The effect of incentive spirometry on arterial blood gases after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).
Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Bollbanabad, Hiva Mohammadi; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Mohsen; Khalifezade, Asghar
After coronary artery bypass surgery, pulmonary complications and oxygenation disorders are common, which have an important role in mortality and morbidity. Different methods are used for the improvement of pulmonary function and oxygenation, of which incentive spirometry (IS) has been investigated here. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of IS on arterial blood gases after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This was a clinical trial. Fifty patients who were candidates for CABG were chosen. The patients had been allocated to two random groups of intervention and control. The intervention was done through IS. These two groups were compared for the arterial blood gases' preoperative level, and the levels on first (after extubation), second, and third postoperative days. The study findings showed that on the third postoperative day, there was a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the mean amount of arterial blood oxygen (82.3 ± 4.7 vs. 72.7 ± 7.1, respectively, P = 0.02), arterial blood carbon dioxide (36.8 ± 2 vs. 43.7 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.007), and oxygen saturation (96.8 ± 1.4 vs. 90.5 ± 1.4, respectively, P = 0.03). This investigation shows that using IS is significantly effective in the improvement of blood arterial gas parameters.
The effect of incentive spirometry on arterial blood gases after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)
Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Bollbanabad, Hiva Mohammadi; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Mohsen; Khalifezade, Asghar
Background: After coronary artery bypass surgery, pulmonary complications and oxygenation disorders are common, which have an important role in mortality and morbidity. Different methods are used for the improvement of pulmonary function and oxygenation, of which incentive spirometry (IS) has been investigated here. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of IS on arterial blood gases after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial. Fifty patients who were candidates for CABG were chosen. The patients had been allocated to two random groups of intervention and control. The intervention was done through IS. These two groups were compared for the arterial blood gases’ preoperative level, and the levels on first (after extubation), second, and third postoperative days. Results: The study findings showed that on the third postoperative day, there was a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the mean amount of arterial blood oxygen (82.3 ± 4.7 vs. 72.7 ± 7.1, respectively, P = 0.02), arterial blood carbon dioxide (36.8 ± 2 vs. 43.7 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.007), and oxygen saturation (96.8 ± 1.4 vs. 90.5 ± 1.4, respectively, P = 0.03). Conclusions: This investigation shows that using IS is significantly effective in the improvement of blood arterial gas parameters. PMID:26985228
Respiratory properties of blood and arterial blood gases in the tegu lizard: effects of temperature and hypercapnia.
Wood, S C; Glass, M L; Andersen, N A; Heisler, N
The effects of body temperature and hypercapnia (7% inspired CO2) on arterial blood gases, plasma pH, and the characteristics of the blood oxygen dissociation curve were determined in Tegu lizards (Tupinambis nigropunctatus). Arterial pH fell from 7.59 to 7.50 when body temperature was increased from 25 to 35 degrees C. The pH/temperature coefficient (delta pH/delta t = -0.009 U/degrees C) was half of that predicted on the basis of 'constant relative alkalinity' and the alphastat hypothesis. The fall in plasma pH resulted from a decrease in plasma [HCO3-], and a rise in plasma Pco2. The O2 affinity of Tegu blood, expressed by the partial pressure at half saturation (P50), decreased with temperature in vitro from 42.3 to 49.6 torr at pH 7.4. The apparent enthalpy (delta H = -3.1 kcal/mol) is about 1/4 of that of human blood. In vivo, the arterial blood oxygen saturation decreased from 89% at 25 degrees to 82% at 35 degrees C. Arterial Po2 increased from 61 to 71 torr as expected from the right-shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. During environmental hypercapnia (7% CO2, 21% O2, 72% N2 inspired concentrations), arterial pH decreased to 7.28. Arterial O2 saturation remained constant and arterial Po2 increased from 61 to 85 torr due to the right-shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. The comparatively small effect of changes in temperature on the oxygen affinity of Tegu blood (directly according to the delta H value, and indirectly via changes in blood pH) results in a relatively small right shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, and accordingly in relatively high arterial and tissue Po2 values also at higher temperatures.
The Changes of Arterial Blood Gases in COPD During Four-year Period
ABSTRACT Introduction: COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and that can lead to respiratory failure. Objective: to show the changes of arterial blood gases in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods: The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007 year. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 year (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of blood gases analysis as follows : pH value, PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment. We took in elaboration data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results: there is the statistically significant decrease of PaO2 (p<0.01) and pH, (p<0.05) and an increase of PaCO2 (p<0.01) during follow-up period. But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The decrease of pH and PaO2 and increase of PaCO2 is statistically significantly smaller in those
Continuous intra-arterial blood-gas monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Divers, George A.; Riccitelli, Samuel D.; Blais, Maurice; Hui, Henry K.
Fiber optic technology and optical fluorescence have made the continuous monitoring of arterial blood gases a reality. Practical products that continuously monitor blood gases by use of an invasive sensor are now available. Anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians are beginning to explore the practical implications of this technology. With the advent of intra- arterial blood gas monitors it is possible to assess arterial blood gas values without the labor intensive steps of drawing blood and transporting a blood sample to the lab followed by the actual analysis. These intra-arterial blood gas monitors use new optical sensor technologies that can be reduced in size to the point that the sensor can be inserted into the arterial blood flow through a 20-gauge arterial cannula. In the best of these technologies the sensors accuracy and precision are similar to those in vitro analyzers. This presentation focuses on background technology and in vivo performance of a device developed, manufactured, and marketed by Puritan-Bennett Corporation.
Evaluation of arterial blood gases and arterial blood pressures in brachycephalic dogs.
Hoareau, G L; Jourdan, G; Mellema, M; Verwaerde, P
Brachycephalic dogs (BD) are prone to congenital upper airway obstruction (brachycephalic syndrome, BS). In humans suffering from sleep apnea, upper airway obstruction is known to cause hypertension. There is no information regarding the influence of BS in dogs on cardiorespiratory physiology. BD are prone to lower P(a) O(2), higher P(a) CO (2), and hypertension compared with meso- or dolicocephalic dogs (MDD). Eleven BD and 11 MDD. After a questionnaire was completed by the owner, a physical examination was performed. Height and thoracic circumferences were measured. Arterial blood gases, electrolyte concentrations, and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured. Systolic (SAP), mean (MAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure recordings were performed. A total of 7 French and 4 English bulldogs met the inclusion criteria. The control group consisted in 6 Beagles, 2 mixed breed dogs, 1 Staffordshire Bull Terrier, 1 Parson Russell Terrier, and 1 Australian Cattle Dog. Statistically, BD had lower P(a) O(2), higher P(a) CO2, and higher PCV when compared with controls (86.2 ± 15.9 versus 100.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, P = .017; 36.3 ± 4.6 versus 32.7 ± 2.6 mmHg, P = .019; 48.2 ± 3.5 versus 44.2 ± 5.4%, P = .026, respectively). Also, they had significantly higher SAP (177.6 ± 25.0 versus 153.5 ± 21.7 mmHg, P = .013), MAP (123.3 ± 17.1 versus 108.3 ± 12.2 mmHg, P = .014), and DAP (95.3 ± 19.2 versus 83.0 ± 11.5 mmHg, P = .042). BD with a P(a) CO (2) >35 mmHg were significantly older than those with a P(a) CO (2) ≤35 mmHg (58 ± 16 and 30 ± 11 months, P = .004). Results of this study suggest that some BD are prone to lower P(a) O(2), higher P(a) CO (2), and hypertension when compared with MDD. Age may be a contributing factor. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Gaming the System: Developing an Educational Game for Securing Principles of Arterial Blood Gases.
Boyd, Cory Ann; Warren, Jonah; Glendon, Mary Ann
This article describes the development process for creating a digital educational mini game prototype designed to provide practice opportunities for learning fundamental principles of arterial blood gases. Mini games generally take less than an hour to play and focus on specific subject matter. An interdisciplinary team of faculty from two universities mentored student game developers to design a digital educational mini game prototype. Sixteen accelerated bachelor of science in nursing students collaborated with game development students and playtested the game prototype during the last semester of their senior year in nursing school. Playtesting is a form of feedback that supports an iterative design process that is critical to game development. A 10-question survey was coupled with group discussions addressing five broad themes of an archetypical digital educational mini game to yield feedback on game design, play, and content. Four rounds of playtesting and incorporating feedback supported the iterative process. Accelerated bachelor of science in nursing student playtester feedback suggests that the digital educational mini game prototype has potential for offering an engaging, playful game experience that will support securing the fundamental principles of arterial blood gases. Next steps are to test the digital educational mini game for teaching and learning effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of indacaterol on arterial blood gases in patients suffering from acute exacerbation of COPD.
Rogliani, Paola; Ora, Josuel; Ciaprini, Chiara; Senis, Lucia; Stirpe, Emanuele; Cazzola, Mario
The administration of β2-agonists to patients with airways obstruction often results in transient decrease in PaO2 despite concomitant bronchodilation. This effect is potentially dangerous for patients suffering from acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). In this study, we investigated the effect of indacaterol 150 μg and 300 μg on the arterial blood gas tensions of hospitalised patients with AECOPD. We explored the acute effects on arterial blood gases and spirometry of two doses of indacaterol Breezhaler (150 and 300 μg) in 12 patients hospitalised because of an AECOPD in 2 non-consecutive days under open-label, randomized, crossover conditions, with blind evaluation. Blood specimens were taken just before the inhalation and at 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 min after inhalation of each treatment, and spirometry was performed at the same time points. Both doses of indacaterol did not cause significant changes in blood gases, although some patients with relatively well-preserved PaO2 presented transient episodes of oxygen desaturation that normalize spontaneously in a very short time. Moreover, they induced a significant mean increase in FEV1 and FVC, although the improvement caused by indacaterol 300 μg was larger. Indacaterol up to 300 μg is a potent bronchodilator that may induce small, transient decrease in PaO2 mainly in patients with relatively well-preserved PaO2. There appeared to be no clinical consequences of these PaO2 abnormalities in patients suffering from AECOPD. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Arterial Blood Gases, Electrolytes and Metabolic Indices Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: Inter-and Intrainbred Rat Strain Variation
hyperkalemia can also have adverse effects on car- diovascular and neuromuscular function (42, 58, 66). Hence, at least in some inbred rat strains such as BN...to know to interpret arterial blood gases. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1999. 42. Mazze RI, Escue HM, Houston JB. Hyperkalemia and...MC, Carmona MJ, Auler Júnior JO. Hyperkalemia accompanies hemorrhagic shock and correlates with mor- tality. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 64: 591–597, 2009. 56
Reliability of blood color and blood gases in discriminating arterial from venous puncture during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Park, Je Sung; Lee, Byung Kook; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Choi, Sung Soo; Park, Sang Wook; Song, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Sung Min; Heo, Tag; Min, Yong Il
We investigated the use of blood color brightness and blood gas variables for discriminating arterial from venous puncture during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The study's aims were to determine if discrimination using Po2 is superior to using blood color brightness, and if blood color brightness, Po2, and acid-base variables derived from blood gas analysis accurately discriminate arterial from venous blood during CPR. Fifteen pigs underwent ventricular fibrillation followed by CPR. During CPR, paired femoral arterial and venous blood samples were obtained, and 2 blinded observers were asked to identify the blood's origin. Blood color brightness was measured using a blood brightness scale (BBS). The discriminatory performances of the BBS and blood gas variables were evaluated by calculating the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). The observers accurately discriminated arterial from venous blood with a sensitivity of 97.0% (84.7%-99.5%) and specificity of 84.9% (69.1%-93.4%). The BBS (AUC = 0.983) and Po2 (AUC = 0.981) methods both showed comparable and excellent discriminatory performances. pH, Pco2, and HCO3(-) all discriminated arterial from venous blood (AUC = 0.831, 0.971, and 0.652, respectively). The AUC for Pco2 was comparable to that for Po2 but significantly larger than that for pH (P = .002) or HCO3(-) (P < .001). The BBS and Po2 methods showed comparable and excellent discrimination performances. Using pH, Pco2, and HCO3(-) levels also discriminated arterial from venous blood during CPR with statistical significance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
[Concordance between central venous and arterial blood gases in post-surgical myocardial revascularization patients in stable condition].
Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Guevara-Carrasco, Marlene; Naranjo-Ricoy, Guillermo; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Moreno-Ruíz, Luis Antonio; Herrera-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Serrano, José Antonio; Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús Salvador; Calderón-Abbo, Moisés Cutiel
The concordance between the parameters of arterial and central venous blood gases has not been defined yet. We studied the concordance between both parameters in post-surgical myocardial revascularization patients in stable condition. Consecutive subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. The position of the central venous catheter was performed and simultaneously we obtained arterial and central venous blood samples prior to discharge from the intensive care unit. Data are expressed according to Bland-Altman statistical method and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Statistical result was accepted at P<.05. Two hundred and six samples were studied of 103 post-surgical patients, pH and lactate had a mean difference (limits of agreement) 0.029±0.048 (-0018, 0.077) and -0.12±0.22 (-0.57, 0.33) respectively. The magnitude of the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.904 and 0.943 respectively. The values related to oxygen pressure were 27.86±6.08 (15.9, 39.8) and oxygen saturation 33.02±6.13 (21, 45), with magnitude of 0.258 and 0.418 respectively. The best matching parameters between arterial and central venous blood samples were pH and lactate. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ... arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteries. Abnormal results may point to ...
Effect of formoterol/budesonide combination on arterial blood gases in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.
Cazzola, M; Noschese, P; De Michele, F; D'Amato, G; Matera, M G
Patients with severe chronic airway obstruction might suffer dangerous hypoxemia after administration of a beta-agonist despite bronchodilation. We first compared the acute effects on gas exchange of two doses of formoterol Turbuhaler (9 and 18 microg) in 10 patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Afterwards, we compared the acute effects of formoterol Turbuhaler 9 microug with those of formoterol/budesonide combination in a single inhaler (Turbuhaler) 9/320 microg in 10 other patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Finally, we compared the changes in PaO(2) induced by formoterol Turbuhaler 9 microg or formoterol/budesonide combination in a single inhaler (Turbuhaler) 9/320 microg with those in FEV(1) in 10 other patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Each agent was given on separate days, and the patients' arterial blood gases were measured at baseline and at intervals of 120 min. Small but statistically significant declines in PaO(2) were found after administration of both formoterol 9 and 18 microg. In the second group of patients, formoterol 9 microg alone again induced a significant decrease in PaO(2). However, the simultaneous administration of budesonide 320 microg significantly reduced the acute effect of formoterol on PaO(2). In a third group of 10 patients we confirmed a small but significant decrease in PaO(2) after formoterol alone and the reduction of this effect when budesonide was administered simultaneously. Moreover, we also documented that addition of budesonide amplified the fast onset of action of formoterol. These results suggest that when treating patients suffering from acute exacerbation of COPD with formoterol, it is prudent to check their arterial blood gases. In any case, combined administration of formoterol and budesonide reduces the potential for acute effects of formoterol on blood-gas tensions.
Changes of Arterial Blood Gases After Different Ranges of Surgical Lung Resection
Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir
Introduction: In recent years there has been increase in the number of patients who need thoracic surgery – first of all different types of pulmonary resection because of primary bronchial cancer, and very often among patients whose lung function is impaired due to different degree of bronchial obstruction so it is necessary to assess functional status before and after lung surgery to avoid the development of respiratory insufficiency. Objective: To show the changes in the level of arterial blood gases after various ranges of lung resection. Material and methods: The study was done on 71 patients surgically treated at the Clinic for Thoracic Surgery KCU Sarajevo, who were previously treated at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01. 06. 2009. to 01. 09. 2011. Different types of lung resection were made. Patients whose percentage of ppoFEV1 was (prognosed postoperative FEV1) was less than 30% of normal values of FEV1 for that patients were not given a permission for lung resection. We monitored the changes in levels-partial pressures of blood gases (PaO2, PaCO2 and SaO2) one and two months after resection and compared them to preoperative values. As there were no significant differences between the values obtained one and two months after surgery, in the results we showed arterial blood gas analysis obtained two months after surgical resection. Results were statistically analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft Office Excel. Statistical significance was determined at an interval of 95%. Results: In 59 patients (83%) there was an increase, and in 12 patients (17%) there was a decrease of PaO2, compared to preoperative values. In 58 patients (82%) there was a decrease, and in 13 patients (18%) there was an increase in PaCO2, compared to preoperative values. For all subjects (group as whole): The value of the PaO2 was significantly increased after lung surgery compared to preoperative values (p <0.05) so is the value of the SaO2%. The value
Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.
Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina
Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method.
Effects of feeding on arterial blood gases in the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis.
Busk, M; Overgaard, J; Hicks, J W; Bennett, A F; Wang, T
Reptiles habitually ingest large meals at infrequent intervals, leading to changes in acid-base status as the net secretion of acid to the stomach causes a metabolic alkalosis (the alkaline tide). In chronically cannulated and undisturbed amphibians and reptiles, the pH changes in arterial blood are, nevertheless, reduced by a concomitant respiratory acidosis (increased P(CO2) caused by a relative hypoventilation). Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) have been reported to exhibit exceptionally large increases in plasma [HCO3(-)] following feeding, but these studies were based on blood samples obtained by cardiac puncture, so stress and disturbance may have affected the blood gas levels. Furthermore, crocodilian haemoglobin is characterised by a unique binding of HCO3(-) that act to reduce blood oxygen-affinity, and it has been proposed that this feature safeguards oxygen offloading by counteracting pH effects on blood oxygen-affinity. Therefore, to study acid-base regulation and the interaction between the alkaline tide and oxygen transport in more detail, we describe the arterial blood gas composition of chronically cannulated and undisturbed alligators before and after voluntary feeding (meal size 7.5+/-1% of body mass). Digestion was associated with an approximately fourfold increase in metabolic rate (from 0.63+/-0.04 to 2.32+/-0.24 ml O(2) min(-1)kg(-1)) and was accompanied by a small increase in the respiratory gas exchange ratio. The arterial P(O2) of fasting alligators was 60.3+/-6.8 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) and reached a maximum of 81.3+/-2.7 mmHg at 96 h following feeding; there was only a small increase in lactate levels, so the increased metabolic rate seems to be entirely aerobic. Plasma [HCO3(-)] increased from 24.4+/-1.1 to 36.9+/-1.7 mmol l(-1) (at 24 h), but since arterial P(CO2) increased from 29.0+/-1.1 to 36.8+/-1.3 mmHg, arterial pH remained virtually unaffected (changing from 7.51+/-0.01 to 7.58+/-0.01 at 24 h). The changes in plasma [HCO
Comparison of medetomidine and fentanyl-droperidol in dogs: sedation, analgesia, arterial blood gases and lactate levels.
Pettifer, G R; Dyson, D H
Medetomidine and fentanyl-droperidol (Innovar-vet) were assessed over a three hour period in 80 healthy dogs. Following physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood sample analysis, and dynamometer pressure threshold (analgesia score), the dogs were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: Miv--medetomidine (750 micrograms/M2) administered intravenously (IV), Mim--medetomidine (1000 micrograms/M2) administered intramuscularly (IM), Iiv--Innovar-vet IV (0.05 mL/kg) or Iim--Innovar-vet IM (0.1 mL/kg). All assessments were carried out by a single individual unaware of the treatment used. Objective assessments included temperature, heart and respiratory rates, analgesia score, arterial blood gases, acid-base and lactate levels. Subjective evaluation included degree of sedation, response to various clinical procedures, noise responsiveness, posture, and the incidence of side effects. Onset and duration of effect were also recorded. The ECG strips were assessed for arrhythmias. Data was analyzed using a 3-way analysis of variance for continuous variables and a Chi-square analysis of frequencies. A p value < or = 0.05 was considered significant. Medetomidine-treated animals had a decreased respiratory rate, longer duration of analgesic effect, increased incidence of bradycardia, vomiting and twitching, were less noise responsive and shivered less throughout the study. An increased incidence of second degree heart block with Miv (15 min), a delayed onset and recovery with Mim and increased lactate levels following Iiv (15 min) were observed. No differences were found in other measurements and good to excellent chemical restraint was produced with all treatments in 65% or more cases. Images Fig. 1. PMID:8490814
[What you should know of the arterial blood gases during the watch].
Márquez-González, Horacio; Pámanes-González, Jesús; Márquez-Flores, Horacio; Gómez-Negrete, Alonso; Muñoz-Ramírez, Mireya C; Villa-Romero, Antonio Rafael
Gasometry is the measurement of dissolved gases in the blood, by measuring pH, carbon dioxide pressure (pCO(2)), serum bicarbonate (HCO(3-)), and lactate and serum electrolytes: sodium, potassium and chlorine you can make a diagnosis, etiology and treatment in the critically ill patient. The aim is to provide five steps for the interpretation of blood gases by: 1. The definition of acidemia or acidosis, or alkalemia or alkalosis. 2. Defining the metabolic component or respiratory. 3. To determine the anion gap; levels above 15 ± 2 determine other likely causes of excess anions (methanol, uremia, diabetic ketoacidosis, paraldehyde, ionized, lactic acidosis, ethylene glycol and salicylates. 4. Compensation, using the Winter formula. 5. The delta gap, with the formula for determining intrinsic and metabolic alkalosis. When anion gap is normal, is calculated urinary anion gap; the value is negative if the loss is extrarenal, contrary to the positive result is renal etiology.
Signs of fetal brain sparing are not related to umbilical cord blood gases at birth.
Cheema, Riffat; Dubiel, Mariusz; Gudmundsson, Saemundur
Fetal chronic hypoxia leads to centralization of circulation in order to spare the vital organs brain, adrenals and the heart. This can be documented by Doppler ultrasound. Increased blood velocity in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) is an acknowledged sign of centralization of circulation in chronic hypoxia, and is called brain sparing. Our aim was to assess the relationship between signs of brain sparing in the MCA and umbilical cord blood gases at birth. A prospective study. Singleton 57 high-risk pregnancies (outcome was compared with 21 normal pregnancies). MCA Doppler was performed within 24 h of elective caesarean section in high-risk pregnancies. Umbilical cord blood gases were analysed at birth. Cord blood gases were related to signs of centralization of fetal circulation in the MCA. No correlation between signs of brain sparing in the MCA and cord blood gases. Apgar score at 5'<7 was seen in three newborns, but only one of these had antenatal signs of brain sparing. Newborns with antenatal brain sparing were admitted more often (p<0.04) and had a longer duration of stay in NICU (p<0.03) compared to newborns without brain sparing. Decreased pulsatility index in MCA is an acknowledged sign of fetal centralization of circulation during chronic hypoxia. However, signs of brain sparing are not related to cord blood gases at birth, which might suggest that redistribution of fetal circulation can maintain normal blood gases for a long time during chronic hypoxia.
Voluntary Running-Wheel Activity, Arterial Blood Gases, and Thermal Antinociception in Rats after 3 Buprenorphine Formulations
Johnson, Rebecca A
Buprenorphine HCl (BUP) is a μ-opioid agonist used in laboratory rodents. New formulations of buprenorphine (for example, sustained-released buprenorphine [BUP SR], extended-release buprenorphine [BUP ER]) have been developed to extend the analgesic duration. In a crossover design, 8 adult rats were injected subcutaneously with either BUP, BUP SR, BUP ER, or saline, after which voluntary running-wheel activity, arterial blood gases, and thermal withdrawal latency were assessed. Wheel running was decreased at 24 h compared with baseline in all treatment groups but returned to baseline by 48 h. Arterial pH, HCO3–, and CO2 were not changed between groups or over time. However, arterial oxygen was lower than baseline in the BUP (–8 ± 2 mm Hg), BUP SR (–7 ± 1 mm Hg), and BUP ER (–17 ± 2 mm Hg) groups compared with saline controls (3 ± 2 mm Hg); the BUP ER group showed the greatest decrease when all time points were combined. BUP increased the withdrawal latency at 1 h (15% ± 3%), whereas BUP ER increased latencies at 4, 8, 12, and 48 h (35% ± 11%, 21% ± 7%, 26% ± 7%, and 22% ± 9%, respectively) and BUP SR prolonged latencies at 24, 48, and 72 h (15% ± 6%, 18% ± 5%, and 20% ± 8%, respectively). The duration of thermal analgesia varied between buprenorphine formulations, but all 3 formulations reduced voluntary-running activity at 24 h after injection and might cause hypoxemia in normal adult rats. PMID:27177564
Comparison of arterial and venous blood gases and the effects of analysis delay and air contamination on arterial samples in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls.
O'Connor, T M; Barry, P J; Jahangir, A; Finn, C; Buckley, B M; El-Gammal, A
Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often sampled incorrectly, leading to a 'mixed' or venous sample. Delays in analysis and air contamination are common. We measured the effects of these errors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and controls. Arterial and venous samples were analyzed from 30 patients with COPD exacerbation and 30 controls. Venous samples were analysed immediately and arterial samples separated into non-air-contaminated and air-contaminated specimens and analysed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min. Mean venous pH was 7.371 and arterial pH was 7.407 (p < 0.0001). There was a correlation between venous and arterial pH (r = 0.5347, p < 0.0001). The regression equation to predict arterial pH was: arterial pH = 4.2289 + 0.43113 · venous pH. There were no clinically significant differences in arterial PO₂ associated with analysis delay. A statistically significant decline in pH was detected at 30 min in patients with COPD exacerbation (p = 0.0042) and 90 min in controls (p < 0.0001). A clinically significant decline in pH emerged at 73 min in patients with COPD exacerbation and 87 min in controls. Air contamination was associated with a clinically significant increase in PO₂ in all samples, including those that were immediately analyzed. Arterial and venous pH differ significantly. Venous pH cannot accurately replace arterial pH. Temporal delays in ABG analysis result in a significant decline in measured pH. ABGs should be analysed within 30 min. Air contamination leads to an immediate increase in measured PO₂, indicating that air-contaminated ABGs should be discarded. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system... Test Systems § 862.1120 Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. (a) Identification. A blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum...
Investigation of arterial gas occlusions. [effect of noncondensable gases on high performance heat pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saaski, E. W.
The effect of noncondensable gases on high-performance arterial heat pipes was investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate, and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, were used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes under isothermal and non-isothermal condensate flow conditions. A rigorous second-order gas-loaded heat pipe model, incorporating axial conduction and one-dimensional vapor transport, was produced and used for thermal and gas studies. A Freon-22 (CHCIF2) heat pipe was used with helium and xenon to validate modeling. With helium, experimental data compared well with theory. Unusual gas-control effects with xenon were attributed to high solubility.
Effects of expiratory ribcage compression before endotracheal suctioning on arterial blood gases in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.
Kohan, Mahmoud; Rezaei-Adaryani, Morteza; Najaf-Yarandi, Akram; Hoseini, Fatemeh; Mohammad-Taheri, Nahid
To investigate the effects of expiratory ribcage compression (ERCC) before endotracheal suctioning on the arterial blood gases (ABG) in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Endotracheal suctioning is one of the most frequently used methods for airway clearance in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Chest physiotherapy techniques such as ERCC before endotracheal suctioning can be used as a means to facilitate mobilizing and removing airway secretions and improving alveolar ventilation. A prospective, randomized, controlled cross-over design. A randomized controlled cross-over trial with a convenience sample of 70 mechanically ventilated patients was conducted from 2006 to 2007. The patients received endotracheal suctioning with (experiment-period) or without (control-period) an antecedent 5-min expiratory ribcage. All the patients experienced both periods with at least a 3-h washed-out interval between the two periods. ABG were measured 5 min before and 25 min after endotracheal suctioning. The statistical tests showed that the levels of partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 )/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) in the experimental period at 25 min after the intervention were significantly different from the control period. The tests also revealed that the levels of these variables at 25 min after suctioning were also significantly different from baseline values. However, these differences were clinically significant only for PaO2 /FiO2 . By improving the levels of PaO2 /FiO2 , ERCC can reduce the patients' need for oxygen and hence it can at least reduce the side effects of oxygen therapy. Improving PaO2 /FiO2 levels means less need for oxygen therapy. Hence, by applying ERCC we can at least minimize the side effects of oxygen therapy. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
Effects of changing body position on oxygenation and arterial blood pressures in foals anesthetized with guaifenesin, ketamine, and xylazine.
Braun, Christina; Trim, Cynthia M; Eggleston, Randy B
To investigate the impact of a change in body position on blood gases and arterial blood pressures in foals anesthetized with guaifenesin, ketamine, and xylazine. Prospective, randomized experimental study. Twelve Quarter Horse foals, age of 5.4 +/-0.9 months and weighing 222 +/- 48 kg. Foals were anesthetized with guaifenesin, ketamine, and xylazine for 40 minutes in lateral recumbency and then assigned to a change in lateral recumbency after hoisting (Group 1, n = 6), or no change (Group 2, n = 6). Oxygen 15 L minute(-1) was insufflated into the endotracheal tube throughout anesthesia. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate (f(R)), inspired fraction of oxygen (FIO(2)), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (PE'CO(2)) were measured every 5 minutes. Arterial pH and blood gases [arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2))] were measured at 10, 30, and 40 minutes after induction, and 5 minutes after hoisting. Alveolar dead space ventilation and PaO(2)/FIO(2) were calculated. Two repeated measures models were used. All hypothesis tests were two-sided and significance level was alpha = 0.05. All values are presented as least square means +/- SE. Values at time-matched points from the two groups were not significantly different so they were combined. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen decreased significantly from 149 +/- 14.4 mmHg before hoisting to 92 +/- 11.6 mmHg after hoisting (p = 0.0013). The PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio decreased from 275 +/- 30 to 175 +/- 24 (p = 0.0055). End-tidal carbon dioxide decreased significantly from 48.7 +/- 1.6 to 44.5 +/- 1.2 mmHg (p = 0.021). Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, blood pressures and heart rates measured 5 minutes after hoisting were not different from measurements obtained before hoisting. Hoisting decreased PaO(2) in anesthetized healthy foals. Administration of supplemental oxygen is recommended to counter the decrease in oxygenation and PaO(2
21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples...
21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples...
21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples...
21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples...
21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples...
Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.
Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse
Transcranial Doppler-determined change in posterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity does not reflect vertebral artery blood flow during exercise.
Washio, Takuro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ogoh, Shigehiko
We examined whether a change in posterior cerebral artery flow velocity (PCAv) reflected the posterior cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects during both static and dynamic exercise. PCAv and vertebral artery (VA) blood flow, as an index of posterior cerebral blood flow, were continuously measured during an exercise trial using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Static handgrip exercise significantly increased both PCAv and VA blood flow. Increasing intensity of dynamic exercise further increased VA blood flow from moderate exercise, while PCAv decreased to almost resting level. During both static and dynamic exercise, the PCA cerebrovascular conductance (CVC) index significantly decreased from rest (static and high-intensity dynamic exercise, -11.5 ± 12.2% and -18.0 ± 16.8%, means ± SD, respectively) despite no change in the CVC of VA. These results indicate that vasoconstriction occurred at PCA but not VA during exercise-induced hypertension. This discrepancy in vascular response to exercise between PCA and VA may be due to different cerebral arterial characteristics. Therefore, to determine the effect of exercise on posterior cerebral circulation, at least, we need to carefully consider which cerebral artery to measure, regardless of exercise mode. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined whether transcranial Doppler-determined flow velocity in the posterior cerebral artery can be used as an index of cerebral blood flow during exercise. However, the changes in posterior cerebral artery flow velocity during exercise do not reflect vertebral artery blood flow. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Accuracy of Transcutaneous CO2 Values Compared With Arterial and Capillary Blood Gases.
Lambert, Laura L; Baldwin, Melissa B; Gonzalez, Cruz Velasco; Lowe, Gary R; Willis, J Randy
Transcutaneous monitors are utilized to monitor a patient's respiratory status. Some patients have similar values when comparing transcutaneous carbon dioxide ( P tcCO 2 ) values with blood gas analysis, whereas others show extreme variability. A retrospective review of data was performed to determine how accurately P tcCO 2 correlated with CO 2 values obtained by arterial blood gas (ABG) or capillary blood gas. To determine whether P tcCO 2 values correlated with ABG or capillary blood gas values, subjects' records were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included the P tcCO 2 value at the time of blood gas procurement and the ABG or capillary blood gas P CO 2 value. Agreement of pairs of methods (ABG vs P tcCO 2 and capillary blood gas vs P tcCO 2 ) was assessed with the Bland-Altman approach with limits of agreement estimated with a mixed model to account for serial measurements per subject. A total of 912 pairs of ABG/ P tcCO 2 values on 54 subjects and 307 pairs of capillary blood gas/ P tcCO 2 values on 34 subjects were analyzed. The P CO 2 range for ABG was 24-106 mm Hg, and P tcCO 2 values were 27-133 mm Hg. The P CO 2 range for capillary blood gas was 29-108 mm Hg, and P tcCO 2 values were 30-103 mm Hg. For ABG/ P tcCO 2 comparisons, the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.82, 95% CI was 0.80-0.84, and P was <.001. For capillary blood gas/ P tcCO 2 comparisons, the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.77, 95% CI was 0.72-0.81, and P was <.001. For ABG/ P tcCO 2 , the estimated difference ± SD was -6.79 t± 7.62 mm Hg, and limits of agreement were -22.03 to 8.45. For capillary blood gas/ P tcCO 2 , the estimated difference ± SD was -1.61 ± 7.64 mm Hg, and limits of agreement were -16.88 to 13.66. The repeatability coefficient was about 30 mm Hg. Based on these data, capillary blood gas comparisons showed less variation and a slightly lower correlation with P tcCO 2 than did ABG comparisons. After accounting for serial measurements per patient
Improved arterial blood oxygenation following intravenous infusion of cold supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution.
Grady, Daniel J; Gentile, Michael A; Riggs, John H; Cheifetz, Ira M
One of the primary goals of critical care medicine is to support adequate gas exchange without iatrogenic sequelae. An emerging method of delivering supplemental oxygen is intravenously rather than via the traditional inhalation route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas-exchange effects of infusing cold intravenous (IV) fluids containing very high partial pressures of dissolved oxygen (>760 mm Hg) in a porcine model. Juvenile swines were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Each animal received an infusion of cold (13 °C) Ringer's lactate solution (30 mL/kg/hour), which had been supersaturated with dissolved oxygen gas (39.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen, 992 mm Hg, 30.5 mL/L). Arterial blood gases and physiologic measurements were repeated at 15-minute intervals during a 60-minute IV infusion of the supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution. Each animal served as its own control. Five swines (12.9 ± 0.9 kg) were studied. Following the 60-minute infusion, there were significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in PaCO2 (P < 0.05), with a corresponding normalization in arterial blood pH. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in core body temperature (P < 0.05) when compared to the baseline preinfusion state. A cold, supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution may be intravenously administered to improve arterial blood oxygenation and ventilation parameters and induce a mild therapeutic hypothermia in a porcine model.
[Changes in blood gases with temperature: implications for clinical practice].
Tremey, B; Vigué, B
To understand changes in blood gases results with core temperature. Analysis from two case reports. Hypothermia induces a decrease in PaCO(2) with a related increase in pH, thus a physiologic alkalosis. Decrease in PaCO(2) is due to an increase of gas solubility and a decrease of peripheral consumption that can be estimated from comparison between corrected and non-corrected for temperature blood gases. For O(2), variations of temperature induce variations of solubility but also of haemoglobin affinity for O(2). During hyperthermia, haemoglobin affinity for O(2) is decreased with a decreased SvO(2) for a same PvO(2). SvO(2) ischemic or therapeutic thresholds are thus modified with core temperature. Blood gases cannot be understood without patient core temperature. Physiologic variations of PaCO(2) and pH must probably be tolerated. Ischemic threshold should be estimated on PvO(2), not only on PvO(2).
Parameters of Blood Flow in Great Arteries in Hypertensive ISIAH Rats with Stress-Dependent Arterial Hypertension.
Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel', A L
Magnetic resonance angiography was used to examine blood flow in great arteries of hypertensive ISIAH and normotensive Wistar rats. In hypertensive ISIAH rats, increased vascular resistance in the basin of the abdominal aorta and renal arteries as well as reduced fraction of total renal blood flow were found. In contrast, blood flow through both carotid arteries in ISIAH rats was enhanced, which in suggests more intensive blood supply to brain regulatory centers providing enhanced stress reactivity of these rats characterized by stress-dependent arterial hypertension.
Pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with bronchiectasis: pulmonary function, arterial blood gases, and the 6-minute walk test.
van Zeller, Mafalda; Mota, Patrícia Caetano; Amorim, Adelina; Viana, Paulo; Martins, Paula; Gaspar, Luís; Hespanhol, Venceslau; Gomes, Isabel
Information regarding the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on pulmonary function (PF), arterial blood gases (ABG), and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in patients with bronchiectasis is scant in the literature. To evaluate the effects of PR on these indices in this population, a retrospective evaluation of those who attended PR from 2007 to 2010, was made. Pulmonary rehabilitation lasted a mean of 12 weeks and included cycle ergometer exercise for 30 minutes, 3 times per week, with additional upper limbs and quadriceps training. PF, ABG, and 6MWD were evaluated before and after PR to determine the potential influence of gender, exacerbations, underlying cause of bronchiectasis, severity of obstruction, and colonization with bacteria. Forty-one patients (48.8% males; median age, 54 years) were included; 25 had severe obstruction and 19 were colonized with bacteria. Following PR, no significant changes were detected in PF or ABG. Median 6MWD before PR was 425 m and post-PR was 450 m (P = .431). Outcomes did not show any interaction with gender, colonization, or exacerbations. However, patients with idiopathic bronchiectasis did show a significant improvement in forced vital capacity in percent of predicted and residual volume after PR (P = .016 and .048, respectively). Patients with severe obstruction showed a statistically significant decrease in percent of predicted residual volume (P = .025). There appears to be a beneficial impact of PR on PF in certain groups of patients with bronchiectasis. In addition, PR indications and protocols for patients with bronchiectasis may need to be adapted to accommodate specific patients, so that expressive exercise capacity improvement can be achieved.
21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic...
21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic...
21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic...
21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic...
21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic...
Improved Arterial Blood Oxygenation Following Intravenous Infusion of Cold Supersaturated Dissolved Oxygen Solution
Grady, Daniel J; Gentile, Michael A; Riggs, John H; Cheifetz, Ira M
BACKGROUND One of the primary goals of critical care medicine is to support adequate gas exchange without iatrogenic sequelae. An emerging method of delivering supplemental oxygen is intravenously rather than via the traditional inhalation route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas-exchange effects of infusing cold intravenous (IV) fluids containing very high partial pressures of dissolved oxygen (>760 mm Hg) in a porcine model. METHODS Juvenile swines were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Each animal received an infusion of cold (13 °C) Ringer’s lactate solution (30 mL/kg/hour), which had been supersaturated with dissolved oxygen gas (39.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen, 992 mm Hg, 30.5 mL/L). Arterial blood gases and physiologic measurements were repeated at 15-minute intervals during a 60-minute IV infusion of the supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution. Each animal served as its own control. RESULTS Five swines (12.9 ± 0.9 kg) were studied. Following the 60-minute infusion, there were significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in PaCO2 (P < 0.05), with a corresponding normalization in arterial blood pH. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in core body temperature (P < 0.05) when compared to the baseline preinfusion state. CONCLUSIONS A cold, supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution may be intravenously administered to improve arterial blood oxygenation and ventilation parameters and induce a mild therapeutic hypothermia in a porcine model. PMID:25249764
[Ultrasonographic study of blood flow in the renal arteries of patients with arterial hypertension].
Makarenko, E S; Dombrovskiĭ, V I; Nelasov, N Iu
Vascular duplex ultrasound duplex with simultaneous ECG registration was made to estimate the quantitative and time parameters of blood flow in the renal arteries with grade 1-2 arterial hypertension. There were increases in vascular resistance indices and acceleration phase index and a reduction in systolic phase index. There were correlations of the time parameters of blood flow in the renal arteries with age and lipidogram values.
The stability of arterial blood gases during transportation of patients using the RespirTech PRO.
Romano, M; Raabe, O G; Walby, W; Albertson, T E
The transportation of critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation is recognized as a high-risk and expensive procedure. Approaches have included using manual bag-type valve resuscitators and expensive portable transport ventilators. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the inexpensive portable RespirTech PRO (RTP) gas-powered automatic resuscitator during intrahospital transport of critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Twenty medical intensive care patients on stable mechanical ventilator settings had arterial blood gas and vital sign determination before routine transport out of the intensive care unit (ICU). Repeat measurements were made during transport approximately 30 minutes after being placed on the RTP portable pressure-cycled automatic resuscitator using an FiO2 of 100%. During use of the RTP for transport, there were no statistically significant variations observed in mean arterial blood pressure [82 +/- 11 SD (range 65 to 112) mm Hg before transport versus 85 +/- 14 SD (range 59 to 110) mm Hg during transport], heart rate [94 +/- 16 SD (range 74 to 127) beats/min) before versus 96 +/- 17 SD (range 69 to 132) beats/min during], arterial pH [7.41 +/- 0.07 SD (range 7.31 to 7.58) before versus 7.42 +/- 0.05 SD (range 7.37 to 7.52) during], and PaCO2 [43 +/- 10 SD (range 26 to 65) mm Hg before versus 43 +/- 10 SD (range 27 to 61 mm Hg) during]. Because the FiO2 before transport was 63 +/- 26 SD (range 30% to 100%) versus 100% during transport using the RTP, the mean PaO2 was significantly increased from 124 +/- 86 SD (range 57 to 367) mm Hg before transport to 297 +/- 168 SD (range 65 to 537) mm Hg during (P< .001). No transportation associated clinical adverse events were noted. Several previous investigations have shown that portable ventilators are safe and effective in intrahospital transport of mechanically ventilated patients. This study showed that the portable pressure-cycled RTP also allows safe transportation of
An audit of the patient's experience of arterial blood gas testing.
Arterial puncture is the most common method used to obtain a sample for the measurement of arterial blood gases (ABGs) and is essential to guide the prescription of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) in patients with chronic hypoxic lung disease. However, this procedure is often reported by patients as a painful and unpleasant experience, which to date has not been explored. This audit specifically examines the subjective views of a small group of patients (n = 41) who are receiving LTOT who have experienced repeated ABGs. Results demonstrated that 49% (n = 20) were poorly informed regarding what the procedure involved, almost half the patients 49% (n = 20) recalled pain levels of 5 and above on a visual analogue scale and 66% (n = 27) were totally unaware that the test could make a considerable difference to their treatment. While highlighting the deficits in current practice locally, this audit concludes that the respiratory nurse specialist is in an ideal position to implement changes to improve the patient's experience of chronic disease management.
The mixability of angiographic contrast with arterial blood
Lieber, Baruch B.; Sadasivan, Chander; Hao, Qing; Seong, Jaehoon; Cesar, Liliana
Purpose: Angiographic contrast that is routinely injected into arteries is used not only to evaluate arterial geometry but also in many cases to assess perfusion. The authors conducted two experiments to examine the dispersion of angiographic contrast injected antegradely into an artery under conditions similar to those found in selective (carotid artery) or superselective (circle of Willis) angiography in order to determine the distance from the catheter tip at which the contrast can be considered fully mixed with the blood. A third experiment investigated whether the contrast once mixed with blood will separate from the mixture under the gravitational field due to a density mismatch. Methods: Experiment I—Under high-speed angiographic acquisition, a bolus of contrast was injected through a catheter along the flow direction of a blood analog fluid flowing through a straight, long, cylindrical tube. The variation in grayscale intensity along the length of the tube was acquired and modeled as the step response to a second-order system. The distance from the catheter tip at which the contrast mixes with the working fluid, the mixing length, was determined as the length along the tube after which the step response settles to within 3% of the steady state value. Experiment II—A bolus of angiographic contrast was injected at rates varying from 0.1 to 1 cc∕s through three different catheter sizes in the left common carotid artery of three rabbits. The average cross-sectional grayscale intensity over one cardiac cycle was calculated at four locations along the artery: Immediately distal to the catheter tip, at location of maximum grayscale intensity, and at 10 and 20 arterial diameters from the catheter tip. The status of mixing within 10 arterial diameters was assessed by differences between the grayscale value at this location and that at the maximum and 20 arterial diameter location. Experiment III—Angiographic contrast was premixed by agitation in three
Temporal and Spatial Variances in Arterial Spin-Labeling Are Inversely Related to Large-Artery Blood Velocity.
Robertson, A D; Matta, G; Basile, V S; Black, S E; Macgowan, C K; Detre, J A; MacIntosh, B J
The relationship between extracranial large-artery characteristics and arterial spin-labeling MR imaging may influence the quality of arterial spin-labeling-CBF images for older adults with and without vascular pathology. We hypothesized that extracranial arterial blood velocity can explain between-person differences in arterial spin-labeling data systematically across clinical populations. We performed consecutive pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling and phase-contrast MR imaging on 82 individuals (20-88 years of age, 50% women), including healthy young adults, healthy older adults, and older adults with cerebral small vessel disease or chronic stroke infarcts. We examined associations between extracranial phase-contrast hemodynamics and intracranial arterial spin-labeling characteristics, which were defined by labeling efficiency, temporal signal-to-noise ratio, and spatial coefficient of variation. Large-artery blood velocity was inversely associated with labeling efficiency ( P = .007), temporal SNR ( P < .001), and spatial coefficient of variation ( P = .05) of arterial spin-labeling, after accounting for age, sex, and group. Correction for labeling efficiency on an individual basis led to additional group differences in GM-CBF compared to correction using a constant labeling efficiency. Between-subject arterial spin-labeling variance was partially explained by extracranial velocity but not cross-sectional area. Choosing arterial spin-labeling timing parameters with on-line knowledge of blood velocity may improve CBF quantification. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
The effect of firearm muzzle gases on the backspatter of blood.
Taylor, Michael C; Laber, Terry L; Epstein, Barton P; Zamzow, Dan S; Baldwin, David P
Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as "backspatter." Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from the firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.
The Effect of Firearm Muzzle Gases on the Backspatter of Blood
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Taylor, M.C.; Laber, T.L.; Epstein, B.P.
Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as 'backspatter.' Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from themore » firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.« less
21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...
21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...
21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...
21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...
Integrative regulation of human brain blood flow
Willie, Christopher K; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Fisher, Joseph A; Ainslie, Philip N
Herein, we review mechanisms regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF), with specific focus on humans. We revisit important concepts from the older literature and describe the interaction of various mechanisms of cerebrovascular control. We amalgamate this broad scope of information into a brief review, rather than detailing any one mechanism or area of research. The relationship between regulatory mechanisms is emphasized, but the following three broad categories of control are explicated: (1) the effect of blood gases and neuronal metabolism on CBF; (2) buffering of CBF with changes in blood pressure, termed cerebral autoregulation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system in CBF regulation. With respect to these control mechanisms, we provide evidence against several canonized paradigms of CBF control. Specifically, we corroborate the following four key theses: (1) that cerebral autoregulation does not maintain constant perfusion through a mean arterial pressure range of 60–150 mmHg; (2) that there is important stimulatory synergism and regulatory interdependence of arterial blood gases and blood pressure on CBF regulation; (3) that cerebral autoregulation and cerebrovascular sensitivity to changes in arterial blood gases are not modulated solely at the pial arterioles; and (4) that neurogenic control of the cerebral vasculature is an important player in autoregulatory function and, crucially, acts to buffer surges in perfusion pressure. Finally, we summarize the state of our knowledge with respect to these areas, outline important gaps in the literature and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:24396059
Feed artery role in blood flow control to rat hindlimb skeletal muscles.
Williams, D A; Segal, S S
1. Vasomotor tone and reactivity were investigated in feed arteries of the extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles. Feed arteries are located external to the muscle and give rise to the microcirculation within each muscle. Resting diameter was smaller in feed arteries of the soleus muscle. 2. Feed arteries of both muscles dilated to similar peak values with sodium nitroprusside. 3. Micropressure measurements demonstrated resistance to blood flow in the feed arteries supplying both muscles. Feed arteries supplying soleus muscle demonstrated greater resistance to blood flow compared to feed arteries of extensor digitorum longus muscle. 4. Greater resting tone and larger pressure drop for feed arteries of soleus muscle suggest greater range of flow control compared to feed arteries of extensor digitorum longus muscle. 5. In both muscles, feed artery diameter increased with muscle contraction (functional dilatation) and in response to transient ischaemia (reactive dilatation). The magnitude of these responses varied between muscles. 6. Feed arteries are active sites of blood flow control in extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of the rat. These muscles differ in fibre type and recruitment properties. Differences in feed artery reactivity may contribute to differences in blood flow between these muscles observed at rest and during exercise. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8246199
Accuracy of blood-glucose measurements using glucose meters and arterial blood gas analyzers in critically ill adult patients: systematic review
Introduction Glucose control to prevent both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is important in an intensive care unit. Arterial blood gas analyzers and glucose meters are commonly used to measure blood-glucose concentration in an intensive care unit; however, their accuracies are still unclear. Methods We performed a systematic literature search (January 1, 2001, to August 31, 2012) to find clinical studies comparing blood-glucose values measured with glucose meters and/or arterial blood gas analyzers with those simultaneously measured with a central laboratory machine in critically ill adult patients. Results We reviewed 879 articles and found 21 studies in which the accuracy of blood-glucose monitoring by arterial blood gas analyzers and/or glucometers by using central laboratory methods as references was assessed in critically ill adult patients. Of those 21 studies, 11 studies in which International Organization for Standardization criteria, error-grid method, or percentage of values within 20% of the error of a reference were used were selected for evaluation. The accuracy of blood-glucose measurements by arterial blood gas analyzers and glucose meters by using arterial blood was significantly higher than that of measurements with glucose meters by using capillary blood (odds ratios for error: 0.04, P < 0.001; and 0.36, P < 0.001). The accuracy of blood-glucose measurements with arterial blood gas analyzers tended to be higher than that of measurements with glucose meters by using arterial blood (P = 0.20). In the hypoglycemic range (defined as < 81 mg/dl), the incidence of errors using these devices was higher than that in the nonhypoglycemic range (odds ratios for error: arterial blood gas analyzers, 1.86, P = 0.15; glucose meters with capillary blood, 1.84, P = 0.03; glucose meters with arterial blood, 2.33, P = 0.02). Unstable hemodynamics (edema and use of a vasopressor) and use of insulin were associated with increased error of blood glucose monitoring with
Rarefaction and blood pressure in systemic and pulmonary arteries
OLUFSEN, METTE S.; HILL, N. A.; VAUGHAN, GARETH D. A.; SAINSBURY, CHRISTOPHER; JOHNSON, MARTIN
The effects of vascular rarefaction (the loss of small arteries) on the circulation of blood are studied using a multiscale mathematical model that can predict blood flow and pressure in the systemic and pulmonary arteries. We augmented a model originally developed for the systemic arteries (Olufsen et al. 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004) to (a) predict flow and pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and (b) predict pressure propagation along the small arteries in the vascular beds. The systemic and pulmonary arteries are modelled as separate, bifurcating trees of compliant and tapering vessels. Each tree is divided into two parts representing the `large' and `small' arteries. Blood flow and pressure in the large arteries are predicted using a nonlinear cross-sectional area-averaged model for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube with inflow obtained from magnetic resonance measurements. Each terminal vessel within the network of the large arteries is coupled to a vascular bed of small `resistance' arteries, which are modelled as asymmetric structured trees with specified area and asymmetry ratios between the parent and daughter arteries. For the systemic circulation, each structured tree represents a specific vascular bed corresponding to major organs and limbs. For the pulmonary circulation, there are four vascular beds supplied by the interlobar arteries. This manuscript presents the first theoretical calculations of the propagation of the pressure and flow waves along systemic and pulmonary large and small arteries. Results for all networks were in agreement with published observations. Two studies were done with this model. First, we showed how rarefaction can be modelled by pruning the tree of arteries in the microvascular system. This was done by modulating parameters used for designing the structured trees. Results showed that rarefaction leads to increased mean and decreased pulse pressure in the large arteries. Second, we investigated the impact of decreasing vessel
Bedside arterial blood gas monitoring system using fluorescent optical sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartnik, Daniel J.; Rymut, Russell A.
We describe a bedside arterial blood gas (ABG) monitoring system which uses fluorescent optical sensors in the measurement of blood pH, PCO2 and PO2. The Point-of-Care Arterial Blood Gas Monitoring System consists of the SensiCathTM optical sensor unit manufactured by Optical Sensors Incorporated and the TramTM Critical Care Monitoring System with ABG Module manufactured by Marquette Electronics Incorporated. Current blood gas measurement techniques require a blood sample to be removed from the patient and transported to an electrochemical analyzer for analysis. The ABG system does not require removal of blood from the patient or transport of the sample. The sensor is added to the patient's existing arterial line. ABG measurements are made by drawing a small blood sample from the arterial line in sufficient quantity to ensure an undiluted sample at the sensor. Measurements of pH, PCO2 and PO2 are made within 60 seconds. The blood is then returned to the patient, the line flushed and results appear on the bedside monitor. The ABG system offers several advantages over traditional electrochemical analyzers. Since the arterial line remains closed during the blood sampling procedure the patient's risk of infection is reduced and the caregiver's exposure to blood is eliminated. The single-use, disposable sensor can be measure 100 blood samples over 72 hours after a single two-point calibration. Quality Assurance checks are also available and provide the caregiver the ability to assess system performance even after the sensor is patient attached. The ABG module integrates with an existing bedside monitoring system. This allows ABG results to appear on the same display as ECG, respiration, blood pressure, cardiac output, SpO2, and other clinical information. The small module takes up little space in the crowded intensive care unit. Performance studies compare the ABG system with an electrochemical blood gas analyzer. Study results demonstrated accurate and precise blood
20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arterial blood-gas studies. 718.105 Section... blood-gas studies. (a) Blood-gas studies are performed to detect an impairment in the process of... either at rest or during exercise. No blood-gas study shall be performed if medically contraindicated. (b...
[Basic laws of blood screw motion in human common carotid arteries].
Kulikov, V P; Kirsanov, R I
The basic laws of blood screw motion in common carotid arteries in people were determined by means of modern ultrasound techniques for the first time. 92 healthy adults, aged 18-30, were examined. The blood flow in the middle one-third of common carotid arteries was registered by means of Color Doppler Imaging and impulse Doppler with the help of ultrasound Medison 8000EX scanner by linear transducer of 5-9 MHz. The steady registration of blood screw motion in both common carotid arteries in Color Doppler Imaging regimen was observed in 54.3 % of cases. The direction of screw stream rotation in most cases (54%) was multi-directed: in the right common carotid artery it was right, in the left common carotid artery--left (48%), and in 6% of cases it was reverse. For 46% of cases blood rotation in both common carotid arteries was one-directed (26%--right, 20%--left). The velocity parameters of rotation component of blood motion were determined, maximum velocity being 19.68 +/- 5.84 cm/sec, minimum--4.57 +/- 2.89 cm/sec, average--7.48 +/- 2.49 cm/sec, angular--10.7 +/- 2.49 sec(-1). The rated velocity of blood cells motion in screw motion with regard of screw current lines to the vessel vertical axis makes up from 158.67 +/- 32.79 to 224.39 +/- 46.37 cm/sec.
Influence of blood flow velocity on arterial distensibility of carotid artery in healthy men.
Tomoto, Tsubasa; Maeda, Seiji; Sugawara, Jun
Decreased distensibility of carotid artery is independently associated with the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Arterial distensibility is determined by vascular tone. Since shear stress is an important driving force of vasodilatory substances production form endothelial cells, we hypothesized that local basal (i.e., resting) arterial blood flow velocity is associated with regional arterial distensibility. To test this hypothesis, we determined the influence of local blood flow velocity on carotid arterial distensibility in cross-sectional study design. In a total of 73 apparent healthy men (18-64 years), carotid arterial properties, including measures of carotid arterial distensibility and BFV at rest, were evaluated via B-mode and Doppler ultrasound imaging and applanation tonometry system. Carotid arterial peak BFV and the absolute and normalized pulsatile BFV significantly correlated with age (r = -0.453 to -0.600, p < 0.0001), whereas mean and minimum BFV were not influenced by age. Distensibility coefficient of carotid artery correlated with peak BFV (r = 0.305, p < 0.01) and more strongly with pulsatile (i.e., systolic minus end-diastolic) BFV (r = 0.406, p < 0.0001) and the normalized pulsatile BFV by time-averaged velocity (r = 0.591, p < 0.0001). Multi-regression analysis revealed that age (β = -0.57, p < 0.0001) was the primary independent determinant for distensibility coefficient. In addition with this, carotid lumen diameter (β = -0.202, p < 0.01) and the normalized pulsatile BFV (β = 0.237, p < 0.05) were significant independent determinants of distensibility coefficient. Qualitatively similar results (although inverse in direction) were obtained by use of β-stiffness index. These results suggest that greater gradient of blood flow velocity during a cardiac cycle are favorably associated with distensibility of carotid artery.
Distribution of ABO Blood Groups and Coronary Artery Calcium.
Wang, Yao; Zhou, Bing-Yang; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Qing, Ping; Gao, Ying; Liu, Geng; Dong, Qian; Li, Jian-Jun
ABO blood groups have been confirmed to be associated with cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease. However, whether ABO blood group is correlated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) is still unknown. 301 patients with coronary artery calcium score (CACS) assessed by computed tomography were consecutively enrolled and divided into two groups: with calcium group (CACS>0, n=104) and without calcium group (CACS=0, n=197). Distribution of ABO blood groups was evaluated between the two groups. The percentage of A blood type was significantly higher (p=0.008) and O blood type was significantly lower (p=0.037) in the calcium group. Univariate regression analysis showed that age, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, A blood type were positively correlated with CAC, and O blood type was inversely associated with CAC. Multivariate regression analysis showed that A blood type was independently associated with CAC (odds ratio: 2.217, 95% confidence interval: 1.260-3.900, p=0.006) even after further adjustment for variables that were clearly different between the two groups. Our data has suggested for the first time that A blood type was an independent risk marker for CAC. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Comparison of directly measured arterial blood pressure at various anatomic locations in anesthetized dogs.
Acierno, Mark J; Domingues, Michelle E; Ramos, Sara J; Shelby, Amanda M; da Cunha, Anderson F
To determine whether directly measured arterial blood pressure differs among anatomic locations and whether arterial blood pressure is influenced by body position. 33 client-owned dogs undergoing anesthesia. Dogs undergoing anesthetic procedures had 20-gauge catheters placed in both the superficial palmar arch and the contralateral dorsal pedal artery (group 1 [n = 20]) or the superficial palmar arch and median sacral artery (group 2 ). Dogs were positioned in dorsal recumbency, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP) were recorded for both arteries 4 times (2-minute interval between successive measurements). Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency, and blood pressure measurements were repeated. Differences were detected between pressures measured at the 2 arterial sites in both groups. This was especially true for SAP measurements in group 1, in which hind limb measurements were a mean of 16.12 mm Hg higher than carpus measurements when dogs were in dorsal recumbency and 14.70 mm Hg higher than carpus measurements when dogs were in lateral recumbency. Also, there was significant dispersion about the mean for all SAP, DAP, and MAP measurements. Results suggested that arterial blood pressures may be dependent on anatomic location and body position. Because this may affect outcomes of studies conducted to validate indirect blood pressure measurement systems, care must be used when developing future studies or interpreting previous results.
A common humoral background of intraocular and arterial blood pressure dysregulation.
Skrzypecki, Janusz; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Przybek, Joanna; Ufnal, Marcin
It has been postulated that intraocular pressure, an important glaucoma risk factor, correlates positively with arterial blood pressure (blood pressure). However, results of experimental and clinical studies are often contradictory. It is hypothesized that, in some hypertensive patients, disturbances in intraocular pressure regulation may depend on biological effects of blood borne hormones underlying a particular type of hypertension, rather than on blood pressure level itself. This review compares the effects of hormones on blood pressure and intraocular pressure, in order to identify a hormonal profile of hypertensive patients with an increased risk of intraocular pressure surge. The PUBMED database was searched to identify pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the role of angiotensin II, vasopressin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, prostaglandins, and gaseous transmitters in the regulation of blood pressure and intraocular pressure. Studies included in the review suggest that intraocular and blood pressures often follow a different pattern of response to the same hormone. For example, vasopressin increases blood pressure, but decreases intraocular pressure. In contrast, high level of nitric oxide decreases blood pressure, but increases intraocular pressure. Arterial hypertension is associated with altered levels of blood borne hormones. Contradicting results of studies on the relationship between arterial hypertension and intraocular pressure might be partially explained by diverse effects of hormones on arterial and intraocular pressures. Further studies are needed to evaluate if hormonal profiling may help to identify glaucoma-prone patients.
20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood-gas studies. 718.105 Section...-gas studies. (a) Blood-gas studies are performed to detect an impairment in the process of alveolar... at rest or during exercise. No blood-gas study shall be performed if medically contraindicated. (b) A...
Brain Perfusion and Arterial Blood Flow Velocity During Prolonged Body Tilting.
Montero, David; Rauber, Sven
It remains unknown whether brain perfusion is preserved and mirrored by middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCA BFV) during prolonged changes in body posture. Herein, we examined the impact of sustained (180 min) 30° head-up (HUT) and head-down (HDT) tilt on brain perfusion, as determined by MCA BFV and blood flow in the extracranial arteries. In 10 healthy male subjects, arterial diameters, BFVs, and blood flows were determined in the left internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral (VA) arteries using duplex Doppler ultrasound in supine rest, and 5, 20, 60, 120, and 180 min following 30° HUT and HDT. MCA BFV was recorded throughout with transcranial Doppler ultrasound. ICA as well as VA diameters and blood flows were unaltered during HUT. Likewise, brain blood flow and MCA BFV were preserved with HUT. In the HDT protocol, ICA and VA diameters were gradually increased, although ICA, VA, and brain blood flows were preserved. MCA BFV was progressively reduced during HDT. In addition, MCA BFV was positively associated with ICA BFV (β = 0.9) and negatively associated with ICA diameter (β = -125.5). MCA BFV was positively associated with brain blood flow during HUT (β = 0.2) but not HDT. Brain perfusion is preserved whereas MCA BFV is progressively decreased and associated with extracranial arterial BFV during sustained 30° HDT. Therefore, MCA BFV may not be a surrogate of brain perfusion in conditions including prolonged HDT. Montero D, Rauber S. Brain perfusion and arterial blood flow velocity during prolonged body tilting. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):682-687.
Arterial compliance probe for local blood pulse wave velocity measurement.
Nabeel, P M; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar
Arterial compliance and vessel wall dynamics are significant in vascular diagnosis. We present the design of arterial compliance probes for measurement of local pulse wave velocity (PWV). Two designs of compliance probe are discussed, viz (a) a magnetic plethysmograph (MPG) based probe, and (b) a photoplethysmograph (PPG) based probe. The ability of the local PWV probes to consistently capture carotid blood pulse waves is verified by in-vivo trials on few volunteers. The probes could reliably perform repeatable measurements of local PWV from carotid artery along small artery sections less than 20 mm. Further, correlation between the measured values of local PWV using probes and various measures of blood pressure (BP) was also investigated. The study indicates that such arterial compliance probes have strong potential in cuff less BP monitoring.
Ammonia concentrations in arterial blood, venous blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with and without congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.
Or, Matan; Devriendt, Nausikaa; Kitshoff, Adriaan M; Peremans, Kathelijne; Vandermeulen, Eva; Paepe, Dominique; Polis, Ingeborgh; Martlé, Valentine; de Rooster, Hilde
OBJECTIVE To compare ammonia concentrations in arterial blood, venous blood, and CSF samples of dogs with and without extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS). ANIMALS 19 dogs with congenital EHPSS and 6 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs underwent a physical examination and then were anesthetized for transsplenic portal scintigraphy to confirm the presence or absence of EHPSS. While dogs were anesthetized, arterial and venous blood samples and a CSF sample were simultaneously collected for determination of ammonia concentration, which was measured by use of a portable blood ammonia analyzer (device A) and a nonportable biochemical analyzer (device B). Results were compared between dogs with EHPSS and control dogs. RESULTS Arterial, venous, and CSF ammonia concentrations for dogs with EHPSS were significantly greater than those for control dogs. For dogs with EHPSS, ammonia concentrations in both arterial and venous blood samples were markedly increased from the reference range. There was a strong positive correlation between arterial and venous ammonia concentrations and between blood (arterial or venous) and CSF ammonia concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that blood and CSF ammonia concentrations in dogs with EHPSS were greater than those for healthy dogs and were strongly and positively correlated, albeit in a nonlinear manner. This suggested that the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to ammonia may be abnormally increased in dogs with EHPSS, but further investigation of the relationship between blood or CSF ammonia concentration and clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy or the surgical outcome for dogs with EHPSS is warranted.
Patient-specific coronary artery blood flow simulation using myocardial volume partitioning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kang, Dongwoo; Kang, Nahyup; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hyong-Euk; Kim, James D. K.
Using computational simulation, we can analyze cardiovascular disease in non-invasive and quantitative manners. More specifically, computational modeling and simulation technology has enabled us to analyze functional aspect such as blood flow, as well as anatomical aspect such as stenosis, from medical images without invasive measurements. Note that the simplest ways to perform blood flow simulation is to apply patient-specific coronary anatomy with other average-valued properties; in this case, however, such conditions cannot fully reflect accurate physiological properties of patients. To resolve this limitation, we present a new patient-specific coronary blood flow simulation method by myocardial volume partitioning considering artery/myocardium structural correspondence. We focus on that blood supply is closely related to the mass of each myocardial segment corresponding to the artery. Therefore, we applied this concept for setting-up simulation conditions in the way to consider many patient-specific features as possible from medical image: First, we segmented coronary arteries and myocardium separately from cardiac CT; then the myocardium is partitioned into multiple regions based on coronary vasculature. The myocardial mass and required blood mass for each artery are estimated by converting myocardial volume fraction. Finally, the required blood mass is used as boundary conditions for each artery outlet, with given average aortic blood flow rate and pressure. To show effectiveness of the proposed method, fractional flow reserve (FFR) by simulation using CT image has been compared with invasive FFR measurement of real patient data, and as a result, 77% of accuracy has been obtained.
Arterial blood gases during and their dynamic changes after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A prospective clinical study.
Spindelboeck, Walter; Gemes, Geza; Strasser, Christa; Toescher, Kathrin; Kores, Barbara; Metnitz, Philipp; Haas, Josef; Prause, Gerhard
An arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) yields important diagnostic information in the management of cardiac arrest. This study evaluated ABG samples obtained during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (OHCPR) in the setting of a prospective multicenter trial. We aimed to clarify prospectively the ABG characteristics during OHCPR, potential prognostic parameters and the ABG dynamics after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). ABG samples were collected and instantly processed either under ongoing OHCPR performed according to current advanced life support guidelines or immediately after ROSC and data ware entered into a case report form along with standard CPR parameters. During a 22-month observation period, 115 patients had an ABG analysis during OHCPR. In samples obtained under ongoing CPR, an acidosis was present in 98% of all cases, but was mostly of mixed hypercapnic and metabolic origin. Hypocapnia was present in only 6% of cases. There was a trend towards higher paO2 values in patients who reached sustained ROSC, and a multivariate regression analysis revealed age, initial rhythm, time from collapse to CPR initiation and the arterio-alveolar CO2 difference (AaDCO2) to be associated with sustained ROSC. ABG samples drawn immediately after ROSC demonstrated higher paO2 and unaltered pH and base excess levels compared with samples collected during ongoing CPR. Our findings suggest that adequate ventilation and oxygenation deserve more research and clinical attention in the management of cardiac arrest and that oxygen uptake improves within minutes after ROSC. Hyperventilation resulting in arterial hypocapnia is not a major problem during OHCPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effect of pyrrolidone-pyroglutamic acid composition on blood flow in rat middle cerebral artery.
Semkina, G A; Matsievskii, D D; Mirzoyan, N R
We compared the effects of a pyrrolidone-pyroglutamic acid composition and nimodipine on blood circulation in the middle cerebral artery in rats. The composition produced a strong effect on blood supply to the brain, stimulated blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (by 60 +/- 9%) and decreased blood pressure (by 25.0 +/- 2.7%). The cerebrovascular effects of this composition differed from those of nimodipine. Nimodipine not only increased middle cerebral artery blood flow, but also decreased cerebral blood flow in the early period after treatment.
Blood flow changes after unilateral carotid artery ligation monitored by optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yushu; Liang, Chengbo; Suo, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe
Unilateral carotid artery ligation which could induce adaptive improvement is a classic model that has been widely used to study pathology of ischemic disease. In those studies, blood flow is an important parameter to characterize the ischemia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality which can provide depth resolved images in biological tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. SPF rats was anesthetized with isoflurane and divided into two groups. In first group, bilateral carotid artery was surgically exposed, and then left carotid artery was ligated. Blood flow changes of the contralateral carotid artery was monitored using high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography, including the absolute flow velocity and the flow volume. In the other group, skull window was opened at the ipsilateral cerebral cortex of ligation and blood supply of small artery was measured before and after the ligation. The measured results demonstrate the blood supply compensation process after unilateral carotid artery ligation. With the superiority of high resolution, OCT is an effective technology in monitoring results of carotid artery after ligation.
[Electrophysiological markers of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in healthy subjects].
Fokin, V F; Ponomareva, N V; Kuntsevich, G I
to determine electrophysiological markers of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (BFV). transcranial Doppler registration of middle cerebral artery BFV and direct current (DC) potentials recording from surface of head were performed in 30 healthy volunteers. Analysis of correlation between the BFV and DC potentials was used. significant correlation between BFV and DC potential characteristics was observed. The highest correlation was found between BFV in middle cerebral artery and the difference of DC potentials between central and temporal areas of head (r = 0,55; p = 0,003). These areas coincide with the location of middle cerebral artery and the correlation observed may be connected with streaming potential generated by the blood flow in middle cerebral artery. If electrode placement did not coincide with blood current, DC potentials and BFV were not correlated. it is assumed that electrical field created BFV in middle cerebral artery may contribute to the generation of DC potentials registered from the head.
SU-G-IeP1-12: Size Selective Arterial Cerebral Blood Volume Mapping Using Multiple Inversion Time Arterial Spin Labeling
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Jung, Y; Johnston, M; Whitlow, C
Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel method for size specific arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) mapping using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), with multiple TI. Methods: Multiple PCASL images were obtained from a subject with TI of [300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000] ms. Each TI pair was averaged six times. Two scans were performed: one without a flow crusher gradient and the other with a crusher gradient (10cm/s in three directions) to remove signals from large arteries. Scan times were 5min. without a crusher gradient and 5.5 min withmore » a crusher gradient. Non-linear fitting algorithm finds the minimum mean squared solution of per-voxel based aCBV, cerebral blood flow, and arterial transit time, and fits the data into a hemodynamic model that represents superposition of blood volume and flow components within a single voxel. Results: aCBV maps with a crusher gradient represent signals from medium and small sized arteries, while those without a crusher gradient represent signals from all sized arteries, indicating that flow crusher gradients can be effectively employed to achieve size-specific aCBV mapping. Regardless of flow crusher, the CBF and ATT maps are very similar in appearance. Conclusion: Quantitative size selective blood volume mapping controlled by a flow crusher is feasible without additional information because the ASL quantification process doesn’t require an arterial input function measured from a large artery. The size specific blood volume mapping is not interfered by sSignals from large arteries do not interfere with size specific aCBV mapping in the applications of interest in for applications in which only medium or small arteries are of interest.« less
Analysis of artery blood flow before and after angioplasty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomaszewski, Michał; Baranowski, Paweł; Małachowski, Jerzy; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Bukała, Jakub
The study presents a comparison of results obtained from numerical simulations of blood flow in two different arteries. One of them was considered to be narrowed in order to simulate an arteriosclerosis obstructing the blood flow in the vessel, whereas the second simulates the vessel after angioplasty treatment. During the treatment, a biodegradable stent is inserted into the artery, which prevents the vessel walls from collapsing. The treatment was simulated through the use of numerical simulation using the finite element method. The final mesh geometry obtained from the analysis was exported to the dedicated software in order to create geometry in which a flow domain inside the artery with the stent was created. The flow analysis was conducted in ANSYS Fluent software with non-deformable vessel walls.
Can flavonoid-rich chocolate modulate arterial elasticity and pathological uterine artery Doppler blood flow in pregnant women? A pilot study.
von Wowern, Emma; Olofsson, Per
Dark chocolate has shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and might also modulate hypertensive complications in pregnancy and uteroplacental blood flow. Increased uteroplacental resistance is associated with systemic arterial stiffness. We aimed to investigate the short-term effect of flavonoid-rich chocolate on arterial stiffness and Doppler blood flow velocimetry indexes in pregnant women with compromised uteroplacental blood flow. Doppler blood flow velocimetry and digital pulse wave analysis (DPA) were performed in 25 women pregnant in the second and third trimesters with uterine artery (UtA) score (UAS) 3-4, before and after 3 days of ingestion of chocolate with high flavonoid and antioxidant contents. UtA pulsatility index (PI), UtA diastolic notching, UAS (semiquantitative measure of PI and notching combined), and umbilical artery PI were calculated, and DPA variables representing central and peripheral maternal arteries were recorded. Mean UtA PI (p = .049) and UAS (p = .025) significantly decreased after chocolate consumption. There were no significant changes in UtA diastolic notching or any DPA indexes of arterial stiffness/vascular tone. Chocolate may have beneficial effects on the uteroplacental circulation, but in this pilot study, we could not demonstrate effects on arterial vascular tone as assessed by DPA.
Runge-Kutta method for wall shear stress of blood flow in stenosed artery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Ahmad, Rokiah@Rozita
A mathematical model of blood flow through stenotic artery is considered. A stenosis is defined as the partial occlusion of the blood vessels due to the accumulation of cholesterols, fats and the abnormal growth of tissue on the artery walls. The development of stenosis in the artery is one of the factors that cause problem in blood circulation system. This study was conducted to determine the wall shear stress of blood flow in stenosed artery. Modified mathematical model is used to analyze the relationship of the wall shear stress versus the length and height of stenosis. The existing models that have been created by previous researchers are solved using fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Numerical results show that the wall shear stress is proportionate to the length and height of stenosis.
Arterial cord blood lactate at birth correlates with duration of pushing efforts.
Dessolle, Lionel; Lebrec, Jeremie; Daraï, Emile
To evaluate the impact of the duration of pushing efforts on arterial cord blood lactate values. This was a prospective observational study of 124 consecutive normal vaginal deliveries in a tertiary teaching hospital. Arterial cord blood lactate was determined immediately at birth with a test strip method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to check for clinical determinants of lactate levels. The main measure was lactate according to the duration of pushing efforts. Arterial cord lactates increased significantly and were strongly correlated with the duration of pushing efforts, independent of gestational age and birthweight. Women pushing for more than 20 min had higher arterial cord blood lactates (4.9 +/- 1.4 vs. 3.3 +/- 1.16 mM, respectively) and a higher rate of lactates >6 mM (18 vs. 3%) than those pushing for less than 20 min. At normal delivery, arterial cord blood lactates increase significantly with the duration of pushing efforts. Pushing for more than 20 min is associated with an increased risk of metabolic acidosis in the neonate. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical significance of these observations. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Relationship between vertebral artery blood flow in different head positions and vertigo.
Araz Server, Ela; Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Yiğit, Özgür; Yasak, Ahmet Görkem; Erdim, Çağrı
To identify the vertebral artery blood flow in different head positions in patients with positional vertigo with no specific diagnosis. Patients with history of vestibular symptoms associated with changes in head position were enrolled into the study. Healthy volunteers were evaluated as control group. Doppler ultrasonography examination of the cervical segment of the vertebral arteries was performed under three different head positions: (i) supine position, (ii) head hyperextended and rotated to the right side and (iii) head hyperextended and rotated to the left side. In the study group, right and left vertebral artery blood flow was significantly lower in the ipsilateral hyperextended position compared to standard supine position (respectively p = .014; p = .001), but did not differ significantly when compared between the standard supine and contralateral hyperextended positions (respectively = .959; p = .669). In the control group, left and right vertebral artery blood flow did not differ significantly when the head was hyperextended to the right or left sides compared to standard supine position (p > .05). Our data demonstrated that the etiology of vestibular complaints in patients with undiagnosed positional vertigo might be related to impairment in vertebral artery blood flow according to head positions.
Neonatal oxidative stress depends on oxygen blood pressure in umbilical artery.
Proietti, F; De Bernardo, G; Longini, M; Sordino, D; Scaramuzzini, G; Tataranno, M L; Belvisi, E; Bazzini, F; Perrone, S; Buonocore, G
With advancing gestation, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and pH fall significantly. Hypoxia is a main factor inducing free radical generation and thereby oxidative stress (OS). Placental and fetal tissue response when oxygen becomes restricted is complex and partially known. We tested the hypothesis that changes in umbilical artery and vein blood gas concentrations modulate OS occurrence in the newborn. Seventy umbilical artery and vein plasma samples were collected from healthy term newborns immediately after delivery. F2 Isoprostanes (F2-Isop) were measured in all samples as reliable markers of lipid peroxidation. Significantly lower pCO2 and higher pO2 and pH were found in umbilical vein than in artery, as expected. A positive correlation was detected between pH and pO2 only in umbilical artery (p=0.019). F2-Isop levels were no different between artery and vein in cord blood. Significant correlations were found between F2-Isop and pCO2 (p=0.025) as well as between F2-Isop and pH in umbilical vein (p=0.027). F2-Isop correlated with pCO2 (p=0.007) as well as with pO2 values (p=0.005) in umbilical artery blood. Oxidative stress (OS) in newborns depends on oxygen concentrations in umbilical artery. OS biomarkers significantly correlate with pO2 and in umbilical artery but not in umbilical vein. In normoxic conditions fetal-maternal gas exchanges occurring in placenta re-establish normal higher oxygen levels in umbilical vein than artery, with a normal production of free radicals without any deleterious effects.
Functional dilatation and medial remodeling of the renal artery in response to chronic increased blood flow.
Roan, Jun-Neng; Yeh, Chin-Yi; Chiu, Wen-Cheng; Lee, Chou-Hwei; Chang, Shih-Wei; Jiangshieh, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Yu-Chuan; Lam, Chen-Fuh
Renal blood flow (RBF) is tightly regulated by several intrinsic pathways in maintaining optimal kidney blood supply. Using a rat model of aortocaval (AC) fistula, we investigated remodeling of the renal artery following prolonged increased blood flow. An AC fistula was created in the infrarenal aorta of anesthetized rats, and changes of blood flow in the renal artery were assessed using an ultrasonic flow probe. Morphological changes and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the remodeled renal artery were analyzed. Blood flow in the renal artery increased immediately after creation of AC fistula, but normal RBF was restored 8 weeks later. The renal artery dilated significantly 8 weeks after operation. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 was upregulated shortly after blood flow increase, and returned to baseline levels after 3 weeks. Histological sections showed luminal dilatation with medial thickening and endothelial cell-to-smooth muscle cell attachments in the remodeled renal artery. Increased RBF was accommodated by functional dilatation and remodeling in the medial layer of the renal artery in order to restore normal blood flow. Our results provide important mechanistic insight into the intrinsic regulation of the renal artery in response to increased RBF. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Circadian changes in uterine artery and ovarian stromal blood flow after pituitary down-regulation.
Chan, Carina C W; Ng, Ernest H Y; Tang, Oi-Shan; Ho, Pak-Chung
To investigate changes in the uterine artery and ovarian stromal blood flow in relation to the time of the day after pituitary down-regulation during in vitro fertilization treatment. Thirteen women were recruited. The uterine artery blood flow was studied using pulsed color Doppler ultrasonography and the ovarian stromal blood flow was measured using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography. Ultrasound scan examinations and blood pressure measurements were performed in the morning and evening. The diastolic and the mean arterial pressures were significantly higher in the evening. An increase in the uterine artery pulsatility index and resistance index in the evening was observed. The ovarian vascularization index, vascularization flow index, and right ovarian flow index were significantly lower in the evening. Despite the small sample size, we have demonstrated the presence of a diurnal change in uterine artery and ovarian stromal blood flow after pituitary down-regulation. Such changes may be related to the systemic change in the sympathetic system and hence vascular resistance. Future study regarding ovarian stromal blood flow should take into account the effect of the time of the day on the readings in order to avoid misleading interpretation of data.
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia stabilizes mean arterial blood pressure at high-frequency interval in healthy humans.
Elstad, Maja; Walløe, Lars; Holme, Nathalie L A; Maes, Elke; Thoresen, Marianne
Arterial blood pressure variations are an independent risk factor for end organ failure. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a sign of a healthy cardiovascular system. However, whether RSA counteracts arterial blood pressure variations during the respiratory cycle remains controversial. We restricted normal RSA with non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) to test the hypothesis that RSA normally functions to stabilize mean arterial blood pressure. Ten young volunteers were investigated during metronome-paced breathing and IPPV. Heart rate (ECG), mean arterial blood pressure and left stroke volume (finger arterial pressure curve) and right stroke volume (pulsed ultrasound Doppler) were recorded, while systemic and pulmonary blood flow were calculated beat-by-beat. Respiratory variations (high-frequency power, 0.15-0.40 Hz) in cardiovascular variables were estimated by spectral analysis. Phase angles and correlation were calculated by cross-spectral analysis. The magnitude of RSA was reduced from 4.9 bpm(2) (95% CI 3.0, 6.2) during metronome breathing to 2.8 bpm(2) (95% CI 1.1, 5.0) during IPPV (p = 0.03). Variations in mean arterial blood pressure were greater (2.3 mmHg(2) (95% CI 1.4, 3.9) during IPPV than during metronome breathing (1.0 mmHg(2) [95% CI 0.7, 1.3]) (p = 0.014). Respiratory variations in right and left stroke volumes were inversely related in the respiratory cycle during both metronome breathing and IPPV. RSA magnitude is lower and mean arterial blood pressure variability is greater during IPPV than during metronome breathing. We conclude that in healthy humans, RSA stabilizes mean arterial blood pressure at respiratory frequency.
Implantable blood pressure sensor for analyzing elasticity in arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco-Ayala, Marco; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Reyes-Barranca, Alfredo; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Álvarez-Chavez, José A.
MEMS technology could be an option for the development of a pressure sensor which allows the monitoring of several electronic signals in humans. In this work, a comparison is made between the typical elasticity curves of several arteries in the human body and the elasticity obtained for MEMS silicon microstructures such as membranes and cantilevers employing Finite Element analysis tools. The purpose is to identify which types of microstructures are mechanically compatible with human arteries. The goal is to integrate a blood pressure sensor which can be implanted in proximity with an artery. The expected benefits for this type of sensor are mainly to reduce the problems associated with the use of bulk devices through the day and during several days. Such a sensor could give precise blood pressure readings in a continuous or periodic form, i.e. information that is especially important for some critical cases of hypertension patients.
Validation of the pulse decomposition analysis algorithm using central arterial blood pressure
Background There is a significant need for continuous noninvasive blood pressure (cNIBP) monitoring, especially for anesthetized surgery and ICU recovery. cNIBP systems could lower costs and expand the use of continuous blood pressure monitoring, lowering risk and improving outcomes. The test system examined here is the CareTaker® and a pulse contour analysis algorithm, Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA). PDA’s premise is that the peripheral arterial pressure pulse is a superposition of five individual component pressure pulses that are due to the left ventricular ejection and reflections and re-reflections from only two reflection sites within the central arteries. The hypothesis examined here is that the model’s principal parameters P2P1 and T13 can be correlated with, respectively, systolic and pulse pressures. Methods Central arterial blood pressures of patients (38 m/25 f, mean age: 62.7 y, SD: 11.5 y, mean height: 172.3 cm, SD: 9.7 cm, mean weight: 86.8 kg, SD: 20.1 kg) undergoing cardiac catheterization were monitored using central line catheters while the PDA parameters were extracted from the arterial pulse signal obtained non-invasively using CareTaker system. Results Qualitative validation of the model was achieved with the direct observation of the five component pressure pulses in the central arteries using central line catheters. Statistically significant correlations between P2P1 and systole and T13 and pulse pressure were established (systole: R square: 0.92 (p < 0.0001), diastole: R square: 0.78 (p < 0.0001). Bland-Altman comparisons between blood pressures obtained through the conversion of PDA parameters to blood pressures of non-invasively obtained pulse signatures with catheter-obtained blood pressures fell within the trend guidelines of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation SP-10 standard (standard deviation: 8 mmHg(systole: 5.87 mmHg, diastole: 5.69 mmHg)). Conclusions The results indicate that arterial
Evolution of nonlinear waves in a blood-filled artery with an aneurysm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolova, E. V.; Jordanov, I. P.; Dimitrova, Z. I.; Vitanov, N. K.
We discuss propagation of traveling waves in a blood-filled hyper-elastic artery with a local dilatation (an aneurysm). The processes in the injured artery are modeled by an equation of the motion of the arterial wall and by equations of the motion of the fluid (the blood). Taking into account the specific arterial geometry and applying the reductive perturbation method in long-wave approximation we reduce the model equations to a version of the perturbed Korteweg-de Vries kind equation with variable coefficients. Exact traveling-wave solutions of this equation are obtained by the modified method of simplest equation where the differential equation of Abel is used as a simplest equation. A particular case of the obtained exact solution is numerically simulated and discussed from the point of view of arterial disease mechanics.
Noninvasive and continuous blood pressure measurement via superficial temporal artery tonometry.
Canning, Julia; Helbert, Kendall; Iashin, Grigoriy; Matthews, Jonathan; Yang, Jason; Delano, Margaret K; Sodini, Charles G; Quan Zhang
The measurement of blood pressure is an important cardiovascular health assessment, yet the current set of methodologies is limited in resolution, repeatability, accuracy, simplicity, and safety. This paper presents the design and prototype implementation of a novel and easy-to-use medical device for noninvasive and continuous blood pressure monitoring through tonometry at the superficial temporal artery (STA). The device features a stable form factor inspired by over-ear headphones that adjusts easily from person to person using a combination prismatic and rotational joint. A stepper motor and pressure sensor, built into the device, apply a controlled force to flatten the artery and measure the wearer's blood pressure. The design is fully wireless, using Bluetooth communication to connect to a custom control and monitoring interface on the user's laptop that allows for easy calibration and real-time measurement. Preliminary testing of the device showed a percentage error from a blood pressure cuff mean arterial pressure measurement of 7.7% (7.0 mmHg). This was also compared to a Nexfin vascular unloading device, which showed a percentage error from the blood pressure cuff of 7.3% (6.6 mmHg).
Pulsatile blood flow in elastic artery with model aneurysm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolov, N.; Radev, St.; Tabakova, S.
The mathematical modeling and numerical simulations are expected to play an important role to predict the genesis of different cardiovascular diseases, such as the formation and rupture of aneurysms. In the present work, the numerical solutions of the oscillatory blood flow are constructed for an elastic artery with a model aneurysm by use of the software ANSYS. It is observed that the artery elastic strain behaves in a different way: stably or unstably depending on the different combinations between the flow parameter (outlet pressure) and the elastic modulus of the artery wall.
The conundrum of arterial stiffness, elevated blood pressure, and aging.
AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G
Isolated systolic hypertension is a major health burden that is expanding with the aging of our population. There is evidence that central arterial stiffness contributes to the rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP); at the same time, central arterial stiffening is accelerated in patients with increased SBP. This bidirectional relationship created a controversy in the field on whether arterial stiffness leads to hypertension or vice versa. Given the profound interdependency of arterial stiffness and blood pressure, this question seems intrinsically challenging, or probably naïve. The aorta's function of dampening the pulsatile flow generated by the left ventricle is optimal within a physiological range of distending pressure that secures the required distal flow, keeps the aorta in an optimal mechanical conformation, and minimizes cardiac work. This homeostasis is disturbed by age-associated, minute alterations in aortic hemodynamic and mechanical properties that induce short- and long-term alterations in each other. Hence, it is impossible to detect an "initial insult" at an epidemiological level. Earlier manifestations of these alterations are observed in young adulthood with a sharp decline in aortic strain and distensibility accompanied by an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Subsequently, aortic mechanical reserve is exhausted, and aortic remodeling with wall stiffening and dilatation ensue. These two phenomena affect pulse pressure in opposite directions and different magnitudes. With early remodeling, there is an increase in pulse pressure, due to the dominance of arterial wall stiffness, which in turn accelerates aortic wall stiffness and dilation. With advanced remodeling, which appears to be greater in men, the effect of diameter becomes more pronounced and partially offsets the effect of wall stiffness leading to plateauing in pulse pressure in men and slower increase in pulse pressure (PP) than that of wall stiffness in women. The complex nature of
Allergic rhinitis and arterial blood pressure: a population-based study.
Sakallioglu, O; Polat, C; Akyigit, A; Cetiner, H; Duzer, S
To investigate the likelihood of allergic rhinitis and potential co-morbidities, and to assess whether allergic rhinitis is associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension. In this population-based study, 369 adults with allergic rhinitis and asthma were assessed via a questionnaire and immunoglobulin E levels. There were four groups: control (n = 90), allergic rhinitis (n = 99), asthma (n = 87) and hypertension (n = 93). Arterial blood pressure was measured in all groups. There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between males and females in any group. Pairwise comparisons revealed no significant differences between: the control and allergic rhinitis groups, the control and asthma groups, or the allergic rhinitis and asthma groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of males and females were significantly higher in the hypertension group than the allergic rhinitis group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure for seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis patients. Rhinitis was not associated with increased blood pressure. Allergic rhinitis can coincide with asthma and hypertension. The findings do not support the need for blood pressure follow up in allergic rhinitis patients.
Planning-free cerebral blood flow territory mapping in patients with intracranial arterial stenosis
Arteaga, Daniel F; Strother, Megan K; Davis, L Taylor; Fusco, Matthew R; Faraco, Carlos C; Roach, Brent A; Scott, Allison O
A noninvasive method for quantifying cerebral blood flow and simultaneously visualizing cerebral blood flow territories is vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI. However, obstacles to acquiring such information include limited access to the methodology in clinical centers and limited work on how clinically acquired vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling data correlate with gold-standard methods. The purpose of this work is to develop and validate a semiautomated pipeline for the online quantification of cerebral blood flow maps and cerebral blood flow territories from planning-free vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI with gold-standard digital subtraction angiography. Healthy controls (n = 10) and intracranial atherosclerotic disease patients (n = 34) underwent 3.0 T MRI imaging including vascular (MR angiography) and hemodynamic (cerebral blood flow-weighted arterial spin labeling) MRI. Patients additionally underwent catheter and/or CT angiography. Variations in cross-territorial filling were grouped according to diameters of circle of Willis vessels in controls. In patients, Cohen’s k-statistics were computed to quantify agreement in perfusion patterns between vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling and angiography. Cross-territorial filling patterns were consistent with circle of Willis anatomy. The intraobserver Cohen's k-statistics for cerebral blood flow territory and digital subtraction angiography perfusion agreement were 0.730 (95% CI = 0.593–0.867; reader one) and 0.708 (95% CI = 0.561–0.855; reader two). These results support the feasibility of a semiautomated pipeline for evaluating major neurovascular cerebral blood flow territories in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27389177
Cerebral blood flow velocity declines before arterial pressure in patients with orthostatic vasovagal presyncope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dan, Dan; Hoag, Jeffrey B.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Wood, Mark A.; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Gilligan, David M.
OBJECTIVES: We studied hemodynamic changes leading to orthostatic vasovagal presyncope to determine whether changes of cerebral artery blood flow velocity precede or follow reductions of arterial pressure. BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that disordered cerebral autoregulation contributes to the occurrence of orthostatic vasovagal syncope. We studied cerebral hemodynamics with transcranial Doppler recordings, and we closely examined the temporal sequence of changes of cerebral artery blood flow velocity and systemic arterial pressure in 15 patients who did or did not faint during passive 70 degrees head-up tilt. METHODS: We recorded photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, RR intervals (electrocardiogram) and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities (mean, total, mean/RR interval; Gosling's pulsatility index; and cerebrovascular resistance [mean cerebral velocity/mean arterial pressure, MAP]). RESULTS: Eight men developed presyncope, and six men and one woman did not. Presyncopal patients reported light-headedness, diaphoresis, or a sensation of fatigue 155 s (range: 25 to 414 s) before any cerebral or systemic hemodynamic change. Average cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) changes (defined by an iterative linear regression algorithm) began 67 s (range: 9 to 198 s) before reductions of MAP. Cerebral and systemic hemodynamic measurements remained constant in nonsyncopal patients. CONCLUSIONS: Presyncopal symptoms and CBFV changes precede arterial pressure reductions in patients with orthostatic vasovagal syncope. Therefore, changes of cerebrovascular regulation may contribute to the occurrence of vasovagal reactions.
Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David
Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p < 10(-4)). A weak positive relationship was found between blood glucose and breath acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.
Relationship between the Direction of Ophthalmic Artery Blood Flow and Ocular Microcirculation before and after Carotid Artery Stenting.
Ishii, Masashi; Hayashi, Morito; Yagi, Fumihiko; Sato, Kenichiro; Tomita, Goji; Iwabuchi, Satoshi
When internal carotid artery stenosis is accompanied by ocular ischemic syndrome, intervention is recommended to prevent irreversible visual loss. In this study, we used laser speckle flowgraphy to measure the ocular microcirculation in the optic nerve head before and after carotid artery stenting (CAS) of 40 advanced internal carotid stenosis lesions from 37 patients. The aim was to investigate the relationship between ocular microcirculation and the direction of ophthalmic artery blood flow obtained by angiography. We found that there was a significant increase in blood flow after CAS ( P = 0.003). Peak systolic velocity as an indicator of the rate of stenosis was also significantly higher in the group with retrograde/undetected flow of the ophthalmic artery than in the group with antegrade flow ( P = 0.002). In all cases where retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery was observed before stenting, the flow changed to antegrade after stenting. Through the use of laser speckle flowgraphy, this study found that CAS can improve ocular microcirculation. Furthermore, while patients displaying retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery before stenting have a poor prognosis, CAS corrected the flow to antegrade, suggesting that visual loss can be prevented by improving the ocular microcirculation.
Changes in blood flow due to stented parent artery expansion in an intracranial aneurysm.
Mori, Futoshi; Ohta, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Teruo
Stent placement is thought to obstruct the inflow of blood to an aneurysm. However, we introduced parent artery expansion and demonstrated that this may reduce the blood flow by the stent. In our previous study using idealized shapes, the results showed that flow reduction was greater than 22.2%, even if the expansion rate was only 6%. Furthermore, the parent artery expansion is predominantly caused by the effect of flow reduction as compared to that of flow reduction due to the obstruction of flow under stent placement. However, a realistic shape is complex and the blood flow also becomes complex flow. It is not understood whether the results of flow in the idealized shape are reflective of flow from a realistic 3D model. Therefore, we examined the effect of parent artery expansion using a realistic model. The aim is to clarify the effects of parent artery expansion on inflow rate, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index. We used a patient-specific geometry of a human internal carotid artery with an aneurysm. The geometry of parent artery expansion due to oversized stent constructed based on the voronoi diagram. We performed calculations in the unsteady-state situations using constructed models. The complexity of the flow in the aneurysm decreases in case of expanded parent artery. The inflow rate decreases by 33.6% immediately after parent artery expansion alone without a stent. The effect of the parent artery expansion on flow reduction is larger than that of the obstruction flow by stent placement. In addition, wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index on the aneurysm wall decrease by change in blood flow due to the parent artery expansion. The effects of the parent artery expansion in a realistic aneurysm model with different stent lengths were evaluated on the basis of a numerical simulation. Although the flow was complex, the parent artery expansion with stent reduces the inflow to the aneurysm and wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index on
Age, arterial stiffness, and components of blood pressure in Chinese adults.
Zheng, Meili; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Fan, Fangfang; Cui, Wei; Yang, Xinchun
Blood pressure (BP) changes with age. We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Chinese adults to investigate: (1) what is the relationship between age, arterial stiffness, and BP in Chinese men and women; and (2) to what degree can the age-BP relationship be explained by arterial stiffness, controlling for other covariables. These analyses included a total of 1688 subjects (males/females: 623/1065), aged 40 to 88 years. Among them, 353 (20.9%) had hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). baPWV appeared to be more strongly correlated with BP (including SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure [MAP], pulse pressure [PP]) than age (P < 0.001 for comparisons between Spearman correlation coefficients). Furthermore, baPWV was associated with BP (including SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP) and risk of hypertension in a dose-response fashion, independent of age; in contrast, the age-BP associations were either attenuated or became negative after adjusting for baPWV. Arterial stiffness appears to be an independent contributor to hypertension, even after adjusting for age and other covariables. In contrast, age-BP associations became attenuated or negative after adjusting for baPWV. The utility of baPWV as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic indicator for hypertension warrants further investigation.
[Study on relationship between blood supply from pulmonary artery and pathological characteristics of patients with primary bronchogenic carcinoma].
Zhang, Yongkui; Le, Hanbo; Chen, Zhijun; Wang, Chaoye; Zhang, Binjie
At present, it has been known that the bronchogenic artery participates in the blood supply of primary bronchogenic carcinoma, but there is controversy about the blood supply from pulmonary artery in primary bronchogenic carcinoma. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the blood supply from pulmonary artery and pathological characteristis of patients with primary bronchogenic carcinoma. The pulmonary arteries in 43 surgical samples of bronchogenic carcinoma were marked, then the iopromide was used to selective pulmonary arteriography in digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The relationship between tumor with blood supply from pulmonary artery and the pathologic characteristics was observed. There were 34 samples with blood supply from pulmonary artery ( 79.07%) , and 9 samples without blood supply from pulmonary artery (20.93%). The development rate of peripheral lung cancer (100.00%) was significantly higher than that of central lung cancer (64.00%) (P < 0.01) . The development rate of squamous cell carcinoma (91.30%) was remarkably higher than that of adenocarcinoma (61.11%) (P < 0.05). The development rate of poorly differentiated lung cancer (95.00%) was remarkably higher than that of well and moderately differentiated lung cancer (65.22%) (P < 0.05). There was a positive relationship between the tumor size and the development rate (P < 0.05). In primary bronchogenic carcinoma, the pulmonary artery blood supply exists in most of tumors. There is relationship between the blood supply from pulmonary artery and general type, histopathology, cell differentiation and tumor size of lung cancer. The blood supply from pulmonary artery doesn't relate to tumor stage.
[Features of arterial blood pressure in elderly persons of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk].
Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S
The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.
Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.
The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.
Dynamics of the blood flow in the curved artery with the rolling massage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, H. H.; Wu, X. H.; Yao, Y. L.
Arterial wall shear stress and flow velocity are important factors in the development of some arterial diseases. Here, we aim to investigate the dynamic effect of the rolling massage on the property of the blood flow in the curved artery. The distributions of flow velocity and shear stress for the blood flow are computed by the lattice Boltzmann method, and the dynamic factors under different rolling techniques are studied numerically. The study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the massage techniques.
Neurogenic regulation of cochlear blood flow occurs along the basilar artery, the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and at branch points of the spiral modiolar artery.
Wangemann, Philine; Wonneberger, Kai
The cochlea receives its main blood supply from the basilar artery via the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the spiral modiolar artery. Morphologic studies have shown sympathetic innervation along the spiral modiolar artery of the gerbil and the guinea pig and functional studies in the isolated in vitro superfused spiral modiolar artery of the gerbil have demonstrated norepinephrine-induced vasoconstrictions via alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptors. It is current unclear whether the sympathetic innervation is physiologically relevant. Stimulation of sympathetic ganglia in guinea pigs has been shown to alter cochlear blood flow in situ. Whether these changes originated from local or more systemic changes in the vascular diameter remained uncertain. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate the presence or absence of neurogenic changes in the diameter of the isolated in vitro superfused spiral modiolar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery and basilar artery from the gerbil and the guinea pig. Vascular diameter was monitored by videomicroscopy. Electric field stimulation was used to elicit neurotransmitter release. A reversible inhibitory effect of 10(-6) M tetrodotoxin was taken as criterion to discriminate between neurogenic and myogenic changes in vascular diameter. Mesentery arteries of comparable diameter, which are known to respond with a neurogenic vasoconstriction to electric field stimulation, served as controls. Basilar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, spiral modiolar artery and mesentery arteries constricted in response to electric field stimulation. No dilations were observed. Myogenic and neurogenic vasoconstrictions were observed in all vessels. These observations suggest that the sympathetic innervation of the basilar artery, the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and branch points of the spiral modiolar artery is involved in a physiologically relevant control of the vascular diameter in the gerbil and the guinea pig.
Simulations of blood flow through a stenosed carotid artery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundin, Staffan; Meder, Samuel; Metcalfe, Ralph
The human carotid artery is often the site of the formation of atherosclerotic lesions that can lead to severe reduction of blood flow to the brain, frequently resulting in a stroke. There is strong evidence that hemodynamic variables such as the wall shear stress and its spatial and temporal derivatives play a role in fostering atherosclerosis. To investigate the potential of these effects, we have performed unsteady, three-dimensional numerical simulations of blood flow through the carotid bifurcation in the presence of stenoses of varying degrees and eccentricities. The simulations indicate that regions of low maximum and minimum shear stress correlate better with lesion prone sites than low average wall shear stress. As the degree of stenosis increases, it is found that the downstream flow changes drastically for stenoses greater than about 25Downstream eddies are generated during systole that create local shear stress peaks on the internal carotid artery wall, resulting in significant reduction in flow rates through the internal carotid artery. Large secondary flows develop, and there are also periods of flow reversal during the systolic/diastolic cycle.
Cerebral blood flow response to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kern, F.H.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Quill, T.J.
We examined the relationship of changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide on cerebral blood flow responsiveness in 20 pediatric patients undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Cerebral blood flow was measured during steady-state hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with the use of xenon 133 clearance methodology at two different arterial carbon dioxide tensions. During these measurements there was no significant change in mean arterial pressure, nasopharyngeal temperature, pump flow rate, or hematocrit value. Cerebral blood flow was found to be significantly greater at higher arterial carbon dioxide tensions (p less than 0.01), so that for every millimeter of mercury rise in arterial carbonmore » dioxide tension there was a 1.2 ml.100 gm-1.min-1 increase in cerebral blood flow. Two factors, deep hypothermia (18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and reduced age (less than 1 year), diminished the effect carbon dioxide had on cerebral blood flow responsiveness but did not eliminate it. We conclude that cerebral blood flow remains responsive to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children; that is, increasing arterial carbon dioxide tension will independently increase cerebral blood flow.« less
Nonfunctioning adrenal incidentaloma affecting central blood pressure and arterial stiffness parameters.
Akkan, Tolga; Altay, Mustafa; Ünsal, Yasemin; Dağdeviren, Murat; Beyan, Esin
Recently, cardiovascular risk is thought to be increased in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI). There are no sufficient studies in the literature to evaluate this situation in NFAI patients without cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study is to compare peripheral and central blood pressure and arterial stiffness between patients with NFAI and healthy volunteers (of a similar age, gender and body mass index as the NFAI group) who have no traditional cardiovascular risk factors and autonomous cortisol secretion, with pulse wave analysis (PWA). In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 35 NFAI patients who have no traditional cardiovascular risk factors and 35 healthy volunteers. PWA was performed in the participants of similar gender, age and body mass index, with a Mobil-O-Graph PWA/ABPM (I.E.M. GmBH, Stolberg, Germany) device. Radiological and biochemical data were obtained retrospectively in the NFAI group. In our study, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central SBP, central DBP, peripheral vascular resistance, augmentation pressure (AP), heart rate-corrected augmentation index (Aix@75) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) values were significantly higher in the NFAI group compared to the control group. In addition, peripheral and central blood pressure and arterial stiffness parameters were correlated with age and duration of NFAI diagnosis of more than 1 year. NFAIs are known as cardiometabolically innocent, but in our study, both peripheral and central blood pressure values and arterial stiffness parameters were negatively affected in patients diagnosed with NFAI who have no traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These patients are at risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures
networks were trained to predict an individual’s electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure ( ABP ) waveform data, which can potentially help...various ESN architectures for prediction tasks, and establishes the benefits of using ESN architecture designs for predicting ECG and ABP waveforms...arterial blood pressure ( ABP ) waveforms immediately prior to the machine generated alarms. When tested, the algorithm suppressed approximately 59.7
Measurement of T1 of human arterial and venous blood at 7T.
Rane, Swati D; Gore, John C
Techniques for measuring cerebral perfusion require accurate longitudinal relaxation (T1) of blood, an MRI parameter that is field dependent. T1 of arterial and venous human blood was measured at 7T using three different sources - pathology laboratory, blood bank and in vivo. The T1 of venous blood was measured from sealed samples from a pathology lab and in vivo. Samples from a blood bank were oxygenated and mixed to obtain different physiological concentrations of hematocrit and oxygenation. T1 relaxation times were estimated using a three-point fit to a simple inversion recovery equation. At 37°C, the T1 of blood at arterial pO2 was 2.29±0.1s and 2.07±0.12 at venous pO2. The in vivo T1 of venous blood, in three subjects, was slightly longer at 2.45±0.11s. T1 of arterial and venous blood at 7T was measured and found to be significantly different. The T1 values were longer in vivo than in vitro. While the exact cause for the discrepancy is unknown, the additives in the blood samples, degradation during experiment, oxygenation differences, and the non-stagnant nature of blood in vivo could be potential contributors to the lower values of T1 in the venous samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bronchial blood supply after lung transplantation without bronchial artery revascularization.
Nicolls, Mark R; Zamora, Martin R
This review discusses how the bronchial artery circulation is interrupted following lung transplantation and what may be the long-term complications of compromising systemic blood flow to allograft airways. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the loss of airway microcirculations is highly associated with the development of airway hypoxia and an increased susceptibility to chronic rejection. The bronchial artery circulation has been highly conserved through evolution. Current evidence suggests that the failure to routinely perform bronchial artery revascularization at the time of lung transplantation may predispose patients to develop the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.
Persistent Increase in Blood Pressure After Renal Nerve Stimulation in Accessory Renal Arteries After Sympathetic Renal Denervation.
de Jong, Mark R; Hoogerwaard, Annemiek F; Gal, Pim; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Heeg, Jan-Evert; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoit; Lau, Elizabeth O Y; Staessen, Jan A; Persu, Alexandre; Elvan, Arif
Blood pressure response to renal denervation is highly variable, and the proportion of responders is disappointing. This may be partly because of accessory renal arteries too small for denervation, causing incomplete ablation. Renal nerve stimulation before and after renal denervation is a promising approach to assess completeness of renal denervation and may predict blood pressure response to renal denervation. The objective of the current study was to assess renal nerve stimulation-induced blood pressure increase before and after renal sympathetic denervation in main and accessory renal arteries of anaesthetized patients with drug-resistant hypertension. The study included 21 patients. Nine patients had at least 1 accessory renal artery in which renal denervation was not feasible. Renal nerve stimulation was performed in the main arteries of all patients and in accessory renal arteries of 6 of 9 patients with accessory arteries, both before and after renal sympathetic denervation. Renal nerve stimulation before renal denervation elicited a substantial increase in systolic blood pressure, both in main (25.6±2.9 mm Hg; P<0.001) and accessory (24.3±7.4 mm Hg; P=0.047) renal arteries. After renal denervation, renal nerve stimulation-induced systolic blood pressure increase was blunted in the main renal arteries (Δ systolic blood pressure, 8.6±3.7 mm Hg; P=0.020), but not in the nondenervated renal accessory renal arteries (Δ systolic blood pressure, 27.1±7.6 mm Hg; P=0.917). This residual source of renal sympathetic tone may result in persistent hypertension after ablation and partly account for the large response variability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Weaning mechanical ventilation after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft procedures directed by noninvasive gas measurements.
Chakravarthy, Murali; Narayan, Sandeep; Govindarajan, Raghav; Jawali, Vivek; Rajeev, Subramanyam
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen were transcutaneously measured in adults after off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. The clinical use of such measurements and interchangeability with arterial blood gas measurements for weaning patients from postoperative mechanical ventilation were assessed. This was a prospective observational study. Tertiary referral heart hospital. Postoperative OPCAB surgical patients. Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide measurements. In this prospective observational study, 32 consecutive adult patients in a tertiary care medical center underwent OPCAB surgery. Noninvasive measurement of respiratory gases was performed during the postoperative period and compared with arterial blood gases. The investigator was blinded to the reports of arterial blood gas studies and weaned patients using a "weaning protocol" based on transcutaneous gas measurement. The number of patients successfully weaned based on transcutaneous measurements and the number of times the weaning process was held up were noted. A total of 212 samples (pairs of arterial and transcutaneous values of oxygen and carbon dioxide) were obtained from 32 patients. Bland-Altman plots and mountain plots were used to analyze the interchangeability of the data. Twenty-five (79%) of the patients were weaned from the ventilator based on transcutaneous gas measurements alone. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide measurements were found to be interchangeable with arterial carbon dioxide during 96% of measurements, versus 79% for oxygen measurements. More than three fourths of the patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation and extubated based on transcutaneous gas values alone after OPCAB surgery. The noninvasive transcutaneous carbon dioxide measurement can be used as a surrogate for arterial carbon dioxide measurement to manage postoperative OPCAB patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Does blood transfusion affect intermediate survival after coronary artery bypass surgery?
Mikkola, R; Heikkinen, J; Lahtinen, J; Paone, R; Juvonen, T; Biancari, F
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of transfusion of blood products on intermediate outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery. Complete data on perioperative blood transfusion in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were available from 2001 patients who were operated at our institution. Transfusion of any blood product (relative risk = 1.678, 95% confidence interval = 1.087-2.590) was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. The additive effect of each blood product on all-cause mortality (relative risk = 1.401, 95% confidence interval = 1.203-1.630) and cardiac mortality (relative risk = 1.553, 95% confidence interval = 1.273-1.895) was evident when the sum of each blood product was included in the regression models. However, when single blood products were included in the regression model, transfusion of fresh frozen plasma/Octaplas® was the only blood product associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk = 1.692, 95% confidence interval = 1.222-2.344) and cardiac mortality (relative risk = 2.125, 95% confidence interval = 1.414-3.194). The effect of blood product transfusion was particularly evident during the first three postoperative months. Since follow-up was truncated at 3 months, transfusion of any blood product was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality (relative risk = 2.998, 95% confidence interval = 1.053-0.537). Analysis of patients who survived or had at least 3 months of potential follow-up showed that transfusion of any blood product was not associated with a significantly increased risk of intermediate all-cause mortality (relative risk = 1.430, 95% confidence interval = 0.880-2.323). Transfusion of any blood product is associated with a significant risk of all-cause and cardiac mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery. Such a risk seems to be limited to the early postoperative period and diminishes later on. Among blood products, perioperative use of fresh frozen
Evaluation of arterial digital blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy dairy cows.
Müller, H; Heinrich, M; Mielenz, N; Reese, S; Steiner, A; Starke, A
Local circulatory disturbances have been implicated in the development of foot disorders in cattle. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasonography and to investigate quantitative arterial blood flow variables at that site in dairy cows. An Esaote MyLabOne ultrasound machine with a 10-MHz linear transducer was used to assess blood flow in the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs of 22 healthy German Holstein cows. The cows originated from three commercial farms and were restrained in a standing hoof trimming chute without sedation. A PW Doppler signal suitable for analysis was obtained in 17 of 22 cows. The blood flow profiles were categorised into four curve types, and the following quantitative variables were measured in three uniform cardiac cycles: vessel diameter, pulse rate, maximum systolic velocity, maximum diastolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, reverse velocity, maximum time-averaged mean velocity, blood flow rate, resistance index and persistence index. The measurements did not differ among cows from the three farms. Maximum systolic velocity, vessel diameter and pulse rate did not differ but other variables differed significantly among blood flow profiles. Differences in weight-bearing are thought to be responsible for the normal variability of blood flow profiles in healthy cows. The scanning technique used in this report for evaluation of blood flow in the interdigital artery appears suitable for further investigations in healthy and in lame cows.
Blood pressure evaluation using sphygmomanometry assisted by arterial pulse waveform detection by fiber Bragg grating pulse device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharath, Umesh; Sukreet, Raju; Apoorva, Girish; Asokan, Sundarrajan
We report a blood pressure evaluation methodology by recording the radial arterial pulse waveform in real time using a fiber Bragg grating pulse device (FBGPD). Here, the pressure responses of the arterial pulse in the form of beat-to-beat pulse amplitude and arterial diametrical variations are monitored. Particularly, the unique signatures of pulse pressure variations have been recorded in the arterial pulse waveform, which indicate the systolic and diastolic blood pressure while the patient is subjected to the sphygmomanometric blood pressure examination. The proposed method of blood pressure evaluation using FBGPD has been validated with the auscultatory method of detecting the acoustic pulses (Korotkoff sounds) by an electronic stethoscope.
Agreement between invasive blood pressures measured in three peripheral arteries in anaesthetized horses under clinical conditions.
Wilson, Keely A T; Raisis, Anthea L; Drynan, Eleanor A; Lester, Guy D; Hosgood, Giselle L
To determine agreement between invasive blood pressures measured in three peripheral arteries in anaesthetized horses undergoing elective surgery. Prospective balanced incomplete block design. A total of 18 client-owned horses. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) was measured simultaneously in one of the following three combinations: 1) transverse facial and facial artery; 2) transverse facial and metatarsal artery; and 3) facial and metatarsal artery. The agreement in blood pressure measured for each combination was performed in six horses. At each sample time, systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial pressures were measured concurrently in each artery, and the mean of three consecutive measurements was recorded. The position of horse, heart rate and use of dobutamine were also recorded. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between sites. A total of 54 paired measurements were obtained, with 18 paired measurements from each combination. All paired measurements showed poor and haphazard (nonsystematic) agreement. The widest limit of agreement was 51 mmHg for SAP measured in the facial artery and metatarsal artery, with a bias of -11 mmHg. The smallest limit of agreement was 16 mmHg for MAP measured in the transverse facial and metatarsal artery, with a bias of 1 mmHg. There was poor and haphazard agreement for SAP, MAP and DAP measured in each pair of peripheral arteries in this study. These results show that blood pressure measured in different peripheral arteries cannot be used interchangeably. This has implications for studies that use IBP as an outcome variable and studies determining agreement between noninvasive blood pressure and IBP measurements in horses under general anaesthesia. Copyright © 2018 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effects of graded changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide tension on coronary blood velocity independent of myocardial energy demand.
Boulet, Lindsey M; Stembridge, Mike; Tymko, Michael M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Foster, Glen E
In humans, coronary blood flow is tightly regulated by microvessels within the myocardium to match myocardial energy demand. However, evidence regarding inherent sensitivity of the microvessels to changes in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen is conflicting because of the accompanied changes in myocardial energy requirements. This study aimed to investigate the changes in coronary blood velocity while manipulating partial pressures of end-tidal CO2 (Petco2) and O2 (Peto2). It was hypothesized that an increase in Petco2 (hypercapnia) or decrease in Peto2 (hypoxia) would result in a significant increase in mean blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery (LADVmean) due to an increase in both blood gases and energy demand associated with the concomitant cardiovascular response. Cardiac energy demand was assessed through noninvasive measurement of the total left ventricular mechanical energy. Healthy subjects (n = 13) underwent a euoxic CO2 test (Petco2 = -8, -4, 0, +4, and +8 mmHg from baseline) and an isocapnic hypoxia test (Peto2 = 64, 52, and 45 mmHg). LADVmean was assessed using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Hypercapnia evoked a 34.6 ± 8.5% (mean ± SE; P < 0.01) increase in mean LADVmean, whereas hypoxia increased LADVmean by 51.4 ± 8.8% (P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regressions revealed that both mechanical energy and changes in arterial blood gases are important contributors to the observed changes in LADVmean (P < 0.01). In summary, regulation of the coronary vasculature in humans is mediated by metabolic changes within the heart and an inherent sensitivity to arterial blood gases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Carotid Artery Stenting and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Subjects with Chronic Carotid Artery Stenosis.
Szarmach, Arkadiusz; Halena, Grzegorz; Kaszubowski, Mariusz; Piskunowicz, Maciej; Studniarek, Michal; Lass, Piotr; Szurowska, Edyta; Winklewski, Pawel J
Failure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical event in the development and progression of diseases such as acute ischemic stroke, chronic ischemia or small vessels disease that affect the central nervous system. It is not known whether BBB breakdown in subjects with chronic carotid artery stenosis can be restrained with postoperative recovery of cerebral perfusion. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term effect of internal carotid artery stenting on basic perfusion parameters and permeability surface area-product (PS) in such a population. Forty subjects (23 males) with stenosis of >70% within a single internal carotid artery and neurological symptoms who underwent a carotid artery stenting procedure were investigated. Differences in the following computed tomography perfusion (CTP) parameters were compared before and after surgery: global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP) and PS. PS acquired by CTP is used to measure the permeability of the BBB to contrast material. In all baseline cases, the CBF and CBV values were low, while MTT and TTP were high on both the ipsi- and contralateral sides compared to reference values. PS was approximately twice the normal value. CBF was higher (+6.14%), while MTT was lower (-9.34%) on the contralateral than on the ipsilateral side. All perfusion parameters improved after stenting on both the ipsilateral (CBF +22.66%; CBV +18.98%; MTT -16.09%, TTP -7.62%) and contralateral (CBF +22.27%, CBV +19.72%, MTT -14.65%, TTP -7.46%) sides. PS decreased by almost half: ipsilateral -48.11%, contralateral -45.19%. The decline in BBB permeability was symmetrical on the ipsi- and contralateral sides to the stenosis. Augmented BBB permeability can be controlled by surgical intervention in humans.
Multiscale Simulation of Blood Flow in Brain Arteries with an Aneurysm
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Leopold Grinberg; Vitali Morozov; Dmitry A. Fedosov
Multi-scale modeling of arterial blood flow can shed light on the interaction between events happening at micro- and meso-scales (i.e., adhesion of red blood cells to the arterial wall, clot formation) and at macro-scales (i.e., change in flow patterns due to the clot). Coupled numerical simulations of such multi-scale flow require state-of-the-art computers and algorithms, along with techniques for multi-scale visualizations.This animation presents results of studies used in the development of a multi-scale visualization methodology. First we use streamlines to show the path the flow is taking as it moves through the system, including the aneurysm. Next we investigate themore » process of thrombus (blood clot) formation, which may be responsible for the rupture of aneurysms, by concentrating on the platelet blood cells, observing as they aggregate on the wall of the aneurysm.« less
WE-FG-206-05: New Arterial Spin Labeling Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Arterial Cerebral Blood Volume, Cerebral Blood Flow and Arterial Transit Time
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Johnston, M; Whitlow, C; Jung, Y
Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) method for simultaneously measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial transit time (ATT), and arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) without the use of a contrast agent. Methods: A series of multi-TI ASL images were acquired from one healthy subject on a 3T Siemens Skyra, with the following parameters: PCASL labeling with variable TI [300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000] ms, labeling bolus 1400 ms when TI allows, otherwise 100 ms less than TI, TR was minimized for each TI, two sincmore » shaped pre-saturation pulses were applied in the imaging plane immediately before 2D EPI acquisition. 64×64×24 voxels, 5 mm slice thickness, 1 mm gap, full brain coverage, 6 averages per TI, no crusher gradients, 11 ms TE, scan time of 4:56. The perfusion weighted time-series was created for each voxel and fit to a novel model. The model has two components: 1) the traditional model developed by Buxton et al., accounting for CBF and ATT, and 2) a box car function characterizing the width of the labeling bolus, with variable timing and height in proportion to the aCBV. All three parameters were fit using a nonlinear fitting routine that constrained all parameters to be positive. The main purpose of the high-temporal resolution TI sampling for the first second of data acquisition was to precisely estimate the blood volume component for better detection of arrival time and magnitude of signal. Results: Whole brain maps of CBF, ATT, and aCBV were produced, and all three parameters maps are consistent with similar maps described in the literature. Conclusion: Simultaneous mapping of CBF, ATT, and aCBV is feasible with a clinically tractable scan time (under 5 minutes).« less
Effects of three postexercice recovery treatments on femoral artery blood flow kinetics.
Ménétrier, A; Mourot, L; Degano, B; Bouhaddi, M; Walther, G; Regnard, J; Tordi, N
This study aimed to compare the kinetics of muscle leg blood flow during three recovery treatments following a prolonged exercise: contrast water therapy (CWT), compression stockings (CS) or passive recovery (PR). Fifteen men came to the laboratory three times to perform a 45-min exercise followed 5 min after by a standardized 12-min recovery treatment in upright position, alternating between two vats every 2 min: CWT (cold: ~12 °C to warm: 36 °C), CS (~20 mmHg) or PR. The order of treatments was randomized. Blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasound during the recovery treatments (i.e., min 3, 5, 7 and 9) in the superficial femoral artery distally to the common bifurcation (~3 cm) (above the water and stocking). Blood flow was significantly higher during CWT (P<0.01; +22.91%) and CS (P<0.05; +15.26%) than during PR. Although no statistical difference between CWT and CS was observed, effect sizes were larger during CWT (large) than during CS (moderate). No changes in blood flow occurred in the femoral artery between hot and cold transitions of CWT. During immediate recovery of a high intensity exercise, CWT and CS trigger higher femoral artery blood flow than PR. Moreover, effect sizes were greater during CWT than during CS.
CHANGES OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN ACUTE RADIATION DISEASE
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Acute experiments were done in cats and chronic experiments in dogs. The cats were subjected to whole-body x irradiation with a dose of 1500 r, and were examined on the third day after irradiation, when radiation disease was fully developed. Reflexes from the baro- and chemoreceptors were investigated, and arterial blood pressure was recorded in the irradiated cats after intravenous administration of adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, Regitine, atropine, or Pendiomid. Dogs were subjected to whole-body irradiation with 800 r,; changes in arterial blood pressure, which occurred after the administration of neurohormones, were investigated before and after irradiation. Pressor reflexesmore » in irradiated cats, elicited by clamping and unclamping of both common carotid arteries, corresponded to a rise from 129.6 to 141.4 mm Hg, as compared to pressor reflexes in nonirradiated cats from 106.6 to 146. Reflexes from carotid sinus chemoreceptors evoked by 0.5% KCl were also weaker in irradiated cats. The results of both the acute and chronic experiments indicate that circulatory changes occur in radiation disease. The changes mainly involve responses of the circulatory system to neurohormones and stimulation of vascular baro- and chemoreceptors. (TCO)« less
Assessing the blood pressure waveform of the carotid artery using an ultrasound image processing method
Fatouraee, Nasser; Saberi, Hazhir
Purpose The aim of this study was to introduce and implement a noninvasive method to derive the carotid artery pressure waveform directly by processing diagnostic sonograms of the carotid artery. Methods Ultrasound image sequences of 20 healthy male subjects (age, 36±9 years) were recorded during three cardiac cycles. The internal diameter and blood velocity waveforms were extracted from consecutive sonograms over the cardiac cycles by using custom analysis programs written in MATLAB. Finally, the application of a mathematical equation resulted in time changes of the arterial pressure. The resulting pressures were calibrated using the mean and the diastolic pressure of the radial artery. Results A good correlation was found between the mean carotid blood pressure obtained from the ultrasound image processing and the mean radial blood pressure obtained using a standard digital sphygmomanometer (R=0.91). The mean absolute difference between the carotid calibrated pulse pressures and those measured clinically was -1.333±6.548 mm Hg. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that consecutive sonograms of the carotid artery can be used for estimating a blood pressure waveform. We believe that our results promote a noninvasive technique for clinical applications that overcomes the reproducibility problems of common carotid artery tonometry with technical and anatomical causes. PMID:27776401
[Effects of medullary ischemia on respiratory and blood pressure induced by ligating basilar artery in cat].
Zhuang, Xu; Guo, Jun-Xia; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Zheng, Yu
Observations on medullary ischemia region, the morphology of neurons and changes of respiration and blood pressure were made, in order to give evidences on how medullary ischemia affects respiration and circulation and give some advices on how to protect from it. Using cats as the experimental animals, the different parts of the basilar artery trunk were ligated. The changes in the density of blood vessels, the morphology of neurons in the brainstem, the electromyogram (EMG) of the diaphragm and the blood pressure of the femoral artery were investigated. The density of blood vessels notably decreased in the medulla after ligating the basilar artery trunk. The ischemic range induced by ligation of the different parts of the basilar artery trunk overlapped, mainly locating in the medulla rostral to the obex. The soma were swelled and the Nissl bodies decreased in some of neurons in the ischemic region of medulla. The duration of inspiration (T1) and expiration (TE) shortened, respiratory frequency (RF) increased, and mean blood pressure (MBP) decreased in the experimental groups (P < 0.05). There is an obvious overlap of the areas in which blood supplied by different parts of the basilar artery trunk. Medullary ischemia can involve in changes of respiration and blood pressure. The ischemic damage of neurons in the medulla might be the structural basis of the changes in the respiratory and circulatory functions.
Blood transfusions may impair endothelium-dependent vasodilatation during coronary artery bypass surgery.
Rungatscher, Alessio; Milani, Elisabetta; Covajes, Cecilia; Hallström, Seth; Gottin, Leonardo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Faggian, Giuseppe
The hemolytic product free-hemoglobin (fHb) reduces nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The present study aims to establish whether administration of different blood transfusions result in increased circulating fHb levels and NO consumption with effects on arterial NO-dependent blood flow in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Ninety-five consecutive patients undergoing elective CABG surgery were prospectively divided in four groups based on blood transfusion requirements during surgery: stored blood cells (SBC, n. 21), intraoperative autologous salvaged blood (ASB, n. 25), SBC and ASB (n.22), no transfusion (control, n. 27). Blood samples were collected before and after intervention to analyse plasma levels of fHb and NO consumption. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was assessed in left internal mammary artery (LIMA) rings harvested before chest closure. Peripheral artery tonometry was assessed after intervention. Transfusions with SBC increased plasma fHb (p<0.05). Transfusions of ASB resulted in higher plasma fHb compared to SBC (p<0.01). fHb concentrations directly correlated with NO consumption (r=0.65, p<0.001). Maximal endothelium-dependent relaxation in LIMA was significantly attenuated in SBC and ASB patients compared to control (15.2±3.1% vs 21.1±2.5% vs 43±5.0% respectively; p<0.01). Significant correlations were identified between the aortic pressure wave velocity, plasma fHb concentration and NO consumption (p<0.01). Intraoperative blood transfusions and particularly autologous salvaged blood impair endothelium-dependent relaxation through NO scavenging by fHb. These findings obtained in vitro and in vivo provide new insights into the adverse relation between blood transfusions and patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Analysis of blood flow in the long posterior ciliary artery of the cat.
Koss, M C
Experiments were undertaken to use a new technique for direct on-line measurement of blood flow in the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) in cats and to evaluate possible physiological mechanisms controlling blood flow in the vascular beds perfused by this artery. Blood flow in the temporal LPCA was measured on a continuous basis using ultrasonic flowmetry in anesthetized cats. Effects of acute sectioning of the sympathetic nerve and changes in LPCA and cerebral blood flows in response to altered levels of inspired CO2 and O2 were tested in some animals. In others, the presence of vascular autoregulatory mechanisms in response to stepwise elevations of intraocular pressure was studied. Blood flow in the temporal LPCA averaged 0.58+/-0.03 ml/min in 45 cats anesthetized with pentobarbital. Basal LPCA blood flow was not altered by acute sectioning of the sympathetic nerve or by changes in low levels of inspired CO2 and O2, although 10% CO2 caused a modest increase. Stepwise elevations of intraocular pressure resulted in comparable stepwise decreases of LPCA blood flow, with perfusion pressure declining in a linear manner throughout the perfusion-pressure range. Ultrasonic flowmetry seems to be a useful tool for continuous on-line measurement of LPCA blood flow in the cat eye. Blood flow to vascular beds perfused by this artery does not seem to be under sympathetic neural control and is refractory to modest alterations of blood gas levels of CO2 and O2. Blood vessels perfused by the LPCA show no clear autoregulatory mechanisms.
Algorithm-based arterial blood sampling recognition increasing safety in point-of-care diagnostics.
Peter, Jörg; Klingert, Wilfried; Klingert, Kathrin; Thiel, Karolin; Wulff, Daniel; Königsrainer, Alfred; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schenk, Martin
To detect blood withdrawal for patients with arterial blood pressure monitoring to increase patient safety and provide better sample dating. Blood pressure information obtained from a patient monitor was fed as a real-time data stream to an experimental medical framework. This framework was connected to an analytical application which observes changes in systolic, diastolic and mean pressure to determine anomalies in the continuous data stream. Detection was based on an increased mean blood pressure caused by the closing of the withdrawal three-way tap and an absence of systolic and diastolic measurements during this manipulation. For evaluation of the proposed algorithm, measured data from animal studies in healthy pigs were used. Using this novel approach for processing real-time measurement data of arterial pressure monitoring, the exact time of blood withdrawal could be successfully detected retrospectively and in real-time. The algorithm was able to detect 422 of 434 (97%) blood withdrawals for blood gas analysis in the retrospective analysis of 7 study trials. Additionally, 64 sampling events for other procedures like laboratory and activated clotting time analyses were detected. The proposed algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 0.97, a precision of 0.96 and an F1 score of 0.97. Arterial blood pressure monitoring data can be used to perform an accurate identification of individual blood samplings in order to reduce sample mix-ups and thereby increase patient safety.
Reducing the risk of fatal and disabling hypoglycaemia: a comparison of arterial blood sampling systems.
Brennan, K A; Eapen, G; Turnbull, D
In 2008, the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) published a report after 42 incidents and two deaths where glucose-containing flush solutions were attached to the arterial line. The molar concentration of 5% glucose is 277 mmol litre(-1). Only a tiny amount of sample contamination will lead to an artificially high glucose. As the NPSA sought a solution, a bench model was constructed to compare the performance of three open and three closed arterial line systems in limiting sample contamination. All arterial line systems were set up in a standard manner and pressurized to 300 mm Hg with 5% glucose used as the flush solution. This was connected to the 'radial artery' using an 18 G needle representing the radial cannula. The radial artery was simulated using a wide-bore extension set with 'blood' flow at 60 ml min(-1). Blood was simulated by the addition of red dye to Hartmann's solution. Increasing multiples of arterial line dead space were aspirated and discarded. Blood samples were then obtained and glucose concentration was measured. Significant glucose contamination (3 mmol litre(-1) +/-3.4) was detected in all open arterial line systems up to an aspiration volume of five times the dead space. No samples from the closed systems recorded glucose concentration >1 mmol litre(-1). Recommended minimal discard volumes are inadequate in the presence of glucose as the flush solution and can lead to high blood glucose readings, inappropriate insulin use, and iatrogenic neuroglycopaenia. Our study demonstrates that the closed-loop arterial sampling system could be the universal solution sought by the NPSA.
20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.105 Arterial... exercise); (7) Duration and type of exercise; (8) Pulse rate at the time the blood sample was drawn; (9... table in Appendix C is administered during a hospitalization which ends in the miner's death, then any...
20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.105 Arterial... exercise); (7) Duration and type of exercise; (8) Pulse rate at the time the blood sample was drawn; (9... table in Appendix C is administered during a hospitalization which ends in the miner's death, then any...
20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.105 Arterial... exercise); (7) Duration and type of exercise; (8) Pulse rate at the time the blood sample was drawn; (9... table in Appendix C is administered during a hospitalization which ends in the miner's death, then any...
... its own vascular system, called coronary circulation. The aorta (the main blood supplier to the body) branches ... blood to the rest of the body. Tags: aorta , arteries , blood , coronary arteries , coronary artery , coronary artery ...
Use of Inert Gases to Study the Interaction of Blood Flow and Diffusion during Passive Absorption from the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Rat
Levitt, Michael D.; Levitt, David G.
Measurement of the relative absorption rates of inert gases (H2, He, CH4, SF6, and 133Xe) was used to investigate the interaction between diffusion and blood flow during passive absorption from the stomach, small bowel, and colon of the rat. If uptake is blood flow limited, the gases should be absorbed in proportion to their solubilities in blood, but if diffusion limited, uptake should be proportional to the diffusion rate of the gases in mucosal tissues. The observed absorption data were fitted to a series of models of interaction between perfusion and diffusion. A simple model accurately predicted the absorption rates of the gases from all segments of bowel. In this model, gas is absorbed into two distinct blood flows: one which flows in proximity to the lumen and completely equilibrates with the lumen, and a second which is sufficiently rapid and distant from the lumen that its gas uptake is entirely diffusion limited. The fraction of the total absorption attributable to the equilibrating flow can be readily calculated and equalled 93%, 77%, and 33% for the small bowel, colon, and stomach, respectively. Thus the rate of passive absorption of gases from the small bowel is limited almost entirely by the blood flow to the mucosa, and absorption from the stomach is largely limited by the diffusion rate of the gases. The flow which equilibrates with the lumen can be quantitated, and this flow may provide a useful measure of “effective” mucosal blood flow. Images PMID:4719667
[Evaluation of the arterial blood flow parameters in the eye of myopic patients].
Mrugacz, Małgorzata; Bryl, Anna
Myopia is a common refractive defect. Has a good vision from near and deterioration of vision with increasing distance. The main reason for its occurrence is too long axis of the eyeball. The consequence of elongation of the eyeball is the development of degenerative changes in the retina. Despite much research has failed to clearly identify the causes of degenerative changes in those short-sighted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the maximum and minimum speed in arterial blood vessels of the eye in people with myopia. The study included 70 patients (138 eyes), 53 women and 17 men, aged from 18 to 79 years, with myopia of -0.25 to -18.0 Dsph and length of the eyeball from 22.61 to 33.36 mm. Depending on the kind and the degree of the progress of degenerative changes, patients were divided in 4 groups: I - without degenerative changes on the fundus (n=32; K-23, M-9); II- with the short-sighted sickle (n=20; K-14, M-6); Ill - with the structure thinned down of the retina, accompanying the short-sighted sickle (n = 8; K-6, M-2); IV - with extensive choroidal-retina disappearances in the fundus (n = 10; K-7, M-3). In all individuals enrolled underwent Color Doppler ultrasound with apparatus SSA 770A Toshiba Aplio with linear probe frequency 12 MHz, judging maximum (Vmax) and minimum (Vmin) speed in the arteries of the eye: ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA) and short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCA) located on the nasal and temporal side of the optic disc. The results were statistically analyzed. No statistically significant relationship between the nature of degenerative changes of the eye, and blood velocity in the OA. There was a increase in Vmax and Vmin blood in OA in Group IV, but these changes were not statistically significant. Statistically significant correlation was observed while in the CRA. With a decrease in Vmax and Vmin of blood flowing through a vessel exacerbation of retinal degeneration. Vmax and Vmin changes in the blood did
Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow in experimental cerebral oedema1
Miller, J. D.; Ledingham, I. McA.; Jennett, W. B.
Increased intracranial pressure was induced in anaesthetized dogs by application of liquid nitrogen to the dura mater. Intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow were measured, together with arterial blood pressure and arterial and cerebral venous blood gases. Carbon dioxide was administered intermittently to test the responsiveness of the cerebral circulation, and hyperbaric oxygen was delivered at intervals in a walk-in hyperbaric chamber, pressurized to two atmospheres absolute. Hyperbaric oxygen caused a 30% reduction of intracranial pressure and a 19% reduction of cerebral blood flow in the absence of changes in arterial PCO2 or blood pressure, but only as long as administration of carbon dioxide caused an increase in both intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow. When carbon dioxide failed to influence intracranial pressure or cerebral blood flow then hyperbaric oxygen had no effect. This unresponsive state was reached at high levels of intracranial pressure. Images PMID:5497875
Metabolic liver function measured in vivo by dynamic (18)F-FDGal PET/CT without arterial blood sampling.
Horsager, Jacob; Munk, Ole Lajord; Sørensen, Michael
Metabolic liver function can be measured by dynamic PET/CT with the radio-labelled galactose-analogue 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose ((18)F-FDGal) in terms of hepatic systemic clearance of (18)F-FDGal (K, ml blood/ml liver tissue/min). The method requires arterial blood sampling from a radial artery (arterial input function), and the aim of this study was to develop a method for extracting an image-derived, non-invasive input function from a volume of interest (VOI). Dynamic (18)F-FDGal PET/CT data from 16 subjects without liver disease (healthy subjects) and 16 patients with liver cirrhosis were included in the study. Five different input VOIs were tested: four in the abdominal aorta and one in the left ventricle of the heart. Arterial input function from manual blood sampling was available for all subjects. K*-values were calculated using time-activity curves (TACs) from each VOI as input and compared to the K-value calculated using arterial blood samples as input. Each input VOI was tested on PET data reconstructed with and without resolution modelling. All five image-derived input VOIs yielded K*-values that correlated significantly with K calculated using arterial blood samples. Furthermore, TACs from two different VOIs yielded K*-values that did not statistically deviate from K calculated using arterial blood samples. A semicircle drawn in the posterior part of the abdominal aorta was the only VOI that was successful for both healthy subjects and patients as well as for PET data reconstructed with and without resolution modelling. Metabolic liver function using (18)F-FDGal PET/CT can be measured without arterial blood samples by using input data from a semicircle VOI drawn in the posterior part of the abdominal aorta.
Blood Cultures Drawn From Arterial Catheters Are Reliable for the Detection of Bloodstream Infection in Critically Ill Children.
Berger, Itay; Gil Margolis, Merav; Nahum, Elhanan; Dagan, Ovdi; Levy, Itzhak; Kaplan, Eytan; Shostak, Eran; Shmuelov, Esther; Schiller, Ofer; Kadmon, Gili
Arterial catheters may serve as an additional source for blood cultures in children when peripheral venipuncture is challenging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of cultures obtained through indwelling arterial catheters for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections in critically ill pediatric patients. Observational and comparative. General and cardiac ICUs of a tertiary, university-affiliated pediatric medical center. The study group consisted of 138 patients admitted to the general or cardiac PICU in 2014-2015 who met the following criteria: presence of an indwelling arterial catheter and indication for blood culture. Blood was drawn by peripheral venipuncture and through the arterial catheter for each patient and sent for culture (total 276 culture pairs). Two specialists blinded to the blood source evaluated each positive culture to determine if the result represented true bloodstream infection or contamination. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the arterial catheter and peripheral cultures for the diagnosis of bloodstream infection were calculated. Of the 56 positive cultures, 41 (15% of total samples) were considered diagnostic of true bloodstream infection. In the other 15 (5%), the results were attributed to contamination. The rate of false-positive results was higher for arterial catheter than for peripheral venipuncture cultures (4% vs 1.5%) but did not lead to prolonged unnecessary antibiotic treatment. On statistical analysis, arterial catheter blood cultures had high sensitivity (85%) and specificity (95%) for the diagnosis of true bloodstream infection, with comparable performance to peripheral blood cultures. Cultures of arterial catheter-drawn blood are reliable for the detection of bloodstream infection in PICUs.
Understanding the Impact of Arterial Stenosis on Blood Flow through a Tissue
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prakash, Elapulli Sankaranarayanan
This article arises from the author's experience helping medical students apply core biophysical principles toward understanding cardiovascular physiology. The purpose of the article is illustrate how the effect of an arterial stenosis on blood flow to tissue supplied exclusively by the stenosed artery should be assessed. This discussion was…
Effect of Blood Shear Forces on Platelet Mediated Thrombosis Inside Arterial Stenosis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shear induced activation of platelets plays a major role in the onset of thrombosis in atherosclerotic arteries. Blood hemodynamics and its effect on platelet kinetics has been studied mainly in in vitro and in ex vivo experiments. We designed new in vivo methods to study blood hemodynamic effects on platelet kinetics in canine stenosed carotid arteries. A carotid artery-jugular vein anastomotic shunt was produced. Intimal damage and controlled variations in the degree of stenosis were produced on the artery. An inflatable cuff was placed around the jugular vein to control vascular resistance. An electromagnetic flowmeter was used to measure blood flow. Doppler ultrasound crystals were used to measure the velocity profiles inside and distal to the stenosis. Stenosis geometry was obtained using digital subtraction angiography and quantitative arteriography. Using these measurements we calculated the wall shear stress using the finite difference solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. To study platelet kinetics, autologous platelets were labeled with Indium Oxine and injected IV. A collimated Nal gamma counter was placed over the stenosis to detect radio-labeled platelet accumulation as platelet mediated thrombi formed in the stenosis. The radioactive count rate increased in an inverse parallel fashion to the decline in flow rate during thrombus formation. The platelet accumulation increased with the increase of percent stenosis and was maximal at the narrow portion of the stenosis. Acute thrombus formation leading to arterial occlusion was only observed for stenosis higher than 70 +/- 5%. Platelet accumulation rate was not significant until the pressure gradient across the stenosis exceeded 40 +/- 10 mmHg. Totally occlusive thrombus formation was only observed for shear stresses greater than a critical value of 100 +/- 10 Pa. Beyond this critical value acute platelet thrombus formation increased exponentially with shear. Increased shear stresses were found to
[Influence of Sympathetic Denervation of the Renal Artery on the Level of Arterial Blood Pressure, Cerebral Blood Flow and Cognitive Function In Patients With Resistant Arterial Hypertension].
Efimova, Y N; Lichikaki, A V; Lishmanov, B Y
To study the effect of radiofrequency ablation of renal arteries on regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in patients with resistant arterial hypertension (AH). Transcatheter renal denervation (TRD) was performed in 17 patients with resistant AH. Examination before and after TRD included SPECT with mTc-HMPAO, 24-hours blood pressure (BP) monitoring, and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Fifteen patients without angiographic signs of carotid atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and AH, neurological and psychiatric disorders were investigated as control group. Compared with control group patients with AH had decreases of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in right (by 13.5%, p=0.00002) and left (by 15.5%, p=0.0006) inferior frontal lobes, in right temporal brain region (by 11.5%, p=0.008); in right and left occipital lobes (by 8.2%, p=0.04). In 6 months after TRD we observed significant improvement of cognitive function, parameters of 24-hour BP monitoring, and rCBF. We also noted definite close interdependence between changes of rCBF, indices of 24-hours BP monitoring, and dynamics of cognitive function. Improvement of long-term verbal memory correlated with increases of rCBF in left superior frontal and right occipital regions while dynamics of mentation and attention correlated positively with augmentation of rCBF in right posterior parietal region. Changes of perfusion in inferior parts of left frontal lobe and in right occipital region correlated with dynamics of index of diurnal diastolic hypertension time (R2=0.64, p=0.001, and R2=0.60, p=0.03, respectively). Our results suggest, that in patients with resistant AH positive effect of TRD on levels of 24-hour mean BP as well as on indices of BP load leads to in augmentation of rCBF and improvement of cognitive function.
Energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure for powering embedded brain sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanda, Aditya; Karami, M. Amin
This paper investigates energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure via the piezoelectric effect by using a novel streaked cylinder geometry for the purpose of powering embedded micro-sensors in the brain. Initially, we look at the energy harvested by a piezoelectric cylinder placed inside an artery acted upon by blood pressure. Such an arrangement would be tantamount to constructing a stent out of piezoelectric materials. A stent is a cylinder placed in veins and arteries to prevent obstruction in blood flow. The governing equations of a conductor coated piezoelectric cylinder are obtained using Hamilton's principle. Pressure acting in arteries is radially directed and this is used to simplify the modal analysis and obtain the transfer function relating pressure to the induced voltage across the surface of the harvester. The power harvested by the cylindrical harvester is obtained for different shunt resistances. Radially directed pressure occurs elsewhere and we also look at harvesting energy from oil flow in pipelines. Although the energy harvested by the cylindrical energy harvester is significant at resonance, the natural frequency of the system is found to be very high. To decrease the natural frequency, we propose a novel streaked stent design by cutting it along the length, transforming it to a curved plate and decreasing the natural frequency. The governing equations corresponding to the new geometry are derived using Hamilton's principle and modal analysis is used to obtain the transfer function.
[What nurses with a bachelor of nursing degree know about the classification of arterial blood pressure and sequellae of arterial hypertension].
Grabowska, Hanna; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Grabowski, Władysław; Grzegorczyk, Michał; Gaworska-Krzemińska, Aleksandra; Swietlik, Dariusz
Arterial hypertension is among the most important risk factors of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular pathology with a prevalence rate estimated at 20-30% of the adult population. Nowadays, it is recommended to perform an individual assessment of cardiovascular risk in a patient and to determine the threshold value for arterial hypertension, even though blood pressure classification values according to the European Society of Hypertension and the European Society of Cardiology (ESH/ESC), as well as the Polish Society of Hypertension (PTNT) have remained unchanged. To determine what nurses with a Bachelor of Nursing degree know about the prevalence and classification of arterial blood pressure, as well as sequellae of arterial hypertension. This study was done in 116 qualified nurses (112 females, 4 males; age 21-50; seniority 0-29 years). The research period was from June 2007 to January 2008. The research tool was a questionnaire devised by the authors. We found that half (on the average) of those questioned have an up-to-date knowledge regarding classification of blood pressure and prevalence of arterial hypertension but just one out of three respondents (on the average) was able to describe its sequellae. Relatively less known among nurses with a Bachelor of Nursing degree were aspects of "white coat hypertension". Statistically significant differences regarding correct answers were noted depending on seniority (p = 0.002), place of work p < 0.001), or position (p < 0.001). There were no differences depending on age, place of residence, marital status, or form of postgraduate education of nurses with a Bachelor of Nursing degree. It is necessary to improve knowledge among students of nursing (BN degree) about current classification of blood pressure, as well as prevalence of arterial hypertension and its sequellae.
Blood Pressure and Arterial Load After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis.
Lindman, Brian R; Otto, Catherine M; Douglas, Pamela S; Hahn, Rebecca T; Elmariah, Sammy; Weissman, Neil J; Stewart, William J; Ayele, Girma M; Zhang, Feifan; Zajarias, Alan; Maniar, Hersh S; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Blackstone, Eugene; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja M; Tuzcu, E Murat; Leon, Martin B; Pibarot, Philippe
After aortic valve replacement, left ventricular afterload is often characterized by the residual valve obstruction. Our objective was to determine whether higher systemic arterial afterload-as reflected in blood pressure, pulsatile and resistive load-is associated with adverse clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Total, pulsatile, and resistive arterial load were measured in 2141 patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with TAVR in the PARTNER I trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) who had systolic blood pressure (SBP) and an echocardiogram obtained 30 days after TAVR. The primary end point was 30-day to 1-year all-cause mortality. Lower SBP at 30 days after TAVR was associated with higher mortality (20.0% for SBP 100-129 mm Hg versus 12.0% for SBP 130-170 mm Hg; P <0.001). This association remained significant after adjustment, was consistent across subgroups, and confirmed in sensitivity analyses. In adjusted models that included SBP, higher total and pulsatile arterial load were associated with increased mortality ( P <0.001 for all), but resistive load was not. Patients with low 30-day SBP and high pulsatile load had a 3-fold higher mortality than those with high 30-day SBP and low pulsatile load (26.1% versus 8.1%; hazard ratio, 3.62; 95% confidence interval, 2.36-5.55). Even after relief of valve obstruction in patients with aortic stenosis, there is an independent association between post-TAVR blood pressure, systemic arterial load, and mortality. Blood pressure goals in patients with a history of aortic stenosis may need to be redefined. Increased pulsatile arterial load, rather than blood pressure, may be a target for adjunctive medical therapy to improve outcomes after TAVR. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00530894. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Corrections of arterial input function for dynamic H215O PET to assess perfusion of pelvic tumours: arterial blood sampling versus image extraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lüdemann, L.; Sreenivasa, G.; Michel, R.; Rosner, C.; Plotkin, M.; Felix, R.; Wust, P.; Amthauer, H.
Assessment of perfusion with 15O-labelled water (H215O) requires measurement of the arterial input function (AIF). The arterial time activity curve (TAC) measured using the peripheral sampling scheme requires corrections for delay and dispersion. In this study, parametrizations with and without arterial spillover correction for fitting of the tissue curve are evaluated. Additionally, a completely noninvasive method for generation of the AIF from a dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) acquisition is applied to assess perfusion of pelvic tumours. This method uses a volume of interest (VOI) to extract the TAC from the femoral artery. The VOI TAC is corrected for spillover using a separate tissue TAC and for recovery by determining the recovery coefficient on a coregistered CT data set. The techniques were applied in five patients with pelvic tumours who underwent a total of 11 examinations. Delay and dispersion correction of the blood TAC without arterial spillover correction yielded in seven examinations solutions inconsistent with physiology. Correction of arterial spillover increased the fitting accuracy and yielded consistent results in all patients. Generation of an AIF from PET image data was investigated as an alternative to arterial blood sampling and was shown to have an intrinsic potential to determine the AIF noninvasively and reproducibly. The AIF extracted from a VOI in a dynamic PET scan was similar in shape to the blood AIF but yielded significantly higher tissue perfusion values (mean of 104.0 ± 52.0%) and lower partition coefficients (-31.6 ± 24.2%). The perfusion values and partition coefficients determined with the VOI technique have to be corrected in order to compare the results with those of studies using a blood AIF.
A 2D nonlinear multiring model for blood flow in large elastic arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghigo, Arthur R.; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves
In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional nonlinear ;multiring; model to compute blood flow in axisymmetric elastic arteries. This model is designed to overcome the numerical difficulties of three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction simulations of blood flow without using the over-simplifications necessary to obtain one-dimensional blood flow models. This multiring model is derived by integrating over concentric rings of fluid the simplified long-wave Navier-Stokes equations coupled to an elastic model of the arterial wall. The resulting system of balance laws provides a unified framework in which both the motion of the fluid and the displacement of the wall are dealt with simultaneously. The mathematical structure of the multiring model allows us to use a finite volume method that guarantees the conservation of mass and the positivity of the numerical solution and can deal with nonlinear flows and large deformations of the arterial wall. We show that the finite volume numerical solution of the multiring model provides at a reasonable computational cost an asymptotically valid description of blood flow velocity profiles and other averaged quantities (wall shear stress, flow rate, ...) in large elastic and quasi-rigid arteries. In particular, we validate the multiring model against well-known solutions such as the Womersley or the Poiseuille solutions as well as against steady boundary layer solutions in quasi-rigid constricted and expanded tubes.
Feasibility of Quantifying Arterial Cerebral Blood Volume Using Multiphase Alternate Ascending/Descending Directional Navigation (ALADDIN).
Kim, Ki Hwan; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hong
Arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) is associated with many physiologic and pathologic conditions. Recently, multiphase balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout was introduced to measure labeled blood signals in the arterial compartment, based on the fact that signal difference between labeled and unlabeled blood decreases with the number of RF pulses that is affected by blood velocity. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of a new 2D inter-slice bSSFP-based arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique termed, alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN), to quantify aCBV using multiphase acquisition in six healthy subjects. A new kinetic model considering bSSFP RF perturbations was proposed to describe the multiphase data and thus to quantify aCBV. Since the inter-slice time delay (TD) and gap affected the distribution of labeled blood spins in the arterial and tissue compartments, we performed the experiments with two TDs (0 and 500 ms) and two gaps (300% and 450% of slice thickness) to evaluate their roles in quantifying aCBV. Comparison studies using our technique and an existing method termed arterial volume using arterial spin tagging (AVAST) were also separately performed in five subjects. At 300% gap or 500-ms TD, significant tissue perfusion signals were demonstrated, while tissue perfusion signals were minimized and arterial signals were maximized at 450% gap and 0-ms TD. ALADDIN has an advantage of visualizing bi-directional flow effects (ascending/descending) in a single experiment. Labeling efficiency (α) of inter-slice blood flow effects could be measured in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) (20.8±3.7%.) and was used for aCBV quantification. As a result of fitting to the proposed model, aCBV values in gray matter (1.4-2.3 mL/100 mL) were in good agreement with those from literature. Our technique showed high correlation with AVAST, especially when arterial signals were accentuated (i.e., when TD = 0 ms) (r = 0
Dependence of phrenic motoneurone output on the oscillatory component of arterial blood gas composition.
Cross, B A; Grant, B J; Guz, A; Jones, P W; Semple, S J; Stidwill, R P
1. The hypothesis that respiratory oscillations of arterial blood gas composition influence ventilation has been examined. 2. Phrenic motoneurone output recorded in the C5 root of the left phrenic nerve and the respiratory oscillations of arterial pH in the right common carotid artery were measured in vagotomized anaesthetized dogs which had been paralysed and artificially ventilated. 3. The effect of a change in tidal volume for one or two breaths on phrenic motoneurone output was measured with the inspiratory pump set at a constant frequency similar to, and in phase with, the animal's own respiratory frequency. A reduction of tidal volume to zero or an increase by 30% led to a corresponding change of mean carotid artery pH level. The changes of carotid artery pH resulted in a change of phrenic motoneurone output, predominantly of expiratory time (Te) but to a lesser extent of inspiratory time (T1) and also peak amplitude of 'integrated' phrenic motoneurone output (Phr). Denervation of the carotid bifurcation blocked this response. 4. The onset of movement of the inspiratory pump was triggered by the onset of phrenic motoneurone output. When a time delay was interposed between them, the phase relationship between respiratory oscillations of arterial pH and phrenic motoneurone output altered. The dominant effect was to alter Te; smaller and less consistent changes of Phr and T1 were observed. 5. When the inspiratory pump was maintained at a constant frequency but independent of and slightly different from the animal's own respiratory frequency (as judged by phrenic motoneurone output), the phase relationship between phrenic motoneurone output and the respiratory oscillations of pH changed breath by breath over a sequence of 100-200 breaths, without change of the mean level of arterial blood gas composition. Te varied by up to 30% about its mean value depending on the phase relationship. Ti and Phr were also dependent on the phase relationship but varied to a lesser
Numerical Simulation of Blood Flow in Human Artery Using (A, Q) and (A, u) Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mungkasi, Sudi; Wijayanti Budiawan, Inge
In this paper, we model blood flow in human artery in the form of (𝐴, 𝑄) and (𝐴, 𝑢) systems, then we use the Lax-Friedrichs finite volume method to find the numerical solution of each model. Here 𝐴 represents the cross sectional area of the artery, 𝑄 denotes the discharge of the blood flow, and 𝑢 is the velocity of the blood flow. We simulate the numerical scheme of each model and investigate how the blood pressure pulse propagates in human artery. Particularly, we use the residual of 𝐴 to determine which system is better numerically. We obtain that the (𝐴, 𝑄) system is better numerically than the (𝐴, 𝑢) system, because the absolute of the residual of 𝐴 using the (𝐴, 𝑄) system is smaller than the absolute of the residual of 𝐴 using the (𝐴, 𝑢) system.
Investigation of spiral blood flow in a model of arterial stenosis.
Paul, Manosh C; Larman, Arkaitz
The spiral component of blood flow has both beneficial and detrimental effects in human circulatory system [Stonebridge PA, Brophy CM. Spiral laminar flow in arteries? Lancet 1991; 338: 1360-1]. We investigate the effects of the spiral blood flow in a model of three-dimensional arterial stenosis with a 75% cross-sectional area reduction at the centre by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The standard k-omega model is employed for simulation of the blood flow for the Reynolds number of 500 and 1000. We find that for Re=500 the spiral component of the blood flow increases both the total pressure and velocity of the blood, and some significant differences are found between the wall shear stresses of the spiral and non-spiral induced flow downstream of the stenosis. The turbulent kinetic energy is reduced by the spiral flow as it induces the rotational stabilities in the forward flow. For Re=1000 the tangential component of the blood velocity is most influenced by the spiral speed, but the effect of the spiral flow on the centreline turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress is mild. The results of the effects of the spiral flow are discussed in the paper along with the relevant pathological issues.
Dual-modality arterial pulse monitoring system for continuous blood pressure measurement.
Wen-Xuan Dai; Yuan-Ting Zhang; Jing Liu; Xiao-Rong Ding; Ni Zhao
Accurate and ambulatory measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for efficient diagnosis, management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, traditional cuff-based BP measurement methods provide only intermittent BP readings and can cause discomfort with the occlusive cuff. Although pulse transit time (PTT) method is promising for cuffless and continuous BP measurement, its pervasive use is restricted by its limited accuracy and requirement of placing sensors on multiple body sites. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel dual-modality arterial pulse monitoring system for continuous blood pressure measurement, which simultaneously records the pressure and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals of radial artery. The obtained signals can be used to generate a pressure-volume curve, from which the elasticity index (EI) and viscosity index (VI) can be extracted. Experiments were carried out among 7 healthy subjects with their PPG, ECG, arterial pressure wave and reference BP collected to examine the effectiveness of the proposed indexes. The results of this study demonstrate that a linear regression model combining EI and VI has significantly higher BP tracking correlation coefficient as compared to the PTT method. This suggests that the proposed system and method can potentially be used for convenient and continuous blood pressure estimation with higher accuracy.
Relationship of 133Xe cerebral blood flow to middle cerebral arterial flow velocity in men at rest
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, J. M.; Skolnick, B. E.; Gelfand, R.; Farber, R. E.; Stierheim, M.; Stevens, W. C.; Beck, G. Jr; Lambertsen, C. J.
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by 133Xe clearance simultaneously with the velocity of blood flow through the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) over a wide range of arterial PCO2 in eight normal men. Average arterial PCO2, which was varied by giving 4% and 6% CO2 in O2 and by controlled hyperventilation on O2, ranged from 25.3 to 49.9 mm Hg. Corresponding average values of global CBF15 were 27.2 and 65.0 ml 100 g min-1, respectively, whereas MCA blood-flow velocity ranged from 42.8 to 94.2 cm/s. The relationship of CBF to MCA blood-flow velocity over the imposed range of arterial PCO2 was described analytically by a parabola with the equation: CBF = 22.8 - 0.17 x velocity + 0.006 x velocity2 The observed data indicate that MCA blood-flow velocity is a useful index of CBF response to change in arterial PCO2 during O2 breathing at rest. With respect to baseline values measured while breathing 100% O2 spontaneously, percent changes in velocity were significantly smaller than corresponding percent changes in CBF at increased levels of arterial PCO2 and larger than CBF changes at the lower arterial PCO2. These observed relative changes are consistent with MCA vasodilation at the site of measurement during exposure to progressive hypercapnia and also during extreme hyperventilation hypocapnia.
Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation of Lumbosacral Networks Modulates Arterial Blood Pressure in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Cardiovascular Deficits.
Aslan, Sevda C; Legg Ditterline, Bonnie E; Park, Michael C; Angeli, Claudia A; Rejc, Enrico; Chen, Yangsheng; Ovechkin, Alexander V; Krassioukov, Andrei; Harkema, Susan J
Disruption of motor and autonomic pathways induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to persistent low arterial blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. Spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES) has been shown to enable independent standing and voluntary movement in individuals with clinically motor complete SCI. In this study, we addressed whether scES configured to activate motor lumbosacral networks can also modulate arterial blood pressure by assessing continuous, beat-by-beat blood pressure and lower extremity electromyography during supine and standing in seven individuals with C5-T4 SCI. In three research participants with arterial hypotension, orthostatic intolerance, and low levels of circulating catecholamines (group 1), scES applied while supine and standing resulted in increased arterial blood pressure. In four research participants without evidence of arterial hypotension or orthostatic intolerance and normative circulating catecholamines (group 2), scES did not induce significant increases in arterial blood pressure. During scES, there were no significant differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity between group 1 and group 2. In group 1, during standing assisted by scES, blood pressure was maintained at 119/72 ± 7/14 mmHg (mean ± SD) compared with 70/45 ± 5/7 mmHg without scES. In group 2 there were no arterial blood pressure changes during standing with or without scES. These findings demonstrate that scES configured to facilitate motor function can acutely increase arterial blood pressure in individuals with SCI-induced cardiovascular deficits.
[Is the use of plastic capillary tubes justified for blood gases analysis?].
Daurès, Marie-Françoise; Bozonnat, Marie-Cécile; Cristol, Jean-Paul
Some clinical units, such as neonatal or maternity units, preferentially use capillary tubes when analysing blood gases. Using glass tubes is delicate and nurses must recollect blood when breaking. In order to eliminate this problem, we tested flexible, plastic capillary tubes in both the above mentionned units and in our biochemistry laboratory. Each unit, where glass tubes were habitually used, tested 200 flexible, plastic capillary tubes. In addition, the nursing staffed filled out a questionnaire concerned tube usage. Both units clearly preferred using the flexible tubes. In the laboratory, results for blood gas analyses were compared between rigid glass and flexible plastic capillary tubes for 112 patients. Concordance tests did not showed significant differences between the two tube types, except for hematocrit and total haemoglobin. A questionnaire was also presented to the lab technician, who confirmed the easier usability of plastic capillary tubes.
[Blood distribution in the human leg arteries during orthostasis: role of the hydrostatic factor and posturotonic straining of the anti-gravity muscles].
Modin, A Iu
Ultrasonic visualization and dopplerography were used to study volumetric blood flows along the femoral artery, deep artery of the thigh, and the popliteal and sural arteries in normal volunteers. Active standing test resulted in significant blood redistribution among the arteries with prioritized blood supply to predominantly anti-g muscles but not to predominantly locomotor muscles. Elimination of static loading on the anti-g muscles by weight removal (transfer of the body mass on the other leg) was conducive to the opposite effect, i.e. absolute and relative decreases in the intensity of blood flow along the sural artery and a relatively more marked blood redistribution toward the deep artery of the thigh.
Methods of blood flow measurement in the arterial circulatory system.
Tabrizchi, R; Pugsley, M K
The most commonly employed techniques for the in vivo measurement of arterial blood flow to individual organs involve the use of flow probes or sensors. Commercially available systems for the measurement of in vivo blood flow can be divided into two categories: ultrasonic and electromagnetic. Two types of ultrasonic probes are used. The first type of flow probe measures blood flow-mediated Doppler shifts (Doppler flowmetry) in a vessel. The second type of flow probe measures the "transit time" required by an emitted ultrasound wave to traverse the vessel and are transit-time volume flow sensors. Measurement of blood flow in any vessel requires that the flow probe or sensor be highly accurate and exhibit signal linearity over the flow range in the vessel of interest. Moreover, additional desirable features include compact design, size, and weight. An additional important feature for flow probes is that they exhibit good biocompatability; it is imperative for the sensor to behave in an inert manner towards the biological system. A sensitive and reliable method to assess blood flow in individual organs in the body, other than by the use of probes/sensors, is the reference sample method that utilizes hematogeneously delivered microspheres. This method has been utilized to a large extend to assess regional blood flow in the entire body. Obviously, the purpose of measuring blood flow is to determine the amount of blood delivered to a given region per unit time (milliliters per minute) and it is desirable to achieve this goal by noninvasive methodologies. This, however, is not always possible. This review attempts to offer an overview of some of the techniques available for the assessment of regional blood flow in the arterial circulatory system and discusses advantages and disadvantages of these common techniques.
The arterial blood pressure associated with terminal cardiovascular collapse in critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study.
Brunauer, Andreas; Koköfer, Andreas; Bataar, Otgon; Gradwohl-Matis, Ilse; Dankl, Daniel; Dünser, Martin W
Liberal and overaggressive use of vasopressors during the initial period of shock resuscitation may compromise organ perfusion and worsen outcome. When transiently applying the concept of permissive hypotension, it would be helpful to know at which arterial blood pressure terminal cardiovascular collapse occurs. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to identify the arterial blood pressure associated with terminal cardiovascular collapse in 140 patients who died in the intensive care unit while being invasively monitored. Demographic data, co-morbid conditions and clinical data at admission and during the 24 hours before and at the time of terminal cardiovascular collapse were collected. The systolic, mean and diastolic arterial blood pressures immediately before terminal cardiovascular collapse were documented. Terminal cardiovascular collapse was defined as an abrupt (<5 minutes) and exponential decrease in heart rate (> 50% compared to preceding values) followed by cardiac arrest. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) values of the systolic, mean and diastolic arterial blood pressures associated with terminal cardiovascular collapse were 47 ± 12 mmHg, 35 ± 11 mmHg and 29 ± 9 mmHg, respectively. Patients with congestive heart failure (39 ± 13 mmHg versus 34 ± 10 mmHg; P = 0.04), left main stem stenosis (39 ± 11 mmHg versus 34 ± 11 mmHg; P = 0.03) or acute right heart failure (39 ± 13 mmHg versus 34 ± 10 mmHg; P = 0.03) had higher arterial blood pressures than patients without these risk factors. Patients with severe valvular aortic stenosis had the highest arterial blood pressures associated with terminal cardiovascular collapse (systolic, 60 ± 20 mmHg; mean, 46 ± 12 mmHg; diastolic, 36 ± 10 mmHg), but this difference was not significant. Patients with sepsis and patients exposed to sedatives or opioids during the terminal phase exhibited lower arterial blood pressures than patients without sepsis or administration of such drugs. The arterial
Arterial Blood Flow Measurement Using Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swanson, David K.; Myerowitz, P. David; Van Lysel, Michael S.; Peppler, Walter W.; Fields, Barry L.; Watson, Kim M.; O'Connor, Julia
Standard angiography demonstrates the anatomy of arterial occlusive disease but not its physiological signficance. Using intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA), we investigated transit-time videodensitometric techniques in measuring femoral arterial flows in dogs. These methods have been successfully applied to intraarterial DSA but not to intravenous DSA. Eight 20 kg dogs were instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe and a balloon occluder above an imaged segment of femoral artery. 20 cc of Renografin 76 was power injected at 15 cc/sec into the right atrium. Flow in the femoral artery was varied by partial balloon occlusion or peripheral dilatation following induced ischemia resulting in 51 flow measurements varying from 15 to 270 cc/min. Three different transit-time techniques were studied: crosscorrelation, mean square error, and two leading edge methods. Correlation between videodensitometry and flowmeter measurements using these different techniques ranged from 0.78 to 0.88 with a mean square error of 29 to 37 cc/min. Blood flow information using several different transit-time techniques can be obtained with intravenous DSA.
Numerical investigation of MHD flow of blood and heat transfer in a stenosed arterial segment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majee, Sreeparna; Shit, G. C.
A numerical investigation of unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer has been performed with an aim to provide better understanding of blood flow through arteries under stenotic condition. The blood is treated as Newtonian fluid and the arterial wall is considered to be rigid having deposition of plaque in its lumen. The heat transfer characteristic has been analyzed by taking into consideration of the dissipation of energy due to applied magnetic field and the viscosity of blood. The vorticity-stream function formulation has been adopted to solve the problem using implicit finite difference method by developing well known Peaceman-Rachford Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The quantitative profile analysis of velocity, temperature and wall shear stress as well as Nusselt number is carried out over the entire arterial segment. The streamline and temperature contours have been plotted to understand the flow pattern in the diseased artery, which alters significantly in the downstream of the stenosis in the presence of magnetic field. Both the wall shear stress and Nusselt number increases with increasing magnetic field strength. However, wall shear stress decreases and Nusselt number enhances with Reynolds number. The results show that with an increase in the magnetic field strength upto 8 T, does not causes any damage to the arterial wall, but the study is significant for assessing temperature rise during hyperthermic treatment.
[Invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an aneroid pressure system in cattle].
Mosing, M; Franz, S; Iff, I; Schwendenwein, I
The aim of this study was to compare the results of invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an electronic pressure transducer (EPT) or an aneroid pressure system (APS) in cattle. A catheter was placed in the auricular artery of 11 adult cattle and connected to a pressure transducer via pressure line. The aneroid system was connected to the same catheter using a three-way stop-cock in the pressure line. On five occasions three consecutive measurements were performed with the APS. The mean blood pressure values of the EPT were recorded before each individual measurement. Values from each device were compared using Passing and Bablok regression of agreement and a Bland and Altman difference plot. One hundred and forty-seven paired measurements were analysed. The average bias between the two methods (EPT vs. APS) was -1.6 mmHg (95 % confidence interval [CI]: -3.0 to -0.2 mmHg). The coefficient of correlation was 1.0084. The aneroid system showed an almost perfect agreement with the EPT. This study shows that it can be used in a clinical setting as well as under field conditions to measure arterial blood pressure in cattle.
Prediction of blood pressure and blood flow in stenosed renal arteries using CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jhunjhunwala, Pooja; Padole, P. M.; Thombre, S. B.; Sane, Atul
In the present work an attempt is made to develop a diagnostive tool for renal artery stenosis (RAS) which is inexpensive and in-vitro. To analyse the effects of increase in the degree of severity of stenosis on hypertension and blood flow, haemodynamic parameters are studied by performing numerical simulations. A total of 16 stenosed models with varying degree of stenosis severity from 0-97.11% are assessed numerically. Blood is modelled as a shear-thinning, non-Newtonian fluid using the Carreau model. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is carried out to compute the values of flow parameters like maximum velocity and maximum pressure attained by blood due to stenosis under pulsatile flow. These values are further used to compute the increase in blood pressure and decrease in available blood flow to kidney. The computed available blood flow and secondary hypertension for varying extent of stenosis are mapped by curve fitting technique using MATLAB and a mathematical model is developed. Based on these mathematical models, a quantification tool is developed for tentative prediction of probable availability of blood flow to the kidney and severity of stenosis if secondary hypertension is known.
Absolute cerebral blood flow quantification with pulsed arterial spin labeling during hyperoxia corrected with the simultaneous measurement of the longitudinal relaxation time of arterial blood.
Pilkinton, David T; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Detre, John A; Greenberg, Joel H; Reddy, Ravinder
Quantitative arterial spin labeling (ASL) estimates of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during oxygen inhalation are important in several contexts, including functional experiments calibrated with hyperoxia and studies investigating the effect of hyperoxia on regional CBF. However, ASL measurements of CBF during hyperoxia are confounded by the reduction in the longitudinal relaxation time of arterial blood (T(1a) ) from paramagnetic molecular oxygen dissolved in blood plasma. The aim of this study is to accurately quantify the effect of arbitrary levels of hyperoxia on T(1a) and correct ASL measurements of CBF during hyperoxia on a per-subject basis. To mitigate artifacts, including the inflow of fresh spins, partial voluming, pulsatility, and motion, a pulsed ASL approach was implemented for in vivo measurements of T(1a) in the rat brain at 3 Tesla. After accounting for the effect of deoxyhemoglobin dilution, the relaxivity of oxygen on blood was found to closely match phantom measurements. The results of this study suggest that the measured ASL signal changes are dominated by reductions in T(1a) for brief hyperoxic inhalation epochs, while the physiologic effects of oxygen on the vasculature account for most of the measured reduction in CBF for longer hyperoxic exposures. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure for powering embedded micro sensors in human brain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanda, Aditya; Karami, M. Amin
This manuscript investigates energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure via the piezoelectric effect for the purpose of powering embedded micro-sensors in the human brain. One of the major hurdles in recording and measuring electrical data in the human nervous system is the lack of implantable and long term interfaces that record neural activity for extended periods of time. Recently, some authors have proposed micro sensors implanted deep in the brain that measure local electrical and physiological data which are then communicated to an external interrogator. This paper proposes a way of powering such interfaces. The geometry of the proposed harvester consists of a piezoelectric, circular, curved bimorph that fits into the blood vessel (specifically, the Carotid artery) and undergoes bending motion because of blood pressure variation. In addition, the harvester thickness is constrained such that it does not modify arterial wall dynamics. This transforms the problem into a known strain problem and the integral form of Gauss's law is used to obtain an equation relating arterial wall motion to the induced voltage. The theoretical model is validated by means of a Multiphysics 3D-FEA simulation comparing the harvested power at different load resistances. The peak harvested power achieved for the Carotid artery (proximal to Brain), with PZT-5H, was 11.7 μW. The peak power for the Aorta was 203.4 μW. Further, the variation of harvested power with variation in the harvester width and thickness, arterial contractility, and pulse rate is investigated. Moreover, potential application of the harvester as a chronic, implantable and real-time Blood pressure sensor is considered. Energy harvested via this mechanism will also have applications in long-term, implantable Brain Micro-stimulation.
Evaluation of a hand-held blood gas analyzer for rapid determination of blood gases, electrolytes and metabolites in intensive care setting.
Luukkonen, Antti A M; Lehto, Tiina M; Hedberg, Pirjo S M; Vaskivuo, Tommy E
Intensive care units, operating rooms, emergency departments, and neonatology units need rapid measurements of blood gases, electrolytes, and metabolites. These analyses can be performed in a central laboratory or at the clinic with traditional or compact cassette-type blood gas analyzers such as the epoc blood gas testing system for analyzing whole blood samples at the bedside. In this study, the performance and interchangeability of a hand-held epoc blood gas analyzer was evaluated. The analytical performance of the epoc analyzer was evaluated by determining within-and between-run precisions. The accuracy of the epoc analyzer was assessed by comparing patient results from the device with those obtained with the Siemens Rapidlab 1265 and Rapidpoint RP500 and Siemens Dimension Vista and Sysmex XE-2100 analyzers. The following parameters were measured: pH, pCO2, pO2, Hb (calc), Na+, K+, iCa2+, glucose, and lactate. The CV% of the epoc's between-day imprecision for the various parameters varied from 0.4 to 8.6. The within-run imprecision CV% varied from 0.6 to 5.2. The squared regression coefficient (R2) between the epoc and RL1265 varied from 0.94 to 0.99, with the exception of Na+ and Ca2+ (R2≥0.82). The correlation (R2) of Na+ and K+ between epoc and Dimension Vista was 0.73 and 0.89, respectively. The correlation (R2) of Hb between the epoc and the XE-2100 analyzer was 0.94. With most of the measured blood gas parameters, the epoc analyzer correlated well with reference techniques. The epoc analyzer is suitable for rapid measurement of the blood gases, the electrolytes, and the metabolites in the ICU.
Tale of two sites: capillary versus arterial blood glucose testing in the operating room.
Akinbami, Felix; Segal, Scott; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Stopfkuchen-Evans, Matthias; Mills, Jonathan; Rogers, Selwyn O
Pre- and intraoperative glycemic control has been identified as a putative target to improve outcomes of surgical patients. Glycemic control requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels with appropriate adjustments. However, monitoring standards have been called into question, especially in cases in which capillary samples are used. Point-of-care testing (POCT) using capillary samples and glucometers has been noted to give relatively accurate results for critically ill patients. However, the package inserts of most glucometers warn that they should not be used for patients in shock. This has led clinicians to doubt their accuracy in the operating room. The accuracy of capillary samples when tested in patients undergoing surgical procedures has not been proven. This study aims to determine the accuracy of intraoperative blood glucose values using capillary samples relative to arterial samples. A prospective study was conducted by collecting paired capillary and arterial samples of patients undergoing major operations at a tertiary medical center from August 2009 to May 2011. Subjects were a convenience sample of patients who had arterial lines and needed glucose testing while undergoing the procedure. Precision Xceed Pro (Abbott) handheld glucometers were used to obtain the blood glucose values. Our primary outcome of interest was the degree of correlation between capillary and arterial blood glucose values or the degree to which arterial glucose levels can be predicted by capillary glucose samples. We used linear regression and the Student t tests for statistical analyses. Seventy-two-paired samples were collected. Of the cases, 54% were major abdominal operations, whereas 24% were vascular operations. The mean values ± standard deviation for glucose levels were 146 ± 35 mg/dL (capillary) and 147 ± 36 mg/dL (arterial). The mean time ± standard deviation between the collection of both samples was 3.5 ± 1.3 minutes. The regression coefficient showed a
[Impact of multi-layer spiral CT angiography of bronchial artery and pulmonary artery in assessment of the main blood supply to the primary lung cancer].
Xiao, Xiang-sheng; Yu, Hong; Li, Hui-min; Liu, Shi-yuan; Li, Cheng-zhou; Liu, Jing
To investigate the blood supply of primary lung cancer (PLC) using CT angiography for bronchial artery (BA) and pulmonary artery (PA). Thin-section enhanced multi-layer spiral CT (MSCT) were carried out in 147 primary lung cancer patients and 46 healthy subjects as control. Three-dimensional images of bronchial artery and pulmonary artery were obtained using volume render (VR) and multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) or maximum intensity projection (MIP) at the workstation, and their morphological findings and relationship with the mass were assessed. 136 primary lung cancer patients and 32 healthy controls were evaluated for at least one bronchial artery displayed clearly in VR. The detective rate of the bronchial artery was 92.5% and 69.6%, respectively. The bronchial artery caliber and the total section area of lesion side in lung cancer patients were significantly larger than that on the contralateral side and that of the control (P < 0.05). Bronchial artery on the lesion side in lung cancer was dilated and tortuous, directly penetrating into the mass with reticularly anastomosed branches. In the PLC patients, all PA were shown clearly with normal morphological image though crossing over the masses in 54 patients; In 25 PLC patients, the PA being essentially intact, was pushed around and surrounded the mass, giving the "hold ball" sign; In 40 other PLC patients, PA being also intact, the mass surrounded and buried the PA from the outside, crushing the PA flat resulting in an eccentric or centrifugal shrinkage, forming the "dead branch" sign; In the rest 28 patients, the PA was surrounded and even compressed, forming the "residual root" sign. Primary lung cancer patient shows dilated bronchial arteries and increased bronchial artery blood flow, whereas pulmonary arteries just pass through the mass or are compressed by the mass. It is further demonstrated that the bronchial artery, instead of the pulmonary artery, is the main vessel of blood supply to the primary
Roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction.
Liu, Jia-Ming; Shen, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Hong; Li, Shu-Gang; Zhao, Yu; Qiu, Giu-Xing
It has been stated that preoperative pulmonary function tests are essential to assess the surgical risk in patients with scoliosis. Arterial blood gas tests have also been used to evaluate pulmonary function before scoliotic surgery. However, few studies have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction. This study involved scoliotic patients with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction (forced vital capacity < 60%) who underwent surgical treatment between January 2002 and April 2010. A total of 73 scoliotic patients (23 males and 50 females) with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction were included. The average age of the patients was 16.53 years (ranged 10 - 44). The demographic distribution, medical records, and radiographs of all patients were collected. All patients received arterial blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests before surgery. The arterial blood gas tests included five parameters: partial pressure of arterial oxygen, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, pH, and standard bases excess. The pulmonary function tests included three parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio, forced vital capacity ratio, and peak expiratory flow ratio. All five parameters of the arterial blood gas tests were compared between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications by variance analysis. Similarly, all three parameters of the pulmonary function tests were compared. The average coronal Cobb angle before surgery was 97.42° (range, 50° - 180°). A total of 15 (20.5%) patients had postoperative pulmonary complications, including hypoxemia in 5 cases (33.3%), increased requirement for postoperative ventilatory support in 4 (26.7%), pneumonia in 2 (13.3%), atelectasis in 2 (13.3%), pneumothorax in 1 (6.7%), and hydrothorax in 1 (6
Arrested blood flow during false aneurysm formation in the carotid arteries of cattle slaughtered with and without stunning.
Gregory, N G; Schuster, P; Mirabito, L; Kolesar, R; McManus, T
The time to onset of arrested blood flow and the size of false aneurysms in the severed carotid arteries were assessed in 126 cattle during halal slaughter without stunning. Thirty six cattle (29%) showed early arrest of blood flow. In 6%, both the left and right carotid arteries in the same animal stopped bleeding before 60s had elapsed following the neck cut. The time to early arrested blood flow was on average 21s, and this was accompanied by enlargement with false aneurysms which occluded the arteries. In the arteries which were still bleeding at 60s after the neck was cut the artery size was normal. Based on comparative data from different slaughter premises it appeared that making the cut in the neck at the first cervical vertebra instead of the second to fourth cervical vertebrae reduced the frequency of false aneurysm formation and early arrested blood flow. This was confirmed in a separate controlled trial where 100 cattle were stunned with a captive bolt and the arteries were examined following neck cutting at either the C1 or C3 positions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effects of preoperative aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Shim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Yong Seon; Oh, Young Jun; Bang, Sou Ouk; Yoo, Kyung Jong; Kwak, Young Lan
Preoperative exposure to clopidogrel and aspirin significantly increases postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Off-pump coronary bypass grafting has been proposed as an alternative technique to attenuate postoperative bleeding associated with clopidogrel. This study aimed to determine the effects of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. One hundred six patients scheduled for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were divided into three groups: aspirin and clopidogrel discontinued more than 6 days before surgery (group 1, n = 35), aspirin and clopidogrel continued until 3 to 5 days before surgery (group 2, n = 51), and both medications continued within 2 days of surgery (group 3, n = 20). Thromboelastographic tracings were analyzed before induction of anesthesia. Routine coagulation profiles were measured before and after surgery. A cell salvage device was used during surgery and salvaged blood was reinfused. Chest tube drainage and blood transfusion requirement were recorded postoperatively. Patient characteristics, operative data, and thromboelastographic tracings were similar among the groups. There were significant decreases in hematocrit level and platelet count and prolongation in prothrombin time postoperatively in all groups without any intergroup differences. The amounts of perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion required were all similar among the groups. Preoperative clopidogrel and aspirin exposure even within 2 days of surgery does not increase perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing elective off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.
Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.
Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A
Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Relationship between haemodynamic impairment and collateral blood flow in carotid artery disease.
Hartkamp, Nolan S; Petersen, Esben T; Chappell, Michael A; Okell, Thomas W; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Zeebregts, Clark J; Bokkers, Reinoud Ph
Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were assessed with ASL before and after acetazolamide. Cerebral haemodynamics were normal in asymptomatic ICA stenosis patients, as opposed to patients with ICA occlusion, in whom the haemodynamics in both hemispheres were compromised. Haemodynamic impairment in the affected brain region was always present in symptomatic patients. The degree of collateral blood flow was inversely correlated with haemodynamic impairment. Recruitment of secondary collaterals only occurred in symptomatic ICA occlusion patients. In conclusion, both CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity were found to be reduced in symptomatic patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease. The presence of collateral flow is associated with further haemodynamic impairment. Recruitment of secondary collaterals is associated with severe haemodynamic impairment.
Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveforms in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices.
Martina, Jerson R; Westerhof, Berend E; de Jonge, Nicolaas; van Goudoever, Jeroen; Westers, Paul; Chamuleau, Steven; van Dijk, Diederik; Rodermans, Ben F M; de Mol, Bas A J M; Lahpor, Jaap R
Arterial blood pressure and echocardiography may provide useful physiological information regarding cardiac support in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs). We investigated the accuracy and characteristics of noninvasive blood pressure during cf-LVAD support. Noninvasive arterial pressure waveforms were recorded with Nexfin (BMEYE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). First, these measurements were validated simultaneously with invasive arterial pressures in 29 intensive care unit patients. Next, the association between blood pressure responses and measures derived by echocardiography, including left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions (LVEDDs), left ventricular end-systolic dimensions (LVESDs), and left ventricular shortening fraction (LVSF) were determined during pump speed change procedures in 30 outpatients. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveforms by the Nexfin monitor slightly underestimated invasive measures during cf-LVAD support. Differences between noninvasive and invasive measures (mean ± SD) of systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressures were -7.6 ± 5.8, -7.0 ± 5.2, -6.9 ± 5.1, and -0.6 ± 4.5 mm Hg, respectively (all <10%). These blood pressure responses did not correlate with LVEDD, LVESD, or LVSF, while LVSF correlated weakly with both pulse pressure (r = 0.24; p = 0.005) and (dP(art)/dt)max (r = 0.25; p = 0.004). The dicrotic notch in the pressure waveform was a better predictor of aortic valve opening (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.87) than pulse pressure (AUC = 0.64) and (dP(art)/dt)max (AUC = 0.61). Patients with partial support rather than full support at 9,000 rpm had a significant change in systolic pressure, pulse pressure, and (dP(art)/dt)max during ramp studies, while echocardiographic measures did not change. Blood pressure measurements by Nexfin were reliable and may thereby act as a compliment to the assessment of the cf-LVAD patient.
Effects of bisoprolol and cilazapril on the central retinal artery blood flow in patients with essential hypertension—preliminary results
Background A growing body of evidence suggests that effective blood pressure reduction may inhibit the progression of microvascular damage in patients with essential arterial hypertension. However, the potential influence of anti-hypertensive drugs on ocular circulation has not been studied sufficiently. Purpose The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of anti-hypertensive therapy on blood flow in the central retinal artery in patients with systemic arterial hypertension. Material and methods Twenty patients with essential arterial hypertension, aged 32–46 years, were examined with Doppler ultrasonography (10 MHz ultrasound probe). Blood flow velocities, pulsatility, and vascular resistance were determined before and 3 hours after systemic application of either bisoprolol 5 mg or cilazapril 2.5 mg. Results Administered bisoprolol significantly decreased maximum (9.8 ± 0.5 cm/s versus 8.5 ± 0.6 cm/s; P < 0.05) and minimum (2.75 ± 0.19 cm/s versus 1.75 ± 0.27 cm/s; P < 0.02) velocity, increased the Pourcellot's index (0.71 to 0.79; P < 0.05) in central retinal artery. There were no statistically significant changes in central retinal artery blood flow after administration of cilazapril. Conclusion Systemic application of beta-blockers may unfavourably disturb the ocular blood flow. PMID:20858158
Ultrasonic Doppler measurement of renal artery blood flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freund, W. R.; Meindl, J. D.
An extensive evaluation of the practical and theoretical limitations encountered in the use of totally implantable CW Doppler flowmeters is provided. Theoretical analyses, computer models, in-vitro and in-vivo calibration studies describe the sources and magnitudes of potential errors in the measurement of blood flow through the renal artery, as well as larger vessels in the circulatory system. The evaluation of new flowmeter/transducer systems and their use in physiological investigations is reported.
... head with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow or blocked, usually because ... other substances found in the blood. Carotid artery disease is serious because it can block the blood ...
Increases in intramuscular pressure raise arterial blood pressure during dynamic exercise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Smith, S. A.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Raven, P. B.
This investigation was designed to determine the role of intramuscular pressure-sensitive mechanoreceptors and chemically sensitive metaboreceptors in affecting the blood pressure response to dynamic exercise in humans. Sixteen subjects performed incremental (20 W/min) cycle exercise to fatigue under four conditions: control, exercise with thigh cuff occlusion of 90 Torr (Cuff occlusion), exercise with lower body positive pressure (LBPP) of 45 Torr, and a combination of thigh cuff occlusion and LBPP (combination). Indexes of central command (heart rate, oxygen uptake, ratings of perceived exertion, and electromyographic activity), cardiac output, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were not significantly different between the four conditions. Mechanical stimulation during LBPP and combination conditions resulted in significant elevations in intramuscular pressure and mean arterial pressure from control at rest and throughout the incremental exercise protocol (P < 0.05). Conversely, there existed no significant changes in mean arterial pressure when the metaboreflex was stimulated by cuff occlusion. These findings suggest that under normal conditions the mechanoreflex is tonically active and is the primary mediator of exercise pressor reflex-induced alterations in arterial blood pressure during submaximal dynamic exercise in humans.
Fractional blood flow in oscillatory arteries with thermal radiation and magnetic field effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bansi, C. D. K.; Tabi, C. B.; Motsumi, T. G.; Mohamadou, A.
A fractional model is proposed to study the effect of heat transfer and magnetic field on the blood flowing inside oscillatory arteries. The flow is due to periodic pressure gradient and the fractional model equations include body acceleration. The proposed velocity and temperature distribution equations are solved using the Laplace and Hankel transforms. The effect of the fluid parameters such as the Reynolds number (Re), the magnetic parameter (M) and the radiation parameter (N) is studied graphically with changing the fractional-order parameter. It is found that the fractional derivative is a valuable tool to control both the temperature and velocity of blood when flow parameters change under treatment, for example. Besides, this work highlights the fact that in the presence of strong magnetic field, blood velocity and temperature reduce. A reversed effect is observed where the applied thermal radiation increase; the velocity and temperature of blood increase. However, the temperature remains high around the artery centerline, which is appropriate during treatment to avoid tissues damage.
Effect of blood viscosity on oxygen transport in residual stenosed artery following angioplasty.
Kwon, Ohwon; Krishnamoorthy, Mahesh; Cho, Young I; Sankovic, John M; Banerjee, Rupak K
The effect of blood viscosity on oxygen transport in a stenosed coronary artery during the postangioplasty scenario is studied. In addition to incorporating varying blood viscosity using different hematocrit (Hct) concentrations, oxygen consumption by the avascular wall and its supply from vasa vasorum, nonlinear oxygen binding capacity of the hemoglobin, and basal to hyperemic flow rate changes are included in the calculation of oxygen transport in both the lumen and the avascular wall. The results of this study show that oxygen transport in the postangioplasty residual stenosed artery is affected by non-Newtonian shear-thinning property of the blood viscosity having variable Hct concentration. As Hct increases from 25% to 65%, the diminished recirculation zone for the increased Hct causes the commencement of pO(2) decrease to shift radially outward by approximately 20% from the center of the artery for the basal flow, but by approximately 10% for the hyperemic flow at the end of the diverging section. Oxygen concentration increases from a minimum value at the core of the recirculation zone to over 90 mm Hg before the lumen-wall interface at the diverging section for the hyperemic flow, which is attributed to increased shear rate and thinner lumen boundary layer for the hyperemic flow, and below 90 mm Hg for the basal flow. As Hct increases from 25% to 65%, the average of pO(2,min) beyond the diverging section drops by approximately 25% for the basal flow, whereas it increases by approximately 15% for the hyperemic flow. Thus, current results with the moderate stenosed artery indicate that reducing Hct might be favorable in terms of increasing O(2) flux and pO(2,min), in the medial region of the wall for the basal flow, while higher Hct is advantageous for the hyperemic flow beyond the diverging section. The results of this study not only provide significant details of oxygen transport under varying pathophysiologic blood conditions such as unusually high blood
Numerical simulation of unsteady generalized Newtonian blood flow through differently shaped distensible arterial stenoses.
Sarifuddin; Chakravarty, S; Mandal, P K; Layek, G C
An updated numerical simulation of unsteady generalized Newtonian blood flow through differently shaped distensible arterial stenoses is developed. A shear-thinning fluid modelling the deformation dependent viscosity of blood is considered for the characterization of generalized Newtonian behaviour of blood. The arterial model is treated as two-dimensional and axisymmetric with an outline of the stenosis obtained from a three-dimensional casting of a mildly stenosed artery. The full Navier-Stokes equations governing blood flow are written in the dimensionless form and the solution is accomplished by finite time-step advancement through their finite difference staggered grid representations. The marker and cell (MAC) method comprising the use of a set of marker particles moving with the fluid is used for the purpose. Results are obtained for three differently shaped stenoses - irregular, smooth and cosine curve representations. The present results do agree well with those of existing investigations in the steady state, but contrary to their conclusions the present findings demonstrate that the excess pressure drop across the cosine and the smooth stenoses is caused by neither their smoothness nor their higher degree of symmetry relative to the irregular stenosis, but is rather an effect of area cover with respect to the irregular stenosis. This effect clearly prevails throughout the entire physiological range of Reynolds numbers. Further the in-depth study in flow patterns reveals the development of flow separation zones in the diverging part of the stenosis towards the arterial wall, and they are influenced by non-Newtonian blood rheology, distensibility of the wall and flow unsteadiness in order to validate the applicability of the present model.
Resistance to blood flow in the rabbit ophthalmic artery after topical treatment with timolol.
Liu, John H K; Li, Ruixia; Nelson, Thomas R; Weinreb, Robert N
The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance to blood flow in the ophthalmic artery of rabbits receiving topical treatment with timolol. Eight (8) New Zealand albino rabbits received 20 mul of timolol treatment (vehicle, 0.1%, 0.33%, 1%, and 3.3%) on the right eye. Blood-flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery was determined in the treated eye using color Doppler imaging (CDI) with a 12-MHz linear ultrasound transducer prior to the treatment and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 h after the treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in both eyes, using a pneumatonometer at the same time points. Pourcelot's resistive index of blood flow was calculated, using the peak systolic velocity and the end diastolic velocity. A control experiment was performed with CDI obtained from the right eye when the left eye was treated with 1% timolol. In the eye treated with 1% and 3.3% timolol, a dose-dependent increase in the resistive index of blood flow occurred in the ophthalmic artery. No change in the resistive index occurred when the contralateral eye was treated with 1% timolol. Changes of IOP were not different between the two eyes under all the experimental conditions. Timolol, at all concentrations, caused a significant reduction of heart rate. A similar reduction of heart rate occurred when either eye was treated with 1% timolol. Topical treatment with timolol in rabbits can increase the resistance to blood flow in the ophthalmic artery. This effect is caused by a mechanism local to the eye and is not dependent on an IOP change.
Comparison of Direct and Indirect Methods of Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure in Healthy Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).
France, Logan K; Vermillion, Meghan S; Garrett, Caroline M
Blood pressure is a critical parameter for evaluating cardiovascular health, assessing effects of drugs and procedures, monitoring physiologic status during anesthesia, and making clinical decisions. The placement of an arterial catheter is the most direct and accurate method for measuring blood pressure; however, this approach is invasive and of limited use during brief sedated examinations. The objective of this study was to determine which method of indirect blood pressure monitoring was most accurate compared with measurement by direct arterial catheterization. In addition, we sought to determine the relative accuracy of each indirect method (compared with direct arterial measurement) at a given body location and to assess whether the accuracy of each indirect method was dependent on body location. We compared direct blood pressure measurements by means of catheterization of the saphenous artery with oscillometric and ultrasonic Doppler flow detection measurements at 3 body locations (forearm, distal leg, and tail base) in 16 anesthetized, male rhesus macaques. The results indicate that oscillometry at the forearm is the best indirect method and location for accurately and consistently measuring blood pressure in healthy male rhesus macaques.
Comparison of noninvasive blood pressure measurement techniques via the coccygeal artery in anesthetized cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).
Sadler, Ryan A; Hall, Natalie H; Kass, Philip H; Citino, Scott B
Two indirect blood pressure measurement techniques, Doppler (DOP) sphygmomanometry and oscillometry, applied at the ventral coccygeal artery were compared with simultaneous direct blood pressure measurements at the dorsal pedal artery in 10 anesthetized, captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The DOP method was moderately accurate, with relatively little bias (mean difference 3.8 mmHg) and 88.6% of the DOP systolic arterial pressure measurements being within 10 mmHg of the direct systolic arterial measurement. With the oscillometric (OM) method, 89.2% of the mean arterial pressure measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), 80.7% of the systolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the second least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), and 59% of the diastolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had significant bias (mean difference 7.3 mmHg). However, DOP showed relatively poor precision (SD 11.2 mmHg) compared with OM systolic (SD 8.0 mmHg), diastolic (SD 8.6 mmHg), and mean (SD 5.7 mmHg). Both techniques showed a linear relationship with the direct technique measurements over a wide range of blood pressures. The DOP method tended to underestimate systolic measurements below 160 mmHg and overestimate systolic measurements above 160 mmHg. The OM method tended to underestimate mean pressures below 160 mm Hg, overestimate mean pressures above 160 mmHg, underestimate systolic pressures below 170 mmHg, overestimate systolic pressures above 170 mmHg, and underestimate diastolic pressures throughout the measured blood pressure range. Indirect blood pressure measurement using the ventral coccygeal artery, particularly when using an OM device for mean and systolic arterial pressure, may be useful in the clinical assessment of cheetahs when monitoring trends over time, but caution should be taken when interpreting individual values.
Contribution of the Arterial System and the Heart to Blood Pressure during Normal Aging - A Simulation Study.
Maksuti, Elira; Westerhof, Nico; Westerhof, Berend E; Broomé, Michael; Stergiopulos, Nikos
During aging, systolic blood pressure continuously increases over time, whereas diastolic pressure first increases and then slightly decreases after middle age. These pressure changes are usually explained by changes of the arterial system alone (increase in arterial stiffness and vascular resistance). However, we hypothesise that the heart contributes to the age-related blood pressure progression as well. In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study. Parameters representing arterial changes (resistance and stiffness) during aging were based on literature values, whereas parameters representing cardiac changes were computed through physiological rules (compensated hypertrophy and preservation of end-diastolic volume). When taking into account arterial changes only, the systolic and diastolic pressure did not agree well with the population data. Between 20 and 80 years, systolic pressure increased from 100 to 122 mmHg, and diastolic pressure decreased from 76 to 55 mmHg. When taking cardiac adaptations into account as well, systolic and diastolic pressure increased from 100 to 151 mmHg and decreased from 76 to 69 mmHg, respectively. Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging. The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure.
Evaluation of transplant renal artery blood flow by Doppler sound-spectrum analysis.
Reinitz, E R; Goldman, M H; Sais, J; Rittgers, S E; Lee, H M; Mendez-Picon, G; Muakkassa, W F; Barnes, R W
Doppler ultrasonography sound-spectrum analysis (SSA) was used to evaluate blood flow in the transplanted kidney and its renal artery. Seven patients with posttransplant hypertension and a bruit over the transplanted kidney were screened for renal artery stenosis (RAS). In five patients, RAS was diagnosed by SSA, and in two it was not. These findings were confirmed by subsequent angiography in all patients. Three patients studied after surgical correction of their RAS had improvement in their SSA patterns. Fourteen hypertensive patients with a cause other than RAS were evaluated by SSA. None of them had SSA findings suggestive of RAS. Doppler ultrasonography with SSA is an effective, noninvasive technique of monitoring transplant renal blood flow, especially in the screening of hypertensive transplant recipients for transplant RAS.
Impact of arterial blood gas analysis in disability evaluation of the bituminous coal miner with simple pneumoconiosis
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Fields, C.L.; Roy, T.M.; Dow, F.T.
The Department of Labor has set guidelines for the use of resting arterial blood gas analysis in determination of total and permanent disability for coal workers' pneumoconiosis. To determine the prevalence with which bituminous coal miners fall below the arterial tensions of both oxygen and carbon dioxide published in the Federal Register, we studied 1012 miners who had both reproducible spirometry and arterial blood gas analysis as part of their disability evaluation. Eighty-seven percent of impaired miners could be identified by the spirometric criteria. Thirteen percent of impaired bituminous coal miners had acceptable pulmonary function but were eligible for blackmore » lung benefits by the blood gas guidelines. This population would have been missed if blood gas analysis were excluded from the evaluation process. On the other hand, approximately 25% of the blood gas analyses that were performed could be eliminated if a policy was adopted to do this test only on miners with spirometry that exceed the federal guidelines.« less
Noninvasive measurement of beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure by the Korotkoff sound delay time.
Xiang, Haiyan; Liu, Yanyong; Li, Yinhua; Qin, Yufei; Yu, Mengsun
To propose a novel noninvasive beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure measurement method based on the Korotkoff sound delay time (KDT) and evaluate its accuracy in preliminary experiments. KDT decreases as the cuff pressure P deflates, which can be described by a function KDT=f (P). Actually, KDT is a function of arterial transmural pressure. Therefore, the variation in blood pressure can be obtained by the transmural pressure, which is estimated by the KDT. Holding the cuff pressure at an approximate constant pressure between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure, the variation in blood pressure ΔEBP between successive heartbeats can be estimated according to KDT and f'(p), which represents the variation of KDT corresponding to unit pressure. Then the blood pressure for each heartbeat can be obtained by accumulating the ΔEBP. Invasive and noninvasive blood pressure values of six participants were measured simultaneously to evaluate the method. The average of the correlation coefficients between the invasive mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the KDT for six participants was -0.91. The average of the correlation coefficients between the invasive MAP and the estimated mean blood pressure (EBP) was 0.92. The mean difference between EBP and MAP was 0.51 mmHg, and the SD was 2.65 mmHg. The mean blood pressure estimated by the KDT is consistent with the invasive MAP. The beat-to-beat blood pressure estimated by KDT provides an accurate estimate of MAP in the preliminary experiments and represents a potential acceptable alternative to invasive blood pressure monitoring during laboratory studies.
... Test is Performed The test is used to evaluate respiratory diseases and conditions that affect the lungs. ... may include: Bleeding at the puncture site Blood flow problems at puncture site (rare) Bruising at the ...
Acute increases in arterial blood pressure produced by occlusion of the abdominal aorta induces antinociception: peripheral and central substrates.
Thurston, C L; Randich, A
Occlusion of the abdominal aorta proximal to the renal arteries results in an increase in arterial blood pressure, inhibition of forepaw and hindpaw withdrawal to a noxious mechanical stimulus, and inhibition of the tail-flick reflex to noxious heat. Occlusion of the abdominal aorta distal to the renal arteries does not elevate arterial blood pressure and produces no antinociceptive effects. Occlusion of the vena cava lowers arterial blood pressure and produces no antinociception. The inhibitory effects of occlusion of the abdominal aorta depend upon activation of high pressure baroreceptors since bilateral sinoaortic denervation, but not bilateral vagotomy, eliminates the inhibition with respect to all behavioral measures. The inhibitory effects with respect to the tail-flick reflex also depend upon activation of a descending inhibitory system since reversible cold block of the spinal cord at the level of the second thoracic vertebra eliminates the antinociception. This antinociception is also eliminated following intrathecal administration of the noradrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine, but not by intrathecal administration of either methysergide or naloxone. These data support the view that activation of high pressure baroreceptors by increases in arterial blood pressure produces antinociception via activation of a spinopetal noradrenergic system.
Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong
Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence . Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p < 0.05) comparing baseline VTI to phenylephrine VTI (246 ± .05 ms to 320 ± .07 ms) and baseline admittance waveform maximum to phenylephrine admittance waveform maximum (0.0148 ± .002 siemens to 0.0151 ± .002 siemens). Conclusion: Chronic minimally invasive admittance measurement techniques that monitor relative change in blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.
Airway exchange of highly soluble gases.
Hlastala, Michael P; Powell, Frank L; Anderson, Joseph C
Highly blood soluble gases exchange with the bronchial circulation in the airways. On inhalation, air absorbs highly soluble gases from the airway mucosa and equilibrates with the blood before reaching the alveoli. Highly soluble gas partial pressure is identical throughout all alveoli. At the end of exhalation the partial pressure of a highly soluble gas decreases from the alveolar level in the terminal bronchioles to the end-exhaled partial pressure at the mouth. A mathematical model simulated the airway exchange of four gases (methyl isobutyl ketone, acetone, ethanol, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether) that have high water and blood solubility. The impact of solubility on the relative distribution of airway exchange was studied. We conclude that an increase in water solubility shifts the distribution of gas exchange toward the mouth. Of the four gases studied, ethanol had the greatest decrease in partial pressure from the alveolus to the mouth at end exhalation. Single exhalation breath tests are inappropriate for estimating alveolar levels of highly soluble gases, particularly for ethanol.
Airway exchange of highly soluble gases
Powell, Frank L.; Anderson, Joseph C.
Highly blood soluble gases exchange with the bronchial circulation in the airways. On inhalation, air absorbs highly soluble gases from the airway mucosa and equilibrates with the blood before reaching the alveoli. Highly soluble gas partial pressure is identical throughout all alveoli. At the end of exhalation the partial pressure of a highly soluble gas decreases from the alveolar level in the terminal bronchioles to the end-exhaled partial pressure at the mouth. A mathematical model simulated the airway exchange of four gases (methyl isobutyl ketone, acetone, ethanol, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether) that have high water and blood solubility. The impact of solubility on the relative distribution of airway exchange was studied. We conclude that an increase in water solubility shifts the distribution of gas exchange toward the mouth. Of the four gases studied, ethanol had the greatest decrease in partial pressure from the alveolus to the mouth at end exhalation. Single exhalation breath tests are inappropriate for estimating alveolar levels of highly soluble gases, particularly for ethanol. PMID:23305981
Retrobulbar ocular blood flow changes measured by colour Doppler imaging after intra-arterial chemotherapy in retinoblastoma.
Xue, Kang; Liu, Ailin; Hui, Ren; Zhang, Jing; Qian, Jiang
To evaluate the effects of intra-arterial chemotherapy on retrobulbar blood ﬂow parameters in patients with retinoblastoma. 20 eyes of 10 patients with unilateral retinoblastoma that were treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy were evaluated using colour Doppler imaging. The peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries were determined. The pulsatility and resistance indices were calculated automatically. The treated eye was compared with the untreated (control) eye and with itself before and after intra-arterial chemotherapy. When comparing the retinoblastoma-containing eyes with the contralateral normal eyes, the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the central retinal artery were significantly higher in the tumorous eyes than in the normal eyes before intra-arterial chemotherapy. Moreover, the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in the posterior ciliary and central retinal arteries were significantly decreased after intra-arterial chemotherapy in the tumorous eyes (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the other parameters. Our results suggest that intra-arterial chemotherapy has a measurable effect on the retrobulbar blood flow, which can cause a decrease in the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in the posterior ciliary and central retinal arteries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Arterial blood pressure estimation using ultrasound: Clinical results on healthy volunteers and a medicated hypertensive volunteer.
Zakrzewski, Aaron M; Anthony, Brian W
This study presents a non-occlusive and non-invasive ultrasound-based technique to measure blood pressure. Most popular clinically-used arterial blood pressure measurement techniques suffer from important weaknesses including being inaccurate, invasive, or occlusive. In the proposed technique, an ultrasound probe is placed on the patient's carotid artery and the contact force between the probe and the tissue is slowly increased while ultrasound images and contact force data are recorded. From this data, the artery is segmented and the segmentation data is sent into an optimization procedure; after post-processing, blood pressure is displayed to the user. This technique was applied to 24 healthy single-visit volunteers, one multi-visit healthy volunteer, and one multi-visit medicated hypertensive volunteer. Compared to the oscillometric cuff, the accuracy and precision of the algorithm-reported systolic pressure is -2.4 ± 10.2 mmHg, and for diastolic pressure is -0.3 ± 8.2 mmHg. This method has the potential to occupy a clinical middle-ground between the arterial catheter and the oscillometric cuff.
Radial to femoral arterial blood pressure differences in septic shock patients receiving high-dose norepinephrine therapy.
Kim, Won Young; Jun, Jong Hun; Huh, Jin Won; Hong, Sang Bum; Lim, Chae-Man; Koh, Younsuck
The accuracy of arterial blood pressure (ABP) monitoring is crucial in treating septic shock patients. Clinically significant differences in central to peripheral ABP could develop into sepsis during vasopressor therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between radial (peripheral) and femoral (central) ABP in septic shock patients receiving high-dose norepinephrine (NE) therapy. This prospective observational study comparing simultaneous intra-arterial measurements of radial and femoral ABP was performed at a university-affiliated, tertiary referral center between October 2008 and March 2009. Patients with septic shock who needed continuous blood pressure monitoring and high-dose NE therapy 0.1 µg/kg per minute or greater to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 65 mmHg or greater were included. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Bland-Altman method for comparison of repeated measures. In total, 250 sets of systolic, mean, and diastolic femoral and radial ABP were recorded at baseline and after NE titration. Arterial blood pressure readings from the radial artery were underestimated compared with those from the femoral artery. Overall bias (mean difference between simultaneous measurements) between radial and femoral MAP was +4.9 mmHg; however, during high-dose NE therapy, the bias increased to +6.2 mmHg (95% limits of agreement: -6.0 to +18.3 mmHg). Clinically significant radial-femoral MAP differences (MAP ≥5 mmHg) occurred in up to 62.2% of patients with high-dose NE therapy. Radial artery pressure frequently underestimates central pressure in septic shock patients receiving high-dose NE therapy. Femoral arterial pressure monitoring may be more appropriate when high-dose NE therapy is administered.
Evaluating distribution of the left branch of the middle colic artery and the left colic artery by CT angiography and colonography to classify blood supply to the splenic flexure.
Fukuoka, Asako; Sasaki, Takahiro; Tsukikawa, Satoshi; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Ostubo, Takehito
CT angiography has gained widespread acceptance for preoperative evaluation of blood supply in patients with colorectal cancer. However, there have been few reports that pertain to the splenic flexure, for which surgery is technically difficult. We used preoperative CT angiography and CT colonography to evaluate blood supply to the splenic flexure. We defined the splenic flexure as the junction of the distal third of the transverse colon and the proximal third of the descending colon. We reviewed 191 cases and considered the descending colon as divided into the proximal third and the distal two-thirds; we then determined which part of the descending colon the left colic artery (LCA) entered. We also considered the transverse colon as divided into the proximal two-thirds and the distal third, and evaluated which part of the transverse colon the left branch of the middle colic artery entered. We classified blood supply to the splenic flexure into six types, described by the feeder vessels: type 1, the LCA (39.7%); type 2, the left branch of the middle colic artery (17.8%); type 3, the LCA and the left branch of the middle colic artery (9.9%); type 4, the accessory left colic artery (4.1%); type 5, the LCA and the accessory left colic artery (2.6%); and type 6, the marginal artery (25.6%). We classified blood supply to the splenic flexure into more complex types than previous reports had. Because we dissect the lymph nodes according to the type of blood supply, knowing the type before splenic flexure surgery is crucial. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
L-Cysteine ethyl ester reverses the deleterious effects of morphine on, arterial blood-gas chemistry in tracheotomized rats.
Mendoza, James; Passafaro, Rachael; Baby, Santhosh; Young, Alex P; Bates, James N; Gaston, Benjamin; Lewis, Stephen J
This study determined whether the membrane-permeable ventilatory stimulant, L-cysteine ethylester (L-CYSee), reversed the deleterious actions of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Morphine (2 mg/kg, i.v.) elicited sustained decreases in arterial blood pH, pO₂ and sO₂, and increases in pCO₂ (all responses indicative of hypoventilation) and alveolar-arterial gradient (indicative of ventilation-perfusion mismatch). Injections of L-CYSee (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) reversed the effects of morphine in tracheotomized rats but were minimally active in non-tracheotomized rats. L-cysteine or L-serine ethylester (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) were without effect. It is evident that L-CYSee can reverse the negative effects of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry and alveolar-arterial gradient but that this positive activity is negated by increases in upper-airway resistance. Since L-cysteine and L-serine ethylester were ineffective, it is evident that cell penetrability and the sulfur moiety of L-CYSee are essential for activity. Due to its ready penetrability into the lungs, chest wall muscle and brain, the effects of L-CYSee on morphine-induced changes in arterial blood-gas chemistry are likely to involve both central and peripheral sites of action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Increased response of diastolic blood pressure to exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: an index of latent ventricular dysfunction?
Paraskevaidis, I A; Kremastinos, D T; Kassimatis, A S; Karavolias, G K; Kordosis, G D; Kyriakides, Z S; Toutouzas, P K
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an abnormal response of diastolic blood pressure during treadmill exercise stress testing correlated with the number of obstructed vessels and with left ventricular systolic function in patients with coronary artery disease. DESIGN--Diastolic blood pressure was measured invasively during exercise stress testing and coronary angiograms and left ventriculograms were obtained at rest in patients with coronary artery disease. The abnormal (> or = 15 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure response was compared with the number of obstructed coronary arteries and with left ventricular systolic function. SETTING--Two tertiary referral centres. PATIENTS--50 consecutive patients (mean age 57 years) with coronary artery disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The increase in diastolic blood pressure during exercise and its correlation with the appearance and disappearance of ST segment deviation, resting left ventricular systolic function, and the number of obstructed coronary arteries. RESULTS--Group 1: 10 (20%) patients (three with one, four with two, and three with three vessel coronary artery disease) (mean (SD) age 54.7 (12) years) had an abnormal diastolic blood pressure response that appeared 1.2 (0.3) min before ST segment deviation and became normal 0.9 (0.3) min after the ST segment returned to normal. Group 2: 40 (80%) patients (12 with one, 16 with two, and 12 with three vessel coronary arteries disease) (aged 56.8 (8.2) years) had a normal diastolic blood pressure response to stress testing. The ejection fraction (46.3 (5)%) and cardiac index (2.6 (0.1) 1/min/m2) in group 1 were less than in group 2 (61.6 (4.2)% and 3.8 (0.3) 1/min/m2 respectively, p < or = 0.001). The end systolic volume was greater in group 1 than in group 2: 38.7 (0.7 ml/m2 v 28.2 (2.1) ml/m2, p < or = 0.001. CONCLUSION--In patients with coronary artery disease an abnormal increase in diastolic blood pressure during exercise stress testing correlated well with left ventricular
Continuous neonatal blood gas monitoring using a multiparameter intra-arterial sensor
Morgan, C; Newell, S; Ducker, D; Hodgkinson, J; White, D; Morley, C; Church, J
AIMS—To compare arterial blood gas (ABG) readings obtained with a multiparameter intra-arterial sensor with those from an ABG analyser. METHODS—An MPIAS with the ability to measure continuously pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 was introduced via an umbilical arterial catheter in 27 neonates requiring intensive care. They underwent 3260 hours of MPIAS monitoring, during which 753 ABG readings were performed. RESULTS—Overall bias (mean difference: MPIAS-ABG) and precision (standard deviation of differences) values were: −0.002 and 0.022,respectively, for pH; +0.26 and 0.52 for PaCO2 (kPa); and −0.19 and 0.99 for PaO2 (kPa). This gave 95% limits of agreement as: −0.047 to +0.042 for pH, −0.76 to +1.28 kPa for PaCO2, and −2.13 to +1.75 kPa for PaO2. For each variable, precision across readings from the same individual was better than overall precision for all data. No complications related to the use of the catheter were observed. CONCLUSIONS—Continuous MPIAS ABG monitoring is an exciting development, with the potential to reduce blood transfusions and improve ABG homeostasis. PMID:10325783
Influence of magnetic field on chemically reactive blood flow through stenosed bifurcated arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossain, Khan Enaet; Haque, Md. Mohidul
Dynamic response of mass transfer in chemically reactive blood flow through bifurcated arteries under the stenotic condition is numerically studied in the present of a uniform magnetic field. The blood flowing through the artery is assumed an incompressible, fully developed and Newtonian. The nonlinear unsteady flow phenomena are governed by the Navier-Stokes and concentration equations. All these equations together with the appropriate boundary conditions describing the present biomechanical problem are transformed by using a radial transformation and the numerical results are obtained using a finite difference technique. Effects of stenosed bifurcation and externally applied magnetic field on the blood flow with chemical reaction are discussed with the help of graph. All the flow characteristics are found to be affected by the presence of chemical reaction and exposure of magnetic field of different intensities. Finally some important findings of the problem are concluded in this work.
Intermittent hypoxia increases arterial blood pressure in humans through a Renin-Angiotensin system-dependent mechanism.
Foster, Glen E; Hanly, Patrick J; Ahmed, Sofia B; Beaudin, Andrew E; Pialoux, Vincent; Poulin, Marc J
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea through mechanisms that include activation of the renin-angiotensin system. The objective of this study was to assess the role of the type I angiotensin II receptor in mediating an increase in arterial pressure associated with a single 6-hour IH exposure. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study design, we exposed 9 healthy male subjects to sham IH, IH with placebo medication, and IH with the type I angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan. We measured blood pressure, cerebral blood flow, and ventilation at baseline and after exposure to 6 hours of IH. An acute isocapnic hypoxia experimental protocol was conducted immediately before and after exposure to IH. IH with placebo increased resting mean arterial pressure by 7.9+/-1.6 mm Hg, but mean arterial pressure did not increase with sham IH (1.9+/-1.5 mm Hg) or with losartan IH (-0.2+/-2.4 mm Hg; P<0.05). Exposure to IH prevented the diurnal decrease in the cerebral blood flow response to hypoxia, independently of the renin-angiotensin system. Finally, in contrast to other models of IH, the acute hypoxic ventilatory response did not change throughout the protocol. IH increases arterial blood pressure through activation of the type I angiotensin II receptor, without a demonstrable impact on the cerebrovascular or ventilatory response to acute hypoxia.
Investigation of blood flow rheology using second-grade viscoelastic model (Phan-Thien-Tanner) within carotid artery.
Ramiar, Abas; Larimi, Morsal Momenti; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar
Hemodynamic factors, such as Wall Shear Stress (WSS), play a substantial role in arterial diseases. In the larger arteries, such as the carotid artery, interaction between the vessel wall and blood flow affects the distribution of hemodynamic factors. The fluid is considered to be non-Newtonian, whose flow is governed by the equation of a second-grade viscoelastic fluid and the effects of viscoelastic on blood flow in carotid artery is investigated. Pulsatile flow studies were carried out in a 3D model of carotid artery. The governing equations were solved using finite volume C++ based on open source code, OpenFOAM. To describe blood flow, conservation of mass and momentum, a constitutive relation of simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (sPTT), and appropriate relations were used to explain shear thinning behavior. The first recirculation was observed at t = 0.2 s, in deceleration phase. In the acceleration phase from t = 0.3 s to t = 0.5 s, vortex and recirculation sizes in bulb regions in both ECA and ICA gradually increased. As is observed in the line graphs based on extracted data from ICA, at t = 0.2 s, τyy is the maximum amount of wall shear stress and τxy the minimum one. The maximum shear stress occurred in the inner side of the main branch (inner side of ICA and ECA) because the velocity of blood flow in the inner side of the bulb region was maximum due to the created recirculation zone in the opposite side in this area. The rheology of blood flow and shear stress in various important parts (the area that are in higher rates of WSS such as bifurcation region and the regions after bulb areas in both branches, Line1-4 in Fig. 7) were also analyzed. The investigation of velocity stream line, velocity profile and shear stress in various sections of carotid artery showed that the maximum shear stress occurred in acceleration phase and in the bifurcation region between ECA and ICA which is due to velocity gradients and changes in thinning behavior of blood and
A case of reocclusion of the renal artery diagnosed by the color Doppler method with evaluation of blood flow direction in the collateral circulation of the kidney in addition to the non-detectable blood signal in the renal artery.
Hirano, Megumi; Ohta, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Norio; Kawakami, Reina; Takamura, Kimihiro; Matsuda, Tosiharu; Nishioka, Makiko; Sakurai, Tomoo; Matsuo, Kouichi; Miyamoto, Yukio
A 23-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for an interventional procedure for chronic total occlusion of the right renal artery, probably due to fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), and for control of renal vascular hypertension. Before percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA), aortography revealed collateral circulation to the right kidney from the lower lumbar artery. After PTRA, however, blood flow in the renal side of the collateral circulation flowed outside from the right renal parenchyma. 4 months later, we could not find a blood flow signal in the right renal artery, and there was a contrary flow signal in the right kidney parenchyma continuously from the extrahilar vessel, possibly a collateral artery. These findings indicated reocclusion of the right artery. We confirmed reocclusion of the renal artery and collateral feeding by contrast dynamic computed tomography (CT), and PTRA was performed again without any complications or reocclusion for 5 months. This is the first case report showing that a back-flowing signal in the right renal parenchyma from the extrahilar artery is useful as an indirect finding suggesting reocclusion.
Effects of a nitrate-rich meal on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy volunteers.
Liu, Alex H; Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Rich, Lisa; Ward, Natalie C; Vita, Joseph A; Hodgson, Jonathan M
An increase in nitrate intake can augment circulating nitrite and nitric oxide. This may lead to lower blood pressure and improved vascular function. Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, are rich sources of nitrate. We aimed to assess the acute effects of a nitrate-rich meal containing spinach on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy men and women. Twenty-six participants aged 38-69years were recruited to a randomized controlled cross-over trial. The acute effects of two energy-matched (2000kJ) meals, administered in random order, were compared. The meals were either high nitrate (220mg of nitrate derived from spinach [spinach]) or low nitrate [control]. Outcome measurements were performed pre-meal and at specific time points up to 210min post meal. Spinach resulted in an eightfold increase in salivary nitrite and a sevenfold increase in salivary nitrate concentrations from pre-meal (P<0.001) to 120min post meal. Spinach compared with control resulted in higher large artery elasticity index (P<0.001), and lower pulse pressure (P<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.001). Post meal carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (P=0.07), augmentation index (P=0.63), small artery elasticity index (P=0.98) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.13) were not significantly altered by spinach relative to control. Therefore, consumption of a nitrate-rich meal can lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure and increase large artery compliance acutely in healthy men and women. If sustained, these effects could contribute to better cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morphometry-based impedance boundary conditions for patient-specific modeling of blood flow in pulmonary arteries.
Spilker, Ryan L; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Parker, David W; Reddy, V Mohan; Taylor, Charles A
Patient-specific computational models could aid in planning interventions to relieve pulmonary arterial stenoses common in many forms of congenital heart disease. We describe a new approach to simulate blood flow in subject-specific models of the pulmonary arteries that consists of a numerical model of the proximal pulmonary arteries created from three-dimensional medical imaging data with terminal impedance boundary conditions derived from linear wave propagation theory applied to morphometric models of distal vessels. A tuning method, employing numerical solution methods for nonlinear systems of equations, was developed to modify the distal vasculature to match measured pressure and flow distribution data. One-dimensional blood flow equations were solved with a finite element method in image-based pulmonary arterial models using prescribed inlet flow and morphometry-based impedance at the outlets. Application of these methods in a pilot study of the effect of removal of unilateral pulmonary arterial stenosis induced in a pig showed good agreement with experimental measurements for flow redistribution and main pulmonary arterial pressure. Next, these methods were applied to a patient with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and predicted insignificant hemodynamic improvement with relief of the stenosis. This method of coupling image-based and morphometry-based models could enable increased fidelity in pulmonary hemodynamic simulation.
An effective fractal-tree closure model for simulating blood flow in large arterial networks.
Perdikaris, Paris; Grinberg, Leopold; Karniadakis, George Em
The aim of the present work is to address the closure problem for hemodynamic simulations by developing a flexible and effective model that accurately distributes flow in the downstream vasculature and can stably provide a physiological pressure outflow boundary condition. To achieve this goal, we model blood flow in the sub-pixel vasculature by using a non-linear 1D model in self-similar networks of compliant arteries that mimic the structure and hierarchy of vessels in the meso-vascular regime (radii [Formula: see text]). We introduce a variable vessel length-to-radius ratio for small arteries and arterioles, while also addressing non-Newtonian blood rheology and arterial wall viscoelasticity effects in small arteries and arterioles. This methodology aims to overcome substantial cut-off radius sensitivities, typically arising in structured tree and linearized impedance models. The proposed model is not sensitive to outflow boundary conditions applied at the end points of the fractal network, and thus does not require calibration of resistance/capacitance parameters typically required for outflow conditions. The proposed model convergences to a periodic state in two cardiac cycles even when started from zero-flow initial conditions. The resulting fractal-trees typically consist of thousands to millions of arteries, posing the need for efficient parallel algorithms. To this end, we have scaled up a Discontinuous Galerkin solver that utilizes the MPI/OpenMP hybrid programming paradigm to thousands of computer cores, and can simulate blood flow in networks of millions of arterial segments at the rate of one cycle per 5 min. The proposed model has been extensively tested on a large and complex cranial network with 50 parent, patient-specific arteries and 21 outlets to which fractal trees where attached, resulting to a network of up to 4,392,484 vessels in total, and a detailed network of the arm with 276 parent arteries and 103 outlets (a total of 702,188 vessels
An efective fractal-tree closure model for simulating blood flow in large arterial networks
Perdikaris, Paris; Grinberg, Leopold; Karniadakis, George Em.
The aim of the present work is to address the closure problem for hemodynamic simulations by developing a exible and effective model that accurately distributes flow in the downstream vasculature and can stably provide a physiological pressure out flow boundary condition. To achieve this goal, we model blood flow in the sub-pixel vasculature by using a non-linear 1D model in self-similar networks of compliant arteries that mimic the structure and hierarchy of vessels in the meso-vascular regime (radii 500 μm – 10 μm). We introduce a variable vessel length-to-radius ratio for small arteries and arterioles, while also addressing non-Newtonian blood rheology and arterial wall viscoelasticity effects in small arteries and arterioles. This methodology aims to overcome substantial cut-off radius sensitivities, typically arising in structured tree and linearized impedance models. The proposed model is not sensitive to out flow boundary conditions applied at the end points of the fractal network, and thus does not require calibration of resistance/capacitance parameters typically required for out flow conditions. The proposed model convergences to a periodic state in two cardiac cycles even when started from zero-flow initial conditions. The resulting fractal-trees typically consist of thousands to millions of arteries, posing the need for efficient parallel algorithms. To this end, we have scaled up a Discontinuous Galerkin solver that utilizes the MPI/OpenMP hybrid programming paradigm to thousands of computer cores, and can simulate blood flow in networks of millions of arterial segments at the rate of one cycle per 5 minutes. The proposed model has been extensively tested on a large and complex cranial network with 50 parent, patient-specific arteries and 21 outlets to which fractal trees where attached, resulting to a network of up to 4,392,484 vessels in total, and a detailed network of the arm with 276 parent arteries and 103 outlets (a total of 702,188 vessels
[Central pulse pressure but not brachial blood pressure is the predominant factor affecting aortic arterial stiffness].
Xiao, Wen-Kai; Ye, Ping; Bai, Yong-Yi; Luo, Lei-Ming; Wu, Hong-Mei; Gao, Peng
To investigate the differences in central hemodynamic indices between hypertensive and normotensive subjects and identify the blood pressure index that the most strongly correlate with arterial stiffness and vascular damage markers. A cohort of 820 hypertensive patients and 820 normotensive individuals matched for age and gender were enrolled in this study. We measured carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), aortic augmentation index (AIx) and central blood pressures using pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry. Plasma homocysteine (HCY), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were also tested in these subjects. In both hypertensive and normotensive subjects, the central systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were significantly lower than brachial SBP and PP; this PP amplification was significantly lower in the normotensives (9.85∓6.55 mmHg) than in the hypertensives (12.64∓6.69 mmHg), but the amplification ratios were comparable between the two groups. Blood pressure and age were closely related with aortic arterial stiffness. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive subjects had higher carotid-femoral PWV and AIx, and showed significantly lowered PP amplification ratio with age. Central PP was more strongly related to arterial stiffness and vascular damage markers than the other pressure indices. Multivariate analyses revealed that carotid-femoral PWV and aortic AIx were strongly influenced by central PP but not by the mean blood pressure or brachial PP. The central PP is a more direct indicator of central arterial stiffness and a better marker of vascular aging than other blood pressure variables. These findings support the use of central blood pressure as a treatment target in future trials.
Elementary wave interactions in blood flow through artery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raja Sekhar, T.; Minhajul
In this paper, we consider the Riemann problem and interaction of elementary waves for the quasilinear hyperbolic system of conservation laws that arises in blood flow through arteries. We study the properties of solution involving shocks and rarefaction waves and establish the existence and uniqueness conditions. We show that the Riemann problem is solvable for arbitrary initial data under certain condition and construct the condition for no-feasible solution. Finally, we present numerical examples with different initial data and discuss all possible interactions of elementary waves.
The Correlation of Blood Glucose Concentration and the Movement of Laser Secondary Speckle Pattern of the Artery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saputra, M. A.; Prajitno, P.
Blood glucose is the molecule needed for human life, it usually measured invasively (by taking blood). but that measurement is still very vulnerable. The alternative method namely the non-invasive method is very interesting. In addition, the article  explains the relationship between the movement of the arterial pulse with glucose concentration, therefore the research study to investigate the correlation between the blood glucose and the movement of laser speckle pattern resulted from the arterial movement will be promising as the non-invasive method for measuring the blood glucose concentration. In this study, the laser speckle pattern imaging method, where the microscopically movement of the object is illuminated by a laser beam and recorded by the high-speed camera in a certain interval time, are used to identify the movement patterns of the artery. From the image processing, the graphs such as electrocardiograph (ECG) can be extracted. The average of the maximum peaks of the graph can be correlated with the blood glucose concentration in the blood, as the same as shown in the article . From the data that has been obtained in this research, the movement of the speckle tends to increase in accordance with the rise of blood glucose concentration.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Techniques: Acute Effects on Arterial Blood Pressure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cornelius, William L.; Craft-Hamm, Kelley
The effects of stretching techniques on arterial blood pressure (ABP) were studied in three groups of 20 men each. Each group performed one of three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Results are presented. The study indicates that the benefits of stretching may outweigh the risk of elevated ABP. (JL)
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Independent associations between arterial bicarbonate, apnea severity and hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea.
Eskandari, Davoud; Zou, Ding; Grote, Ludger; Schneider, Hartmut; Penzel, Thomas; Hedner, Jan
Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia. CO 2 production, transport and elimination are influenced by the carbonic anhydrase enzyme. We hypothesized that elevated standard bicarbonate, a proxy for increased carbonic anhydrase activity, is associated with apnea severity and higher blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. A retrospective analysis of a sleep apnea cohort (n = 830) studied by ambulatory polygraphy. Office systolic/diastolic blood pressure, lung function, and arterial blood gases were assessed during daytime. Arterial standard bicarbonate was increased with apnea severity (mild/moderate/severe 24.1 ± 1.8, 24.4 ± 1.7 and 24.9 ± 2.9 mmol/l, respectively, Kruskal-Wallis test p < 0.001). Standard bicarbonate was independently associated with apnea hypopnea index after adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, hypertension, pO 2 and pCO 2 (standard bicarbonate quartile 1 vs. quartile 4, β = 10.6, p < 0.001). Log-transformed standard bicarbonate was associated with a diagnosis of hypertension or diastolic blood pressure but not systolic blood pressure adjusting for cofounders (p = 0.007, 0.048 and 0.45, respectively). There was an independent association between sleep apnea severity and arterial standard bicarbonate. The link between high standard bicarbonate and daytime hypertension suggests that carbonic anhydrase activity may constitute a novel mechanism for blood pressure regulation in sleep apnea.
A Novel Laboratory Approach for the Demonstration of Hemodynamic Principles: The Arterial Blood Flow Reflection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Djelic, Marina; Mazic, Sanja; Zikic, Dejan
In the frame of a laboratory training course for medicine students, a new approach for laboratory exercises has been applied to teach the phenomena of circulation. The exercise program included measurements of radial artery blood flow waveform for different age groups using a noninvasive optical sensor. Arterial wave reflection was identified by…
Differential blood flow responses to CO2 in human internal and external carotid and vertebral arteries
Sato, Kohei; Sadamoto, Tomoko; Hirasawa, Ai; Oue, Anna; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ogoh, Shigehiko
Arterial CO2 serves as a mediator of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and its relative influence on the regulation of CBF is defined as cerebral CO2 reactivity. Our previous studies have demonstrated that there are differences in CBF responses to physiological stimuli (i.e. dynamic exercise and orthostatic stress) between arteries in humans. These findings suggest that dynamic CBF regulation and cerebral CO2 reactivity may be different in the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. The aim of this study was to identify cerebral CO2 reactivity by measuring blood flow and examine potential differences in CO2 reactivity between the internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) and vertebral artery (VA). In 10 healthy young subjects, we evaluated the ICA, ECA, and VA blood flow responses by duplex ultrasonography (Vivid-e, GE Healthcare), and mean blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery (BA) by transcranial Doppler (Vivid-7, GE healthcare) during two levels of hypercapnia (3% and 6% CO2), normocapnia and hypocapnia to estimate CO2 reactivity. To characterize cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, we used both exponential and linear regression analysis between CBF and estimated partial pressure of arterial CO2, calculated by end-tidal partial pressure of CO2. CO2 reactivity in VA was significantly lower than in ICA (coefficient of exponential regression 0.021 ± 0.008 vs. 0.030 ± 0.008; slope of linear regression 2.11 ± 0.84 vs. 3.18 ± 1.09% mmHg−1: VA vs. ICA, P < 0.01). Lower CO2 reactivity in the posterior cerebral circulation was persistent in distal intracranial arteries (exponent 0.023 ± 0.006 vs. 0.037 ± 0.009; linear 2.29 ± 0.56 vs. 3.31 ± 0.87% mmHg−1: BA vs. MCA). In contrast, CO2 reactivity in ECA was markedly lower than in the intra-cerebral circulation (exponent 0.006 ± 0.007; linear 0.63 ± 0.64% mmHg−1, P < 0.01). These findings indicate that vertebro-basilar circulation has lower CO2 reactivity than
Hyperventilation accelerates the rise of arterial blood concentrations of desflurane in gynecologic patients.
Lu, Chih-Cherng; Lin, Tso-Chou; Hsu, Che-Hao; Yu, Mu-Hsien; Chen, Ta-Liang; Chen, Ruei-Ming; Ku, Chih-Hung; Ho, Shung-Tai
Under a constant inspired concentration, the uptake of a volatile anesthetic into the arterial blood should mainly be governed by alveolar ventilation, according to the assumption that the patient's cardiac output remains stable during anesthesia. We investigated whether ventilation volume affects the rate of desflurane uptake by examining arterial blood concentrations. Thirty female patients were randomly allocated into the following three groups: hyperventilation, normal ventilation and hypoventilation. Hemodynamic variables were measured using a Finometer, inspiratory and end-tidal concentrations of desflurane were measured by infrared analysis, and the desflurane concentration in the arterial blood (Ades) was analyzed by gas chromatography. During the first 10 minutes after the administration of desflurane, the Ades was highest in the hyperventilation group, and this value was significantly different from those obtained for the normal and hypoventilation groups. In addition, hyperventilation significantly increased the slope of Ades-over-time during the first 5 minutes compared with patients experiencing normal ventilation and hypoventilation, but there were no differences in these slopes during the periods from 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 minutes after the administration of desflurane. This finding indicates that there were no differences in desflurane uptake between the three groups after the first 5 minutes within desflurane administration. Hyperventilation accelerated the rate of the rise in Ades following desflurane administration, which was time-dependent with respect to different alveolar ventilations levels.
Modeling and analysis of biomagnetic blood Carreau fluid flow through a stenosis artery with magnetic heat transfer: A transient study
Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, Mohammad Yaghoub; Daqiqshirazi, Mohammadreza; Nasiri, Hossein; Nguyen, Truong Khang
We present a numerical investigation of tapered arteries that addresses the transient simulation of non-Newtonian bio-magnetic fluid dynamics (BFD) of blood through a stenosis artery in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The current model is consistent with ferro-hydrodynamic (FHD) and magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) principles. In the present work, blood in small arteries is analyzed using the Carreau-Yasuda model. The arterial wall is assumed to be fixed with cosine geometry for the stenosis. A parametric study was conducted to reveal the effects of the stenosis intensity and the Hartman number on a wide range of flow parameters, such as the flow velocity, temperature, and wall shear stress. Current findings are in a good agreement with recent findings in previous research studies. The results show that wall temperature control can keep the blood in its ideal blood temperature range (below 40°C) and that a severe pressure drop occurs for blockages of more than 60 percent. Additionally, with an increase in the Ha number, a velocity drop in the blood vessel is experienced. PMID:29489852
Modeling and analysis of biomagnetic blood Carreau fluid flow through a stenosis artery with magnetic heat transfer: A transient study.
Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, Mohammad Yaghoub; Daqiqshirazi, Mohammadreza; Nasiri, Hossein; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Nguyen, Truong Khang
We present a numerical investigation of tapered arteries that addresses the transient simulation of non-Newtonian bio-magnetic fluid dynamics (BFD) of blood through a stenosis artery in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The current model is consistent with ferro-hydrodynamic (FHD) and magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) principles. In the present work, blood in small arteries is analyzed using the Carreau-Yasuda model. The arterial wall is assumed to be fixed with cosine geometry for the stenosis. A parametric study was conducted to reveal the effects of the stenosis intensity and the Hartman number on a wide range of flow parameters, such as the flow velocity, temperature, and wall shear stress. Current findings are in a good agreement with recent findings in previous research studies. The results show that wall temperature control can keep the blood in its ideal blood temperature range (below 40°C) and that a severe pressure drop occurs for blockages of more than 60 percent. Additionally, with an increase in the Ha number, a velocity drop in the blood vessel is experienced.
[Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
Novović, Miloš; Topić, Vesna
Arterial blood gas (ABG) analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG) values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), partial oxygen pressure (PO2), bicarbonate (HCO3), and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2) can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001). When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O, and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.
Relationship between retinal blood flow and arterial oxygen.
Cheng, Richard W; Yusof, Firdaus; Tsui, Edmund; Jong, Monica; Duffin, James; Flanagan, John G; Fisher, Joseph A; Hudson, Chris
Vascular reactivity, the response of the vessels to a vasoactive stimulus such as hypoxia and hyperoxia, can be used to assess the vascular range of adjustment in which the vessels are able to compensate for changes in PO2. Previous studies in the retina have not accurately quantified retinal vascular responses and precisely targeted multiple PaO2 stimuli at the same time as controlling the level of carbon dioxide, thus precluding them from modelling the relationship between retinal blood flow and oxygen. The present study modelled the relationship between retinal blood flow and PaO2, showing them to be a combined linear and hyperbolic function. This model demonstrates that the resting tonus of the vessels is at the mid-point and that they have great vascular range of adjustment, compensating for decreases in oxygen above a PETCO2 of 32-37 mmHg but being limited below this threshold. Retinal blood flow (RBF) increases in response to a reduction in oxygen (hypoxia) but decreases in response to increased oxygen (hyperoxia). However, the relationship between blood flow and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen has not been quantified and modelled in the retina, particularly in the vascular reserve and resting tonus of the vessels. The present study aimed to determine the limitations of the retinal vasculature by modelling the relationship between RBF and oxygen. Retinal vascular responses were measured in 13 subjects for eight different blood gas conditions, with the end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen (PETCO2) ranging from 40-500 mmHg. Retinal vascular response measurements were repeated twice; using the Canon laser blood flowmeter (Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan) during the first visit and using Doppler spectral domain optical coherence tomography during the second visit. We determined that the relationship between RBF and PaO2 can be modelled as a combination of hyperbolic and linear functions. We concluded that RBF compensated for decreases in arterial oxygen content
Assessment of tissue blood flow following small artery welding with an intraluminal dissolvable stent.
He, F C; Wei, L P; Lanzetta, M; Owen, E R
Using the technique of radioactive 51Cr-labeled biological microspheres, this study evaluated arterial blood flow following small vessel anastomosis by CO2 laser welding and a dissolvable stent in the lumen. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. Group A: 11 rats had their femoral arteries ligated on one side. The contralateral side served as a control, with the artery transected and repaired using conventional microsuturing. Group B: 19 rats had their femoral arteries transected and repaired using CO2 laser welding and an intraluminal dissolvable stent technique. The contralateral side was again used as a control using conventional microsuturing. At 1 hr postoperatively, 51Cr-labeled biological microspheres were injected centripetally into the left common carotid artery and the legs and thighs immediately harvested for measurement of radioactivity. All repaired arteries were patent (30/30 in the microsuturing group and 19/19 in the stented welding group), with no detectable stenosis or dilation at the repaired site. Statistical analysis showed that tissue radioactivity (cpm/g) in the ligated group (3,972 +/- 384 in thighs and 3,142 +/- 742 in legs) was significantly lower than in the microsuturing group (7,132 +/- 1,723 in thighs and 6,557 +/- 1,469 in legs) (P < 0.01). In the ligated group, a significant reduction of blood flow was seen in the legs when compared with the thighs (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in radioactivity when comparing the microsuturing control with the stented welding group, in both thighs (7,064 +/- 2,599 and 7,006 +/- 2,406, respectively; P > 0.05) and legs (6,386 +/- 1,703 and 6,288 +/- 1,757, respectively; P > 0.05). This study provided evidence that the dissolvable stent placed intraluminally does not impair blood circulation and that when coupled with CO2 laser welding offers a high-quality alternative to conventional small vessel anastomosis.
Arterial blood gas reference values for sea level and an altitude of 1,400 meters.
Crapo, R O; Jensen, R L; Hegewald, M; Tashkin, D P
Blood gas measurements were collected on healthy lifetime nonsmokers at sea level (n = 96) and at an altitude of 1,400 meters (n = 243) to establish reference equations. At each study site, arterial blood samples were analyzed in duplicate on two separate blood gas analyzers and CO-oximeters. Arterial blood gas variables included Pa(O(2)), Pa(CO(2)), pH, and calculated alveolar-arterial PO(2) difference (AaPO(2)). CO-oximeter variables were Hb, COHb, MetHb, and Sa(O(2)). Subjects were 18 to 81 yr of age with 166 male and 173 female. Outlier data were excluded from multiple regression analysis, and reference equations were fitted to the data in two ways: (1) best fit using linear, squared, and cross-product terms; (2) simple equations, including only the variables that explained at least 3% of the variance. Two sets of equations were created: (1) using only the sea level data and (2) using the combined data with barometric pressure as an independent variable. Comparisons with earlier studies revealed small but significant differences; the decline in Pa(O(2)) with age at each altitude was consistent with most previous studies. At sea level, the equation that included barometric pressure predicted Pa(O(2)) slightly better than the sea level specific equation. The inclusion of barometric pressure in the equations allows better prediction of blood gas reference values at sea level and at altitudes as high as 1,400 meters.
[Studies on the role of high pressure baroreceptors in vasopressin (ADH) secretion. Effect of occlusion of common carotid and vertebral arteries on blood ADH level (author's transl)].
The role of baroreceptors in common carotid and vertebral arteries and arteries in the thoracic cavity in vasopressin secretion was investigated in this study. Effects of bilateral occlusion of common carotid and vertebral arteries on blood ADH level as well as mean arterial pressure were studied in common carotid arterial plexus-denervated dogs, cervically vagotomized dogs and intact dogs. Blood ADH titers were determined by bioassay technic before and 5 minutes after the occlusion of the arteries and were compared with the changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP). The following results were obtained. (1) Blood ADH titers and MAP were elevated by the occlusion of the common carotid arteries in both intact and vagotomized dogs, while they were not significantly affected in denervated dogs. Elevation of blood ADH titers was more pronounced in vagotomized dogs than in intact dogs. (2) Blood ADH titers and MAP were elevated by the occlusion of vertebral arteries in all groups of dogs. However, the elevation of blood ADH titers in denervated dogs was more pronounced than in intact dogs, but less than in vagotomized dogs. (3) The effects of the occlusion of common carotid arteries on blood ADH titers and MPA were more pronounced than those of the occlusion of vertebral arteries. These results may suggest that: a. baroreceptors involved in vasopressin secretion are present in vertebral arteries as well, and that b. the intrathoracic baroreceptors are dominant in controlling vasopressin secretion, while those in common carotid arteries are secondly and those in vertebral arteries thirdly dominant.
Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device
Lee, Sang-Suk; Nam, Dong-Hyun; Hong, You-Sik; Lee, Woo-Beom; Son, Il-Ho; Kim, Keun-Ho; Choi, Jong-Gu
To measure precise blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter. PMID:22319381
Assessment of resting-state blood flow through anterior cerebral arteries using trans-cranial doppler recordings.
Huang, Hanrui; Sejdić, Ervin
Trans-cranial Doppler (TCD) recordings are used to monitor cerebral blood flow in the main cerebral arteries. The resting state is usually characterized by the mean velocity or the maximum Doppler shift frequency (an envelope signal) by insonating the middle cerebral arteries. In this study, we characterized cerebral blood flow in the anterior cerebral arteries. We analyzed both envelope signals and raw signals obtained from bilateral insonation. We recruited 20 healthy patients and conducted the data acquisition for 15 min. Features were extracted from the time domain, the frequency domain and the time-frequency domain. The results indicate that a gender-based statistical difference exists in the frequency and time-frequency domains. However, no handedness effect was found. In the time domain, information-theoretic features indicated that mutual dependence is higher in raw signals than in envelope signals. Finally, we concluded that insonation of the anterior cerebral arteries serves as a complement to middle cerebral artery studies. Additionally, investigation of the raw signals provided us with additional information that is not otherwise available from envelope signals. Use of direct trans-cranial Doppler raw data is therefore validated as a valuable method for characterizing the resting state. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The effects of recirculation flows on mass transfer from the arterial wall to flowing blood.
Zhang, Zhiguo; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Guidoin, Robert
Using a sudden tubular expansion as a model of an arterial stenosis, the effect of disturbed flow on mass transfer from the arterial wall to flowing blood was studied theoretically and tested experimentally by measuring the dissolution rate of benzoic acid disks forming the outer tube of a sudden tubular expansion. The study revealed that mass transfer from vessel wall to flowing fluid in regions of disturbed flow is independent of wall shear rates. The rate of mass transfer is significantly higher in regions of disturbed flow with a local maximum around the reattachment point where the wall shear rate is zero. The experimental study also revealed that the rate of mass transfer from the vessel wall to a flowing fluid is much higher in the presence of microspheres (as models of blood cells) in the flowing fluid and under the condition of pulsatile flow than in steady flow. These results imply that flow disturbance may enhance the transport of biochemicals and macromolecules, such as plasma proteins and lipoproteins synthesized within the blood vessel wall, from the blood vessel wall to flowing blood.
Arterial blood pressure response to heavy resistance exercise.
MacDougall, J D; Tuxen, D; Sale, D G; Moroz, J R; Sutton, J R
The purpose of this study was to record the blood pressure response to heavy weight-lifting exercise in five experienced body builders. Blood pressure was directly recorded by means of a capacitance transducer connected to a catheter in the brachial artery. Intrathoracic pressure with the Valsalva maneuver was recorded as mouth pressure by having the subject maintain an open glottis while expiring against a column of Hg during the lifts. Exercises included single-arm curls, overhead presses, and both double- and single-leg presses performed to failure at 80, 90, 95, and 100% of maximum. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures rose rapidly to extremely high values during the concentric contraction phase for each lift and declined with the eccentric contraction. The greatest peak pressures occurred during the double-leg press where the mean value for the group was 320/250 mmHg, with pressures in one subject exceeding 480/350 mmHg. Peak pressures with the single-arm curl exercise reached a mean group value of 255/190 mmHg when repetitions were continued to failure. Mouth pressures of 30-50 Torr during a single maximum lift, or as subjects approached failure with a submaximal weight, indicate that a portion of the observed increase in blood pressure was caused by a Valsalva maneuver. It was concluded that when healthy young subjects perform weight-lifting exercises the mechanical compression of blood vessels combines with a potent pressor response and a Valsalva response to produce extreme elevations in blood pressure. Pressures are extreme even when exercise is performed with a relatively small muscle mass.
ANGIOGRAPHIC ANATOMY OF THE MAJOR ABDOMINAL ARTERIAL BLOOD SUPPLY IN THE DOG.
Culp, William T N; Mayhew, Philipp D; Pascoe, Peter J; Zwingenberger, Allison
Vascular-based interventional radiology (IR) procedures are being more regularly performed in veterinary patients for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. A complete description of the fluoroscopic arterial anatomy of the canine abdominal cavity has not been published. This information is essential for performance of IR procedures to allow for improved preparation before and during a particular procedure. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a fluoroscopic description of the vascular branching from the abdominal aorta in a ventro-dorsal projection with a secondary goal of producing pictorial reference images of the major abdominal arterial blood vessels. Five healthy female hound type dogs were enrolled and underwent fluoroscopic arteriography. During fluoroscopy, both nonselective and selective arteriography were performed. The nonselective arteriograms were obtained in the aorta at four locations: cranial to the celiac artery, cranial to the renal arteries, cranial to the caudal mesenteric artery, and cranial to the branching of the external iliac arteries. Selective arteriography was conducted by performing injections into the following arteries: celiac, splenic, common hepatic, cranial mesenteric, left and right renal, and caudal mesenteric. Fluoroscopic arteriography allowed for excellent characterization of the aortic ostia and the location of the lower order vascular branches. Future evaluation of vascular-based treatment options will likely increase as the understanding of the normal and pathologic anatomy improves. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Intramucosal–arterial PCO2 gap fails to reflect intestinal dysoxia in hypoxic hypoxia
Dubin, Arnaldo; Murias, Gastón; Estenssoro, Elisa; Canales, Héctor; Badie, Julio; Pozo, Mario; Sottile, Juan P; Barán, Marcelo; Pálizas, Fernando; Laporte, Mercedes
Introduction An elevation in intramucosal–arterial PCO2 gradient (ΔPCO2) could be determined either by tissue hypoxia or by reduced blood flow. Our hypothesis was that in hypoxic hypoxia with preserved blood flow, ΔPCO2 should not be altered. Methods In 17 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep, oxygen delivery was reduced by decreasing flow (ischemic hypoxia, IH) or arterial oxygen saturation (hypoxic hypoxia, HH), or no intervention was made (sham). In the IH group (n = 6), blood flow was lowered by stepwise hemorrhage; in the HH group (n = 6), hydrochloric acid was instilled intratracheally. We measured cardiac output, superior mesenteric blood flow, gases, hemoglobin, and oxygen saturations in arterial blood, mixed venous blood, and mesenteric venous blood, and ileal intramucosal PCO2 by tonometry. Systemic and intestinal oxygen transport and consumption were calculated, as was ΔPCO2. After basal measurements, measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes. Results Both progressive bleeding and hydrochloric acid aspiration provoked critical reductions in systemic and intestinal oxygen delivery and consumption. No changes occurred in the sham group. ΔPCO2 increased in the IH group (12 ± 10 [mean ± SD] versus 40 ± 13 mmHg; P < 0.001), but remained unchanged in HH and in the sham group (13 ± 6 versus 10 ± 13 mmHg and 8 ± 5 versus 9 ± 6 mmHg; not significant). Discussion In this experimental model of hypoxic hypoxia with preserved blood flow, ΔPCO2 was not modified during dependence of oxygen uptake on oxygen transport. These results suggest that ΔPCO2 might be determined primarily by blood flow. PMID:12493073
Continuous blood pressure monitoring via non-invasive radial artery applanation tonometry and invasive arterial catheter demonstrates good agreement in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery.
Sun, Jing; Chen, Hanjian; Zheng, Jun; Mao, Bin; Zhu, Shengmei; Feng, Jingyi
Radial artery applanation tonometry (RAAT) has been developed and utilized for continuous arterial pressure monitoring. However, evidence is lacking to clinically verify the RAAT technology and identify appropriate patient groups before routine clinical use. This study aims to evaluate the RAAT technology by comparing systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery. Blood Pressure (BP) values obtained via RAAT (TL-300, Tensys Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and conventional arterial catheterization from 30 colon carcinoma surgical patients were collected and compared via Bland-Atman method, linear regression and 4-quadrant plot concordance analysis. For SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, means of the differences (±standard deviation; 95% limits of agreement) were -0.9 (±7.6; -15.7 to 13.9) mmHg, 3.1 (±6.5; -9.6 to 15.8) mmHg and 4.3 (±7.4; -10.3 to 18.8) mmHg, respectively. Linear regression coefficients of determination were 0.8706 for SBPs, 0.8353 for MBPs and 0.6858 for DBPs. Four-quadrant concordance correlation coefficients were 0.8740, 0.8522 and 0.7108 for SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, respectively. A highly selected patient collective undergoing colon carcinoma surgery was studied. BP measurements obtained via the TL-300 had clinically acceptable agreement with that acquired invasively using an arterial catheter. For use in clinical routine, it is necessary to take measures for improvement regarding movement artifacts and dilution of noise. A large sample size of patients under various conditions is also needed to further evaluate the RAAT technology before clinically routine use.
Hippocampal arterial cerebral blood volume in early psychosis
Talati, Pratik; Rane, Swati; Donahue, Manus J.; Heckers, Stephan
Recent studies of patients in the early stage of psychosis have revealed increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) in specific subfields of the anterior hippocampus. These studies required injection of a contrast agent to measure steady state CBV. Here we used a novel, non-invasive method, inflow-based-vascular-space-occupancy with dynamic subtraction (iVASO-DS), to measure the arterial component of CBV (aCBV) in a single slice of the hippocampus. Based on evidence from contrast-enhanced CBV studies, we hypothesized increased aCBV in the anterior hippocampus in early psychosis. We used 3T MRI to generate iVASO-derived aCBV maps in 17 medicated patients (average duration of illness = 7.6 months) and 25 matched controls. We did not find hemispheric or regional group differences in hippocampal aCBV. The limited spatial resolution of the iVASO-DS method did not allow us to test for aCBV differences in specific subfields of the hippocampus. Future studies should investigate venous and arterial CBV changes in the hippocampus of early psychosis patients. PMID:27644028
Multiscale modeling and simulation of blood flow in coronary artery bypass graft surgeries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sankaran, Sethuraman; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Kahn, Andy; Marsden, Alison
We present a computational framework for modeling and simulation of blood flow in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. We evaluate the influence of shape on the homeostatic state, cardiac output, and other quantities of interest. We present a case study on a patient with multiple CABG. We build a patient-specific model of the blood vessels comprised of the aorta, vessels branching from the top of the aorta (brachiocephalic artery and carotids) and the coronary arteries, in addition to bypass grafts. The rest of the circulatory system is modeled using lumped parameter 0D models comprised of resistances, compliances, inertances and elastance. An algorithm is presented that computes these parameters automatically given constraints on the flow. A Finite element framework is used to compute blood flow and pressure in the 3D model to which the 0D code is coupled at the model inlets and outlets. An adaptive closed loop BC is used to capture the coupling of the various outlets of the model with inlets, and is compared with a model with fixed inlet BC. We compare and contrast the pressure, flowrate, coronary perfusion, and PV curves obtained in the different cases. Further, we compare and contrast quantities of interest such as wall shear stress, wall shear stress gradients and oscillatory shear index for different surgical geometries and discuss implications of patient-specific optimization. I would like to acknowlege AHA for funding this work.
Hyperventilation accelerates the rise of arterial blood concentrations of desflurane in gynecologic patients
Lu, Chih-Cherng; Lin, Tso-Chou; Hsu, Che-Hao; Yu, Mu-Hsien; Chen, Ta-Liang; Chen, Ruei-Ming; Ku, Chih-Hung; Ho, Shung-Tai
OBJECTIVES: Under a constant inspired concentration, the uptake of a volatile anesthetic into the arterial blood should mainly be governed by alveolar ventilation, according to the assumption that the patient's cardiac output remains stable during anesthesia. We investigated whether ventilation volume affects the rate of desflurane uptake by examining arterial blood concentrations. METHOD: Thirty female patients were randomly allocated into the following three groups: hyperventilation, normal ventilation and hypoventilation. Hemodynamic variables were measured using a Finometer, inspiratory and end-tidal concentrations of desflurane were measured by infrared analysis, and the desflurane concentration in the arterial blood (Ades) was analyzed by gas chromatography. RESULTS: During the first 10 minutes after the administration of desflurane, the Ades was highest in the hyperventilation group, and this value was significantly different from those obtained for the normal and hypoventilation groups. In addition, hyperventilation significantly increased the slope of Ades-over-time during the first 5 minutes compared with patients experiencing normal ventilation and hypoventilation, but there were no differences in these slopes during the periods from 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 minutes after the administration of desflurane. This finding indicates that there were no differences in desflurane uptake between the three groups after the first 5 minutes within desflurane administration. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperventilation accelerated the rate of the rise in Ades following desflurane administration, which was time-dependent with respect to different alveolar ventilations levels. PMID:23018299
[The cardiovagal, cardiosympathetic and vasosympathetic arterial baroreflexes and the neural control of short-term blood pressure].
Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Michel-Chávez, Anaclara; Callejas-Rojas, Rodolfo C; Malamud-Kessler, Caroline; Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno
The factors that control the blood pressure are punctually regulated to keep it in reference values. These are maintained through autoregulatory mechanisms, humoral, nervous and endothelial-related. The humoral mechanisms are complex and modify the long-term blood pressure, in the other hand, the neurogenic mechanisms, are reflexive and can be observed in beat-to-beat changes of blood pressure. The nervous cardiovascular reflexes are mediated by high-pressure and low-pressure baroreceptors, as cardiovagal, cardiosympathetic and vasosympathetic. The arterial baroreceptor are stimulated when the blood volume-ejected by the ventricle distend the arterial walls. The neural discharge travels to the autonomic centers in the brain stem and the result is the modification of the heart rate and the vascular smooth muscle tone. This sudden modification is the responsible of the beat-to-beat (short-term) blood pressure variability. A review was made on the history of the physiology and experiments of the cardiovagal, cardiosympathetic and vasosympathetic baroreflexes and its influence in the short-term blood pressure variability.
Predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms with different Echo State Network architectures.
Fong, Allan; Mittu, Ranjeev; Ratwani, Raj; Reggia, James
Alarm fatigue caused by false alarms and alerts is an extremely important issue for the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to predict electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the staff and hospital systems better classify a patient's waveforms and subsequent alarms. This paper explores the use of Echo State Networks, a specific type of neural network for mining, understanding, and predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network architectures are designed and evaluated. The results show the utility of these echo state networks, particularly ones with larger integrated reservoirs, for predicting electrocardiogram waveforms and the adaptability of such models across individuals. The work presented here offers a unique approach for understanding and predicting a patient's waveforms in order to potentially improve alarm generation. We conclude with a brief discussion of future extensions of this research.
Diurnal variations in blood gases and metabolites for draught Zebu and Simmental oxen.
Zanzinger, J; Hoffmann, I; Becker, K
In previous articles it has been shown that blood parameters may be useful to assess physical fitness in draught cattle. The aim of the present study was to detect possible variations in baseline values for the key metabolites: lactate and free fatty acids (FFA), and for blood gases in samples drawn from a catheterized jugular vein. Sampling took place immediately after venipuncture at intervals of 3 min for 1 hr in Simmental oxen (N = 6) and during a period of 24 hr at intervals of 60 min for Zebu (N = 4) and Simmental (N = 6) oxen. After puncture of the vein, plasma FFA and oxygen (pvO2) were elevated for approximately 15 min. All parameters returned to baseline values within 1 hr of the catheter being inserted. Twenty-four-hour mean baseline values for all measured parameters were significantly different (P < or = 0.001) between Zebu and Simmental. All parameters elicited diurnal variations which were mainly related to feed intake. The magnitude of these variations is comparable to the responses to light draught work. It is concluded that a strict standardization of blood sampling, at least in respect of time after feeding, is required for a reliable interpretation of endurance-indicating blood parameters measured under field conditions.
Uterine artery blood flow, fetal hypoxia and fetal growth
Browne, Vaughn A.; Julian, Colleen G.; Toledo-Jaldin, Lillian; Cioffi-Ragan, Darleen; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G.
Evolutionary trade-offs required for bipedalism and brain expansion influence the pregnancy rise in uterine artery (UtA) blood flow and, in turn, reproductive success. We consider the importance of UtA blood flow by reviewing its determinants and presenting data from 191 normotensive (normal, n = 125) or hypertensive (preeclampsia (PE) or gestational hypertension (GH), n = 29) Andean residents of very high (4100–4300 m) or low altitude (400 m, n = 37). Prior studies show that UtA blood flow is reduced in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but whether the IUGR is due to resultant fetal hypoxia is unclear. We found higher UtA blood flow and Doppler indices of fetal hypoxia in normotensive women at high versus low altitude but similar fetal growth. UtA blood flow was markedly lower in early-onset PE versus normal high-altitude women, and their fetuses more hypoxic as indicated by lower fetal heart rate, Doppler indices and greater IUGR. We concluded that, despite greater fetal hypoxia, fetal growth was well defended by higher UtA blood flows in normal Andeans at high altitude but when compounded by lower UtA blood flow in early-onset PE, exaggerated fetal hypoxia caused the fetus to respond by decreasing cardiac output and redistributing blood flow to help maintain brain development at the expense of growth elsewhere. We speculate that UtA blood flow is not only an important supply line but also a trigger for stimulating the metabolic and other processes regulating feto-placental metabolism and growth. Studies using the natural laboratory of high altitude are valuable for identifying the physiological and genetic mechanisms involved in human reproductive success. PMID:25602072
Relationship between retinal blood flow and arterial oxygen
Cheng, Richard W.; Yusof, Firdaus; Tsui, Edmund; Jong, Monica; Duffin, James; Flanagan, John G.; Fisher, Joseph A.
Key points Vascular reactivity, the response of the vessels to a vasoactive stimulus such as hypoxia and hyperoxia, can be used to assess the vascular range of adjustment in which the vessels are able to compensate for changes in PO2.Previous studies in the retina have not accurately quantified retinal vascular responses and precisely targeted multiple PaO2 stimuli at the same time as controlling the level of carbon dioxide, thus precluding them from modelling the relationship between retinal blood flow and oxygen.The present study modelled the relationship between retinal blood flow and PaO2, showing them to be a combined linear and hyperbolic function.This model demonstrates that the resting tonus of the vessels is at the mid‐point and that they have great vascular range of adjustment, compensating for decreases in oxygen above a P ETC O2 of 32–37 mmHg but being limited below this threshold. Abstract Retinal blood flow (RBF) increases in response to a reduction in oxygen (hypoxia) but decreases in response to increased oxygen (hyperoxia). However, the relationship between blood flow and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen has not been quantified and modelled in the retina, particularly in the vascular reserve and resting tonus of the vessels. The present study aimed to determine the limitations of the retinal vasculature by modelling the relationship between RBF and oxygen. Retinal vascular responses were measured in 13 subjects for eight different blood gas conditions, with the end‐tidal partial pressure of oxygen (P ETC O2) ranging from 40–500 mmHg. Retinal vascular response measurements were repeated twice; using the Canon laser blood flowmeter (Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan) during the first visit and using Doppler spectral domain optical coherence tomography during the second visit. We determined that the relationship between RBF and PaO2 can be modelled as a combination of hyperbolic and linear functions. We concluded that RBF compensated for
Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging angioanatomy of the arterial blood supply to the penis in suspected prostate cancer patients.
Thai, Cao Tan; Karam, Ibrahim Michel; Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh; Lefèvre, Frédéric; Hubert, Jacques; Felblinger, Jacques; Eschwège, Pascal
To describe the internal pudendal artery (IPA) and accessory pudendal artery (APA) detected by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography to help surgeons to find and preserve them during radical prostatectomy (RP). Constrast-enhanced MR 3.0 T angiography of the pelvis were performed in 111 male patients suspected diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), and describe the penile arterial blood supply. There are three patterns of the arterial blood supply to the penis (IPA and/or APA) accounting for 51.4%, 46.8% and 1.8% of cases, respectively. About the accessory pudendal artery (APA): 54/111 (48.6%) patients had APA with five different branching patterns, they were type I (APA bilateral symmetry): 17 (31.5%); type II (APA bilateral asymmetry): 1 (1.9%); type III (APA unilateral lateral): 13 (24%); type IV (APA unilateral apical): 21 (38.9%); type V (APA unilateral mix): 2 (3.7%). APA origin were from inferior epigastric artery (IEA): 7 (9.5%); from inferior vesical artery (IVA): 32 (43.2%); from obturator artery (OA): 35 (47.3%). A precise angioanatomic evalutation of arteries destined to the penis by MR angiography pre-operation for male pelvic organs will help surgeons to preserve them and contributes to reduce the erectile dysfunction after these procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amino Acid Intakes Are Inversely Associated with Arterial Stiffness and Central Blood Pressure in Women.
Jennings, Amy; MacGregor, Alex; Welch, Ailsa; Chowienczyk, Phil; Spector, Tim; Cassidy, Aedín
Although data suggest that intakes of total protein and specific amino acids (AAs) reduce blood pressure, data on other cardiovascular disease risk factors are limited. We examined associations between intakes of AAs with known mechanistic links to cardiovascular health and direct measures of arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. In a cross-sectional study of 1898 female twins aged 18-75 y from the TwinsUK registry, intakes of 7 cardioprotective AAs (arginine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, and tyrosine) were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires. Direct measures of arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis included central systolic blood pressure (cSBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), augmentation index (AI), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and intima-media thickness (IMT). ANCOVA was used to assess the associations between endpoints of arterial stiffness and intake (per quintile), adjusting for potential confounders. In multivariable analyses, higher intakes of total protein and 7 potentially cardioprotective AAs were associated with lower cSBP, MAP, and PWV. Higher intakes of glutamic acid, leucine, and tyrosine were most strongly associated with PWV, with respective differences of -0.4 ± 0.2 m/s (P-trend = 0.02), -0.4 ± 0.2 m/s (P-trend = 0.03), and -0.4 ± 0.2 m/s (P-trend = 0.03), comparing extreme quintiles. There was a significant interaction between AA intakes and protein source, and higher intakes of AAs from vegetable sources were associated with lower central blood pressure and AI. Higher intakes of glutamic acid, leucine, and tyrosine from animal sources were associated with lower PWV. These data provide evidence to suggest that intakes of several AAs are associated with cardiovascular benefits beyond blood pressure reduction in healthy women. The magnitude of the observed associations was similar to those previously reported for other lifestyle factors. Increasing intakes of these AAs could be an
Effects of Nitroglycerin on Regional Myocardial Blood Flow in Coronary Artery Disease
Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Gorlin, Richard; Taylor, Warren J.; Kemp, Harvey G.
Regional myocardial blood flow before and after sublingual nitroglycerin was measured in 10 patients with coronary artery disease. During thoracotomy, 133Xe was injected directly into the subepicardium in diseased regions of the anterior left ventricular wall, and washout rates were recorded with a scintillation counter. All disappearance curves were closely approximated by two exponential decays analyzed as two parallel flow systems by the compartmental method. The appearance of a double exponential decay pattern in diseased regions suggests that the slow phase was associated with collateral blood flow, although nonhomogeneous myocardium-to-blood partition coefficients for xenon cannot be excluded. Nitroglycerin increased the rapid phase flow in 9 of 10 patients and the slow flow in 7 of 10 patients. Average flow increased in 9 of the 10 patients (P < 0.01). Mean rapid phase flow in the control state was 110 ml/100 g per min and after nitroglycerin increased to 132 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.01); slow phase flow increased from 12 ml/100 g per min to 15 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.05). It is concluded that, under these conditions, nitroglycerin improves perfusion in regions of diseased myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:4999635
Arterial blood pressure oscillation after active standing up in kidney transplant recipients.
Gerhardt, U; Schäfer, M; Hohage, H
Dynamic arterial blood pressure (FINAPRES) response to active standing up, normally consisting of initial rise, fall and recovery above the baseline (overshoot), was compared with the early steady-state arterial blood pressure level to measure sympathetic vasomotor function in healthy subjects [group 1: n=50, 10 female subjects, age 51+/-2.5 years; weight 78+/-2.3 kg; height 174+/-1.4 cm (mean+/-standard error of the mean)] and in kidney transplant recipients under basal (group 2a: n=50, age 51.7+/-1.7 years; weight 77+/-2.1 kg; height 174+/-1.5 cm) and under high (group 2b: same subjects as in group 2a) cyclosporine A whole blood levels. Furthermore, baroreflex sensitivity and the activity of the generating compounds of the sympathetic nervous systems (Mayer waves) were measured. Systolic and diastolic overshoot values did not differ statistically significant in the present study. In the control subjects, a systolic overshoot of 15.4+/-2.7 mmHg and a diastolic overshoot of 15.2+/-2 mmHg was detected. The systolic overshoot disappeared in 57% of group 2a (-7.1+/-2.7 mmHg; P<0.001) and in 50% of group 2b recipients (-8.0+/-2.7 mmHg; P<0.001). Systolic early steady-state level was not lower in kidney transplant recipients before cyclosporine (baseline+2 mmHg) intake, but after cyclosporine administration (baseline-3 mmHg; controls: baseline+3 mmHg; P<0.05). There was a strong association between the overshoot and steady-state levels (P for chi(2)<0.001, n=150). Overshoot of group 1 levels (r=0.428; P<0.01) and group 2 levels (r=0.714; P<0. 001) correlated to their respective steady-state blood pressure. Furthermore, recipients had reduced baroreceptor sensitivities estimated by sequence analysis as compared to controls (10+/-1 ms/mmHg vs. 7.5+/-1.4 ms/mmHg; P<0.05). Mayer waves amplitudes of the heart rate spectrum were elevated statistically significant in renal transplant recipients (44.4+/-0.2 vs. 43.8+/-2.2 A.U.). In conclusion, baroreceptor reflex
Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies.
Bernstein, P S; Minior, V K; Divon, M Y
The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile) who were delivered between October 1988 and June 1995 were reviewed for antepartum testing, delivery conditions, and neonatal outcome. We studied fetuses who had an umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio within 3 days of delivery and a complete blood cell count on the first day of life. Multiple gestations, anomalous fetuses, and infants of diabetic mothers were excluded. Statistical analysis included the Student t test, chi 2 analysis, analysis of variance, and simple and stepwise regression. Fifty-two infants met the inclusion criteria. Those with absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (n = 19) had significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts than did those with end-diastolic velocity present (n = 33) (nucleated red blood cells/100 nucleated cells +/- SD: 135.5 +/- 138 vs 17.4 +/- 23.7, p < 0.0001). These infants exhibited significantly longer time intervals for clearance of nucleated red blood cells from their circulation (p < 0.0001). They also had lower birth weights (p < 0.05), lower initial platelet count (p = 0.0006), lower arterial cord blood pH (p < 0.05), higher cord blood base deficit (p < 0.05), and an increased likelihood of cesarean section for "fetal distress" (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (p < 0.0001) and low birth weight (p < 0.0001) contributed to the elevation of the nucleated red blood cell count, whereas gestational age at delivery was not a significant contributor. We observed significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts and lower platelet counts in small
Resistance training controls arterial blood pressure in rats with L-NAME- induced hypertension.
Araujo, Ayslan Jorge Santos de; Santos, Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos; Souza, Karine dos Santos; Aires, Marlúcia Bastos; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Fioretto, Emerson Ticona; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana
Arterial hypertension is a multifactorial chronic condition caused by either congenital or acquired factors. To evaluate the effects of Resistance Training (RT) on arterial pressure, and on vascular reactivity and morphology, of L-NAME-treated hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats (200 - 250 g) were allocated into Sedentary Normotensive (SN), Sedentary Hypertensive (SH) and Trained Hypertensive (TH) groups. Hypertension was induced by adding L-NAME (40 mg/Kg) to the drinking water for four weeks. Arterial pressure was evaluated before and after RT. RT was performed using 50% of 1RM, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, 3 times per week for four weeks. Vascular reactivity was measured in rat mesenteric artery rings by concentration-response curves to sodium nitroprusside (SNP); phenylephrine (PHE) was also used for histological and stereological analysis. Resistance training inhibited the increase in mean and diastolic arterial pressures. Significant reduction was observed in Rmax (maximal response) and pD2 (potency) of PHE between SH and TH groups. Arteries demonstrated normal intima, media and adventitia layers in all groups. Stereological analysis demonstrated no significant difference in luminal, tunica media, and total areas of arteries in the SH and TH groups when compared to the SN group. Wall-to-lumen ratio of SH arteries was significantly different compared to SN arteries (p<0.05) but there was no difference when compared to TH arteries. RT was able to prevent an increase in blood pressure under the conditions in this study. This appears to involve a vasoconstrictor regulation mechanism and maintenance of luminal diameter in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats.
Considerations for SphygmoCor radial artery pulse wave analysis: side selection and peripheral arterial blood pressure calibration.
Martin, Jeffrey S; Borges, Alexandra R; Christy, John B; Beck, Darren T
Methods employed for pulse wave analysis (PWA) and peripheral blood pressure (PBP) calibration vary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of SphygmoCor PWA parameters derived from radial artery tonometry when considering (1) timing (before vs. after tonometry) and side selection (ipsilateral vs. contralateral limb) for PBP calibration and (2) side selection for tonometry (left vs. right arm). In 34 subjects (aged 21.9 ± 2.3 years), bilateral radial artery tonometry was performed simultaneously on three instances. PBP assessment via oscillometric sphygmomanometry in the left arm only and both arms simultaneously occurred following the first and second instances of tonometry, respectively. Significant within arm differences in PWA parameters derived before and after PBP measurement were observed in the right arm only (for example, aortic systolic blood pressure, Δ=0.38 ± 0.64 mm Hg). Simultaneously captured bilateral PWA variables demonstrated significant between arm differences in 88% (14/16) and 56% (9/16) of outcome variables when calibrated to within arm and equivalent PBP, respectively. Moreover, the right arm consistently demonstrated lower values for clinical PWA variables (for example, augmentation index, bias=-2.79%). However, 26% (n=9) of participants presented with clinically significant differences (>10 mm Hg) in bilateral PBP and their exclusion from analysis abolished most between arm differences observed. SphygmoCor PWA in the right radial artery results in greater variability independent of the timing of PBP measurement and magnitude of calibration pressures in young subjects. Moreover, bilateral PBP measurement is imperative to identify subjects in whom a significant difference in bilateral PWA outcomes may exist.
The Impact of Blood Rheology on Drug Transport in Stented Arteries: Steady Simulations
Vijayaratnam, Pujith R. S.; O’Brien, Caroline C.; Reizes, John A.; Barber, Tracie J.; Edelman, Elazer R.
Background and Methods It is important to ensure that blood flow is modelled accurately in numerical studies of arteries featuring drug-eluting stents due to the significant proportion of drug transport from the stent into the arterial wall which is flow-mediated. Modelling blood is complicated, however, by variations in blood rheological behaviour between individuals, blood’s complex near-wall behaviour, and the large number of rheological models which have been proposed. In this study, a series of steady-state computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed in which the traditional Newtonian model was compared against a range of non-Newtonian models. The impact of these rheological models was elucidated through comparisons of haemodynamic flow details and drug transport behaviour at various blood flow rates. Results Recirculation lengths were found to reduce by as much as 24% with the inclusion of a non-Newtonian rheological model. Another model possessing the viscosity and density of blood plasma was also implemented to account for near-wall red blood cell losses and yielded recirculation length increases of up to 59%. However, the deviation from the average drug concentration in the tissue obtained with the Newtonian model was observed to be less than 5% in all cases except one. Despite the small sensitivity to the effects of viscosity variations, the spatial distribution of drug matter in the tissue was found to be significantly affected by rheological model selection. Conclusions/Significance These results may be used to guide blood rheological model selection in future numerical studies. The clinical significance of these results is that they convey that the magnitude of drug uptake in stent-based drug delivery is relatively insensitive to individual variations in blood rheology. Furthermore, the finding that flow separation regions formed downstream of the stent struts diminish drug uptake may be of interest to device designers. PMID:26066041
Choice of marker for assessment of RV dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism : NT-proBNP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure, or blood pressure index.
Ates, H; Ates, I; Kundi, H; Yilmaz, F M
We aimed to examine the value of NT-proBNP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), blood pressure index (BPI), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the determination of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). A total of 547 patients diagnosed with APE were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions of patients were recorded in patient files. For blood pressure measurement, a calibrated digital blood pressure monitor was used at regular intervals. Blood samples were taken from patients at the time of admission for hemogram, biochemical, and hemostasis blood tests. Echocardiography was performed on all patients to detect RVD and evaluate pulmonary artery pressure. PASP (p < 0.001), MAP (p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), D‑dimer (p = 0.001), NT-proBNP (p = 0.001), white blood cell (p < 0.001), and platelet (p = 0.001) counts were higher in APE patients with RVD compared with those without RVD, whereas the mean BPI level (p < 0.001) was lower. BPI had a negative correlation with PASP, NT-proBNP, platelet count, and triglyceride levels in patients with RVD. In regression analysis, BPI and PASP were found to be independent predictors of RVD. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, BPI (AUC ± SE = 0.975 ± 0.006; p < 0.001) was found to be the best predictor of RVD with a higher sensitivity (92.8%) and specificity (100%). We found that BPI had a better diagnostic discrimination for RVD compared with PASP and NT-proBNP.
A new model of arterial hemodynamics.
Branzan, M; Sundri, G
The determination of arterial blood flow parameters on the basis of ultrasound investigation requires a new hydrodynamic model of arterial circulation. Unlike previous research (Womersley, Bergel) considering the arterial pressure of its gradients to be known, the present model uses blood flow velocity and arterial radius magnitude easily obtained by ultrasound (Doppler effect). Processing these data requires the thorough analysis of rheological characteristics of blood flow and of arterial wall behaviour (elastic deformability). It has been assumed that: a) blood is a homogeneous and isotropic fluid; b) the artery has a cylindrical symmetry of a circular cross-section at any time moment; c) the pressure in the artery cross-section is constant. Because arterial dynamics has an undulatory character the Fourier analysis of the modified Navier-Stokes equations has been used. Finally, a simplified relation for blood pressure determination has been obtained.
Effect of glucose on the optical properties of arterial blood using Mie theory simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, Neil T.; Leahy, Martin J.
The glucose concentration in arterial plasma has immediate effects on the optical properties of blood-bearing tissue due primarily to the alteration of refractive index mismatch between the scattering particles (red blood cells) and the medium (plasma). The influence of these effects on pulse oximetry is investigated using a numerical model based on Mie theory. The objective is to determine whether or not physiological fluctuations in blood glucose levels could sufficiently vary the optical properties to shift the calibration curve of a commercial pulse oximeter significantly.
Morning blood pressure surge and nighttime blood pressure in relation to nocturnal sleep pattern and arterial stiffness.
Suh, Minhee; Barksdale, Debra J; Logan, Jeongok G
The phenomenon of morning blood pressure (BP) surge (MBPS) is known to increase the risk for cardiovascular events and stroke. The purposes of this study were to explore associations between MBPS and nighttime BP and to examine arterial stiffness and sleep pattern in association with MBPS. This study included 30 healthy Korean American women aged 25 to 60 years. Ambulatory BP was monitored for 24 hours. To evaluate MBPS, maximum morning BP(power) was calculated. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and sleep pattern was evaluated using an actigraphy. The participants (n = 8) in the upper quartile of MBPS had higher morning systolic BPs (SBPs; P = 0.015) and lower nighttime diastolic BPs (P = 0.031). The MBPS in SBP was significantly increased in the participants who had a more wakeful night (P = 0.038) and who slept longer at night (P = 0.041). Although MBPS was not significantly related to arterial stiffness, higher morning SBP (P = 0.005), morning diastolic BP (P = 0.048), and prewake SBP (P = 0.005) were associated with arterial stiffness. Our findings imply a possible link between disturbed sleep and MBPS. Clinicians should understand the importance of the modification of altered sleep pattern for reducing MBPS in nonhypertensive participants.
Advantages of autologous blood transfusion in off-pump coronary artery bypass.
Ela, Yuksel; Emmiler, Mustafa; Kocogullari, Cevdet Ugur; Terzi, Yuksel; Sivaci, Remziye Gul; Cekirdekci, Ahmet
In this randomized controlled study, we investigated the effects of autologous Hemobag blood transfusion (AHBT) and allogenic blood transfusion (ABT) in off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. Sixty patients who underwent surgery between February 2008 and August 2008 were randomized into 2 groups. The AHBT group (n = 30) consisted of patients who received autologous Hemobag blood transfusion, and the ABT group (n = 30) consisted of patients who received allogenic blood transfusion. All patients underwent OPCAB via sternotomy. The time to extubation, chest tube drainage volume, postoperative white blood cell counts, amount of blood transfusion, sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein concentration, postoperative temperature, and the presence of atelectasis were recorded in the intensive care unit. Intraoperative bleeding and fluid resuscitation were similar in the 2 groups (P > .05); however, there were significant decreases in postoperative blood loss, extubation period, postoperative white cell counts, sedimentation rate, incidence of atelectasis, C-reactive protein, and fever in the AHBT group compared with the ABT group (P < .05). The rate of atrial fibrillation in the AHBT group tended to be lower than in the ABT group. Autologous blood transfusion in OPCAB may be beneficial in certain cardiac surgery patients; however, these beneficial effects require further study to be proved.
Estimation of arterial baroreflex sensitivity in relation to carotid artery stiffness.
Lipponen, Jukka A; Tarvainen, Mika P; Laitinen, Tomi; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Vanninen, Joonas; Koponen, Timo; Lyyra-Laitinen, Tiina
Arterial baroreflex has a significant role in regulating blood pressure. It is known that increased stiffness of the carotid sinus affects mecanotransduction of baroreceptors and therefore limits baroreceptors capability to detect changes in blood pressure. By using high resolution ultrasound video signal and continuous measurement of electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure, it is possible to define elastic properties of artery simultaneously with baroreflex sensitivity parameters. In this paper dataset which consist 38 subjects, 11 diabetics and 27 healthy controls was analyzed. Use of diabetic and healthy test subjects gives wide scale of arteries with different elasticity properties, which provide opportunity to validate baroreflex and artery stiffness estimation methods.
Early ligation of the dorsal pancreatic artery with a mesenteric approach reduces intraoperative blood loss during pancreatoduodenectomy.
Iede, Kiyotsugu; Nakao, Akimasa; Oshima, Kenji; Suzuki, Ryota; Yamada, Hironori; Oshima, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Kimura, Yasunori
Early ligation of the inferior pancreatoduodenal artery has been advocated to reduce blood loss during pancreatoduodenectomy. However, the impact of early ligation of the dorsal pancreatic artery (DPA) remains unclear. This study was performed to investigate the clinical implications of early ligation of the DPA. From October 2014 to April 2017, 34 consecutive patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy using a mesenteric approach. The patients were divided into the early DPA ligation group (n = 15) and late DPA ligation group (n = 19). The clinical features were retrospectively compared between the two groups (H29-044). Preoperative multidetector row computed tomography and intraoperative findings revealed that the right branch of the DPA supplied the pancreatic head region in all cases. Intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower in the early than late ligation group (median, 609 ml [range, 94-1013 ml] vs. 764 ml [range, 367-1828 ml], respectively; P = 0.008]. Multivariable analysis revealed that early DPA ligation was independently associated with blood loss (P = 0.023). The DPAs arising from the superior mesenteric artery underwent early ligation at a significantly higher rate. Early ligation of the DPA during pancreaticoduodenectomy with a mesenteric approach could reduce intraoperative blood loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pain scores for intravenous cannulation and arterial blood gas test among emergency department patients.
Ballesteros-Peña, Sendoa; Vallejo-De la Hoz, Gorka; Fernández-Aedo, Irrintzi
To analyse vein catheterisation and blood gas test-related pain among adult patients in the emergency department and to explore pain score-related factors. An observational and multicentre research study was performed. Patients undergoing vein catheterisation or arterial puncture for gas test were included consecutively. After each procedure, patients scored the pain experienced using the NRS-11. 780 vein catheterisations and 101 blood gas tests were analysed. Venipuncture was scored with an average score of 2.8 (95% CI: 2.6-3), and arterial puncture with 3.6 (95%CI 3.1-4). Iatrogenic pain scores were associated with moderate - high difficulty procedures (P<.001); with the choice of the humeral rather than the radial artery (P=.02) in the gas test and correlated to baseline pain in venipunctures (P<.001). Pain scores related to other variables such as sex, place of origin or needle gauge did not present statistically significant differences. Vein catheterisation and blood gas test-related pain can be considered mild to moderately and moderately painful procedures, respectively. The pain score is associated with certain variables such as the difficulty of the procedure, the anatomic area of the puncture or baseline pain. A better understanding of painful effects related to emergency nursing procedures and the factors associated with pain self-perception could help to determine when and how to act to mitigate this undesired effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Pulsatile spiral blood flow through arterial stenosis.
Linge, Fabian; Hye, Md Abdul; Paul, Manosh C
Pulsatile spiral blood flow in a modelled three-dimensional arterial stenosis, with a 75% cross-sectional area reduction, is investigated by using numerical fluid dynamics. Two-equation k-ω model is used for the simulation of the transitional flow with Reynolds numbers 500 and 1000. It is found that the spiral component increases the static pressure in the vessel during the deceleration phase of the flow pulse. In addition, the spiral component reduces the turbulence intensity and wall shear stress found in the post-stenosis region of the vessel in the early stages of the flow pulse. Hence, the findings agree with the results of Stonebridge et al. (2004). In addition, the results of the effects of a spiral component on time-varying flow are presented and discussed along with the relevant pathological issues.
Arterial stress hormones during scuba diving with different breathing gases.
Weist, Frank; Strobel, Günther; Hölzl, Mathias; Böning, Dieter
The purpose of the study was to determine whether the conditions during scuba diving without exercise (e.g., submersion, restricted breathing) stimulate the activities of the sympathoadrenergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This might facilitate panic reactions in dangerous situations. Fifteen experienced rescue divers participated in three experiments with two submersions each in a diving tower where ambient pressure could be varied. During submersion (duration = 15 min), they were breathing either pure oxygen (ambient pressure = 1.1 bar) or air (1.1 and 5.3 bar) or Heliox21 (21% O(2) and 79% He, 1.1 and 5.3 bar). The subjects stayed upright immediately below the water surface holding one hand with a cannulated radial artery out in the air. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, and dopamine concentrations in arterial blood and heart rate (HR) variability as indicators of sympathoadrenergic activity and cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations as strain indicators were measured. [Noradrenaline] and [adrenaline] (initial values (mean ± SE) = 1616 ± 93 and 426 ± 38 pmol·L(-1)) decreased significantly by up to 30% and 50%, respectively, after 11 min of submersion, independent of pressure and inspired gas. HR variability showed roughly corresponding changes and also indications for parasympathetic stimulation, but artifacts by interference among HR monitors reduced the number of usable measurements. The other hormone concentrations did not change significantly. There was no increase of stress hormone concentrations in experienced subjects. The reduction of [noradrenaline] and [adrenaline] during scuba diving seems to be a reaction to orthostatic relief caused by external hydrostatic pressure on peripheral vasculature. The activity of the vegetative nervous system might be estimated from HR variability if interference among pulse watches can be avoided.
Beat-to-beat agreement of noninvasive tonometric and intra-radial arterial blood pressure during microgravity and hypergravity generated by parabolic flights.
Normand, Hervé; Lemarchand, Erick; Arbeille, Philippe; Quarck, Gaëlle; Vaïda, Pierre; Duretete, Arnaud; Denise, Pierre
Accurate measurement of beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure is essential for understanding the cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness; however, the intra-arterial standard of beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement has never been used during space flight because of its invasive nature. The aim of the present study was to compare noninvasive radial artery tonometry blood pressure measurement with intra-radial pressure measurement during microgravity and hypergravity generated by parabolic flights. Two study participants, equipped with an intra-radial pressure line on the left arm and a Colin CBM-7000 (Colin Corp., Komaki City, Japan) beat-to-beat pressure measurement apparatus on the right arm, were studied in a supine position, during parabolic flights on board of the Airbus A300 OG of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. The mean and standard deviations of the beat-to-beat difference between tonometric and intra-radial blood pressure were calculated for systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in the three gravity conditions (1g, 0 g and 1.8 g) experienced during parabolic flight. The Colin CBM-7000 met the specifications required by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation in the 0 g environment. Gravity, however, significantly affected the difference between tonometric and intra-arterial blood pressure, possibly owing to the effect of gravity on the apparent weight of the device and the corresponding calibration factor. We conclude that the Colin CBM-7000 can be used with confidence during space flight.
Neural Vascular Mechanism for the Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation after Hemorrhagic Stroke.
Xiao, Ming; Li, Qiang; Feng, Hua; Zhang, Le; Chen, Yujie
During the initial stages of hemorrhagic stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, the reflex mechanisms are activated to protect cerebral perfusion, but secondary dysfunction of cerebral flow autoregulation will eventually reduce global cerebral blood flow and the delivery of metabolic substrates, leading to generalized cerebral ischemia, hypoxia, and ultimately, neuronal cell death. Cerebral blood flow is controlled by various regulatory mechanisms, including prevailing arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, arterial blood gases, neural activity, and metabolic demand. Evoked by the concept of vascular neural network, the unveiled neural vascular mechanism gains more and more attentions. Astrocyte, neuron, pericyte, endothelium, and so forth are formed as a communicate network to regulate with each other as well as the cerebral blood flow. However, the signaling molecules responsible for this communication between these new players and blood vessels are yet to be definitively confirmed. Recent evidence suggested the pivotal role of transcriptional mechanism, including but not limited to miRNA, lncRNA, exosome, and so forth, for the cerebral blood flow autoregulation. In the present review, we sought to summarize the hemodynamic changes and underline neural vascular mechanism for cerebral blood flow autoregulation in stroke-prone state and after hemorrhagic stroke and hopefully provide more systematic and innovative research interests for the pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies of hemorrhagic stroke.
Numerical simulation of blood flow in femoral perfusion: comparison between side-armed femoral artery perfusion and direct femoral artery perfusion.
Kitamura, Shingo; Shirota, Minori; Fukuda, Wakako; Inamura, Takao; Fukuda, Ikuo
Computational numerical analysis was performed to elucidate the flow dynamics of femoral artery perfusion. Numerical simulation of blood flow was performed from the right femoral artery in an aortic model. An incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and continuity equation were solved using computed flow dynamics software. Three different perfusion models were analyzed: a 4.0-mm cannula (outer diameter 15 French size), a 5.2-mm cannula (18 French size) and an 8-mm prosthetic graft. The cannula was inserted parallel to the femoral artery, while the graft was anastomosed perpendicular to the femoral artery. Shear stress was highest with the 4-mm cannula (172 Pa) followed by the graft (127 Pa) and the 5.2-mm cannula (99 Pa). The cannula exit velocity was high, even when the 5.2-mm cannula was used. Although side-armed perfusion with an 8-mm graft generated a high shear stress area near the point of anastomosis, flow velocity at the external iliac artery was decreased. The jet speed decreased due to the Coanda effect caused by the recirculation behind sudden expansion of diameter, and the flow velocity maintains a constant speed after the reattachment length of the flow. This study showed that iliac artery shear stress was lower with the 5.2-mm cannula than with the 4-mm cannula when used for femoral perfusion. Side-armed graft perfusion generates a high shear stress area around the anastomotic site, but flow velocity in the iliac artery is slower in the graft model than in the 5.2-mm cannula model.
Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography
Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping
Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365
Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography.
Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D; Chen, Zhongping
Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement.
Ultrasonic Doppler measurement of renal artery blood flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Implantable pulsed Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter development has resulted in designs for application to the aortas of dogs and humans, and to human renal and coronary arteries. A figure of merit was derived for each design, indicating the degree of its precision. An H-array design for transcutaneous observation of blood flow was developed and tested in vitro. Two other simplified designs for the same purpose obviate the need to determine vessel orientation. One of these will be developed in the next time period. Techniques for intraoperative use and for implantation have had mixed success. While satisfactory on large vessels, higher ultrasonic frequencies and alteration of transducer design are required for satisfactory operation of pulsed Doppler flowmeters with small vessels.
The air we breathe: three vital respiratory gases and the red blood cell: oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide.
Dzik, Walter H
Three vital respiratory gases-oxygen (O(2)), nitric oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO(2))-intersect at the level of the human red blood cell (RBC). In addition to hemoglobin (Hb)'s central role in O(2) transport, interaction of Hb with the Band 3 metabolon balances RBC energy flow. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate enhances O(2) transport across the placenta and plays an important role in regulating RBC plasticity. NO is a key mediator of hypoxic vasodilation, but the precise role of RBC Hb remains controversial. In addition to established theories that depend on RBC uptake, delivery, and discharge of NO or its metabolites, an alternative hypothesis based on RBC permeability is suggested. NO depletion by free Hb may account for several clinical features seen during intravascular hemolysis or during deliberate infusion of Hb solutions used as RBC substitutes. CO(2) released by tissues triggers oxygen release through a series of well-coordinated reactions centered on the Band 3 metabolon. While RBC carbonic anhydrase and the Band 3 anion exchanger are central to this process, there is surprisingly little research on the kinetics of CO(2) clearance by transfusion. The three RBC gases are directly related to the three principal gases of Earth's atmosphere. Human fossil fuel consumption dumps 90 million metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere annually. Increasing CO(2) levels are linked to global warming, melting Arctic ice, rising sea levels, and climate instability. Just as individual cells depend on balance of the three vital gases, so too will their balance determine survival of life on Earth. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
High phosphate diet increases arterial blood pressure via a parathyroid hormone mediated increase of renin.
Bozic, Milica; Panizo, Sara; Sevilla, Maria A; Riera, Marta; Soler, Maria J; Pascual, Julio; Lopez, Ignacio; Freixenet, Montserrat; Fernandez, Elvira; Valdivielso, Jose M
There is growing evidence suggesting that phosphate intake is associated with blood pressure levels. However, data from epidemiological studies show inconsistent results. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of high circulating phosphorus on arterial blood pressure of healthy rats and to elucidate the potential mechanism that stands behind this effect. Animals fed a high phosphate diet for 4 weeks showed an increase in blood pressure, which returned to normal values after the addition of a phosphate binder (lanthanum carbonate) to the diet. The expression of renin in the kidney was higher, alongside an increase in plasma renin activity, angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and left ventricular hypertrophy. The addition of the phosphate binder blunted the increase in renin and Ang II levels. The levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were also higher in animals fed a high phosphate diet, and decreased when the phosphate binder was present in the diet. However, blood P levels remained elevated. A second group of rats underwent parathyroidectomy and received a continuous infusion of physiological levels of PTH through an implanted mini-osmotic pump. Animals fed a high phosphate diet with continuous infusion of PTH did not show an increase in blood pressure, although blood P levels were elevated. Finally, unlike with verapamil, the addition of losartan to the drinking water reverted the increase in blood pressure in rats fed a high phosphate diet. The results of this study suggest that a high phosphate diet increases arterial blood pressure through an increase in renin mediated by PTH.
Effect of different dosages of nitroglycerin infusion on arterial blood gas tensions in patients undergoing on- pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Masoumi, Gholamreza; Pour, Evaz Hidar; Sadeghpour, Ali; Ziayeefard, Mohsen; Alavi, Mostapha; Anbardan, Sanam Javid; Shirani, Shahin
On-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery impairs gas exchange in the early postoperative period. The main object on this study was evaluation of changes in arterial blood gas values in patients underwent on pump CABG surgery receiving different dose of intravenous nitroglycerin (NTG). sixty-seven consecutive patients undergoing elective on-pump CABG randomly enrolled into three groups receiving NTG 50 μg/min (Group N1, n =67), 100 μg/min (Group N2, n = 67), and 150 μg/min (Group N3, n = 67). Arterial blood gas (ABG) tensions were evaluated just before induction of anesthesia, during anesthesia, at the end of warming up period, and 6 h after admission to the intensive care unit. Pao2 and PH had the highest value during surgery in Group N1, Group N2, and Group N3. No significant difference was noted in mean values of Pao2 and PH during surgery between three groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in HCO3 values in different time intervals among three groups (P > 0.05). our results showed that infusing three different dosage of NTG (50, 100, and 150 μg/min) had no significant effect on ABG tensions in patients underwent on-pump CABG surgery.
Pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian blood fluid inside stenosed arteries: Investigating the effects of viscoelastic and elastic walls, arteriosclerosis, and polycythemia diseases.
Nejad, A Abbas; Talebi, Z; Cheraghali, D; Shahbani-Zahiri, A; Norouzi, M
In this study, the interaction of pulsatile blood flow with the viscoelastic walls of the axisymmetric artery is numerically investigated for different severities of stenosis. The geometry of artery is modeled by an axisymmetric cylindrical tube with a symmetric stenosis in a two-dimensional case. The effects of stenosis severity on the axial velocity profile, pressure distribution, streamlines, wall shear stress, and wall radial displacement for the viscoelastic artery are also compared to the elastics artery. Furthermore, the effects of atherosclerosis and polycythemia diseases on the hemodynamics and the mechanical behavior of arterial walls are investigated. The pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian blood is simulated inside the viscoelastic artery using the COMSOL Multiphysics software (version 5) and by employing the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Moreover, finite element method (FEM) is used to solve the governing equations on the unstructured grids. For modeling the non-Newtonian blood fluid and the viscoelastic arterial wall, the modified Casson model, and generalized Maxwell model are used, respectively. According to the results, with stenosis severity increasing from 25% to 75% at the time of maximum volumetric flow rate, the maximum value of axial velocity and its gradient increase 7.9 and 19.6 times, and the maximum wall shear stress of viscoelastic wall increases 24.2 times in the constriction zone. With the progression of the atherosclerosis disease (fivefold growth of arterial elastic modulus), the wall radial displacement of viscoelastic arterial walls decreases nearly 40%. In this study, axial velocity profile, pressure distribution, streamlines, wall radial displacement, and wall shear stress were examined for different percentages of stenosis (25%, 50%, and 75%). The atherosclerosis disease was investigated by the fivefold growth of viscoelastic arterial elastic modulus and polycythemia
Spiral blood flows in an idealized 180-degree curved artery model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulusu, Kartik V.; Kulkarni, Varun; Plesniak, Michael W.
Understanding of cardiovascular flows has been greatly advanced by the Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) technique and its potential for three-dimensional velocity encoding in regions of anatomic interest. The MRV experiments were performed on a 180-degree curved artery model using a Newtonian blood analog fluid at the Richard M. Lucas Center at Stanford University employing a 3 Tesla General Electric (Discovery 750 MRI system) whole body scanner with an eight-channel cardiac coil. Analysis in two regions of the model-artery was performed for flow with Womersley number=4.2. In the entrance region (or straight-inlet pipe) the unsteady pressure drop per unit length, in-plane vorticity and wall shear stress for the pulsatile, carotid artery-based flow rate waveform were calculated. Along the 180-degree curved pipe (curvature ratio =1/7) the near-wall vorticity and the stretching of the particle paths in the vorticity field are visualized. The resultant flow behavior in the idealized curved artery model is associated with parameters such as Dean number and Womersley number. Additionally, using length scales corresponding to the axial and secondary flow we attempt to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of various structures observed during the pulsatile flow cycle. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE), MRV measurements in collaboration with Prof. John K. Eaton and, Dr. Chris Elkins at Stanford University.
Femoral artery blood flow and microcirculatory perfusion during acute, low-level functional electrical stimulation in spinal cord injury.
Barton, Thomas J; Low, David A; Janssen, Thomas W J; Sloots, Maurits; Smit, Christof A J; Thijssen, Dick H J
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may help to reduce the risk of developing macro- and microvascular complications in people with SCI. Low-intensity FES has significant clinical potential since this can be applied continuously throughout the day. This study examines the acute effects of low intensity FES using wearable clothing garment on vascular blood flow and oxygen consumption in people with SCI. Cross-sectional observation study METHODS: Eight participants with a motor complete SCI received 4x3 minutes of unilateral FES to the gluteal and hamstring muscles. Skin and deep femoral artery blood flow and oxygen consumption were measured at baseline and during each bout of stimulation. Femoral artery blood flow increased by 18.1% with the application of FES (P=0.02). Moreover, femoral artery blood flow increased further during each subsequent block of FES (P=0.004). Skin perfusion did not change during an individual block of stimulation (P=0.66). Skin perfusion progressively increased with each subsequent bout (P<0.001). There was no change in femoral or skin perfusion across time in the non-stimulated leg (all P>0.05). Low-intensity FES acutely increased blood flow during stimulation, with a progressive increase across subsequent FES bouts. These observations suggest continuous, low-intensity FES may represent a practical and effective strategy to improve perfusion and reduce the risk of vascular complications.
Acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Böhm, Joseane; Monteiro, Mariane Borba; Andrade, Francini Porcher; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo; Thomé, Fernando Saldanha
Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG). Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise or the equivalent time in CG. Analysis of blood and dialysate biochemistry as well as blood gases were performed. Mass removal and solute clearance were calculated. Oxidative stress was determined by lipid peroxidation and by the total antioxidant capacity. Serum concentrations of solutes increased with exercise, but only phosphorus showed a significant elevation (p = 0.035). There were no significant changes in solute removal and in the acid-base balance. Both oxygen partial pressure and saturation increased with exercise (p = 0.035 and p = 0.024, respectivelly), which did not occur in the CG. The total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (p = 0.027). The acute intradialytic aerobic exercise increased phosphorus serum concentration and decreased total antioxidant capacity, reversing hypoxemia resulting from hemodialysis. The intradialytic exercise did not change the blood acid-base balance and the removal of solutes.
Mechanisms underlying the biphasic effect of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) on arterial blood pressure.
Tirapelli, Carlos R; Resstel, Leonardo B M; de Oliveira, Ana M; Corrêa, Fernando M A
Phylloquinone (vitamin K(1), VK(1)) is widely used therapeutically and intravenous administration of this quinone can induce hypotension. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects induced by VK(1) on arterial blood pressure. With this purpose a catheter was inserted into the abdominal aorta of male Wistar rats for blood pressure and heart rate recording. Bolus intravenous injection of VK(1) (0.5-20 mgkg(-1)) produced a transient increase in blood pressure followed by a fall. Both the pressor and depressor response induced by VK(1) were dose-dependent. On the other hand, intravenous injection of VK(1) did not alter heart rate. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 and 20 mgkg(-1)) reduced both the increase and decrease in blood pressure induced by VK(1) (5 mgkg(-1)). On the other hand, indometacin (10 mg kg(-1)), a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, did not alter the increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by VK(1). However, VK(1)-induced fall in MAP was significantly attenuated by indometacin. We concluded that VK(1) induces a dose-dependent effect on blood pressure that consists of an acute increase followed by a more sustained decrease in MAP. The hypotension induced by VK(1) involves the activation of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the release of vasodilator prostanoid(s).
The aeromedical assessment of human systolic and diastolic blood-pressure transients without direct arterial puncture.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
A system for virtually continuous measurement of both systolic and diatolic blood pressures without recourse to direct arterial puncture has been effected by the modification of already existing standard equipment. This system entails the measurement...
Insulin resistance is associated with lower arterial blood flow and reduced cortical perfusion in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults
Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Berman, Sara E; Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Krause, Rachel A; Oh, Jennifer M; Beeri, Michal S; Rowley, Howard A; Wieben, Oliver; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Schrage, William G
Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with poor cerebrovascular health and increased risk for dementia. Little is known about the unique effect of IR on both micro- and macrovascular flow particularly in midlife when interventions against dementia may be most effective. We examined the effect of IR as indexed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) on cerebral blood flow in macro- and microvessels utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. We hypothesized that higher HOMA-IR would be associated with reduced flow in macrovessels and lower cortical perfusion. One hundred and twenty cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults (57 ± 5 yrs) underwent fasting blood draw, phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (PC VIPR) MRI, and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower arterial blood flow, particularly within the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), and lower cerebral perfusion in several brain regions including frontal and temporal lobe regions. Higher blood flow in bilateral ICAs predicted greater cortical perfusion in individuals with lower HOMA-IR, a relationship not observed among those with higher HOMA-IR. Findings provide novel evidence for an uncoupling of macrovascular blood flow and microvascular perfusion among individuals with higher IR in midlife. PMID:27488909
Arterial blood gas management in retrograde cerebral perfusion: the importance of carbon dioxide.
Ueno, K; Takamoto, S; Miyairi, T; Morota, T; Shibata, K; Murakami, A; Kotsuka, Y
Many interventional physiological assessments for retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) have been explored. However, the appropriate arterial gas management of carbon dioxide (CO2) remains controversial. The aim of this study is to determine whether alpha-stat or pH-stat could be used for effective brain protection under RCP in terms of cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), and distribution of regional cerebral blood flow. Fifteen anesthetized dogs (25.1+/-1.1 kg) on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were cooled to 18 degrees C under alpha-stat management and had RCP for 90 min under: (1), alpha-stat; (2), pH-stat; or (3), deep hypothermic (18 degrees C) antegrade CPB (antegrade). RCP flow was regulated for a sagittal sinus pressure of around 25 mmHg. CBF was monitored by a laser tissue flowmeter. Serial analyses of blood gas were made. The regional cerebral blood flow was measured with colored microspheres before discontinuation of RCP. CBF and CMRO2 were evaluated as the percentage of the baseline level (%CBF, %CMRO2). The oxygen content of arterial inflow and oxygen extraction was not significantly different between the RCP groups. The %CBF and %CMRO2 were significantly higher for pH-stat RCP than for alpha-stat RCP. The regional cerebral blood flow, measured with colored microspheres, tended to be higher for pH-stat RCP than for alpha-stat RCP, at every site in the brain. Irrespective of CO2 management, regional differences were not significant among any site in the brain. CO2 management is crucial for brain protection under deep hypothermic RCP. This study revealed that pH-stat was considered to be better than alpha-stat in terms of CBF and oxygen metabolism in the brain. The regional blood flow distribution was considered to be unchanged irrespective of CO2 management.
Heat stress exacerbates the reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity during prolonged self-paced exercise.
Périard, J D; Racinais, S
This study examined the influence of hyperthermia on middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean). Eleven cyclists undertook a 750 kJ self-paced time trial in HOT (35 °C) and COOL (20 °C) conditions. Exercise time was longer in HOT (56 min) compared with COOL (49 min; P < 0.001). Power output in HOT was significantly lower from 40% of work completed onward (P < 0.01). Rectal temperature increased to 39.6 ± 0.6 °C (HOT) and 38.8 ± 0.5 °C (COOL; P < 0.01). Skin temperature, skin blood flow, and heart rate were higher throughout HOT compared with COOL (P < 0.05). A similar increase in ventilation (P < 0.05) and decrease in end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2 ; P < 0.05) occurred in both conditions. Arterial blood pressure and oxygen uptake were lower from 50% of work completed onward in HOT compared with COOL (P < 0.01). MCA Vmean increased at 10% in both conditions (P < 0.01), decreasing thereafter (P < 0.01) and to a greater extent in HOT from 40% of work completed onward (P < 0.05). Therefore, despite a comparable ventilatory response and PETCO2 in the HOT and COOL conditions, the greater level of thermal strain developing in the heat appears to have exacerbated the reduction in MCA Vmean, in part via increases in peripheral blood flow and a decrease in arterial blood pressure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Prognostic value of renal fractional flow reserve in blood pressure response after renal artery stenting (PREFER study).
Kądziela, Jacek; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Michałowska, Ilona; Januszewicz, Magdalena; Florczak, Elżbieta; Kalińczuk, Łukasz; Norwa-Otto, Bożena; Warchoł, Ewa; Witkowski, Adam
The aim of our study was to determine a potential relationship between resting translesional pressures ratio (Pd/Pa ratio), renal fractional flow reserve (rFFR) and blood pressure response after renal artery stenting. Thirty five hypertensive patients (49% males, mean age 64 years) with at least 60% stenosis in angiography, underwent renal artery stenting. Translesional systolic pressure gradient (TSPG), Pd/Pa ratio (the ratio of mean distal to lesion and mean proximal pressures) and hyperemic rFFR - after intrarenal administration of papaverine - were measured before stent implantation. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) were recorded before the procedure and after 6 months. The ABPM results were presented as blood pressure changes in subgroups of patients with normal (≥ 0.9) vs. abnormal (< 0.9) Pd/Pa ratio and normal (≥ 0.8) vs. abnormal (< 0.8) rFFR. Median Pd/Pa ratio was 0.84 (interquartile range 0.79-0.91) and strongly correlated with TSPG (r = -0.89, p < 0.001), minimal lumen diameter (MLD; r = 0.53, p < 0.005) and diameter stenosis (DS; r = -0.51, p < 0.005). Median rFFR was 0.78 (0.72-0.82). Similarly, significant correlation between rFFR and TSPG (r = -0.86, p < 0.0001), as well as with MLD (r = 0.50, p < 0.005) and DS (r = -0.51, p < 0.005) was observed. Procedural success was obtained in all patients. Baseline Pd/Pa ratio and rFFR did not predict hypertension response after renal artery stenting. Median changes of 24-h systolic/diastolic blood pressure were comparable in patients with abnormal vs. normal Pd/Pa ratio (-4/-3 vs. 0/2 mm Hg; p = NS) and with abnormal vs. normal rFFR (-2/-1 vs. -2/-0.5 mm Hg, respectively). Physiological assessment of renal artery stenosis using Pd/Pa ratio and papaverine- induced renal fractional fl ow reserve did not predict hypertension response after renal artery stenting.
Early Evidence of Sepsis-Associated Hyperperfusion-A Study of Cerebral Blood Flow Measured With MRI Arterial Spin Labeling in Critically Ill Septic Patients and Control Subjects.
Masse, Marie-Hélène; Richard, Marie Anne; D'Aragon, Frédérick; St-Arnaud, Charles; Mayette, Michael; Adhikari, Neill K J; Fraser, William; Carpentier, André; Palanchuck, Steven; Gauthier, David; Lanthier, Luc; Touchette, Matthieu; Lamontagne, Albert; Chénard, Jean; Mehta, Sangeeta; Sansoucy, Yanick; Croteau, Etienne; Lepage, Martin; Lamontagne, François
Mechanisms underlying sepsis-associated encephalopathy remain unclear, but reduced cerebral blood flow, alone or in conjunction with altered autoregulation, is reported as a potential contributor. We compared cerebral blood flow of control subjects and vasopressor-dependent septic patients. Randomized crossover study. MRI with arterial spin labeling. Ten sedated septic patients on mechanical ventilation (four with controlled chronic hypertension) and 12 control subjects (six with controlled chronic hypertension) were enrolled. Mean ± SD ages were 61.4 ± 10.2 and 44.2 ± 12.8 years, respectively (p = 0.003). Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of septic patients at ICU admission was 27.7 ± 6.6. To assess the potential confounding effects of sedation and mean arterial pressure, we measured cerebral blood flow with and without sedation with propofol in control subjects and at a target mean arterial pressure of 65 mm Hg and greater than or equal to 75 mm Hg in septic patients. The sequence of sedation versus no sedation and mean arterial pressure targets were randomized. In septic patients, cerebral blood flow measured at a mean arterial pressure target of 65 mm Hg (40.4 ± 10.9 mL/100 g/min) was not different from cerebral blood flow measured at a mean arterial pressure target of greater than or equal to 75 mm Hg (41.3 ± 9.8 mL/100 g/min; p = 0.65). In control subjects, we observed no difference in cerebral blood flow measured without and with sedation (24.8 ± 4.2 vs 24.9 ± 5.9 mL/100 g/min; p = 0.93). We found no interaction between chronic hypertension and the effect of sedation or mean arterial pressure targets. Cerebral blood flow measured in sedated septic patients (mean arterial pressure target 65 mm Hg) was 62% higher than in sedated control subjects (p = 0.001). In septic patients, cerebral blood flow was higher than in sedated control subjects and did not vary with mean arterial pressure targets. Further research is required to
Increased blood flow in the anterior humeral circumflex artery correlates with night pain in patients with rotator cuff tear.
Terabayashi, Nobuo; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Matsumoto, Kazu; Takigami, Iori; Ito, Yoshiki; Fukuta, Masashi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Shimizu, Katsuji
Night pain is a particularly vexing symptom in patients with rotator cuff tear. It disturbs sleep and decreases quality of life, and there is no consensus regarding its etiology. Based on arthroscopic surgical observations of synovitis around the rotator interval or capsule surface in rotator cuff tear, we hypothesized that blood flow from the artery feeding the capsule increases blood supply to the synovium. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between blood flow and night pain using pulse Doppler ultrasonography. A series of 47 consecutive patients with rotator cuff tear was evaluated. The peak systolic velocity and resistance index of blood flow in the ascending branch of the anterior humeral circumflex artery were evaluated using pulse Doppler ultrasonography. We also investigated 20 normal shoulders in healthy volunteers. The peak systolic velocity and resistance index were compared between affected and unaffected sides in patients and between dominant and nondominant sides in controls. Anterior humeral circumflex artery peak systolic velocity and resistance index did not differ between sides in control subjects or in patients with rotator cuff tear without night pain. However, anterior humeral circumflex artery peak systolic velocity and resistance index did differ significantly between sides in patients with rotator cuff tear with night pain. This study revealed anterior humeral circumflex artery hemodynamics in patients with rotator cuff tear and normal subjects using Doppler ultrasonography. Night pain, particularly involving aching, appears to be related to the hemodynamics. These findings suggest that investigating the hemodynamics of patients with rotator cuff tear with night pain may lead to greater understanding of the etiology of this symptom.
COMPARISON OF HIGH-DEFINITION OSCILLOMETRIC AND DIRECT ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN ANESTHETIZED CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS).
Sant Cassia, Emma V; Boswood, Adrian; Tordiffe, Adrian S W
Blood pressure measurement reveals important insights into the health of conscious and anesthetized individuals. This is of particular interest in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which in captivity are known to suffer from chronic diseases that may be associated with hypertension and which often require immobilization for transport or veterinary treatment. Invasive testing methods are considered the gold standard but are not practical in many settings. Consequently, it is important to evaluate the use of noninvasive methods in this species. Measurements for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure obtained using high-definition oscillometry (HDO) at the coccygeal artery were compared to simultaneous direct measurements obtained via catheterization of the femoral or dorsal pedal artery in eight anesthetized captive cheetahs during nine anesthetic events. Overall, HDO and direct measurements agreed most closely for mean arterial pressure, and the poorest agreement was observed for systolic pressure. There was a tendency for low diastolic pressures to be underestimated and for high diastolic pressures to be overestimated. Across all three parameters, HDO measurements from the tail overestimated directly measured pressures in the femoral artery and underestimated those in the dorsal pedal artery. HDO agreed most closely with directly measured dorsal pedal pressures. Mean arterial pressure showed the greatest precision (standard deviation of 10.2 mm Hg) and lowest bias (-1.2 mm Hg), with 75.9% of readings within 10 mm Hg of the direct dorsal pedal pressure. Agreement with systolic pressure was hindered by a high bias (-10.4 mm Hg), but if a correction factor of +10 mm Hg was applied to all systolic measurements, agreement was improved and 65.7% of readings were within 10 mm Hg of the direct pressure. When compared to criteria defined by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine for validation of blood pressure devices, results were favorable, but a
Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin on Midluteal Phase Uterine Artery Blood Flow in Patients With Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.
Kang, Xiaomin; Wang, Tongfei; He, Liyin; Xu, Haijing; Liu, Zhilan; Zhao, Aimin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in uterine artery blood flow parameters and pregnancy outcomes, if any. An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of low-dose aspirin on uterine artery blood flow indices in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. This observational study included 353 Chinese women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss and 85 women without a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (control group) from Ren Ji Hospital. All patients were scanned transvaginally with transvaginal Doppler sonography 6 to 8 days after ovulation to measure the pulsatility index (PI), resistive index (RI), and systolic-to-diastolic ratio (S/D) of the left and right main uterine arteries. Low-dose aspirin at a dose of 50 mg/d was administered orally in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss for 2 months, and the blood flow indices were measured subsequently. The Student t test was used for analysis of the results, P < .05 was considered significant. The mean PI and S/D of the uterine arteries in the recurrent pregnancy loss group were significantly higher than in the control group. Although not statistically significant, the RI was higher in the recurrent pregnancy loss group than the control group. Moreover, the PI and S/D increased as the number of pregnancy losses increased. Significant enhancements of the PI and S/D were observed in patients with 4 or more consecutive abortions. After low-dose aspirin supplementation, patients with recurrent pregnancy loss showed a highly significant reduction in the PI and S/D. Uterine blood flow decreased during the luteal phase in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. Low-dose aspirin induced a reversible increase in uterine blood flow and may be of therapeutic value. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
The origin of mean arterial and jugular venous blood pressures in giraffes.
Mitchell, Graham; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan; Keegan, D James
Using a mechanical model of the giraffe neck and head circulation consisting of a rigid, ascending, 'carotid' limb, a 'cranial' circulation that could be rigid or collapsible, and a descending, 'jugular' limb that also could be rigid or collapsible, we have analyzed the origin of the high arterial and venous pressures in giraffe, and whether blood flow is assisted by a siphon. When the tubes were rigid and the 'jugular' limb exit was lower than the 'carotid' limb entrance a siphon operated, 'carotid' hydrostatic pressures became more negative, and flow was 3.3 l min(-1) but ceased when the 'cranial' and 'jugular' limbs were collapsible or when the 'jugular' limb was opened to the atmosphere. Pumping water through the model produced positive pressures in the 'carotid' limb similar to those found in giraffe. Applying an external 'tissue' pressure to the 'jugular' tube during pump flow produced the typical pressures found in the jugular vein in giraffe. Constriction of the lowest, 'jugular cuff', portion of the 'jugular' limb showed that the cuff may augment the orthostatic reflex during head raising. Except when all tubes were rigid, pressures were unaffected by a siphon. We conclude that mean arterial blood pressure in giraffes is a consequence of the hydrostatic pressure generated by the column of blood in the neck, that tissue pressure around the collapsible jugular vein produces the known jugular pressures, and that a siphon does not assist flow through the cranial circulation.
Validation of the i-STAT system for the analysis of blood gases and acid–base status in juvenile sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus)
Harter, T. S.; Morrison, P. R.; Mandelman, J. W.; Rummer, J. L.; Farrell, A. P.; Brill, R. W.; Brauner, C. J.
Accurate measurements of blood gases and acid–base status require an array of sophisticated laboratory equipment that is typically not available during field research; such is the case for many studies on the stress physiology, ecology and conservation of elasmobranch fish species. Consequently, researchers have adopted portable clinical analysers that were developed for the analysis of human blood characteristics, but often without thoroughly validating these systems for their use on fish. The aim of our study was to test the suitability of the i-STAT system, the most commonly used portable clinical analyser in studies on fish, for analysing blood gases and acid–base status in elasmobranchs, over a broad range of conditions and using the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) as a model organism. Our results indicate that the i-STAT system can generate useful measurements of whole blood pH, and the use of appropriate correction factors may increase the accuracy of results. The i-STAT system was, however, unable to generate reliable results for measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and the derived parameter of haemoglobin O2 saturation. This is probably due to the effect of a closed-system temperature change on PO2 within the i-STAT cartridge and the fact that the temperature correction algorithms used by i-STAT assume a human temperature dependency of haemoglobin–O2 binding; in many ectotherms, this assumption will lead to equivocal i-STAT PO2 results. The in vivo partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in resting sandbar sharks is probably below the detection limit for PCO2 in the i-STAT system, and the measurement of higher PCO2 tensions was associated with a large measurement error. In agreement with previous work, our results indicate that the i-STAT system can generate useful data on whole blood pH in fishes, but not blood gases. PMID:27293687
[The biological reaction of inflammation, methylglyoxal of blood plasma, functional and structural alterations in elastic type arteries at the early stage of hypertension disease].
Titov, V N; Dmitriev, V A; Oshchepkov, E V; Balakhonova, T V; Tripoten', M I; Shiriaeva, Iu K
The article deals with studying of the relationship between biologic reaction of inflammation with glycosylation reaction and content of methylglyoxal in blood serum. The positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and content of methylglyoxal, C-reactive protein in intercellular medium and malleolar brachial index value was established. This data matches the experimental results concerning involvement of biological reaction of inflammation into structural changes of elastic type arteries under hypertension disease, formation of arteries' rigidity and increase of pulse wave velocity. The arterial blood pressure is a biological reaction of hydrodynamic pressure which is used in vivo by several biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, function of endoecology, biological function of adaptation and function of locomotion. The biological reaction of hydrodynamic (hydraulic) pressure is a mode of compensation of derangement of several biological functions which results in the very high rate of hypertension disease in population. As a matter of fact, hypertension disease is a syndrome of lingering pathological compensation by higher arterial blood pressure of the biological functions derangements occurring in the distal section at the level of paracrine cenoses of cells. The arterial blood pressure is a kind of in vivo integral indicator of deranged metabolism. The essential hypertension disease pathogenically is a result of the derangement of three biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, biological function of trophology - nutrition (biological reaction of external feeding - exotrophia) and biological function of endoecology. In case of "littering" of intercellular medium in vivo with nonspecific endogenic flogogens a phylogenetically earlier activation of biological reactions of excretion, inflammation and hydrodynamic arterial blood pressure occur. In case of derangement of biological function of homeostasis, decreasing of
Automated artery-venous classification of retinal blood vessels based on structural mapping method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Vinayak S.; Garvin, Mona K.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.
Retinal blood vessels show morphologic modifications in response to various retinopathies. However, the specific responses exhibited by arteries and veins may provide a precise diagnostic information, i.e., a diabetic retinopathy may be detected more accurately with the venous dilatation instead of average vessel dilatation. In order to analyze the vessel type specific morphologic modifications, the classification of a vessel network into arteries and veins is required. We previously described a method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees; i.e. structural mapping. Therefore, we propose the artery-venous classification based on structural mapping and identification of color properties prominent to the vessel types. The mean and standard deviation of each of green channel intensity and hue channel intensity are analyzed in a region of interest around each centerline pixel of a vessel. Using the vector of color properties extracted from each centerline pixel, it is classified into one of the two clusters (artery and vein), obtained by the fuzzy-C-means clustering. According to the proportion of clustered centerline pixels in a particular vessel, and utilizing the artery-venous crossing property of retinal vessels, each vessel is assigned a label of an artery or a vein. The classification results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth (gold standard). We applied the proposed method to a dataset of 15 retinal color fundus images resulting in an accuracy of 88.28% correctly classified vessel pixels. The automated classification results match well with the gold standard suggesting its potential in artery-venous classification and the respective morphology analysis.
Usefulness of dual protection combined with blood aspiration for distal embolic protection during carotid artery stenting.
Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Takahito; Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Shibukawa, Masaaki; Orita, Yoji; Shimonaga, Koji; Kajihara, Yosuke; Kurisu, Kaoru
We describe dual protection (simultaneous flow reversal and distal filter) combined with blood aspiration as a novel technique to provide distal embolic protection during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Between July 2011 and August 2014, 190 patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis underwent 190 CAS procedures as follows. After post-dilation of the stent using dual protection, the aspiration catheter was placed between the distal filter and the proximal end of the stent, and the blood was aspirated several times from the ICA. We assessed hyper-intensity spots in diffusion-weighted images (DWI), and major adverse events (MAE) defined as major stroke, myocardial infarction and death after CAS. We then assessed visible debris captured in aspirated blood, the distal filter and a blood filter during flow reversal. The overall technical success rate was 100 %, and all stenoses were dilated. Hyper-intense spots were found in 33 (17.3 %) of 190 DWI. The rate of MAE within 30 days was 1.05 % (2/190). Visible debris in 175 of 190 CAS procedures was captured in 92 (52.5 %) of these 175. In 25 (27.2 %) of these 92, visible debris was captured in all of aspirated blood, the distal filter and the blood filter during flow reversal, only the blood filter during flow reversal (n = 19; 20.7 %), only the distal filter (n = 14; 15.2 %), only aspirated blood (n = 11; 12 %), aspirated blood and the blood filter during flow reversal (n = 10; 10.8 %), aspirated blood and the distal filter (n = 7; 7.6 %) and the distal filter and blood filter during flow reversal (n = 6; 6.5 %). Adding a distal filter and blood aspiration to flow reversal during CAS could provide effective distal embolic protection.
... brain (cerebrovascular disease). Like the heart, the brain’s cells need a constant supply of oxygen-rich blood. This blood supply is delivered to the brain by the 2 large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by 2 smaller vertebral arteries at the back of your ...
Does corticosteroid therapy impact fetal pulmonary artery blood flow in women at risk for preterm birth?
Lindsley, William; Hale, Richard; Spear, Ashley; Adusumalli, Jasvant; Singh, Jasbir; DeStefano, Kimberly; Haeri, Sina
Maternal corticosteroid administration in pregnancy is known to enhance fetal lung maturity in at risk fetuses. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that corticosteroid therapy alters fetal pulmonary blood flow in pregnancies at risk for preterm birth (PTB). We prospectively evaluated main fetal pulmonary artery (MPA) blood flow in pregnant women at risk for PTB and treated with corticosteroids (betamethasone), compared to an uncomplicated cohort without steroid therapy. The Doppler indices of interest included Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV), Resistive Index (RI), Pulsatility Index (PI), Systolic/Diastolic ratio (S/D ratio), Acceleration Time (AT), and Acceleration Time/Ejection Time Ratio (AT/ET ratio), with the latter serving as the primary outcomes due to its stability irrespective of gestational age. When compared with controls, fetuses treated with corticosteroids demonstrated significantly decreased pulmonary artery acceleration time (median: 28.89 (22.22-51.11) vs. 33.33 (22.20-57.00), p=0.006), while all other indices remained similar. We found no difference in pulmonary blood flow between fetuses who developed respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and those that did not (31.56 +/- 6.842 vs. 32.36 +/- 7.265, p= 0.76). Our data demonstrate altered fetal pulmonary blood flow with corticosteroid therapy, possibly due to increased arterial elastance brought on by medication effect, which leads to the decreased acceleration time or possible gestational age affect. Contrary to a recent report, we did not observe any Doppler differences in fetuses with RDS, which underscores the need for further examination of this proposed association.
High red blood cell composition in clots is associated with successful recanalization during intra-arterial thrombectomy.
Shin, Jong Wook; Jeong, Hye Seon; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Jei
We evaluated the composition of individual clots retrieved during intra-arterial thrombectomy in relation to recanalization success, stroke subtype, and the presence of clot signs on initial brain images. We analyzed clot and interventional data from 145 retrieval trials performed for 37 patients (69.5±14.0 years, 20 men, large artery atherosclerosis, n = 7; cardioembolism, n = 22; undetermined etiology, n = 8) who had undergone intra-arterial thrombectomy. Rates of clot retrieval and successful recanalization (Arterial Occlusive Lesion score of 2-3) for separate retrieval trials were evaluated. The area occupied by red blood cell (RBC), fibrin/platelets, and white blood cell (WBC) was measured from digitized images of hematoxylin-eosin stained clots. Compositional differences were compared according to recanalization success, stroke subtype, and the presence of hyperdense clot sign on initial computed tomography and/or blooming artifact on magnetic resonance image. Of the 145 total retrieval trials (3.4±2.4 times per patient), clot was retrieved in 93 trials (64%), while recanalization was successful in 73 (50%). Fibrin/platelets (63%) occupied the greatest area in retrieved clots, followed by RBCs (33%) and WBCs (4%). Clots retrieved from successful recanalization exhibited higher RBC composition (37%) than those retrieved from non-recanalization trials (20%, p = 0.001). RBC composition was higher in cardioembolic stroke (38%) rather than large artery atherosclerosis (23%) and undetermined etiology (26%, p = 0.01). Clots exhibiting clot signs (40%) had higher RBC composition than those without clot signs (19%, p = 0.001). RBC-rich clots were associated with successful recanalization of intra-arterial thrombectomy, cardioembolic stroke, and the presence of clot-signs on initial brain images.
High red blood cell composition in clots is associated with successful recanalization during intra-arterial thrombectomy
Shin, Jong Wook; Jeong, Hye Seon; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Song, Kyu Sang
We evaluated the composition of individual clots retrieved during intra-arterial thrombectomy in relation to recanalization success, stroke subtype, and the presence of clot signs on initial brain images. We analyzed clot and interventional data from 145 retrieval trials performed for 37 patients (69.5±14.0 years, 20 men, large artery atherosclerosis, n = 7; cardioembolism, n = 22; undetermined etiology, n = 8) who had undergone intra-arterial thrombectomy. Rates of clot retrieval and successful recanalization (Arterial Occlusive Lesion score of 2–3) for separate retrieval trials were evaluated. The area occupied by red blood cell (RBC), fibrin/platelets, and white blood cell (WBC) was measured from digitized images of hematoxylin-eosin stained clots. Compositional differences were compared according to recanalization success, stroke subtype, and the presence of hyperdense clot sign on initial computed tomography and/or blooming artifact on magnetic resonance image. Of the 145 total retrieval trials (3.4±2.4 times per patient), clot was retrieved in 93 trials (64%), while recanalization was successful in 73 (50%). Fibrin/platelets (63%) occupied the greatest area in retrieved clots, followed by RBCs (33%) and WBCs (4%). Clots retrieved from successful recanalization exhibited higher RBC composition (37%) than those retrieved from non-recanalization trials (20%, p = 0.001). RBC composition was higher in cardioembolic stroke (38%) rather than large artery atherosclerosis (23%) and undetermined etiology (26%, p = 0.01). Clots exhibiting clot signs (40%) had higher RBC composition than those without clot signs (19%, p = 0.001). RBC-rich clots were associated with successful recanalization of intra-arterial thrombectomy, cardioembolic stroke, and the presence of clot-signs on initial brain images. PMID:29782513
Reduction of Blood Pressure Following After Renal Artery Adventitia Stripping During Total Nephroureterectomy: Potential Effect of Renal Sympathetic Denervation
Okamura, Keisuke; Satou, Shunsuke; Setojima, Keita; Shono, Shinjiro; Miyajima, Shigero; Ishii, Tatsu; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Urata, Hidenori
Case series Patients: Male, 85 • Male, 89 Final Diagnosis: Essential hypertension Symptoms: High blood pressure Medication: Anti-hypertensive agents Clinical Procedure: Operation Specialty: Cardiology and Hypertension Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been reported to be effective for treatment resistance hypertension in Australia and Europe. However, in the blinded SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial, renal denervation did not achieve a significant decrease in blood pressure (BP) in comparison to sham controls. There have been various discussions on the factors that influenced this result. Case Reports: Two men on antihypertensive therapy underwent unilateral radical nephroureterectomy for cancer of the renal pelvis. When the renal artery adventitia was stripped and cauterized just before renal artery ligation, the measured BP of the 2 men increased after stripping adventitia and decreased gradually after cauterization of the renal artery. This was presumably due to removal of renal artery sympathetic nerves, similar to the mechanism of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation, although anesthesia, fluid infusion, and/or mesenteric traction may have had an influence. Conclusions: A similar strategy involving thoracolumbar sympathectomy was reported about 50 years ago. The clinically significant blood pressure reduction in these patients suggests renal denervation is effective. PMID:29765015
The effect of in-plane arterial curvature on blood flow and oxygen transport in arterio-venous fistulae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iori, F.; Grechy, L.; Corbett, R. W.; Gedroyc, W.; Duncan, N.; Caro, C. G.; Vincent, P. E.
Arterio-Venous Fistulae (AVF) are the preferred method of vascular access for patients with end stage renal disease who need hemodialysis. In this study, simulations of blood flow and oxygen transport were undertaken in various idealized AVF configurations. The objective of the study was to understand how arterial curvature affects blood flow and oxygen transport patterns within AVF, with a focus on how curvature alters metrics known to correlate with vascular pathology such as Intimal Hyperplasia (IH). If one subscribes to the hypothesis that unsteady flow causes IH within AVF, then the results suggest that in order to avoid IH, AVF should be formed via a vein graft onto the outer-curvature of a curved artery. However, if one subscribes to the hypothesis that low wall shear stress and/or low lumen-to-wall oxygen flux (leading to wall hypoxia) cause IH within AVF, then the results suggest that in order to avoid IH, AVF should be formed via a vein graft onto a straight artery, or the inner-curvature of a curved artery. We note that the recommendations are incompatible—highlighting the importance of ascertaining the exact mechanisms underlying development of IH in AVF. Nonetheless, the results clearly illustrate the important role played by arterial curvature in determining AVF hemodynamics, which to our knowledge has been overlooked in all previous studies.
Relations between a novel, reliable, and rapid index of arterial compliance (PP-HDI) and well-established inidices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of hypertensive elderly subjects.
Bergamini, L; Finelli, M E; Bendini, C; Ferrari, E; Veschi, M; Neviani, F; Manni, B; Pelosi, A; Rioli, G; Neri, M
Hypertension is a risk factor for a long-lasting arterial wall-remodelling leading to stiffness. The rapid method measuring the pulse pressure (PP) by means of the tool of Hypertension Diagnostic Instruments (HDI) called PP-HDI, overcomes some of the problems arising with more-time consuming methods, like ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and give information about the elasticity of the arterial walls. We studied the relationship between the PP-HDI, the large artery compliance (LA-C) and small artery compliance (SA-C) and few well-established indices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of 75 hypertensive subjects, aged 65 years and over. Significant correlations between LA-C and heart rate (HR), PP-ABPM and PP-HDI were found. SA-C relates with HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured in lying and standing positions. Applying a stepwise regression analysis, we found that LA-C variance stems from PP-HDI and HR, while SA-C variance stems from SBP in lying position. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for thresholds of PP showed that PP-HDI reached levels of sensitivity/specificity similar to PP-ABPM. In conclusion, surveillance of ABP through hemo-dynamic indices, in particular of SBP, is essential, nevertheless the advantage of this control is not known in an elderly population where the organ damage is already evident. PP needs necessarily an instrumental measurement. The PP-HDI result is similar in reliability with respect to PPABPM, but is more rapid and well applicable in an elderly population.
Estimation of arterial arrival time and cerebral blood flow from QUASAR arterial spin labeling using stable spline.
Castellaro, Marco; Peruzzo, Denis; Mehndiratta, Amit; Pillonetto, Gianluigi; Petersen, Esben Thade; Golay, Xavier; Chappell, Michael A; Bertoldo, Alessandra
QUASAR arterial spin labeling (ASL) permits the application of deconvolution approaches for the absolute quantification of cerebral perfusion. Currently, oscillation index regularized singular value decomposition (oSVD) combined with edge-detection (ED) is the most commonly used method. Its major drawbacks are nonphysiological oscillations in the impulse response function and underestimation of perfusion. The aim of this work is to introduce a novel method to overcome these limitations. A system identification method, stable spline (SS), was extended to address ASL peculiarities such as the delay in arrival of the arterial blood in the tissue. The proposed framework was compared with oSVD + ED in both simulated and real data. SS was used to investigate the validity of using a voxel-wise tissue T1 value instead of using a single global value (of blood T1 ). SS outperformed oSVD + ED in 79.9% of simulations. When applied to real data, SS exhibited a physiologically realistic range for perfusion and a higher mean value with respect to oSVD + ED (55.5 ± 9.5 SS, 34.9 ± 5.2 oSVD + ED mL/100 g/min). SS can represent an alternative to oSVD + ED for the quantification of QUASAR ASL data. Analysis of the retrieved impulse response function revealed that using a voxel wise tissue T1 might be suboptimal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Splenic artery embolization with Ankaferd blood stopper in a sheep model
Koç, Osman; Acar, Kadir; Özbek, Orhan; Güler, İbrahim; Sarıtaş, Kadir; Erdem, Tuba Bera; Solak, Yalçın; Toy, Hatice; Küçükapan, Ahmet; Özbek, Seda; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim C.
PURPOSE Splenic artery embolization is a minimally invasive therapeutic procedure utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficiency of ABS for splenic artery embolization in a sheep model. METHODS Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective celiac angiography was performed using a 5F diagnostic catheter and then a 2.7F hydrophilic coating microcatheter was advanced coaxially to the distal part of the main splenic artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 6 mL mixture composed of half-and-half ABS and contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration and stagnation of the flow. Control celiac angiograms were obtained immediately after the embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for one day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. RESULTS Technical success rate was 100%. None of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event during the procedure. All of the spleens appeared dark on macroscopic examination due to excessive thrombosis. Microscopically, the majority of the splenic sinusoids (90%–95%) were necrotic. CONCLUSION In our study, splenic artery embolization by ABS was found to be safe and effective in the shortterm. Further studies are needed to better understand the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent. PMID:27306661
Utility of arterial blood gas, CBC, biochemistry and cardiac hormones as evaluation parameters of cardiovascular disease in nonhuman primates.
Nakayama, Shunya; Koie, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kiichi; Katakai, Yuko; Ito-Fujishiro, Yasuyo; Sankai, Tadashi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Ageyama, Naohide
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has a tremendous impact on the quality of life of humans. While experimental animals are valuable to medical research as models of human diseases, cardiac systems differ widely across various animal species. Thus, we examined a CVD model in cynomolgus monkeys. Laboratory primates are precious resources, making it imperative that symptoms of diseases and disorders are detected as early as possible. Thus, in this study we comprehensively examined important indicators of CVD in cynomolgus monkeys, including arterial blood gas, complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, and cardiac hormones. The control group included 20 healthy macaques showing non-abnormal findings in screening tests, whereas the CVD group included 20 macaques with valvular disease and cardiomyopathy. An increase of red blood cell distribution width was observed in the CBC, indicating chronic inflammation related to CVD. An increase of HCO 3 was attributed to the correction of acidosis. Furthermore, development of the CVD model was supported by significant increases in natriuretic peptides. It is suggested that these results indicated a correlation between human CVD and the model in monkeys. Moreover, blood tests including arterial blood gas are non-invasive and can be performed more easily than other technical tests. CVD affected animals easily change their condition by anesthesia and surgical invasion. Pay attention to arterial blood gas and proper respond to their condition are important for research. This data may facilitate human research and aid in the management and veterinary care of nonhuman primates.
Heat stress redistributes blood flow in arteries of the brain during dynamic exercise.
Sato, Kohei; Oue, Anna; Yoneya, Marina; Sadamoto, Tomoko; Ogoh, Shigehiko
We hypothesized that heat stress would decrease anterior and posterior cerebral blood flow (CBF) during exercise, and the reduction in anterior CBF would be partly associated with large increase in extracranial blood flow (BF). Nine subjects performed 40 min of semirecumbent cycling at 60% of the peak oxygen uptake in hot (35°C; Heat) and thermoneutral environments (25°C; Control). We evaluated BF and conductance (COND) in the external carotid artery (ECA), internal carotid artery (ICA), and vertebral artery (VA) using ultrasonography. During the Heat condition, ICA and VA BF were significantly increased 10 min after the start of exercise (P < 0.05) and thereafter gradually decreased. ICA COND was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas VA COND remained unchanged throughout Heat. Compared with the Control, either BF or COND of ICA and VA at the end of Heat tended to be lower, but not significantly. In contrast, ECA BF and COND at the end of Heat were both higher than levels in the Control condition (P < 0.01). During Heat, a reduction in ICA BF appears to be associated with a decline in end-tidal CO2 tension (r = 0.84), whereas VA BF appears to be affected by a change in cardiac output (r = 0.87). In addition, a change in ECA BF during Heat was negatively correlated with a change in ICA BF (r = -0.75). Heat stress resulted in modification of the vascular response of head and brain arteries to exercise, which resulted in an alteration in the distribution of cardiac output. Moreover, a hyperthermia-induced increase in extracranial BF might compromise anterior CBF during exercise with heat stress. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Blood Pressure Response to Main Renal Artery and Combined Main Renal Artery Plus Branch Renal Denervation in Patients With Resistant Hypertension.
Fengler, Karl; Ewen, Sebastian; Höllriegel, Robert; Rommel, Karl-Philipp; Kulenthiran, Saaraaken; Lauder, Lucas; Cremers, Bodo; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix; Lurz, Philipp
Single-electrode ablation of the main renal artery for renal sympathetic denervation showed mixed blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects. Further improvement of the technique seems crucial to optimize effectiveness of the procedure. Because sympathetic nerve fibers are closer to the lumen in the distal part of the renal artery, treatment of the distal main artery and its branches has been shown to reduce variability in treatment effects in preclinical studies and a recent randomized trial. Whether this optimized technique improves clinical outcomes remains uncertain. We report a 2-center experience of main renal artery and combined main renal artery plus branches renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension using a multielectrode catheter. Twenty-five patients with therapy-resistant hypertension underwent renal sympathetic denervation with combined main renal artery and renal branch ablation and were compared to matched controls undergoing an ablation of the main renal artery only. BP change was assessed by ambulatory measurement at baseline and after 3 months. At baseline, BP was balanced between the groups. After 3 months, BP changed significantly in the combined ablation group (systolic/diastolic 24-hour mean and daytime mean BP -8.5±9.8/-7.0±10.7 and -9.4±9.8/-7.1±13.5 mm Hg, P <0.001/0.003 and <0.001/0.016, respectively), but not in patients with main artery treatment (-3.5±11.1/-2.0±7.6 and -2.8±10.9/-1.8±7.7 mm Hg, P =0.19/0.20 and 0.19/0.24, respectively). Systolic daytime BP was significantly more reduced in patients with combined ablation than in patients with main artery ablation ( P =0.033). Combined ablation of the main renal artery and branches appears to improve BP-lowering efficacy and should be further investigated. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Blood flow of the right and left submandibular gland during unilateral carotid artery occlusion in rat: role of nitric oxide.
Vág, J; Hably, C; Fazekas, A; Bartha, J
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of unilateral carotid artery occlusion on the blood flow of submandibular gland in anesthetized rats and identify the role of nitric oxide (NO) in blood flow changes after the artery occlusion. L-NAME (N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester; 10 mg/kg/day, per os) dissolved in tap water was used to block nitric oxide synthase. Glandular blood flow was measured using Sapirstein's indicator (86Rb) distribution technique. In the control animals the blood flow of left (ligated side) submandibular gland was lower than in the right (unligated side) one (right: 76.4+/-15.4 ml/min/100 g, 64.1+/-13.4 ml/min/100 g, p<0.01). The blood flow of submandibular glands decreased in NOS blocked group versus control. The vascular resistance after L-NAME treatment was elevated (control: 11+/-2.3 R/kg, L-NAME: 17.5+/-4.1 R/kg, p<0.001). In L-NAME group the difference between blood flow value of the left and right submandibular gland was significantly lower than in the control group (control: -16%, NAME: -8%, p<0.01). The maintenance of the blood flow in the left submandibular gland during ligation of the left common carotid artery could be due to the good vascular anastomotic system at these regions and adaptation of the submandibular vessels to the decreased perfusion pressure. Nitric oxide may have a role in the regulation of blood flow tinder this condition.
Mathematical models of real geometrical factors in restricted blood vessels for the analysis of CAD (coronary artery diseases) using Legendre, Boubaker and Bessel polynomials.
Awojoyogbe, O B; Faromika, O P; Dada, M; Boubaker, Karem; Ojambati, O S
Most cardiovascular emergencies are directly caused by coronary artery disease. Coronary arteries can become clogged or occluded, leading to damage to the heart muscle supplied by the artery. Modem cardiovascular medicine can certainly be improved by meticulous analysis of geometrical factors closely associated with the degenerative disease that results in narrowing of the coronary arteries. There are, however, inherent difficulties in developing this type of mathematical models to completely describe the real or ideal geometries that are very critical in plaque formation and thickening of the vessel wall. Neither the mathematical models of the blood vessels with arthrosclerosis generated by the heart and blood flow or the NMR/MRI data to construct them are available. In this study, a mathematical formulation for the geometrical factors that are very critical for the understanding of coronary artery disease is presented. Based on the Bloch NMR flow equations, we derive analytical expressions to describe in detail the NMR transverse magnetizations and signals as a function of some NMR flow and geometrical parameters which are invaluable for the analysis of blood flow in restricted blood vessels. The procedure would apply to the situations in which the geometry of the fatty deposits, (plague) on the interior walls of the coronary arteries is spherical. The boundary conditions are introduced based on Bessel, Boubaker and Legendre polynomials.
Regulation of coronary blood flow. Effect of coronary artery stenosis.
Duncker, D J; Merkus, D
The consistently high level of myocardial oxygen extraction requires tight control of coronary blood flow, because an increase in myocardial oxygen demand, as occurs during exercise, cannot be obtained by a further increase in oxygen extraction. Consequently, adequate control of coronary vascular resistance is critical. Coronary resistance vessel tone is the result of a myriad of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor influences, which are exerted by the myocardium, endothelium and neurohumoral status. Unraveling of the integrative mechanisms controlling metabolic vasodilation has been difficult, more than likely due to the redundancy design of vasomotor control. In contrast to the traditional view that myocardial ischemia produced by a coronary artery stenosis causes maximal microvascular dilation, more recent studies have shown that the coronary microvessels retain some degree of vasodilator reserve during ischemia and remain responsive to vasoconstrictor stimuli. These observations raise the question of whether pharmacologic vasodilators acting at the microvascular level might be therapeutically useful. The critical property of effective vasodilator therapy requires selective dilation of small arteries, while avoiding coronary steal by not interfering with metabolic vasoregulation at the level of the arterioles.
Unsteady Blood Flow with Nanoparticles Through Stenosed Arteries in the Presence of Periodic Body Acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fatin Jamil, Dzuliana; Roslan, Rozaini; Abdulhameed, Mohammed; Che-Him, Norziha; Sufahani, Suliadi; Mohamad, Mahathir; Ghazali Kamardan, Muhamad
The effects of nanoparticles such as Fe 3O4,TiO2, and Cu on blood flow inside a stenosed artery are studied. In this study, blood was modelled as non-Newtonian Bingham plastic fluid subjected to periodic body acceleration and slip velocity. The flow governing equations were solved analytically by using the perturbation method. By using the numerical approaches, the physiological parameters were analyzed, and the blood flow velocity distributions were generated graphically and discussed. From the flow results, the flow speed increases as slip velocity increases and decreases as the values of yield stress increases.
Passive heat therapy improves endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure in sedentary humans.
Brunt, Vienna E; Howard, Matthew J; Francisco, Michael A; Ely, Brett R; Minson, Christopher T
A recent 30 year prospective study showed that lifelong sauna use reduces cardiovascular-related and all-cause mortality; however, the specific cardiovascular adaptations that cause this chronic protection are currently unknown. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of repeated hot water immersion ('heat therapy') on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health in young, sedentary humans. We showed that, relative to a sham group which participated in thermoneutral water immersion, heat therapy increased flow-mediated dilatation, reduced arterial stiffness, reduced mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure, and reduced carotid intima media thickness, with changes all on par or greater than what is typically observed in sedentary subjects with exercise training. Our results show for the first time that heat therapy has widespread and robust effects on vascular function, and as such, could be a viable treatment option for improving cardiovascular health in a variety of patient populations, particularly those with limited exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. The majority of cardiovascular diseases are characterized by disorders of the arteries, predominantly caused by endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. Intermittent hot water immersion ('heat therapy') results in elevations in core temperature and changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics, such as cardiac output and vascular shear stress, that are similar to exercise, and thus may provide an alternative means of improving health which could be utilized by patients with low exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. We sought to comprehensively assess the effects of 8 weeks of heat therapy on biomarkers of vascular function in young, sedentary subjects. Twenty young, sedentary subjects were assigned to participate in 8 weeks (4-5 times per week) of heat therapy (n = 10; immersion in a 40.5°C bath sufficient to maintain rectal temperature ≥ 38.5°C for 60 min per session) or thermoneutral water
Passive heat therapy improves endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure in sedentary humans
Brunt, Vienna E.; Howard, Matthew J.; Francisco, Michael A.; Ely, Brett R.
Key points A recent 30 year prospective study showed that lifelong sauna use reduces cardiovascular‐related and all‐cause mortality; however, the specific cardiovascular adaptations that cause this chronic protection are currently unknown.We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of repeated hot water immersion (‘heat therapy’) on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health in young, sedentary humans.We showed that, relative to a sham group which participated in thermoneutral water immersion, heat therapy increased flow‐mediated dilatation, reduced arterial stiffness, reduced mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure, and reduced carotid intima media thickness, with changes all on par or greater than what is typically observed in sedentary subjects with exercise training.Our results show for the first time that heat therapy has widespread and robust effects on vascular function, and as such, could be a viable treatment option for improving cardiovascular health in a variety of patient populations, particularly those with limited exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. Abstract The majority of cardiovascular diseases are characterized by disorders of the arteries, predominantly caused by endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. Intermittent hot water immersion (‘heat therapy’) results in elevations in core temperature and changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics, such as cardiac output and vascular shear stress, that are similar to exercise, and thus may provide an alternative means of improving health which could be utilized by patients with low exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. We sought to comprehensively assess the effects of 8 weeks of heat therapy on biomarkers of vascular function in young, sedentary subjects. Twenty young, sedentary subjects were assigned to participate in 8 weeks (4–5 times per week) of heat therapy (n = 10; immersion in a 40.5°C bath sufficient to maintain rectal temperature ≥ 38.5°C for 60 min per
The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading.
Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn
In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (P<0·001) and soleus fibre size was reduced by 8·5 ± 13% (P = 0·016). However, WoRPD remained unaffected as indicated by an unchanged loss of relative plantar flexor power between pre- and postexperiments (P = 0·88). Blood flow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hsa-circRNA11783-2 in peripheral blood is correlated with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Li, Xuejie; Zhao, Zhenzhou; Jian, Dongdong; Li, Wentao; Tang, Haiyu; Li, Muwei
The purpose of this study was to identify the expression characteristics of circular RNAs in the peripheral blood of coronary artery disease patients and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Circular RNA in the peripheral blood from 6 control individuals, 6 coronary artery disease patients, 6 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 6 coronary artery disease combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was collected for microarray analysis, and a further independent cohort consisting of 20 normal individuals, 20 type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects and 20 coronary artery disease subjects was used to verify the expression of five circular RNAs chosen for further analysis. The findings were then tested in a third cohort using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In total, 40 circular RNAs differentially expressed between the three experimental groups and the control group were identified by microarray analysis: 13 were upregulated in the experimental groups, while 27 were downregulated. Of the five circular RNAs chosen for further analysis, three were significantly downregulated in the experimental groups. The crude odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios of hsa-circRNA11783-2 showed significant differences in both the coronary artery disease group and type 2 diabetes mellitus group. We then verified hsa-circRNA11783-2 in the third cohort, and it remained closely related to both coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hsa-circRNA11783-2 is closely related to both coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Non-Newtonian blood flow dynamics in a right internal carotid artery with a saccular aneurysm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valencia, Alvaro; Zarate, Alvaro; Galvez, Marcelo; Badilla, Lautaro
Flow dynamics plays an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of cerebral aneurysms. The temporal and spatial variations of wall shear stress in the aneurysm are hypothesized to be correlated with its growth and rupture. In addition, the assessment of the velocity field in the aneurysm dome and neck is important for the correct placement of endovascular coils. This work describes the flow dynamics in a patient-specific model of carotid artery with a saccular aneurysm under Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid assumptions. The model was obtained from three-dimensional rotational angiography image data and blood flow dynamics was studied under physiologically representative waveform of inflow. The three-dimensional continuity and momentum equations for incompressible and unsteady laminar flow were solved with a commercial software using non-structured fine grid with 283 115 tetrahedral elements. The intra-aneurysmal flow shows complex vortex structure that change during one pulsatile cycle. The effect of the non-Newtonian properties of blood on the wall shear stress was important only in the arterial regions with high velocity gradients, on the aneurysmal wall the predictions with the Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood models were similar.
Evaluation of the carotid artery stenosis based on minimization of mechanical energy loss of the blood flow.
Sia, Sheau Fung; Zhao, Xihai; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yu; Chong, Winston; He, Le; Chen, Yu
Internal carotid artery stenosis requires an accurate risk assessment for the prevention of stroke. Although the internal carotid artery area stenosis ratio at the common carotid artery bifurcation can be used as one of the diagnostic methods of internal carotid artery stenosis, the accuracy of results would still depend on the measurement techniques. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel method to estimate the effect of internal carotid artery stenosis on the blood flow based on the concept of minimization of energy loss. Eight internal carotid arteries from different medical centers were diagnosed as stenosed internal carotid arteries, as plaques were found at different locations on the vessel. A computational fluid dynamics solver was developed based on an open-source code (OpenFOAM) to test the flow ratio and energy loss of those stenosed internal carotid arteries. For comparison, a healthy internal carotid artery and an idealized internal carotid artery model have also been tested and compared with stenosed internal carotid artery in terms of flow ratio and energy loss. We found that at a given common carotid artery bifurcation, there must be a certain flow distribution in the internal carotid artery and external carotid artery, for which the total energy loss at the bifurcation is at a minimum; for a given common carotid artery flow rate, an irregular shaped plaque at the bifurcation constantly resulted in a large value of minimization of energy loss. Thus, minimization of energy loss can be used as an indicator for the estimation of internal carotid artery stenosis.
[Prehospital arterial blood gas analysis after collapse connected to triathlon participation].
Ettrup-Christensen, Asbjørn; Amstrup-Hansen, Louise; Zwisler, Stine T
Long-distance athletes are at risk of serious fluid and electrolyte disturbances, such as hypernatraemia (dehydration). Recently, cases of serious morbidity have been reported, due to acute exercise-associated hyponatraemia, which can advance to encephalopathy. An arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) was drawn from collapsed athletes at the championship of full-distance triathlon 2015, and different electrolyte imbalances were found. Our findings show that prehospital ABG can assist in differentiating the cause of collapse, and presumably, targeted treatment can be initiated already on scene.
Reduction of Blood Pressure Following After Renal Artery Adventitia Stripping During Total Nephroureterectomy: Potential Effect of Renal Sympathetic Denervation.
Okamura, Keisuke; Satou, Shunsuke; Setojima, Keita; Shono, Shinjiro; Miyajima, Shigero; Ishii, Tatsu; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Urata, Hidenori
BACKGROUND Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been reported to be effective for treatment resistance hypertension in Australia and Europe. However, in the blinded SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial, renal denervation did not achieve a significant decrease in blood pressure (BP) in comparison to sham controls. There have been various discussions on the factors that influenced this result. CASE REPORT Two men on antihypertensive therapy underwent unilateral radical nephroureterectomy for cancer of the renal pelvis. When the renal artery adventitia was stripped and cauterized just before renal artery ligation, the measured BP of the 2 men increased after stripping adventitia and decreased gradually after cauterization of the renal artery. This was presumably due to removal of renal artery sympathetic nerves, similar to the mechanism of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation, although anesthesia, fluid infusion, and/or mesenteric traction may have had an influence. CONCLUSIONS A similar strategy involving thoracolumbar sympathectomy was reported about 50 years ago. The clinically significant blood pressure reduction in these patients suggests renal denervation is effective.
Disturbed Laminar Blood Flow Vastly Augments Lipoprotein Retention in the Artery Wall: A Key Mechanism Distinguishing Susceptible From Resistant Sites.
Steffensen, Lasse Bach; Mortensen, Martin Bødtker; Kjolby, Mads; Hagensen, Mette Kallestrup; Oxvig, Claus; Bentzon, Jacob Fog
Atherosclerosis develops initially at branch points and in areas of high vessel curvature. Moreover, experiments in hypercholesterolemic mice have shown that the introduction of disturbed flow in straight, atherosclerosis-resistant arterial segments turns them highly atherosclerosis susceptible. Several biomechanical mechanisms have been proposed, but none has been demonstrated. In the present study, we examined whether a causal link exists between disturbed laminar flow and the ability of the arterial wall to retain lipoproteins. Lipoprotein retention was detected at natural predilection sites of the murine thoracic aorta 18 hours after infusion of fluorescently labeled low-density lipoprotein. To test for causality between blood flow and the ability of these areas to retain lipoproteins, we manipulated blood flow in the straight segment of the common carotid artery using a constrictive collar. Disturbed laminar flow did not affect low-density lipoprotein influx, but increased the ability of the artery wall to bind low-density lipoprotein. Concordantly, disturbed laminar flow led to differential expression of genes associated with phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells, increased expression of proteoglycan core proteins associated with lipoprotein retention, and of enzymes responsible for chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan synthesis and sulfation. Blood flow regulates genes associated with vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation, as well as the expression and post-translational modification of lipoprotein-binding proteoglycan core proteins, and the introduction of disturbed laminar flow vastly augments the ability of a previously resistant, straight arterial segment to retain lipoproteins. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.
Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito
We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. The (NONEX)V(O)(2mus) at each work rate was not significantly increased. In contrast, (NONEX)FBF was significantly increased at 120 W (p < 0.05) and 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. These results suggest that the O(2) supply to the non-exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise.
Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and cerebral blood flow and O2 uptake during dynamic exercise.
Madsen, P L; Sperling, B K; Warming, T; Schmidt, J F; Secher, N H; Wildschiødtz, G; Holm, S; Lassen, N A
Results obtained by the 133Xe clearance method with external detectors and by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) suggest that dynamic exercise causes an increase of global average cerebral blood flow (CBF). These data are contradicted by earlier data obtained during less-well-defined conditions. To investigate this controversy, we applied the Kety-Schmidt technique to measure the global average levels of CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during rest and dynamic exercise. Simultaneously with the determination of CBF and CMRO2, we used TCD to determine mean maximal flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean). For values of CBF and MCA Vmean a correction for an observed small drop in arterial PCO2 was carried out. Baseline values for global CBF and CMRO2 were 50.7 and 3.63 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. The same values were found during dynamic exercise, whereas a 22% (P < 0.0001) increase in MCA Vmean was observed. Hence, the exercise-induced increase in MCA Vmean is not a reflection of a proportional increase in CBF.
Intraspecific scaling of arterial blood pressure in the Burmese python.
Enok, Sanne; Slay, Christopher; Abe, Augusto S; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias
Interspecific allometric analyses indicate that mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) increases with body mass of snakes and mammals. In snakes, MAP increases in proportion to the increased distance between the heart and the head, when the heart-head vertical distance is expressed as ρgh (where ρ is the density of blood, G: is acceleration due to gravity and h is the vertical distance above the heart), and the rise in MAP is associated with a larger heart to normalize wall stress in the ventricular wall. Based on measurements of MAP in Burmese pythons ranging from 0.9 to 3.7 m in length (0.20-27 kg), we demonstrate that although MAP increases with body mass, the rise in MAP is merely half of that predicted by heart-head distance. Scaling relationships within individual species, therefore, may not be accurately predicted by existing interspecific analyses. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Intra-arterial thrombolysis of digital artery occlusions in a patient with polycythemia vera.
Jud, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Gary, Thomas; Ghanim, Leyla; Lipp, Rainer; Brodmann, Marianne
There are limited therapeutic options for the resolution of digital artery occlusions. Intra-arterial thrombolysis with anticoagulative and thrombolytic drugs successfully restored the blood flow in the affected digital arteries.
The comparison of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH values for predicting short-term neonatal outcomes.
Einikyte, Ruta; Snieckuviene, Vilija; Ramasauskaite, Diana; Panaviene, Jurate; Paliulyte, Virginija; Opolskiene, Gina; Kazenaite, Edita
Current clinical practice of assessing neonatal condition is based on evaluation of umbilical cord arterial blood pH value rather than lactate. However, evidence shows that lactate is direct and more predictive measurement than pH or at least of equal importance. This study is to assess and compare umbilical cord arterial lactate and pH values for predicting short-term neonatal outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the tertiary level hospital, were arterial umbilical cord blood sampling was collected according to the standard procedures. Neonatal morbidity was registered if at least one of the following conditions was noted: Apgar score at 1 min after delivery was 6 or lower, resuscitation performed, including assisted ventilation and requirement of admission to neonatal intensive care unit. Mothers-newborns pairs were allocated into two groups: newborns exposed to perinatal hypoxia (group 1) and observed as healthy newborns (group 2). Receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) were generated to assess the predictive ability of pH and lactate for the short-term neonatal outcomes. 901 neonates born at ≥37 weeks of gestation were included. Newborns exposed to perinatal hypoxia (group 1) encompassed 39 (4.3%) patients, and observed as healthy (group 2) - 862 (95.7%). Arterial umbilical cord blood pH in group 1 was 7.160 ± 0.126 as compared to 7.314 ± 0.083 in group 2; p < 0.001. Mean arterial lactate was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2 (6.423 ± 2.335 as compared to 3.600 ± 1.833; p < 0.001). The difference between areas under ROC curves representing pH and lactate was not significant (0.848 and 0.831 respectively; p = 0.6132). Umbilical cord arterial lactate and pH predicted short-term neonatal outcomes with similar efficacies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bypass of the maxillary artery to proximal middle cerebral artery.
Ma, Lin; Ren, He-cheng; Huang, Ying
The objective of this work was to explore the feasibility of bypass between the maxillary artery (MA) and proximity of middle cerebral artery (MCA). Ten fixed and perfused adult cadaver heads were dissected bilaterally, 20 sides in total. The superficial temporal artery and its 2 branches were dissected, and outer diameters were measured. The MA and its branch were exposed as well as deep temporal artery; outer diameter of MA was measured. The lengths between the external carotid artery, internal carotid artery, maxillary artery, and proximal middle cerebral artery were measured. Ten healthy adults as targets (20 sides), inner diameter and blood flow dynamic parameters of the common carotid artery, external carotid artery, internal carotid artery, maxillary artery, superficial temporal artery, and its 2 branches were done with ultrasound examination. The mean outer diameter of MA (2.60 ± 0.20 mm) was larger than that of the temporal artery trunk (1.70 ± 0.30 mm). The mean lengths of graft vessels between the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery, and the bifurcation section of MCA (171.00 ± 2.70 and 162.40 ± 2.60 mm) were longer than the mean lengths of graft vessels between MA and MCA bifurcation section (61.70 ± 1.50 mm). In adults, the mean blood flow of the second part of MA (62.70 ± 13.30 mL/min) was more than that of the 2 branches of the superficial temporal artery (15.90 ± 3.70 mL/min and 17.70 ± 4.10 ml/min). Bypass between the maxillary artery and proximity of middle cerebral artery is feasible. It is a kind of effective high flow bypass with which the graft vessel is shorter and straighter than the bypass between internal carotid artery or external carotid artery and proximity of middle cerebral artery.
The effect of vitamin E and aspirin on the uterine artery blood flow in women with recurrent abortion: A single-blind randomized controlled trial.
Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Mohammad-Ebrahimi, Behnaz; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Banafshe, Hamid Reza
Recurrent spontaneous abortion has high incidence rate. The etiology is unknown in 30-40%. However high uterine artery resistance is accounted as one of the recurrent abortion reasons. The objective of the current study was to determine the impacts of vitamin E and aspirin on the uterine artery blood flow in women having recurrent abortions due to impaired uterine blood flow. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 99 women having uterine pulsatility index (PI) more than 2.5 and the history of more than two times abortions. The candidates were categorized into three groups; receiving aspirin, only vitamin E, and aspirin+vitamin E. After 2 months, uterine PIs were compared with each other. All drug regimens caused an enhancement in uterine perfusion with a significant decline in uterine artery PI value. The women receiving vitamin E in accompanied with aspirin had the least mean PI of the uterine artery (p<0.001). The total average PI score of the right and left uterine arteries in groups receiving vitamin E in accompanied with aspirin was lower than the two counterparts significantly (p<0.001). Vitamin E, aspirin and especially their combination are effective in improving uterine artery blood flow in women with recurrent abortion due to impaired uterine blood flow. More well-designed studies are needed to find out whether the enhancement of uterine perfusion may lead to a better pregnancy outcome.
Investigation of blood flow in the external carotid artery and its branches with a new 0D peripheral model.
Ohhara, Yoshihito; Oshima, Marie; Iwai, Toshinori; Kitajima, Hiroaki; Yajima, Yasuharu; Mitsudo, Kenji; Krdy, Absy; Tohnai, Iwai
Patient-specific modelling in clinical studies requires a realistic simulation to be performed within a reasonable computational time. The aim of this study was to develop simple but realistic outflow boundary conditions for patient-specific blood flow simulation which can be used to clarify the distribution of the anticancer agent in intra-arterial chemotherapy for oral cancer. In this study, the boundary conditions are expressed as a zero dimension (0D) resistance model of the peripheral vessel network based on the fractal characteristics of branching arteries combined with knowledge of the circulatory system and the energy minimization principle. This resistance model was applied to four patient-specific blood flow simulations at the region where the common carotid artery bifurcates into the internal and external carotid arteries. Results of these simulations with the proposed boundary conditions were compared with the results of ultrasound measurements for the same patients. The pressure was found to be within the physiological range. The difference in velocity in the superficial temporal artery results in an error of 5.21 ± 0.78 % between the numerical results and the measurement data. The proposed outflow boundary conditions, therefore, constitute a simple resistance-based model and can be used for performing accurate simulations with commercial fluid dynamics software.
Does dairy food intake predict arterial stiffness and blood pressure in men?: Evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study.
Livingstone, Katherine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Cockcroft, John R; Elwood, Peter C; Pickering, Janet E; Givens, D Ian
Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease events and mortality, and like blood pressure, may be influenced by dairy food intake. Few studies have investigated the effects of consumption of these foods on prospective measures of arterial stiffness. The present analysis aimed to investigate the prospective relationship between milk, cheese, cream, and butter consumption and aortic pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as cross-sectional relationships between these foods and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic markers using data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Included in this cohort were 2512 men, aged 45 to 59 years, who were followed up at 5-year intervals for a mean of 22.8 years (number follow-up 787). Augmentation index was 1.8% lower in subjects in the highest quartiles of dairy product intake compared with the lowest (P trend=0.021), whereas in the highest group of milk consumption systolic blood pressure was 10.4 mm Hg lower (P trend=0.033) than in nonmilk consumers after a 22.8-year follow-up. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that across increasing quartiles of butter intake, insulin (P trend=0.011), triacylglycerol (P trend=0.023), total cholesterol (P trend=0.002), and diastolic blood pressure (P trend=0.027) were higher. Across increasing groups of milk intake and quartiles of dairy product intake, glucose (P trend=0.032) and triglyceride concentrations (P trend=0.031) were lower, respectively. The present results confirm that consumption of milk predicts prospective blood pressure, whereas dairy product consumption, excluding butter, is not detrimental to arterial stiffness and metabolic markers. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms that underpin these relationships.
Intra-arterial nitroglycerin for intra-operative arterial vasospasm during pediatric renal transplantation.
Penna, Frank J; Harvey, Elizabeth; John, Philip; Armstrong, Derek; Luginbuehl, Igor; Odeh, Rakan I; Alyami, Fahad; Koyle, Martin A; Lorenzo, Armando J
Intra-operative arterial vasospasm during pediatric renal transplantation is an urgent clinical situation resulting in end-organ ischemia, associated changes in parenchymal turgor and color, diminished flow on ultrasound, and if left untreated, allograft loss. We hypothesized that intra-operative intra-arterial injection of nitroglycerin would reverse vasospasm and improve renal perfusion. A three-yr-old girl with end-stage renal disease due to autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease on peritoneal dialysis underwent deceased donor renal transplantation. After optimal immediate reperfusion and hemodynamic parameters, the kidney lost turgor and became mottled in appearance despite adequate hilar arterial and venous Doppler waveforms. Two aliquots of 40 μg (0.4 mL of a 100 μg/mL) nitroglycerin solution were injected directly into the renal artery 10 min apart. Nitroglycerin resulted in dramatic change in the consistency and appearance of the allograft. An improvement in renal blood flow was demonstrated by ultrasound after the second intra-arterial nitroglycerin injection with only a transient decrease in systemic arterial blood pressure. The child experienced normal allograft perfusion on serial postoperative ultrasounds, with a prompt decrease in serum creatinine and excellent diuresis. Intra-arterial nitroglycerin is a promising option for intra-operative arterial vasospasm during pediatric renal transplantation with objective improvement in blood flow and perfusion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spectral analysis of femoral artery blood flow waveforms of conscious domestic cats.
dos Reis, Gisele F M; Nogueira, Rodrigo B; Silva, Adriana C; Oberlender, Guilherme; Muzzi, Ruthnéa A L; Mantovani, Matheus M
The qualitative and quantitative aspects of femoral artery blood flow waveform spectra were evaluated in 15 male and 15 female Persian and mixed breed domestic cats (Felis catus), which were healthy and not sedated, using duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU). Spectral Doppler demonstrated a biphasic characteristic in 16 (53.34%) of the animals evaluated, and a triphasic characteristic in the 14 (46.66%) remaining animals. The systolic blood pressure and heart rate values were within the normal range for the species. The quantitative parameters evaluated, based on the spectral Doppler, were as follows: systolic velocity peak (SVP), recent diastolic velocity peak (RDVP), end diastolic velocity peak (EDVP), mean velocity (MV), integral velocity time (ITV), artery diameter (AD), femoral flow volume (FFV), pulsatility index (PI), resistive index (RI), systolic peak acceleration time (AT) and deceleration time (DT). The respective mean values were: 36.41 ± 7.33 cm/s, 4.69 ± 0.90 cm/s, 10.74 ± 2.74 cm/s, 23.06 ± 4.86 cm/s, 3.91 ± 1.05 cm, 0.17 ± 0.04 cm, 0.11 ± 0.08 cm(3), 3.85 ± 0.19, 1.40 ± 0.20, 39.84 ± 7.38 ms, and 114.0 ± 22.15 ms. No significant differences were found between males and females. The analyses carried out on the femoral artery flow spectrum obtained by DDU showed that it is easy to use and highly tolerated in non-sedated, healthy cats. It appears that DDU may be a useful diagnostic technique, but further studies are needed to evaluate how it compares with invasive telemetric methodology or high-definition oscillometric waveform analytic techniques. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Morning pressor surge, blood pressure variability, and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.
Pucci, Giacomo; Battista, Francesca; Anastasio, Fabio; Schillaci, Giuseppe
An excess morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) may portend an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms thereof have been little investigated. The link between MBPS, short-term blood pressure (BP) variability, and arterial stiffness has not been entirely defined. In 602 consecutive untreated hypertensive patients (48 ± 12 years, 61% men, office BP 149/93 ± 17/10 mmHg), we measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, SphygmoCor) and 24-h ambulatory BP. Using self-reported sleep and wake times, MBPS was defined as sleep-trough (ST-MBPS), prewaking, rising. Short-term BP variability was calculated as weighted 24-h SBP SD and average real variability of 24-h SBP (ARV), that is, average of absolute differences between consecutive SBP readings. ST-MBPS (r = 0.16, P < 0.001) and rising MBPS (r = 0.12, P = 0.003) showed a direct correlation with cf-PWV, whereas prewaking MBPS had no such relation (r = 0.06, P = 0.14). Only ST-MBPS was independently associated with cf-PWV (t = 1.96, P = 0.04) after adjustment for age, sex, height, office mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal function. This association was lost after further adjustment for weighted 24-h SBP SD (P = 0.13) or ARV (P = 0.24). ARV was a significant mediator of the relationship between ST-MBPS and cf-PWV (P = 0.003). In untreated hypertension, ST-MBPS has a direct relation with aortic stiffness, which is mediated by an increased ARV. The adverse effects of MBPS may be partly explained by its link with arterial stiffness, mediated by short-term SBP variability.
Gender-specific association of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism with central arterial blood pressure.
Björck, Hanna M; Eriksson, Per; Alehagen, Urban; De Basso, Rachel; Ljungberg, Liza U; Persson, Karin; Dahlström, Ulf; Länne, Toste
The functional plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism has previously been associated with hypertension. In recent years, central blood pressure, rather than brachial has been argued a better measure of cardiovascular damage and clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism on central arterial blood pressure in a cohort of elderly individuals. We studied 410 individuals, 216 men and 194 women, aged 70-88. Central pressures and pulse waveforms were calculated from the radial artery pressure waveform by the use of the SphygmoCor system and a generalized transfer function. Brachial pressure was recorded using oscillometric technique (Dinamap, Critikon, Tampa, FL). PAI-1 antigen was determined in plasma. The results showed that central pressures were higher in women carrying the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype compared to female carriers of the 5G/5G genotype, (P = 0.025, P = 0.002, and P = 0.002 for central systolic-, diastolic-, and mean arterial pressure, respectively). The association remained after adjustment for potentially confounding factors related to hypertension. No association of the PAI-1 genotype with blood pressure was found in men. Multiple regression analysis revealed an association between PAI-1 genotype and plasma PAI-1 levels (P = 0.048). Our findings show a gender-specific association of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with central arterial blood pressure. The genotype effect was independent of other risk factors related to hypertension, suggesting that impaired fibrinolytic potential may play an important role in the development of central hypertension in women.
Does ligation of internal iliac artery for postpartum hemorrhage affect clitoral artery blood flow and postpartum sexual functions?
Kaya, B; Usluogullari, B; Yurttutan, N; Sahan, M H; Güralp, O; Malik, E
To investigate whether internal iliac artery ligation (IIAL) for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) affects the sexual life in the postpartum period or significantly reduces the clitoral artery blood flow. The women who underwent IIAL due to PPH during cesarean section (CS) were compared with healthy postpartum women delivered by CS between October 2014 and February 2016 in the Gaziantep Women's Health and Maternity Hospital, Gaziantep, Turkey. Clitoral Doppler flow measurements and the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire (FSFIQ) were performed in all women in the 3rd and 6th postpartum months. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with the identification number NCT02409602. Mean age, gravidity and parity, body mass index (BMI), first sexual intercourse after childbirth, and education years were similar in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the measurements of RI, PI, PSV, EDV, and S/D between the study and control groups in the 3rd month. Lack of statistical significance was also noted between the study and control groups values in the 6th month, as well as between the 3rd and 6th month's values within both the study group and the control group. Additionally, there were no statistically significant differences in the total FSFI scores including sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction, and pain domain scores between the study and control groups in the 3rd month; between the study and control groups 6th months; whereas all scores were higher in the 6th month compared to the 3rd month within each group. IIAL does not affect the blood flow of the dorsal clitoral artery between the 3rd and 6th months postpartum and between the women who underwent IIAL due to PPH and healthy postpartum women. The sexual function scores were significantly higher in the 6th month compared to the 3rd month in both groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A new rat model of auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation with liver dual arterial blood supply.
Qiao, Jianliang; Han, Chunlei; Zhang, Junjing; Wang, Zhiyong; Meng, Xingkai
Auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation (APHLT) with portal vein arterialization is a valuable procedure to be considered in the treatment of patients with acute liver failure and metabolic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to develop a new rat model of APHLT with liver dual arterial blood supply (LDABS). A total of 20 rats were used. The donor liver was resected, and the celiac trunk was reserved. Left and medial hepatic lobes accounting for 70% of the liver mass were removed en bloc and the suprahepatic caval vein was ligated simultaneously. Thus, 30% of the donor liver was obtained as the graft. Sleeve anastomosis of the graft portal vein and splenic artery were performed after narrowing the portal vein lumen through suturing. The right kidney of the recipient was removed, and sleeve anastomosis was performed between the celiac trunk of the graft and the right renal artery of the recipient. In addition, end-to-end anastomosis was performed between the infrahepatic caval vein of the graft and the right renal vein of the recipient. Following the reperfusion of the graft, the blood flow of the arterialized portal vein was controlled within the physiological range through suturing and narrowing under monitoring with an ultrasonic flowmeter. The bile duct of the graft was implanted into the duodenum of the recipient through an internal stent catheter. A 70% section of the native liver (left and medial hepatic lobes) was resected using bloodless hepatectomy. The mean operative duration was 154.5±16.4 min, and the warm and cold ischemia times of the graft were 8.1±1.1 min and 64.5±6.6 min, respectively. The blood flow of the arterialized portal vein to the graft was 1.8±0.3 ml/min/g liver weight. The success rate of model establishment (waking with post-surgical survival of >24 h) was 70% (7/10). Following successful model establishment, all rats survived 7 days post-surgery (100%; 7/7). The graft was found to be soft in texture and bright red
Impaired increase of retinal capillary blood flow to flicker light exposure in arterial hypertension.
Ritt, Martin; Harazny, Joanna M; Ott, Christian; Raff, Ulrike; Bauernschubert, Philipp; Lehmann, Marina; Michelson, Georg; Schmieder, Roland E
We hypothesized that the increase of retinal capillary blood flow (RCF) to flicker light exposure is impaired in subjects with arterial hypertension. In 146 nondiabetic untreated male subjects with (n=50) or without (n=96) arterial hypertension, RCF was measured before and after flicker light exposure noninvasively and in vivo using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, in a subgroup of 28 subjects, the change of RCF to flicker light exposure was again assessed during parallel infusion of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was lower in patients with untreated hypertension compared with normotensive subjects when expressed in absolute terms (7.69±54 versus 27.2±44 AU; P adjusted=0.013) or percent changes (2.95±14 versus 8.33±12%; P adjusted=0.023). Systolic (β=-0.216; P=0.023) but not diastolic blood pressure (β=-0.117; P=0.243) or mean arterial pressure (β=-0.178; P=0.073) was negatively related to the percent change of RCF to flicker light exposure, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. In the subgroup of 28 subjects, the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was similar at baseline and during parallel infusion of L-NMMA when expressed in absolute terms (20.0±51 versus 22.6±56 AU; P=0.731) or percent changes (7.12±16 versus 8.29±18%; P=0.607). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure is impaired in arterial hypertension. In the subgroup of the total study cohort, nitric oxide was not a major determinant of the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure.
Relationship between regional myocardial blood flow and thallium-201 distribution in the presence of coronary artery stenosis and dipyridamole-induced vasodilation.
Mays, A E; Cobb, F R
This study assesses the relationship between the distribution of thallium-201 and myocardial blood flow during coronary vasodilation induced by intravenous dipyridamole in canine models of partial and complete coronary artery stenosis. 10 dogs were chronically instrumented with catheters in the left atrium and aorta and with a balloon occluder and electromagnetic flow probe on the proximal left circumflex coronary artery. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured during control conditions with radioisotope-labeled microspheres, and the phasic reactive hyperemic response to a 20-s transient occlusion was then recorded. Dipyridamole was then infused intravenously until phasic coronary blood flow increased to match peak hyperemic values. The left circumflex coronary artery was either partially occluded to reduce phasic blood flow to control values (group 1) or it was completely occluded (group 2), and thallium-201 and a second microsphere label were injected. 5 min later, the animals were sacrificed, the left ventricle was sectioned into 1-2-g samples, and thallium-201 activity and regional myocardial blood flow were measured. Curvilinear regression analyses between thallium-201 localization and myocardial blood flow during dipyridamole infusion demonstrated a slightly better fit to a second- as compared with a first-order model, indicating a slight roll-off of thallium activity as myocardial blood flow increases. During the dipyridamole infusion, the increases in phasic blood flow, the distributions of regional myocardial blood flow, and the relationships between thallium-201 localization and regional blood flow were comparable to values previously observed in exercising dogs with similar occlusions. These data provide basic validation that supports the use of intravenous dipyridamole and thallium-201 as an alternative to exercise stress and thallium-201 for evaluating the effects of coronary occlusive lesions on the distribution of regional myocardial blood flow
Intrapericardial denervation - Radial artery blood flow and heart rate responses to LBNP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckeever, Kenneth H.; Skidmore, Michael G.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold
The effects of intrapericardial denervation on the radial artery blood flow velocity (RABFV) and heart rate (HR) responses to LBNP in rhesus monkeys were investigated by measuring the RABFV transcutaneously by a continuous-wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter in order to derive an index of forearm blood flow response to low (0 to -20 mm Hg) and high (0 to -60 mm Hg) ramp exposures during supine LBNP. Four of the eight subjects were subjected to efferent and afferent cardiac denervation. It was found that, during low levels of LBNP, monkeys with cardiac denervation exhibited no cardiopulmonary baroreceptor-mediated change in the RABFV or HR, unlike the intact animals, which showed steady decreases in RABFV during both high- and low-pressure protocols. It is suggested that forearm blood flow and HR responses to low-level LBNP, along with pharmacological challenge, are viable physiological tests for verifying the completeness of atrial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptor denervation.
Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... attaches to one of the chambers of the heart (the atrium or ventricle) or another blood vessel ( ...
Netrin-1 controls sympathetic arterial innervation.
Brunet, Isabelle; Gordon, Emma; Han, Jinah; Cristofaro, Brunella; Broqueres-You, Dong; Liu, Chun; Bouvrée, Karine; Zhang, Jiasheng; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Larrivée, Bruno; Jagu, Julia; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Pardanaud, Luc; Machado, Maria J C; Kennedy, Timothy E; Zhuang, Zhen; Simons, Michael; Levy, Bernard I; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger; Eichmann, Anne
Autonomic sympathetic nerves innervate peripheral resistance arteries, thereby regulating vascular tone and controlling blood supply to organs. Despite the fundamental importance of blood flow control, how sympathetic arterial innervation develops remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the axon guidance cue netrin-1 as an essential factor required for development of arterial innervation in mice. Netrin-1 was produced by arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the onset of innervation, and arterial innervation required the interaction of netrin-1 with its receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), on sympathetic growth cones. Function-blocking approaches, including cell type-specific deletion of the genes encoding Ntn1 in SMCs and Dcc in sympathetic neurons, led to severe and selective reduction of sympathetic innervation and to defective vasoconstriction in resistance arteries. These findings indicate that netrin-1 and DCC are critical for the control of arterial innervation and blood flow regulation in peripheral organs.
Effects of two newly synthesized analogues of lidocaine on rat arterial blood pressure and heart rate.
Al Rasheed, N M; Al Sayed, M I; Al Zuhair, H H; Al Obaid, A R; Fatani, A J
Two new analogues of lidocaine were synthesized at the College of Pharmacy, King Saud University: compound I (Methyl-2-[2-(N,N-diethylamino) acetamido]-3-cyano-4,5-dimethylbenzoate) and compound II (Methyl-2-[2-(piperidino) acetamido]-3-cyano-4,5-dimethylbenzoate). Their influence on the arterial blood pressure and the heart rate of urethane-anaesthetized rats was studied and compared with the actions of lidocaine. Compounds I, II and lidocaine induced significant dose-dependent decreases in the arterial blood pressure and heart rate, which usually returned to basal values within 3-5 min. There were significant differences in the potency of the three compounds in producing their effects on blood pressure and heart rate (P< 0.0001, ANOVA). Compound II was 14 and 6 times more potent in reducing blood pressure and 8 and 2 times more capable of reducing the heart rate than lidocaine and compound I, respectively. The results of this study also indicated the ineffectiveness of antagonists of autonomic, histaminergic and 5-HT receptor, and various vasodilators in blocking the actions of the three compounds on blood pressure and heart rate. Pretreatment with CaCl(2)significantly reduced the hypotension and bradycardia induced by the three compounds, suggesting the involvement of calcium channels, probably of the L type. Several possible mechanisms are postulated. In conclusion, the results direct attention to the capability of the two new compounds to decrease blood pressure and heart rate; affects that may have clinical potential. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Relationship between preoperative radial artery and postoperative arteriovenous fistula blood flow in hemodialysis patients.
Sato, Michiko; Io, Hiroaki; Tanimoto, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Yoshio; Fukui, Mitsumine; Hamada, Chieko; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko
It is recommended that arteriovenous fistula (AVF) blood flow should be more than 425 ml/min before cannulation. However, the relationship between preoperative radial artery flow (RAF) and postoperative AVF blood flow has still not been examined. Sixty-one patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) were examined. They had an AVF prepared at Juntendo University Hospital from July 2006 through August 2007. Preoperative RAF and postoperative AVF blood flows were measured by ultrasonography. AVF blood flow gradually increased after the operation. AVF blood flow was significantly correlated with preoperative RAF. When preoperative RAF exceeded 21.4 ml/min, AVF blood flow rose to more than 425 ml/min. The postoperative AVF blood flow in the group with RAF of more than 20 ml/min was significantly higher than that in those with less than 20 ml/min. Preoperative RAF of less than 20 ml/min had a significantly high risk of primary AVF failure within 8 months compared with that of more than 20 ml/min. It appears that measurement of RAF by ultrasonography is useful for estimating AVF blood flow postoperatively and can predict the risk of complications in ESKD patients.
The effect of intrafetal infusion of metyrapone on arterial blood pressure and on the arterial blood pressure response to angiotensin II in the sheep fetus during late gestation
Warnes, K E; Coulter, C L; Robinson, J S; McMillen, I C
While the impact of exogenous glucocorticoids on the fetal cardiovascular system has been well defined, relatively few studies have characterised the role of endogenous fetal glucocorticoids in the regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP) during late gestation. We have therefore infused metyrapone, an inhibitor of cortisol biosynthesis, into fetal sheep from 125 days gestation (when fetal cortisol concentrations are low) and from 137 days gestation (when fetal cortisol concentrations are increasing) and measured fetal plasma cortisol, 11-desoxycortisol and ACTH, fetal systolic, diastolic and mean arterial BP, heart rate, and the fetal BP responses to increasing doses of angiotensin II (AII). At 125 days gestation, there was a significant increase in fetal plasma ACTH and 11-desoxycortisol by 24 h after (+24 h) the start of the metyrapone infusion, and plasma cortisol concentrations were not different at +24 h when compared with pre-infusion values. Whilst the initial fall in circulating cortisol concentrations may have been transient, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial BP were ∼5–6 mmHg lower (P < 0.05) in metyrapone- than in vehicle-infused fetuses at 24–48 h after the start of the infusion. When metyrapone was infused from 137/138 days gestation, there was a significant decrease in plasma cortisol concentrations by +6 h, which was followed by an increase back to pre-infusion values. While cortisol concentrations decreased, there was no change in fetal mean arterial BP during the first 24 h after the start of metyrapone infusion. Mean fetal arterial BP values at 137–139 days gestation were not different in fetuses that had been infused with either vehicle or metyrapone from 125 days gestation or with metyrapone from 137–138 days gestation. At 137–139 days gestation, however, arterial BP responses to increasing doses of AII were significantly blunted in fetuses that had been infused with metyrapone from 125 days gestation, when compared with
Characterizing pulmonary blood flow distribution measured using arterial spin labeling.
Henderson, A Cortney; Prisk, G Kim; Levin, David L; Hopkins, Susan R; Buxton, Richard B
The arterial spin labeling (ASL) method provides images in which, ideally, the signal intensity of each image voxel is proportional to the local perfusion. For studies of pulmonary perfusion, the relative dispersion (RD, standard deviation/mean) of the ASL signal across a lung section is used as a reliable measure of flow heterogeneity. However, the RD of the ASL signals within the lung may systematically differ from the true RD of perfusion because the ASL image also includes signals from larger vessels, which can reflect the blood volume rather than blood flow if the vessels are filled with tagged blood during the imaging time. Theoretical studies suggest that the pulmonary vasculature exhibits a lognormal distribution for blood flow and thus an appropriate measure of heterogeneity is the geometric standard deviation (GSD). To test whether the ASL signal exhibits a lognormal distribution for pulmonary blood flow, determine whether larger vessels play an important role in the distribution, and extract physiologically relevant measures of heterogeneity from the ASL signal, we quantified the ASL signal before and after an intervention (head-down tilt) in six subjects. The distribution of ASL signal was better characterized by a lognormal distribution than a normal distribution, reducing the mean squared error by 72% (p < 0.005). Head-down tilt significantly reduced the lognormal scale parameter (p = 0.01) but not the shape parameter or GSD. The RD increased post-tilt and remained significantly elevated (by 17%, p < 0.05). Test case results and mathematical simulations suggest that RD is more sensitive than the GSD to ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels, a probable explanation of the change in RD without a statistically significant change in GSD. This suggests that the GSD is a useful measure of pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity with the advantage of being less affected by the ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels.
Underwater study of arterial blood pressure in breath-hold divers.
Sieber, Arne; L'abbate, Antonio; Passera, Mirko; Garbella, Erika; Benassi, Antonio; Bedini, Remo
Knowledge regarding arterial blood pressure (ABP) values during breath-hold diving is scanty. It derives from a few reports of measurements performed at the water's surface, showing slight or no increase in ABP, and from a single study of two simulated deep breath-hold dives in a hyperbaric chamber. Simulated dives showed an increase in ABP to values considered life threatening by standard clinical criteria. For the first time, using a novel noninvasive subaquatic sphygmomanometer, we successfully measured ABP in 10 healthy elite breath-hold divers at a depth of 10 m of freshwater (mfw). ABP was measured in dry conditions, at the surface (head-out immersion), and twice at a depth of 10 mfw. Underwater measurements of ABP were obtained in all subjects. Each measurement lasted 50-60 s and was accomplished without any complications or diver discomfort. In the 10 subjects as a whole, mean ABP values were 124/93 mmHg at the surface and 123/94 mmHg at a depth of 10 mfw. No significant statistical differences were found when blood pressure measurements at the water surface were compared with breath-hold diving conditions at a depth of 10 mfw. No systolic blood pressure values >140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure values >115 mmHg were recorded. In conclusion, direct measurements of ABP during apnea diving showed no or only mild increases in ABP. However, our results cannot be extended over environmental conditions different from those of the present study.
Combined exercise reduces arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and blood markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with hypertension.
Son, Won-Mok; Sung, Ki-Dong; Cho, Jae-Min; Park, Song-Young
Postmenopausal women exhibit elevated brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular fitness in postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension. Twenty postmenopausal women (age, 75 ± 2 y; systolic BP, 152 ± 2 mm Hg, diastolic BP, 95 ± 3 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to a "no-exercise" (CON, n = 10) or combined exercise (EX, n = 10) group. The EX group performed resistance and aerobic exercise for 12 weeks, 3 times per week. Exercise intensity was increased gradually, from 40% to 70% of heart rate reserve, every 4 weeks. BaPWV, BP, blood nitrite/nitrate, endothelin-1 (ET-1), cardiovascular fitness, and body composition were measured before and after the 12-week intervention. BP, baPWV (-1.2 ± 0.4 m/s), ET-1 (-2.7 ± 0.3 μmol/mL), nitrite/nitrate (+4.5 ± 0.5 μM), functional capacity, and body composition were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the EX group after 12 weeks of training, but no changes were observed in the CON group. These findings indicate that 12 weeks of combined exercise training improves arterial stiffness, BP, ET-1, blood nitrite/nitrate, functional capacity, and body composition in postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension. Thus, this study provides evidence that combined exercise training is a useful therapeutic method to improve cardiovascular health which can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women with hypertension.
Arterial Baroreceptor Reflex Counteracts Long-Term Blood Pressure Increase in the Rat Model of Renovascular Hypertension
Tsyrlin, Vitaly A.; Galagudza, Michael M.; Kuzmenko, Nataly V.; Pliss, Michael G.; Rubanova, Nataly S.; Shcherbin, Yury I.
Introduction The present study tested the hypothesis that long-term effects of baroreceptor activation might contribute to the prevention of persistent arterial blood pressure (BP) increase in the rat model of renovascular hypertension (HTN). Methods Repetitive arterial baroreflex (BR) testing was performed in normo- and hypertensive rats. The relationship between initial arterial BR sensitivity and severity of subsequently induced two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular HTN was studied in Wistar rats. Additionally, the time course of changes in systolic BP (SBP) and cardiac beat-to-beat (RR) interval was studied for 8 weeks after the induction of 2K1C renovascular HTN in the rats with and without sinoaortic denervation (SAD). In a separate experimental series, cervical sympathetic nerve activity (cSNA) was assessed in controls, 2K1C rats, WKY rats, and SHR. Results The inverse correlation between arterial BR sensitivity and BP was observed in the hypertensive rats during repetitive arterial BR testing. The animals with greater initial arterial BR sensitivity developed lower BP values after renal artery clipping than those with lower initial arterial BR sensitivity. BP elevation during the first 8 weeks of renal artery clipping in 2K1C rats was associated with decreased sensitivity of arterial BR. Although SAD itself resulted only in greater BP variability but not in persistent BP rise, the subsequent renal artery clipping invariably resulted in the development of sustained HTN. The time to onset of HTN was found to be shorter in the rats with SAD than in those with intact baroreceptors. cSNA was significantly greater in the 2K1C rats than in controls. Conclusions Arterial BR appears to be an important mechanism of long-term regulation of BP, and is believed to be involved in the prevention of BP rise in the rat model of renovascular HTN. PMID:23762254
Simplifying [18F]GE-179 PET: are both arterial blood sampling and 90-min acquisitions essential?
McGinnity, Colm J; Riaño Barros, Daniela A; Trigg, William; Brooks, David J; Hinz, Rainer; Duncan, John S; Koepp, Matthias J; Hammers, Alexander
The NMDA receptor radiotracer [ 18 F]GE-179 has been used with 90-min scans and arterial plasma input functions. We explored whether (1) arterial blood sampling is avoidable and (2) shorter scans are feasible. For 20 existing [ 18 F]GE-179 datasets, we generated (1) standardised uptake values (SUVs) over eight intervals; (2) volume of distribution (V T ) images using population-based input functions (PBIFs), scaled using one parent plasma sample; and (3) V T images using three shortened datasets, using the original parent plasma input functions (ppIFs). Correlations with the original ppIF-derived 90-min V T s increased for later interval SUVs (maximal ρ = 0.78; 80-90 min). They were strong for PBIF-derived V T s (ρ = 0.90), but between-subject coefficient of variation increased. Correlations were very strong for the 60/70/80-min original ppIF-derived V T s (ρ = 0.97-1.00), which suffered regionally variant negative bias. Where arterial blood sampling is available, reduction of scan duration to 60 min is feasible, but with negative bias. The performance of SUVs was more consistent across participants than PBIF-derived V T s.
Netrin-1 controls sympathetic arterial innervation
Brunet, Isabelle; Gordon, Emma; Han, Jinah; Cristofaro, Brunella; Broqueres-You, Dong; Liu, Chun; Bouvrée, Karine; Zhang, Jiasheng; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Larrivée, Bruno; Jagu, Julia; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Pardanaud, Luc; Machado, Maria J.C.; Kennedy, Timothy E.; Zhuang, Zhen; Simons, Michael; Levy, Bernard I.; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger; Eichmann, Anne
Autonomic sympathetic nerves innervate peripheral resistance arteries, thereby regulating vascular tone and controlling blood supply to organs. Despite the fundamental importance of blood flow control, how sympathetic arterial innervation develops remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the axon guidance cue netrin-1 as an essential factor required for development of arterial innervation in mice. Netrin-1 was produced by arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the onset of innervation, and arterial innervation required the interaction of netrin-1 with its receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), on sympathetic growth cones. Function-blocking approaches, including cell type–specific deletion of the genes encoding Ntn1 in SMCs and Dcc in sympathetic neurons, led to severe and selective reduction of sympathetic innervation and to defective vasoconstriction in resistance arteries. These findings indicate that netrin-1 and DCC are critical for the control of arterial innervation and blood flow regulation in peripheral organs. PMID:24937433
[Hypothermia and cerebral protection after head trauma. Influence of blood gases modifications].
Odri, A; Geeraerts, T; Vigué, B
The usefulness of therapeutic hypothermia is highly debated after traumatic brain injury. A neuroprotective effect has been demonstrated only in experimental studies: decrease in cerebral metabolism, restoration of ATP level, better control of cerebral edema and cellular effects. Despite negative multicenter clinical studies, therapeutic hypothermia is still used to a better control of intracranial pressure. However, important issues need to be clarified, particularly the level and duration of hypothermia, the depth and modalities of sedation. A clear understanding of blood gases variations induced by hypothermia is needed to understand the cerebral perfusion and oxygenation changes. It is essential to recognize and to use hypothermia-induced physiological hypocapnia and alkalosis under strict control of cerebral oxygen balance (jugular venous saturation or tissue PO(2)) and also to take into account the increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. Management of post-traumatic intracranial hypertension using hypothermia, directed by intracranial pressure level, and consequently for long duration, is potentially beneficial but needs further clarification.
Arterial spin labeling blood flow magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of renal injury.
Liu, Yupin P; Song, Rui; Liang, Chang hong; Chen, Xin; Liu, Bo
A multitude of evidence suggests that iodinated contrast material causes nephrotoxicity; however, there have been no previous studies that use arterial spin labeling (ASL) blood flow functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the alterations in effective renal plasma flow between normointensive and hypertensive rats following injection of contrast media. We hypothesized that FAIR-SSFSE arterial spin labeling MRI may enable noninvasive and quantitative assessment of regional renal blood flow abnormalities and correlate with disease severity as assessed by histological methods. Renal blood flow (RBF) values of the cortex and medulla of rat kidneys were obtained from ASL images postprocessed at ADW4.3 workstation 0.3, 24, 48, and 72 h before and after injection of iodinated contrast media (6 ml/kg). The H&E method for morphometric measurements was used to confirm the MRI findings. The RBF values of the outer medulla were lower than those of the cortex and the inner medulla as reported previously. Iodinated contrast media treatment resulted in decreases in RBF in the outer medulla and cortex in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), but only in the outer medulla in normotensive rats. The iodinated contrast agent significantly decreased the RBF value in the outer medulla and the cortex in SHR compared with normotensive rats after injection of the iodinated contrast media. Histological observations of kidney morphology were also consistent with ASL perfusion changes. These results demonstrate that the RBF value can reflect changes of renal perfusion in the cortex and medulla. ASL-MRI is a feasible and accurate method for evaluating nephrotoxic drugs-induced kidney damage.
Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding
Ainslie, Philip N.; Hoiland, Ryan L.; Willie, Chris K.; MacLeod, David B.; Madden, Dennis; Maslov, Petra Zubin; Drviš, Ivan; Dujić, Željko
Abstract The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on a maximal breath-hold (BH) in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7) performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg). Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline), and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO2) by about 26% (p < 0.01). Indomethacin reduced maximal BH time from 339 ± 51 to 319 ± 57 seconds (p = 0.04). In both conditions, the CDO2 remained unchanged from baseline to the termination of apnea. At BH termination, arterial oxygen tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa). The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01). These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H+ washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO2. PMID:28123816
Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding.
Bain, Anthony R; Ainslie, Philip N; Hoiland, Ryan L; Willie, Chris K; MacLeod, David B; Madden, Dennis; Maslov, Petra Zubin; Drviš, Ivan; Dujić, Željko
The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on a maximal breath-hold (BH) in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7) performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg). Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline), and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO 2 ) by about 26% (p < 0.01). Indomethacin reduced maximal BH time from 339 ± 51 to 319 ± 57 seconds (p = 0.04). In both conditions, the CDO 2 remained unchanged from baseline to the termination of apnea. At BH termination, arterial oxygen tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa). The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01). These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H + washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO 2 .
Relation between digital peripheral arterial tonometry and brachial artery ultrasound measures of vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease and in healthy volunteers.
Lee, Craig R; Bass, Almasa; Ellis, Kyle; Tran, Bryant; Steele, Savanna; Caughey, Melissa; Stouffer, George A; Hinderliter, Alan L
Digital peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) is an emerging, noninvasive method to assess vascular function. The physiology underlying this phenotype, however, remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relation between digital PAT and established brachial artery ultrasound measures of vascular function under basal conditions and after reactive hyperemia. Using a cross-sectional study design, digital PAT and brachial artery ultrasonography with pulsed wave Doppler were simultaneously completed at baseline and after reactive hyperemia in both those with established coronary artery disease (n = 99) and healthy volunteers with low cardiovascular disease risk (n = 40). Under basal conditions, the digital pulse volume amplitude demonstrated a significant positive correlation with the brachial artery velocity-time integral that was independent of the arterial diameter, in both the healthy volunteer (r(s) = 0.64, p <0.001) and coronary artery disease (r(s) = 0.63, p <0.001) cohorts. Similar positive relations were observed with the baseline brachial artery blood flow velocity and blood flow. In contrast, no relation between the reactive hyperemia-evoked digital PAT ratio and either brachial artery flow-mediated dilation or shear stress was observed in either cohort (p = NS). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the digital PAT measures of vascular function more closely reflect basal blood flow in the brachial artery than reactive hyperemia-induced changes in the arterial diameter or flow velocity, and the presence of vascular disease does not modify the physiology underlying the digital PAT phenotype. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Analysis of dynamic cerebral autoregulation using an ARX model based on arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery velocity simulation.
Liu, Y; Allen, R
The study aimed to model the cerebrovascular system, using a linear ARX model based on data simulated by a comprehensive physiological model, and to assess the range of applicability of linear parametric models. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) and middle cerebral arterial blood flow velocity (MCAV) were measured from 11 subjects non-invasively, following step changes in ABP, using the thigh cuff technique. By optimising parameters associated with autoregulation, using a non-linear optimisation technique, the physiological model showed a good performance (r=0.83+/-0.14) in fitting MCAV. An additional five sets of measured ABP of length 236+/-154 s were acquired from a subject at rest. These were normalised and rescaled to coefficients of variation (CV=SD/mean) of 2% and 10% for model comparisons. Randomly generated Gaussian noise with standard deviation (SD) from 1% to 5% was added to both ABP and physiologically simulated MCAV (SMCAV), with 'normal' and 'impaired' cerebral autoregulation, to simulate the real measurement conditions. ABP and SMCAV were fitted by ARX modelling, and cerebral autoregulation was quantified by a 5 s recovery percentage R5% of the step responses of the ARX models. The study suggests that cerebral autoregulation can be assessed by computing the R5% of the step response of an ARX model of appropriate order, even when measurement noise is considerable.
Modeling of the blood flow in the lower extremities for dynamic diffuse optical tomography of peripheral artery disease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marone, A.; Hoi, J. W.; Khalil, M. A.; Kim, H. K.; Shrikhande, G.; Dayal, R.; Hielscher, A. H.
Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is caused by a reduction of the internal diameters of the arteries in the upper or lower extremities mainly due to atherosclerosis. If not treated, its worsening may led to a complete occlusion, causing the death of the cells lacking proper blood supply, followed by gangrene that may require chirurgical amputation. We have recently performed a clinical study in which good sensitivities and specificities were achieved with dynamic diffuse optical tomography. To gain a better understanding of the physiological foundations of many of the observed effects, we started to develop a mathematical model for PAD. The model presented in this work is based on a multi-compartment Windkessel model, where the vasculature in the leg and foot is represented by resistors and capacitors, the blood pressure with a voltage drop, and the blood flow with a current. Unlike existing models, the dynamics induced by a thigh-pressure-cuff inflation and deflation during the measurements are taken into consideration. This is achieved by dynamically varying the resistances of the large veins and arteries. By including the effects of the thigh-pressure cuff, we were able to explain many of the effects observed during our dynamic DOT measurements, including the hemodynamics of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes. The model was implemented in MATLAB and the simulations were normalized and compared with the blood perfusion obtained from healthy, PAD and diabetic patients. Our preliminary results show that in unhealthy patients the total system resistance is sensibly higher than in healthy patients.
Elevated arterial blood pressure after superior cavo-pulmonary anastomosis is associated with elevated pulmonary artery pressure and cerebrovascular dysautoregulation.
Cabrera, Antonio G; Kibler, Kathleen K; Blaine Easley, R; Goldsworthy, Michelle; Shekerdemian, Lara S; Andropoulos, Dean B; Heinle, Jeffrey; Gottlieb, Erin A; Vu, Eric; Brady, Ken M
BackgroundElevated arterial blood pressure (ABP) is common after superior bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BCPA). The effects of elevated ABP after BCPA on cerebrovascular hemodynamics are unknown. We sought to determine the relationship between elevated ABP and cerebrovascular autoregulation after BCPA.MethodsProspective, observational study on infants with single-ventricle physiology after BCPA surgery. Continuous recordings of mean ABP, mean cavopulmonary artery pressure (PAP), near-infrared spectroscopy measures of cerebral oximetry (regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO 2 )), and relative cerebral blood volume index were obtained from admission to extubation. Autoregulation was measured as hemoglobin volume index (HVx). Physiologic variables, including the HVx, were tested for variance across ABP.ResultsSixteen subjects were included in the study. Elevated ABP post-BCPA was associated with both, elevated PAP (P<0.0001) and positive HVx (dysautoregulation; P<0.0001). No association was observed between ABP and alterations in rSO 2 . Using piecewise regression, the relationship of PAP to ABP demonstrated a breakpoint at 68 mm Hg (interquartile range (IQR) 62-70 mm Hg). Curve fit of HVx as a function of ABP identified optimal ABP supporting robust autoregulation at a median ABP of 55 mm Hg (IQR 51-64 mm Hg).ConclusionsElevated ABP post-BCPA is associated with cerebrovascular dysautoregulation, and elevated PAP. The effects, of prolonged dysautoregulation within this population, require further study.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/pr.2018.31.
The mechanical properties of the systemic and pulmonary arteries of Python regius correlate with blood pressures.
van Soldt, Benjamin J; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Wang, Tobias
Pythons are unique amongst snakes in having different pressures in the aortas and pulmonary arteries because of intraventricular pressure separation. In this study, we investigate whether this correlates with different blood vessel strength in the ball python Python regius. We excised segments from the left, right, and dorsal aortas, and from the two pulmonary arteries. These were subjected to tensile testing. We show that the aortic vessel wall is significantly stronger than the pulmonary artery wall in P. regius. Gross morphological characteristics (vessel wall thickness and correlated absolute amount of collagen content) are likely the most influential factors. Collagen fiber thickness and orientation are likely to have an effect, though the effect of collagen fiber type and cross-links between fibers will need further study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mathematical model of carotid artery for stent placement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Tengku Husna Tengku Abdul; Din, Ummul Khair Salma; Ahmad, Rokiah @ Rozita
The carotid artery stenting is one of the methods used to reduce the effect of artherosclerosis which caused by the thickening of the artery wall. In most of the studies, the measure of wall elasticity, shear stress and the blood pressure through the blood flow were considered. The aim of this study is to determine the position to place the stent inside the carotid artery. A mathematical model is reconstructed to determine the suitable location of the stent in the carotid artery. Throughout the study, differences in fluid flow between a normal carotid artery wall and stenosed carotid artery wall are investigated. Since the existence of the stenosis provides a resistance in the flow, it is important to identify the right position to place the stent. The stent will be placed in the position where stenosis exists to ease the blood to flow normally. Later after the stent placement, the blood flow normally through the blood vessel.
[Solar phase effect on elasticity of the brachial artery and blood flow in humans].
Mel'nikov, V N; Komliagina, T G; Rechkina, S Iu; Krivoshchekov, S G
Single and double examinations of normal males and females in the course of 11-year solar cycle with the use of oscillovasometry and occlusive plethysmography established a direct correlation between the effective diastolic radius of the brachial artery and solar activity characteristics on the day of examination, i.e. number of solar spots and intensity of radiation with the 10.7 cm wavelength. Other blood flow parameters demonstrated opposite correlations with the factors in males and females. As solar activity increased, females displayed linear decrements of arterial elasticity and regional peripheral resistance and growth of the volumetric blood flow velocity equally at rest and at the peak of post-occlusion reactive hyperemia. In males, the correlations had the reversed sign. Besides, males were noted to reduce venous reserve and venous outflow from antebrachial muscles proportionally to the increase of Wolf number. It is inferred that elevated solar activity may be responsible for impairment of the feeling of well-being of people with reduced cardiovascular reserve, particularly in space tight or at high altitudes in the absence of or under weak protection of the geomagnetic field and ozone layer.
Protective effect of prone posture against hypergravity-induced arterial hypoxaemia in humans
Rohdin, M; Petersson, J; Mure, M; Glenny, R W; Lindahl, S G E; Linnarsson, D
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome have increased lung tissue weight and therefore an increased hydrostatic pressure gradient down the lung. Also, they have a better arterial oxygenation in prone (face down) than in supine (face up) posture. We hypothesized that this effect of the direction of gravity also existed in healthy humans, when increased hydrostatic gradients were induced by hypergravity. Ten healthy subjects were studied in a human centrifuge while exposed to 1 or 5 G in anterio-posterior (supine) or posterio-anterior (prone) direction. We measured blood gases using remote-controlled sampling and gas exchange by mass spectrometry. Hypergravity led to marked impairments of arterial oxygenation in both postures and more so in supine posture. At 5 G, the arterial oxygen saturation was 84.6 ± 1.2 % (mean ±s.e.m.) in supine and 89.7 ± 1.4 % in prone posture (P < 0.001 for supine vs. prone). Ventilation and alveolar PO2 were increased at 5 G and did not differ between postures. The alveolar-to-arterial PO2 difference increased at 5 G to 8.0 ± 0.2 kPa and 6.6 ± 0.3 kPa in supine and prone postures (P = 0.003). Arterial oxygenation was less impaired in prone during hypergravity due to a better-preserved alveolo-arterial oxygen transport. We speculate that mammals have developed a cardiopulmonary structure that favours function with the gravitational vector in the posterio-anterior direction. PMID:12598589
The alveolar to arterial oxygen partial pressure difference is associated with pulmonary diffusing capacity in heart failure patients.
Morosin, Marco; Vignati, Carlo; Novi, Angela; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Veglia, Fabrizio; Alimento, Marina; Merli, Guido; Sciomer, Susanna; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe
In chronic heart failure (HF), the alveolar-capillary membrane undergoes a remodeling process that negatively affects gas exchange. In case of alveolar-capillary gas diffusion impairment, arterial desaturation (SaO 2 ) is rarely observed in HF patients. At play are 3 factors: overall pulmonary diffusing capacity (assessed as lung diffusion for CO, DLCO), global O 2 consumption (VO 2 ) and alveolar (A) to arterial (a) pO 2 gradient (AaDO 2 ). In 100 consecutive stable HF patients, DLCO, resting respiratory gases and arterial blood gases were measured to determine VO 2, paO 2 , pAO 2 and AaDO 2 . DLCO was poorly but significantly related to AaDO 2 . The correlation improved after correcting AaDO 2 for VO 2 (p<0.001, r=0.49). Both VO 2 and AaDO 2 were independently associated with DLCO (p<0.001). Patients with reduced DLCO showed no differences as regards paO 2 and pAO 2 . AaDO 2 /VO 2 showed a higher gradient in patients with lower DLCO. AaDO 2 increase and VO 2 reduction allow preventing low SaO 2 in HF patients with reduced DLCO. Accordingly, we suggest considering AaDO 2 and VO 2 combined and reporting AaDO 2 /VO 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
[Comparison of blood pressure profiles with flunitrazepam/fentanyl/nitrous oxide vs cervical epidural anesthesia in surgery of the carotid artery].
Pluskwa, F; Bonnet, F; Abhay, K; Touboul, C; Rey, B; Marcandoro, J; Becquemin, J B
A study was carried out to compare the evolution of arterial blood pressure during carotid endarterectomy performed under either general anaesthesia (GA) or cervical epidural anaesthesia (CEA). 20 patients were randomly assigned to two equal groups. In the CEA group, 15 ml of 0.375% bupivacaine and 150 micrograms fentanyl were injected into the epidural space at C7-D1 level. In the GA group, patients were anaesthetized with 0.2 mg.kg-1 flunitrazepam and 5 micrograms.kg-1 fentanyl; intubation was carried out using 0.08 mg.kg-1 vecuronium, and the patients were ventilated with a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen (50% of each). Further injections, every 30 min, of 2 micrograms.kg-1 fentanyl were given to the patients in group GA. Blood pressure was monitored continuously, up to 4 h postoperatively, with a radial arterial catheter. Per- or postoperative hypertension was defined as a rise in systolic arterial blood pressure (Pasys) over 180 mmHg for greater than 3 min; this was treated with 20 mg nifedipine intranasally (group CEA) or 100 micrograms fentanyl with 0.5 mg flunitrazepam with or without nifedipine (group GA). Per- or postoperative hypotension was defined as a fall in Pasys below 100 mmHg and or a 30% fall in mean arterial blood pressure for greater than 3 min; this was treated, in both groups, with an intravenous bolus of 3 mg ephedrine. Patients in group CEA experienced more frequent episodes of peroperative hypertension (8/2; p less than 0.02) and postoperative hypotension (5/1) than group GA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A program for calculation of intrapulmonary shunts, blood-gas and acid-base values with a programmable calculator.
Ruiz, B C; Tucker, W K; Kirby, R R
With a desk-top, programmable calculator, it is now possible to do complex, previously time-consuming computations in the blood-gas laboratory. The authors have developed a program with the necessary algorithms for temperature correction of blood gases and calculation of acid-base variables and intrapulmonary shunt. It was necessary to develop formulas for the Po2 temperature-correction coefficient, the oxyhemoglobin-dissociation curve for adults (withe necessary adjustments for fetal blood), and changes in water vapor pressure due to variation in body temperature. Using this program in conjuction with a Monroe 1860-21 statistical programmable calculator, it is possible to temperature-correct pH,Pco2, and Po2. The machine will compute alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, oxygen saturation (So2), oxygen content (Co2), actual HCO minus 3 and a modified base excess. If arterial blood and mixed venous blood are obtained, the calculator will print out intrapulmonary shunt data (Qs/Qt) and arteriovenous oxygen differences (a minus vDo2). There also is a formula to compute P50 if pH,Pco2,Po2, and measured So2 from two samples of tonometered blood (one above 50 per cent and one below 50 per cent saturation) are put into the calculator.
Numerical Investigation of Oxygenated and Deoxygenated Blood Flow through a Tapered Stenosed Arteries in Magnetic Field.
Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, M Y; Akbari Bidokhti, Amin Ali; Khak Rah, Hamid; Vaezi, Siavash; Hooshmand, Payam
Current paper is focused on transient modeling of blood flow through a tapered stenosed arteries surrounded a by solenoid under the presence of heat transfer. The oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are considered here by the Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluid (power law and Carreau-Yasuda) models. The governing equations of bio magnetic fluid flow for an incompressible, laminar, homogeneous, non-Newtonian are solved by finite volume method with SIMPLE algorithm for structured grid. Both magnetization and electric current source terms are well thought-out in momentum and energy equations. The effects of fluid viscosity model, Hartmann number, and magnetic number on wall shear stress, shearing stress at the stenosis throat and maximum temperature of the system are investigated and are optimized. The current study results are in agreement with some of the existing findings in the literature and are useful in thermal and mechanical design of spatially varying magnets to control the drug delivery and biomagnetic fluid flows through tapered arteries.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...
Effects of intraduodenal administration of the artificial sweetener sucralose on blood pressure and superior mesenteric artery blood flow in healthy older subjects.
Pham, Hung T; Stevens, Julie E; Rigda, Rachael S; Phillips, Liza K; Wu, Tongzhi; Hausken, Trygve; Soenen, Stijn; Visvanathan, Renuka; Rayner, Christopher K; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L
Postprandial hypotension (PPH) occurs frequently, particularly in older people and those with type 2 diabetes, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of the decrease in blood pressure (BP) induced by carbohydrate, fat, and protein appears to be comparable and results from the interaction of macronutrients with the small intestine, including an observed stimulation of mesenteric blood flow. It is not known whether artificial sweeteners, such as sucralose, which are widely used, affect BP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraduodenal sucralose on BP and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow, compared with intraduodenal glucose and saline (control), in healthy older subjects. Twelve healthy subjects (6 men, 6 women; aged 66-79 y) were studied on 3 separate occasions in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects had concurrent measurements of BP and heart rate (HR; automated device), SMA blood flow (Doppler ultrasound), and blood glucose (glucometer) during intraduodenal infusion of 1) glucose (25% wt:vol, ∼1400 mOsmol/L), 2) sucralose (4 mmol/L, ∼300 mOsmol/L), or 3) saline (0.9% wt:vol, ∼300 mOsmol/L) at a rate of 3 mL/min for 60 min followed by intraduodenal saline for a further 60 min. There was a decrease in mean arterial BP (P < 0.001) during intraduodenal glucose [baseline (mean ± SEM): 91.7 ± 2.6 mm Hg compared with t = 60 min: 85.9 ± 2.8 mm Hg] but not during intraduodenal saline or intraduodenal sucralose. The HR (P < 0.0001) and SMA blood flow (P < 0.0001) also increased during intraduodenal glucose but not during intraduodenal saline or intraduodenal sucralose. As expected, blood glucose concentrations increased in response to glucose (P < 0.0001) but not saline or sucralose. In healthy older subjects, intraduodenal administration of the artificial sweetener sucralose was not associated with changes in BP or SMA blood flow. Further
... the artery walls may signal the development of cardiovascular disease. top of page Who should consider carotid artery ... high blood pressure diabetes smoking high cholesterol known cardiovascular disease The American Heart Association guidelines also state that ...
Role of the medulla oblongata in normal and high arterial blood pressure regulation: the contribution of Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP.
Cravo, Sergio L; Campos, Ruy R; Colombari, Eduardo; Sato, Mônica A; Bergamaschi, Cássia M; Pedrino, Gustavo R; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Lopes, Oswaldo U
Several forms of experimental evidence gathered in the last 37 years have unequivocally established that the medulla oblongata harbors the main neural circuits responsible for generating the vasomotor tone and regulating arterial blood pressure. Our current understanding of this circuitry derives mainly from the studies of Pedro Guertzenstein, a former student who became Professor of Physiology at UNIFESP later, and his colleagues. In this review, we have summarized the main findings as well as our collaboration to a further understanding of the ventrolateral medulla and the control of arterial blood pressure under normal and pathological conditions.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to ...
The association of ABO blood groups with extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian patients suffering from chronic coronary artery disease.
Karabuva, Svjetlana; Carević, Vedran; Radić, Mislav; Fabijanić, Damir
The aim of study was to: 1) examine the relationship between ABO blood groups and extent of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), 2) compare ABO blood groups distribution in CAD patients and general population, 3) examine possible differences in traditional risk factors frequency in CAD patients with different ABO blood groups. In the 646 chronic CAD patients (72.4% males) coronary angiograms were scored by quantitative assessment using multiple angiographic scoring system, Traditional risk factors were self reported or measured by standard methods. ABO blood distribution of patients was compared with group of 651 healthy blood donors (74.6% males). Among all ABO blood group patients there was no significant difference between the extent of coronary atherosclerosis with regard to all the three scoring systems: number of affected coronary arteries (P = 0.857), Gensini score (P = 0.818), and number of segments narrowed > 50% (P = 0.781). There was no significant difference in ABO blood group distribution between CAD patients and healthy blood donors. Among CAD patients, men with blood group AB were significantly younger than their pairs with non-AB blood groups (P = 0.008). Among CAD patients with AB blood group, males < 50 yrs were significantly overrepresented when compared with the non-AB groups (P = 0.003). No association between ABO blood groups and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian CAD patients is observed. Observation that AB blood group might possibly identify Croatian males at risk to develop the premature CAD has to be tested in larger cohort of patients.
Renal artery anatomy affects the blood pressure response to renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension.
Hering, Dagmara; Marusic, Petra; Walton, Antony S; Duval, Jacqueline; Lee, Rebecca; Sata, Yusuke; Krum, Henry; Lambert, Elisabeth; Peter, Karlheinz; Head, Geoff; Lambert, Gavin; Esler, Murray D; Schlaich, Markus P
Renal denervation (RDN) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and target organ damage in patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and bilateral single renal arteries. The safety and efficacy of RDN in patients with multiple renal arteries remains unclear. We measured office and 24-hour BP at baseline, 3 and 6 months following RDN in 91 patients with RH, including 65 patients with single renal arteries bilaterally (group 1), 16 patients with dual renal arteries on either one or both sides (group 2) and 10 patients with other anatomical constellations or structural abnormalities (group 3). Thirty nine out of 91 patients completed MSNA at baseline and follow-up. RDN significantly reduced office and daytime SBP in group 1 at both 3 and 6 months follow-up (P<0.001) but not in groups 2 and 3. Similarly, a significant reduction in resting baseline MSNA was only observed in group 1 (P<0.05). There was no deterioration in kidney function in any group. While RDN can be performed safely irrespective of the underlying renal anatomy, the presence of single renal arteries with or without structural abnormalities is associated with a more pronounced BP and MSNA lowering effect than the presence of dual renal arteries in patients with RH. However, when patients with dual renal arteries received renal nerve ablation in all arteries there was trend towards a greater BP reduction. Insufficient renal sympathetic nerve ablation may account for these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Visualization of hepatic arteries with 3D ultrasound during intra-arterial therapies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gérard, Maxime; Tang, An; Badoual, Anaïs.; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel
Liver cancer represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The prognosis is poor with an overall mortality of 95%. Moreover, most hepatic tumors are unresectable due to their advanced stage at discovery or poor underlying liver function. Tumor embolization by intra-arterial approaches is the current standard of care for advanced cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. These therapies rely on the fact that the blood supply of primary hepatic tumors is predominantly arterial. Feedback on blood flow velocities in the hepatic arteries is crucial to ensure maximal treatment efficacy on the targeted masses. Based on these velocities, the intra-arterial injection rate is modulated for optimal infusion of the chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumorous tissue. While Doppler ultrasound is a well-documented technique for the assessment of blood flow, 3D visualization of vascular anatomy with ultrasound remains challenging. In this paper we present an image-guidance pipeline that enables the localization of the hepatic arterial branches within a 3D ultrasound image of the liver. A diagnostic Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is first processed to automatically segment the hepatic arteries. A non-rigid registration method is then applied on the portal phase of the MRA volume with a 3D ultrasound to enable the visualization of the 3D mesh of the hepatic arteries in the Doppler images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed workflow, we present initial results from porcine models and patient images.
Vasopressin-induced changes in splanchnic blood flow and hepatic and portal venous pressures in liver resection.
Bown, L Sand; Ricksten, S-E; Houltz, E; Einarsson, H; Söndergaard, S; Rizell, M; Lundin, S
To minimize blood loss during hepatic surgery, various methods are used to reduce pressure and flow within the hepato-splanchnic circulation. In this study, the effect of low- to moderate doses of vasopressin, a potent splanchnic vasoconstrictor, on changes in portal and hepatic venous pressures and splanchnic and hepato-splanchnic blood flows were assessed in elective liver resection surgery. Twelve patients were studied. Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), mean arterial (MAP), central venous (CVP), portal venous (PVP) and hepatic venous pressures (HVP) were measured, intraoperatively, at baseline and during vasopressin infusion at two infusion rates (2.4 and 4.8 U/h). From arterial and venous blood gases, the portal (splanchnic) and hepato-splanchnic blood flow changes were calculated, using Fick's equation. CO, SV, MAP and CVP increased slightly, but significantly, while systemic vascular resistance and heart rate remained unchanged at the highest infusion rate of vasopressin. PVP was not affected by vasopressin, while HVP increased slightly. Vasopressin infusion at 2.4 and 4.8 U/h reduced portal blood flow (-26% and -37%, respectively) and to a lesser extent hepato-splanchnic blood flow (-9% and -14%, respectively). The arterial-portal vein lactate gradient was not significantly affected by vasopressin. Postoperative serum creatinine was not affected by vasopressin. Short-term low to moderate infusion rates of vasopressin induced a splanchnic vasoconstriction without metabolic signs of splanchnic hypoperfusion or subsequent renal impairment. Vasopressin caused a centralization of blood volume and increased cardiac output. Vasopressin does not lower portal or hepatic venous pressures in this clinical setting. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Estimation of pressure gradients at renal artery stenoses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yim, Peter J.; Cebral, Juan R.; Weaver, Ashley; Lutz, Robert J.; Vasbinder, G. Boudewijn C.
Atherosclerotic disease of the renal artery can reduce the blood flow leading to renovascular hypertension and ischemic nephopathy. The kidney responds to a decrease in blood flow by activation of the renin-angiotensin system that increases blood pressure and can result in severe hypertension. Percutaneous translumenal angioplasty (PTA) may be indicated for treatment of renovascular hypertension (RVH). However, direct measurement of renal artery caliber and degree of stenosis has only moderate specificity for detection of RVH. A confounding factor in assessment of the proximal renal artery is that diffuse atherosclerotic disease of the distal branches of the renal artery can produce the same effect on blood-flow as atherosclerotic disease of the proximal renal artery. A methodology is proposed for estimation of pressure gradients at renal artery stenoses from magnetic resonance imaging that could improve the evaluation of renal artery disease. In the proposed methodology, pressure gradients are estimated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Realistic CFD models are constructed from images of vessel shape and measurements of blood-flow rates which are available from magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging respectively. CFD measurement of renal artery pressure gradients has been validated in a physical flow-through model.
21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
... carotid artery to treat intracranial aneurysms (balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) or other intracranial vascular malformations that are difficult to attach directly by reducing the blood pressure and... (the principal artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain) and has a removable adjusting...
21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
... carotid artery to treat intracranial aneurysms (balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) or other intracranial vascular malformations that are difficult to attach directly by reducing the blood pressure and... (the principal artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain) and has a removable adjusting...
21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
... carotid artery to treat intracranial aneurysms (balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) or other intracranial vascular malformations that are difficult to attach directly by reducing the blood pressure and... (the principal artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain) and has a removable adjusting...
21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
... carotid artery to treat intracranial aneurysms (balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) or other intracranial vascular malformations that are difficult to attach directly by reducing the blood pressure and... (the principal artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain) and has a removable adjusting...
21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
... carotid artery to treat intracranial aneurysms (balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) or other intracranial vascular malformations that are difficult to attach directly by reducing the blood pressure and... (the principal artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain) and has a removable adjusting...
Patient-specific computational modeling of blood flow in the pulmonary arterial circulation.
Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Rios, Lourdes; Smith, Triston; Schroeder, Theodore; Mueller, Jeffrey; Murali, Srinivas; Lasorda, David; Zikos, Anthony; Spotti, Jennifer; Reilly, John J; Finol, Ender A
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the pulmonary vasculature has the potential to reveal continuum metrics associated with the hemodynamic stress acting on the vascular endothelium. It is widely accepted that the endothelium responds to flow-induced stress by releasing vasoactive substances that can dilate and constrict blood vessels locally. The objectives of this study are to examine the extent of patient specificity required to obtain a significant association of CFD output metrics and clinical measures in models of the pulmonary arterial circulation, and to evaluate the potential correlation of wall shear stress (WSS) with established metrics indicative of right ventricular (RV) afterload in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Right Heart Catheterization (RHC) hemodynamic data and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging were retrospectively acquired for 10 PH patients and processed to simulate blood flow in the pulmonary arteries. While conducting CFD modeling of the reconstructed patient-specific vasculatures, we experimented with three different outflow boundary conditions to investigate the potential for using computationally derived spatially averaged wall shear stress (SAWSS) as a metric of RV afterload. SAWSS was correlated with both pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (R(2)=0.77, P<0.05) and arterial compliance (C) (R(2)=0.63, P<0.05), but the extent of the correlation was affected by the degree of patient specificity incorporated in the fluid flow boundary conditions. We found that decreasing the distal PVR alters the flow distribution and changes the local velocity profile in the distal vessels, thereby increasing the local WSS. Nevertheless, implementing generic outflow boundary conditions still resulted in statistically significant SAWSS correlations with respect to both metrics of RV afterload, suggesting that the CFD model could be executed without the need for complex outflow boundary conditions that require invasively obtained
Point-of-care blood gases, electrolytes, chemistries, hemoglobin, and hematocrit measurement in venous samples from pet rabbits.
Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola
Point-of-care testing is an attractive option in rabbit medicine, because it permits rapid analysis of a panel of electrolytes, chemistries, blood gases, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, requiring only 65 μL of blood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a portable clinical analyzer for measurement of pH, partial pressure of CO2, Na, chloride, potassium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in healthy and diseased rabbits. Blood samples obtained from 30 pet rabbits were analyzed immediately after collection by the portable clinical analyzer (PCA) and immediately thereafter (time <20 sec) by a reference analyzer. Bland-Altman plots and Passing-Bablok regression analysis were used to compare the results. Limits of agreement were wide for all the variables studied, with the exception of pH. Most variables presented significant proportional and/or constant bias. The current study provides sufficient evidence that the PCA presents reliability for pH, although its low agreement with a reference analyzer for the other variables does not support their interchangeability. Limits of agreement provided for each variable allow researchers to evaluate if the PCA is reliable enough for their scope. To the authors' knowledge, the present is the first report evaluating a PCA in the rabbit.
Verapamil-induced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier presenting as a transient right middle cerebral artery syndrome.
Pace, Jonathan; Nelson, Jeffrey; Ray, Abhishek; Hu, Yin
A middle-aged patient presented for elective embolization of an incidentally found right internal carotid aneurysm. An angiogram was performed, during which the left internal carotid artery was visualized to evaluate a second, small aneurysm. During the embolization of the right internal carotid artery aneurysm, a catheter-induced vasospasm was identified that prompted treatment with intra-arterial verapamil. The procedure was uncomplicated; a postoperative rotational flat-panel computed tomography scan was performed on the angiography table that demonstrated right hemisphere contrast staining. The patient developed a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) syndrome after extubation with repeat cerebral angiography negative for occlusion and magnetic resonance imaging negative for stroke. The patient was observed for 48 hours, during which time the patient had slowly improved. At a six-week follow up visit, the patient had fully recovered. We present an interesting case of a verapamil-induced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and self-limited right MCA syndrome.
Seasonal changes in blood oxygen transport and acid-base status in the tegu lizard, Tupinambis merianae.
Andrade, Denis V; Brito, Simone P; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Abe, Augusto S
Oxygen-binding properties, blood gases, and acid-base parameters were studied in tegu lizards, Tupinambis merianae, at different seasons and temperatures. Independent of temperature and pH, blood oxygen affinity was higher in dormant lizards than in those active during the summer. Haematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin content ([Hb]) were greater in active lizards resulting in a higher oxygen-carrying capacity. Nucleoside triphosphate content ([NTP]) was reduced during dormancy, but the ratio between [NTP] and [Hb] remained unchanged. Dormancy was accompanied by an increase in plasma bicarbonate ([HCO-(3)]pl) and an elevation of arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) and CO2 content in the plasma (CplCO2). These changes in acid-base parameters persist over a broad range of body temperatures. In vivo, arterial O2 partial pressure (PaO2) and O2 content (CaO2) were not affected by season and tended to increase with temperature. Arterial pH (pHa) of dormant animals is reduced compared to active lizards at body temperatures below 15 degrees C, while no significant difference was noticed at higher temperatures. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.
Energetic Interrelationship between Spontaneous Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Regional Cerebral Blood Volume, Arterial Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Respiratory Rhythm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katura, Takusige; Yagyu, Akihiko; Obata, Akiko; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Maki, Atsushi; Abe, Masanori; Tanaka, Naoki
Strong spontaneous fluctuations around 0.1 and 0.3 Hz have been observed in blood-related brain-function measurements such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and optical topography (or functional near-infrared spectroscopy). These fluctuations seem to reflect the interaction between the cerebral circulation system and the systemic circulation system. We took an energetic viewpoint in our analysis of the interrelationships between fluctuations in cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rhythm based on multivariate autoregressive modeling. This approach involves evaluating the contribution of each fluctuation or rhythm to specific ones by performing multivariate spectral analysis. The results we obtained show MAP and HR can account slightly for the fluctuation around 0.1 Hz in CBV, while the fluctuation around 0.3 Hz is derived mainly from the respiratory rhythm. During our presentation, we will report on the effects of posture on the interrelationship between the fluctuations and the respiratory rhythm.
Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis
... build up and harden the arteries, limiting the flow of blood to the brain. Facts About Carotid Artery Stenosis Carotid artery stenosis is one of many risk factors for stroke, a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. However, carotid artery stenosis is uncommon—about ½ ...
Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation
Qureshi, M. Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D.A.; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S.; Olufsen, Mette S.; Hill, N.A.
A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen and coworkers (Ottesen et al., 2003; Olufsen et al., 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of ‘large’ arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the ‘smaller’ arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50µm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment of circulatory diseases within the lung. PMID:24610385
Topical nitroglycerin and lidocaine locally vasodilate the radial artery without affecting systemic blood pressure: a dose-finding phase I study.
Majure, David T; Hallaux, Melanie; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Boyle, Andrew J
Small radial artery diameter (RAD) and vasospasm are barriers to radial artery cannulation. We performed this study to determine if topical nitroglycerin and/or nitroglycerin plus topical lidocaine increases RAD without affecting systemic blood pressure. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. In the first visit, to determine the optimal dose of nitroglycerin, subjects were randomized to either 15 or 30 mg nitroglycerin on one wrist and placebo on the other. In visit 2, to assess for any effect of lidocaine on the vasodilator function of nitroglycerin, the same subjects were randomized to 20 mg lidocaine + 30 mg nitroglycerin vs 20 mg lidocaine + placebo, or 40 mg lidocaine + 30 mg nitroglycerin vs 40 mg lidocaine + placebo. In both visits, blood pressure and RAD using ultrasonography were measured for 2 hours. In visit 1, both nitroglycerin groups significantly increased RAD, with greater increases with 30 mg nitroglycerin (P < .01) and no significant increase in RAD in placebo wrists. In visit 2, increase in RAD was significantly greater with 20 mg lidocaine + 30 mg nitroglycerin vs 20 mg lidocaine + placebo (P < .001), and 40 mg lidocaine + 30 mg nitroglycerin vs 40 mg lidocaine + placebo (P < .001), indicating that lidocaine does not alter the effect of nitroglycerin. There were significant increases in RAD seen as early as 30 minutes. There were no significant change in RAD in lidocaine + placebo-treated wrists and no change in blood pressure in any group. Topical nitroglycerin and lidocaine significantly increase RAD within 30 to 60 minutes with no effect on contralateral radial artery or blood pressure, indicating a direct, local effect on the radial artery. (Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00686231). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Changes in arterial blood pressure elicited by severe passive heating at rest is associated with hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans.
Fujii, Naoto; Ichinose, Masashi; Honda, Yasushi; Tsuji, Bun; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi
The arterial blood pressure and ventilatory responses to severe passive heating at rest varies greatly among individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in ventilation seen during severe passive heating of resting humans is associated with a decrease in arterial blood pressure. Passive heating was performed on 18 healthy males using hot water immersion to the level of the iliac crest and a water-perfused suit. We then divided the subjects into two groups: MAP(NOTINC) (n = 8), whose mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) at the end of heating had increased by ≤3 mmHg, and MAP(INC) (n = 10), whose MAP increased by >3 mmHg. Increases in esophageal temperature (T (es)) elicited by the heating were similar in the two groups (+2.3 ± 0.3 vs. +2.4 ± 0.4 °C). Early during heating (increase in T (es) was <1.5 °C), MAP, minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]), and end-tidal CO(2) pressure ([Formula: see text]) were similar between the groups. However, during the latter part of heating (increase in T (es) was ≥1.5 °C), the increase in [Formula: see text] and decrease in [Formula: see text] were significantly greater or tended to be greater, while the increase in MAP was significantly smaller in MAP(NOTINC) than MAP(INC). Among all subjects, heating-induced changes in [Formula: see text] significantly and negatively correlated with heating-induced changes in MAP during the latter part of heating (r = -0.52 to -0.74, P < 0.05). These results suggest that, in resting humans, 25-50 % of the variation in the magnitude of the arterial blood pressure response to severe passive heating can be explained by the magnitude of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation.
The effects of non-Newtonian blood flow on curved stenotic coronary artery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuang; Chin, Cheng; Monty, Jason; Barlis, Peter; Ooi, Andrew
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are carried out using both Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosity models under a pulsatile physiological flow condition to study the influences of the non-Newtonian blood property on the flow fields in the idealised curved stenotic artery model. Quemada model is adopted to simulate the non-Newtonian blood in the simulations. Both time-averaged and selected instantaneous velocity, vorticity and pressure data are examined and the differences between the Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows are examined. The non-Newtonian simulations tend to have blunted axial velocity profile compared to the Newtonian cases. In the proximal of post-stenotic region, smaller recirculation bubbles are observed because of the non-Newtonian effects. Decreased secondary flow strengths are observed upstream of stenosis while higher magnitudes of secondary flows are found out downstream of stenosis. The deviation of mean cross-sectionally axial vorticity is minimal except at the peak systole, where an additional vortice appears near the centre of the 90 degrees plane that is more pronounced in the Newtonian case. The influence of blood-analog viscosity increases the mean pressure drops. However, lower instantaneous pressure losses at peak systole are observed in contrast to the Newtonian blood analog fluid.
... then injected into the renal artery through the catheter, and images of the vessels of the kidney are taken. The test is a useful aid in evaluating kidney function and diagnosing any narrowing of the arteries, blood clots, tumors or aneurysms.
... narrow or block the arteries and limit the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body. Risk Factors Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) affects millions of people in the United States. The disease is more common in blacks than ...
Morning blood pressure surge and arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.
Kıvrak, Ali; Özbiçer, Süleyman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Gür, Mustafa
We aimed to investigate the relationship between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and arterial stiffness in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Three hundred and twenty four (mean age 51.7 ± 11.4 years) patients who had newly diagnosed hypertension with 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Parameters of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Aix) were measured by applanation tonometry and aortic distensibility was calculated by echocardiography. Compared with the other groups, pulse wave velocity, day-night systolic BP (SBP) difference (p < 0.001, for all) and hs-CRP (p = 0.005) were higher in morning BP surge high group. Aortic distensibility values were significantly lower in morning BP surge high group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05, for all). Morning BP surge was found to be independently associated with pulse wave velocity (β = 0.286, p < 0.001), aortic distensibility (β= -0.384, p < 0.001) and day-night SBP difference (β = 0.229, p < 0.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. We found independent relationship between morning BP surge and arterial stiffness which is a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular diseases. The inverse relationship between morning BP surge and aortic distensibility and direct relation found in our study is new to the literature.
Evaluation of renal oxygen homeostasis in a preclinical animal model to elucidate difference in blood quality after transfusion.
Baek, Jin Hyen; Yalamanoglu, Ayla; Moon, So-Eun; Gao, Yamei; Buehler, Paul W
Red blood cell (RBC) oxygen (O 2 ) delivery may be impacted at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels after storage duration, preservation strategies, and pathogen reduction. Collectively, the preclinical measurement of arterial and venous PO 2 , systemic blood flow, tissue hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), pimonidazole adduction, and erythropoietin (EPO) regulation can serve to elucidate differential RBC quality after storage and processing. Donor guinea pig blood was collected, leukoreduced, and stored at 4°C in AS-3 for 1 (fresh) or 14 (stored) days. RBC variables-2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, hemoglobin, morphology, deformability, and in vivo recovery at 24 hours-were measured at each storage duration. Recipient guinea pigs were exchange transfused until 80% volume replacement was achieved. Arterial and venous blood gases, systemic blood flow, renal HIF-1α and HIF-2α, renal EPO mRNA, plasma EPO, and renal tissue pimonidazole adduction were measured after transfusion. RBC variables declined significantly with storage; however, hemolysis and in vivo recovery remained within the allowable limits for human blood storage. Posttransfusion arterial and venous PO 2 and systemic blood flow decreased, and renal HIFs, EPO mRNA, and pimonidazole adducts increased. Subsequently, EPO accumulated in plasma indicating decreased O 2 availability in the kidneys. Conversely, all variables remained at basal levels in the fresh blood group. The evaluation of renal O 2 homeostasis after transfusion represents an effective approach to defining RBC quality between predicate and novel processing. Methods are adapted from standardized techniques and ideal for preclinical evaluation. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Reliable noninvasive measurement of blood gases
Thomas, Edward V.; Robinson, Mark R.; Haaland, David M.; Alam, Mary K.
Methods and apparatus for, preferably, determining noninvasively and in vivo at least two of the five blood gas parameters (i.e., pH, PCO.sub.2, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PO.sub.2, and O.sub.2 sat.) in a human. The non-invasive method includes the steps of: generating light at three or more different wavelengths in the range of 500 nm to 2500 nm; irradiating blood containing tissue; measuring the intensities of the wavelengths emerging from the blood containing tissue to obtain a set of at least three spectral intensities v. wavelengths; and determining the unknown values of at least two of pH, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PCO.sub.2 and a measure of oxygen concentration. The determined values are within the physiological ranges observed in blood containing tissue. The method also includes the steps of providing calibration samples, determining if the spectral intensities v. wavelengths from the tissue represents an outlier, and determining if any of the calibration samples represents an outlier. The determination of the unknown values is performed by at least one multivariate algorithm using two or more variables and at least one calibration model. Preferably, there is a separate calibration for each blood gas parameter being determined. The method can be utilized in a pulse mode and can also be used invasively. The apparatus includes a tissue positioning device, a source, at least one detector, electronics, a microprocessor, memory, and apparatus for indicating the determined values.
Early mobilization reduces the atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A randomized clinical trial.
Moradian, Seyed Tayeb; Najafloo, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Hosein; Ghiasi, Mohammad Saeid
Atelectasis and pleural effusion are common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Longer stay in the bed is one of the most important contributing factors in pulmonary complications. Some studies confirm the benefits of early mobilization (EM) in critically ill patients, but the efficacy of EM on pulmonary complications after CABG is not clear. This study was designed to examine the effect of EM on the incidence of atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing CABG. In a single-blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly assigned into two groups each consisted of 50 patients. Patients in the experimental group were enrolled in a mobilization protocol consisting of the mobilization from the bed in the first 3 days after surgery in the morning and evening. Patients in the control group were mobilized from bed in third postoperation day, according to the hospital routine. Arterial blood gases, pleural effusion, and atelectasis were compared between groups. Atelectasis and pleural effusion was reduced in experimental group. The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood in third postoperative day and the percentage of arterial oxygen saturation in the fourth postoperative day were higher in the intervention group (P value < .05). EM from bed could be an effective intervention in reducing atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing CABG. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Correlation of Noninvasive Blood Pressure and Invasive Intra-arterial Blood Pressure in Patients Treated with Vasoactive Medications in a Neurocritical Care Unit.
Saherwala, Ali A; Stutzman, Sonja E; Osman, Mohamed; Kalia, Junaid; Figueroa, Stephen A; Olson, DaiWai M; Aiyagari, Venkatesh
The correlation between noninvasive (oscillometric) blood pressure (NBP) and intra-arterial blood pressure (IAP) in critically ill patients receiving vasoactive medications in a Neurocritical Care Unit has not been systematically studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between simultaneously measured NBP and IAP recordings in these patients. Prospective observational study of patients (N = 70) admitted to a neurocritical care unit receiving continuous vasopressor or antihypertensive infusions. Paired NBP/IAP observations along with covariate and demographic data were abstracted via chart audit. Analysis was performed using SAS v9.4. A total of 2177 paired NBP/IAP observations from 70 subjects (49% male, 63% white, mean age 59 years) receiving vasopressors (n = 21) or antihypertensive agents (n = 49) were collected. Paired t test analysis showed significant differences between NBP versus IAP readings: ([systolic blood pressure (SBP): mean = 136 vs. 140 mmHg; p < 0.0001], [diastolic blood pressure (DBP): mean = 70 vs. 68 mmHg, p < 0.0001], [mean arterial blood pressure (MAP): mean = 86 vs. 90 mmHg, p < 0.0001]). Bland-Altman plots for MAP, SBP, and DBP demonstrate good inter-method agreement between paired measures (excluding outliers) and demonstrate NBP-IAP SBP differences at extremes of blood pressures. Pearson correlation coefficients show strong positive correlations for paired MAP (r = 0.82), SBP (r = 0.84), and DBP (r = 0.73) recordings. An absolute NBP-IAP SBP difference of > 20 mmHg was seen in ~ 20% of observations of nicardipine, ~ 25% of observations of norepinephrine, and ~ 35% of observations of phenylephrine. For MAP, the corresponding numbers were ~ 10, 15, and 25% for nicardipine, norepinephrine, and phenylephrine, respectively. Despite overall strong positive correlations between paired NBP and IAP readings of MAP and SBP, clinically relevant differences in blood pressure are frequent. When
Coupling between arterial pressure, cerebral blood velocity, and cerebral tissue oxygenation with spontaneous and forced oscillations.
Rickards, Caroline A; Sprick, Justin D; Colby, Hannah B; Kay, Victoria L; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh
We tested the hypothesis that transmission of arterial pressure to brain tissue oxygenation is low under conditions of arterial pressure instability. Two experimental models of hemodynamic instability were used in healthy human volunteers; (1) oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) (N = 8; 5 male, 3 female), and; (2) maximal LBNP to presyncope (N = 21; 13 male, 8 female). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (ScO2) were measured non-invasively. For the OLBNP protocol, between 0 and -60 mmHg negative pressure was applied for 20 cycles at 0.05 Hz, then 20 cycles at 0.1 Hz. For the maximal LBNP protocol, progressive 5 min stages of chamber decompression were applied until the onset of presyncope. Spectral power of MAP, mean MCAv, and ScO2 were calculated within the VLF (0.04-0.07 Hz), and LF (0.07-0.2 Hz) ranges, and cross-spectral coherence was calculated for MAP-mean MCAv, MAP-ScO2, and mean MCAv-ScO2 at baseline, during each OLBNP protocol, and at the level prior to pre-syncope during maximal LBNP (sub-max). The key findings are (1) both 0.1 Hz OLBNP and sub-max LBNP elicited increases in LF power for MAP, mean MCAv, and ScO2 (p ≤ 0.08); (2) 0.05 Hz OLBNP increased VLF power in MAP and ScO2 only (p ≤ 0.06); (3) coherence between MAP-mean MCAv was consistently higher (≥0.71) compared with MAP-ScO2, and mean MCAv-ScO2 (≤0.43) during both OLBNP protocols, and sub-max LBNP (p ≤ 0.04). These data indicate high linearity between pressure and cerebral blood flow variations, but reduced linearity between cerebral tissue oxygenation and both arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Measuring arterial pressure variability may not always provide adequate information about the downstream effects on cerebral tissue oxygenation, the key end-point of interest for neuronal viability.
[Embolization of the feeding artery of a meningioma with dangerous vascular anastomosis between the middle meningeal artery and the ophthalmic artery].
Meguro, Toshinari; Tomita, Yusuke; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Muraoka, Kenichiro; Terada, Kinya; Hirotsune, Nobuyuki; Nishino, Shigeki
Preoperative embolization of intracranial meningioma has been applied to reduce intraoperative blood loss and to facilitate microsurgical removal of a tumor. It is well known that one of the reasons of the neurological risk of embolization is due to dangerous anastomosis between the extracranial and the intracranial arteries. One of the most known and dangerous case of anastomosis is between the middle meningeal artery to the ophthalmic artery. A 48-year-old woman underwent preoperative embolization of a large right middle cranial fossa meningioma. The right external carotid angiogram showed that the tumor was fed by the right middle meningeal artery and there was no branch to the right orbital region. The right internal carotid angiogram showed that the right ophthalmic artery originated from the right internal carotid artery and there was no branch to the tumor. The selective angiogram of the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery disclosed the anastomosis to the right ophthalmic artery. Following embolization of the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, the patient underwent embolization of the main feeding branch of the meningioma. She successfully underwent surgical removal of the tumor without any blood transfusion and was discharged without neurological deficit. In addition, to avoid complication in embolization of the feeding artery of a skull base meningioma, clinicians must be aware of the dangerous anastomosis between the middle meningeal artery and the ophthalmic artery, even if conventional external and internal carotid angiograms do not show any anastomosis.
High dose naloxone does not improve cerebral or myocardial blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs.
Gervais, H W; Eberle, B; Hennes, H J; Grimm, W; Kilian, A; Konietzke, D; Massing, C; Dick, W
In a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial we tested the hypothesis that naloxone given during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) enhances cerebral and myocardial blood flow. Twenty-one anesthetized, normoventilated pigs were instrumented for measurements of right atrial and aortic pressures, and regional organ blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres). After 5 min of untreated fibrillatory arrest, CPR was commenced using a pneumatic chest compressor/ventilator. With onset of CPR, an i.v. bolus of 40 micrograms/kg b.w. of epinephrine was given, followed by an infusion of 0.4 micrograms/kg per min. After 5 min of CPR, either naloxone, 10 mg/kg b.w. (group N, n = 11) or normal saline (group S, n = 10) was given i.v. Prior to, and after 1, 15, and 30 min of CPR, hemodynamic and blood flow measurements were obtained. After 30 min of CPR, mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in group N (26 +/- 5 vs. 13 +/- 3 mmHg, P < 0.05). Groups did not differ with respect to myocardial perfusion pressure or arterial blood gases at any time during the observation period. Regional brain and heart blood flows were not different between N and S at any point of measurement. We conclude that high-dose naloxone does not augment cerebral or myocardial blood flow during prolonged closed-chest CPR.
Black blood MRI in suspected large artery primary angiitis of the central nervous system.
Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Linn, Jennifer; Habs, Maximilian; Opherk, Christina; Cyran, Clemens; Ottomeyer, Caroline; Straube, Andreas; Dichgans, Martin; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Saam, Tobias
Single case reports suggest that black blood MRI (T1-weighted fat and blood suppressed sequences with and without contrast injection; BB-MRI) may visualize intracranial vessel wall contrast enhancement (CE) in primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). In this single-center observational pilot study we prospectively investigated the value of BB-MRI in the diagnosis of large artery PACNS. Patients with suspected large artery PACNS received a standardized diagnostic program including BB-MRI. Vessel wall CE was graded (grade 0-2) by two experienced readers blinded to clinical data and correlated to the final diagnosis. Four of 12 included patients received a final diagnosis of PACNS. All of them showed moderate (grade 1) to strong (grade 2) vessel wall CE at the sites of stenosis. A moderate (grade 1) vessel wall CE grade was also observed in 6 of the remaining 8 patients in whom alternative diagnoses were made: arteriosclerotic disease (n = 4), intracranial dissection (n = 1), and Moyamoya disease (n = 1). Our pilot study demonstrates that vessel wall CE is a frequent finding in PACNS and its mimics. Larger trials will be necessary to evaluate the utility of BB-MRI in the diagnostic workup of PACNS. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
... Blood culture (if an infection is suspected) Blood gases (including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...
Myocardial blood flow reserve is impaired in patients with aortic valve calcification and unobstructed epicardial coronary arteries.
Nel, Karen; Nam, Michael C Y; Anstey, Chris; Boos, Christopher J; Carlton, Edward; Senior, Roxy; Kaski, Juan Carlos; Khattab, Ahmed; Shamley, Delva; Byrne, Christopher D; Stanton, Tony; Greaves, Kim
Although calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is associated with coronary atherosclerosis, it is not known whether early CAVD is associated with coronary microcirculatory dysfunction (CMD). We sought to investigate the relationship between myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) - a measure of CMD, and early CAVD in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. We also determined whether this relationship was independent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hs-CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation. 183 patients with chest pain and unobstructed coronary arteries were studied. Aortic valve calcification score (AVCS), coronary total plaque length (TPL), and coronary calcium score were quantified from multislice CT. MBFR was assessed using vasodilator myocardial contrast echocardiography. Hs-CRP was measured from venous blood using a particle-enhanced immunoassay. Mean (±SD) participant age was 59.8 (9.6) years. Mean AVCS was 68 (258) AU, TPL was 15.6 (22.2) mm, and median coronary calcification score was 43.5AU. Mean MBFR was 2.20 (0.52). Mean hs-CRP was 2.52 (3.86) mg/l. Multivariable linear regression modelling incorporating demographics, coronary plaque characteristics, MBFR, and inflammatory markers, demonstrated that age (β=0.05, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.08, P=0.007), hs-CRP (β=0.09, CI: 0.02, 0.16, P=0.010) and diabetes (β=1.03, CI: 0.08, 1.98, P=0.033), were positively associated with AVCS. MBFR (β=-0.87, CI: -1.44, -0.30, P=0.003), BMI (β=-0.11, CI: -0.21, -0.01, P=0.033), and LDL (β=-0.32, CI: -0.61, -0.03, P=0.029) were negatively associated with AVCS. TPL and coronary calcium score were not independently associated with AVCS when included in the regression model. Coronary microvascular function as determined by measurement of myocardial blood flow reserve is independently associated with early CAVD. This effect is independent of the presence of coronary artery disease and also systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Blood oxygen binding in hypoxaemic calves.
Cambier, Carole; Clerbaux, Thierry; Detry, Bruno; Marville, Vincent; Frans, Albert; Gustin, Pascal
Blood oxygen transport and tissue oxygenation were studied in 28 calves from the Belgian White and Blue breed (20 healthy and 8 hypoxaemic ones). Hypoxaemic calves were selected according to their high respiratory frequency and to their low partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) in the arterial blood. Venous and arterial blood samples were collected, and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, chloride, inorganic phosphate and hemoglobin concentrations, and pH, PCO, and PO2 were determined. An oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured in standard conditions, for each animal. The arterial and venous OEC were calculated, taking body temperature, pH and PCO2 values in arterial and venous blood into account. The oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), corresponding to the degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and the venous compartments, and the amount of oxygen released at the tissue level by 100 mL of blood (OEF Vol%) were calculated from the arterial and venous OEC combined with the PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. In hypoxaemic calves investigated in this study, the hemoglobin oxygen affinity, measured under standard conditions, was not modified. On the contrary, in vivo acidosis and hypercapnia induced a decrease in the hemoglobin oxygen affinity in arterial blood, which combined to the decrease in PaO2 led to a reduced hemoglobin saturation degree in the arterial compartment. However, this did not impair the oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), since the hemoglobin saturation degree in venous blood was also diminished.
Mathematical modeling of power law and Herschel - Buckley non-Newtonian fluid of blood flow through a stenosed artery with permeable wall: Effects of slip velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitra, M.; Karthikeyan, D.
A mathematical model of non-Newtonian blood flow through a stenosed artery is considered. The steadynon-Newtonian model is chosen characterized by the generalized power-law model and Herschel-Bulkley model incorporating the effect of slip velocity due to steanosed artery with permeable wall. The effects of slip velocity for non-Newtonian nature of blood on velocity, flow rate and wall shear stress of the stenosed artery with permeable wall are solved analytically. The effects of various parameters such as slip parameter (λ), power index (m) and different thickness of the stenosis (δ) on velocity, volumetric flow rate and wall shear stress are discussed through graphs.
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation alters perfusion of white matter-rich regions without altering flow in brain-irrigating arteries: Relationship to blood-brain barrier breakdown?
Dhaya, Ibtihel; Griton, Marion; Raffard, Gérard; Amri, Mohamed; Hiba, Bassem; Konsman, Jan Pieter
To better understand brain dysfunction during sepsis, cerebral arterial blood flow was assessed with Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging, perfusion with Arterial Spin Labeling and structure with diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in rats after intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Although cerebral arterial flow was not altered, perfusion of the corpus callosum region and diffusion parallel to its fibers were higher after lipopolysaccharide administration as compared to saline injection. In parallel, lipopolysaccharide induced perivascular immunoglobulin-immunoreactivity in white matter. These findings indicate that systemic inflammation can result in increased perfusion, blood-brain barrier breakdown and altered water diffusion in white matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kinetic quantitation of cerebral PET-FDG studies without concurrent blood sampling: statistical recovery of the arterial input function.
O'Sullivan, F; Kirrane, J; Muzi, M; O'Sullivan, J N; Spence, A M; Mankoff, D A; Krohn, K A
Kinetic quantitation of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies via compartmental modeling usually requires the time-course of the radio-tracer concentration in the arterial blood as an arterial input function (AIF). For human and animal imaging applications, significant practical difficulties are associated with direct arterial sampling and as a result there is substantial interest in alternative methods that require no blood sampling at the time of the study. A fixed population template input function derived from prior experience with directly sampled arterial curves is one possibility. Image-based extraction, including requisite adjustment for spillover and recovery, is another approach. The present work considers a hybrid statistical approach based on a penalty formulation in which the information derived from a priori studies is combined in a Bayesian manner with information contained in the sampled image data in order to obtain an input function estimate. The absolute scaling of the input is achieved by an empirical calibration equation involving the injected dose together with the subject's weight, height and gender. The technique is illustrated in the context of (18)F -Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in humans. A collection of 79 arterially sampled FDG blood curves are used as a basis for a priori characterization of input function variability, including scaling characteristics. Data from a series of 12 dynamic cerebral FDG PET studies in normal subjects are used to evaluate the performance of the penalty-based AIF estimation technique. The focus of evaluations is on quantitation of FDG kinetics over a set of 10 regional brain structures. As well as the new method, a fixed population template AIF and a direct AIF estimate based on segmentation are also considered. Kinetics analyses resulting from these three AIFs are compared with those resulting from radially sampled AIFs. The proposed penalty-based AIF extraction method is found to
Blood pressure and calf muscle oxygen extraction during plantar flexion exercise in peripheral artery disease.
Luck, J Carter; Miller, Amanda J; Aziz, Faisal; Radtka, John F; Proctor, David N; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. Although PAD primarily affects large arteries, it is also associated with microvascular dysfunction, an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, and high cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that fatiguing plantar flexion exercise that evokes claudication elicits a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO 2 ) and a higher rise in BP in PAD compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but low-intensity steady-state plantar flexion elicits similar responses between groups. In the first experiment, eight patients with PAD and eight healthy controls performed fatiguing plantar flexion exercise (from 0.5 to 7 kg for up to 14 min). In the second experiment, seven patients with PAD and seven healthy controls performed low-intensity plantar flexion exercise (2.0 kg for 14 min). BP, heart rate (HR), and SmO 2 were measured continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO 2 is the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin, expressed as a percent. At fatigue, patients with PAD had a greater increase in mean arterial BP (18 ± 2 vs. vs. 10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.029) and HR (14 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 2 beats/min, P = 0.033) and a greater reduction in SmO 2 (-54 ± 10 vs. -12 ± 4%, P = 0.001). However, both groups had similar physiological responses to low-intensity, nonpainful plantar flexion exercise. These data suggest that patients with PAD have altered oxygen uptake and/or utilization during fatiguing exercise coincident with an augmented BP response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this laboratory study, patients with peripheral artery disease performed plantar flexion exercise in the supine posture until symptoms of claudication occurred. Relative to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects we found that patients had a higher blood pressure response, a higher heart rate response, and a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation as
Does the serum uric acid level have any relation to arterial stiffness or blood pressure in adults with congenital renal agenesis and/or hypoplasia?
Yazici, Raziye; Guney, İbrahim; Altintepe, Lutfullah; Yazici, Mehmet
The relationship between serum uric acid and arterial stiffness or blood pressure is not clear. The serum uric acid level and its association with cardiovascular risk is not well known in patients with reduced renal mass. We aimed to investigate the relation between serum uric acid levels and arterial stiffness and also blood pressure in patients with congenital renal agenesis and/or hypoplasia. In this single center, cross-sectional study, a total of 55 patients (39 (% 70.9) with unilateral small kidney and 16 (%29.1) with renal agenesis) were included. The median age was 35 (21-50) years. The study population was divided into tertiles of serum uric acid (according to 2.40-3.96, 3.97-5.10, and 5.11-9.80 mg/dl cut-off values of serum uric acid levels). Official and 24-h ambulatory non-invasive blood pressures of all patients were measured. The arterial stiffness was assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV). PWV values were increased from first to third tertile (5.5 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.8, 6.1 ± 0.7, respectively), but this gradual increase between tertiles did not reach significance. Linear regression analyses showed a positive correlation between serum uric acid levels and PWV (β = 0.40, p = 0.010), but no correlation was found between uric acid and daytime systolic blood pressure (β = 0.24, p = 0.345). In congenital renal agenesis/hypoplasia, the serum uric acid level was positively correlated with arterial stiffness, but there was no correlation with blood pressure.
Investigation of the relative effects of vascular branching structure and gravity on pulmonary arterial blood flow heterogeneity via an image-based computational model.
Burrowes, Kelly S; Hunter, Peter J; Tawhai, Merryn H
A computational model of blood flow through the human pulmonary arterial tree has been developed to investigate the relative influence of branching structure and gravity on blood flow distribution in the human lung. Geometric models of the largest arterial vessels and lobar boundaries were first derived using multidetector row x-ray computed tomography (MDCT) scans. Further accompanying arterial vessels were generated from the MDCT vessel endpoints into the lobar volumes using a volume-filling branching algorithm. Equations governing the conservation of mass and momentum were solved within the geometric model to calculate pressure, velocity, and vessel radius. Blood flow results in the anatomically based model, with and without gravity, and in a symmetric geometric model were compared to investigate their relative contributions to blood flow heterogeneity. Results showed a persistent blood flow gradient and flow heterogeneity in the absence of gravitational forces in the anatomically based model. Comparison with flow results in the symmetric model revealed that the asymmetric vascular branching structure was largely responsible for producing this heterogeneity. Analysis of average results in varying slice thicknesses illustrated a clear flow gradient because of gravity in "lower resolution" data (thicker slices), but on examination of higher resolution data, a trend was less obvious. Results suggest that although gravity does influence flow distribution, the influence of the tree branching structure is also a dominant factor. These results are consistent with high-resolution experimental studies that have demonstrated gravity to be only a minor determinant of blood flow distribution.
A case of an unruptured hepatic aneurysm on the common hepatic artery at the junction of the gastroduodenal and proper hepatic arteries treated with transcatheter arterial embolization.
Imai, Yusuke; Hirooka, Masashi; Koizumi, Yohei; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Takao; Yoshida, Osamu; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Takeshita, Eiji; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi
Hepatic aneurysms are rare, but can prove fatal once they rupture. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is performed as a prophylactic treatment. The position of the aneurysm determines the degree of difficulty of TAE. Maintaining blood flow to the liver can become difficult, particularly when the aneurysm is at an arterial junction. The patient was a 72-year-old man diagnosed with a hepatic aneurysm. The aneurysm was situated on the common hepatic artery at the junction of the gastroduodenal and proper hepatic arteries. TAE was performed with framing, followed by coil embolization. Blood flow to the liver was maintained via the gastroduodenal artery. Appropriate framing is important for safe and efficient TAE.
Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus: auto-downregulation of pulmonary arterial blood supply.
Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H
It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially documented case of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and flow shift in a main pulmonary artery due to a complete intrinsic obstruction of the ipsilateral main bronchus. The condition is reversible, contingent on being relieved within a few days. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
The influence of adding tomato extract and acetylsalicylic acid to hypotensive therapy on the daily blood pressure profiles of patients with arterial hypertension and high cardiovascular risk.
Osińska, Angelika N; Begier-Krasińska, Beata; Rzymski, Piotr; Krasińska, Aleksandra; Tykarski, Andrzej; Krasiński, Zbigniew
Arterial hypertension (HT) is one of the most common diseases around the world and constitutes a significant medical, social, and economic problem. Lifestyle changes, including adequate fruit and vegetable consumption, play an important role in controlling blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors. To compare the influence of adding acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or standardized tomato extract (STE) to standard hypotensive therapy on the values of arterial pressure and the daily blood pressure profiles of patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. The study included 65 patients with arterial hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. High-risk patients with primary hypertension were randomly allocated in a blinded fashion to one of two groups (ASA or STE). In each case, two visits were made: the first - before the treatment, and the second - after 4 weeks of treatment. During each visit, the patients underwent a clinical measurement of arterial pressure and an ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM). Blood platelet aggregation was assessed using the VerifyNow analyzer. After 4 weeks of treatment, the blood pressure values during the day (p < 0.001), during the night ( p < 0.05), and in 24-h BP profiles ( p < 0.01) obtained with ABPM were significantly lower in the STE group in comparison to the ASA group. The addition of STE to standard hypotensive treatment resulted in a favorable increase in the nocturnal fall of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (by 6.5%) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (by 3.3%). The use of STE is significant in HT patients with high total cardiovascular risk; it is associated with better BP control and improvements in the daily BP profile.
Study of the intima-media thickening in carotid arteries of healthy elderly with high blood pressure and elderly with high blood pressure and dyslipidemia
de Freitas, Elizabete Viana; Brandão, Andréa Araújo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane; Castier, Márcia; Brandão, Airton Pires
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the mean intima-media thickening of carotid arteries of elderly subjects, and its relationship with age, anthropometric measurements, high systolic blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Methods In this investigation, 129 subjects were enrolled between 1995 and 1998, age ranging from 29 to 94 years. They were assigned to one of 4 groups, including 2 control groups (group I, of healthy younger subjects; group II of healthy elderly subjects). Groups III and IV included those who presented with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), and ISH and dyslipidemia, respectively. All subjects were submitted to a medical interview, lab tests with measurement of cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram, and carotid ultrasound. The ultrasound included measurement of the intima-media thickening (IMT) of the carotid arteries, the right carotid artery (RCA) and left carotid artery (LCA), and assessment of the presence of plaques. Blood fat and glucose were measured by a standard method. The results were compared among the groups through statistical tests. The tests employed were: Chi-Square, Pearson’s and Likelihood Ratio, Student’s t, Mann-Whitney; ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, and test for multiple comparisons and Odds Ratio determination (OR). Results In this investigation, a positive association was observed between aging and IMT. In relation to systolic hypertension, a significant association was observed with IMT (IMT-RCA p = 0.0034; IMT-LCA p = 0.0196; IMT-RLCA p = 0.0299), and with the presence of plaques (PlaqueR p = 0.0110; PlaqueL p = 0.0294; PlaqueRL p = 0.0040). Conclusion This investigation evidenced the important role of aging in IMT, and of systolic hypertension in the IMT and presence of plaque. However, further studies are needed for a better understanding of the actual role of risk factors in aging. PMID:18982922
Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...
Ambulatory (24 h) blood pressure and arterial stiffness measurement in Marfan syndrome patients: a case control feasibility and pilot study.
Hillebrand, Matthias; Nouri, Ghazaleh; Hametner, Bernhard; Parragh, Stephanie; Köster, Jelena; Mortensen, Kai; Schwarz, Achim; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Wassertheurer, Siegfried
The aim of this work is the investigation of measures of ambulatory brachial and aortic blood pressure and indices of arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection in Marfan patients. A case-control study was conducted including patients with diagnosed Marfan syndrome following Ghent2 nosology and healthy controls matched for sex, age and daytime brachial systolic blood pressure. For each subject a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and 24 h pulse wave analysis measurement was performed. All parameters showed a circadian pattern whereby pressure dipping was more pronounced in Marfan patients. During daytime only Marfan patients with aortic root surgery showed increased pulse wave velocity. In contrast, various nighttime measurements, wave reflection determinants and circadian patterns showed a significant difference. The findings of our study provide evidence that ambulatory measurement of arterial stiffness parameters is feasible and that these determinants are significantly different in Marfan syndrome patients compared to controls in particular at nighttime. Further investigation is therefore indicated.
Effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide on canine cerebral artery strips and the in-vivo vertebral blood flow in dogs.
Ikegaki, I; Suzuki, Y; Satoh, S; Asano, T; Shibuya, M; Sugita, K
The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on canine cerebral arteries and on vertebral blood flow were investigated in-vivo and in-vitro and the findings compared with the effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P. Administration of CGRP into the vertebral artery caused a dose-dependent and long-lasting increase in blood flow. The in-vivo vasodilatory effects of substance P and VIP were short-lasting. CGRP (0.1 to 100 nmol/l) elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of the isolated middle cerebral and basilar arteries when the tissues were precontracted by exposure to prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). This effect was not antagonized by propranolol, atropine, tetrodotoxin, (N-Ac-Tyr1, D-Phe2)-growth hormone-releasing factor(1-29)-NH2 or (D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9) substance P. CGRP also reduced concentration-dependently the contraction of cerebral arteries induced by KCl or 9,11-epithio-11,12-metano-thromboxane A2 (STXA2). Mechanical removal of the endothelium did not abolish the vasodilatory response to CGRP. In PGF2 alpha-contracted canine cerebral arteries, VIP (0.1 to 100 nmol/l) was less potent a vasodilator than CGRP. At low concentrations (0.01 to 1 nmol/l) substance P elicited a rapid and short-lasting relaxation, and in the absence of endothelium this relaxation disappeared. These findings are clear evidence that CGRP modulates vascular tone.
Cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling MRI at resting state in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.
Zhang, Nan; Gordon, Marc L; Goldberg, Terry E
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD. With improvements in hardware and experimental design, ASL is proving to be an increasingly promising tool for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms, early detection, monitoring disease progression and pharmacological response, and differential diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Quantifying the effects of external shear loads on arterial and venous blood flow: implications for pressure ulcer development.
Manorama, Abinand; Meyer, Ronald; Wiseman, Robert; Bush, Tamara Reid
Forces applied to the skin cause a decrease in regional blood flow. This decrease in blood flow can cause tissue necrosis and lead to the formation of deep, penetrating wounds called pressure ulcers. These wounds are detrimental to individuals with compromised health, such as the elderly and spinal-cord injured. Although surface pressure is known to be a primary risk factor for developing a pressure ulcer, a seated individual rarely experiences pressure alone but rather combined loading which includes pressure as well as shear force on the skin. However, little research has been conducted to quantify the effects of shear forces on blood flow. Fifteen men were tested in a magnetic resonance imaging scanner under no load, a normal load, and a combination of normal and shear loads. Changes in arterial and venous blood flow in the forearm were measured using magnetic resonance angiography phase-contrast imaging. The blood flow in the anterior interosseous artery and basilic vein of the forearm decreased with the application of normal loads, and decreased further with the addition of shear loads. Marginal to significant differences at a 90% confidence level (P=0.08, 0.10) were observed, and medium to high effect sizes (0.3 to 0.5) were obtained. Based on these results, shear force is an important factor to consider in relation to pressure ulcer propagation and prevention, and hence, future prevention approaches should also focus on mitigating shear loads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension
Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Fuentes, Cristóbal A.; Castillo, Andrés E.; González-Gómez, Luis Martín; Vecchiola, Andrea; Fardella, Carlos E.; Kalergis, Alexis M.
Arterial hypertension is a common condition worldwide and an important predictor of several complicated diseases. Arterial hypertension can be triggered by many factors, including physiological, genetic, and lifestyle causes. Specifically, molecules of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system not only play important roles in the control of blood pressure, but they are also associated with the genesis of arterial hypertension, thus constituting a need for pharmacological interventions. Chronic high pressure generates mechanical damage along the vascular system, heart, and kidneys, which are the principal organs affected in this condition. In addition to mechanical stress, hypertension-induced oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the activation of reparative mechanisms lead to end-organ damage, mainly due to fibrosis. Clinical trials have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention in hypertensive patients lowers morbidity/mortality and inflammatory marker levels as compared to placebo patients, evidencing that this system controls more than blood pressure. This review emphasizes the detrimental effects that a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) imbalance has on health considerations above and beyond high blood pressure, such as fibrotic end-organ damage. PMID:27347925
Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension.
Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Fuentes, Cristóbal A; Castillo, Andrés E; González-Gómez, Luis Martín; Vecchiola, Andrea; Fardella, Carlos E; Kalergis, Alexis M
Arterial hypertension is a common condition worldwide and an important predictor of several complicated diseases. Arterial hypertension can be triggered by many factors, including physiological, genetic, and lifestyle causes. Specifically, molecules of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system not only play important roles in the control of blood pressure, but they are also associated with the genesis of arterial hypertension, thus constituting a need for pharmacological interventions. Chronic high pressure generates mechanical damage along the vascular system, heart, and kidneys, which are the principal organs affected in this condition. In addition to mechanical stress, hypertension-induced oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the activation of reparative mechanisms lead to end-organ damage, mainly due to fibrosis. Clinical trials have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention in hypertensive patients lowers morbidity/mortality and inflammatory marker levels as compared to placebo patients, evidencing that this system controls more than blood pressure. This review emphasizes the detrimental effects that a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) imbalance has on health considerations above and beyond high blood pressure, such as fibrotic end-organ damage.
Fetal laser ablation of feeding artery of cystic lung lesions with systemic arterial blood supply.
Cruz-Martinez, R; Martínez-Rodríguez, M; Bermúdez-Rojas, M; Magaña-Abarca, C; Narvaez-Dominguez, V; Rojas-Macedo, A; Bautista-García, N; Alcocer-Alcocer, M
To assess the effectiveness of laser surgery in fetuses with a cystic lung lesion with systemic arterial blood supply (hybrid lung lesion) at risk of perinatal death. A cohort of five consecutive fetuses with a large hybrid lung lesion associated with hydrops and/or pleural effusion with severe lung compression was selected for percutaneous ultrasound-guided fetal laser ablation of the feeding artery (FLAFA) before 32 weeks' gestation in a single tertiary national referral center in Queretaro, Mexico. The primary outcomes were survival and need for postnatal surgery. FLAFA was performed successfully in all cases at a median gestational age of 24.9 (range, 24.4-31.7) weeks. After fetal intervention, dimensions in both lungs increased and fluid effusions resolved in all cases. All cases were delivered liveborn at term at a median gestational age of 39.6 (range, 38.0-39.7) weeks, without respiratory morbidity or need for oxygen support, resulting in perinatal survival of 100%. During follow-up, three (60%) cases showed progressive regression of the entire lung mass and did not require postnatal surgery, whereas in two (40%) cases a progressive decrease in size of the mass was observed but a cystic portion of the lung mass persisted and postnatal lobectomy was required. In fetuses with large hybrid lung lesions at risk of perinatal death, FLAFA is feasible and could improve survival and decrease the need for postnatal surgery. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
High-permittivity thin dielectric padding improves fresh blood imaging of femoral arteries at 3 T.
Lindley, Marc D; Kim, Daniel; Morrell, Glen; Heilbrun, Marta E; Storey, Pippa; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Lee, Vivian S
Fresh blood imaging (FBI) is a useful noncontrast magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) method for the assessment of peripheral arterial disease, particularly for imaging patients with poor renal function. Compared with 1.5 T, 3 T enables higher signal-to-noise ratio and/or spatiotemporal resolution in FBI. Indeed, previous studies have reported successful FBI of the calf station at 3 T. However, FBI of the thigh station at 3 T has been reported to suffer from signal void in the common femoral artery of 1 thigh only because of the radial symmetry in transmit radiofrequency field (B1+) variation. We sought to increase the signal of femoral artery in FBI at 3 T using high-permittivity dielectric padding. We performed FBI and B1+ mapping of the thigh station at 3 T in 13 human subjects to compare the following 3 dielectric padding settings: no padding, commercially available thick (approximately 5 cm) dielectric padding, and high-permittivity thin (approximately 2 cm) dielectric padding. We characterized the radial symmetry in B1+ variation as well as its impact on the FBI signal at baseline and how dielectric padding improves B1+ and FBI. We evaluated the quality of 3 FBI MRA acquisitions using quantitative (ie, contrast-to-noise ratio of femoral arteries) and qualitative (ie, conspicuity of femoral arteries) analyses. With the subjects positioned on the magnetic resonance table in feet-first, supine orientation, the radial symmetry in B1+ variation attenuates the signal in the right common femoral artery. The signal void can be improved partially with commercial padding and improved further with high-permittivity padding. Averaging the results over the 13 subjects, the mean B1+, contrast-to-noise ratio, and conspicuity scores for the right common femoral artery were significantly higher with high-permittivity padding than with commercial padding and baseline (P < 0.001). Our study shows that high-permittivity dielectric padding can be used to increase the signal of
Effect of acetazolamide on blood gases and 2,3 DPG during ascent and acclimatization to high altitude.
Milles, J. J.; Chesner, I. M.; Oldfield, S.; Bradwell, A. R.
Blood gases and red cell 2,3 DPG concentrations were measured during ascent and a stay for 6 days at 4846 m in 20 subjects. Acetazolamide improved Pa,O2 and reduced pH and Pa,CO2. 2,3 DPG concentrations were lower in the acetazolamide group during ascent and at high altitude. However, 2,3 DPG concentrations were significantly greater at high altitude in both the acetazolamide and placebo groups compared with low altitude. The acetazolamide group remained different from the placebo group during the stay at high altitude with higher Pa,O2, lower PaCO2, lower pH and lower 2,3 DPG concentrations. PMID:3118349
Large-scale subject-specific cerebral arterial tree modeling using automated parametric mesh generation for blood flow simulation.
Ghaffari, Mahsa; Tangen, Kevin; Alaraj, Ali; Du, Xinjian; Charbel, Fady T; Linninger, Andreas A
In this paper, we present a novel technique for automatic parametric mesh generation of subject-specific cerebral arterial trees. This technique generates high-quality and anatomically accurate computational meshes for fast blood flow simulations extending the scope of 3D vascular modeling to a large portion of cerebral arterial trees. For this purpose, a parametric meshing procedure was developed to automatically decompose the vascular skeleton, extract geometric features and generate hexahedral meshes using a body-fitted coordinate system that optimally follows the vascular network topology. To validate the anatomical accuracy of the reconstructed vasculature, we performed statistical analysis to quantify the alignment between parametric meshes and raw vascular images using receiver operating characteristic curve. Geometric accuracy evaluation showed an agreement with area under the curves value of 0.87 between the constructed mesh and raw MRA data sets. Parametric meshing yielded on-average, 36.6% and 21.7% orthogonal and equiangular skew quality improvement over the unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The parametric meshing and processing pipeline constitutes an automated technique to reconstruct and simulate blood flow throughout a large portion of the cerebral arterial tree down to the level of pial vessels. This study is the first step towards fast large-scale subject-specific hemodynamic analysis for clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Home blood pressure variability on one occasion is a novel factor associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Fukui, Michiaki; Ushigome, Emi; Tanaka, Muhei; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Tanaka, Toru; Atsuta, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Masayoshi; Oda, Yohei; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto
Recent studies have suggested that not only mean blood pressure but also variability in blood pressure might be related to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between home blood pressure variability on one occasion and markers of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relationship between the s.d. of clinic- or home-measured systolic blood pressure on one occasion and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 332 patients with type 2 diabetes, and we evaluated whether the SD of clinic- or home-measured systolic blood pressure on one occasion was an independent determinant of PWV by multivariate linear regression analysis, after adjustment for known risk factors for arterial stiffness, including sex, age, duration of diabetes, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking status, drinking alcohol, presence of antihypertensive medication, average systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Age, average morning home-measured systolic blood pressure, heart rate and PWV (r=0.259, P<0.0001) were positively correlated with the s.d. of morning home blood pressure on one occasion. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that age, average morning home-measured systolic blood pressure (P=0.0019), heart rate and the s.d. of morning home-measured systolic blood pressure on one occasion (P=0.0159) were independently associated with PWV. In conclusion, home blood pressure variability on one occasion was correlated with PWV, independent of other known risk factors, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.
To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P < 0.005) but did not change mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P < 0.001). The sensitivity of baroreflex control of MSNA and heart rate, expressed as the slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.
Effects of blood pressure and sex on the change of wave reflection: evidence from Gaussian fitting method for radial artery pressure waveform.
Liu, Chengyu; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Changchun
An early return of the reflected component in the arterial pulse has been recognized as an important indicator of cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to determine the effects of blood pressure and sex factor on the change of wave reflection using Gaussian fitting method. One hundred and ninety subjects were enrolled. They were classified into four blood pressure categories based on the systolic blood pressures (i.e., ≤ 110, 111-120, 121-130 and ≥ 131 mmHg). Each blood pressure category was also stratified for sex factor. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and radial artery pressure waveforms (RAPW) signals were recorded for each subject. Ten consecutive pulse episodes from the RAPW signal were extracted and normalized. Each normalized pulse episode was fitted by three Gaussian functions. Both the peak position and peak height of the first and second Gaussian functions, as well as the peak position interval and peak height ratio, were used as the evaluation indices of wave reflection. Two-way ANOVA results showed that with the increased blood pressure, the peak position of the second Gaussian significantly shorten (P < 0.01), the peak height of the first Gaussian significantly decreased (P < 0.01) and the peak height of the second Gaussian significantly increased (P < 0.01), inducing the significantly decreased peak position interval and significantly increased peak height ratio (both P < 0.01). Sex factor had no significant effect on all evaluation indices (all P > 0.05). Moreover, the interaction between sex and blood pressure factors also had no significant effect on all evaluation indices (all P > 0.05). These results showed that blood pressure has significant effect on the change of wave reflection when using the recently developed Gaussian fitting method, whereas sex has no significant effect. The results also suggested that the Gaussian fitting method could be used as a new approach for assessing the arterial wave reflection.
A Peripheral Blood Signature of Vasodilator-Responsive Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Hemnes, Anna R.; Trammell, Aaron W.; Archer, Stephen L.; Rich, Stuart; Yu, Chang; Nian, Hui; Penner, Niki; Funke, Mitchell; Wheeler, Lisa; Robbins, Ivan M.; Austin, Eric D.; Newman, John H.; West, James
Background Heterogeneity in response to treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a major challenge to improving outcome in this disease. Although vasodilator responsive PAH (VR-PAH) accounts for a minority of cases, VR-PAH has a pronounced response to calcium channel blockers and better survival than non-responsive PAH (VN-PAH). We hypothesized that VR-PAH has a different molecular etiology from VN-PAH that can be detected in the peripheral blood. Methods and Results Microarrays of cultured lymphocytes from VR-PAH and VN-PAH patients followed at Vanderbilt University were performed with quantitative PCR performed on peripheral blood for the 25 most different genes. We developed a decision tree to identify VR-PAH patients based on the results with validation in a second VR-PAH cohort from the University of Chicago. We found broad differences in gene expression patterns on microarray analysis including cell-cell adhesion factors, cytoskeletal and rho/GTPase genes. 13/25 genes tested in whole blood were significantly different: EPDR1, DSG2, SCD5, P2RY5, MGAT5, RHOQ, UCHL1, ZNF652, RALGPS2, TPD52, MKNL1, RAPGEF2 and PIAS1. Seven decision trees were built using expression levels of two genes as the primary genes: DSG2, a desmosomal cadherin involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and RHOQ, which encodes a cytoskeletal protein involved in insulin-mediated signaling. These trees correctly identified 5/5 VR-PAH in the validation cohort. Conclusions VR-PAH and VN-PAH can be differentiated using RNA expression patterns in peripheral blood. These differences may reflect different molecular etiologies of the two PAH phenotypes. This biomarker methodology may identify PAH patients that have a favorable treatment response. PMID:25361553
Blood Transfusion and Increased Perioperative Risk in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts
Campos, Igor C.; Tanganelli, Valessa; Maues, Hugo P.; Coelho, Marcio C. M.; Martins, Fernanda A.; Munhoz, Giovana; Egito, Julyana G. T.; Souza, Hayala C. C.; Giannini, Cássio M. C.; Farsky, Pedro S.
Objective To correlate blood transfusions and clinical outcomes during hospitalization in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Methods Transfusion, clinical and hematological data were collected for 1,378 patients undergoing isolated or combined CABG between January 2011 and December 2012. The effect of blood transfusions was evaluated through multivariate analysis to predict three co-primary outcomes: composite ischemic events, composite infectious complications and hospital mortality. Because higher risk patients receive more transfusions, the hospital mortality outcome was also tested on a stratum of low-risk patients to isolate the effect of preoperative risk on the results. Results The transfusion rate was 63.9%. The use of blood products was associated with a higher incidence of the three coprimary outcomes: composite infectious complications (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.70 to 4.19; P<0.001), composite ischemic events (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.46; P<0.001) and hospital mortality (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.53 to 6.13; P<0.001). When only patients with logistic EuroSCORE ≤ 2% were evaluated, i.e., low-risk individuals, the mortality rate and the incidence of ischemic events and infectious complications composites remained higher among the transfused patients [6% vs. 0.4% (P<0.001), 11.7% vs. 24,3% (P<0.001) and 6.5% vs. 12.7% (P=0.002), respectively]. Conclusion The use of blood components in patients undergoing CABG was associated with ischemic events, infectious complications and hospital mortality, even in low-risk patients. PMID:29211220
The arteries of brain base in species of Bovini tribe.
Zdun, Maciej; Frąckowiak, Hieronim; Kiełtyka-Kurc, Agata; Kowalczyk, Karolina; Nabzdyk, Maria; Timm, Anita
Studies were conducted on 78 preparations of head and brain arteries in four species of Bos genus, that is in domestic cattle (N = 59), including 22 foetuses (CRL 36.5-78.5 cm), in banteng (Bos javanicus, N = 3), yak (Bos mutus f. grunniens, N = 2), American bison (Bison bison, N = 4), and European bison (Bison bonasus, N = 10). The comparative analysis permitted to demonstrate a similar pattern of brain base arteries in the studied animals. In the studied species, blood vessels of the arterial circle of the brain were found to form by bifurcation of intracranial segments of inner carotid arteries, which protruded from the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. In Bovidae arterial circle of the brain was supplied with blood mainly by maxillary artery through the blood vessels of the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. The unpaired caudal epidural rete mirabile was participating in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain from vertebral and occipital arteries. It manifested character of a taxonomic trait for species of Bos and Bison genera. Basilar artery in all the examined animals manifested a variable diameter, with preliminary portion markedly narrowed, which prevented its participation in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain. The results and taxonomic position of the species made the authors to suggest a hypothesis that a similar arterial pattern on the brain base might be present also in other species, not included in this analysis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Arterial Transit Time-corrected Renal Blood Flow Measurement with Pulsed Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling MR Imaging.
Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Tsuchiyama, Katsuki; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirohiko
The importance of arterial transit time (ATT) correction for arterial spin labeling MRI has been well debated in neuroimaging, but it has not been well evaluated in renal imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) MRI with multiple post-labeling delay (PLD) acquisition for measuring ATT-corrected renal blood flow (ATC-RBF). A total of 14 volunteers were categorized into younger (n = 8; mean age, 27.0 years) and older groups (n = 6; 64.8 years). Images of pcASL were obtained at three different PLDs (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 s), and ATC-RBF and ATT were calculated using a single-compartment model. To validate ATC-RBF, a comparative study of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) measured by 99m Tc-MAG3 scintigraphy was performed. ATC-RBF was corrected by kidney volume (ATC-cRBF) for comparison with ERPF. The younger group showed significantly higher ATC-RBF (157.68 ± 38.37 mL/min/100 g) and shorter ATT (961.33 ± 260.87 ms) than the older group (117.42 ± 24.03 mL/min/100 g and 1227.94 ± 226.51 ms, respectively; P < 0.05). A significant correlation was evident between ATC-cRBF and ERPF (P < 0.05, r = 0.47). With suboptimal single PLD (1.5 s) settings, there was no significant correlation between ERPF and kidney volume-corrected RBF calculated from single PLD data. Calculation of ATT and ATC-RBF by pcASL with multiple PLD was feasible in healthy volunteers, and differences in ATT and ATC-RBF were seen between the younger and older groups. Although ATT correction by multiple PLD acquisitions may not always be necessary for RBF quantification in the healthy subjects, the effect of ATT should be taken into account in renal ASL-MRI as debated in brain imaging.
Aortic-Brachial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio: A Measure of Arterial Stiffness Gradient Not Affected by Mean Arterial Pressure.
Fortier, Catherine; Desjardins, Marie-Pier; Agharazii, Mohsen
Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is used for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. This mini-review describes the nonlinear relationship between cf-PWV and operational blood pressure, presents the proposed methods to adjust for this relationship, and discusses a potential place for aortic-brachial PWV ratio (a measure of arterial stiffness gradient) as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. PWV is inherently dependent on the operational blood pressure. In cross-sectional studies, PWV adjustment for mean arterial pressure (MAP) is preferred, but still remains a nonoptimal approach, as the relationship between PWV and blood pressure is nonlinear and varies considerably among individuals due to heterogeneity in genetic background, vascular tone, and vascular remodeling. Extrapolations from the blood pressure-independent stiffness parameter β (β 0 ) have led to the creation of stiffness index β, which can be used for local stiffness. A similar approach has been used for cardio-ankle PWV to generate a blood pressure-independent cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). It was recently demonstrated that stiffness index β and CAVI remain slightly blood pressure-dependent, and a more appropriate formula has been proposed to make the proper adjustments. On the other hand, the negative impact of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes is thought to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of the arterial stiffness gradient, which can also be influenced by a reduction in peripheral medium-sized muscular arteries in conditions that predispose to accelerate vascular aging. Arterial stiffness gradient, assessed by aortic-brachial PWV ratio, is emerging to be at least as good as cf-PWV for risk prediction, but has the advantage of not being affected by operating MAP. The negative impacts of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes are proposed to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of arterial stiffness gradient
Effect of the addition of vasopressin or vasopressin plus nitroglycerin to epinephrine on arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans.
Ducros, Laurent; Vicaut, Eric; Soleil, Christian; Le Guen, Morgan; Gueye, Papa; Poussant, Thomas; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Payen, Didier; Plaisance, Patrick
Infusion of a vasopressor during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in humans increases end decompression (diastolic) arterial blood pressure, and consequently increases vital organ perfusion pressure and survival. Several vasoactive drugs have been tested alone or in combination, but their hemodynamic effects have not been investigated clinically in humans. We tested the hypothesis that epinephrine (1 mg) co-administered with vasopressin (40 IU) ± nitroglycerin (300 μg) results in higher diastolic blood pressure than epinephrine alone. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled trial in the prehospital setting. The study included 48 patients with witnessed cardiac arrest. Patients received either epinephrine alone (E alone) or epinephrine plus vasopressin (E+V) or epinephrine plus vasopressin plus nitroglycerin (E+V+N). A femoral arterial catheter was inserted for arterial pressure measurement. The primary end point was diastolic blood pressure during CPR, 15 min after the first drug administration (T = 15 min). After exclusions, a total of 44 patients were enrolled. Diastolic blood pressures (mm Hg) at T = 15 min were not statistically different between groups (median [interquartile range]: 20 , 15 , and 15  for E alone, E+V, and E+V+N, respectively. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation was 63% (n = 10) in the epinephrine group, 43% (n = 6) in the epinephrine plus vasopressin group, and 36% (n = 5) in the triple therapy group (NS). Addition of vasopressin or vasopressin plus nitroglycerin to epinephrine did not increase perfusion blood pressure compared to epinephrine alone in humans in cardiac arrest, suggesting the absence of benefit in using these drug combination(s). Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Disorders of cochlear blood flow.
Nakashima, Tsutomu; Naganawa, Shinji; Sone, Michihiko; Tominaga, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Hideo; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Liu, Xiuli; Nuttall, Alfred L
The cochlea is principally supplied from the inner ear artery (labyrinthine artery), which is usually a branch of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Cochlear blood flow is a function of cochlear perfusion pressure, which is calculated as the difference between mean arterial blood pressure and inner ear fluid pressure. Many otologic disorders such as noise-induced hearing loss, endolymphatic hydrops and presbycusis are suspected of being related to alterations in cochlear blood flow. However, the human cochlea is not easily accessible for investigation because this delicate sensory organ is hidden deep in the temporal bone. In patients with sensorineural hearing loss, magnetic resonance imaging, laser-Doppler flowmetry and ultrasonography have been used to investigate the status of cochlear blood flow. There have been many reports of hearing loss that were considered to be caused by blood flow disturbance in the cochlea. However, direct evidence of blood flow disturbance in the cochlea is still lacking in most of the cases.
Stability of carotid artery under steady-state and pulsatile blood flow: a fluid-structure interaction study.
Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao
It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17-23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo.
Stability of Carotid Artery Under Steady-State and Pulsatile Blood Flow: A Fluid–Structure Interaction Study
Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao
It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17–23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo. PMID:25761257
Coronary artery disease (image)
... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...
Gender Difference in Arterial Stiffness in a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study: The Korean Arterial Aging Study (KAAS)
Kim, Jang-Young; Park, Jeong Bae; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Kee Sik; Jeong, Jin Won; Park, Jong Chun; Oh, Byung Hee; Chung, Namsik
Elevated arterial stiffness has emerged as an important risk factor for future cardiovascular (CV) events in men and women. However, gender-related differences in arterial stiffness have not been clearly demonstrated. We thus determine whether gender affects arterial stiffness in subjects with and without CV risk factors. We consecutively enrolled 1,588 subjects aged 17-87 years (mean age: 46.5; 51% women) from the Korean Arterial Aging Study (KAAS), which is a multicenter registry from 13 university hospitals in Korea for the evaluation of arterial stiffness. We compared markers of arterial stiffness – central augmentation index (AIx), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), and pulse pressure (PP) amplification – in apparently healthy men and women without risk factors with those in high-risk subjects with a smoking habit, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia but without drug treatment. Aortic PWV and PP amplification were significantly higher in men than in women (7.78 ± 1.16 vs. 7.64 ± 1.15 m/s, p = 0.015, and 1.39 ± 0.22 vs. 1.30 ± 0.18, p < 0.001, respectively). However, women had a significantly higher central AIx than men (23.5 ± 11.9 vs. 16.1 ± 12.6%, p < 0.001). The central AIx and aortic PWV values were significantly higher in the high-risk group than in the healthy group for both men and women. In men, central AIx and aortic PWV were associated positively with age and blood pressure, and negatively with body mass index. In women, central AIx was positively related to age, diastolic blood pressure, and serum cholesterol levels. Aortic PWV was positively related to age, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and heart rate. PP amplification was associated negatively with age and blood pressure and positively with heart rate in both men and women. In conclusion, arterial stiffness is mainly determined by sex, age, and blood pressure. Markers of arterial stiffness differ between men and women. Dyslipidemia and glucose contribute to a modest
Interaction between left ventricular twist mechanics and arterial haemodynamics during localised, non-metabolic hyperaemia with and without blood flow restriction.
van Mil, Anke C C M; Pearson, James; Drane, Aimee L; Cockcroft, John R; McDonnell, Barry J; Stöhr, Eric J
What is the central question of this study? Left ventricular (LV) twist is reduced when afterload is increased, but the meaning of this specific heart muscle response and its impact on cardiac output are not well understood. What is the main finding and its importance? This study shows that LV twist responds even when arterial haemodynamics are altered only locally, and without apparent change in metabolic (i.e. heat-induced) demand. The concurrent decline in cardiac output and LV twist during partial arterial occlusion despite the increased peripheral demand caused by heat stress suggests that LV twist may be involved in the protective sensing of heart muscle stress that can override the provision of the required cardiac output. Whether left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) respond to localised, peripheral, non-metabolic changes in arterial haemodynamics within an individual's normal afterload range is presently unknown. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that LV twist mechanics may override the provision of cardiac output, but this hypothesis has not been examined purposefully. Therefore, we acutely altered local peripheral arterial haemodynamics in 11 healthy humans (women/men n = 3/8; age 26 ± 5 years) by bilateral arm heating (BAH). Ultrasonography was used to examine arterial haemodynamics, LV twist mechanics and the twist-to-shortening ratio (TSR). To determine the arterial function-dependent contribution of LV twist mechanics to cardiac output, partial blood flow restriction to the arms was applied during BAH (BAHBFR ). Bilateral arm heating increased arm skin temperatures [change (Δ) +6.4 ± 0.9°C, P < 0.0001] but not core temperature (Δ -0.0 ± 0.1°C, P > 0.05), concomitant to increases in brachial artery blood flow (Δ 212 ± 77 ml, P < 0.0001), cardiac output (Δ 495 ± 487 l min(-1) , P < 0.05), LV twist (Δ 3.0 ± 3.5 deg, P < 0.05) and TSR (Δ 3.3 ± 1.3, P < 0.05) but
The resting-state fMRI arterial signal predicts differential blood transit time through the brain.
Tong, Yunjie; Yao, Jinxia Fiona; Chen, J Jean; Frederick, Blaise deB
Previous studies have found that aperiodic, systemic low-frequency oscillations (sLFOs) are present in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) data. These signals are in the same low frequency band as the "resting state" signal; however, they are distinct signals which represent non-neuronal, physiological oscillations. The same sLFOs are found in the periphery (i.e. finger tips) as changes in oxy/deoxy-hemoglobin concentration using concurrent near-infrared spectroscopy. Together, this evidence points toward an extra-cerebral origin of these sLFOs. If this is the case, it is expected that these sLFO signals would be found in the carotid arteries with time delays that precede the signals found in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we employed the publicly available MyConnectome dataset (a two-year longitudinal study of a single subject) to extract the sLFOs in the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) with the help of the T1/T2-weighted images. Significant, but negative, correlations were found between the LFO BOLD signals from the ICAs and (1) the global signal (GS), (2) the superior sagittal sinus, and (3) the jugulars. We found the consistent time delays between the sLFO signals from ICAs, GS and veins which coincide with the blood transit time through the cerebral vascular tree.
Blood thinners are medicines that prevent blood clots from forming. They also keep existing blood clots from getting larger. Clots in your arteries, ... down your body's process of making clots. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ...
[Effect of different pre-oxygenation procedures on arterial oxygen status].
Duda, D; Brandt, L; Rudlof, B; Mertzlufft, F; Dick, W
There are different opinions regarding efficiency, duration, and techniques of preoxygenation. It was the aim of our study to systematically investigate the effectiveness of different preoxygenation methods by means of arterial blood gas parameters (paO2, SaO2, and CaO2). METHODS. After receiving informed consent, 80 patients undergoing coronary bypass grafting (NY-HA II-III, ASA III-IV, mean age 57 years) were randomized in eight groups, each with a different preoxygenation technique (Table 1). During normocapnic preoxygenation (Table 2), the following parameters were compared: duration of preoxygenation (3 vs. 5 min), manner of holding the face mask (tightly fitting vs. one digit away from mouth and nose), and oxygen flow (6 vs. 10 l/min) via anesthesia circuit system. Arterial blood gases were analyzed with a Corning 170 pH/blood gas analyzer and a Corning 2500 CO-oximeter. For statistical analysis Student's t-test was used. P less than or equal to 0.01 was considered to be significant (*). RESULTS. As Fig. 1 shows, the different preoxygenation techniques affected paO2 values differently: oxygen flow had a greater influence than duration of preoxygenation. Most important was the manner of holding the face mask. With a tightly fitting mask, preoxygenation was more effective than with the face mask one digit away from mouth and nose, independent of preoxygenation time and oxygen flow (Table 3). The SaO2 (Fig. 2) increased in the same manner with the different preoxygenation techniques from 94.0% to 97.5% (Table 3); CaO2 (Fig. 3) was influenced in a similar way (16.7 ml/dl to 17.4 ml/dl).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle
The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.
In-Vivo Fluorescence Spectroscopy Of Normal And Atherosclerotic Arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deckelbaum, Lawrence I.; Sarembock, Ian J.; Stetz, Mark L.; O'Brien, Kenneth M.; Cutruzzola, Francis W.; Gmitro, Arthur F.; Ezekowitz, Michael D.
Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy can discriminate atherosclerotic from normal arteries in-vitro and may thus potentially guide laser angioplasty. To evaluate the feasibility of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a living blood-filled arterial system we performed fiberoptic laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a rabbit model of focal femoral atherosclerosis. A laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy score was derived from stepwise linear regression analysis of in-vitro spectra to distinguish normal aorta (score>0) from atherosclerotic femoral artery (score<0). A 400 u silica fiber, coupled to a helium cadmium laser and optical multichannel analyzer, was inserted through a 5F catheter to induce and record in-vivo fluorescence from femoral and aortoiliac arteries. Arterial spectra could be recorded in all animals (n=10: 5 occlusions, 5 stenoses). Blood spectra were of low intensity and were easily distinguished from arterial spectra. The scores (mean ± SEM) for the in-vivo spectra were -0.69 +/- 0.29 for artherosclerotic femoral, and +0.54 ±. 0.15 for normal aorta (p<.01 p=NS compared to in-vitro spectra). In-vitro, a fiber tip to tissue distance <50 u was necessary for adequate arterial LIFS in blood. At larger distances low intensity blood spectra were recorded (1/20 the intensity of tissue spectra). Thus, fiberoptic laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy can be sucessfully performed in a blood filled artery provided the fiber tip is approximated to the tissue.
[Arterial sequelae of pregnancy hypertension. Detection by carotid piezogram].
Meyer-Heine, A; Asquer, J C; Lagrue, G
High blood pressure (HTA) is characterized by elevation of pression, but also by modifications of arterial pulse wave. Carotid piezograms were used to evaluate arterial pulse wave. Diastolic blood pressure is significantly correlated with dicrotic notch pressure. The duration of dicrotic notch is negatively correlated with arterial wall elasticity. Thus by carotid piezogram analysis one can determine the respective participation of arterial wall elasticity, peripheral resistance and cardiac factors in blood pressure elevation. Carotid piezograms were measured in 97 women (mean age 27, 8 y), with previous hypertensive pregnancy and apparently cured (mean blood pressure 122-74 mmHg at time of examination). 25 women only had normal piezogram drawing. Abnormalities similar to that of permanent hypertensive disease were observed in most cases. Dicrotic notch duration was significantly reduced and dicrotic notch pressure enhanced; in 34 women both of these abnormalities were present. In conclusion, among women previously hypertensive during pregnancy, even when blood pressure is returned to normal, abnormalities of arterial pulse wave may be present, suggesting that these women are prone to subsequent permanent hypertension.
Intra-arterial Stroke Management
Prince, Ethan A.; Ahn, Sun Ho; Soares, Gregory M.
Acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and the leading cause of disability in the United States. Cerebral neuronal death begins within minutes after threshold values of blood oxygen saturation are crossed. Prompt restoration of oxygenated blood flow into ischemic tissue remains the common goal of reperfusion strategies. This article provides a brief overview of acute ischemic stroke, a summary of the major intra-arterial stroke therapy trials, and comments on current training requirements for the performance of intra-arterial therapies. PMID:24436550
Umbilical Arterial Blood Sampling Alters Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates.
Mintzer, Jonathan P; Parvez, Boriana; La Gamma, Edmund F
To evaluate the magnitude, consistency, and natural history of reductions in cerebral regional tissue oxygenation (CrSO2) during umbilical arterial (UA) blood sampling in very low birth weight neonates. Data were collected during a prospective observational near-infrared spectroscopy survey conducted on a convenience sample of 500-1250 g neonates during the first 10 postnatal days. A before-after analysis of UA blood sampling effects on CrSO2 absolute values and variability was performed. The present analysis was not designed a priori and was conducted following the bedside observation of CrSO2 decrements contiguous with UA blood draws. Fifteen very low birth weight neonates had 201 UA blood draws. Baseline CrSO2 (mean ± SEM) decreased following UA blood sampling, from 70 ± 1