transcriptome as per the genes involved in developmental processes and the secondary metabolism. The results indicate that mature olive trichomes are trancriptionally active, mainly through the potential production of enzymes that contribute to phenolic compounds with important roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26322070

  11. Clinical picture of primary HIV infection presenting as a glandular-fever-like illness.

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, H.; von Sydow, M.; Pehrson, P. O.; Lundbegh, P.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical symptoms and signs were assessed in 20 consecutive patients developing infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All were male homosexuals and all presented with a glandular-fever-like illness. Changes in laboratory values were compared with findings in 40 HIV negative male homosexual controls. In the 10 patients for whom date of exposure to the virus could be established the incubation period was 11-28 days (median 14). One or two days after the sudden onset of fever patients developed sore throat, lymphadenopathy, rash, lethargy, coated tongue, tonsillar hypertrophy, dry cough, headache, myalgia, conjunctivitis, vomiting, night sweats, nausea, diarrhoea, and palatal enanthema. Twelve patients had painful, shallow ulcers in the mouth or on the genitals or anus or as manifested by oesophageal symptoms; these ulcers may have been the site of entry of the virus. During the first week after the onset of symptoms mild leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased numbers of banded neutrophils were detected (p less than 0.0005). The mean duration of acute illness was 12.7 days (range 5-44). All patients remained healthy during a mean follow up period of 2.5 years. Heightened awareness of the typical clinical picture in patients developing primary HIV infection will alert the physician at an early stage and so aid prompt diagnosis and help contain the epidemic spread of AIDS. PMID:3146367

  12. Identification of cholinergic chemosensory cells in mouse tracheal and laryngeal glandular ducts.

    PubMed

    Krasteva-Christ, G; Soultanova, A; Schütz, B; Papadakis, T; Weiss, C; Deckmann, K; Chubanov, V; Gudermann, T; Voigt, A; Meyerhof, W; Boehm, U; Weihe, E; Kummer, W

    2015-11-01

    Specialized epithelial cells in the respiratory tract such as solitary chemosensory cells and brush cells sense the luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to the detection of potentially harmful substances. The majority of these cells are cholinergic and utilize the canonical taste signal transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Utilizing two different mouse strains reporting expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme of acetylcholine (ACh), we detected cholinergic cells in the submucosal glands of the murine larynx and trachea. These cells were localized in the ciliated glandular ducts and were neither found in the collecting ducts nor in alveolar or tubular segments of the glands. ChAT expression in tracheal gland ducts was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The cholinergic duct cells expressed the brush cell marker proteins, villin and cytokeratin-18, and were immunoreactive for components of the taste signal transduction cascade (Gα-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel = TRPM5, phospholipase C(β2)), but not for carbonic anhydrase IV. Furthermore, these cells expressed the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131, as demonstrated utilizing an appropriate reporter mouse strain. Our study identified a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensory cell type in the duct of the airway submucosal glands that likely utilizes ACh for paracrine signaling. We propose that these cells participate in infection-sensing mechanisms and initiate responses assisting bacterial clearance from the lower airways.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Speer, Allison L; Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Ford, Henri R; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  14. Influence of plant ontogeny and abiotic factors on resistance of glandular-haired alfalfa to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Ranger, Christopher M; Backus, Elaine A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Johnson, David W

    2006-04-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterize the trichome-based defense of glandular-haired alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., against the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris). Within-plant variability in leafhopper resistance was examined by caging adult leafhoppers to either basal or apical stem internodes of the leafhopper-resistant, glandular-haired M. sativa genotype G98A or the susceptible, nonglandular-haired M. sativa 'Ranger'. Young, actively secreting glandular trichomes are located on apical internodes of G98A, whereas senesced gland heads are found on older, basal internodes of G98A. After 96 h, the highest cumulative leafhopper mortality and lowest number of excretory droplets were associated with apical internodes of G98A. No difference was detected in mortality and feeding levels among insects caged to basal internodes of G98A and basal and apical internodes of Ranger. The influence of abiotic factors on leafhopper resistance was evaluated by caging adult leafhoppers to either G98A or Ranger under four combinations of low and high light (250 and 1,000 micromol s(-1) m(-2)) and temperature regimes (17 and 30 degrees C). After 96 h, the highest cumulative mortality was associated with leafhoppers confined to G98A under high light and high temperature conditions. Temperature level and plant type also had an effect on the production of excretory droplets, resulting in the highest number of excretory droplets being associated with Ranger under the high temperature regime. These results indicate that certain regions of M. sativa G98A are better protected against the potato leafhopper than others and that temperature influences resistance levels of glandular-haired alfalfa.

  15. Notch signaling functions as a binary switch for the determination of glandular and luminal fates of endodermal epithelium during chicken stomach development.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Kohyama, Jun; Okano, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Kimiko; Yasugi, Sadao

    2005-06-01

    During development of the chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), gut endoderm differentiates into glandular and luminal epithelium. We found that Delta1-expressing cells, undifferentiated cells and Notch-activated cells colocalize within the endodermal epithelium during early gland formation. Inhibition of Notch signaling using Numb or dominant-negative form of Su(H) resulted in a luminal differentiation, while forced activation of Notch signaling promoted the specification of immature glandular cells, but prevented the subsequent differentiation and the invagination of the glands. These results suggest that Delta1-mediated Notch signaling among endodermal cells functions as a binary switch for determination of glandular and luminal fates, and regulates patterned differentiation of glands in the chicken proventriculus.

  16. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  17. Annual changes in the number, testosterone content and ultrastructure of glandular tissue cells of the testis in the marbled newt Triturus marmoratus.

    PubMed Central

    Fraile, B; Paniagua, R; Rodríguez, M C; Sáez, F J; Jimenez, A

    1989-01-01

    The testes of 8 specimens of Triturus marmoratus were collected during each month of 1987 and processed for electron microscopy and light microscopy demonstration of testosterone (T) following the ABC (avidin-biotin peroxidase complex) method. According to their staining affinity for anti-T antibodies, the glandular tissue cells were classified as T-, T+, T++, and T and the annual changes in the numbers of these cell populations, as well as in the volume occupied by the glandular tissue, were calculated. The volume occupied by the glandular tissue increases from September to December; it begins to decrease in April and disappears from June to August. The glandular tissue is formed from the interstitial cells that surround the lobules containing differentiating germ cells. During the spermatogenic process, the interstitial cells do not show staining affinity for anti-T antibodies. In August-September, the interstitial cells around the lobules that have completed spermatogenesis become positively stained (T+) and form the glandular tissue when the spermatozoa leave the testis. The numbers of intensely stained cells in the glandular tissue (T++ and T ) increase from September to November; begin to decrease in December; disappear in January-February; increase again in March and decrease again in April until they disappear in June-September. The interstitial cells, before their transformation in glandular tissue, are ultrastructurally similar to fibroblasts. After their transformation these cells increase in size and develop abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with tubular cristae and lipid droplets. This morphological pattern is maintained in the glandular tissue from September to April in spite of the changes in staining affinity during this period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2630543

  18. Molecular authentication of 21 Korean artemisia species (Compositae) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism based on trnL-F region of chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jei Wan; Sung, Jung Sook; Bang, Kyong Hwan; Moon, Sung Gi

    2009-11-01

    The present study describes the molecular authentication of 21 Korean Artemisia species using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique based on the trnL-F sequences in chloroplast DNA. Five different banding patterns were generated from 21 Artemisia species using HinfI restriction enzyme. A. apiacea, A. keiskeana and A. sieversiana have specific banding patterns. The remaining 18 species had shared two banding patterns. Phylogenetic analysis based on trnL-F sequence variations showed results similar to PCR-RFLP banding patterns. It suggested that the trnL-F region does not have sufficient variations to identify the 21 Artemisia species. However, the specific banding patterns for A. apiacea, A. keiskeana and A. sieversiana can be utilized as a DNA marker for discriminating them from other Artemisia species. These markers will be also useful for developing A. apiacea, A. keiskeana and A. sieversiana into new medicine and food based on their efficacy.

  19. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  20. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  1. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  2. Predominant Glandular Cholinergic Dysautonomia in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, Richard; Alevizos, Ilias; Bebris, Lolita; Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Illei, Gabor G.; Nikolov, Nikolay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates exocrine gland function. Available data show poor correlation between the degree of exocrine gland function and destruction in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) suggesting other mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction may be important in these patients. We performed a comprehensive analysis of sympathoneural and sympathetic cholinergic function in well-characterized patients with pSS. Methods 21 pSS patients (mean±SE age 44±3 years) and in 13 healthy controls (51±2 years) were assessed during orthostasis and intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg). The postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic system was evaluated by assessing sweat production by the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Gastric empting testing assessed the gastro-intestinal ANS in pSS patients. Results Velocity index and acceleration index were significantly higher (p<0.05) in pSS compared to controls before and during the orthostatic and edrophonium tests. Other hemodynamic and neurochemical parameters did not differ between pSS patients and controls during the orthostasis and edrophonium test, however, edrophonium-induced saliva increment was lower in pSS (p=0.002). Abnormally low sweat production was found in four (N=4) pSS patients but in none of the controls in the QSART. Gastric empting was delayed in 53 % of pSS patients. Conclusion We observed subtle differences in several ANS domains, including gastrointestinal and sympathocholinergic system suggesting a complex ANS dysfunction in pSS. The impact was the largest on the exocrine glands with subtle differences in the cardiac parasympathetic function independent of glandular inflammation and atrophy, suggesting an alternative pathogenesis mechanism of the disease in pSS. PMID:25622919

  3. Qualitative variation of anti-diabetic compounds in different tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) cytotypes

    PubMed Central

    Eisenman, Sasha W.; Poulev, Alexander; Struwe, Lena; Raskin, Ilya; Ribnicky, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts of diploid Artemisia dracunculus L. (wild tarragon) from populations in the U.S., and polyploid tarragon from a variety of sources, were screened for the anti-diabetic compounds davidigenin; sakuranetin; 2′,4′-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone; 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid; 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 6-demethoxycapillarisin using LC-MS. Only decaploid plants contained all six target compounds and were the only plants that contained davidigenin and 2,4-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone. These results exhibit the importance of germplasm selection and provenance when studying plants for medicinal activity. Relying only on the “right species” for consistent medicinal activities may not be sufficient, as intraspecific variation may be highly significant. PMID:21798321

  4. Volatile Components of the Essential Oil of Artemisia montana and Their Sedative Effects.

    PubMed

    Kunihiro, Kento; Myoda, Takao; Tajima, Noriaki; Gotoh, Kotaro; Kaneshima, Tai; Someya, Takao; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2017-04-04

    The sedative effects of volatile components in the essential oil of Artemisia montana ("Yomogi") were investigated and measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major components identified included 1,8-cineol, camphor, borneol, α-piperitone, and caryophyllene oxide. Among them, 1,8-cineol exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) value in an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), followed by borneol, o-cymene, β-thujone, and bornyl acetate. The sedative effects of yomogi oil aroma were evaluated by sensory testing, analysis of salivary α-amylase activity, and measurement of relative fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the brain using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). All results indicated the stress-reducing effects of the essential oil following nasal exposure, and according to the NIRS analysis, 1,8-cineol is likely responsible for the sedative effects of yomogi oil.

  5. [Structural characteristics of Artemisia frigid community at different succession stages in Horqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-qing; Sun, Ying-jie; Zhang, Tong-hui; Zhao, Ai-fen; Lian, Jie

    2011-07-01

    Taking space as a substitute for time, this paper studied the species composition and species diversity of Artemisia frigid community at three succession stages in Horqin Sandy Land. The three succession stages were Periploca sepium-A. frigida community, Periploca sepium-A. frigida+A. halodendron community, and A. frigida-Cleistogenes squarrosa community, all dominated by the plants of Compositae, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae. The species number and family number in the communities and the species number of Gramineae decreased with succession, while the percentages of Compositae and Gramineae species increased. The species diversity of the communities was in the order of P. sepium-A. frigida+A. halodendron > P. sepium-A. frigida >A. frigida-C. squarrosa. No obvious difference was observed in the species composition among the three communities. In the three communities, A. frigida had the highest coverage, and the coverage increased with succession.

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel extract.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Soheil; Mirzaie, Amir; Sadat Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah; Noorbazargan, Hassan; Rahimi, Arian; Yarmohammadi, Sima; Ashrafi, Fatemeh

    2017-02-01

    The present study was to investigate the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel against human gastric carcinoma (AGS) and L929 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis of A. marschalliana Sprengel extract showed 22 major components and the most dominant compounds were trans-phytol (29.22%), α-Linolenic acid (13.47%) and n-Hexadecanoic acid (9.28%). In addition, the antioxidant and anticancer activity of A. marschalliana Sprengel extract were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods, respectively. Antibacterial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria was also determined. According to the present obtained results, it seems that this plant has potential uses for pharmaceutical industries and further studies of pharmaceutical importance were suggested to be performed on A. marschalliana Sprengel.

  7. Development of monacolin K-enriched ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) by fermentation with Monascus pilosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Sub; Lee, Inhyung

    2012-07-01

    Monacolin K-enriched ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) was developed by fermentation with Monascus sp. Among the 15 Monascus spp. isolated previously from Monascus fermentation products, Monascus pilosus KMU108 produced 2,219 mg/kg of monacolin K during ganghwayakssuk fermentation with no detectable citrinin. The optimum concentrations of ganghwayakssuk and glucose determined from the response surface methodology (RSM) design were 2.2% and 3.8%, respectively. By applying these conditions, the monacolin K productivity was increased to 3,007 mg/kg after 15 days of fermentation. On the other hand, other characteristics such as the total content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant activity were relatively unchanged. Therefore, Monascusfermented ganghwayakssuk is an excellent biomaterial for the development of functional foods because of its high level of monacolin K, known to lower cholesterol levels.

  8. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  9. [An Unusual Case of Proctitis and Rectal Abscess due to Irritants by Artemisia asiatica Smoke (Ssukjwahun)].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seunghyup; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Seo Hyun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Se Jun; Yun, Seo Young; Kim, Dae Young; Lee, Jeonghun; Moon, Jeong Seop

    2016-04-25

    Proctitis is an inflammatory change of rectal mucosa induced by various agents or stimulus. Among many etiologies, it may be caused by medical treatments such as radiation or antibiotics. Proctitis usually presents with rectal ulcer but abscess formation is uncommon. Therapy using Ssukjwahun exerts its effect by directly applying the smoke around genital area and anus with various medicinal brewed herbs, especially worm-wood. Secondary metabolite of this plant, monoterpene, is known to facilitate circulation, exert anti-inflammatory effect, and help control pain. Herein, we report an unusual case of infectious proctitis presenting with rectal ulcer and abscess formation after perianal application of warm steam made by Artemisia asiatica smoke for treatment of dysmenorrhea.

  10. Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon): a critical review of its traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology, and safety.

    PubMed

    Obolskiy, Dmitry; Pischel, Ivo; Feistel, Bjoern; Glotov, Nikolay; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-11-09

    Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon) has a long history of use as a spice and remedy. Two well-described "cultivars" (Russian and French) are used widely and differ in ploidy level, morphology, and chemistry. Key biologically active secondary metabolites are essential oils (0.15-3.1%), coumarins (>1%), flavonoids, and phenolcarbonic acids. In vivo studies mainly in rodents, particularly from Russian sources, highlight potential anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and antihyperglycemic effects. Despite concerns about the toxic effects of two of its main constituents, estragole (up to 82%) and methyleugenol (up to 39%), no acute toxicity or mutagenic activity has been reported at doses relevant for human consumption. Water extracts of A. dracunculus contain very low amounts of estragole and methyleugenol and, therefore, are considered to pose a very limited risk. Overall, a stronger focus on clinical studies and precise taxonomic and phytochemical definition of the source material will be essential for future research efforts.

  11. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Croatia and France.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Fabien; Jerkovic, Igor; Masotti, Véronique; Milos, Mladen; Mastelic, Josip; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Viano, Josette

    2003-02-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of two populations of Artemisia absinthium, from France and from Croatia, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of A. absinthium of French origin contain (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenyl acetate as major components while the oils of Croatian A. absinthium contain mainly (Z)-epoxyocimene and beta-thujone. Analysis of oils before and after anthesis showed some quantitative differences. Analysis of separated leaves and flowering heads showed only few differences among these organs. As they contain no thujone, antimicrobial screening was performed on samples of French origin and showed that A. absinthium oil inhibited the growth of both tested yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri).

  12. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Artemisia absinthium using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Saliha; Aybastıer, Onder; Işık, Esra

    2013-11-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Artemisia absinthium. The central composite design was employed, the extracts were characterised by the determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents of extracts were determined by Folin method and also total antioxidant capacities of extracts were determined by ABTS and CUPRAC methods. The phenolic compounds of A. absinthium at optimum extraction conditions were determined by HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions were determined as HCl concentration between 0.41 and 0.44mol/L, methanol volume between 55% and 59% (v/v), extraction temperature between 64 and 70°C, extraction time between 101 and 107min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95% confidence level, thus indicating the suitability of response surface methodology in optimising the ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from A. absinthium.

  13. Targeting the cysteine-stabilized fold of Art v 1 for immunotherapy of Artemisia pollen allergy.

    PubMed

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Vogel, Lothar; Egger, Matthias; Himly, Martin; Briza, Peter; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Bohle, Barbara; Ferreira, Fatima

    2010-03-01

    Plants of the genus Artemisia domestic in Northern and Central Europe, USA and parts of Asia are a major cause of allergic symptoms from late summer to autumn. Art v 1, the major mugwort pollen allergen appears as two-domain glycoprotein, consisting of an N-terminal defensin-like and a proline/hydroxyproline-rich C-terminal part. Patients sensitized to Art v 1 commonly display IgE antibodies against the cysteine-stabilized defensin fold. Site-directed mutagenesis of eight cysteines was used to disrupt disulfide bonds to generate molecules with altered IgE-binding capacity. Engineered constructs were expressed in E. coli and recombinant proteins were tested for their allergenic and T cell reactivity as well as for their physicochemical characteristics. Three cysteine variants (C22S, C47S, and C49S) exhibited extremely low IgE-binding activity in immunoblot and ELISA using sera from Art v 1-allergic patients. Mediator release assays using rat basophil leukemia cells showed that these variants displayed a 1x10(5)-fold reduced allergenic potency as compared to wild-type protein. All variants were able to activate allergen-specific T cells in PBMC, as well as Art v 1-specific T cell lines and clones. Variant C49S displayed an increased hydrophobic surface potential which correlated with an advanced activation of allergen-specific T cells. The low allergenicity and high immunogenic activity of Art v 1 variant C49S renders the molecule an attractive candidate for hypoallergen-based immunotherapy of Artemisia pollen allergy.

  14. Genome-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of the Desert Shrub Artemisia sphaerocephala

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijing; Hu, Xiaowei; Miao, Xiumei; Chen, Xiaolong; Nan, Shuzhen; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background Artemisia sphaerocephala, a semi-shrub belonging to the Artemisia genus of the Compositae family, is an important pioneer plant that inhabits moving and semi-stable sand dunes in the deserts and steppes of northwest and north-central China. It is very resilient in extreme environments. Additionally, its seeds have excellent nutritional value, and the abundant lipids and polysaccharides in the seeds make this plant a potential valuable source of bio-energy. However, partly due to the scarcity of genetic information, the genetic mechanisms controlling the traits and environmental adaptation capacity of A. sphaerocephala are unknown. Results Here, we present the first in-depth transcriptomic analysis of A. sphaerocephala. To maximize the representation of conditional transcripts, mRNA was obtained from 17 samples, including living tissues of desert-growing A. sphaerocephala, seeds germinated in the laboratory, and calli subjected to no stress (control) and high and low temperature, high and low osmotic, and salt stresses. De novo transcriptome assembly performed using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform resulted in the generation of 68,373 unigenes. We analyzed the key genes involved in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway and identified 26 A. sphaerocephala fad2 genes, which is the largest fad2 gene family reported to date. Furthermore, a set of genes responsible for resistance to extreme temperatures, salt, drought and a combination of stresses was identified. Conclusion The present work provides abundant genomic information for functional dissection of the important traits of A. sphaerocephala and contributes to the current understanding of molecular adaptive mechanisms of A. sphaerocephala in the desert environment. Identification of the key genes in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway could increase understanding of the biological regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid composition traits in plants and facilitate genetic manipulation of the

  15. Growth, photosynthesis, and resource investment for vegetative and reproductive modules of artemisia tridentata

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Black, R.A. )

    1993-07-01

    Growth of vegetative and reproductive structures in Artemisia tridentata is temporally separated during the growing season; vegetative growth occurs during spring and early summer when soil moisture is most abundant, while reproductive growth occurs during summer and fall when soil moisture may be limiting. Vegetative and reproductive structures may exhibit contrasting efficiencies of resource acquisition and investment resulting from temporal differences in resource availability. The effect of water stress on growth, photosynthesis, and resource investment for vegetative and reproductive modules of Artemisia tridentata was examined by applying supplemental water. No differences were observed in vegetative biomass in the two watering treatments. Growth of vegetative structures occurred in the spring when water was not limiting, and shrubs in both treatments exerted little stomatal control over water loss. Conversely, supplemental watering increased reproductive growth. Shrubs conserved water during summer by abscising leaves and lowering stomatal conductance potential and increases in evaporative demand. In florescences are capable of positive photosynthetic rates comparable to vegetative leaves. Water stress did not alter tissue construction costs or carbon and nitrogen contents for either vegetative or reproductive modules. Resource limitations were reflected in the efficiency of water use during tissue construction; floral leaves and floral heads of shrubs not receiving supplemental water were produced with higher water-use efficiency. Conservative use of water during production of vegetative modules would offer no advantage because neighboring species are also most active at this time. Reproductive growth in A. tridentata occurs during summer when neighboring species are largely dormant, and so efficient use of water may allow development of reproductive structures to continue throughout the summer even with limited supplies of water. 66 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-09

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs.

  17. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-09-21

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in

  18. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubiak, R. R.; Gamba, H. R.; Neves, E. B.; Peixoto, J. E.

    2013-09-01

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in both

  19. Gastric tumor development in Smad3-deficient mice initiates from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Taek; O'Neal, Ryan; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan; Coffey, Robert J; Goldenring, James R

    2012-06-01

    SMAD proteins are downstream effectors of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Smad3-null mice develop colorectal cancer by 6 months of age. In this study, we have examined whether the loss of Smad3 promotes gastric neoplasia in mice. The stomachs of Smad3⁻/⁻ mice were compared with age-matched Smad3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. E-cadherin, Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemisty. The short hairpin RNA (ShRNA)-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells was also performed. In addition, we examined alterations in DCLK1-expressing cells. Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs at 6 months of age revealed the presence of exophytic growths along the lesser curvature in the proximal fundus. Six-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs showed metaplastic columnar glands initiating from the transition zone junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium along the lesser curvature. Ten-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice all exhibited invasive gastric neoplastic changes with increased Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3 expression, and aberrant cytosolic E-cadherin staining in papillary glands within the invading submucosal gland. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells promoted the expression of phosphoSTAT3. DCLK1-expressing cells, which also stained for the tuft cell marker acetylated-α-tubulin, were observed in 10-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice within tumors and in fundic invasive lesions. In conclusion, Smad3-null mice develop gastric tumors in the fundus, which arise from the junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium and progress to prominent invasive tumors over time. Smad3-null mice represent a novel model of fundic gastric tumor initiated from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

  20. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (P<0.05). The calcium ion concentration was increased in low-intensity 2-h group but decreased in high-intensity 4-h group as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was found in mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells between low- or mid-intensity groups and the normal control group, indicating stronger intensity of the electromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely

  1. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  2. Morphology of a novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity in the ant Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W; Billen, Johan

    2004-10-01

    A novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity and anterior pharynx is described in both workers and queens of the pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis. The infrabuccal cavity, connected with the buccal tube, forms a ventral outgrowth of the anterior pharynx, and as such displays the tegumental lining with a cuticle and an epithelial layer. In its dorsal region, the cavity's epithelium reaches a thickness of approx. 11-12mum in both workers and queens, which is considerably thicker than the epithelium lining the rest of the infrabuccal cavity. Also the possible role of the infrabuccal gland is discussed.

  3. The Key Role of Peltate Glandular Trichomes in Symbiota Comprising Clavicipitaceous Fungi of the Genus Periglandula and Their Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A.; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant. PMID:25894995

  4. Ethanol extract and isolated constituents from artemisia dracunculus inhibit esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and induce apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Hong, L; Ying, S-h

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the antitumor efficacy of the ethanol extract from Artemisia dracunculus as well as the compounds isolated from it on cultured EC‑109 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Apoptotic activities of the compounds were also studied using flow cytometry. EC‑109 esophageal cancer cells were treated with varying concentrations of compounds 1-7 isolated from the plant as well as the ethanol extract of Artemisia dracunculus. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the apoptotic studies of the compounds were determined using flow-cytometry. Effect on mitochondrial membrane potential loss ΛΨ m induced by compounds 2 and 4 was also studied in these cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract from the shoot and root parts of Artemisia dracunculus led to the isolation of 7-methoxycoumarin (1), scopoletin (2), dracumerin (3), sakuranetin (4), elimicin (5), davidigenin (6) and 6-methoxycapillarisin (7). All the compounds as well as the extract showed mild to potent cell proliferation inhibitory activities against the esophageal cell line. Sakuranetin and 6-methoxycapillarisin were found to have the most potent effects in inhibiting the cell proliferation. The 2 potent compounds, sakuranetin and 6-methoxycapillarisin were evaluated for their effects on cell cycle phase distribution (DNA damage) as well as their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential loss ΛΨ m. Both compounds induced DNA damage as well as mitochondrial membrane potential loss in esophageal cancer cells. The study suggests that compounds, Sakuranetin and 6-methoxycapillarisin isolated from Artemisia dracunculus possess potent anticancer effects by inducing DNA damage in these cells.

  5. GABA-A Receptor Modulation and Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Antidepressant Activities of Constituents from Artemisia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Karim, Nasiara; Ahmad, Waqar; Abdelhalim, Abeer; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia indica, also known as “Mugwort,” has been widely used in traditional medicines. However, few studies have investigated the effects of nonvolatile components of Artemisia indica on central nervous system's function. Fractionation of Artemisia indica led to the isolation of carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid which were evaluated for their effects on GABA-A receptors in electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes and were subsequently investigated in mouse models of acute toxicity, convulsions (pentylenetetrazole induced seizures), depression (tail suspension and forced swim tests), and anxiety (elevated plus maze and light/dark box paradigms). Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be positive modulators of α1β2γ2L GABA-A receptors and the modulation was antagonized by flumazenil. Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be devoid of any signs of acute toxicity (50–200 mg/kg) but elicited anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolytic activities. Thus carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid demonstrated CNS activity in mouse models of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolysis. The anxiolytic activity of all three compounds was ameliorated by flumazenil suggesting a mode of action via the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA-A receptors. PMID:27143980

  6. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of different extracts of Artemisia biennis Willd. on K562 and HL-60 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Makki, Farideh-Sadat; Alamolhodaei, Nafiseh-Sadat; Mojarrab, Mahdi; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Artemisia is a genus of herbs and small shrubs forms an important part of natural vegetation in Iran. It has been reported that several Artemisia species possess anti-proliferative effects. Considering the value of this genus in anti-cancer researches we have chosen Artemisia biennis for cytotoxic and mechanistic studies. Materials and Methods: In this study we have investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and ethanol: water (1:1 v/v) extracts of A. biennis Willd. on two cancer human cell lines (K562 and HL-60) and J774 as normal cells. Results: CH2Cl2 extract was found to have the highest anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. IC50 values obtained in AlamarBlue® assay for CH2Cl2 extract were 64.86 and 54.31 µg/ml on K562 and HL-60 cells respectively. In flow cytometry histogram of the cells treated with CH2Cl2 extract, sub-G1 peak was induced. DNA fragmentation, increased in the level of Bax and cleavage of PARP protein all showed the induction of apoptosis with CH2Cl2 extract after 48 hr contact with cells. Conclusion: The results can corroborate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the CH2Cl2 extract of A. biennis on the K562 and HL-60 cancer cell lines. PMID:28293393

  7. Toxicological evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. for use as a dietary supplement and in functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ribnicky, David M; Poulev, Alexander; O'Neal, Joseph; Wnorowski, Gary; Malek, Dolores E; Jäger, Ralf; Raskin, Ilya

    2004-04-01

    TARRALIN is an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus (Russian tarragon), a common medicinal and culinary herb with centuries of use. Artemisia dracunculus is a close relative of the French or cooking tarragon and contains components common to many herbs that are routinely consumed without reported adverse effects. Since safety information of Artemisia dracunculus and its extract is limited to historical use, TARRALIN was examined in a series of toxicological studies. Complete Ames analysis did not reveal any mutagenic activity either with or without metabolic activation. TARRALIN was tested in an acute limit test at 5000 mg/kg with no signs of toxicity noted. In a 14 day repeated dose oral toxicity study, rats appeared to well tolerate 1000 mg/kg/day. Subsequently, TARRALIN was tested in an oral subchronic 90-day toxicity study (rat) at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day. No noteworthy signs of toxicity were noted in feeding or body weight, functional observational battery or motor activity. Gross necropsy and clinical chemistry did not reveal any effects on organ mass or blood chemistry and microscopic examinations found no lesions associated with treatment. Therefore, TARRALIN appears to be safe and non-toxic in these studies and a no-observed adverse effect level in rats is established at 1000 mg/kg/day.

  8. Phylogenetic Relationships of Globodera millefolii, G. artemisiae, and Cactodera salina Based on ITS Region of Ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, V. R.; Krall, E.; Faghihi, J.; Ferris, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Globodera millefolii and G. artemisiae are interesting because their type localities (Estonia and Russia, respectively) are geographically distant from those of the potato cyst nematodes and other Globodera species that seem to have originated in the Western world, and because the type host for each is a member of Compositae rather than Solanaceae. Sequence data for ITS1, ITS2, and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) for G. millefolii and G. artemisiae were nearly identical to sequence data for Cactodera salina from the rhizosphere of the estuary plant Salicornia bigelovii in Sonora, Mexico. The ITS rDNA sequences of these three species were all about 94% similar to those of two other Cactodera species for which ITS rDNA data were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, based on the ITS rDNA data, G. millefolii and G. artemisiae are more closely related phylogenetically to the Cactodera species than to other nominal Globodera species. The molecular data further suggest that the genus Cactodera may comprise two or more morphologically similar but separate groups. PMID:19270922

  9. EST analysis of hop glandular trichomes identifies an O-methyltransferase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of xanthohumol.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jana; Culley, Lana K; Lu, Yuping; Liu, Enwu; Matthews, Paul D; Stevens, Jan F; Page, Jonathan E

    2008-01-01

    The glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) of hop (Humulus lupulus) synthesize essential oils and terpenophenolic resins, including the bioactive prenylflavonoid xanthohumol. To dissect the biosynthetic processes occurring in lupulin glands, we sequenced 10,581 ESTs from four trichome-derived cDNA libraries. ESTs representing enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis, including all of the steps of the methyl 4-erythritol phosphate pathway, were abundant in the EST data set, as were ESTs for the known type III polyketide synthases of bitter acid and xanthohumol biosynthesis. The xanthohumol biosynthetic pathway involves a key O-methylation step. Four S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) with similarity to known flavonoid-methylating enzymes were present in the EST data set. OMT1, which was the most highly expressed OMT based on EST abundance and RT-PCR analysis, performs the final reaction in xanthohumol biosynthesis by methylating desmethylxanthohumol to form xanthohumol. OMT2 accepted a broad range of substrates, including desmethylxanthohumol, but did not form xanthohumol. Mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed it methylated xanthohumol to 4-O-methylxanthohumol, which is not known from hop. OMT3 was inactive with all substrates tested. The lupulin gland-specific EST data set expands the genomic resources for H. lupulus and provides further insight into the metabolic specialization of glandular trichomes.

  10. Evidence for estrogen-dependent uterine serpin (SERPINA14) expression during estrus in the bovine endometrial glandular epithelium and lumen.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Frohlich, Thomas; Schulke, Katy; Englberger, Eva; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Uterine secretions have a dominant impact on the environment in which embryo development takes place. The uterine serpins (SERPINA14, previously known as UTMP) are found most abundantly during pregnancy in the uterus of ruminants. Although progesterone is currently assumed to be the major regulator of SERPINA14 expression, our recent study of transcriptome changes in bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle unexpectedly detected a marked upregulation of SERPINA14 mRNA levels at estrus. The present study describes the full-length mRNA sequence, genomic organization, and putative promoter elements of the SERPINA14 gene. The SERPINA14 mRNA abundance was quantified by real-time RT-PCR in intercaruncular endometrium at several time points during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Highest levels were found at estrus, followed by a dramatic decrease and a moderate expression during the luteal phase. Transcript levels were higher in pregnant endometrium compared with controls at Day 18. At estrus, immunoreactive protein was localized in deep glandular epithelium, and Western blotting concomitantly showed the 52-kDa form in uterine flushings. SERPINA14 mRNA was significantly upregulated in glandular endometrial cells in vitro after stimulation with estradiol-17beta and progesterone, but not after interferon-tau treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that SERPINA14 appears distinctly in bovine endometrium during the estrus phase. A supporting role toward providing a well-prepared endometrial environment for passing gametes, especially sperm, is assumed.

  11. Ablation of beta1 integrin in mammary epithelium reveals a key role for integrin in glandular morphogenesis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Matthew J; Li, Na; Cheung, Julia; Lowe, Emma T; Lambert, Elise; Marlow, Rebecca; Wang, Pengbo; Schatzmann, Franziska; Wintermantel, Timothy; Schüetz, Günther; Clarke, Alan R; Mueller, Ulrich; Hynes, Nancy E; Streuli, Charles H

    2005-11-21

    Integrin-mediated adhesion regulates the development and function of a range of tissues; however, little is known about its role in glandular epithelium. To assess the contribution of beta1 integrin, we conditionally deleted its gene in luminal epithelia during different stages of mouse mammary gland development and in cultured primary mammary epithelia. Loss of beta1 integrin in vivo resulted in impaired alveologenesis and lactation. Cultured beta1 integrin-null cells displayed abnormal focal adhesion function and signal transduction and could not form or maintain polarized acini. In vivo, epithelial cells became detached from the extracellular matrix but remained associated with each other and did not undergo overt apoptosis. beta1 integrin-null mammary epithelial cells did not differentiate in response to prolactin stimulation because of defective Stat5 activation. In mice where beta1 integrin was deleted after the initiation of differentiation, fewer defects in alveolar morphology occurred, yet major deficiencies were also observed in milk protein and milk fat production and Stat5 activation, indicating a permissive role for beta1 integrins in prolactin signaling. This study demonstrates that beta1 integrin is critical for the alveolar morphogenesis of a glandular epithelium and for maintenance of its differentiated function. Moreover, it provides genetic evidence for the cooperation between integrin and cytokine signaling pathways.

  12. EST Analysis of Hop Glandular Trichomes Identifies an O-Methyltransferase That Catalyzes the Biosynthesis of Xanthohumol[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Jana; Culley, Lana K.; Lu, Yuping; Liu, Enwu; Matthews, Paul D.; Stevens, Jan F.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    The glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) of hop (Humulus lupulus) synthesize essential oils and terpenophenolic resins, including the bioactive prenylflavonoid xanthohumol. To dissect the biosynthetic processes occurring in lupulin glands, we sequenced 10,581 ESTs from four trichome-derived cDNA libraries. ESTs representing enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis, including all of the steps of the methyl 4-erythritol phosphate pathway, were abundant in the EST data set, as were ESTs for the known type III polyketide synthases of bitter acid and xanthohumol biosynthesis. The xanthohumol biosynthetic pathway involves a key O-methylation step. Four S-adenosyl-l-methionine–dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) with similarity to known flavonoid-methylating enzymes were present in the EST data set. OMT1, which was the most highly expressed OMT based on EST abundance and RT-PCR analysis, performs the final reaction in xanthohumol biosynthesis by methylating desmethylxanthohumol to form xanthohumol. OMT2 accepted a broad range of substrates, including desmethylxanthohumol, but did not form xanthohumol. Mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed it methylated xanthohumol to 4-O-methylxanthohumol, which is not known from hop. OMT3 was inactive with all substrates tested. The lupulin gland-specific EST data set expands the genomic resources for H. lupulus and provides further insight into the metabolic specialization of glandular trichomes. PMID:18223037

  13. A Monte Carlo study of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Di Lillo, Francesca; Russo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of model assumptions in GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the calculation of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) in mammography, focussing on the effect of the skin thickness and composition, of the role of compression paddles and of the bremsstrahlung processes. We showed that selecting a skin thickness of 4 mm instead of 1.45 mm produced DgN values with deviations from 9% to 32% for x-ray spectra routinely adopted in mammography. Consideration of the bremsstrahlung radiation had a weak influence on monoenergetic DgN. Simulations (in the range 8-40 kVp) which included consideration of bremsstrahlung radiation, a skin thickness of 1.45 mm and a 2 mm thick compression paddles produced polyenergetic DgN coefficients up to 19% higher than corresponding literature data. Adding a 2 mm thick adipose layer between the skin layer and the radiosensitive portion of the breast produces polyenergetic DgN values up to 15% higher than those routinely adopted. These findings provide a quantitative estimate of the influence of model parameters on the calculation of the mean glandular dose in mammography.

  14. The Flavonoid Biosynthetic Enzyme Chalcone Isomerase Modulates Terpenoid Production in Glandular Trichomes of Tomato1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E.; Jones, A. Daniel; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments. PMID:24424324

  15. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecological adaptation in this species. Here, we report on the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in subspecies of big sagebrush. Results cDNA of A. tridentata sspp. tridentata and vaseyana were normalized and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Assembly of the reads resulted in 20,357 contig consensus sequences in ssp. tridentata and 20,250 contigs in ssp. vaseyana. A BLASTx search against the non-redundant (NR) protein database using 29,541 consensus sequences obtained from a combined assembly resulted in 21,436 sequences with significant blast alignments (≤ 1e-15). A total of 20,952 SNPs and 119 polymorphic SSRs were detected between the two subspecies. SNPs were validated through various methods including sequence capture. Validation of SNPs in different individuals uncovered a high level of nucleotide variation in EST sequences. EST sequences of a third, tetraploid subspecies (ssp. wyomingensis) obtained by Illumina sequencing were mapped to the consensus sequences of the combined 454 EST assembly. Approximately one-third of the SNPs between sspp. tridentata and vaseyana identified in the combined assembly were also polymorphic within the two geographically distant ssp. wyomingensis samples. Conclusion We have produced a large EST dataset for Artemisia tridentata, which contains a large sample of the big sagebrush leaf transcriptome. SNP

  16. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhi-Yong; Su, Yi-Ji; Teng, Nian-Jun; Chen, Su-Mei; Sun, Hai-Nan; Li, Chu-Ling; Chen, Fa-Di

    2013-01-01

    Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance. PMID:24235883

  17. How the Plant Temperature Links to the Air Temperature in the Desert Plant Artemisia ordosica.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Han; Ding, Guo-Dong; Gao, Guang-Lei; Sun, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wan, Li; Wang, De-Ying; Gui, Zi-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant temperature (Tp) is an important indicator of plant health. To determine the dynamics of plant temperature and self-cooling ability of the plant, we measured Tp in Artemisia ordosica in July, in the Mu Us Desert of Northwest China. Related factors were also monitored to investigate their effects on Tp, including environmental factors, such as air temperature (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed; and physiological factors, such as leaf water potential, sap flow, and water content. The results indicate that: 1) Tp generally changes in conjunction with Ta mainly, and varies with height and among the plant organs. Tp in the young branches is most constant, while it is the most sensitive in the leaves. 2) Correlations between Tp and environmental factors show that Tp is affected mainly by Ta. 3) The self-cooling ability of the plant was effective by midday, with Tp being lower than Ta. 4) Increasing sap flow and leaf water potential showed that transpiration formed part of the mechanism that supported self-cooling. Increased in water conductance and specific heat at midday may be additional factors that contribute to plant cooling ability. Therefore, our results confirmed plant self-cooling ability. The response to high temperatures is regulated by both transpiration speed and an increase in stem water conductance. This study provides quantitative data for plant management in terms of temperature control. Moreover, our findings will assist species selection with taking plant temperature as an index.

  18. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunmonu, Taofik O.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < 0.05) increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract. PMID:23861717

  19. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Khajuria, J K; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Verma, P K; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, N K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10% were significantly different (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; however, at 20%, it was similar to the positive control group. Maximum mortality of 86.7% was recorded at 20%. The LC50 and LC95 values were calculated as 6.51 and 55.43%, respectively. The oviposition was reduced significantly by 36.8 and 59.1% at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Egg hatchability was reduced significantly at all concentrations (2.5-20%) in comparison to the control. In LPT, the extract caused 100% mortality of larvae at all the concentrations after 24 h. The results show that ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum.

  20. Terpenes and polyacetylenes from cultivated Artemisia granatensis boiss (Royal chamomile) and their defensive properties.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Herrador del Pino, M Mar; Portero, Adriana González; Burón, Pilar Arteaga; Arteaga, Jesús F; Alquézar, Jesús Burillo; Díaz, Carmen Elisa; Coloma, Azucena González

    2013-10-01

    Artemisia granatensis, an endemic endangered plant species from Sierra Nevada (Spain) has been successfully cultivated in artificial systems (plants in artificial soil and transformed in vitro roots) to generate enough plant biomass (aerial and root) to allow for its chemical and biological study and at the same time to provide with methods for the sustainable production of the plant and its metabolites. A eudesmanolide (17) along with six sesquiterpenes (11-16), nine monoterpenes (2-10), one nor-monoterpene (1), three acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters (18-20) and one coumarin (21) have been identified from the aerial plant ethanolic extract. Acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters 18-19 and coumarins 21-23 have been isolated from the transformed root ethanolic extract. These extracts and some isolated compounds or mixtures of them have been tested for their insect antifeedant effects against Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi. Significant antifeedant properties were determined for the aerial plant extract, spiroacetals 19-20 and secoguaianolides 13+14 and 16.

  1. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Luísa Maria Silveira; Gazolla, Matheus Coutinho; Silva Pinto, Pedro Luiz; da Silva, Marcos Paulo Nascimento; de Moraes, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA) and T. parthenium (TP) and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM) caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound. PMID:27980595

  2. Bioactivities and Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil Extracted from Artemisia anethoides Against Two Stored Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Di; Wang, Jun-Long; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the essential oil extracted from Artemisia anethoides and the bioactivities of essential oil against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne were investigated. The main components of the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (36.54%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one (10.40%), terpinen-4-ol (8.58%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.20) and pinocarveol (5.08%). The essential oil of A. anethoides possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 28.80 μg/adult and LC50 = 13.05 mg/L air, respectively) and against L. serricorne (LD50 = 24.03 μg/adult and LD50 = 8.04 mg/L air, respectively). The crude oil showed repellent activity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne. Especially, the percentage repellency of essential oil was same level with DEET (positive control) against T. castaneum. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. anethoides had the potential to be developed as insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. serricorne.

  3. Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxicity, Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Effects of Artemisia ciniformis

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Mahboubeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical constituents, antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of the essential oil of Artemisia ciniformis Krasch. & Popov ex Poljakov, against important bacterial pathogens and human cells which were unknown before. In-vitro cytotoxicity was measured using a modified MTT assay on normal human lymphocytes and tumor HeLa cells. The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the oil were evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100, together with nitrofluorene for TA98 and sodium azide for TA100 without (-S9) metabolic activation, and 2-aminoantracene for TA98 and TA100 with metabolic (+S9) activation. Oxygenated monoterpenes especially camphor (30.21%), 1,8-cineole (23.7%) and trans-Pinocarveol (12.28%) were the major components of the oil of A. ciniformis. Bactericidal kinetics of this oil indicated that Acinetobacter baumannii is the most vulnerable one (MIC = 0.02 mg/mL, MBC = 0.04 mg/mL, Dvalue = 3.57 min). The oil displayed an excellent cytotoxic action toward the human tumor cell line (IC50 = 19.64 µg/mL). The oil of A. ciniformis showed excellent antimutagenicity effect on the 2-nitrofluorene, in the strain of S. typhimurium TA98, without the presence of metabolic activation. PMID:27980582

  4. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de las; del Prado, Gema; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  5. Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Burrows, R.

    1997-09-01

    The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares.

  6. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county.

  7. Artemisia tilesii Ledeb hairy roots establishment using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Shakhovsky, A M; Belokurova, V B; Drobot, K O

    2016-05-18

    An efficient and rapid protocol for the establishment of Artemisia tilesii "hairy" root culture is reported. Leaf explants of aseptically growing plants were cocultured with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 wild strain or A. rhizogenes carrying the plasmids with nptII and ifn-α2b genes. Root formation on the explants started in 5-6 days after their cocultivation with bacterial suspension. Prolongation of explant cultivation time on the medium without cefotaxime led to stimulation of root growth. The effects of sucrose concentration as well as of the levels of synthetic indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and native growth regulator Emistim on the stimulation of A. tilesii "hairy" root growth were studied. Maximum stimulating effect both for the control and for transgenic roots was observed in case of root cultivation on the media supplemented with IBA-up to 7.95- and 9.1-fold biomass increase, respectively. Cultivation on the medium with 10 μl/L Emistime has also led to the control roots growth stimulation (up to 2.75-fold). Emistime at 5 μl/L concentration led to 5.46-fold mass increase in only one "hairy" root line. Higher sucrose content (40 g/L) stimulated growth of two hairy root lines but had no effect on growth of the control roots.

  8. Effects of acetylation on the emulsifying properties of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjun; Hu, Xinzhong; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen

    2016-06-25

    In the present study, polysaccharides extracted from Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. seeds (ASKP) were acetylated to improve the emulsifying properties of the macromolecules. Several methods were applied for the acetylation purpose, among which the acetic anhydride-pyridine method with formamide as solvent was found to be the most effective one. Acetylated ASKPs with various degree of substitution (DS) were successfully produced and structurally characterized using HPSEC-MALS, FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques in this study. Results showed that acetylation treatment could cause the degradation of ASKP. Moreover, with the increase of DS, both the molecular weight and radius of gyration increased, as well as the molecular conformation trended to be more compact. Low DS (DS: 0.04 and 0.13) conferred acetylated ASKP a lower viscosity than that of ASKP. With the increase of DS, the viscosity of acetylated ASKPs increased and exceeded that of ASKP. Compared with ASKP, acetylated ASKPs could reduce the surface tension to a greater extent and demonstrated a much smaller droplet size (ZD) in an oil/water emulsion system. Acetylated ASKPs were capable of stabilizing the oil/water emulsion for 3 days at 60°C, whose performance was as good as that of gum acacia. In conclusion, such a hydrophobic modification on ASKP conferred it better emulsifying properties.

  9. Relationship between the genetic diversity of Artemisia halodendron and climatic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenda; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yuqiang; Lian, Jie; Yun, Jianying

    2014-02-01

    Artemisia halodendron (Asteraceae) is a dominant sand-fixing semi-shrub species native to the Horqin Sandy Land of northeastern China. In this study, we evaluated levels of genetic variation within and among sampled A. halodendron populations from two different hydrothermal regions of the Horqin Sandy Land using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. We also investigated possible relationships between genetic diversity of this species and climatic factors. Our analysis revealed that A. halodendron is highly genetically diverse, with populations from a low hydrothermal level region having higher genetic diversity index values than those from a high hydrothermal level region. An analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) revealed relatively high levels (>89.83%) of within-population genetic variation. Based on cluster analysis, the 13 studied A. halodendron populations can be clustered into two clades. Genetic diversities of all populations have been influenced by many climatic factors, and Nei's genetic diversity (h) is strongly correlated with annual temperature range (ART). These results have important implications for restoration and management of degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid areas.

  10. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Solution conformation and antioxidant activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Tang, YinYing; Xu, Qing; Huang, Shengli; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2016-01-20

    Regioselective modification is an effective approach to synthesize polysaccharides with different structure features and improved properties. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. The decrease in fractal dimension (df) values (1.56-2.04) of SRSASP was observed in size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis. Compared to sample substituted at C-6, SRSASP showed a more expanded conformation of random coil, which was attributed to the breakup of hydrogen bonds and elastic contributions. Circular dichroism (CD), methylene blue (MB) and congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed the conformational transition and stiffness of the chains after sulfation. SRSASP exhibited enhanced antioxidant activities in the DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Sulfation at C-2 or C-3 was favorable for the chelation which might prevent the generation of hydroxyl radicals. It concluded that the degree of substitution and substitution position were the factors influencing biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides.

  11. Pulse hypothesis in the establishment of Artemisia seedlings at Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Hunter, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    New Artemisia seedlings are not established each year. Many that are established fail to survive because of unfavorable rainfall in succeeding years. A total of 184 young plants was examined for the number of annual growth rings to ascertain the year of establishment after all vegetation had been killed near the time of a nuclear test event in 1965. The three most important recent years for establishment and survival of new seedlings (as of 1976 and based on a sample of 184 plants) were 1966 (9 percent), 1969 (29%), and 1973 (36%). A total of 27% was established in the other years from 1965 to 1976. These three years were also the years with high rainfall input during preceding winter and spring months. If old plants are killed, seeds germinate with much lower inputs of precipitation. Many seedlings germinated in 1968 at a site where old ones had been burned off even though the rainfall was not favorable. Plants of a given age varied greatly in size according to their competition. Seedlings germinating in old stands grew little in comparison with those germinating in areas where old plants had been killed. One exception was an area where intense competition occurred due to large numbers of new plants, resulting in growth restriction on all plants.

  12. Antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Ghlissi, Zohra; Sayari, Nadhim; Kallel, Rim; Bougatef, Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated some biological properties of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) as well its global chemical compositions. Twenty four rats were excised on the posterior neck skin area and divided into 4 groups, treated respectively with: sterile saline, glycerol, CICAFLORA and ACAE. The wound closure rate, histopathology evolution and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in skin tissue were evaluated. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Animals were divided into 3 groups pre-treated respectively with sterile saline, acetylsalicylic acid (AA) and ACAE. The antibacterial activity was tested against six bacteria and the antioxidant activity was estimated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and β-carotene activities. Our results demonstrated a significant improvement in wound healing progression and in oxidative stress damage in the wounds tissues of ACAE-treated rats, compared to control. ACAE-treated rats revealed also a significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced hind paws edema as confirmed by the histological analysis. In addition to the antioxidant activity, ACAE showed considerable antibacterial activities. ACAE exhibited important wound healing effect probably due to the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of its phytochemical contents. Therefore, this study confirms its popular use and highlights its promise in the development of new drugs.

  13. The antifungal activity of Artemisia sieberi essential oil from different localities of Iran against dermatophyte fungi.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2015-06-01

    Dermatophyte fungi are the most common cause of dermatophytosis in humans and animals. Artemisia sieberi is traditionally used for treatment of fungi related skin infections. In this investigation, we analyzed five samples of A. sieberi oils (different harvesting times and distinctive collecting locations) by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antifungal activities of A. sieberi oils were evaluated against different dermatophytes. The anti-elastase activities of essential oils were also evaluated. The results of analysis showed that the harvesting time and collecting location can affect the chemical compositions and oil yields. The best time for collecting the A. sieberi with high yield was spring season (January-February). There was no significant difference between the desirable anti-dermatophyte activities of A. sieberi oils with different chemical compositions. M. gypseum, T. rubrum and M. canis had more sensitivity than others to A. sieberi oils. The oils with higher amounts of α-thujone, β-thujone showed the higher anti-elastase activity. Therefore, A. sieberi can be used as topical antifungal agent for treatment of skin dermatophyte infections.

  14. Artemisia capillaris Alleviates Bone Loss by Stimulating Osteoblast Mineralization and Suppressing Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Jo; Shim, Ki-Shuk; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia capillaris has been used to treat jaundice and relieve high liver-heat in traditional medicine. In this study, we found that the administration of a water extract from A. capillaris (WEAC) to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced bone loss model significantly prevents osteoporotic bone loss, increasing bone volume/trabecular volume by 22% and trabecular number by 24%, and decreasing trabecular separation by 29%. WEAC stimulated in vitro osteoblast mineralization from primary osteoblasts in association with increasing expression of osterix, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, and activator protein-1, as well as phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In contrast to the anabolic effect of WEAC, WEAC significantly suppressed in vitro osteoclast formation from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting the RANKL signaling pathways and bone resorption by downregulating the expression of resorption markers. Therefore, this study demonstrated that WEAC has a beneficial effect on bone loss through the regulation of osteoblast mineralization, as well as osteoclast formation and bone resorption. These results suggest that A. capillaris may be a promising herbal candidate for therapeutic agents to treat or prevent osteoporotic bone diseases.

  15. In vitro Antioxidant Studies of Fruits of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp.

    PubMed Central

    Suseela, V.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.; Varghese, Sumam

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of fruits of Artemisia nilagirica was studied using different in vitro models like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulphonate), nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation. Both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of A. nilagirica fruits at 500 μg/ml showed maximum scavenging activity (89.33% and 89.14%) in quenching 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical. The ethanol extract showed better scavenging activity (69.78%) of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical followed by the scavenging of nitric oxide radical (73.25%) compared to aqueous extract. In contrast, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals were effectively scavenged by aqueous extract. Total antioxidant capacity of ethanol and aqueous extracts at 500 μg/ml concentration was found to be 56.21 and 62.78 mg ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. However, both the extracts showed only moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. They were also found to contain considerable total phenols and flavonoids suggesting their role as an effective free radical scavenger. These findings suggest that phenolics and flavonoids in the fruits provide substantial antioxidant activity. PMID:21695001

  16. Artemisia capillaris extracts as a green factory for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Park, Youmie; Noh, Hwa Jung; Han, Lina; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Chong-Kook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho

    2012-09-01

    We report a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles that uses extracts from the aerial part of Artemisia capillaris. Both water and 70% ethanol extracts successfully generated silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance bands, Fourier transform-infrared spectra, high resolution-transmission electron and atomic force microscopic images. Various shapes of silver nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 29.71 nm with water extract and 29.62 nm with 70% ethanol extract. An improvement in antibacterial activity (MIC 8.35-16.7 microg/mL) was observed against a total of twenty different strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. A remarkable enhancement (approximately 12-fold) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella areogenes when compared with the extract alone. Silver nanoparticles produced by the 70% ethanol extract showed slightly higher antibacterial activity than those generated with the water extract. The correlation between total flavonoid content of each extract and the antibacterial activity did not exert any significant relationships. This report suggests that plant extracts have the potential to be used as powerful reducing agents for the production of biocompatible silver nanoparticles possessing enhanced antibacterial activities.

  17. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs. PMID:23171441

  18. Mean glandular dose coefficients (D(g)N) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z; Yaffe, Martin J; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

    2015-09-21

    To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients D(g)N for a range of anode-filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Previously published mono-energetic D(g)N values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute D(g)N coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; molybdenum and rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial half value layer (HVL) calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, D(g)N coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (D(g)N) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published D(g)N values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values.Over 200 pages of D(g)N coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values.

  19. Mean Glandular dose coefficients (DgN) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients DgN for a range of anode–filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Methods Previously published mono-energetic DgN values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute DgN coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; Molybdenum and Rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPx Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial HVL calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, DgN coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Results Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published DgN values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values. Conclusion Over 200-pages of DgN coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values. PMID:26348995

  20. The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage.

  1. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  2. Black cumin seeds, Artemisia leaves (Artemisia sieberi), and Camellia L. plant extract as phytogenic products in broiler diets and their effects on performance, blood constituents, immunity, and cecal microbial population.

    PubMed

    Khalaji, S; Zaghari, M; Hatami, K; Hatami, K H; Hedari-Dastjerdi, S; Lotfi, L; Nazarian, H

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of using black cumin seeds (BCS), Artemisia leaves (AL), and Camellia L. plant extract (CLE) in the diets of broiler chicks. Experiment 1 was conducted as a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2) with 8 replicates of 4 chicks in each battery cage. Factors included 2 levels of BCS and AL (0 and 1%). Experiment 2 was conducted as a completely randomized design with 4 treatments (control, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg of CLE, and 0.5 g/kg of mannanoligosaccharide) of 8 replicates and 4 chicks in each. Body weight and cumulative feed intake were measured at 21, 35, and 42 d of age. Antibody response against SRBC was measured on d 28 and 42. Blood characteristics, relative weight and length of different parts of the carcass, gastrointestinal pH, villi length, and crypt depth were measured at 42 d of age. Artemisia addition did not affect BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) but decreased feed intake significantly up to 21 d of age (P ≤ 0.01). Black cumin significantly increased BW (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age and decreased FCR throughout the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). Artemisia significantly increased monocytes but had no effect on gastrointestinal pH, antibody response, and relative weight and length of different parts of the carcass. Black cumin increased red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, gizzard relative weight, and pH but decreased antibody response and monocytes percentage (P ≤ 0.01). Artemisia did not affect plasma lipid profile but decreased coliform and Escherichia coli populations of ceca significantly (P ≤ 0.01 and P ≤ 0.05, respectively). Addition of 0.5 g/kg of CLE decreased BW, feed intake, and FCR throughout the experiment (P ≤ 0.01). Camellia increased gizzard and proventriculus pH, villi length, and crypt depth (P ≤ 0.01) but decreased primary antibody response, total white blood cell count, and cholesterol concentration (P ≤ 0.05). The results of this

  3. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality.

  4. Proteomics of the human endometrial glandular epithelium and stroma from the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Hood, Brian L; Liu, Baoquan; Alkhas, Addie; Shoji, Yutaka; Challa, Rusheeswar; Wang, Guisong; Ferguson, Susan; Oliver, Julie; Mitchell, Dave; Bateman, Nicholas W; Zahn, Christopher M; Hamilton, Chad A; Payson, Mark; Lessey, Bruce; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Maxwell, G Larry; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance in reproductive biology and women's health, a detailed molecular-level understanding of the human endometrium is lacking. Indeed, no comprehensive studies have been undertaken to elucidate the important protein expression differences between the endometrial glandular epithelium and surrounding stroma during the proliferative and midsecretory phases of the menstrual cycle. We utilized laser microdissection to harvest epithelial cells and stromal compartments from proliferative and secretory premenopausal endometrial tissue and performed a global, quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis. This analysis identified 1224 total proteins from epithelial cells, among which 318 were differentially abundant between the proliferative and secretory phases (q < 0.05), and 1005 proteins from the stromal compartments, 19 of which were differentially abundant between the phases (q < 0.05). Several proteins were chosen for validation by immunohistochemistry in an independent set of uterine tissues, including carboxypeptidase M, tenascin C, neprilysin, and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 3 (ENPP3). ENPP3, which was elevated in epithelial glandular cells in the secretory phase, was confirmed to be elevated in midsecretory-phase baboon uterine lavage samples and also observed to have an N-linked glycosylated form that was not observed in the proliferative phase. This study provides a detailed view into the global proteomic alterations of the epithelial cells and stromal compartments of the cycling premenopausal endometrium. These proteomic alterations during endometrial remodeling provide a basis for numerous follow-up investigations on the function of these differentially regulated proteins and their role in reproductive biology and endometrial pathologies.

  5. Types of Artemisia pollen season depending on the weather conditions in Wrocław (Poland), 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Malkiewicz, Małgorzata; Klaczak, Kamilla; Drzeniecka-Osiadacz, Anetta; Krynicka, Justyna; Migała, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise Artemisia pollen season types according to weather conditions in Wrocław (south-western Poland) in the years 2002-2011. Over the period analysed, the start date of the pollen season (determined by the 95 % method) ranged from 10 July 2002 to 28 July 2010. The start date of the pollen season can be determined by using Crop Heat Units (CHUs). During the period 2002-2011, the Artemisia pollen season started after the cumulative value of CHUs had reached 2,000-2,100 °C. The three distinguished types of Artemisia pollen season are best described by the frequency of weather types defined by the type of circulation, mean daily air temperature, and the occurrence of rain. The variation in these factors affected the dynamics of the pollen season. The noteworthy frequency of days with rain and high seasonal sum of precipitation totals as well as the dominance of cyclonic weather from the westerly direction had an impact on the extension of the pollen season. The meteorological factors that directly affect pollen release and transport primarily include air humidity, expressed as vapour pressure (r > 0.3, p < 0.01), temperature(r from 0.2 to 0.4, p < 0.01). The relationships between averaged meteorological data and daily pollen concentration were stronger (r > 0.5, p < 0.01). Based on the correlation analysis, the meteorological variables were selected and regression equations were established using stepwise backward regression analysis.

  6. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of Artemisia absinthium essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, A.; Sani, T. Ahmadzadeh; Ameri, A. A.; Imani, M.; Golmakani, E.; Kamali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae) family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering) from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene). Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC50. Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium. PMID:26692746

  7. Antibacterial activity of Artemisia nilagirica leaf extracts against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The six organic solvent extracts of Artemisia nilagirica were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens and clinically important standard reference bacterial strains. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of A. nilagirica extracts against 15 bacterial strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 32 to 512 μg/ml. The phytochemical screening of extracts was carried out for major phytochemical derivatives in A. nilagirica. Results All the extracts showed inhibitory activity for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The hexane extract was found to be effective against all phytopathogens with low MIC of 32 μg/ml and the methanol extract exhibited a higher inhibition activity against Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32 μg/ml), Bacillus subtilis (64 μg/ml) and Shigella flaxneri (128 μg/ml). The phytochemical screening of extracts answered for the major derivative of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, phenol, quinines, tannins and terpenoids. Conclusion All the extracts showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. Of all, methanol and hexane extracts showed high inhibition against clinical and phytopathogens, respectively. The results also indicate the presence of major phytochemical derivatives in the A. nilagirica extracts. Hence, the isolation and purification of therapeutic potential compounds from A. nilagirica could be used as an effective source against bacterial diseases in human and plants. PMID:20109237

  8. Winter snowfall and summer photosynthesis for the Great Basin Desert shrubs Artemisia tridentata and Purshia tridentata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loik, M. E.; Griffith, A. B.; Alpert, H.; Concilio, A. L.; Martinson, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Snowfall provides the majority of soil water recharge in many western high-elevation North American ecosystems, but climate change may alter the magnitude and timing of snowfall and snow melt events thereby affecting ecosystem processes. Experiments were conducted to test hypotheses about multi-scale linkages of antecedent snow depth variation with soil water content and physiological performance of deeply-rooted shrubs in the western Great Basin Desert. Snow depth was manipulated using eight 50-year old snow fences near Mammoth Lakes, California, USA. Water potential and photosynthetic gas exchange were measured annually in early summer (1 - 2 mo following snowmelt), between 2004 and 2008 for Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) and Purshia tridentata (Rosaceae) on plots with increased ("+ snow"), decreased ("- snow") and ambient snow depth. Seasonal patterns were measured from May - September 2005, and four to five months after snowmelt in wet and dry years. Snow depth on +snow plots was about twice that of ambient-depth plots in most years. Depth was about 20% lower on -snow plots. Soil water content in May on +snow plots was roughly double that on ambient and 220% of that on -snow plots. Water potential patterns varied across daily, seasonal, and annual scales, but only on a few occasions was there a significant snow-depth effect. Stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) increased for several months after snowmelt in 2005, but there were only a few times when there was a snow depth effect. Photosynthetic gas exchange reflected inter-annual snow depth, but the magnitude of the variation was lower. There was a threshold response of A to October 1 - June 1 cumulative precipitation. For A. tridentata, A differed as a function of Snow Water Equivalents (SWE) across five years of measurements. Results suggest that plant water relations for these two deeply-rooted shrub species are resilient to variation in winter snow depth and subsequent spring soil water

  9. [Temporal and spatial variations of soil respiration in an Artemisia ordosica shrubland ecosystem in Kubuqi Desert].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Li; Chen, Shi-Ping; Wei, Long; Lin, Guang-Hui

    2009-04-15

    Based on the dynamic measurements of soil respiration using a closed dynamic chamber and its related environmental factors in a desert shrubland ecosystem regularly during the growing season (May-September) of 2006, we studied the diurnal and seasonal variations of soil respiration of two different land cover soils and their responses to soil temperature, soil water content and biotic factors. The objective was to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of soil respiration and their responsible factors in Artemisia ordosica shrubland in Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia, China. The diurnal variation of soil respiration showed an asymmetric single-peak pattern, with the peak value occurring around 12:00. Soil respiration fluctuated greatly during the growing season, reaching peak values in July-August. There was a significant linear relationship between soil respiration rate and soil water content at 10 cm depth. Most of the seasonal variation in soil respiration (75%-77%) could be explained by the variation in soil water content. The mean soil respiration under the shrub canopy was (155.58 +/- 15.20) mg x (m2 x h)(-1), which was significantly higher than that for the bare ground between the shrubs (110.50 +/- 6.77) mg x (m2 x h)(-1). The sensitivity of soil respiration to soil water content was also significantly higher for the soils under the canopy than for the bare ground soils. The spatial variation of soil respiration was caused mainly by the root biomass, which can be explained about 43% of heterogeneity. The results suggest that variation on a small time and space scales must be taken into consideration when estimating soil CO2 efflux in the desert ecosystems.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  11. Ethanolic Extracts of California Mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) Are Cytotoxic against Normal and Cancerous Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Somaweera, Himali; Lai, Gary C.; Blackeye, Rachel; Littlejohn, Beverly; Kirksey, Justine; Aguirre, Richard M.; LaPena, Vince; Pasqua, Anna; Hintz, Mary McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) is used by many tribes throughout California to treat a variety of conditions, including colds, allergies, and pain. California mugwort is also utilized as women’s medicine. Its use is on the rise outside of Native communities, often without the guidance of a traditional healer or experienced herbalist. Because it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity against plant and animal cells, we investigated whether California mugwort extracts have an effect on normal human cells as well as estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor negative (ER−) human breast cancer cells. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. douglasiana leaves were tested for cytotoxicity against unstimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC), as well as against an ER+ human breast cancer cell line (BT-474) and an ER− human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). An ethanolic leaf extract killed hPBMC, BT-474, and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 23.6 ± 0.3, 27 ± 5, and 37 ± 4 μg/ml, respectively. An aqueous extract killed hPBMC with an IC50 value of 60 ± 10 μg/ml, but had no effect on the two cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml. The results of this study indicate that the cytotoxicity of California mugwort extends to normal human cells, as well as cancerous cells. Therefore, until further is known about the safety of this medicine, caution should be taken when consuming extracts of California mugwort, whether as a tincture or as a tea. PMID:24073389

  12. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534~543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47~29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  13. Seasonal variation of responses to herbivory and volatile communication in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Satomi; Shiojiri, Kaori; Karban, Richard; Ohara, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Plants can respond to insect herbivory in various ways to avoid reductions in fitness. However, the effect of herbivory on plant performance can vary depending on the seasonal timing of herbivory. We investigated the effects of the seasonal timing of herbivory on the performance of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Sagebrush is known to induce systemic resistance by receiving volatiles emitted from clipped leaves of the same or neighboring plants, which is called volatile communication. Resistance to leaf herbivory is known to be induced most effectively after volatile communication in spring. We experimentally clipped 25 % of leaves of sagebrush in May when leaves were expanding, or in July when inflorescences were forming. We measured the growth and flower production of clipped plants and neighboring plants which were exposed to volatiles emitted from clipped plants. The treatment conducted in spring reduced the growth of clipped plants. This suggests that early season leaf herbivory is detrimental because it reduces the opportunities for resource acquisition after herbivory, resulting in strong induction of resistance in leaves. On the other hand, the late season treatment increased flower production in plants exposed to volatiles, which was caused mainly by the increase in the number of inflorescences. Because the late season treatment occurred when sagebrush produces inflorescences, sagebrush may respond to late herbivory by increasing compensation ability and/or resistance in inflorescences rather than in leaves. Our results suggest that sagebrush can change responses to herbivory and subsequent volatile communication seasonally and that the seasonal variation in responses may reduce the cost of induced resistance.

  14. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Responses by Essential Oil of Artemisia kotuchovii and Its Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V.; Özek, Gulmira; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A.; Kotukhov, Yuriy A.; Danilova, Alevtina N.; Özek, Temel; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Quinn, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the flowers+leaves and stems of Artemisia kotuchovii Kupr. (AKEOf+l and AKEOstm, respectively) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The primary components of the oils were estragole, (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimenes, methyl eugenol, limonene, spathulenol, β-pinene, myrcene, and (E)-methyl cinnamate. Seventy four constituents were present at concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0%, and 34 compounds were identified in trace (<0.1%) amounts in one or both plant components. Screening of the essential oils for biological activity showed that AKEOstm, but not AKEOf+l, inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils. Selected pure constituents, representing >96% of the AKEOstm composition, were also tested in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells transfected with N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). We found that one component, 6-methyl-3,5-heptadien-2-one (MHDO), inhibited fMLF- and interleukin 8 (IL-8)-stimulated Ca2+ flux, fMLF-induced chemotaxis, and PMA-induced ROS production in human neutrophils. MHDO also inhibited fMLF-induced Ca2+ flux in FPR1-HL60 cells. These results suggest that MHDO may be effective in modulating some innate immune responses, possibly by an inhibition of neutrophil migration and ROS production. PMID:25959257

  15. Estragole and methyl-eugenol-free extract of Artemisia dracunculus possesses immunomodulatory effects

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi Froushani, Seyyed Meysam; Zarei, Leila; Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh, Hadi; Mansori Motlagh, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon), may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS. The estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract was characterized and used for evaluation of immunity in NMRI mice after challenging with sheep red blood cells. Results: It was shown that the aqueous extract of tarragon was free from potentially harmful estragole or methyl-eugenol. Moreover, the immunomodulatory effect of the aqueous extract of tarragon (100 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days) was investigated. The extract significantly increased the level of anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC (antibody and simultaneously decreased the level of cellular immunity in the treatment group. Moreover, tarragon caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ in parallel with a reduction in the ratio of INF-γ to Il-10 or IL-17 to IL-10 in the splenocytes. In addition, the levels of the respiratory burst and nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages were significantly decreased. Additionally, the phagocytosis potential of macrophages was significantly increased in treated mice. Conclusion: These data showed that the aqueous extract of tarragon may be used as a natural source to modulate the immune system, because it can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce anti-inflammatory macrophages. PMID:27761422

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Artemisia ciniformis extracts on PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Nasseri, Sajjad; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Farahani, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In the current study antioxidant capacities of five different extracts of Artemisia ciniformis aerial parts were evaluated by cell-free methods. Then seven fractions of the potent extract were selected and their antioxidant capacity was assayed by cell free and cell based methods. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant ability was measured using the: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test, β-carotene bleaching (BCB) method and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Total phenolic contents (TPC) of all the samples also were determined. The cytoprotective effect of fractions was evaluated by measuring the viability of cells after exposure to doxorubicin (DOX). The mechanism of action was studied by investigating caspase-3, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the level of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results: Hydroethanolic extract exhibited a notably higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content. Among the fractions (A to G) of hydroethanolic extract, the highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the Fraction E. Moreover, 24 hr pretreatment of PC12 cells with fractions B, C and D decreased DOX-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, pre-treatment of cells with fraction B resulted in significant decrease in generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase in the activity of SOD. We were able to demonstrate remarkable reduction in the activity of caspase-3 and increase in MMP in PC12 cells following pretreatment with fraction B. Conclusion: Our observations indicated that the fraction B of A. ciniformis hydroetanolic extract possessed protective effect on oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cells. PMID:27279988

  17. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    PubMed

    Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate.

  18. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Responses by the Essential Oil of Artemisia kotuchovii and Its Constituents.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Özek, Gulmira; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A; Kotukhov, Yuriy A; Danilova, Alevtina N; Özek, Temel; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Quinn, Mark T

    2015-05-27

    Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the flowers+leaves and stems of Artemisia kotuchovii Kupr. (AKEO(f+l) and AKEO(stm), respectively) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The primary components of the oils were estragole, (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimenes, methyleugenol, limonene, spathulenol, β-pinene, myrcene, and (E)-methyl cinnamate. Seventy-four constituents were present at concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0%, and 34 compounds were identified in trace (<0.1%) amounts in one or both plant components. Screening of the essential oils for biological activity showed that AKEO(stm), but not AKEOf+l, inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils. Selected pure constituents, representing >96% of the AKEO(stm) composition, were also tested in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells transfected with N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). One component, 6-methyl-3,5-heptadien-2-one (MHDO), inhibited fMLF- and interleukin 8 (IL-8)-stimulated Ca(2+) flux, fMLF-induced chemotaxis, and PMA-induced ROS production in human neutrophils. MHDO also inhibited fMLF-induced Ca(2+) flux in FPR1-HL60 cells. These results suggest that MHDO may be effective in modulating some innate immune responses, possibly by inhibition of neutrophil migration and ROS production.

  19. Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

    2013-11-01

    Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water

  20. Seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses around Artemisia halodendron shrubs in a sandy habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Rui; Zhao, Wen-Zhi; Kang, Ling-Fen; Liu, Ji-Liang; Huang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-01

    In a natural population of the perennial semi-shrub Artemisia halodendron in a shifting sandy habitat in the Horqin Desert of eastern Inner Mongolia, six isolated adult A. halodendron individuals of similar canopy size were chosen as target plants. The density of seeds in the top 5 cm soil depth around shrubs was measured using transects aligned to the four main wind directions and at different distances from the shrub base on both the windward and leeward sides. The effects of shrub presence on seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses were examined by linking seed distribution to seed traits. Of the four species, Setaris viridis and Eragrostis pilosa had small but similar seed mass, while Chloris virgata and Aristida adscensionis had large but similar seed mass. The species were grouped into two cohorts: small-seeded vs. large-seeded cohorts, and shrub presence effects on seed distribution of both cohorts were examined. We found marked difference in the seed distribution pattern among species, especially between the small-seeded and large-seeded cohorts. The small-seeded cohort had significantly higher seed accumulation on the windward than the leeward sides in the most and least prevailing wind directions and much higher seed accumulation on the leeward than the windward sides in the second and third most prevailing wind directions, while opposite patterns occurred in the large-seeded cohort. Four species also showed marked variation in the seed distribution pattern among transects and between windward and leeward sides of each transect. This study provided further evidence that shrubs embedded in a matrix of herbaceous plants is a key cause of spatial heterogeneity in seed availability of herbaceous species. However, seed distribution responses to the presence of shrubs will vary with species as well as with wind direction, sampling position (windward vs. leeward sides of the shrub) and distance from the shrub.

  1. DA-9601, Artemisia asiatica herbal extract, ameliorates airway inflammation of allergic asthma in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Yun Song; Lee, Bong Ki; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Ro, Jai Youl

    2006-08-31

    We previously reported that DA-9601, ethanol herbal extract of Artemisia asiatica, inhibited histamine and leukotriene releases in guinea pig lung mast cells activated with specific antigen/antibody reaction. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of DA-9601 on the OVA-induced airway inflammation in allergic asthma mouse model. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA. DA-9601 was administered orally 1 h before every local OVA-challenge. OVA-specific serum IgE was measured by ELISA, recruitment of inflammatory cells in BAL fluids and lung tissues by Diff-Quik and H&E staining, respectively, the expressions of CD40, CD40L and VCAM-1 by immunohistochemistry, goblet cell hyperplasia by PAS staining, activities of MMPs by gelatin zymography, expressions of mRNA and proteins of cytokines by RT-PCR and ELISA, activities of MAP kinases by western blot, and activity of NF-KappaB by EMSA. DA-9601 reduced IgE level, recruitment of inflammatory cells into the BAL fluid and lung tissues, expressions of CD40, CD40L and VCAM-1 molecules, goblet cell hyperplasia, MMPs activity, expressions of mRNA and productions of various cytokines, activities of MAP kinases and NK-KappaB increased from OVA-challenged mice. These data suggest that DA-9601 may be developed as a clinical therapeutic agent in allergic diseases due to suppressing the airway allergic inflammation via regulation of various cellular molecules expressed by MAP kinases/NF-KappaB pathway.

  2. The Effects of Artemisia sp. on De Novo Lipogenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Jennifer C.; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Gettys, Thomas; Mynatt, Randy; Mendoza, Tamara; Johnson, William D.; Cefalu, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Botanical compounds and extracts are widely used as nutritional supplements for the promotion of health or prevention of disease. An extract of Artemisia dracunculus (PMI 5011) has been shown to improve insulin action, yet the precise mechanism is not known. We proposed that the mechanism by which PMI 5011 and two related Artimisia extracts improve insulin action is associated with a downregulation of DNL in the liver and an increase in DNL in the adipose tissue. Materials/Methods DIO old male mice (C57BL/6J) were divided into 4 groups: (control, 5011,Santa, and Scopa) and fed for 30 days with respective extracts incorporated into the diet at 1%(w/w). Deuterium was administered on day 30 for the measurement of DNL in blood, liver, and white adipose tissue. Individual fatty acids and glycerol levels were also measured. Results There was no statistically significant differences in de novo lipogenesis between the control group and the three botanical treatments. Plasma levels of all four long chain fatty acids were significantly lower in all three treatment groups. Glycerol in the plasma was lower in all three groups as compared to the control group, but this did not reach statistical significance in all cases. Tissue levels of the fatty acids and glycerol did not differ between any of the treatment groups. Conclusions These results suggest that botanicals may not affect fractional de novo lipogenesis in animals on a high fat diet. However, there were decreases in long chain fatty acids and in glycerol coming from the newly synthesized triglycerides in plasma. PMID:24985100

  3. Artemisia dracunculus L. extract ameliorates insulin sensitivity by attenuating inflammatory signalling in human skeletal muscle culture

    PubMed Central

    Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Haynie, Kimberly R.; Wicks, Shawna E.; Bermudez, Estrellita M.; Mendoza, Tamra M.; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.; Mynatt, Randall L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI 5011) have been shown to improve insulin action by increasing insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. However, it has not known if PMI 5011’s effects are retained during an inflammatory condition. We examined the attenuation of insulin action and whether PMI 5011 enhances insulin signalling in the inflammatory environment with elevated cytokines. Methods Muscle cell cultures derived from lean, overweight and diabetic obese subjects were used. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes and inflammatory response of human myotubes were evaluated by RT-PCR. Insulin signalling and activation of inflammatory pathways in human myotubes were evaluated by Multiplex protein assays. Results We found increased gene expression of MCP1 and TNFα, and basal activity of the NFkB pathway in myotubes derived from diabetic-obese subjects as compared to myotubes derived from normal-lean subjects. In line with this, basal Akt phosphorylation (Ser473) was significantly higher, while insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) was lower in myotubes from normal-overweight and diabetic-obese subjects compared to normal-lean subjects. PMI 5011 treatment reduced basal phosphorylation of Akt and enhanced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in the presence of cytokines in human myotubes. PMI 5011 treatment led to an inhibition of cytokine-induced activation of inflammatory signalling pathways such as Erk1/2 and IkBα-NFkB and moreover, NFkB target gene expression, possibly by preventing further propagation of the inflammatory response within muscle tissue. Conclusions PMI 5011 improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic-obese myotubes to the level of normal-lean myotubes despite the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24521217

  4. Clinical cross-reactivity between Artemisia vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile).

    PubMed

    de la Torre Morín, F; Sánchez Machín, I; García Robaina, J C; Fernández-Caldas, E; Sánchez Triviño, M

    2001-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris is a common weed and an important source of allergens on the subtropical island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It pollinates mainly from July to September, although, due to some local climatic conditions, it may flower throughout the year. Cross-reactivity with hazelnut, kiwi, birch, several Compositae (Ambrosia, Chrysanthemum, Matricaria, Solidago) and grass allergens has been suggested. Few studies have addressed the issue of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla. The objective of this study was to perform conjunctival and bronchial challenges with A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla and oral challenge with chamomile in 24 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized primarily to A. vulgaris. Skin prick tests with M. chamomilla were positive in 21 patients. Eighteen patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a A. vulgaris pollen extract and 13 patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a M. chamomilla pollen extract. Bronchial provocation tests with A. vulgaris were positive in 15 patients and with M. chamomilla pollen in another 16 individuals. Oral provocation tests, conducted with a commercial chamomile infusion were positive in 13 patients. Nine of these individuals were skin test positive to food allergens and 17 to others pollens of the Compositae family. This study confirms a high degree of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla. Sensitization to A. vulgaris seems to be a primary risk factor for experiencing symptoms after the ingestion of chamomile infusions. Based on the results of bronchial provocation tests, M. chamomilla pollen could be a relevant inhalant allergen.

  5. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534 543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47 29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  6. Bioactives from Artemisia dracunculus L. Enhance Insulin Sensitivity via Modulation of Skeletal Muscle Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kheterpal, Indu; Scherp, Peter; Kelley, Lauren; Wang, Zhong; Johnson, William; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.

    2014-01-01

    A botanical extract from Artemisia dracunculus L., termed PMI 5011, has been shown previously to improve insulin sensitivity by increasing cellular insulin signaling in in vitro and in vivo studies. These studies suggest that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in insulin signaling. To explore effects of this promising botanical extract on the human skeletal muscle phosphoproteome, changes in site-specific protein phosphorylation levels in primary skeletal muscle cultures from obese, insulin resistant individuals were evaluated with and without insulin stimulation. Insulin resistance is a condition in which a normal or elevated insulin level results in an abnormal biologic response, e.g., glucose uptake. Using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ™) followed by phosphopeptide enrichment and liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry, 125 unique phosphopeptides and 159 unique phosphorylation sites from 80 unique proteins were identified and quantified. Insulin stimulation of primary cultured muscle cells from insulin resistant individuals resulted in minimal increase in phosphorylation, demonstrating impaired insulin action in this condition. Treatment with PMI 5011 resulted in significant up regulation of 35 phosphopeptides that were mapped to proteins participating in the regulation of transcription, translation, actin cytoskeleton signaling, caveolae translocation and GLUT4 transport. These data further showed that PMI 5011 increased phosphorylation levels of specific amino acids in proteins in the insulin resistant state that are normally phosphorylated by insulin (thus, increasing cellular insulin signaling) and PMI 5011 also increased the abundance of phosphorylation sites of proteins regulating anti-apoptotic effects. Thus, the phosphoproteomics analysis demonstrated conclusively that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins and identified novel pathways by which

  7. Genetically based latitudinal clines in Artemisia californica drive parallel clines in arthropod communities.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Jessica D; Datu, Andrew; Tran, Thi; Sheng, Daniel C; Mooney, Kailen A

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plant traits has been clearly shown to drive the structure of associated arthropod communities at the spatial scale of individual plant populations. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown whether plant trait variation among populations drives landscape-scale variation in arthropod communities, and how the strength of such plant genetic effects compares to, and interacts with, those of environmental variation. We documented the structure of arthropod communities on Artemisia californica for two consecutive years in a common garden of plants sourced from five populations along a 5° latitudinal gradient and grown under precipitation treatments approximating the four-fold difference between the north and south range margins for this species. Previous study of plant traits from this garden documented clinal genetic variation, suggesting local adaptation to this environmental gradient, as well as effects of precipitation manipulation that were consistent among populations (i.e., no genotype-by-environment interaction). Within the common garden, arthropod density, evenness, and diversity increased clinally with population source latitude, and arthropod community composition (i.e., species relative abundance) showed a north-south divide. The 2.6-fold cline of northward increase in arthropod density in the common garden was mirrored by a 6.4-fold increase in arthropod density on wild plants sampled along the species range. In contrast to the strong influence of plant genotype, the precipitation manipulation only influenced arthropod community composition, and plant genetic effects on arthropods operated independently of precipitation regime (no genotype-by-environment interaction). Accordingly, we conclude that the strongest driver of landscape-level variation in arthropod communities in this foundational plant species is not variation in the abiotic environment itself, but rather variation in plant traits underlain by the evolutionary process of

  8. Chemopreventive effects of curcumin on glandular stomach carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and sodium chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikezaki, S; Nishikawa, A; Furukawa, F; Kudo, K; Nakamura, H; Tamura, K; Mori, H

    2001-01-01

    The modifying effects of pure curcumin on glandular stomach carcinogenesis were investigated during the post-initiation phase in male Wistar rats treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanisine (MNNG) and sodium chloride. A total of 110 male 6-week-old rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1-3 (consisting of 30 rats/group) were given MNNG in their drinking water at a concentration of 100 ppm and simultaneously fed a diet supplemented with 5% NaCl for 8 weeks. They were then fed a diet containing either 0.2% (group 1) or 0.05% (group 2) pure curcumin or kept on a basal diet alone (group 3) for 55 weeks. The rats of the curcumin-treated groups (groups 1 and 2) were then switched to the basal diet for the following 4 weeks before sacrifice. Group 4 (20 rats) served as a non-treatment control. The total incidence of combined atypical hyperplasias and adenocarcinomas in the glandular stomachs was rather lower in groups 1 (93%) and 2 (90%) than in group 3 (100%), albeit without statistical significance. However, the mean number of atypical hyperplasias or adenocarcinomas of the glandular stomachs in group 1 (4.70) was significantly less than the value of group 3 (7.17) (p<0.05). Thus, the development of cancerous and precancerous lesions in the glandular stomach was decreased by exposure to pure curcumin. The present results indicate that the compound exerts chemopreventive effects, when given during the post-initiation phase of glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats.

  9. Histochemical evidence of β-chitin in parapodial glandular organs and tubes of Spiophanes (Annelida, Sedentaria: Spionidae), and first studies on selected Annelida.

    PubMed

    Guggolz, Theresa; Henne, Stephan; Politi, Yael; Schütz, Roman; Mašić, Admir; Müller, Carsten H G; Meißner, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A generic character of the genus Spiophanes (Annelida, Sedentaria: Spionidae) is the presence of parapodial glandular organs. Parapodial glandular organs in Spiophanes species include secretory cells with cup-shaped microvilli, similar to those present in deep-sea inhabiting vestimentiferans and frenulate Siboglinidae. These cells are supposed to secrete β-chitin for tube-building. In this study, transverse histological and/or ultrathin sections of parapodial glandular organs and tubes of Spiophanes spp. as well as of Glandulospio orestes (Spionidae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae) were examined. Fluorescent markers together with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to detect chitin in the parapodial glandular organs of Spiophanes and/or in the glands of Owenia and Glandulospio. Tubes of these taxa were tested for chitin to elucidate the use of it for tube-building. The examinations revealed a distinct labelling of the gland contents. Raman spectroscopy documented the presence of β-chitin in both gland types of Spiophanes. The tubes of Spiophanes were found to have a grid-like structure that seems to be built with this β-chitin. Tests of tubes of Dipolydora quadrilobata (Spionidae) for chitin were negative. However, the results of our study provide strong evidence that Spiophanes species, O. fusiformis and probably also G. orestes produce chitin and supposedly use it for tube-building. This implies that the production of chitin and its use as a constituent part of tube-building is more widespread among polychaetes as yet known. The histochemical data presented in this study support previous assumptions inferring homology of parapodial glandular organs of Spionidae and Siboglinidae based on ultrastructure. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy-based evidence of secretory cells with nail-headed microvilli in O. fusiformis suggests homology of parapodial grandular organs across annelids including Sipuncula.

  10. Quantification of santonin in eight species of Artemisia from Kazakhstan by means of HPLC-UV: Method development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Bekezhanova, Tolkyn; Sadykova; Shukirbekova, Alma

    2017-01-01

    Santonin, a powerful anthelmintic drug that was formely used to treat worms, is Artemisia cina's main constituent. However, due to its toxicity to humans, it is no longer in use. Kazakhstan is looking to introduce this plant as an anthelmintic drug for veterinary purposes, despite the known toxic properties of the santonin. The objective of this study was to develop a fast and specific method for the identification of santonin and its precise quantitation using HPLC-UV in order to avoid unnecessary intoxication, which is paramount for the development of veterinary medicines. The results obtained showed that santonin appears at around 5.7 minutes in this very reliable HPLC method. The validation of the method was performed by the investigation of parameters such as precision, accuracy, reproducibility and recovery. The method was used to identify and quantify santonin in leaves of A. scoparia, A. foetida, A. gmelinni, A. schrenkiana, A. frigida, A. sublesingiana, A terra-albae, and A. absinthium from Kazakhstan as well as in three different extracts of leaves of A. cina. This study has provided a faster and simpler method for the identification and quantification of this compound in other species of Artemisia of economic importance. PMID:28301522

  11. Simultaneous determination of 13 bioactive compounds in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae (Yin Chen) from different harvest seasons by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-jie; Li, Qing; Chen, Xiao-hui; Wang, Zhi-wei; Shi, Zheng-yuan; Bi, Kai-shun; Jia, Ying

    2008-08-05

    Herba Artemisiae Scopariae is a Chinese herbal medicine widely used for the remedy of liver diseases. A high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detection was developed to simultaneously determine 13 different bioactive compounds in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae (Yin Chen) including chlorogenic acid (1), 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin (2), caffeic acid (3), 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4), scopoletin (5), rutin (6), hyperoside (7), isoquercitrin (8), scoparone (11), 7-methoxycoumarine (12) and quercetin (13). By using four different wavelengths in the HPLC analysis, the developed method was able to determine the bioactive compounds with excellent resolution, precision and recovery. The method was applied to determine the amounts of the bioactive compounds in nine samples from different cultivated regions and harvest seasons in China, and significant variations were revealed. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant among the analyzed compounds. The samples harvested in the spring contained higher contents of chlorogenic acid than those collected in other seasons. Other phenolic acids as caffeic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4-hydroxyacetophenone accumulated at much higher amounts in about May to July. The samples analyzed contained a much lower level of the amount of other flavonoids and coumarins as rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and scoparone.

  12. RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE CLINICAL TRIAL OF ARTEMISIA SIEBERI 5% LOTION AND CLOTRIMAZOLE 1% LOTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Farrokh; Aala, Farzad; Reshadmanesh, Naser; Yaghmaie, Rokshana

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To compare the therapeutic effects of topical Artremisia sieberi 5% lotion with topical clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor and microscopic identification of Malassezia furfur were randomly assigned to treatment with either topical Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion (group 1) or topical clotrimazole 1% lotion (group 2) for 2 weeks. Group 1 and group 2 consisted of 51 and 49 patients respectively. The patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically at baseline and every 2 weeks for a period of 4 weeks. Results: At the end of the second week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 65.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P<0.01), but at the same time mycological cure rate was 92.2% for group 1 and 73.5% for group 2 (P<0.05). At the end of the fourth week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 59.2% for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P<0.01), and at the same time mycologic cure rate was 96.1% for group 1 and 65.3% for group 2 (P<0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion was more effective than clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. PMID:19882007

  13. Comparison of the anticoccidial effect of granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi with monensin in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirali Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Kaboutari Katadj, Jahangir; Bahadoran, Shahab; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Cheraghchi Bashi, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the most important parasitic disease of the poultry production industry. Due to increasing resistance to conventional anticoccidial agents, it is necessary to find new anticoccidial compounds. Herbal compounds such as those from Artemisia species are promising weapons in this regard since preliminary studies have shown its anticoccidial effects. To compare the anticoccidial effect of a granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi (GEAS) versus monensin in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 120 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided in four groups, each with three replicates (n=10). Group 1 was separated as an uninfected negative control and received no treatment. At 21days of age, groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with a mixed suspension of 2×10(5) oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria necatrix. Group 2 was maintained as an infected positive control and received no treatment while groups 3 and 4 received GEAS (5mg/kg feed), and monensin (110mg/kg feed) from the first day until 42days of age as a feed additive, respectively. Five days after inoculation, the number of oocycts per gram (OPG) of feces for 7 successive days was measured. Also, mean body weight (MBW), weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined weekly in all groups and replicates. The results showed that GEAS and monensin improved performance attributes (FI, MBW, WG, FCR) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased OPG in inoculated broiler chickens.

  14. Mount St. Helens ash: recreating its effects on the steppe environment and ecophysiology. [Artemisia tridentata; Lupinus sulphureus

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.A.; Mack, R.N.

    1986-10-01

    The 18 May 1980 ash fall from Mount St. Helens was experimentally reproduced in May 1982 by applying silt-sized ash to a stand of the Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum association in south-central Washington. Compared to the adjacent control site, ash caused an immediate increase in albedo from 13% to 28%, while other parameters of the energy budget were simultaneously lowered: net radiation by approx. = 20%, soil surface temperatures by as much as 10/sup 0/C, and soil heat flux by as much as 50%. The ash's mulching action initially increased water availability and delayed leaf abscission in Artemisia tridentata (Big sagebrush) by 2 wk in summer 1982. But after summer 1982 water availability declined, while water use increased, illustrating the diverse effects of the ash. Increased reflection from the ash-covered surface increased the radiation load on plant canopies. In turn, air temperature at 0.5 m increased, latent heat flux often doubled in summer, and xylem pressure potentials decreased. Available water at the -1 m soil depth eventually decreased as much as 40%. This decrease was the result of the increase in latent heat flux and the decline in infiltration through the stratified layer created by the ash cap. In addition to allowing assessment of the effects of the 18 May 1980 ash fall on arid steppe, application of ash provided an unexpected level of precision in detecting the often subtle effects that occur when some microenvironmental parameters change while the overall macroclimate remains the same.

  15. Protective Effect of Artemisia asiatica Extract and Its Active Compound Eupatilin against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Yeon; Lee, Dahae; Jang, Hyuk-Jai; Jang, Dae Sik; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Su-Nam; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Kang, Ki Sung; Eom, Dae-Woon

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the renoprotective effect of an Artemisia asiatica extract and eupatilin in kidney epithelial (LLC-PK1) cells. Although cisplatin is effective against several cancers, its use is limited due to severe nephrotoxicity. Eupatilin is a flavonoid compound isolated from the Artemisia plant and possesses antioxidant as well as potent anticancer properties. In the LLC-PK1 cellular model, the decline in cell viability induced by oxidative stress, such as that induced by cisplatin, was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the A. asiatica extract and eupatilin. The increased protein expressions of phosphorylated JNK and p38 by cisplatin in cells were markedly reduced after A. asiatica extract or eupatilin cotreatment. The elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly reduced by A. asiatica extract and eupatilin, and the elevated percentage of apoptotic cells after cisplatin treatment in LLC-PK1 cells was markedly decreased by cotreatment with A. asiatica extract or eupatilin. Taken together, these results suggest that A. asiatica extract and eupatilin could cure or prevent cisplatin-induced renal toxicity without any adverse effect; thus, it can be used in combination with cisplatin to prevent nephrotoxicity. PMID:26539226

  16. Quantification of santonin in eight species of Artemisia from Kazakhstan by means of HPLC-UV: Method development and validation.

    PubMed

    Sakipova, Zuriyadda; Wong, Nikki Siu Hai; Bekezhanova, Tolkyn; Sadykova; Shukirbekova, Alma; Boylan, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Santonin, a powerful anthelmintic drug that was formely used to treat worms, is Artemisia cina's main constituent. However, due to its toxicity to humans, it is no longer in use. Kazakhstan is looking to introduce this plant as an anthelmintic drug for veterinary purposes, despite the known toxic properties of the santonin. The objective of this study was to develop a fast and specific method for the identification of santonin and its precise quantitation using HPLC-UV in order to avoid unnecessary intoxication, which is paramount for the development of veterinary medicines. The results obtained showed that santonin appears at around 5.7 minutes in this very reliable HPLC method. The validation of the method was performed by the investigation of parameters such as precision, accuracy, reproducibility and recovery. The method was used to identify and quantify santonin in leaves of A. scoparia, A. foetida, A. gmelinni, A. schrenkiana, A. frigida, A. sublesingiana, A terra-albae, and A. absinthium from Kazakhstan as well as in three different extracts of leaves of A. cina. This study has provided a faster and simpler method for the identification and quantification of this compound in other species of Artemisia of economic importance.

  17. Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for potential agricultural application: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Wissing, Sylvia A; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2006-01-03

    The aim of this study was to formulate a new delivery system for ecological pesticides by the incorporation of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Two different SLN formulations were prepared following the high-pressure homogenization technique using Compritol 888 ATO as lipid and Poloxamer 188 or Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. The SLN formulation particle size was determined using Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and laser diffraction analysis (LD). The change of particle charge was studied by zeta potential (ZP) measurements, while the melting and recrystallization behavior was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release studies of the essential oil were performed at 35 degrees C. Data showed a high physical stability for both formulations at various storage temperatures during 2 months of investigation. In particular, average diameter of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded SLN did not vary during storage and increased slightly after spraying the SLN dispersions. In vitro release experiments showed that SLN were able to reduce the rapid evaporation of essential oil if compared with the reference emulsions. Therefore, obtained results showed that the studied SLN formulations are suitable carriers in agriculture.

  18. Structure and properties of the glandular surface in the digestive zone of the pitcher in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes ventrata and its role in insect trapping and retention.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena; Kastner, Victoria; Peressadko, Andrei; Arzt, Eduard; Gaume, Laurence; Rowe, Nick; Gorb, Stanislav

    2004-08-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes grow in nutrient-poor habitats and have evolved specialised trapping organs, known as pitchers. These are composed of different surface zones serving the functions of attraction, capture and digestion of insects, which represent a main source of nitrogen. To investigate the role of the glandular digestive zone in the trapping mechanism of the pitcher, structural, mechanical and physico-chemical studies were applied to N. ventrata and combined with insect behavioural experiments. It was found that the glandular surface is microscopically rough since it is regularly structured with multicellular glands situated in epidermal depressions. The presence of downward-directed 'hoods' over the upper part of glands and sloped depressions in the proximal direction of the pitcher causes a marked anisotropy of the surface. The glandular zone surface is composed of relatively stiff material (Young's modulus, 637.19+/-213.44 kPa). It is not homogeneous, in terms of adhesive properties, and contains numerous areas without adhesion as well as adhesive areas differing greatly in tenacity values (range, 1.39-28.24 kPa). The surface is readily wettable with water (contact angle, 31.9-36.0 degrees C) and has a high surface free energy (56.84-61.93 mN m(-1)) with a relatively high polar component (33.09-52.70 mN m(-1)). To examine the effect of the glandular secretion on attachment systems of insects having hairy and smooth adhesive pads, forces generated on different surfaces by Calliphora vicina flies and Pyrrhocoris apterus bugs, respectively, were measured. Flies attached equally well to both fresh and air-dried glandular surfaces whereas bugs generated a significantly lower force on the fresh glandular surface compared with the air-dried one. It is assumed that the contribution of the glandular surface to insect retention, due to its effect on insect attachment, differs depending on insect weight and the type of insect attachment system

  19. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life.

  20. Interactive Effects of Moss-Dominated Crusts and Artemisia ordosica on Wind Erosion and Soil Moisture in Mu Us Sandland, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion. PMID:24982973

  1. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Artemisia umbelliformis Lam, an endangered aromatic species in Southern French Alps, influence plant P and essential oil contents.

    PubMed

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Deprêtre, Nicolas; Koszela, Nathalie; Chambon, Catherine; Gianinazzi, Silvio

    2011-08-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi of Artemisia umbelliformis, investigated in natural and cultivated sites in the Southern Alps of France, showed typical structures (arbuscules, vesicles, hyphae) as well as spores and mycelia in its rhizosphere. Several native AM fungi belonging to different Glomeromycota genera were identified as colonizers of A. umbelliformis roots, including Glomus tenue, Glomus intraradices, G. claroideum/etunicatum and a new Acaulospora species. The use of the highly mycorrhizal species Trifolium pratense as a companion plant impacted positively on mycorrhizal colonization of A. umbelliformis under greenhouse conditions. The symbiotic performance of an alpine microbial community including native AM fungi used as inoculum on A. umbelliformis was evaluated in greenhouse conditions by comparison with mycorrhizal responses of two other alpine Artemisia species, Artemisia glacialis and Artemisia genipi Weber. Contrary to A. genipi Weber, both A. umbelliformis and A. glacialis showed a significant increase of P concentration in shoots. Volatile components were analyzed by GC-MS in shoots of A. umbelliformis 6 months after inoculation. The alpine microbial inoculum increased significantly the percentage of E-β-ocimene and reduced those of E-2-decenal and (E,E)-2-4-decadienal indicating an influence of alpine microbial inoculum on essential oil production. This work provides practical indications for the use of native AM fungi for A. umbelliformis field culture.

  3. Modeling regeneration responses of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to abiotic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), which are the most widespread ecosystems in semiarid western North America, have been affected by land use practices and invasive species. Loss of big sagebrush and the decline of associated species, such as greater sage-grouse, are a concern to land managers and conservationists. However, big sagebrush regeneration remains difficult to achieve by restoration and reclamation efforts and there is no regeneration simulation model available. We present here the first process-based, daily time-step, simulation model to predict yearly big sagebrush regeneration including relevant germination and seedling responses to abiotic factors. We estimated values, uncertainty, and importance of 27 model parameters using a total of 1435 site-years of observation. Our model explained 74% of variability of number of years with successful regeneration at 46 sites. It also achieved 60% overall accuracy predicting yearly regeneration success/failure. Our results identify specific future research needed to improve our understanding of big sagebrush regeneration, including data at the subspecies level and improved parameter estimates for start of seed dispersal, modified wet thermal-time model of germination, and soil water potential influences. We found that relationships between big sagebrush regeneration and climate conditions were site specific, varying across the distribution of big sagebrush. This indicates that statistical models based on climate are unsuitable for understanding range-wide regeneration patterns or for assessing the potential consequences of changing climate on sagebrush regeneration and underscores the value of this process-based model. We used our model to predict potential regeneration across the range of sagebrush ecosystems in the western United States, which confirmed that seedling survival is a limiting factor, whereas germination is not. Our results also suggested that modeled

  4. Acaricidal activity of extract of Artemisia absinthium against Rhipicephalus sanguineus of dogs.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Raghuvanshi, P; Singh, N K

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of chloroform extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test (EHT) and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. A control group was established (water + dimethylsulphoxide) together with a positive control group (amitraz), with three repetitions each. In AIT, the mortality rates were 0.0, 13.3, 16.7, 33.3 and 93.3 % in concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %, respectively, and the variation was significant (p=0.0151). The LC50 (CI) and LC95 (CI) values were calculated as 8.793 % (8.217-9.408) and 34.59 % (29.71-40.26), respectively. The egg production was reduced by 6.6, 6.6, 18.3, 42.5 and 85.1 % in the concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %, respectively, and it was statistically significant (p=0.0274). In EHT, hatching was completely inhibited at 5, 10 and 20 % displaying 100 % ovicidal action while at the concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 %, the inhibition rates were 20 and 60 %, respectively. In LPT, the extract caused 100 % mortality of larvae in the concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 % after 24 h while at the concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 %, the mortality rates were 54.3 and 96.7 %, respectively. The LC50 (CI) and LC95 (CI) values were determined to be 1.11 % (1.099-1.121) and 2.37 % (2.328-2.423), respectively. The results show that the extract of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling R. sanguineus which is an efficient vector of pathogens both in dogs and humans.

  5. Relieving effect of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract on immune stress in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P F; Shi, B L; Su, J L; Yue, Y X; Cao, Z X; Chu, W B; Li, K; Yan, S M

    2016-07-23

    This experiment aimed to investigate the relieving action of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract (AAE) on immune stress in broiler chickens. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test the effect of 2 dietary treatments (adding 0 or 1000 mg/kg AAE) and 2 immune stress treatments (injecting saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). A total of 96 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly divided into four treatment groups with six replicates, four birds in each replicate. Broilers in Treatment groups 1 and 2 were fed with the basal diet, and those in Treatment groups 3 and 4 were fed with the experimental diet supplemented with 1000 mg/kg AAE. On days 14, 16, 18 and 20, broilers in both Treatments 1 and 3 were injected intra-abdominally with LPS solution at the dose of 500 μg LPS per kg BW with the LPS dissolved in sterile saline at a concentration of 100 μg/ml, and those in Treatments 2 and 4 were injected intra-abdominally with equal amount of sterile 0.9% saline. Blood samples were collected on days 21 and 28. The results showed that dietary supplementation of AAE prevented reductions in average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of broilers caused by LPS on d 15-21. On day 21, the injection of LPS increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT); meanwhile, feeding AAE reduced the rise of CORT caused by LPS. Immune parameters such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were also improved by LPS, but the content of IL-2 and IgG in broilers fed with AAE diet was significantly lower than that of broilers fed with control diet. All the data suggested that diets supplemented with AAE could relieve the immune stress response of broilers.

  6. Restoration of the fire-grazing interaction in Artemisia filifolia shrubland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of landscape heterogeneity are crucial to the maintenance of biodiversity in shrublands and grasslands, yet management practices in these ecosystems typically seek to homogenize landscapes. Furthermore, there is limited understanding of how the interaction of ecological processes, such as fire and grazing, affects patterns of heterogeneity at different spatial scales. We conducted research in Artemisia filifolia (Asteraceae) shrublands located in the southern Great Plains of North America to determine the effect of restoring the fire-grazing interaction on vegetation structure. Data were collected for 3years in replicated pastures grazed by cattle Bos taurus where the fire-grazing interaction had been restored (fire and grazing=treatment pastures) and in pastures that were grazed but remained unburned (grazing only, no fire=control pastures). The effect of the fire-grazing interaction on heterogeneity (variance) of vegetation structure was assessed at scales from 12??5m 2 to 609ha. Most measurements of vegetation structure within treatment pastures differed from control pastures for 1-3years after being burned but were thereafter similar to the values found in unburned control pastures. Treatment pastures were characterized by a lower amount of total heterogeneity and a lower amount of heterogeneity through time. Heterogeneity of vegetation structure tended to decrease as the scale of measurement increased in both treatment and control pastures. There was deviation from this trend, however, in the treatment pastures that exhibited much higher heterogeneity at the patch scale (mean patch size=202ha) of measurement, the scale at which patch fires were conducted. Synthesis and applications.Vegetation structure in A. filifolia shrublands of our study was readily altered by the fire-grazing interaction but also demonstrated substantial resilience to these effects. The fire-grazing interaction also changed the total amount of heterogeneity characterizing this

  7. Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial

  8. Flowering phenology and potential pollen emission of three Artemisia species in relation to airborne pollen data in Poznań (Western Poland).

    PubMed

    Bogawski, Paweł; Grewling, Łukasz; Frątczak, Agata

    Artemisia pollen is an important allergen in Europe. In Poznań (Western Poland), three Artemisia species, A. vulgaris, A. campestris and A. absinthium, are widely distributed. However, the contributions of these species to the total airborne pollen are unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the flowering phenology and pollen production of the three abovementioned species and to construct a model of potential Artemisia pollen emission in the study area. Phenological observations were conducted in 2012 at six sites in Poznań using a BBCH phenological scale. Pollen production was estimated by counting the pollen grains per flower and recalculating the totals per inflorescence, plant and population in the study area. Airborne pollen concentrations were obtained using a Hirst-type volumetric trap located in the study area. Artemisia vulgaris began to flower the earliest, followed by A. absinthium and then A. campestris. The flowering of A. vulgaris corresponded to the first peak in the airborne pollen level, and the flowering of A. campestris coincided with the second pollen peak. The highest amounts of pollen per single plant were produced by A. vulgaris and A. absinthium. A. campestris produced considerably less pollen, however, due to its common occurrence, it contributed markedly (30 %) to the summation of total of recorded pollen. A. vulgaris is the most important pollen source in Poznań, but the roles of two other Artemisia species cannot be ignored. In particular, A. campestris should be considered as an important pollen contributor and likely might be one of the main causes of allergic reactions during late summer.

  9. Quantitative determination of enhydrin in leaf rinse extracts and in glandular trichomes of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Karin; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2005-01-01

    A simple, reliable and rapid reversed-phase HPLC-PAD procedure for the characterisation and quantitative determination of the anti-diabetic sesquiterpene lactone enhydrin (1) from Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón) has been evaluated and validated. The approach focused on the analysis of various leaf rinse extracts, as well as the glandular trichomes of intact leaves, in which 1 was the major compound detected. The best sample preparation of a rinse extract yielded 0.67 mg/mL of 1, whilst a rapid rinse of a small piece of one dried leaf gave 0.09 mg/mL of 1; the highest concentration obtained from a glandular extract was 0.07 mg/mL. The dried leaves of S. sonchifolius were found to contain a total of 0.97% of 1.

  10. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase.

  11. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, K; Croteau, R

    1996-05-01

    Solubilized NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes by dye-ligand interaction chromatography on Matrex-Gel Red A and affinity chromatography on 2', 5'-adenosine diphosphate agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme preparation revealed the presence of two similar proteins with masses of 82 kDa (major) and 77 kDa (minor) that crossreacted on immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies directed against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke and from mung bean. Complete immunoinhibition of reductase activity was observed with both types of polyclonal antibodies, while only partial inhibition of activity resulted using a family of monoclonal antibodies directed against the Jerusalem artichoke cytochrome P450 reductase. Inhibition of the spearmint oil gland cytochrome c reductase was also observed with the diphenyliodonium ion. The K(m) values for the cosubstrates NADPH and cytochrome c were 6.2 and 3.7 microM, respectively, and the pH optimum for activity was at 8.5. The NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reconstituted NADPH-dependent (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase activity in the presence of cytochrome P450, purified from the microsomal fraction of spearmint oil gland cells and dilauroyl phosphatidyl choline. These characteristics establish the identity of the purified enzyme as a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  12. Mining the mouse transcriptome of receptive endometrium reveals distinct molecular signatures for the luminal and glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Niklaus, Andrea L; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2006-07-01

    Epithelia coat most tissues where they sense and respond to the environment and participate in innate immune responses. In the adult mouse uterus, columnar epithelium lines the central lumen and the glands that penetrate the underlying stroma. A nidatory surge of estrogen causes differentiation of the luminal epithelium to the receptive state that permits blastocyst attachment and allows subsequent implantation. Here, using laser-capture microdissection to isolate the luminal and glandular epithelia separately, we have profiled gene expression 2 h before embryo attachment to determine whether there are unique roles for these two epithelial structures in this process. Although most genes were expressed in both compartments, there was greater expression of 153 and 118 genes in the lumen and glands, respectively. In the luminal epithelium, there is enrichment in lipid, metal-ion binding, and carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, whereas in the glands, immune response genes are emphasized. In situ hybridization to uterine sections obtained from mice during the preimplantation period validated these data and indicated an array of previously undocumented genes expressed with unique patterns in these epithelia. The data show that each epithelial compartment has a distinct molecular signature and that they act differentially and synergistically to permit blastocyst implantation.

  13. Loss of vitamin D receptor signaling from the mammary epithelium or adipose tissue alters pubertal glandular development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Abby L; Zinser, Glendon M; Waltz, Susan E

    2014-10-15

    Vitamin D₃ receptor (VDR) signaling within the mammary gland regulates various postnatal stages of glandular development, including puberty, pregnancy, involution, and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D₃ treatment induces cell-autonomous growth inhibition and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Furthermore, mammary adipose tissue serves as a depot for vitamin D₃ storage, and both epithelial cells and adipocytes are capable of bioactivating vitamin D₃. Despite the pervasiveness of VDR in mammary tissue, individual contributions of epithelial cells and adipocytes, as well as the VDR-regulated cross-talk between these two cell types during pubertal mammary development, have yet to be investigated. To assess the cell-type specific effect of VDR signaling during pubertal mammary development, novel mouse models with mammary epithelial- or adipocyte-specific loss of VDR were generated. Interestingly, loss of VDR in either cellular compartment accelerated ductal morphogenesis with increased epithelial cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within terminal end buds. Conversely, VDR signaling specifically in the mammary epithelium modulated hormone-induced alveolar growth, as ablation of VDR in this cell type resulted in precocious alveolar development. In examining cellular cross-talk ex vivo, we show that ligand-dependent VDR signaling in adipocytes significantly inhibits mammary epithelial cell growth in part through the vitamin D₃-dependent production of the cytokine IL-6. Collectively, these studies delineate independent roles for vitamin D₃-dependent VDR signaling in mammary adipocytes and epithelial cells in controlling pubertal mammary gland development.

  14. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-06-30

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.

  15. A Concurrence of Adenocarcinoma with Micropapillary Features and Composite Glandular-Endocrine Cell Carcinoma in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Park, Cheon-Soo; Kwak, Jae-Young; Park, Eun-Hwa; Kwak, Jin-Ho; Jang, Hyuk-Jae; Choi, Kun-Moo; Han, Myung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We report a unique case of synchronous double primary gastric cancer consisting of adenocarcinoma components with micropapillary features and composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma components. The patient was a 53-year-old man presenting with a 6-month history of epigastric pain and diarrhea. A subtotal gastrectomy was performed. Histologically, one tumor was composed of micropapillary carcinoma components (50%) with tight clusters of micropapillary aggregates lying in the empty spaces, admixed with moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma components. MUC-1 was expressed at the stromal edge of the micropapillary component. The other tumor was composed of atypical carcinoid-like neuroendocrine carcinoma (50%), adenocarcinoid (30%), and adenocarcinoma components (20%). The neuroendocrine components were positive for CD56, synaptophysin, chromogranin, and creatine kinase. The adenocarcinoid components were positive for both carcinoembryonic antigen and neuroendocrine markers (amphicrine differentiation). This case is unique, due to the peculiar histologic micropapillary pattern and the histologic spectrum of adenocarcinoma adenocarcinoid-neuroendocrine carcinoma of the synchronous composite tumor. PMID:28053814

  16. Determination of Tube Output (kVp) and Exposure Mode for Breast Phantom of Various Thicknesses/Glandularity for Digital Mammography

    PubMed Central

    IZDIHAR, Kamal; KANAGA, Kumari Chelliah; KRISHNAPILLAI, Vijayalakshimi; SULAIMAN, Tamanang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimisation of average glandular dose (AGD) for two-dimensional (2D) mammography is important, as imaging using ionizing radiation has the probability to induce cancer resulting from stochastic effects. This study aims to observe the effects of kVp, anode/filter material, and exposure mode on the dose and image quality of 2D mammography. Methods: This experimental study was conducted using full-field digital mammography. The entrance surface air kerma was determined using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) 100H and ionization chamber (IC) on three types of Computerized Imaging Reference System (CIRS) phantom with 50/50, 30/70, and 20/80 breast glandularity, respectively, in the auto-time mode and auto-filter mode. The Euref protocol was used to calculate the AGD while the image quality was evaluated using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), figure of merit (FOM), and image quality figure (IQF). Results: It is shown that AGD values in the auto-time mode did not decrease significantly with the increasing tube voltage of the silver filter (r = −0.187, P > 0.05) and rhodium filter (r = −0.131, P > 0.05) for all the phantoms. The general linear model showed that AGD for all phantoms had a significant effect between different exposure factors [F (6,12.3) = 4.48 and mode of exposure F (1,86) = 4.17, P < 0.05, respectively] but there is no significant difference between the different anode/filter combination [F (1,4) = 0.571]. Conclusion: In summary, the 28, 29, and 31 kVp are the optimum kVp for 50%, 30%, and 20% breast glandularity, respectively. Besides the auto-filter mode is suitable for 50%, 30%, and 20% breast glandularity because it is automatic, faster, and may avoid error done by the operator. PMID:25892949

  17. Human glandular organoid formation in murine engineering chambers after collagenase digestion and flow cytometry isolation of normal human breast tissue single cells.

    PubMed

    Huo, Cecilia W; Huang, Dexing; Chew, Grace L; Hill, Prue; Vohora, Ambika; Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Godde, Nathan; Henderson, Michael A; Thompson, Erik W; Britt, Kara L

    2016-11-01

    Women with high mammographic density (MD) are at increased risk of breast cancer (BC) after adjustment for age and body mass index. We have developed a murine biochamber model in which both high MD (HMD) and low MD (LMD) tissue can be propagated. Here, we tested whether cells isolated by collagenase digestion and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from normal breast can be reconstituted in our biochamber model, which would allow cell-specific manipulations to be tested. Fresh breast tissue was collected from women (n = 7) undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. The tissue underwent collagenase digestion overnight and, in some cases, additional FACS enrichment to obtain mature epithelial, luminal progenitor, mammary stem, and stromal cells. Cells were then transferred bilaterally into biochambers in SCID mice (n = 5-7) and incubated for 6 weeks, before harvesting for histological analyses, and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, Ki-67, murine macrophages, and Cleaved Caspase-3. Biochambers inoculated with single cells after collagenase digestion or with flow cytometry contained glandular structures of human origin (human vimentin-positive), which expressed CK-14 and pan-CK, and were proliferating (Ki-67-positive). Glandular structures from the digested tissues were smaller than those in chambers seeded with finely chopped intact mammary tissue. Mouse macrophage infiltration was higher in the chambers arising from digested tissues. Pooled single cells and FACS fractionated cells were viable in the murine biochambers and formed proliferating glandular organoids of human origin. This is among the first report to demonstrate the success of formed human glandular organoids from isolated primary mammary cells in the murine biochamber model.

  18. Polyploidization in the trophoblast and uterine glandular epithelium of the endotheliochorial placenta of silver fox (Vulpes fulvus Desm.), as revealed by the DNA content.

    PubMed

    Zybina, T G; Zybina, E V; Kiknadze, I I; Zhelezova, A I

    2001-05-01

    Dynamics of genome multiplication during establishment of interrelations between trophoblast and glandular epithelium of the endometrium has been studied in the course of formation of placenta in the silver fox. During formation of the placenta, penetration of the trophoblast into the zone of the endometrial glandular epithelium and of endometrial blood vessels into the zone of expanding trophoblast occurs. The trophoblast, which gradually replaces epithelium and a part of the stroma of the endometrium, closely adjoins endometrial vessels but does not disrupt them, thereby the endotheliochorial placenta is formed. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in trophoblast nuclei have shown that most of them are polyploid: predominantly 4-64c, occasionally 128c and 256c. Polyploidy of the trophoblast may be a consequence of various types of polyploidizing mitoses. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in mitotic figures have revealed the presence of mitoses of diploid cells, i.e. with the DNA amount of 4c (2n), and polyploid cells, i.e. 8c (4n), and 16c (8n), therefore trophoblast cells in the silver fox placenta are able to enter mitosis up to the octaploid level. Higher degrees of polyploidy in the trophoblast cells seem to be achieved by endoreduplication. Polyploidization of the uterine glandular epithelial cells during placentation in the silver fox occurs until the level of 8c. Thus, the tissue-specific response of the uterus to the implanting embryo consists of active proliferation and polyploidization of the glandular epithelium, which may compensate formation of prominent population of decidual cells (i.e., connective tissue cells). In the endotheliochorial placenta of the silver fox the regularity is confirmed that cells of both maternal and fetal origin are, as a rule, polyploid in sites of their contact in placenta, which may be of protective significance in the contact of allogenic organisms.

  19. Ultrastructural changes in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during the oestrous cycle of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum).

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Kress, Annetrudi

    2002-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in the endometrium associated with the oestrous cycle were studied in the South American marsupial Monodelphis domestica. The most conspicuous changes include the height and the differentiation of the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium, which consists of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. The glandular epithelium attains its maximum development during oestrus, the luminal epithelium at postoestrus. A distinct increase in the number of ciliated cells can be observed during pro-oestrus, reaching a maximum number at oestrus; this is followed by a process of deciliation. The presence of solitary cilia on the apices of non-ciliated cells is very conspicuous during all oestrous stages and can best be seen on the luminal epithelium. These findings differ from the observations in eutherian mammals, where solitary cilia are only found in the immature uterus or after ovariectomy. The secretory activity of non-ciliated cells of the luminal epithelium is hardly noticeable along the apical membrane and stains only very faintly with Alcian blue. The glandular epithelium cells are filled apically with exocytotic vesicles at oestrus and early postoestrus. However, in contrast to the cervical gland cells, they hardly stain with Alcian blue, indicating that mucins of a different type must be present. Mechanisms for the remodelling of the luminal and glandular epithelium are especially conspicuous at metoestrus and early pro-oestrus and include the presence of autolysosomes, residual bodies and apoptotic bodies. In the endometrial stroma, around the uterine glands, macrophages accumulate and attain a typical oestrous stage-dependent appearance during their phagocytotic activities.

  20. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21–24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26406988

  1. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth.

  2. Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; May, Bianca; Lankes, Christa; Wüst, Matthias

    2014-03-19

    The biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol glycosides rebaudioside A and stevioside in nonrooted cuttings of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated by feeding experiments using the labeled key precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). Labeled glycosides were extracted from the leaves and stems and were directly analyzed by LC-(-ESI)-MS/MS and by GC-MS after hydrolysis and derivatization of the resulting isosteviol to the corresponding TMS-ester. Additionally, the incorporation of the proffered d2-MVL and d2-DOX into volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes on leaves and stems was investigated by headspace-solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Incorporation of the labeled precursors indicated that diterpenes in leaves and monoterpenes and diterpenes in glandular trichomes are predominately biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas both the MEP and mevalonate (MVA) pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes at equal rates in glandular trichomes. These findings give evidence for a transport of MEP pathway derived farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol. Contrarily, the transport of MVA pathway derived geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursors from the cytosol to the plastid is limited.

  3. Non-glandular trichomes of Solanum carolinense deter feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars and cause damage to the gut peritrophic matrix.

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Smith, Jason D; Stephenson, Andrew G; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2017-02-22

    Plant trichomes constitute a first line of defence against insect herbivores. The pre- and post-ingestive defensive functions of glandular trichomes are well documented and include direct toxicity, adhesion, antinutrition and defence gene induction. By contrast, the defensive functions of non-glandular trichomes are less well characterized, although these structures are thought to serve as physical barriers that impede herbivore feeding and movement. We experimentally varied the density of stellate non-glandular trichomes in several ways to explore their pre- and post-ingestive effects on herbivores. Larvae of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) initiated feeding faster and gained more weight on Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae) leaves having lower trichome densities (or experimentally removed trichomes) than on leaves having higher trichome densities. Adding trichomes to artificial diet also deterred feeding and adversely affected caterpillar growth relative to controls. Scanning electron and light microscopy revealed that the ingestion of stellate trichomes by M. sexta caterpillars caused extensive damage to the peritrophic membrane, a gut lining that is essential to digestion and pathogen isolation. These findings suggest that, in addition to acting as a physical barrier to deter feeding, trichomes can inhibit caterpillar growth and development via post-ingestive effects.

  4. Self assembly of functionalised graphene nanostructures by one step reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Artemisia vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chettri, Prajwal; Vendamani, V. S.; Tripathi, Ajay; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2016-01-01

    We report self assembly and organisation of graphene sheets to form a macroscopically ordered array of graphene layers using one step reduction of graphene oxide. Aqueous extract of dry leaves of Artemisia vulgaris is used for de-oxygenation of graphene oxide. The reduced graphene oxide samples are investigated for two different reflux times viz. for 6 h and 12 h. It is found that for an efficient reduction of graphene oxide and for the minimal damage to the crystal structure 6 h of reflux is the most favourable. Besides reducing graphene oxide, the phytomolecules also functionalise the graphene layers with electron withdrawing groups by virtue of which three dimensional nanostructures are formed on its surface.

  5. Isolation, synthesis and anti-hepatitis B virus evaluation of p-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives from Artemisia capillaris.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Geng, Chang-An; Chen, Hao; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Tuan-Wu; He, Kang; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2015-04-01

    p-Hydroxyacetophenone (p-HAP), as a main hepatoprotective and choleretic constituent of Artemisia capillaris, was revealed with anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effects in recent investigation. In addition to p-HAP, four derivatives of p-HAP were also isolated from A. capillaris by various chromatographic methods. Subsequent structural modification on p-HAP and its glycoside led to the synthesis of 28 additional derivatives, of which 13 compounds showed activity inhibiting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion; and 18 compounds possessed inhibition on HBV DNA replication. The primary structure-activity relationships (SARs) suggested that the conjugated derivatives of p-HAP glycoside and substituted cinnamic acids (2a-2i) obviously enhanced the activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values ranged from 5.8 to 74.4 μM.

  6. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    SciTech Connect

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  7. Detecting the Differences in Responses of Stomatal Conductance to Moisture Stresses between Deciduous Shrubs and Artemisia Subshrubs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei; Zhou, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Shrubs and subshrubs can tolerate wider ranges of moisture stresses in both soil and air than other plant life forms, and thus represent greater nonlinearity and uncertainty in ecosystem physiology. The objectives of this paper are to model shrub/subshrub stomatal conductance by synthesizing the field leaf gas exchanges data of 24 species in China, in order to detect the differences between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs in their responses of stomatal conductance to changes in the moisture stresses. We revised a model of stomatal conductance by incorporating the tradeoff between xylem hydraulic efficiency and cavitation loss risk. We then fit the model at the three hierarchical levels: global (pooling all data as a single group), three functional groups (deciduous non-legume shrubs, deciduous legume shrubs, and subshrubs in Artemisia genus), and individual observations (species × sites). Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was applied to obtain the model parameters at the three levels. We found that the model at the level of functional groups is a significant improvement over that at the global level, indicating the significant differences in the stomatal behavior among the three functional groups. The differences in tolerance and sensitivities to changes in moisture stresses are the most evident between the shrubs and the subshrubs: The two shrub groups can tolerate much higher soil water stress than the subshrubs. The analysis at the observation level is also a significant improvement over that at the functional group level, indicating great variations within each group. Our analysis offered a clue for the equivocal issue of shrub encroachment into grasslands: While the invasion by the shrubs may be irreversible, the dominance of subshrubs, due to their lower resistance and tolerance to moisture stresses, may be put down by appropriate grassland management. PMID:24386351

  8. Artemisia capillaris Thunberg Produces Sedative-Hypnotic Effects in Mice, Which are Probably Mediated Through Potentiation of the GABAA Receptor.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Irene Joy I; Hong, Eunyoung; Kim, Hee Jin; de la Peña, June Bryan; Woo, Tae Sun; Lee, Yong Soo; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The Artemisia group of plants has long been used as a traditional remedy for various conditions. The present study assessed the sleep-promoting (sedative-hypnotic) effects of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (A. capillaris), and elucidated a possible mechanism behind its effect. ICR mice were given A. capillaris extract (oral) at different dosages (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg), distilled water (oral; control), or diazepam (intraperitoneal; reference drug). One hour after administration, locomotion (open-field test) and motor coordination (rota-rod test) were assessed. The extract's effect on pentobarbital-induced sleep was also evaluated. Additionally, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were measured in rats. To evaluate a possible mechanism behind its effects, changes in chloride ( Cl (-)) ion influx were measured in human neuroblastoma cells. As compared to the control group, mice treated with A. capillaris demonstrated significantly decreased locomotor activity and impaired motor balance and coordination. The extract also shortened the onset and lengthened the duration of sleep induced by pentobarbital sodium. These effects were comparable to that induced by diazepam. Furthermore, A. capillaris-treated rats showed increased delta and decreased alpha EEG waves; an electroencephalographic pattern indicative of relaxation or sedation. In neuroblastoma cells, the extract dose-dependently increased Cl (-) ion influx, which was blocked by co-administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor competitive antagonist, suggesting that its effects are mediated through the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex. Altogether, the results of the present study demonstrate that A. capillaris possesses potent sedative-hypnotic effects, which are probably mediated through potentiation of the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex.

  9. Bioactivity of essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van. and its main compounds against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Wang, Ying; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Su, Yang; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van., a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, is widely distrbuted in the world. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia argyi was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 32 components representing 91.74% of the total oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (22.03%), β-pinene (14.53%), β-caryophyllene (9.24%) and (-)-camphor (5.45%). With a further isolation, four active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene and camphor. The essential oil and the four isolated compounds exhibited potential bioactivity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil, camphor, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene and β-pinene exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LD50 values of 6.42, 11.30, 15.58, 35.52, and 65.55 μg/adult, respectively. During the fumigant toxicity test, the essential oil, eucalyptol and camphor showed stronger fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults than β-pinene (LC50 = 29.03 mg/L air) with LC50 values of 8.04, 5.18 and 2.91 mg/L air. Moreover, the essential oil, eucalyptol, β-pinene and camphor also exhibited the strong repellency against L. serricorne adults, while, β-caryophyllene exhibited attracting activity relative to the positive control, DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. argyi and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides, fumigants or repellents in controlling insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  10. Effect of glandular kallikrein on distal bicarbonate transport. Role of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Manucha, W; Vallés, P

    1999-12-01

    The luminal membrane of collecting duct cells, specially the intercalated cells, is normally exposed to active kallikrein. This is due to the specific localization of renal kallikrein in the connecting tubule cells. We have previously reported inhibition of distal bicarbonate secretion by renal kallikrein. The present study was performed to evaluate the participation of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and luminal H(+)-ATPase activity of cortical collecting duct segments (CCD) in the mechanism involved in the inhibition of bicarbonate secretion induced by the enzyme. The effect of orthograde injections of 1 microgram/ml (250 U/6.3 mg) pig pancreatic kallikrein, in the absence and presence of 1 mM DIDS (stilbene-disulfonic acid) in the renal tubule system, was evaluated. Urine fractions were collected after two-minutes stop-flow. Changes in the urine fraction (Fr) related to those in free-flow urine samples (Ff) were related to the respective polyfructosan (Inutest) ratio. Renal kallikrein activity (Fr:Ff kallikrein/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) increased significantly in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected after glandular 1 microgram/ml kallikrein, P < 0.05, (first stop-flow) and after glandular 1 microgram/ml kallikrein plus 1 mM. DIDS P < 0.05 (second stop flow). Bicarbonate secretion rate (Fr:Ff HCO3-/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) of collecting ducts was significantly reduced in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected, related to control, during the first and second stop-flow periods. No difference was shown in bicarbonate excretion between the first 120 microliters urine fractions collected after administration of glandular kallikrein and glandular kallikrein plus DIDS. To measure H(+)-ATPase activity, rat microdissected cortical collector tubules (CCD) were incubated in the presence of increasing glandular kallikrein doses (A: 93, B: 187 and C: 375 mU/200 microL) in the presence of ouabain (4 microM) and omeprazole (100 microM) to inhibit Na

  11. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Pateraki, Irini; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric C H; Kanellis, Angelos K; Tissier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split.

  12. Characterization of Nutritional Composition, Antioxidative Capacity, and Sensory Attributes of Seomae Mugwort, a Native Korean Variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Cho Rong; Suh, Soo Hwan; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Gwi Gun; Park, Cheung-Seog; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jong Hun; Song, Sang-Wook; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated Seomae mugwort (a Korean native mugwort variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot), exclusively cultivated in the southern Korean peninsula, and the possibility of its use as a food resource. In the present study, we compared the nutritional and chemical properties as well as sensory attributes of Seomae mugwort and the commonly consumed species Artemisia princeps Pamp. In comparison with A. princeps, Seomae mugwort had higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and essential amino acids. In addition, Seomae mugwort had better radical scavenging activity and more diverse volatile compounds than A. princeps as well as favorable sensory attributes when consumed as tea. Given that scant information is available regarding the Seomae mugwort and its biological, chemical, and sensory characteristics, the results herein may provide important characterization data for further industrial and research applications of this mugwort variety. PMID:26550520

  13. The genus Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) at a continental crossroads: molecular insights into migrations, disjunctions, and reticulations among Old and New World species from a Beringian perspective.

    PubMed

    Riggins, Chance W; Seigler, David S

    2012-09-01

    Artemisia is the largest genus (ca. 350-500+ spp.) in the tribe Anthemideae and is composed of ecologically, morphologically, and chemically diverse species that are found primarily throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Two major centers of diversity for the genus are located in Eurasia and western North America, but phytogeographic links connecting these two regions are observed all across the North Pacific Rim and adjacent areas in the Arctic, including many islands and archipelagos. Previous phylogenetic studies have helped to clarify major lineages and identify likely sister relationships, but many questions remain unanswered regarding the relationships and migration history of New and Old World species. Here we investigate the phylogenetics of Artemisia within a biogeographic context centered in the Beringian Region and offer new hypotheses concerning species relationships, migration history, and the likely role of reticulate evolution in the genus. Our sampling included many new taxa and emphasized multiple accessions of widespread species, species from proposed refugia, and species with disjunct/vicariant distributions. The ITS phylogeny contained 173 accessions (94 new and 79 from GenBank) and indicated that Artemisia is paraphyletic by the exclusion of several small Asian genera and the North American genus Sphaeromeria. Following a survey of thirteen chloroplast loci, phylogenies based on two plastid markers (psbA-trnH and rpl32-trnL spacers) were constructed with a reduced data set, and though largely consistent with the ITS topology, revealed several cases of possible introgression among New World and Beringian species. Our analysis reveals that North American Artemisia species have multiple origins, and that western North America has served as a source for some colonizing elements in eastern Asia and South America.

  14. Effect of the dietary supplementation of essential oils from rosemary and artemisia on muscle fatty acids and volatile compound profiles in Barbarine lambs.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Aouadi, Dorra; Brogna, Daniela M R; Scerra, Manuel; Luciano, Giuseppe; Priolo, Alessandro; Ben Salem, Hichem

    2013-10-01

    Eighteen Barbarine lambs (3 months of age), were assigned for 95 days to 3 treatments: six lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate plus oat hay ad libitum (control group, C); other lambs received the control diet plus essential oil (400 ppm DM) either of Rosmarinus officinalis (R400 group; n=6) or of Artemisia herba alba (A400 group; n=6). At slaughter the muscle longissimus dorsi was sampled and subjected to fatty acid and volatile organic compounds (VOC) analyses. The A400 lambs presented a greater amount of vaccenic, rumenic and linolenic acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in meat than the C and R400 animals. Essential oils supplementation did not affect meat VOC profile though the sesquiterpenes copaene and β-caryophyllene were detected only in the meat of R400 and A400 lambs. It is concluded that the supplementation of rosemary or artemisia essential oils does not produce detrimental effects on lamb meat VOC profile. The supplementation of artemisia can improve meat healthy properties.

  15. Treatment with eCG decreases the vascular density and increases the glandular density of the bovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Mona e Pinto, J; Pavanelo, V; Alves de Fátima, L; Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, L M; Pacheco Mendes, G; Machado Ferreira, R; Ayres, H; Sampaio Baruselli, P; Palma Rennó, F; de Carvallo Papa, P

    2014-06-01

    The uterus plays an essential role in mammalian reproduction and is a target of several hormonal protocols used to improve fertility in cattle. Many studies highlighted the importance of eCG treatment following fixed-time artificial insemination in improving follicular growth, ovulation and pregnancy rates in cattle. Moreover, eCG has been implicated in angiogenesis, leading to important changes in uterine blood flow and vascularisation. However, there is still a lack of information regarding the specific alterations induced by eCG upon glandular and vascular characteristics of bovine uterus. To investigate the influence of eCG on: uterine thickness and area; uterine artery diameter and area; uterine vascular and gland density; and the expression of the VEGFA-system, the uteri of crossbred beef cows were collected. All cows were submitted to follicular wave emergence synchronization. On day four of protocol, cows submitted to superovulation (n = 6) received 2000 IU eCG, on day eight, after expected follicular deviation, cows submitted to stimulatory treatment (n = 5) received 400 IU eCG. Control cows (n = 5) did not receive eCG. On day five po cows were subjected to ultrassonographic evaluation and slaughtered for uterine tissue sampling on day six po. Uterine vessels and glands were quantified by the counting point stereological method. The VEGFA-system was localized in different cellular types, showing no qualitative or quantitative differences in the site of expression or the intensity of the positive signal among the groups. Vascular density was decreased in the endometrium of stimulated and myometrium of superovulated cows compared with the control ones, which showed higher vascular density in the myometrium and endometrium of the ipsilateral uterine horn. The uterine gland density was higher in superovulated compared with stimulated and control cows. Thus, we can infer that stimulatory or superovulatory treatments with eCG influence the vascular

  16. Estimation of mean glandular dose for contrast enhanced digital mammography: factors for use with the UK, European and IAEA breast dosimetry protocols.

    PubMed

    Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2014-05-07

    The UK, European and IAEA protocols for breast dosimetry in mammography use tabulations of conversion factors, which relate measurements of incident air kerma to the mean glandular dose to the breast. To supplement the existing tabulations, a Monte Carlo computer program has been used to calculate conversion factors for the high-energy spectra used for contrast enhanced digital mammography. The calculations were made for the x-ray spectra from a tungsten target (tube voltage range 40-50 kV) filtered by 0.28, 0.30 and 0.32 mm of copper, and from molybdenum and rhodium targets (tube voltage range 40-49 kV), each filtered by 0.30 mm of copper. The g-factors for all of these spectra were plotted for each breast thickness as a function of half value layer (HVL) and were found to lie on smooth curves within 0.3%. These reflect the fact that the characteristic x-rays present in the spectra from molybdenum and rhodium are heavily filtered and all the spectra are essentially Bremsstrahlung. As a consequence, the s-factor previously used in the dosimetry protocols to adjust for different target/filter combinations can be taken as unity for all of the spectra considered. Tables of g-factors and c-factors are provided for breast thicknesses in the range 20-110 mm and HVLs in the range 2.4-3.6 mm of aluminium. The tables of c-factors are given for breast glandularities in the range 0.1%-100% and for typical glandularities for women in the age bands 40-49 and 50-64 attending the UK national breast screening programme.

  17. Characterization of the formation of branched short-chain fatty acid:CoAs for bitter acid biosynthesis in hop glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyang; Zhang, Fengxia; Liu, Baoxiu; Huhman, David V; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A; Wang, Guodong

    2013-07-01

    Bitter acids, known for their use as beer flavoring and for their diverse biological activities, are predominantly formed in hop (Humulus lupulus) glandular trichomes. Branched short-chain acyl-CoAs (e.g. isobutyryl-CoA, isovaleryl-CoA and 2-methylbutyryl-CoA), derived from the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are essential building blocks for the biosynthesis of bitter acids in hops. However, little is known regarding what components are needed to produce and maintain the pool of branched short-chain acyl-CoAs in hop trichomes. Here, we present several lines of evidence that both CoA ligases and thioesterases are likely involved in bitter acid biosynthesis. Recombinant HlCCL2 (carboxyl CoA ligase) protein had high specific activity for isovaleric acid as a substrate (K cat /K m = 4100 s(-1) M(-1)), whereas recombinant HlCCL4 specifically utilized isobutyric acid (Kcat/K m = 1800 s(-1) M(-1)) and 2-methylbutyric acid (Kcat/K m = 6900 s(-1) M(-1)) as substrates. Both HlCCLs, like hop valerophenone synthase (HlVPS), were expressed strongly in glandular trichomes and localized to the cytoplasm. Co-expression of HlCCL2 and HlCCL4 with HlVPS in yeast led to significant production of acylphloroglucinols (the direct precursors for bitter acid biosynthesis), which further confirmed the biochemical function of these two HlCCLs in vivo. Functional identification of a thioesterase that catalyzed the reverse reaction of CCLs in mitochondria, together with the comprehensive analysis of genes involved BCAA catabolism, supported the idea that cytosolic CoA ligases are required for linking BCAA degradation and bitter acid biosynthesis in glandular trichomes. The evolution and other possible physiological roles of branched short-chain fatty acid:CoA ligases in planta are also discussed.

  18. Quantitation of glandular gastric changes in rats given a proton pump inhibitor for 3 months with emphasis on sampling scheme selection.

    PubMed

    White, S L; Smith, W C; Fisher, L F; Gatlin, C L; Hanasono, G K; Jordan, W H

    1998-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors and H2-receptor antagonists suppress gastric acid secretion and secondarily induce hypergastrinemia. Sustained hypergastrinemia has a trophic effect on stomach fundic mucosa, including enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Histomorphometric quantitation of the pharmacologic gastric effects was conducted on 10 male and 10 female rats treated orally with LY307640 sodium, a proton pump inhibitor, at daily doses of 25, 60, 130, or 300 mg/kg for 3 mo. Histologic sections of glandular stomach, stained for chromogranin A, were evaluated by image analysis to determine stomach mucosal thickness, mucosal and nonmucosal (submucosa and muscularis) area, gastric glandular area, ECL cell number/area and cross-sectional area. Total mucosal and nonmucosal tissue volumes per animal were derived from glandular stomach volumetric and area data. Daily oral doses of compound LY307640 sodium caused slight to moderate dose-related mucosal hypertrophy and ECL cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in all treatment groups as compared with controls. All observed effects were prominent in both sexes but were generally greater in females. The morphometric sampling schemes were explored to optimize the data collection efficiency for future studies. A comparison between the sampling schemes used in this study and alternative schemes was conducted by estimating the probability of detecting a specific percentage of change between the male control and high-dose groups based on Tukey's trend test. The sampling scheme analysis indicated that mucosal thickness and mass had been oversampled. ECL cell density quantitation efficiency would have been increased by sampling the basal mucosa only for short-term studies. The ECL cell size sampling scheme was deemed appropriate for this type of study.

  19. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  20. Induction of apoptosis with an extract of Artemisia asiatica attenuates the severity of cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hahm, K B; Kim, J H; You, B M; Kim, Y S; Cho, S W; Yim, H; Ahn, B O; Kim, W B

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that apoptosis can protect against experimental pancreatitis and induction of apoptosis by an extract of Artemisia asiatica (DA-9601) is beneficial in cerulein-induced pancreatis in rats. Pancreatitis was induced in 6-week-old male SPF Sprague-Dawley rats by two intravenous (i.v.) administrations of 40 microg/kg cerulein. To investigate the effects of DA-9601 on the severity of pancreatitis and extent of apoptosis, rats were treated with intragastric DA-9601, 30 mg/kg (D30), 100 mg/kg (D100), or 300 mg/kg (D300), intraperitoneal superoxide dismutase, 10,000 U/kg (SOD), and i.v. gabexate mesilate, 40 mg/kg (Foy), three times (30 min before cerulein injection, 30 and 90 min after cerulein injection). The control group was administered vehicle alone. Ten rats were included in each treatment group and control group. Rats were sacrificed 5 h after cerulein treatment. Serum amylase, histological activity index (HAI), pancreatic lipid peroxide levels, and apoptotic index [in situ hybridization by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL)] were determined. Gel electrophoresis was performed for the presence of DNA fragmentations. The results were as follows. Serum amylase was significantly increased in all cerulein-treated groups compared to normal controls (p < 0.001). The HAI was significantly decreased in only the D300 group compared to the controls (p < 0.05). The apoptotic index of the cerulein-alone group was 3.8 +/- 2.7, but the mean apoptotic indexes of the SOD and Foy groups were 16.4 +/- 4.6 and 13.3 +/- 1.8, respectively, a significant increase (p < 0.01). The apoptotic index was more significantly increased in the DA-9601-treated groups, dose dependently (8.4 +/- 3.4 in D30, 14.8 +/- 4.3 in D100, 24.2 +/- 4.7 in D300). A smearing pattern of DNA electrophoresis was noted in the DA-9601-treated groups. In conclusion, DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia, induced apoptosis of

  1. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of three species of Artemisia on some soil-borne phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Farzaneh, M; Ahmadzadeh, M; Hadian, J; Tehrani, A Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Various species of the genus Artemisia are used for their pharmacological, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity. Three species of this genus, Artemisia scoparia, A. sieberi and A. aucheri are widely distributed in desert area of Iran. In order to identify the chemical composition, aerial parts of A. scoparia, A. sieberi and A. aucheri were collected from Bajestan (Khorasan province) at flowering stage. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of air-dried samples and their chemical composition identified by GC-MS. Oxygenated monoterpens were the major components of the oils of three species. alpha-thujone (81.7%), beta-thujone (14.5%) and 1,8-cineol (1.9%) were the major compounds in the essential oil of A. scoparia. The essential oil of A. aucheri was rich in linalool (44.1%), gernyl acetate (10.7%), (E)-citral (9.7%) and (Z)-citral (7.7%), and the essential oil of A. sieberi was rich in beta-thujone (19.8%), alpha-thujone (10.5%), camphor (19.5%), verbenol (9.7%), p-mentha-1,5-dien-8-ol (6.4) and davanone (5.8%). The essential oils of the three species were tested for their antifungal activity against some soil-borne pathogenic fungi. Results of bioassay showed that the oils of A. aucheri and A. sieberi has stronger antifungal activity. Minimum EC50 (41.406 microL/L), resulted from A. aucheri on Rhizoctonia solani. The oil of A. sieberi showed fungistatic activity against, Tiarosporella phaseolina (MIC = 1000 microL/L, EC50 = 203.419 microL/L), Fusarium moniliforme (MIC=750 microL/L, EC50 = 211.072 microL/L), Fusarium solani (MIC = 750 microL/L, EC50 = 188.134 microL/L) whereas against R. solani (MIC = 250 microL/L, EC50 = 121.798 microL/L) exhibited high fungicidal activity.

  2. Cooperative role between p21cip1/waf1 and p27kip1 in premature senescence in glandular proliferative lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, R A; García-Palencia, P; Suarez, C; Sánchez, M A; Gil-Gómez, G; Sánchez, B; Rollán, E; Martín-Caballero, J; Flores, J M

    2014-03-01

    Cellular senescence has been considered a novel target for cancer therapy. It has also been pointed out that p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) play a role in cellular senescence in some tumor types. Therefore, in order to address the possibility of a cooperative role between p21 and p27 proteins in senescence in vivo we analyzed cellular senescence in spontaneous glandular proliferative lesions (adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands) in a double-KO mice model, using γH2AX, p53, p16, PTEN and Ki67 as senescence markers. The results obtained showed that p21p27 double-null mice had the lowest number of γH2AX positive cells in glandular hyperplasias and benign tumors. Also, in this group, Ki67 proliferation index correlated with a lower immunohistochemical expression of γH2AX and p53. The expression of p16 and PTEN do not seem to cause synergism of senescence in the benign lesions analyzed in p21p27 double-KO mice. These observations suggest an intrinsic cooperation between p21 and p27 CKIs in the activation of stress-induced cellular senescence and tumor progression in vivo, which would be a physiological mechanism to prevent tumor cell proliferation.

  3. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum) are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes Solanum atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. and Solanum tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated Solanum anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa.

  4. Apoptotic depletion of infiltrating mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosal epithelium: human glandular stomach as a site of immune privilege.

    PubMed

    Koyama, S

    2000-04-01

    H. pylori infection almost invariably results in chronic gastritis, but only a proportion of patients develops severe destruction of epithelial glandular structure or peptic ulcer. To confirm the recent data obtained in testis and eye, showing that Fas ligand is involved in the phenomenon of "immune privilege," expression of Fas receptor and its ligand of the stomach was investigated in a panel of gastric biopsies obtained from patients H. pylori-positive (N = 42) and with H. pylori-negative (N = 18) by two-color flow cytometry. The results show that membrane-bound Fas ligand protein is constitutively expressed on freshly isolated human gastric mucosal epithelium coupled with infiltrating lymphocytes. There was significant overexpression of Fas receptor and its ligand, and a higher frequency of apoptotic cell death detected by TUNEL in epithelium and infiltrating lymphocytes in H. pylori-infected patients. These findings suggest that involvement of Fas receptor and its ligand system contributes to some extent to mucosal damage in H. pylori-associated gastritis. However, the more specific findings are apoptotic depletion of invading mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by gastric epithelium. These provide the first direct quantitative evidence to support Fas receptor counterattack and/or paracrine fratricide as a mechanism of immune privilege in vivo in the H. pylori-infected glandular stomach.

  5. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Sun, Gui-Ling; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan

    2016-01-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms. PMID:26941091

  6. Yield and forage quality of glandular-haired alfalfa under alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) pest pressure in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Theresa A; Y