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Sample records for arterial transit time

  1. Pulse transit time as a surrogate measure of changes in systolic arterial pressure in children during sleep.

    PubMed

    Vlahandonis, Anna; Biggs, Sarah N; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Walter, Lisa M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-08-01

    Pulse transit time has been proposed as a surrogate measure of systolic arterial pressure, as it is dependent upon arterial stiffness. Past research has shown that pulse transit time has a significant inverse relationship to systolic arterial pressure in adults; however, studies in children are limited. This study aimed to explore the relationship between systolic arterial pressure and pulse transit time in children during sleep. Twenty-five children (13.1 ± 1.6 years, 48% male) underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) with a simultaneous recording of continuous systolic arterial pressure and photoplethysmography. Pulse transit time was calculated as the time delay between the R-wave peak of the electrocardiogram (ECG) to the 50% point of the upstroke of the corresponding photoplethysmography waveform; 500 beats of simultaneous systolic arterial pressure and pulse transit time were analysed in each sleep stage for each child. Pulse transit time was normalized to each subject's mean wake pulse transit time. The ability of pulse transit time to predict systolic arterial pressure change was determined by linear mixed-effects modelling. Significant negative correlations between pulse transit time and systolic arterial pressure were found for individual children for each sleep stage [mean correlations for cohort: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep 1 and 2 r = -0.57, slow wave sleep (SWS) r = -0.76, REM r = -0.65, P < 0.01 for all]. Linear mixed-model analysis demonstrated that changes in pulse transit time were a significant predictor of changes in systolic arterial pressure for each sleep stage (P < 0.001). The model of pulse transit time-predicted systolic arterial pressure closely tracked actual systolic arterial pressure changes over time. This study demonstrated that pulse transit time was accurate in tracking systolic arterial pressure changes over time. Thus, the use of pulse transit time as a surrogate measure of changes in systolic arterial pressure in

  2. Pulmonary pulse wave transit time is associated with right ventricular–pulmonary artery coupling in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E. Kenneth; Archer, Stephen L.; Markowitz, Jeremy; Rose, Lauren; Pritzker, Marc; Madlon-Kay, Richard; Thenappan, Thenappan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary pulse wave transit time (pPTT), defined as the time for the systolic pressure pulse wave to travel from the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary veins, has been reported to be reduced in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, the underlying mechanism of reduced pPTT is unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that abbreviated pPTT in PAH results from impaired right ventricular–pulmonary artery (RV-PA) coupling. We quantified pPTT using pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound from 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls and 36 patients with PAH. pPTT was reduced in patients with PAH compared with controls. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of reduced pPTT: age, right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC), tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE), pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP), diastolic pulmonary gradient, transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and RV-PA coupling (defined as RV FAC/mean PAP or TAPSE/mean PAP). Although the correlations between pPTT and invasive markers of pulmonary vascular disease were modest, RV FAC (r = 0.64, P < 0.0001), TAPSE (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001), and RV-PA coupling (RV FAC/mean PAP: r = 0.72, P < 0.0001; TAPSE/mean PAP: r = 0.74, P < 0.0001) had the strongest relationships with pPTT. On multivariable analysis, only RV FAC, TAPSE, and RV-PA coupling were independent predictors of pPTT. We conclude that shortening of pPTT in patients with PAH results from altered RV-PA coupling, probably occurring as a result of reduced pulmonary arterial compliance. Thus, pPTT allows noninvasive determination of the status of both the pulmonary vasculature and the response of the RV in patients with PAH, thereby allowing monitoring of disease progression and regression. PMID:28090301

  3. Improved pulse transit time estimation by system identification analysis of proximal and distal arterial waveforms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da; Ryan, Kathy L; Rickards, Caroline A; Zhang, Guanqun; Convertino, Victor A; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the system identification approach for potentially improved estimation of pulse transit time (PTT), a popular arterial stiffness marker. In this approach, proximal and distal arterial waveforms are measured and respectively regarded as the input and output of a system. Next, the system impulse response is identified from all samples of the measured input and output. Finally, the time delay of the impulse response is detected as the PTT estimate. Unlike conventional foot-to-foot detection techniques, this approach is designed to provide an artifact robust estimate of the true PTT in the absence of wave reflection. The approach is also applicable to arbitrary types of arterial waveforms. We specifically applied a parametric system identification technique to noninvasive impedance cardiography (ICG) and peripheral arterial blood pressure waveforms from 15 humans subjected to lower-body negative pressure. We assessed the technique through the correlation coefficient (r) between its 1/PTT estimates and measured diastolic pressure (DP) per subject and the root mean squared error (RMSE) of the DP predicted from these estimates and measured DP. The technique achieved average r and RMSE values of 0.81 ± 0.16 and 4.3 ± 1.3 mmHg. For comparison, the corresponding values were 0.59 ± 0.37 (P < 0.05) and 5.9 ± 2.5 (P < 0.01) mmHg for the conventional technique applied to the same waveforms and 0.28 ± 0.40 (P < 0.001) and 7.2 ± 1.8 (P < 0.001) mmHg for the conventional technique with the ECG waveform substituted for the ICG waveform. These results demonstrate, perhaps for the first time, that the system identification approach can indeed improve PTT estimation.

  4. Noninvasive pulse transit time measurement for arterial stiffness monitoring in microgravity.

    PubMed

    McCall, Corey; Rostosky, Rea; Wiard, Richard M; Inan, Omer T; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Cuttino, Charles Marsh; Kovacs, Gregory T A

    2015-01-01

    The use of a noninvasive hemodynamic monitor to estimate arterial stiffness, by measurement of pulse transit time (PTT), was demonstrated in microgravity. The monitor's utility for space applications was shown by establishing the correlation between ground-based and microgravity-based measurements. The system consists of a scale-based ballistocardiogram (BCG) and a toe-mounted photoplethysmogram (PPG). PTT was measured from the BCG I-wave to the intersecting tangents of the first trough and maximum first derivative of the PPG waveforms of each subject. The system was tested on a recent series of parabolic flights in which the PTT of nine subjects was measured on the ground and in microgravity. An average of 60.2 ms PTT increase from ground to microgravity environments was shown, and was consistent across all test subjects (standard deviation = 32.9 ms). This increase in PTT could be explained by a number of factors associated with microgravity and reported in previous research, including elimination of hydrostatic pressure, reduction of intrathoracic pressure, and reduction of mean arterial pressure induced by vasodilation.

  5. Determining arterial wave transit time from a single aortic pressure pulse in rats: vascular impulse response analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ru-Wen; Chang, Chun-Yi; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Young, Tai-Horng; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2017-01-01

    Arterial wave transit time (τw) in the lower body circulation is an effective biomarker of cardiovascular risk that substantially affects systolic workload imposed on the heart. This study evaluated a method for determining τw from the vascular impulse response on the basis of the measured aortic pressure and an assumed triangular flow (Qtri). The base of the unknown Qtri was constructed with a duration set equal to ejection time. The timing of the peak triangle was derived using a fourth-order derivative of the pressure waveform. Values of τws obtained using Qtri were compared with those obtained from the measure aortic flow wave (Qm). Healthy rats (n = 27), rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD; n = 22), and rats with type 1 (n = 22) or type 2 (n = 11) diabetes were analyzed. The cardiovascular conditions in the CKD rats and both diabetic groups were characterized by a decrease in τws. The following significant relation was observed (P < 0.0001): τwtriQ = −1.5709 + 1.0604 × τwmQ (r2 = 0.9641). Our finding indicates that aortic impulse response can be an effective method for the estimation of arterial τw by using a single pressure recording together with the assumed Qtri. PMID:28102355

  6. Determining arterial wave transit time from a single aortic pressure pulse in rats: vascular impulse response analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ru-Wen; Chang, Chun-Yi; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Young, Tai-Horng; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2017-01-19

    Arterial wave transit time (τw) in the lower body circulation is an effective biomarker of cardiovascular risk that substantially affects systolic workload imposed on the heart. This study evaluated a method for determining τw from the vascular impulse response on the basis of the measured aortic pressure and an assumed triangular flow (Q(tri)). The base of the unknown Q(tri) was constructed with a duration set equal to ejection time. The timing of the peak triangle was derived using a fourth-order derivative of the pressure waveform. Values of τws obtained using Q(tri) were compared with those obtained from the measure aortic flow wave (Q(m)). Healthy rats (n = 27), rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD; n = 22), and rats with type 1 (n = 22) or type 2 (n = 11) diabetes were analyzed. The cardiovascular conditions in the CKD rats and both diabetic groups were characterized by a decrease in τws. The following significant relation was observed (P < 0.0001): τw(triQ) = -1.5709 + 1.0604 × τw(mQ) (r(2) = 0.9641). Our finding indicates that aortic impulse response can be an effective method for the estimation of arterial τw by using a single pressure recording together with the assumed Q(tri).

  7. SU-D-18C-05: Variable Bolus Arterial Spin Labeling MRI for Accurate Cerebral Blood Flow and Arterial Transit Time Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, M; Jung, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MRI perfusion imaging method from which quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps can be calculated. Acquisition with variable post-labeling delays (PLD) and variable TRs allows for arterial transit time (ATT) mapping and leads to more accurate CBF quantification with a scan time saving of 48%. In addition, T1 and M0 maps can be obtained without a separate scan. In order to accurately estimate ATT and T1 of brain tissue from the ASL data, variable labeling durations were invented, entitled variable-bolus ASL. Methods: All images were collected on a healthy subject with a 3T Siemens Skyra scanner. Variable-bolus Psuedo-continuous ASL (PCASL) images were collected with 7 TI times ranging 100-4300ms in increments of 700ms with TR ranging 1000-5200ms. All boluses were 1600ms when the TI allowed, otherwise the bolus duration was 100ms shorter than the TI. All TI times were interleaved to reduce sensitivity to motion. Voxel-wise T1 and M0 maps were estimated using a linear least squares fitting routine from the average singal from each TI time. Then pairwise subtraction of each label/control pair and averaging for each TI time was performed. CBF and ATT maps were created using the standard model by Buxton et al. with a nonlinear fitting routine using the T1 tissue map. Results: CBF maps insensitive to ATT were produced along with ATT maps. Both maps show patterns and averages consistent with literature. The T1 map also shows typical T1 contrast. Conclusion: It has been demonstrated that variablebolus ASL produces CBF maps free from the errors due to ATT and tissue T1 variations and provides M0, T1, and ATT maps which have potential utility. This is accomplished with a single scan in a feasible scan time (under 6 minutes) with low sensivity to motion.

  8. Arterial Transit Time Effects in Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling CBF Mapping: Insight From a PET and MR Study in Normal Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Maolin; Maguire, R. Paul; Arora, Jagriti; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Weinzimmer, David; Wang, Jinghua; Wang, Yuenan; Kim, Hyeonjin; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E.; Constable, R. Todd

    2010-01-01

    Arterial transit time (ATT), a key parameter required to calculate absolute cerebral blood flow in arterial spin labeling (ASL), is subject to much uncertainty. In this study, ASL ATTs were estimated on a per-voxel basis using data measured by both ASL and positron emission tomography in the same subjects. The mean ATT increased by 260 ± 20 (standard error of the mean) ms when the imaging slab shifted downwards by 54 mm, and increased from 630 ± 30 to 1220 ± 30 ms for the first slice, with an increase of 610 ± 20 ms over a four-slice slab when the gap between the imaging and labeling slab increased from 20 to 74 mm. When the per-slice ATTs were employed in ASL cerebral blood flow quantification and the in-slice ATT variations ignored, regional cerebral blood flow could be significantly different from the positron emission tomography measures. ATT also decreased with focal activation by the same amount for both visual and motor tasks (~80 ms). These results provide a quantitative relationship between ATT and the ASL imaging geometry and yield an assessment of the assumptions commonly used in ASL imaging. These findings should be considered in the interpretation of, and comparisons between, different ASL-based cerebral blood flow studies. The results also provide spatially specific ATT data that may aid in optimizing the ASL imaging parameters. PMID:19953506

  9. Pulmonary arterial hemodynamic assessment by a novel index in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: pulmonary pulse transit time.

    PubMed

    Efe, Tolga Han; Doğan, Mehmet; Özişler, Cem; Çimen, Tolga; Felekoğlu, Mehmet Ali; Ertem, Ahmet Göktuğ; Algül, Engin; Açıkel, Sadık

    2017-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, inflammatory, and autoimmune connective tissue disease. One of the leading causes of mortality among SLE patients is pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between echocardiographic findings, including the pulmonary pulse transit time and pulmonary hypertension parameters, in SLE patients. Thirty SLE patients (aged 39.9±11 years, 28 females) as the study group and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (aged 37.9±11.5 years, 31 females) as the control group were included in the study. After detailed medical histories were recorded, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood tests, and echocardiography were performed in the groups. In addition to basic echocardiographic measurements, other specialized right ventricular indicators [i.e, Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE), estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP), right ventricular dimensions, and myocardial performance index (MPI)] were measured. The pulmonary pulse transit time was defined as the time interval between the R-wave peak in ECG and the corresponding peak late-systolic pulmonary vein flow velocity. The mean disease duration was 121.1±49.9 months. The mean age at diagnosis was 35.0±15.4 years. The mean RV MPI was higher (p=0.026), mean TAPSE measurements were shorter (p=0.021), and mean ePASP was higher (p=0.036) in the SLE group than in the control group. In addition, pPTT was significantly shorter in the SLE group (p=0.003). pPTT was inversely correlated with disease duration (p<0.001), MPI (p=0.037), and ePASP (p=0.02) and positively correlated with TAPSE (p<0.001). SLE patients have higher pPTT values than controls. Further, pPTT shows an inverse correlation with disease duration, MPI, and ePASP and a positive correlation with TAPSE.

  10. Maximal blood flow acceleration analysis in the early diastolic phase for aortocoronary artery bypass grafts: a new transit-time flow measurement predictor of graft failure following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Handa, Takemi; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Nishimori, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    Maximal graft flow acceleration (max df/dt) determined using transit-time flowmetry (TTFM) in the diastolic phase was assessed as a potential predictor of graft failure for aortocoronary artery (AC) bypass grafts in coronary artery bypass patients. Max df/dt was retrospectively measured in 114 aortocoronary artery bypass grafts. TTFM data were fitted to a 9-polynomial curve, which was derived from the first-derivative curve, to measure max df/dt (9-polynomial max df/dt). Abnormal TTFM was defined as a mean flow of <15 ml/min, a pulsatility index of >5 or a diastolic filling ratio of <50 %. Postoperative assessments were routinely performed by coronary artery angiography (CAG) at 1 year after surgery. Using TTFM, 68 grafts were normal, 4 of which were failing on CAG, and 46 grafts were abnormal, 21 of which were failing on CAG. 9-polynomial max df/dt was significantly lower in abnormal TTFM/failing by the CAG group compared with abnormal TTFM/patent by the CAG group (1.08 ± 0.89 vs. 2.05 ± 1.51 ml/s(2), respectively; P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test, Holm adjustment). TTFM 9-polynomial max df/dt in the early diastolic phase may be a promising predictor of future graft failure for AC bypass grafts, particularly in abnormal TTFM grafts.

  11. A critical review of peripheral arterial tone and pulse transit time as indirect diagnostic methods for detecting sleep disordered breathing and characterizing sleep structure.

    PubMed

    Pépin, Jean-Louis; Tamisier, Renaud; Borel, Jean-Christian; Baguet, Jean-Phillipe; Lévy, Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Sympathetic activity varies continuously across sleep stages. During rapid eye movement sleep, sympathetic tone increases substantially but is highly variable. Microarousals are associated with momentary bursts of sympathetic activity. Abnormal respiratory events progressively elevate sympathetic activity in proportion to the severity of oxyhemoglobin desaturation. These phenomena imply that cardiovascular markers of sympathetic activity such as peripheral arterial tone (PAT) and pulse transit time could be indirect tools for diagnosing sleep disordered breathing and characterizing sleep structure and fragmentation. Measurement of variations in PAT coupled with pulse rate accelerations and desaturations in oximetry can be used to diagnose sleep apnea. Good agreement between both manually and automatically analyzed PAT recordings and polysomnography has been demonstrated during in-laboratory or at-home studies. Numerous validation studies against esophageal pressure have demonstrated that pulse transit time is the best noninvasive method for measurement of respiratory effort. Pulse transit time and PAT are sensitive techniques for arousal recognition, particularly in children and infants. There are specific sleep stage-dependent PAT patterns that allow for the recognition of rapid eye movement sleep and, in the case of nonrapid eye movement sleep, the separation of lighter stages from deeper, slow wave sleep. Elevated nocturnal sympathetic activity as documented by PAT attenuations is linked with chronically elevated blood pressure in humans. Cardiovascular markers of autonomic control during sleep permit not only the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea and estimation of sleep structure but are also linked with the prevalence of daytime hypertension.

  12. Modeling and optimization of Look-Locker spin labeling for measuring perfusion and transit time changes in activation studies taking into account arterial blood volume.

    PubMed

    Francis, S T; Bowtell, R; Gowland, P A

    2008-02-01

    This work describes a new compartmental model with step-wise temporal analysis for a Look-Locker (LL)-flow-sensitive alternating inversion-recovery (FAIR) sequence, which combines the FAIR arterial spin labeling (ASL) scheme with a LL echo planar imaging (EPI) measurement, using a multireadout EPI sequence for simultaneous perfusion and T*(2) measurements. The new model highlights the importance of accounting for the transit time of blood through the arteriolar compartment, delta, in the quantification of perfusion. The signal expected is calculated in a step-wise manner to avoid discontinuities between different compartments. The optimal LL-FAIR pulse sequence timings for the measurement of perfusion with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and high temporal resolution at 1.5, 3, and 7T are presented. LL-FAIR is shown to provide better SNR per unit time compared to standard FAIR. The sequence has been used experimentally for simultaneous monitoring of perfusion, transit time, and T*(2) changes in response to a visual stimulus in four subjects. It was found that perfusion increased by 83 +/- 4% on brain activation from a resting state value of 94 +/- 13 ml/100 g/min, while T*(2) increased by 3.5 +/- 0.5%. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The animation shows the difference between planet transit timing of single and multiple planet system. In tightly packed planetary systems, the gravitational pull of the planets among themselves ca...

  14. Techniques and standards in intraoperative graft verification by transit time flow measurement after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Transit time flow measurement (TTFM) is a quality control tool for intraoperative graft evaluation in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. A critical review of the literature available using TTFM in CABG surgery is the focus of this article. The main objectives will be to detail precise parameters for flow evaluation, to show limitations of TTFM and to prove its predictive impact on postoperative graft failure rate. Publications listed in the PubMed database were reviewed, searching for intraoperative graft verification in coronary surgery by TTFM, with postoperative imaging follow-up (FU) modality and with a special focus on publications released after European guidelines from 2010. Nine included publications revealed an overall graft failure rate of ∼12%. Mean graft flow had a positive predictive value in the largest study, and cut-offs, of at least 20 ml/min for internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts, therein partially confirming guidelines, and 30-40 ml/min for saphenous venous grafts (SVGs) were proposed. An explicit correlation between graft flow, patency rate and severity of coronary stenosis, by indicating the fractional flow reserve, was found for IMA grafts. Increased pulsatility index and increased systolic reverse flow probably predict worse outcome and may help identifying competitive flow. Diastolic filling, rarely indicated, could not be confirmed as the predictive marker. No significant correlation of TTFM and graft failure rate for radial and other arterial grafts could be found, partially due to the small number of these types of grafts analysed. Larger target vessels and lower postoperative CK-MB levels may predict better graft patency rates. Low sensitivity for TTFM to reliably detect graft failure is certainly a major issue, as found in randomized analyses. However, methodical limitations and varying threshold values for TTFM render a general consensus difficult. Influence of quantity (vessel territory distribution) and quality

  15. Three-dimensional whole-brain perfusion quantification using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI at multiple post-labeling delays: accounting for both arterial transit time and impulse response function.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Huang, Alan J; Hua, Jun; Desmond, John E; Stevens, Robert D; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) with whole-brain coverage is challenging in terms of both acquisition and quantitative analysis. In order to fit arterial spin labeling-based perfusion kinetic curves, an empirical three-parameter model which characterizes the effective impulse response function (IRF) is introduced, which allows the determination of CBF, the arterial transit time (ATT) and T(1,eff). The accuracy and precision of the proposed model were compared with those of more complicated models with four or five parameters through Monte Carlo simulations. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling images were acquired on a clinical 3-T scanner in 10 normal volunteers using a three-dimensional multi-shot gradient and spin echo scheme at multiple post-labeling delays to sample the kinetic curves. Voxel-wise fitting was performed using the three-parameter model and other models that contain two, four or five unknown parameters. For the two-parameter model, T(1,eff) values close to tissue and blood were assumed separately. Standard statistical analysis was conducted to compare these fitting models in various brain regions. The fitted results indicated that: (i) the estimated CBF values using the two-parameter model show appreciable dependence on the assumed T(1,eff) values; (ii) the proposed three-parameter model achieves the optimal balance between the goodness of fit and model complexity when compared among the models with explicit IRF fitting; (iii) both the two-parameter model using fixed blood T1 values for T(1,eff) and the three-parameter model provide reasonable fitting results. Using the proposed three-parameter model, the estimated CBF (46 ± 14 mL/100 g/min) and ATT (1.4 ± 0.3 s) values averaged from different brain regions are close to the literature reports; the estimated T(1,eff) values (1.9 ± 0.4 s) are higher than the tissue T1 values, possibly reflecting a contribution from the microvascular arterial blood compartment.

  16. Measurement of arterial transit time and renal blood flow using pseudocontinuous ASL MRI with multiple post-labeling delays: Feasibility, reproducibility, and variation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Won; Shim, Woo Hyun; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Oh, Jong Yeong; Kim, Jeong Kon; Jung, Hoesu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Dongeun

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility, and variation of renal perfusion and arterial transit time (ATT) using pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (PCASL MRI) in healthy volunteers. PCASL MRI at 3T was performed in 25 healthy volunteers on two different occasions. The ATT and ATT-corrected renal blood flow (ATT-cRBF) were calculated at four different post-labeling delay points (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) and evaluated for each kidney and subject. The intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to assess the reproducibility of the PCASL MRI technique. The within-subject coefficient of variance was determined. Results were obtained for 46 kidneys of 23 subjects with a mean age of 38.6 ± 9.8 years and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 89.1 ± 21.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2) . Two subjects failed in the ASL MRI examination. The mean cortical and medullary ATT-cRBF for the subjects were 215 ± 65 and 81 ± 21 ml/min/100 g, respectively, and the mean cortical and medullary ATT were 1141 ± 262 and 1123 ± 245 msec, correspondingly. The ICC for the cortical ATT-cRBF was 0.927 and the within-subject coefficient of variance was 14.4%. The ICCs for the medullary ATT-cRBF and the cortical and medullary ATT were poor. The Bland-Altman plot for cortical RBF showed good agreement between the two measurements. PCASL MRI is a feasible and reproducible method for measuring renal cortical perfusion. In contrast, ATT for the renal cortex and medulla has poor reproducibility and high variation. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:813-819. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Maximal blood flow acceleration analysis in the early diastolic phase for in situ internal thoracic artery bypass grafts: a new transit-time flow measurement predictor of graft failure following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Handa, Takemi; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Nishimori, Hideaki; Fukutomi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kondo, Nobuo; Tashiro, Miwa

    2015-04-01

    Maximal graft flow acceleration (max df/dt) determined by transit-time flowmetry (TTFM) in the diastolic phase was assessed as a possible predictor of graft failure in coronary artery bypass patients. Max df/dt was retrospectively measured in 57 in situ left internal thoracic artery grafts. TTFM data were fitted to a 5-polynomial curve, which was derived from the first-derivative curve to measure max df/dt (5-polymial max df/dt). Abnormal TTFM was defined as a mean flow of <15 ml/min, pulsatility index of >5 or diastolic filling ratio of <50%. Postoperative coronary angiography (CAG) or multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) was performed within 1 year after surgery. The grafts were classified into four groups: Normal TTFM/Patent MDCT/CAG (N/P), Normal TTFM/Failing MDCT/CAG (N/F), Abnormal TTFM/Patent MDCT/CAG (Ab-N/P) and Abnormal TTFM/Failing MDCT/CAG graft (Ab-N/F). By TTFM, 34 grafts were normal, 5 of which were occluded on CAG, and 23 grafts were abnormal, six of which were occluded on CAG. There were significant differences in 5-polynomial max df/dt between each group pair (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) except for the N/F:Ab-N/P group pair; especially, 5-polynomial max df/dt was significantly lower in the Ab-N/F group compared with the other groups (Ab-N/F: 0.89 ± 0.41 vs N/P: 4.74 ± 3.18, N/F: 2.23 ± 0.65, Ab-N/P: 2.70 ± 1.31 ml/s(2), P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test). The sensitivity and specificity of 5-polynomial max df/dt were, respectively, 72.7 and 80.4% (cut-off value, 1.918 ml/s(2)) for all grafts and 100 and 88.2% (cut-off value, 1.273 ml/s(2)) for abnormal TTFM grafts. The TTFM 5-polymial max df/dt value in the early diastolic phase may be a promising predictor of future graft failure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Transit satellite system timing capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finsod, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    Current time transfer capabilities of the Transit Satellite System are reviewed. Potential improvements in the changes in equipment and operational procedures using operational satellites are discussed.

  19. Reduced resolution transit delay prescan for quantitative continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiying; Robson, Philip M; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C

    2012-05-01

    Arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI can suffer from artifacts and quantification errors when the time delay between labeling and arrival of labeled blood in the tissue is uncertain. This transit delay is particularly uncertain in broad clinical populations, where reduced or collateral flow may occur. Measurement of transit delay by acquisition of the arterial spin labeling signal at many different time delays typically extends the imaging time and degrades the sensitivity of the resulting perfusion images. Acquisition of transit delay maps at the same spatial resolution as perfusion images may not be necessary, however, because transit delay maps tend to contain little high spatial resolution information. Here, we propose the use of a reduced spatial resolution arterial spin labeling prescan for the rapid measurement of transit delay. Approaches to using the derived transit delay information to optimize and quantify higher resolution continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion images are described. Results in normal volunteers demonstrate heterogeneity of transit delay across different brain regions that lead to quantification errors without the transit maps and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to perfusion and transit delay quantification. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Warnert, Esther AH; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850 ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL. PMID:25515216

  1. Transit Timing Study of Kepler Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiwei

    2015-08-01

    Kepler space telescope has found over 4000 transiting planet candidates. Transit timing is a powerful tool to study these transit planet candidates. In this talk, I will talk about two transit timing techniques, i.e., transit timing variation (TTV) and transit duration (TD), which enable confirming their planetary nature and obtaining insight into their orbital properties.

  2. [Long time regulation of arterial blood pressure: facts and hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Tsyrlin, V A

    2013-01-01

    The date about long time increase of blood pressure in conditions of excessive salt intake, constriction of renal artery in animals with initial low baroreceptor reflex is presented. Arterial hypertension in this case is accompanied by increase activity of sympathetic nervous system. The supposition that arterial baroreceptor reflex place a role in long time regulation of arterial blood pressure is expressed.

  3. Comparison of the ability of two continuous cardiac output monitors to measure trends in cardiac output: estimated continuous cardiac output measured by modified pulse wave transit time and an arterial pulse contour-based cardiac output device.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takashi; Oiwa, Ayano; Maemura, Yumi; Robert, Samuna; Kessoku, Sayaka; Ochiai, Ryoichi

    2016-10-01

    Estimated continuous cardiac output (esCCO), a noninvasive technique for continuously measuring cardiac output (CO), is based on modified pulse wave transit time, which in turn is determined by pulse oximetry and electrocardiography. However, its trending ability has never been evaluated in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Therefore, this study examined esCCO's ability to detect the exact changes in CO, compared with currently available arterial waveform analysis methods, in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. CO was measured using an esCCO system and arterial pressure-based CO (APCO), and compared with a corresponding intermittent bolus thermodilution CO (ICO) method. Percentage error and statistical methods, including concordance analysis and polar plot analysis, were used to analyze results from 15 adult patients. The difference in the CO values between esCCO and ICO was -0.39 ± 1.15 L min(-1) (percentage error, 35.6 %). And corrected precision for repeated measures was 1.16 L min(-1) (percentage error for repeated measures, 36.0 %). A concordance analysis showed that the concordance rate was 93.1 %. The mean angular bias was -1.8° and the radial limits of agreement were ±37.6°. The difference between the APCO and ICO CO values was 0.04 ± 1.37 L min(-1) (percentage error, 42.4 %). And corrected precision for repeated measures was 1.37 L min(-1) (percentage error for repeated measures, 42.5 %). The concordance rate was 89.7 %, with a mean angular bias of -3.3° and radial limits of agreement of ±42.2°. This study demonstrated that the trending ability of the esCCO system is not clinically acceptable, as judged by polar plots analysis; however, its trending ability is clinically acceptable based on a concordance analysis, and is comparable with currently available arterial waveform analysis methods.

  4. Transit times in turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Pécseli, H L; Trulsen, J

    2010-04-01

    Statistics of the motion of passively convected point particles in turbulent flows are studied. The database used is obtained by direct numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. We estimate the probability distribution of the transit times of such particles through reference volumes with given forms and sizes. A selected position within the reference volume is moving with the local flow velocity, thus determining the motion of the entire surface. The transit time is defined as the interval between entrance and exit times of surrounding particles convected through the volume by the turbulent motions. Spherical as well as hemispherical surfaces are studied. Scale sizes in the inertial as well as in the viscous subranges of the turbulence are considered. Simple, and seemingly universal, scaling laws are obtained for the probability density of the transit times in terms of the basic properties of the turbulent flow and the geometry. In the present formulation, the results of the analysis are relevant for chemical reactions, but also for understanding details of the feeding rate of micro-organisms in turbulent waters, for instance.

  5. A Reduced Resolution Transit Delay Prescan for Quantitative Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Weiying; Robson, Philip M; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI can suffer from artifacts and quantification errors when the time delay between labeling and arrival of labeled blood in the tissue is uncertain. This transit delay is particularly uncertain in broad clinical populations, where reduced or collateral flow may occur. Measurement of transit delay by acquisition of the ASL signal at many different time delays typically extends the imaging time and degrades the sensitivity of the resulting perfusion images. Acquisition of transit delay maps at the same spatial resolution as perfusion images may not be necessary, however, because transit delay maps tend to contain little high spatial resolution information. Here, we propose the use of a reduced spatial resolution ASL prescan for the rapid measurement of transit delay. Approaches to using the derived transit delay information to optimize and quantify higher resolution continuous ASL perfusion images are described. Results in normal volunteers demonstrate heterogeneity of transit delay across different brain regions that lead to quantification errors without the transit maps and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to perfusion and transit delay quantification. PMID:22084006

  6. On transit time instability in liquid jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabitz, G.; Meier, G.

    1982-01-01

    A basic transit time instability in flows with disturbances of speed is found. It was shown that the mass distribution is established by and large by the described transit time effects. These transit time effects may also be involved for gas jets.

  7. Analyses of some exoplanets' transits and transit timing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püsküllü, ćaǧlar; Soydugan, Faruk

    2017-02-01

    We present solutions of the transit light curves and transit timing variations (TTVs) analyses of the exoplanets HAT-P-5b, HAT-P-9b and HAT-P-25b. Transit light curves were collected at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Observatory and TUBITAK National Observatory. The models were produced by WINFITTER program and stellar, planetary and orbital properties were obtained and discussed. We gave new transit times and generated TTVs with them by appending additional data based on Exoplanet Transit Database (ETD). Significant signals at the TTVs were also investigated.

  8. Mean transit time: proof and esophageal example

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, H.A.

    1988-03-01

    The transit of radioactive tracers in human systems provides information of physiologic and diagnostic importance. A simple, non-technical proof is offered for the formula for computation of mean transit time as area/height of a time-activity curve. It is specifically applicable to esophageal transit, and may also serve to illuminate other uses in nuclear medicine. The alternative centroid formula for mean transit time differs in meaning but is compatible with the area/height formula. Considerations regarding mean transit time suggest ways to determine the attenuation of radioactivity that affects a compartment under study.

  9. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    SciTech Connect

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M.; Martínez, C.

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  10. Heart failure: evaluation of cardiopulmonary transit times with time-resolved MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Shors, Stephanie M; Cotts, William G; Pavlovic-Surjancev, Biljana; François, Christopher J; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Finn, J Paul

    2003-12-01

    To measure cardiopulmonary transit times in patients with heart failure by using low-dose, time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and to determine if transit curves reflect conventional MR indexes of cardiac function. Twenty-six patients with heart failure and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (17 men and nine women; age range, 22-78 years) and thirteen control subjects (eight men and five women; age range, 23-59 years) were examined with MR imaging. The examination consisted of rapid cine MR imaging throughout the heart, followed by contrast material-enhanced time-resolved three-dimensional MR angiography of the cardiac chambers and pulmonary vasculature. Time-intensity curves for the pulmonary artery and ascending aorta were derived from the MR angiography images. Cardiopulmonary transit times and dispersions (full widths at half maximum [FWHM]) were determined from the curves. Transit times and FWHM values for the patients with heart failure were compared with control values by using two-tailed t tests, and transit time was correlated with standard LV functional parameters calculated from the cine MR images. Cardiopulmonary transit times and FWHM values were significantly prolonged in the patients with heart failure compared with those in the control patients (P <.001). Transit time correlated directly with LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and inversely with LV ejection fraction (R > 0.60). However, transit time did not correlate strongly with age, body surface area, heart rate, LV mass, stroke volume, cardiac output, or sphericity index. Time-resolved MR angiography allows determination of cardiopulmonary transit times that are significantly prolonged in heart failure and correlate directly with LV volumes and inversely with LV ejection fraction.

  11. An Exoplanet Radius and Transit Timing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Jonald; Sada, Pedro

    2009-08-01

    Many exoplanet systems contain Jupiter-mass planets on close-in orbits. Theories of planetary system formation account for these hot Jupiters as being end states of inward migration. Variants of those theories also predict terrestrial planets to be captured in mean motion resonance with the hot Jupiters. A recent explosion of discoveries by transit surveys have given us a sample of 37 hot Jupiters transiting planets brighter than V=13. A transit timing survey of these systems could detect hot Earths in resonance, via the large (~ 180 second) perturbations they induce on the giant planet transits. Moreover, the discovery photometry for these systems usually provides only relatively coarse photometric precision, but larger-aperture follow-up can determine the giant planet radius to a precision limited only by knowledge of the stellar mass, and thereby reveal the diversity of giant exoplanet structure, such as the presence of heavy element cores. The relatively large sample now available means that a radius- and transit timing-survey is well matched to classical observing and telescope scheduling. We propose continued observations to perform transit photometry using FLAMINGOS on the 2.1-meter in the J-band, where stellar limb darkening is minimal and transit photometry has excellent sensitivity to planetary radii and shifts in transit time.

  12. An Exoplanet Radius and Transit Timing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Jonald; Sada, Pedro

    2010-02-01

    Many exoplanet systems contain Jupiter-mass planets on close-in orbits. Theories of planetary system formation account for these hot Jupiters as being end states of inward migration. Variants of those theories also predict terrestrial planets to be captured in mean motion resonance with the hot Jupiters. A continuing explosion of discoveries by transit surveys have given us a sample of 45 hot Jupiters transiting planets brighter than V=13. A transit timing survey of these systems could detect hot Earths in resonance, via the large (~ 180 second) perturbations they induce on the giant planet transits. Moreover, the discovery photometry for these systems usually provides only relatively coarse photometric precision, but larger-aperture follow-up can determine the giant planet radius to a precision limited only by knowledge of the stellar mass, and thereby reveal the diversity of giant exoplanet structure, such as the presence of heavy element cores. The relatively large sample now available means that a radius- and transit timing-survey is well matched to classical observing and telescope scheduling. We propose continued observations to perform transit photometry using FLAMINGOS on the 2.1-meter in the J-band, where stellar limb darkening is minimal and transit photometry has excellent sensitivity to planetary radii and shifts in transit time.

  13. Transposition of Great Arteries with Complex Coronary Artery Variants: Time-Related Events Following Arterial Switch Operation.

    PubMed

    Al Anani, Shada; Fughhi, Ibtihaj; Taqatqa, Anas; Elzein, Chawki; Ilbawi, Michel N; Polimenakos, Anastasios C

    2017-03-01

    Coronary artery anatomy represents a challenging and, often, determining predictor of outcome in an arterial switch operation (ASO). Impact of specific coronary artery variants, such as single, intramural and inverted, on time-related events following ASO, is, yet, to be determined. We sought to compare early and late outcomes within the group of nonstandard coronary artery variants. Patients who underwent ASO from January 1995 to October 2010 were reviewed. Patients with coronary artery variants other than L1Cx1R2 ("standard" by Leiden classification) were included. Patients with single, intramural and inverted coronary artery variants incorporated in group A. All other nonstandard coronary variants incorporated in group B. Demographics, perioperative variables, early and late outcomes were assessed. Of the 123 ASO, 24 patients (19.5%) with nonstandard coronary variant were studied. Thirteen were in group A and 11 in group B. There were two early deaths (1 in group A and 1 in group B) (p > 0.05). There is one death early after hospital discharge (group A). Mean follow-up was 59.4 ± 55.1 months. There was no structural coronary artery failure after hospital discharge following ASO. Freedom from any reintervention at 8 years was (78.3 ± 9.6%) (p 0.55) with no late neo-aortic or mitral valve intervention. ASO with single, intramural or inverted coronary artery course carries no added longitudinal risk for structural or flow impairment within the group of nonstandard coronary artery variants. There is an early hazard period with no late survival attrition. Aortic arch repair as part of staged strategy prior to ASO might influence early and late outcome.

  14. Decreasing Transition Times in a Second Grade Classroom: Scientific Support for the Timely Transitions Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrough, Jamie L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Lee, Young Ju; Lemmons, Cathy

    2004-01-01

    Campbell and Skinner used an A-B design to evaluate the effects of the Timely Transitions Game (TTG) on room-to-room transitions in a sixth-grade classroom. The TTG incorporated explicit timing, publicly posted feedback, and an interdependent group contingency with randomly selected transitions and criteria. The purpose of the current study was to…

  15. An advanced protocol-driven transition from parenteral prostanoids to inhaled trepostinil in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Manyoo; Rischard, Franz; De Marco, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) often require parenteral prostanoids to improve symptoms and signs of PAH. Complications of parenteral prostanoids—such as catheter-related infections and intolerable adverse effects—may develop, prompting transition to inhaled prostanoids. We report a prospective, protocol-driven transition from parenteral prostanoids to inhaled prostanoids with monitoring of exercise gas exchange and acute hemodynamics. Three PAH centers recruited patients transitioning from parenteral prostanoids to inhaled trepostinil. Rigid inclusion criteria were used, including parenteral prostanoid dose < 30 ng/kg/min, New York Heart Association functional class (FC) < 3, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) < 6 Wood units. Of the 9 patients meeting initial inclusion criteria, 3 were excluded. In the remaining patients, the parenteral prostanoid was reduced and the inhaled prostanoid was increased over 24–36 hours with continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Exercise capacity and FC were measured at baseline and weeks 1, 4, and 12. All patients were successfully weaned from parenteral prostanoids. An acute PVR decrease was seen with most inhaled prostanoid doses, but PVR varied throughout the transition. Patients tolerated inhaled prostanoids for 9–12 breaths 4 times a day with no treatment-limiting adverse events. At week 12, FC was unchanged, and all patients continued to receive inhaled prostanoids without serious adverse events or additional PAH therapy. In 5 of 6 patients, 6-minute walk distance and peak V˙O2 were within 10% of baseline. Using a strict transition protocol and rigid patient selection criteria, the parenteral prostanoid to inhaled prostanoid transition appeared safe and well tolerated and did not result in clinical deterioration over 12 weeks. Hemodynamic variability noted acutely during transition in our study did not adversely affect successful transition. (Trial registration: Clinical

  16. Magnetic transit-time flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Forster, George A.

    1976-07-06

    The flow rate of a conducting fluid in a stream is determined by disposing two permanent-magnet flowmeters in the stream, one downstream of the other. Flow of the conducting fluid causes the generation of both d-c and a-c electrical signals, the a-c comprising flow noise. Measurement of the time delay between similarities in the a-c signals by cross-correlation methods provides a measure of the rate of flow of the fluid.

  17. Rapid Transition from Inhaled Iloprost to Inhaled Treprostinil in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bourge, Robert C; Tapson, Victor F; Safdar, Zeenat; Benza, Raymond L; Channick, Richard N; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Shapiro, Shelley; White, Richard James; McSwain, Christopher Shane; Gotzkowsky, Stephen Karl; Nelsen, Andrew C; Rubin, Lewis J

    2013-01-01

    Background Inhaled treprostinil is a prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that may provide a more convenient treatment option for patients receiving inhaled iloprost while maintaining the clinical benefit of inhaled prostacyclin therapy. Aims In this open-label safety study, 73 PAH patients were enrolled with primarily World Health Organization Class II (56%) or III (42%) symptoms. At baseline, most patients (93%) were receiving 5 μg of iloprost per dose but 38% of patients reported a dosing frequency below the labeled rate of 6–9 times daily. Patients initiated inhaled treprostinil at 3 breaths four times daily (qid) at the immediate next scheduled iloprost dose. The primary objective was to assess the safety of rapid transition from iloprost to inhaled treprostinil; clinical status and quality of life were also assessed. Results Most patients (84%) achieved the target treprostinil dose of 9 breaths qid and remained on study until transition to commercial therapy (89%). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were cough (74%), headache (44%), and nausea (30%), and five patients prematurely discontinued study drug due to AE (n = 3), disease progression (n = 1), or death (n = 1). At week 12, the time spent on daily treatment activities was reduced compared to baseline, with a mean total savings of 1.4 h per day. Improvements were also observed at week 12 for 6-min walk distance (+16.0; P < 0.001), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (−74 pg/mL; P = 0.001), and the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (all domains P < 0.001). Conclusions Pulmonary arterial hypertension patients can be safely transitioned from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil while maintaining clinical status. PMID:22970909

  18. Rapid transition from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bourge, Robert C; Tapson, Victor F; Safdar, Zeenat; Benza, Raymond L; Channick, Richard N; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Shapiro, Shelley; White, R James; McSwain, Christopher Shane; Gotzkowsky, Stephen Karl; Nelsen, Andrew C; Rubin, Lewis J

    2013-02-01

    Inhaled treprostinil is a prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that may provide a more convenient treatment option for patients receiving inhaled iloprost while maintaining the clinical benefit of inhaled prostacyclin therapy. In this open-label safety study, 73 PAH patients were enrolled with primarily World Health Organization Class II (56%) or III (42%) symptoms. At baseline, most patients (93%) were receiving 5 μg of iloprost per dose but 38% of patients reported a dosing frequency below the labeled rate of 6-9 times daily. Patients initiated inhaled treprostinil at 3 breaths four times daily (qid) at the immediate next scheduled iloprost dose. The primary objective was to assess the safety of rapid transition from iloprost to inhaled treprostinil; clinical status and quality of life were also assessed. Most patients (84%) achieved the target treprostinil dose of 9 breaths qid and remained on study until transition to commercial therapy (89%). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were cough (74%), headache (44%), and nausea (30%), and five patients prematurely discontinued study drug due to AE (n = 3), disease progression (n = 1), or death (n = 1). At week 12, the time spent on daily treatment activities was reduced compared to baseline, with a mean total savings of 1.4 h per day. Improvements were also observed at week 12 for 6-min walk distance (+16.0; P < 0.001), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (-74 pg/mL; P = 0.001), and the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (all domains P < 0.001). Pulmonary arterial hypertension patients can be safely transitioned from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil while maintaining clinical status. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx. greater than 5), structures existing on scales of 100 M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ((Delta)T/T) (approx. less than 10(exp -5)) can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random Gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of approx. 100 M pc for large scale structure as well as approx. 1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition.

  20. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-11-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Slope Transit Time (STT): A Pulse Transit Time Proxy requiring Only a Single Signal Fiducial Point.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-11-01

    A novel pulse transit time proxy measurement, slope transit time (STT), is proposed in this letter. STT is based on geometrical considerations of the arriving photoplethysmographic cardiac waveform and its computation requires only the measurement of a single point on each cardiac beat arriving at the peripheral site. This novel transit time is explained conceptually and its implementation illustrated through its application to signals from respiratory effort, Müller maneuver, and obstructive sleep apnea trials.

  2. New technique to quantitate regional pulmonary microvascular transit times from dynamic x-ray CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajik, Jehangir K.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1998-07-01

    Microvascular red blood cell mean transit time is a crucial parameter underlying basic pulmonary physiology. Dynamic x-ray CT imaging during bolus radiopaque tracer injection offers the ability to make functional measurements throughout the lungs, but is not able to resolve individual microvascular beds. We have implemented a model-free Fast Fourier Transform deconvolution algorithm to extract the microvascular transport characteristics from the acquired time-intensity data. The deconvolved feeding arterial bolus input curves and corresponding regional pulmonary parenchymal 'response' functions provide measures of regional pulmonary tracer residence times, allowing calculation of microvascular transit times for different spatial regions of the pulmonary system. The acquired feeding (main) pulmonary artery and regional pulmonary parenchyma time-intensity curves were fit to gamma variate functions which were then sampled with a temporal resolution of 0.1 seconds. Deconvolution of the feeding arterial and regional parenchymal curves consistently results in bimodal regional residue functions. The two modes consist of a relatively large, sharp, narrow peak approximating a delta function followed by a smaller more dispersed curve. The sharp, narrow peak appears to be due to small artery inclusion in the sampled parenchymal region (partial volume effects). The magnitude of the dominant arterial peak decreases as sampling locations are moved from the less expanded dependent to the more expanded non-dependent lung regions of supine dogs. Mathematical separation of the two modes allowed isolation of the arterial and microvascular components. The shape and transit times of the putative microvascular components agree well with results from similar measurements via microfocal angiography and in vivo microscopy. Reconvolving the microvascular component with the input curve results in a corrected parenchymal curve representing the regional microvascular transport characteristics

  3. Transition Path Time Distribution, Tunneling Times, Friction, and Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, Eli

    2017-02-01

    A quantum mechanical transition path time probability distribution is formulated and its properties are studied using a parabolic barrier potential model. The average transit time is well defined and readily calculated. It is smaller than the analogous classical mechanical average transit time, vanishing at the crossover temperature. It provides a direct route for determining tunneling times. The average time may be also used to define a coarse grained momentum of the system for the passage from one side of the barrier to the other. The product of the uncertainty in this coarse grained momentum with the uncertainty in the location of the particle is shown under certain conditions to be smaller than the ℏ/2 formal uncertainty limit. The model is generalized to include friction in the form of a bilinear interaction with a harmonic bath. Using an Ohmic friction model one finds that increasing the friction, increases the transition time. Only moderate values of the reduced friction coefficient are needed for the quantum transition time and coarse grained uncertainty to approach the classical limit which is smaller than ℏ/2 when the friction is not too small. These results show how one obtains classical dynamics from a pure quantum system without invoking any further assumptions, approximations, or postulates.

  4. Transition Path Time Distribution, Tunneling Times, Friction, and Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Eli

    2017-02-17

    A quantum mechanical transition path time probability distribution is formulated and its properties are studied using a parabolic barrier potential model. The average transit time is well defined and readily calculated. It is smaller than the analogous classical mechanical average transit time, vanishing at the crossover temperature. It provides a direct route for determining tunneling times. The average time may be also used to define a coarse grained momentum of the system for the passage from one side of the barrier to the other. The product of the uncertainty in this coarse grained momentum with the uncertainty in the location of the particle is shown under certain conditions to be smaller than the ℏ/2 formal uncertainty limit. The model is generalized to include friction in the form of a bilinear interaction with a harmonic bath. Using an Ohmic friction model one finds that increasing the friction, increases the transition time. Only moderate values of the reduced friction coefficient are needed for the quantum transition time and coarse grained uncertainty to approach the classical limit which is smaller than ℏ/2 when the friction is not too small. These results show how one obtains classical dynamics from a pure quantum system without invoking any further assumptions, approximations, or postulates.

  5. Taking the Time out of Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardino, Caroline; Fullerton, Elizabeth Kirby

    2014-01-01

    Until now, studies have not looked at the importance of managing and reducing academic transition times in inclusion classrooms. In the present study, researchers examine the impact of teacher-approved, environmental modifications in the context of an inclusion class. The methodology used was a single-subject, multiple baseline design across four…

  6. Umbilical arterial S-nitrosothiols in stressed newborns: role in perinatal circulatory transition.

    PubMed

    Gaston, B; Fry, E; Sears, S; Heroman, W M; Ignarro, L; Stamler, J S

    1998-12-30

    S-Nitrosothiols are potent endogenous vasodilators recently found to be in greater concentrations in fetal umbilical venous than arterial blood. We hypothesized that neonatal increases in SNOs may be involved in the normal human perinatal circulatory transition. Paired human umbilical artery and vein plasma samples were collected after birth. S-Nitrosothiol concentrations were measured as NO after photolysis--and NO3- after reduction in vanadium chloride--by chemiluminescence. Normal umbilical arterial serum SNO levels were nearly twice those of matched venous samples but were low in infants who did not transition normally to neonatal circulation. There was no difference in the concentration of NO3- between the normal and depressed infants. The parallel failure of some fetuses to switch both to a normal arteriovenous SNO relationship and a normal clinical post-partum state suggests that SNOs may be involved in the perinatal circulatory transition.

  7. Numerical analysis of the effect of turbulence transition on the hemodynamic parameters in human coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Gawandalkar, Udhav Ulhas; Kini, Girish; Buradi, Abdulrajak; Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R.; Saba, Luca; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Local hemodynamics plays an important role in atherogenesis and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis disease (CAD). The primary biological effect due to blood turbulence is the change in wall shear stress (WSS) on the endothelial cell membrane, while the local oscillatory nature of the blood flow affects the physiological changes in the coronary artery. In coronary arteries, the blood flow Reynolds number ranges from few tens to several hundreds and hence it is generally assumed to be laminar while calculating the WSS calculations. However, the pulsatile blood flow through coronary arteries under stenotic condition could result in transition from laminar to turbulent flow condition. Methods In the present work, the onset of turbulent transition during pulsatile flow through coronary arteries for varying degree of stenosis (i.e., 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%) is quantitatively analyzed by calculating the turbulent parameters distal to the stenosis. Also, the effect of turbulence transition on hemodynamic parameters such as WSS and oscillatory shear index (OSI) for varying degree of stenosis is quantified. The validated transitional shear stress transport (SST) k-ω model used in the present investigation is the best suited Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model to capture the turbulent transition. The arterial wall is assumed to be rigid and the dynamic curvature effect due to myocardial contraction on the blood flow has been neglected. Results Our observations shows that for stenosis 50% and above, the WSSavg, WSSmax and OSI calculated using turbulence model deviates from laminar by more than 10% and the flow disturbances seems to significantly increase only after 70% stenosis. Our model shows reliability and completely validated. Conclusions Blood flow through stenosed coronary arteries seems to be turbulent in nature for area stenosis above 70% and the transition to turbulent flow begins from 50% stenosis. PMID:27280084

  8. Numerical analysis of the effect of turbulence transition on the hemodynamic parameters in human coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Arun; Gawandalkar, Udhav Ulhas; Kini, Girish; Buradi, Abdulrajak; Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Saba, Luca; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-06-01

    Local hemodynamics plays an important role in atherogenesis and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis disease (CAD). The primary biological effect due to blood turbulence is the change in wall shear stress (WSS) on the endothelial cell membrane, while the local oscillatory nature of the blood flow affects the physiological changes in the coronary artery. In coronary arteries, the blood flow Reynolds number ranges from few tens to several hundreds and hence it is generally assumed to be laminar while calculating the WSS calculations. However, the pulsatile blood flow through coronary arteries under stenotic condition could result in transition from laminar to turbulent flow condition. In the present work, the onset of turbulent transition during pulsatile flow through coronary arteries for varying degree of stenosis (i.e., 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%) is quantitatively analyzed by calculating the turbulent parameters distal to the stenosis. Also, the effect of turbulence transition on hemodynamic parameters such as WSS and oscillatory shear index (OSI) for varying degree of stenosis is quantified. The validated transitional shear stress transport (SST) k-ω model used in the present investigation is the best suited Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model to capture the turbulent transition. The arterial wall is assumed to be rigid and the dynamic curvature effect due to myocardial contraction on the blood flow has been neglected. Our observations shows that for stenosis 50% and above, the WSSavg, WSSmax and OSI calculated using turbulence model deviates from laminar by more than 10% and the flow disturbances seems to significantly increase only after 70% stenosis. Our model shows reliability and completely validated. Blood flow through stenosed coronary arteries seems to be turbulent in nature for area stenosis above 70% and the transition to turbulent flow begins from 50% stenosis.

  9. Pulse transit time differential measurement by fiber Bragg grating pulse recorder.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Sharath; Padma, Srivani; Ambastha, Shikha; Kalegowda, Anand; Asokan, Sundarrajan

    2015-05-01

    The present study reports a noninvasive technique for the measurement of the pulse transit time differential (PTTD) from the pulse pressure waveforms obtained at the carotid artery and radial artery using fiber Bragg grating pulse recorders (FBGPR). PTTD is defined as the time difference between the arrivals of a pulse pressure waveform at the carotid and radial arterial sites. The PTTD is investigated as an indicator of variation in the systolic blood pressure. The results are validated against blood pressure variation obtained from a Mindray Patient Monitor. Furthermore, the pulse wave velocity computed from the obtained PTTD is compared with the pulse wave velocity obtained from the color Doppler ultrasound system and is found to be in good agreement. The major advantage of the PTTD measurement via FBGPRs is that the data acquisition system employed can simultaneously acquire pulse pressure waveforms from both FBGPRs placed at carotid and radial arterial sites with a single time scale, which eliminates time synchronization complexity.

  10. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-10-01

    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  11. Transit Timing Study with Kepler and its synergy with LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiwei; Dong, Subo; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Luo, A.-Li; Zhou, Ji-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Kepler space telescope has found over 4000 transiting planet candidates. Transit timing is a powerful tool to study these transit planet candidates. The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST: http://www.lamost.org) provides mass and radius measurements of the stars thus helps with modeling transit timing. Here, we will show two transit timing techniques, i.e., transit timing variation (TTV) and transit duration (TD), which enable confirming their planetary nature and obtaining insight into their orbital properties by combining Kepler and LAMOST.

  12. Transit Timing Variations In Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansone, Eric; Haghighipour, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the effect of a stellar companion on the transit timing variations (TTV) of a planetary system. The purpose of our study is to determine the ranges of the orbital elements of a secondary star for which the amplitude of a currently existing TTV is enhanced. We chose the system of Kepler 9 as this system represents the first planetary system detected by the transit timing variation method, and studied its TTVs by considering a hypothetical secondary star in this system. By varying the mass, semi-major axis, and eccentricity of the fictitious binary companion, we tested the stability of the known planets Kepler-9c and Kepler-9b and identified the region of the parameter-space for which the binary planetary system would be stable. We calculated TTVs for the two planets of the system for different values of the orbital elements of the secondary star and calculated its difference with the system's already existing TTVs. Results of our study indicate that the effect of the binary companion is significant only when the secondary star is in a highly eccentric orbit and/or the planets of the system are within the range of Super-Earth or terrestrial sizes. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation in the form of a Research Experience for Undergraduates program at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

  13. Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time From Bioimpedance and Continuous Wave Radar.

    PubMed

    Buxi, Dilpreet; Redout, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-04-01

    We have developed and tested a new architecture for pulse transit time (PTT) estimation at the central arteries using electrical bioimpedance, electrocardiogram, and continuous wave radar to estimate cuffless blood pressure. A transmitter and receiver antenna are placed at the sternum to acquire the arterial pulsation at the aortic arch. A four-electrode arrangement across the shoulders acquires arterial pulse across the carotid and subclavian arteries from bioimpedance as well as a bipolar lead I electrocardiogram. The PTT and pulse arrival times (PATs) are measured on six healthy male subjects during exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Using linear regression, the estimated PAT and PTT values are calibrated to the systolic and mean as well as diastolic blood pressure from an oscillometric device. For all subjects, the Pearson correlation coefficients for PAT-SBP and PTT-SBP are -0.66 (p = 0.001) and -0.48 (p = 0.0029), respectively. Correlation coefficients for individual subjects ranged from -0.54 to -0.9 and -0.37 to -0.95, respectively. The proposed system architecture is promising in estimating cuffless arterial blood pressure at the central, proximal arteries, which obey the Moens-Korteweg equation more closely when compared to peripheral arteries. An important advantage of PTT from the carotid and subclavian arteries is that the PTT over the central elastic arteries is measured instead of the peripheral arteries, which potentially reduces the changes in PTT due to vasomotion. Furthermore, the sensors can be completely hidden under a patients clothes, making them more acceptable by the patient for ambulatory monitoring.

  14. Real-time vascular mechanosensation through ex vivo artery perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell-based perfusion studies have provided great insight into fluid-sensing mechanisms, such as primary cilia in the renal and vascular systems. However, the intrinsic limitations of in vitro cell culture, such as the inability to reflect cellular organization within tissues, has distanced observed paradigms from possible clinical developments. Here we describe a protocol that applies ex vivo artery perfusion and calcium imaging to observe real-time cellular responses to fluid-shear stress. Results Through our ex vivo artery perfusion method, we were able to simulate physiological flow and initiate distinct fluid shear stress mechanosensory responses, as well as induced acetylcholine responses in mouse aortic tissue. The observed calcium profiles confirm results found through previous in vitro cell culture experiments. The overall procedure, including dissection, sample preparation and perfusion, takes around 3 hours to complete. Conclusion Through our unique method, we are able to induce laminar flow within intact mouse aortic tissue and illicit subsequent cellular responses. This method of ex vivo artery perfusion provides the opportunity to bridge the novel findings of in vitro studies with subsequent physiological models of fluid-shear stress mechanosensation in vascular tissues. PMID:24685068

  15. Catchment Transit Times - Does Scale Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, M.; Soulsby, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Speed, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mean transit times (MTT) can give useful insights into the internal processes of hydrological systems. However, our understanding of how they vary and scale remains unclear. The objective of this study was therefore to compare MTT at different scales and to thereby identify possible changes in dominant flow pathways and mixing processes over several orders of magnitude from small headwaters to large scale catchments. Furthermore, the study aimed at finding a new way to determine MTT, suitable for application in ungauged catchments. MTTs were estimated using an input weighed convolution integral approach with a Gamma distribution as transit time distribution and weekly δ18O data from 20, mostly nested, contrasting catchments in North-East Scotland ranging from 1 to 1800 km2. The estimated MTTs ranged between 270 and 1172 days and were used to test a previously developed multiple linear regression (MLR) model for MTT prediction based on metrics of soil cover, landscape organization and climate. We show that the controls on MTT identified by the MLR model hold with the independent data from these 20 sites and that the MLR can be used to predict MTT in ungauged montane catchments within a mean relative error of 25 % without the need for independent tracer information. Furthermore, it was found that the dominant controls on MTT not only remain unchanged in regions other than those used for the original calibration of the MLR but also over 3 more orders of magnitude of catchment size, suggesting no major change of dominant flow paths and mixing processes at larger scales. This is consistent with the fact that only the variance of MTT, rather than MTT, showed a scaling relationship above a potential threshold of ~ 50 km2. However, MTT itself appeared to converge with increasing catchment scale, apparently due to the integration of heterogeneous headwater responses in larger downstream catchments.

  16. Rapid Fatal Outcome from Pulmonary Arteries Compression in Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A.; Masouris, George; Tsapakidis, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Christos N.

    2009-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignancy that metastasizes frequently to lymph nodes including the mediastinal lymph nodes. This occurrence may produce symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures such as the superior vena cava syndrome or dysphagia from esophageal compression. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma for whom mediastinal lymphadenopathy led to pulmonary artery compression and a rapidly fatal outcome. This rare occurrence has to be distinguished from pulmonary embolism, a much more frequent event in cancer patients, in order that proper and prompt treatment be initiated. PMID:20111732

  17. Pulse Transit Time Measurement Using Seismocardiogram, Photoplethysmogram, and Acoustic Recordings: Evaluation and Comparison.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenxi; Tavassolian, Negar

    2017-04-24

    This work proposes a novel method of pulse transit time measurement. The proximal arterial location data is collected from seismocardiogram (SCG) recordings by placing a MEMS accelerometer on the chest wall. The distal arterial location data is recorded using an acoustic sensor placed inside the ear. The performance of distal location recordings is evaluated by comparing SCG-acoustic and SCG-Photoplethysmogram (PPG) measurements. PPG and acoustic performances under motion noise are also compared. Experimental results suggest comparable performances for the acoustic-based and PPG-based devices. The feasibility of each PTT measurement method is validated for blood pressure (BP) evaluations and its limitations are analyzed.

  18. Evaluation of blood pressure changes using vascular transit time.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Lim, Chu Sing; Wang, Ping

    2006-08-01

    Imbalance of the human haemodynamic system can provide a prognosis of syncope, dizziness or hypertension. This can be assessed by monitoring its responses to postural change. Examining variations in blood pressure (BP) is deemed an effective means to identify symptoms of this associated condition. However, conventional methods do not promote prolonged monitoring due to the discomfort caused to patients. Established correlations between BP and pulse wave transmission have shown its usefulness in clinical applications. In this study, photoplethysmography and phonocardiography were used to estimate BP changes via observed variations in delay transmission or vascular transit time (VTT) at the upper limb. Thirty-one healthy adults (21 male) were recruited to perform three test activities, namely the arm held at heart level, fully raised up and held down. Association of the three BP indices and heart rate variations with transit time changes was then computed. The results showed that observed VTT changes were related to systolic BP (R(2) = 0.820; p < 0.05), diastolic BP (R(2) = 0.517; p < 0.05), mean arterial pressure (R(2) = 0.673; p < 0.05) and heart rate (R(2) = 0.000; p > 0.05). As systolic BP had the strongest correlation, a regression equation was formulated to associate the two parameters. The non-invasive measuring nature of VTT can be more accommodating to patients, especially during continual monitoring. Moreover, it has the added advantage that the pre-ejection period is not included in its time-related derivations.

  19. Bilateral transit time assessment of upper and lower limbs as a surrogate ankle brachial index marker.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2008-01-01

    Ankle brachial index is useful in monitoring the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. Sphygmomanometer is the standard instrument widely used but frequent prolonged monitoring can be less comfortable for patients. Pulse transit time is known to be inversely correlated with blood pressure and a ratio-based pulse transit time measurement has been proposed as a surrogate ankle brachial index marker. In this study, 17 normotensive adults (9 men; aged 25.4 +/- 3.9 years) were recruited. Two postural change test activities were performed to induce changes in the stiffness of the arterial wall of the moved periphery. Results showed that only readings from the limbs that adopted a new posture registered significant blood pressure and pulse transit time changes (P < .05). Furthermore, there was significant correlation between the ankle brachial index and pulse transit time ratio measure for both test activities (R(2) > or = 0.704). The findings herein suggest that pulse transit time ratio is a surrogate and accommodating ankle brachial index marker.

  20. Carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting utilization trends over time.

    PubMed

    Skerritt, Matthew R; Block, Robert C; Pearson, Thomas A; Young, Kate C

    2012-03-29

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been the standard in atherosclerotic stroke prevention for over 2 decades. More recently, carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged as a less invasive alternative for revascularization. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an increase in stenting parallels a decrease in endarterectomy, if there are specific patient factors that influence one intervention over the other, and how these factors may have changed over time. Using a nationally representative sample of US hospital discharge records, data on CEA and CAS procedures performed from 1998 to 2008 were obtained. In total, 253,651 cases of CEA and CAS were investigated for trends in utilization over time. The specific data elements of age, gender, payer source, and race were analyzed for change over the study period, and their association with type of intervention was examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. Rates of intervention decreased from 1998 to 2008 (P < 0.0001). Throughout the study period, endarterectomy was the much more widely employed procedure. Its use displayed a significant downward trend (P < 0.0001), with the lowest rates of intervention occurring in 2007. In contrast, carotid artery stenting displayed a significant increase in use over the study period (P < 0.0001), with the highest intervention rates occurring in 2006. Among the specific patient factors analyzed that may have altered utilization of CEA and CAS over time, the proportion of white patients who received intervention decreased significantly (P < 0.0001). In multivariate modeling, increased age, male gender, white race, and earlier in the study period were significant positive predictors of CEA use. Rates of carotid revascularization have decreased over time, although this has been the result of a reduction in CEA despite an overall increase in CAS. Among the specific patient factors analyzed, age, gender, race, and time were significantly associated with the utilization of

  1. Stiffness Indices and Fractal Dimension relationship in Arterial Pressure and Diameter Time Series in-Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cymberknop, L.; Legnani, W.; Pessana, F.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The advent of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, is associated to significant alterations in the physical properties of arterial vessels. Evaluation of arterial biomechanical behaviour is related to the assessment of three representative indices: arterial compliance, arterial distensibility and arterial stiffness index. Elasticity is the most important mechanical property of the arterial wall, whose natures is strictly non-linear. Intervention of elastin and collagen fibres, passive constituent elements of the arterial wall, is related to the applied wall stress level. Concerning this, appropriate tools are required to analyse the temporal dynamics of the signals involved, in order to characterize the whole phenomenon. Fractal geometry can be mentioned as one of those techniques. The aim of this study consisted on arterial pressure and diameter signals processing, by means of nonlinear techniques based on fractal geometry. Time series morphology was related to different arterial stiffness states, generated by means of blood flow variations, during experiences performed in vitro.

  2. The Transition to Parenthood and the Social Reality of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    Compares physical time and social time, illustrated with a case study of a husband and wife who are in the midst of their transition to second-time (and unexpected) parenthood. Demonstrates the heuristic value of a social-time framework for understanding the transition to parenthood in particular and family systems in general. (Author/JAC)

  3. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. VIII. CATALOG OF TRANSIT TIMING MEASUREMENTS OF THE FIRST TWELVE QUARTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mazeh, Tsevi; Nachmani, Gil; Holczer, Tomer; Sokol, Gil; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Zucker, Shay; Agol, Eric; Carter, Joshua A.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Steffen, Jason H.; Welsh, William

    2013-10-01

    Following the works of Ford et al. and Steffen et al. we derived the transit timing of 1960 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) using the pre-search data conditioning light curves of the first twelve quarters of the Kepler data. For 721 KOIs with large enough signal-to-noise ratios, we obtained also the duration and depth of each transit. The results are presented as a catalog for the community to use. We derived a few statistics of our results that could be used to indicate significant variations. Including systems found by previous works, we have found 130 KOIs that showed highly significant times of transit variations (TTVs) and 13 that had short-period TTV modulations with small amplitudes. We consider two effects that could cause apparent periodic TTV—the finite sampling of the observations and the interference with the stellar activity, stellar spots in particular. We briefly discuss some statistical aspects of our detected TTVs. We show that the TTV period is correlated with the orbital period of the planet and with the TTV amplitude.

  4. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler. VIII. Catalog of Transit Timing Measurements of the First Twelve Quarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazeh, Tsevi; Nachmani, Gil; Holczer, Tomer; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Sokol, Gil; Rowe, Jason F.; Zucker, Shay; Agol, Eric; Carter, Joshua A.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Ragozzine, Darin; Steffen, Jason H.; Welsh, William

    2013-10-01

    Following the works of Ford et al. and Steffen et al. we derived the transit timing of 1960 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) using the pre-search data conditioning light curves of the first twelve quarters of the Kepler data. For 721 KOIs with large enough signal-to-noise ratios, we obtained also the duration and depth of each transit. The results are presented as a catalog for the community to use. We derived a few statistics of our results that could be used to indicate significant variations. Including systems found by previous works, we have found 130 KOIs that showed highly significant times of transit variations (TTVs) and 13 that had short-period TTV modulations with small amplitudes. We consider two effects that could cause apparent periodic TTV—the finite sampling of the observations and the interference with the stellar activity, stellar spots in particular. We briefly discuss some statistical aspects of our detected TTVs. We show that the TTV period is correlated with the orbital period of the planet and with the TTV amplitude.

  5. Arterial spin labelling reveals prolonged arterial arrival time in idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bachari, Sarah; Parkes, Laura M.; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Hanby, Martha F.; Tharaken, Vivek; Leroi, Iracema; Emsley, Hedley C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, yet effective disease modifying treatments are still lacking. Neurodegeneration involves multiple interacting pathological pathways. The extent to which neurovascular mechanisms are involved is not well defined in IPD. We aimed to determine whether novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including arterial spin labelling (ASL) quantification of cerebral perfusion, can reveal altered neurovascular status (NVS) in IPD. Fourteen participants with IPD (mean ± SD age 65.1 ± 5.9 years) and 14 age and cardiovascular risk factor matched control participants (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 4.2 years) underwent a 3T MRI scan protocol. ASL images were collected before, during and after a 6 minute hypercapnic challenge. FLAIR images were used to determine white matter lesion score. Quantitative images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) were calculated from the ASL data both at rest and during hypercapnia. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) images were calculated, depicting the change in CBF and AAT relative to the change in end-tidal CO2. A significant (p = 0.005) increase in whole brain averaged baseline AAT was observed in IPD participants (mean ± SD age 1532 ± 138 ms) compared to controls (mean ± SD age 1335 ± 165 ms). Voxel-wise analysis revealed this to be widespread across the brain. However, there were no statistically significant differences in white matter lesion score, CBF, or CVR between patients and controls. Regional CBF, but not AAT, in the IPD group was found to correlate positively with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores. These findings provide further evidence of alterations in NVS in IPD. PMID:25379411

  6. It's Time to Transition to Production, Now What?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, P. A.; Montgomery, Marc; Werntz, David; Payne, Michael

    1999-01-01

    When it's time to transition to production, it's easy to be too focused on the application itself and to overlook some areas crucial to your success. Learn about the 10 transition tasks that will ensure a smooth transition, and will prepare your organization to operate and use your system effectively.

  7. Time Domain Estimation of Arterial Parameters using the Windkessel Model and the Monte Carlo Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostuski, Vladimir; Pastore, Ignacio; Rodriguez Palacios, Gaspar; Vaca Diez, Gustavo; Moscoso-Vasquez, H. Marcela; Risk, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Numerous parameter estimation techniques exist for characterizing the arterial system using electrical circuit analogs. However, they are often limited by their requirements and usually high computational burdain. Therefore, a new method for estimating arterial parameters based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed. A three element Windkessel model was used to represent the arterial system. The approach was to reduce the error between the calculated and physiological aortic pressure by randomly generating arterial parameter values, while keeping constant the arterial resistance. This last value was obtained for each subject using the arterial flow, and was a necessary consideration in order to obtain a unique set of values for the arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. The estimation technique was applied to in vivo data containing steady beats in mongrel dogs, and it reliably estimated Windkessel arterial parameters. Further, this method appears to be computationally efficient for on-line time-domain estimation of these parameters.

  8. Transit timing analysis in the HAT-P-32 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeliger, M.; Dimitrov, D.; Kjurkchieva, D.; Mallonn, M.; Fernandez, M.; Kitze, M.; Casanova, V.; Maciejewski, G.; Ohlert, J. M.; Schmidt, J. G.; Pannicke, A.; Puchalski, D.; Göğüş, E.; Güver, T.; Bilir, S.; Ak, T.; Hohle, M. M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Errmann, R.; Jensen, E.; Cohen, D.; Marschall, L.; Saral, G.; Bernt, I.; Derman, E.; Gałan, C.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of 45 transit observations obtained for the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-32b. The transits have been observed using several telescopes mainly throughout the YETI (Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative) network. In 25 cases, complete transit light curves with a timing precision better than 1.4 min have been obtained. These light curves have been used to refine the system properties, namely inclination i, planet-to-star radius ratio Rp/Rs, and the ratio between the semimajor axis and the stellar radius a/Rs. First analyses by Hartman et al. suggests the existence of a second planet in the system, thus we tried to find an additional body using the transit timing variation (TTV) technique. Taking also the literature data points into account, we can explain all mid-transit times by refining the linear ephemeris by 21 ms. Thus, we can exclude TTV amplitudes of more than ˜1.5 min.

  9. Novel MRI tests of orocecal transit time and whole gut transit time: studies in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock, G; Lam, C; Hoad, C L; Costigan, C; Cox, E F; Placidi, E; Thexton, I; Wright, J; Blackshaw, P E; Perkins, A C; Marciani, L; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2014-01-01

    Background Colonic transit tests are used to manage patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Some tests used expose patients to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to compare novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests for measuring orocecal transit time (OCTT) and whole gut transit time (WGT), which also provide data on colonic volumes. Methods 21 healthy volunteers participated. Study 1: OCTT was determined from the arrival of the head of a meal into the cecum using MRI and the Lactose Ureide breath test (LUBT), performed concurrently. Study 2: WGT was assessed using novel MRI marker capsules and radio-opaque markers (ROMs), taken on the same morning. Studies were repeated 1 week later. Key Results OCTT measured using MRI and LUBT was 225 min (IQR 180–270) and 225 min (IQR 165–278), respectively, correlation rs = 0.28 (ns). WGT measured using MRI marker capsules and ROMs was 28 h (IQR 4–50) and 31 h ± 3 (SEM), respectively, correlation rs = 0.85 (p < 0.0001). Repeatability assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.45 (p = 0.017) and 0.35 (p = 0.058) for MRI and LUBT OCTT tests. Better repeatability was observed for the WGT tests, ICC being 0.61 for the MRI marker capsules (p = 0.001) and 0.69 for the ROM method (p < 0.001) respectively. Conclusions & Inferences The MRI WGT method is simple, convenient, does not use X-ray and compares well with the widely used ROM method. Both OCTT measurements showed modest reproducibility and the MRI method showed modest inter-observer agreement. PMID:24165044

  10. Mean first-passage time of quantum transition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Rong-Tao; Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of mean first-passage time (MFPT) in quantum mechanics; the MFPT is the average time of the transition from a given initial state, passing through some intermediate states, to a given final state for the first time. We apply the method developed in statistical mechanics for calculating the MFPT of random walks to calculate the MFPT of a transition process. As applications, we (1) calculate the MFPT for multiple-state systems, (2) discuss transition processes occurring in an environmental background, (3) consider a roundabout transition in a hydrogen atom, and (4) apply the approach to laser theory.

  11. Applying the payoff time framework to carotid artery disease management.

    PubMed

    Yuo, Theodore H; Roberts, Mark S; Braithwaite, R Scott; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Kraemer, Kevin L

    2013-11-01

    and Asymptomatic stenosis of the carotid arteries is associated with stroke. Carotid revascularization can reduce the future risk of stroke but can also trigger an immediate stroke. The objective was to model the generic relationship between immediate risk, long-term benefit, and life expectancy for any one-time prophylactic treatment and then apply the model to the use of revascularization in the management of asymptomatic carotid disease. In the "payoff time" framework, the possibility of losing quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) because of revascularization failure is conceptualized as an "investment" that is eventually recouped over time, on average. Using this framework, we developed simple mathematical forms that define relationships between the following: perioperative probability of stroke (P); annual stroke rate without revascularization (r0); annual stroke rate after revascularization, conditional on not having suffered perioperative stroke (r1); utility levels assigned to the asymptomatic state (ua) and stroke state (us); and mortality rates (λ). In patients whose life expectancy is below a critical life expectancy (CLE = P/(1-P)r0-r1, the "investment" will never pay off, and revascularization will lead to loss of QALYs, on average. CLE is independent of utilities assigned to the health states if a rank ordering exists in which ua > us. For clinically relevant values (P = 3%, r0 = 1%, r1 = 0.5%), the CLE is approximately 6.4 years, which is longer than published guidelines regarding patient selection for revascularization. In managing asymptomatic carotid disease, the payoff time framework specifies a CLE beneath which patients, on average, will not benefit from revascularization. This formula is suitable for clinical use at the patient's bedside and can account for patient variability, the ability of clinicians who perform revascularization, and the particular revascularization technology that is chosen.

  12. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-10

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/∼eprice.

  13. Transit Light Curves with Finite Integration Time: Fisher Information Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-01

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/~eprice.

  14. Transition of Stable Pediatric Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension from Intravenous Epoprostenol to Intravenous Treprostinil

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, D. Dunbar; Claussen, Lori; Doran, Aimee

    2007-01-01

    Intravenous epoprostenol was the first agent approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, epoprostenol therapy carries the risks of a short half-life (<6 minutes) and side effects, including jaw pain, flushing, and headache. Recently, intravenous treprostinil has been studied, primarily in adults with PAH, and found to provide effective therapy. The effects of continuous intravenous treprostinil were retrospectively evaluated in 13 children with stable PAH who had been treated with epoprostenol for >1 year. Children were transitioned in the hospital over 24 hours using a rapid or slow strategy. The children were a mean age of 11 years (range 3 to 17) and were transitioned to treprostinil from August 2004 to August 2005. The baseline 6-minute walking distance was on average 516 ± 115 m (n = 9) and did not change after transition. Patients were treated with treprostinil for 1.1 ± 0.5 years. There were 2 deaths, and 2 patients transitioned to other therapy. Seven patients experienced ≥1 central-line infection. Despite a higher dose of treprostinil, the side effects were subjectively diminished. In conclusion, treprostinil provides an alternative therapy in children with PAH, with fewer side effects. However, evaluation regarding rates of infection requires further exploration. PMID:17317374

  15. Regional gastrointestinal transit times in severe ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Haase, A M; Gregersen, T; Christensen, L A; Agnholt, J; Dahlerup, J F; Schlageter, V; Krogh, K

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility may present secondary to inflammatory bowel disease. The main aim of this study was to investigate GI motility in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients during severe disease activity. Twenty patients with severe UC were studied with a novel telemetric capsule system (3D-Transit) designed for minimally invasive, ambulatory assessment of total and regional GI transit times. Ten patients were available for follow-up during remission. Data were compared to those of 20 healthy subjects (HS). Total GI transit time was significantly longer in patients with severe UC (median 44.5 h [range 9.9-102.7 h]) than in HS (median 27.6 h [range 9.6-56.4 h]) (p = 0.032). Additionally, during severe UC, transit time was prolonged through the proximal colon (p = 0.003) and there were strong trends toward longer than normal small intestinal transit time (HS: median 4.9 h [range 3.4-8.3 h] vs severe UC patients: median 5.9 h [range 3.9-11.9 h]; p = 0.053) and colorectal transit times (HS: median 18.2 h [range 1.5-43.7] vs severe UC patients: median 34.9 h [range 0.4-90.9 h]; p = 0.056). Our data further indicate that total GI and colorectal transit times may be prolonged in UC during early remission. Total GI transit times are significantly prolonged during severe UC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pulse transit times to the capillary bed evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2009-03-01

    The pulse transit time (PTT) of a wave over a specified distance along a blood vessel provides a simple non-invasive index that can be used for the evaluation of arterial distensibility. Current methods of measuring the PTT determine the propagation times of pulses only in the larger arteries. We have evaluated the pulse arrival time (PAT) to the capillary bed, through the microcirculation, and have investigated its relationship to the arterial PAT to a fingertip. To do so, we detected cardiac-induced pulse waves in skin microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Using the ECG as a reference, PATs to the microcirculation were measured on the four extremities of 108 healthy subjects. Simultaneously, PATs to the radial artery of the left index finger were obtained from blood pressure recordings using a piezoelectric sensor. Both PATs correlate in similar ways with heart rate and age. That to the microcirculation is shown to be sensitive to local changes in skin perfusion induced by cooling. We introduce a measure for the PTT through the microcirculation. We conclude that a combination of LDF and pressure measurements enables simultaneous characterization of the states of the macro and microvasculature. Information about the microcirculation, including an assessment of endothelial function, may be obtained from the responses to perturbations in skin perfusion, such as temperature stress or vasoactive substances.

  17. Comparison of LES of steady transitional flow in an idealized stenosed axisymmetric artery model with a RANS transitional model.

    PubMed

    Tan, F P P; Wood, N B; Tabor, G; Xu, X Y

    2011-05-01

    In this study, two different turbulence methodologies are investigated to predict transitional flow in a 75% stenosed axisymmetric experimental arterial model and in a slightly modified version of the model with an eccentric stenosis. Large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods were applied; in the LES simulations eddy viscosity subgrid-scale models were employed (basic and dynamic Smagorinsky) while the RANS method involved the correlation-based transitional version of the hybrid k-ε/k-ω flow model. The RANS simulations used 410,000 and 820,000 element meshes for the axisymmetric and eccentric stenoses, respectively, with y(+) less than 2 viscous wall units for the boundary elements, while the LES used 1,200,000 elements with y(+) less than 1. Implicit filtering was used for LES, giving an overlap between the resolved and modeled eddies, ensuring accurate treatment of near wall turbulence structures. Flow analysis was carried out in terms of vorticity and eddy viscosity magnitudes, velocity, and turbulence intensity profiles and the results were compared both with established experimental data and with available direct numerical simulations (DNSs) from the literature. The simulation results demonstrated that the dynamic Smagorinsky LES and RANS transitional model predicted fairly comparable velocity and turbulence intensity profiles with the experimental data, although the dynamic Smagorinsky model gave the best overall agreement. The present study demonstrated the power of LES methods, although they were computationally more costly, and added further evidence of the promise of the RANS transition model used here, previously tested in pulsatile flow on a similar model. Both dynamic Smagorinsky LES and the RANS model captured the complex transition phenomena under physiological Reynolds numbers in steady flow, including separation and reattachment. In this respect, LES with dynamic Smagorinsky appeared more successful than DNS

  18. Bayesian optimization of perfusion and transit time estimation in PASL-MRI.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno; Sanches, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling (PASL) techniques potentially allow the absolute, non-invasive quantification of brain perfusion and arterial transit time. This can be achieved by fitting a kinetic model to the data acquired at a number of inversion time points (TI). The intrinsically low SNR of PASL data, together with the uncertainty in the model parameters, can hinder the estimation of the parameters of interest. Here, a two-compartment kinetic model is used to estimate perfusion and transit time, based on a Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) criterion. A priori information concerning the physiological variation of the multiple model parameters is used to guide the solution. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the accuracy of our proposed Bayesian estimation method with a conventional Least Squares (LS) approach, using four different sets of TI points. Each set is obtained either with a uniform distribution or an optimal sampling strategy designed based on the same MAP criterion. We show that the estimation errors are minimized when our proposed Bayesian estimation method is employed in combination with an optimal set of sampling points. In conclusion, our results indicate that PASL perfusion and transit time measurements would benefit from a Bayesian approach for the optimization of both the sampling strategy and the estimation algorithm, whereby prior information on the parameters is used.

  19. WASP-14 b: transit timing analysis of 19 light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Maciejewski, G.; Seeliger, M.; Marka, C.; Fernández, M.; Güver, T.; Göğüş, E.; Nowak, G.; Vaňko, M.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Mugrauer, M.; Trepl, L.; Gelszinnis, J.

    2015-08-01

    Although WASP-14 b is one of the most massive and densest exoplanets on a tight and eccentric orbit, it has never been a target of photometric follow-up monitoring or dedicated observing campaigns. We report on new photometric transit observations of WASP-14 b obtained within the framework of Transit Timing Variations @ Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (TTV@YETI). We collected 19 light curves of 13 individual transit events using six telescopes located in five observatories distributed in Europe and Asia. From light-curve modelling, we determined the planetary, stellar, and geometrical properties of the system and found them in agreement with the values from the discovery paper. A test of the robustness of the transit times revealed that in case of a non-reproducible transit shape the uncertainties may be underestimated even with a wavelet-based error estimation methods. For the timing analysis, we included two publicly available transit times from 2007 and 2009. The long observation period of seven years (2007-2013) allowed us to refine the transit ephemeris. We derived an orbital period 1.2 s longer and 10 times more precise than the one given in the discovery paper. We found no significant periodic signal in the timing-residuals and, hence, no evidence for TTV in the system.

  20. Accuracy of PET rCBF measurements: Effect of transit time delay

    SciTech Connect

    Dhawan, V.; Conti, J.; Mernyk, M.; Jarden, J.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Analytic expressions were derived for estimating the error in PET rCBF measurements associated with the time lag between brain and blood radioactivity (1) following 0-15 water injection and (2) during non-steady-state 0-15 CO/sub 2/ inhalation. This lag time reflects the physiological difference in arrival times of 0-15 activity at brain and radial arterial sampling site as well as the experimentally introduced resistance to flow offered by the arterial catheter/stopcock assembly. Multiple measurements of transit time delay were made in 2 patients using Rb-82. The arrival of radioactivity in the brain was detected by a pair of PET detectors operating in coincidence. The arrival of radioactivity at the radial arterial catheter was estimated from consecutive 5-sec blood samples (catheter flow rate 7-10 ml/min). Transit time delays varied between 1 and 8 sec. For non-steady-state 0-15 CO/sub 2//PET measurements, estimated errors in rCBF ranged from 0.02 to 30% for delays of 2-8 sec and scan lengths of 30-180 sec. In the range 20-100 ml/min/100 g, variations in rCBF only marginally affected these errors. Errors increased with scan length and with longer delays but decreased sharply with scan duration > 60 sec. For 30-180 sec scans, even larger errors are associated with the 0-15 water injection technique (peak blood activity at 10 sec): 1-60% for delays of 2-8 sec. A ''slow'' bolus peaking at 20 sec decreased the error by 40%. For the 0-15 water method it is essential to determine the transit time delay to within 2 sec if accurate flow measurements (error < 5%) are to be obtained from 40-60 sec scans.

  1. Evaluation of transit-time and electromagnetic flow measurement in a chronically instrumented nonhuman primate model.

    PubMed

    Koenig, S C; Reister, C A; Schaub, J; Swope, R D; Ewert, D; Fanton, J W

    1996-01-01

    The Physiology Research Branch at Brooks AFB conducts both human and nonhuman primate experiments to determine the effects of microgravity and hypergravity on the cardiovascular system and to identify the particular mechanisms that invoke these responses. Primary investigative efforts in our nonhuman primate model require the determination of total peripheral resistance, systemic arterial compliance, and pressure-volume loop characteristics. These calculations require beat-to-beat measurement of aortic flow. This study evaluated accuracy, linearity, biocompatability, and anatomical features of commercially available electromagnetic (EMF) and transit-time flow measurement techniques. Five rhesus monkeys were instrumented with either EMF (3 subjects) or transit-time (2 subjects) flow sensors encircling the proximal ascending aorta. Cardiac outputs computed from these transducers taken over ranges of 0.5 to 2.0 L/min were compared to values obtained using thermodilution. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the EMF probe produced an average error of 15% (r = .896) and 8.6% average linearity per reading, and the transit-time flow probe produced an average error of 6% (r = .955) and 5.3% average linearity per reading. Postoperative performance and biocompatability of the probes were maintained throughout the study. The transit-time sensors provided the advantages of greater accuracy, smaller size, and lighter weight than the EMF probes. In conclusion, the characteristic features and performance of the transit-time sensors were superior to those of the EMF sensors in this study.

  2. Evaluation of transit-time and electromagnetic flow measurement in a chronically instrumented nonhuman primate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, S. C.; Reister, C. A.; Schaub, J.; Swope, R. D.; Ewert, D.; Fanton, J. W.; Convertino, V. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The Physiology Research Branch at Brooks AFB conducts both human and nonhuman primate experiments to determine the effects of microgravity and hypergravity on the cardiovascular system and to identify the particular mechanisms that invoke these responses. Primary investigative efforts in our nonhuman primate model require the determination of total peripheral resistance, systemic arterial compliance, and pressure-volume loop characteristics. These calculations require beat-to-beat measurement of aortic flow. This study evaluated accuracy, linearity, biocompatability, and anatomical features of commercially available electromagnetic (EMF) and transit-time flow measurement techniques. Five rhesus monkeys were instrumented with either EMF (3 subjects) or transit-time (2 subjects) flow sensors encircling the proximal ascending aorta. Cardiac outputs computed from these transducers taken over ranges of 0.5 to 2.0 L/min were compared to values obtained using thermodilution. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the EMF probe produced an average error of 15% (r = .896) and 8.6% average linearity per reading, and the transit-time flow probe produced an average error of 6% (r = .955) and 5.3% average linearity per reading. Postoperative performance and biocompatability of the probes were maintained throughout the study. The transit-time sensors provided the advantages of greater accuracy, smaller size, and lighter weight than the EMF probes. In conclusion, the characteristic features and performance of the transit-time sensors were superior to those of the EMF sensors in this study.

  3. Evaluation of transit-time and electromagnetic flow measurement in a chronically instrumented nonhuman primate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, S. C.; Reister, C. A.; Schaub, J.; Swope, R. D.; Ewert, D.; Fanton, J. W.; Convertino, V. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The Physiology Research Branch at Brooks AFB conducts both human and nonhuman primate experiments to determine the effects of microgravity and hypergravity on the cardiovascular system and to identify the particular mechanisms that invoke these responses. Primary investigative efforts in our nonhuman primate model require the determination of total peripheral resistance, systemic arterial compliance, and pressure-volume loop characteristics. These calculations require beat-to-beat measurement of aortic flow. This study evaluated accuracy, linearity, biocompatability, and anatomical features of commercially available electromagnetic (EMF) and transit-time flow measurement techniques. Five rhesus monkeys were instrumented with either EMF (3 subjects) or transit-time (2 subjects) flow sensors encircling the proximal ascending aorta. Cardiac outputs computed from these transducers taken over ranges of 0.5 to 2.0 L/min were compared to values obtained using thermodilution. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the EMF probe produced an average error of 15% (r = .896) and 8.6% average linearity per reading, and the transit-time flow probe produced an average error of 6% (r = .955) and 5.3% average linearity per reading. Postoperative performance and biocompatability of the probes were maintained throughout the study. The transit-time sensors provided the advantages of greater accuracy, smaller size, and lighter weight than the EMF probes. In conclusion, the characteristic features and performance of the transit-time sensors were superior to those of the EMF sensors in this study.

  4. Carotid artery screening at the time of coronary artery bypass - Does it influence neurological outcomes?

    PubMed

    Narayan, P; Khan, Md W; Das, D; Guha Biswas, R; Das, M; Rupert, E

    2017-09-15

    Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) are recommended to undergo carotid duplex study in presence of risk factors. Aim of the study was to quantify the relationship between risk factors and presence of carotid disease and examine if screening influenced outcomes. Over a four year period in a single institution, 4364 consecutive patients presenting for primary isolated CABG were enrolled to undergo carotid duplex scanning. Patients were grouped as no significant carotid artery stenosis (<50%), moderate stenosis (50%-70%) and severe stenosis (>70%). Sub group analysis of patients with severe carotid stenosis was performed. Sensitivity of risk factors thought to be associated with carotid disease was also assessed. Of the 4364 patients, 406 patients (9.3%) had moderate or severe carotid artery stenosis. 32 (7.88%) had bilateral disease. Age>65, hypertension, left main stem stenosis, peripheral vascular disease, and previous neurological injury were all associated with carotid artery disease (p<0. 01). Diabetes (p=0.06) and smoking (p=0.79) were not significant risk factors. In patients with moderate carotid artery stenosis there was no difference in the incidence of major 4 (0.98%) vs.18 (0.45%) p=0.14 or minor 8 (1.9%) vs. 56 (1.41%); p=0.38 neurological outcomes. However, severe carotid stenosis was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality but no increase in neurological events. In the presence of risk factors carotid screening identifies at risk population. Severe carotid stenosis was associated with increased all-cause mortality. However, moderate stenosis did not influence neurological outcomes or mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transition Icons for Time Series Visualization and Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Paul; Baharloo, Raheleh; Wanigatunga, Amal A; Manini, Todd D; Tighe, Patrick J; Rashidi, Parisa

    2017-05-16

    The modern healthcare landscape has seen the rapid emergence of techniques and devices which temporally monitor and record physiological signals. The prevalence of time series data within the healthcare field necessitates the development of methods which can analyze the data in order to draw meaningful conclusions. Time series behavior is notoriously difficult to intuitively understand due to its intrinsic high-dimensionality, which is compounded in the case of analyzing groups of time series collected from different patients. Our framework, which we call Transition Icons, renders common patterns in a visual format useful for understanding the shared behavior within groups of time series. Transition Icons are adept at detecting and displaying subtle differences and similarities e.g. between measurements taken from patients receiving different treatment strategies or stratified by demographics. We introduce various methods which collectively allow for exploratory analysis of groups of time series, while being free of distribution assumptions and including simple heuristics for parameter determination. Our technique extracts discrete transition patterns from Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX) representations, and compiles transition frequencies into a Bag of Patterns (BoP) constructed for each group. These transition frequencies are normalized and aligned in icon form to intuitively display the underlying patterns. We demonstrate the Transition Icon technique for two time series data sets - postoperative pain scores, and hip-worn accelerometer activity counts. We believe Transition Icons can be an important tool for researchers approaching time series data, as they give rich and intuitive information about collective time series behaviors.

  6. A novel continuous cardiac output monitor based on pulse wave transit time.

    PubMed

    Sugo, Yoshihiro; Ukawa, Teiji; Takeda, Sunao; Ishihara, Hironori; Kazama, Tomiei; Takeda, Junzo

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring cardiac output (CO) is important for the management of patient circulation in an operation room (OR) or intensive care unit (ICU). We assumed that the change in pulse wave transit time (PWTT) obtained from an electrocardiogram (ECG) and a pulse oximeter wave is correlated with the change in stroke volume (SV), from which CO is derived. The present study reports the verification of this hypothesis using a hemodynamic analysis theory and animal study. PWTT consists of a pre-ejection period (PEP), the pulse transit time through an elasticity artery (T(1)), and the pulse transit time through peripheral resistance arteries (T(2)). We assumed a consistent negative correlation between PWTT and SV under all conditions of varying circulatory dynamics. The equation for calculating SV from PWTT was derived based on the following procedures. 1. Approximating SV using a linear equation of PWTT. 2. The slope and y-intercept of the above equation were determined under consideration of vessel compliance (SV was divided by Pulse Pressure (PP)), animal type, and the inherent relationship between PP and PWTT. Animal study was performed to verify the above-mentioned assumption. The correlation coefficient of PWTT and SV became r = -0.710 (p 〈 0.001), and a good correlation was admitted. It has been confirmed that accurate continuous CO and SV measurement is only possible by monitoring regular clinical parameters (ECG, SpO2, and NIBP).

  7. Correcting transit time distributions in coarse MODFLOW-MODPATH models.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In low to medium resolution MODFLOW models, the area occupied by sink cells often far exceeds the surface area of the streams they represent. As a result, MODPATH will calculate inaccurate particle traces and transit times. A frequency distribution of transit times for a watershed will also be in error. Such a distribution is used to assess the long-term impact of nonpoint source pollution on surface waters and wells. Although the inaccuracies for individual particles can only be avoided by increased model grid resolution or other advanced modeling techniques, the frequency distribution can be improved by scaling the particle transit times by an adjustment factor during post-processing.

  8. Transition path time distribution and the transition path free energy barrier.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Eli

    2016-10-19

    The recent experimental measurement of the transition path time distributions of proteins presents several challenges to theory. Firstly, why do the fits of the experimental data to a theoretical expression lead to barrier heights which are much lower than the free energies of activation of the observed transitions? Secondly, there is the theoretical question of determining the transition path time distribution, without invoking the Smoluchowski limit. In this paper, we derive an exact expression for a transition path time distribution which is valid for arbitrary memory friction using the normal mode transformation which underlies Kramers' rate theory. We then recall that for low barriers, there is a noticeable difference between the transition path time distribution obtained with absorbing boundary conditions and free boundary conditions. For the former, the transition times are shorter, since recrossings of the boundaries are disallowed. As a result, if one uses the distribution based on absorbing boundary conditions to fit the experimental data, one will find that the transition path barrier will be larger than the values found based on a theory with free boundary conditions. We then introduce the paradigm of a transition path barrier height, and show that one should always expect it to be much smaller than the activation energy.

  9. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. V. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATION CANDIDATES IN THE FIRST SIXTEEN MONTHS FROM POLYNOMIAL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin; Holman, Matthew J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Still, Martin; Tenenbaum, Peter; Steffen, Jason H.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; and others

    2012-09-10

    Transit timing variations provide a powerful tool for confirming and characterizing transiting planets, as well as detecting non-transiting planets. We report the results of an updated transit timing variation (TTV) analysis for 1481 planet candidates based on transit times measured during the first sixteen months of Kepler observations. We present 39 strong TTV candidates based on long-term trends (2.8% of suitable data sets). We present another 136 weaker TTV candidates (9.8% of suitable data sets) based on the excess scatter of TTV measurements about a linear ephemeris. We anticipate that several of these planet candidates could be confirmed and perhaps characterized with more detailed TTV analyses using publicly available Kepler observations. For many others, Kepler has observed a long-term TTV trend, but an extended Kepler mission will be required to characterize the system via TTVs. We find that the occurrence rate of planet candidates that show TTVs is significantly increased ({approx}68%) for planet candidates transiting stars with multiple transiting planet candidates when compared to planet candidates transiting stars with a single transiting planet candidate.

  10. Systolic aortic pressure-time area is a useful index describing arterial wave properties in rats with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ru-Wen; Chang, Chun-Yi; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Luo, Jian-Ming; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Lin, Fang-Yue; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2015-12-01

    The accurate measurement of arterial wave properties in terms of arterial wave transit time (τw) and wave reflection factor (Rf) requires simultaneous records of aortic pressure and flow signals. However, in clinical practice, it will be helpful to describe the pulsatile ventricular afterload using less-invasive parameters if possible. We investigated the possibility of systolic aortic pressure-time area (PTAs), calculated from the measured aortic pressure alone, acting as systolic workload imposed on the rat diabetic heart. Arterial wave reflections were derived using the impulse response function of the filtered aortic input impedance spectra. The cardiovascular condition in the rats with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes was characterized by (1) an elevation in PTAs; and (2) an increase in Rf and decrease in τw. We found that an inverse linear correlation between PTAs and arterial τw reached significance (τw = 38.5462 - 0.0022 × PTAs; r = 0.7708, P < 0.0001). By contrast, as the PTAs increased, the reflection intensity increased: Rf = -0.5439 + 0.0002 × PTAs; r = 0.8701; P <0 .0001. All these findings suggested that as diabetes stiffened aortas, the augmented aortic PTAs might act as a useful index describing the diabetes-related deterioration in systolic ventricular workload.

  11. Systolic aortic pressure-time area is a useful index describing arterial wave properties in rats with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ru-Wen; Chang, Chun-Yi; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Luo, Jian-Ming; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Lin, Fang-Yue; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2015-01-01

    The accurate measurement of arterial wave properties in terms of arterial wave transit time (τw) and wave reflection factor (Rf) requires simultaneous records of aortic pressure and flow signals. However, in clinical practice, it will be helpful to describe the pulsatile ventricular afterload using less-invasive parameters if possible. We investigated the possibility of systolic aortic pressure-time area (PTAs), calculated from the measured aortic pressure alone, acting as systolic workload imposed on the rat diabetic heart. Arterial wave reflections were derived using the impulse response function of the filtered aortic input impedance spectra. The cardiovascular condition in the rats with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes was characterized by (1) an elevation in PTAs; and (2) an increase in Rf and decrease in τw. We found that an inverse linear correlation between PTAs and arterial τw reached significance (τw = 38.5462 − 0.0022 × PTAs; r = 0.7708, P < 0.0001). By contrast, as the PTAs increased, the reflection intensity increased: Rf = –0.5439 + 0.0002 × PTAs; r = 0.8701; P <0 .0001. All these findings suggested that as diabetes stiffened aortas, the augmented aortic PTAs might act as a useful index describing the diabetes-related deterioration in systolic ventricular workload. PMID:26620634

  12. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  13. Pulse wave transit time for monitoring respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Ahlstrom, C; Lanne, T; Ask, P

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the beat-to-beat respiratory fluctuations in pulse wave transit time (PTT) and its subcomponents, the cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and the vessel transit time (VTT) in ten healthy subjects. The three transit times were found to fluctuate in pace with respiration. When applying a simple breath detecting algorithm, 88% of the breaths seen in a respiration air-flow reference could be detected correctly in PTT. Corresponding numbers for PEP and VTT were 76 and 81%, respectively. The performance during hypo- and hypertension was investigated by invoking blood pressure changes. In these situations, the error rates in breath detection were significantly higher. PTT can be derived from signals already present in most standard monitoring set-ups. The transit time technology thus has prospects to become an interesting alternative for respiration rate monitoring.

  14. Effects of altered epididymal sperm transit time on sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Carla Dal Bianco; Porto, Elaine Manoela; Arena, Arielle Cristina; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2008-08-01

    The epididymal sperm transit time seems to have an important role in the process of sperm maturation, and it seems that alterations to the transit can harm the process. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of altered sperm transit time through the epididymis on sperm parameters and fertility of rats, as well as the role of testosterone in the alterations. Sprague-Dawley adult male rats were randomly assigned to four different groups and were treated for 12 days: (i) 10 microg/rat/day DES, to accelerate the transit; (ii) 6.25 mg/kg/day guanethidine sulphate, to delay the transit; (iii) same treatment as group 1, plus androgen supplementation; (iv) control animals received the vehicles. Guanethidine treatment delayed the sperm transit time through the epididymal cauda, provoking increased sperm reserves in this region. Animals exposed to DES showed an acceleration of sperm transit time in the epididymis, and consequently decreased sperm density in both epididymal regions, the caput-corpus and cauda, and diminished sperm motility. In both cases sperm production was not altered. Testosterone supplementation was able to restore the transit time to values close to normality, as they were higher than in the control rats. The same occurred in relation to sperm motility. Rats exposed to DES presented lower fertility after in utero artificial insemination using sperm collected from the proximal cauda epididymis. Therefore, it was concluded that the acceleration of rat sperm transit time appeared to harm normal sperm maturation, thus decreasing sperm quality and fertility capacity, in an androgen-dependent way.

  15. Developments in Planet Detection using Transit Timing Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Agol, Eric; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.

    2006-12-01

    In a transiting planetary system, the presence of a second planet will cause the time interval between transits to vary. These transit timing variations (TTV) are particularly large near mean-motion resonances and can be used to infer the orbital elements of planets with masses that are too small to detect by any other means. The author presents the results of a study of simulated data where they show the potential that this planet detection technique has to detect and characterize secondary planets in transiting systems. These results have important ramifications for planetary transit searches since each transiting system presents an opportunity for additional discoveries through a TTV analysis. They present such an analysis for 13 transits of the HD 209458 system that were observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. This analysis indicates that a putative companion in a low-order, mean-motion resonance can be no larger than the mass of the Earth and constitutes, to date, the most sensitive probe for extrasolar planets that orbit main sequence stars. The presence or absence of small planets in low-order, mean-motion resonances has implications for theories of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Since TTV is most sensitive in these regimes, it should prove a valuable tool not only for the detection of additional planets in transiting systems, but also as a way to determine the dominant mechanisms of planet formation and the evolution of planetary systems.

  16. Who will be active? Predicting exercise stage transitions after hospitalization for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert D; Tulloch, Heather; Kocourek, Jana; Morrin, Louise I; Beaton, Louise J; Papadakis, Sophia; Blanchard, Chris M; Riley, Dana L; Pipe, Andrew L

    2007-01-01

    We describe transitions between exercise stages of change in people with coronary artery disease (CAD) over a 6-month period following a CAD-related hospitalization and evaluate constructs from Protection Motivation Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, the Ecological Model, and participation in cardiac rehabilitation as correlates of stage transition. Seven hundred eighty-two adults hospitalized with CAD were recruited and administered a baseline survey including assessments of theory-based constructs and exercise stage of change. Mailed surveys were used to gather information concerning exercise stage of change and participation in cardiac rehabilitation 6 months later. Progression from pre-action stages between baseline and 6 month follow-up was associated with greater perceived efficacy of exercise to reduce risk of future disease, fewer barriers to exercise, more access to home exercise equipment, and participation in cardiac rehabilitation. Regression from already active stages between baseline and 6 month follow-up was associated with increased perceived susceptibility to a future CAD-related event, fewer intentions to exercise, lower self-efficacy, and more barriers to exercise.

  17. NASA's SDO Captures Mercury Transit Time-lapses SDO Captures Mercury Transit Time-lapse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Less than once per decade, Mercury passes between the Earth and the sun in a rare astronomical event known as a planetary transit. The 2016 Mercury transit occurred on May 9th, between roughly 7:12 a.m. and 2:42 p.m. EDT. The images in this video are from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory Music: Encompass by Mark Petrie For more info on the Mercury transit go to: www.nasa.gov/transit This video is public domain and may be downloaded at: svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12235 NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Daylight Saving Time Transitions and Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Tuuli; Nysten, Esa; Haukka, Jari; Sulander, Pekka; Partonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythm disruptions may have harmful impacts on health. Circadian rhythm disruptions caused by jet lag compromise the quality and amount of sleep and may lead to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and loss of attention and alertness. Even a minor change in time schedule may cause considerable stress for the body. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time alter the social and environmental timing twice a year. According to earlier studies, this change in time-schedule leads to sleep disruption and fragmentation of the circadian rhythm. Since sleep deprivation decreases motivation, attention, and alertness, transitions into and out of daylight saving time may increase the amount of accidents during the following days after the transition. We studied the amount of road traffic accidents one week before and one week after transitions into and out of daylight saving time during years from 1981 to 2006. Our results demonstrated that transitions into and out of daylight saving time did not increase the number of traffic road accidents. PMID:20652036

  19. Daylight saving time transitions and road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Tuuli; Nysten, Esa; Haukka, Jari; Sulander, Pekka; Partonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythm disruptions may have harmful impacts on health. Circadian rhythm disruptions caused by jet lag compromise the quality and amount of sleep and may lead to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and loss of attention and alertness. Even a minor change in time schedule may cause considerable stress for the body. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time alter the social and environmental timing twice a year. According to earlier studies, this change in time-schedule leads to sleep disruption and fragmentation of the circadian rhythm. Since sleep deprivation decreases motivation, attention, and alertness, transitions into and out of daylight saving time may increase the amount of accidents during the following days after the transition. We studied the amount of road traffic accidents one week before and one week after transitions into and out of daylight saving time during years from 1981 to 2006. Our results demonstrated that transitions into and out of daylight saving time did not increase the number of traffic road accidents.

  20. Domain wall formation in late-time phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Wang, Yun

    1992-01-01

    We examine domain wall formulation in late time phase transitions. We find that in the invisible axion domain wall phenomenon, thermal effects alone are insufficient to drive different parts of the disconnected vacuum manifold. This suggests that domain walls do not form unless either there is some supplemental (but perhaps not unreasonable) dynamics to localize the scalar field responsible for the phase transition to the low temperature maximum (to an extraordinary precision) before the onset of the phase transition, or there is some non-thermal mechanism to produce large fluctuations in the scalar field. The fact that domain wall production is not a robust prediction of late time transitions may suggest future directions in model building.

  1. Origin of time before inflation from a topological phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Mauricio

    2017-09-01

    We study the origin of the universe (or pre-inflation) by suggesting that the primordial space-time in the universe suffered a global topological phase transition, from a 4D Euclidean manifold to an asymptotic 4D hyperbolic one. We introduce a complex time, τ, such that its real part becomes dominant after started the topological phase transition. Before the big bang, τ is a space-like coordinate, so that can be considered as a reversal variable. After the phase transition is converted in a causal variable. The formalism solves in a natural manner the quantum to classical transition of the geometrical relativistic quantum fluctuations: σ, which has a geometric origin.

  2. Oral transit time: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Thais Jacóe; MORAES, Danielle Pedroni; de MEDEIROS, Gisele Chagas; SASSI, Fernanda Chiarion; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno; de ANDRADE, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral transit time is one of the parameters observed during the clinical assessment of the swallowing function. The importance of this parameter is due to its impact on the total duration of a meal, whose consequence can be an unfavorable nutritional prognostic. Objective To document scientific papers that measure oral transit time in healthy subjects. Method The review followed the steps proposed by the Cochrane Handbook. The search was done via the PubMed database through the use of descriptors related to the oral phase of swallowing, as well as to types of food consistency. Results The articles on the theme had different definitions for oral transit time, as well as heterogeneity of tested volumes, age and gender of the participants. The times found varied from 0.35 s to 1.54 s for liquids, from 0.39 s to 1.05 s for pasty foods and from 1 s to 12.8 s for solid foods. Also, regardless of volume or consistency, oral transit time in elderly people is significantly longer than in adults. Conclusion There's no consensus in the literature about oral transit time in healthy subjects. However, this parameter should be valued during the assessment of the swallowing function due to its negative impact on the dynamics of swallowing, which can cause high energy expenditure during feeding. PMID:26176255

  3. Nonadiabatic transitions in finite-time adiabatic rapid passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T.; Miao, X.; Metcalf, H.

    2007-06-01

    To apply the adiabatic rapid passage process repetitively [T. Lu, X. Miao, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 71, 061405(R) (2005)], the nonadiabatic transition probability of a two-level atom subject to chirped light pulses over a finite period of time needs to be calculated. Using a unitary first-order perturbation method in the rotating adiabatic frame, an approximate formula has been derived for such transition probabilities in the entire parameter space of the pulses.

  4. TTVFaster: First order eccentricity transit timing variations (TTVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    TTVFaster implements analytic formulae for transit time variations (TTVs) that are accurate to first order in the planet-star mass ratios and in the orbital eccentricities; the implementations are available in several languages, including IDL, Julia, Python and C. These formulae compare well with more computationally expensive N-body integrations in the low-eccentricity, low mass-ratio regime when applied to simulated and to actual multi-transiting Kepler planet systems.

  5. Changes in ischemic stroke occurrence following daylight saving time transitions.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Jussi O T; Ruuskanen, Jori O; Rautava, Päivi; Kytö, Ville

    Circadian rhythm disruption has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (IS). Daylight saving time (DST) transitions disrupt circadian rhythms and shifts the pattern of diurnal variation in stroke onset, but effects on the incidence of IS are unknown. Effects of 2004-2013 DST transitions on IS hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality were studied nationwide in Finland. Hospitalizations during the week following DST transition (study group, n = 3033) were compared to expected hospitalizations (control group, n = 11,801), calculated as the mean occurrence during two weeks prior to and two weeks after the index week. Hospitalizations for IS increased during the first two days (Relative Risk 1.08; CI 1.01-1.15, P = 0.020) after transition, but difference was diluted when observing the whole week (RR 1.03; 0.99-1.06; P = 0.069). Weekday-specific increase was observed on the second day (Monday; RR 1.09; CI 1.00-1.90; P = 0.023) and fifth day (Thursday; RR 1.11; CI 1.01-1.21; P = 0.016) after transition. Women were more susceptible than men to temporal changes during the week after DST transitions. Advanced age (>65 years) (RR 1.20; CI 1.04-1.38; P = 0.020) was associated with increased risk during the first two days, and malignancy (RR 1.25; CI 1.00-1.56; P = 0.047) during the week after DST transition. DST transitions appear to be associated with an increase in IS hospitalizations during the first two days after transitions but not during the entire following week. Susceptibility to effects of DST transitions on occurrence of ischemic stroke may be modulated by gender, age and malignant comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A modified radiographic method for estimating segmental colonic transit time in subjects with rapid gut transit.

    PubMed

    Pai, C G; Kurian, G

    1999-07-01

    In this study on Indian subjects, the single X-ray method was assessed for its reliability in measuring the transit of particulate matter through the colon, and if inaccurate a suitable and simple alternative was to be devised. Radio-opaque markers were serially followed in 20 normal male volunteers. This was done by three 12 hourly radiographs and by stool collection to determine the transit time through the colon and its segments. It was compared with similar parameters calculated from the same data using one radiograph and three combinations of two radiographs each. The mean +/- SD colonic transit time determined by using three X-rays was 18.0 +/- 6.6 h which agreed well with the mean mouth-to-anus transit time of 24.2 +/- 6.8 h (mean +/- SDdiff = -6.2 +/- 2.9). When two of the three X-rays were used in various combinations, the best results were obtained with the method including radiographs at 12 and 36 h. Parameters calculated from a single radiograph done 36 h after the ingestion of makers showed lesser agreement with the results of the three radiograph method. Therefore in subjects with rapid gut transit, the simplified method for estimating the colonic and segmental transit times using a single X-ray is inaccurate. Using two radiographs enhances the accuracy.

  7. STELLAR PROPER MOTION AND THE TIMING OF PLANETARY TRANSITS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2009-08-01

    Duration and period of transits in extrasolar planetary systems can exhibit long-term variations for a variety of reasons. Here we investigate how systemic proper motion, which steadily re-orients planetary orbit with respect to our line of sight, affects the timing of transits. We find that in a typical system with a period of several days, proper motion at the level of 100 mas yr{sup -1} makes transit duration vary at a rate {approx}10-100 ms yr{sup -1}. In some isolated systems this variation is at the measurable level (can be as high as 0.6 s yr{sup -1} for GJ436) and may exceed all other transit-timing contributions (due to the general relativity, stellar quadrupole, etc.). In addition, proper motion causes evolution of the observed period between transits P {sub obs} via the Shklovskii effect at a rate {approx}>10 {mu}s yr{sup -1} for the nearby transiting systems (0.26 ms yr{sup -1} in GJ436), which in some cases exceeds all other contributions to P-dot{sub obs}. Earth's motion around the Sun gives rise to additional periodic timing signal (even for systems with zero intrinsic proper motion) allowing a full determination of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit. Unlike most other timing effects, the proper motion signatures persist even in systems with zero eccentricity and get stronger as the planetary period increases. They should be the dominant cause of transit-timing variations in isolated wide-separation (periods of months) systems that will be sought by Kepler.

  8. Transit time and charge storage measurements in heavily doped emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugroschel, A.; Park, J. S.; Hwang, B. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A first direct measurement of the minority-carrier transit time in a transparent heavily doped emitter layer is reported. The value was obtained by a high-frequency conductance method recently developed and used for low-doped Si. The transit time coupled with the steady-state current enables the determination of the quasi-static charge stored in the emitter and the quasi-static emitter capacitance. Using a transport model, from the measured transit time, the value for the minority-carrier diffusion coefficient and mobility is estimated. The measurements were done using a heavily doped emitter of the Si p(+)-n-p bipolar transistor. The new result indicates that the position-averaged minority-carrier diffusion coefficients may be much smaller than the corresponding majority-carrier values for emitters having a concentration ranging from about 3 x 10 to the 19th per cu cm to 10 to the 20th per cu cm.

  9. Transit time and charge storage measurements in heavily doped emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugroschel, A.; Park, J. S.; Hwang, B. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A first direct measurement of the minority-carrier transit time in a transparent heavily doped emitter layer is reported. The value was obtained by a high-frequency conductance method recently developed and used for low-doped Si. The transit time coupled with the steady-state current enables the determination of the quasi-static charge stored in the emitter and the quasi-static emitter capacitance. Using a transport model, from the measured transit time, the value for the minority-carrier diffusion coefficient and mobility is estimated. The measurements were done using a heavily doped emitter of the Si p(+)-n-p bipolar transistor. The new result indicates that the position-averaged minority-carrier diffusion coefficients may be much smaller than the corresponding majority-carrier values for emitters having a concentration ranging from about 3 x 10 to the 19th per cu cm to 10 to the 20th per cu cm.

  10. Real-time Simultaneous Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Bile Duct and Arterial Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Stockdale, Alan; Choi, Hak Soo; Laurence, Rita G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that two independent wavelengths of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light could be used to identify bile ducts and hepatic arteries simultaneously, and intraoperatively. Materials and Methods Three different combinations of 700 nm and 800 nm fluorescent contrast agents specific for bile ducts and arteries were injected into N = 10 35-kg female Yorkshire pigs intravenously. Combination 1 (C-1) was methylene blue (MB) for arterial imaging and indocyanine green (ICG) for bile duct imaging. Combination 2 (C-2) was ICG for arterial imaging and MB for bile duct imaging. Combination 3 (C-3) was a newly developed, zwitterionic NIR fluorophore ZW800-1 for arterial imaging and MB for bile duct imaging. Open and minimally invasive surgeries were imaged using the FLARE™ and m-FLARE™ systems, respectively. Results Although the desired bile duct and arterial anatomy could be imaged with contrast-to-background ratios (CBRs) ≥ 6 using all 3 combinations, each one differed significantly in terms of repetition and prolonged imaging. ICG injection resulted in high CBR of the liver and common bile duct (CBD) and prolonged imaging time (120 min) of the CBD (C-1). However, because ICG also resulted in high background of liver and CBD relative to arteries, ICG produced a lower arterial CBR (C-2) at some time points. C-3 provided the best overall performance, although C-2, which is clinically available, did enable effective laparoscopy. Conclusions We demonstrate that dual-channel NIR fluorescence imaging provides simultaneous, real-time, and high resolution identification of bile ducts and hepatic arteries during biliary tract surgery. PMID:21816414

  11. Gastric transit and small intestinal transit time and motility assessed by a magnet tracking system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tracking an ingested magnet by the Magnet Tracking System MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland) is an easy and minimally-invasive method to assess gastrointestinal transit. The aim was to test the validity of MTS-1 for assessment of gastric transit time and small intestinal transit time, and to illustrate transit patterns detected by the system. Methods A small magnet was ingested and tracked by an external matrix of 16 magnetic field sensors (4 × 4) giving a position defined by 5 coordinates (position: x, y, z, and angle: θ, ϕ). Eight healthy subjects were each investigated three times: (1) with a small magnet mounted on a capsule endoscope (PillCam); (2) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the fasting state; and (3) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the postprandial state. Results Experiment (1) showed good agreement and no systematic differences between MTS-1 and capsule endoscopy when assessing gastric transit (median difference 1 min; range: 0-6 min) and small intestinal transit time (median difference 0.5 min; range: 0-52 min). Comparing experiments (1) and (2) there were no systematic differences in gastric transit or small intestinal transit when using the magnet-PillCam unit and the much smaller magnetic pill. In experiments (2) and (3), short bursts of very fast movements lasting less than 5% of the time accounted for more than half the distance covered during the first two hours in the small intestine, irrespective of whether the small intestine was in the fasting or postprandial state. The mean contraction frequency in the small intestine was significantly lower in the fasting state than in the postprandial state (9.90 min-1 vs. 10.53 min-1) (p = 0.03). Conclusion MTS-1 is reliable for determination of gastric transit and small intestinal transit time. It is possible to distinguish between the mean contraction frequency of small intestine in the fasting state and in the postprandial state. PMID:22206545

  12. Noise-induced transition in human reaction times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, José M.; Díaz, José A.

    2016-09-01

    The human reaction/response time can be defined as the time elapsed from the onset of stimulus presentation until a response occurs in many sensory and cognitive processes. A reaction time model based on Piéron’s law is investigated. The model shows a noise-induced transition in the moments of reaction time distributions due to the presence of strong additive noise. The model also demonstrates that reaction times do not follow fluctuation scaling between the mean and the variance but follow a generalized version between the skewness and the kurtosis. The results indicate that noise-induced transitions in the moments govern fluctuations in sensory-motor transformations and open an insight into the macroscopic effects of noise in human perception and action. The conditions that lead to extreme reaction times are discussed based on the transfer of information in neurons.

  13. Challenges of Detecting Unseen Planetary Companions with Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Ford, E. B.; Payne, M. J.

    2010-05-01

    Both ground and space-based transit observatories are poised to significantly increase the number of known transiting planets and the number of precisely measured transit times. The variation in a planet's transit times may be used to infer the presence of additional planets. Deducing the masses and orbital parameters of such planets from transit time variations (TTVs) alone is a rich and increasingly relevant dynamical problem. In this work, we evaluate the extent of the degeneracies in this process, systematically explore the dependence of TTV signals on several parameters, and provide phase space plots that could aid observers in planning future observations. Our explorations are focused on a likely-to-be prevalent situation: a known transiting hot Jupiter and a suspected external terrestrial-like perturber following a nearly coplanar orbit. Through 10 million N-body simulations, we demonstrate how TTV signal amplitudes may vary by orders of magnitude due to slight variations in any one orbital parameter (0.001 AU in semimajor axis, 0.005 in eccentricity, or a few degrees in mean longitude), and quantify the number of consecutive transit observations necessary in order to obtain a reasonable opportunity to characterize the unseen planet (> 50 observations). Planets in or near period commensurabilities of the form p:q, where p < 20 and q < 4, produce distinct TTV signatures, regardless of whether the planets are actually locked in a mean motion resonance. We distinguish these systems from the secular systems in our explorations. Additionally, we find that computing the autocorrelation function of a TTV signal can significantly help break the degeneracy in particular parameter regimes, and postulate on how this method might aid TTV analyses in future studies focused on particular exosystems.

  14. Distribution of Capillary Transit Times in Isolated Lungs of Oxygen-Tolerant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Madhavi; Gan, Zhuohui; Clough, Anne V.; Molthen, Robert C.; Roerig, David L.; Audi, Said H.

    2014-01-01

    Rats pre-exposed to 85% O2 for 5–7 days tolerate the otherwise lethal effects of 100% O2. The objective was to evaluate the effect of rat exposure to 85% O2 for 7 days on lung capillary mean transit time (t̄c) and distribution of capillary transit times (hc(t)). This information is important for subsequent evaluation of the effect of this hyperoxia model on the redox metabolic functions of the pulmonary capillary endothelium. The venous concentration vs. time outflow curves of fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FITC-dex), an intravascular indicator, and coenzyme Q1 hydroquinone (CoQ1H2), a compound which rapidly equilibrates between blood and tissue on passage through the pulmonary circulation, were measured following their bolus injection into the pulmonary artery of isolated perfused lungs from rats exposed to room air (normoxic) or 85% O2 for 7 days (hyperoxic). The moments (mean transit time and variance) of the measured FITC-dex and CoQ1H2 outflow curves were determined for each lung, and were then used in a mathematical model [Audi et al. J. Appl. Physiol. 77: 332–351, 1994] to estimate t̄c and the relative dispersion (RDc) of hc(t). Data analysis reveals that exposure to hyperoxia decreases lung t̄c by 42% and increases RDc, a measure hc(t) heterogeneity, by 40%. PMID:20552277

  15. Distribution of capillary transit times in isolated lungs of oxygen-tolerant rats.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Madhavi; Gan, Zhuohui; Clough, Anne V; Molthen, Robert C; Roerig, David L; Audi, Said H

    2010-11-01

    Rats pre-exposed to 85% O₂ for 5-7 days tolerate the otherwise lethal effects of 100% O₂. The objective was to evaluate the effect of rat exposure to 85% O₂ for 7 days on lung capillary mean transit time t(c) and distribution of capillary transit times (h(c)(t)). This information is important for subsequent evaluation of the effect of this hyperoxia model on the redox metabolic functions of the pulmonary capillary endothelium. The venous concentration vs. time outflow curves of fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FITC-dex), an intravascular indicator, and coenzyme Q₁ hydroquinone (CoQ₁H₂), a compound which rapidly equilibrates between blood and tissue on passage through the pulmonary circulation, were measured following their bolus injection into the pulmonary artery of isolated perfused lungs from rats exposed to room air (normoxic) or 85% O₂ for 7 days (hyperoxic). The moments (mean transit time and variance) of the measured FITC-dex and CoQ₁H₂ outflow curves were determined for each lung, and were then used in a mathematical model [Audi et al. J. Appl. Physiol. 77: 332-351, 1994] to estimate t(c) and the relative dispersion (RD(c)) of h (c)(t). Data analysis reveals that exposure to hyperoxia decreases lung t(c) by 42% and increases RD(c), a measure h(c)(t) heterogeneity, by 40%.

  16. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR ECCENTRIC AND INCLINED EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David

    2009-08-20

    The Transit Timing Variation (TTV) method relies on monitoring changes in timing of transits of known exoplanets. Nontransiting planets in the system can be inferred from TTVs by their gravitational interactions with the transiting planet. The TTV method is sensitive to low-mass planets that cannot be detected by other means. Inferring the orbital elements and mass of the nontransiting planets from TTVs, however, is more challenging than for other planet detection schemes. It is a difficult inverse problem. Here, we extended the new inversion method proposed by Nesvorny and Morbidelli to eccentric transiting planets and inclined orbits. We found that the TTV signal can be significantly amplified for hierarchical planetary systems with substantial orbital inclinations and/or for an eccentric transiting planet with anti-aligned orbit of the planetary companion. Thus, a fortuitous orbital setup of an exoplanetary system may significantly enhance our chances of TTV detection. We also showed that the detailed shape of the TTV signal is sensitive to the orbital inclination of the nontransiting planetary companion. The TTV detection method may thus provide important constraints on the orbital inclination of exoplanets and be used to test theories of planetary formation and evolution.

  17. Transit Timing Variations for Eccentric and Inclined Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David

    2009-08-01

    The Transit Timing Variation (TTV) method relies on monitoring changes in timing of transits of known exoplanets. Nontransiting planets in the system can be inferred from TTVs by their gravitational interactions with the transiting planet. The TTV method is sensitive to low-mass planets that cannot be detected by other means. Inferring the orbital elements and mass of the nontransiting planets from TTVs, however, is more challenging than for other planet detection schemes. It is a difficult inverse problem. Here, we extended the new inversion method proposed by Nesvorný & Morbidelli to eccentric transiting planets and inclined orbits. We found that the TTV signal can be significantly amplified for hierarchical planetary systems with substantial orbital inclinations and/or for an eccentric transiting planet with anti-aligned orbit of the planetary companion. Thus, a fortuitous orbital setup of an exoplanetary system may significantly enhance our chances of TTV detection. We also showed that the detailed shape of the TTV signal is sensitive to the orbital inclination of the nontransiting planetary companion. The TTV detection method may thus provide important constraints on the orbital inclination of exoplanets and be used to test theories of planetary formation and evolution.

  18. Geomorphological control on groundwater flow, transit times and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Marçais, Jean; Kolbe, Tamara; Courtois, Quentin; Longuevergne, Laurent; Steer, Philippe; Davy, Philippe; Thomas, Zahra; Le Carlier, Christian; Guillocheau, François; Pinay, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    In weathered zones, subsurface flows remain shallow and strongly depend on the geomorphological evolution of the landscape. Weathered profiles have limited depths. Subsurface circulations follow the structure of the hydrological catchment. Surface and subsurface flows are strongly coupled by rapid responses of saturations to recharge. Some of the circulations are indeed fast with surface/subsurface signatures and transit times of the order of some weeks to some months. Most of the water is however much older as revealed by anthropogenic tracers. For example, in the western crystalline basement of France, characteristic transit times are more of the order of decades. Detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling in well-documented sites show that behaviour of weathered zones is intermediary between hydrology and hydrogeology. While organization of flows is strongly constrained by topography like for hydrology, transit times are however much longer like in hydrogeology. Based on several catchments, we propose quantitative indicators to relate geomorphology with subsurface flow organization. We integrate geological constrains and saturation capacities to derive transit-time dynamics. We discuss the consequences on water quality linked to kinetically-controlled degradation of non-point source contaminants.

  19. Educating Part-Time Adult Learners in Transition. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Judi

    Adult learners, who comprise over half of all students in higher education, are typically part-time students in transition and present special challenges to colleges and universities. These students are primarily seeking to improve their situation through education, and their commitment to self-improvement dictates a different set of aspirations…

  20. A multicenter, retrospective study of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension transitioned from parenteral prostacyclin therapy to inhaled iloprost

    PubMed Central

    Channick, Richard N.; Frantz, Robert P.; Kawut, Steven M.; Palevsky, Harold; Tumuluri, Ramagopal; Sulica, Roxana; Lauto, Paula O.; Benton, Wade W.; de Boisblanc, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance, leading to right heart failure and death. Guidelines recommend customization of treatment, necessitating the development of effective strategies for transitioning patients among treatments. In this study, we characterized our experience with patient transitions from parenteral prostacyclin to inhaled iloprost. We retrospectively assessed records from 11 centers of 37 consecutive patients with PAH aged ≥ 18 years who were treated with intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) prostacyclin analogues and transitioned to inhaled iloprost. The transition period began on the first day of inhaled iloprost with the intent of discontinuing parenteral prostacyclin and ended on the first day on inhaled iloprost free of parenteral prostacyclin. Persistence was defined as the absence of (1) parenteral prostacyclin while remaining on inhaled iloprost during post-transition Days 1-90 and (2) no reinitiation of parenteral prostacyclin during post-transition Days 90-365. All patients were clinically stable before transitioning to inhaled iloprost. The mean age was 46.5 years, 70.3% were female, 51.4% had idiopathic PAH, and 43.0% were in New York Heart Association Functional Class III. Among patients with an overlapping transition, the mean transition period was 10.5 days. A transition dosing algorithm was used in 10 patients (27.0%). At one year, 78.4% of the patients remained persistent on inhaled iloprost and 81.1% were free of clinical worsening. In selected patients on background oral PAH therapy, transitioning from parenteral prostacyclin to inhaled iloprost appears safe and feasible and is associated with long-term success. Further study is needed to define the optimal patient selection criteria and transition algorithm. PMID:24015339

  1. Real-Time, In Vivo Monitoring, and Quantitative Assessment of Intra-Arterial Vasospasm Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gölitz, Philipp; Kaschka, Iris; Lang, Stefan; Roessler, Karl; Knossalla, Frauke; Doerfler, Arnd

    2016-08-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate whether the effect of an intra-arterial vasospasm therapy can be assessed quantitatively by in vivo blood flow analysis using the postprocessing algorithm parametric color coding (PCC). We evaluated 17 patients presenting with acute clinical deterioration due to vasospasm following subarachnoidal hemorrhage treated with intra-arterial nimodipine application. Pre- and post-interventional DSA series were post-processed by PCC. The relative time to maximum opacification (rTmax) was calculated in 14 arterially and venously located points of interest. From that data, the pre- and post-interventional cerebral circulation time (CirT) was calculated. Additionally, the arterial vessel diameters were measured. Pre- and post-interventional values were compared and tested for significance, respectively. Flow analysis revealed in all arterial vessel segments a non-statistically significant prolongation of rTmax after treatment. The mean CirT was 5.62 s (±1.19 s) pre-interventionally and 5.16 s (±0.81 s) post-interventionally, and the difference turned out as statistically significant (p = 0.039). A significantly increased diameter was measurable in all arterial segments post-interventionally. PCC is a fast applicable imaging technique that allows via real-time and in vivo blood flow analysis a quantitative assessment of the effect of intra-arterial vasospasm therapy. Our results seem to validate in vivo that an intra-arterial nimodipine application induces not only vasodilatation of the larger vessels, but also improves the microcirculatory flow, leading to a shortened cerebral CirT that reaches normal range post-interventionally. Procedural monitoring via PCC offers the option to compare quantitatively different therapy regimes, which allows optimization of existing approaches and implementation of individualized treatment strategies.

  2. Transit timing velocimetry /TTV/ for two-phase reacting flows

    SciTech Connect

    Holve, D.J.

    1982-10-01

    A simple single-beam transit timing velocimetry (TTV) method has been developed for determining particle size and mean speed measurements. The method uses a single-beam light scattering system with the addition of two commercial nuclear instrumentation modules to obtain timing information from the trailing edge of the scattering pulses. Results of test studies show that the modal value of transit time remained constant over a wide range of particle sizes, even for particles approaching 50% of the total beam width. Applications of the TTV method to combustion systems include studies of liquid-fuel laminar flames, where integrated reaction times, and thus local droplet velocities, are needed in addition to particle size information.

  3. Reliable estimation of capillary transit time distributions using DSC-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mouridsen, Kim; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Østergaard, Leif; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2014-01-01

    The regional availability of oxygen in brain tissue is traditionally inferred from the magnitude of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the concentration of oxygen in arterial blood. Measurements of CBF are therefore widely used in the localization of neuronal response to stimulation and in the evaluation of patients suspected of acute ischemic stroke or flow-limiting carotid stenosis. It was recently demonstrated that capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) limits maximum oxygen extraction fraction (OEFmax) that can be achieved for a given CBF. Here we present a statistical approach for determining CTH, mean transit time (MTT), and CBF using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI). Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that CTH, MTT, and OEFmax can be estimated with low bias and variance across a wide range of microvascular flow patterns, even at modest signal-to-noise ratios. Mean transit time estimated by singular value decomposition (SVD) deconvolution, however, is confounded by CTH. The proposed technique readily identifies malperfused tissue in acute stroke patients and appears to highlight information not detected by the standard SVD technique. We speculate that this technique permits the non-invasive detection of tissue with impaired oxygen delivery in neurologic disorders such as acute ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease during routine diagnostic imaging. PMID:24938401

  4. Transit timing at Toruń Center for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykowski, W.; Maciejewski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The transit monitoring is one of well-known methods for discovering and observing new extrasolar planets. Among various advantages, this way of searching other worlds does not require complex and expensive equipment -- it can be performed with a relatively small telescope and high-quality CCD camera. At the Center for Astronomy of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland, we collect observational data using the 60-cm Cassegrain telescope hoping that it would be possible to discover new objects in already known planetary systems using the transit timing variation method. Our observations are a part of a bigger cooperation between observatories from many countries.

  5. Radial electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Mostrom, M.A.; Kwan, T.J.T.

    1995-01-01

    A new radially-driven electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator has been investigated analytically and through computer simulation as a compact low-impedance high-power microwave generator. In a 1MV, 50kA device 35cm in radius and 15cm long, with no external magnetic field, 5GW of extracted power and a growth rate of 0.26/ns have been observed. Theoretical maximum efficiencies are several times higher.

  6. Visual Analysis and Comparison of Kepler Transit Timing Variations with Mutli-Transiting System Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Mackenzie; Ragozzine, Darin; Flowers, Xzavier

    2016-10-01

    By noticing the dimming and brightening of the star as an exoplanet transit occurs, NASA's Kepler Space Telescope records the times when the exoplanet passes in front of its star. If other planets are gravitationally influencing the transiting planet, the planet might transit late or early; these deviations from a perfectly periodic set of transits are called transit timing variations (TTVs). Therefore, Kepler TTVs have been very useful in determining exoplanet masses which can be hard to measure in other ways.We visually analyzed the TTV data of all ~6000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) to determine whether interesting TTV signals would be missed by purely statistical analyses. Using data from Rowe et al. 2014 and Holczer et al. 2016, we examined TTV plots, periodograms, and folded quadratic+sinusoid fits. To find the most likely KOIs containing visible TTVs and to organize the over 6000 KOIs analyzed, a rating system was developed based on numerous visual factors. By sorting KOIs as such, we were able to compare our findings of the strongest candidates with the same KOIs statistically analyzed by Holczer et al. 2016. It was found that the majority of our findings matched those of Holczer et al. 2016, with only small discrepancies that were understandable based on our different methodologies. Still, our visual inspection of the full list of KOIs contributed multiple planets that were not identified statistically.We combined all of these results with planet properties from the NASA Exoplanet Archive, confirmed and cumulative, to investigate the demographics of planetary systems with and without TTVs. We investigated multi-transiting systems with TTVs not attributable to any of the known planets in the system to better understand exoplanetary system architectures in cases where not all of the planets are transiting.

  7. Colonic transit time in constipated children: does pediatric slow-transit constipation exist?

    PubMed

    Benninga, M A; Büller, H A; Tytgat, G N; Akkermans, L M; Bossuyt, P M; Taminiau, J A

    1996-10-01

    In adults, slow-transit constipation is a well-established form of constipation with abdominal pain and an empty rectum on examination. Marker studies in these patients, mainly women, show a markedly slowed transit time in all colonic segments. No studies in constipated children are available that assess the existence of slow-transit constipation. In a prospective study, a total of 94 referred constipated pediatric patients, 63 boys and 31 girls (median age, 8.0 years), underwent colonic-transit-time measurements using radioopaque markers to evaluate the pattern of transit. In addition, orocecal-transit-time measurements using the hydrogen breath (lactulose) test, anorectal manometry, and behavior studies using the Child Behavior Checklist were performed in all children. Based on the upper limit (mean + 2 SD) of total colonic transit time (CTT) in constipated children, we arbitrarily separated patients into two groups. Children with CTTs > 100 h were said to have pediatric slow-transit constipation (PSTC), while patients with CTTs < 100 h were said to have normal- or delayed-transit constipation (NDTC). In 94 constipated children, PSTC was found in 24 children; in 70 children, total CTT was < 100 h (NDTC). Total and segmental CTTs were significantly prolonged in PSTC (median, 189 h; range, 104.4-384) versus NDTC (median, 46.8 h; range, 3.6-99.4) hours. No significant differences were found in orocecal transit time. Significant clinical differences in children with PSTC versus those with NDTC existed regarding nighttime soiling (71 vs. 11%); daytime soiling episodes (14 vs. 7 each week, median), and nighttime soiling episodes (5 vs. 0 each week, median); absent urge to defecate (33 vs. 14%); and palpable abdominal (71 vs. 39%) and/or rectal (71 vs. 13%) masses. All manometric parameters were comparable in the two groups, except for a significantly lower maximal squeeze pressure with PSTC. Using the Child Behavior Checklist, both groups differed significantly from

  8. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.

  9. Psychiatric and Familial Predictors of Transition Times Between Smoking Stages

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Xian, Hong; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Haber, J. Randolph; Grant, Julia D.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Jacob, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    The modifying effects of psychiatric and familial risk factors on age at smoking initiation, rate of progression from first cigarette to regular smoking, and transition time from regular smoking to nicotine dependence (ND) were examined in 1,269 offspring of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Mean age of the sample was 20.1 years. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusting for paternal alcohol dependence and ND status and maternal ND were conducted. Both early age at first cigarette and rapid transition from initiation to regular smoking were associated with externalizing disorders, alcohol consumption, and cannabis use. Rapid escalation from regular smoking to ND was also predicted by externalizing disorders, but in contrast to earlier transitions, revealed a strong association with internalizing disorders and no significant relationship with use of other substances. Findings characterize a rarely examined aspect of the course of ND development and highlight critical distinctions in risk profiles across stages of tobacco involvement. PMID:17900819

  10. Red cell pulmonary transit times through the healthy human lung.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, G S; Walley, K R; Russell, J A

    2003-03-01

    It has previously been postulated that rapid red cell capillary transit through the human lung plays a role in the mechanism of diffusion limitation in some endurance athletes. Methodological limitations currently prevent researchers from directly measuring pulmonary capillary transit times in humans during exercise; however, first pass radionuclide cardiography allows direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) transit times through the whole lung at various exercise intensities. We examined the relationship between mean whole lung red cell pulmonary transit times (cardiopulmonary transit times or CPTT) and different levels of flow in 88 healthy humans (76 males, 12 females) from several studies (mean age 31 years). The pooled data suggest that the relationship between CPTT and cardiac index (CI), beginning at rest and progressing through to maximum exercise demonstrates that CPTT reaches its minimum value when CI is about 8.1 l m2 x min(-1) (2.5-3 times the CI value at rest), and does not significantly change with further increases in CI. Cardiopulmonary blood volume (CPBV) index also does not change significantly until CI reaches 2.5 to 3 times the CI value at rest and then increases roughly linearly after that point. Consequently, the systematic increase in CPBV index with increasing pulmonary blood flow between 8.1 and 20 l m2 x min(-1) displays an adaptive response of the cardiopulmonary system by augmenting CPBV (and perhaps pulmonary capillary blood volume through distension and recruitment) to offset the reduction in CPTT, as no significant difference in mean CPTT is observed between these levels of flow (P > 0.05). Therefore, these data demonstrate that CPBV does not reach maximum capacity during strenuous or maximum exercise. This does not support the principle of quarter-power allometric scaling for flow when explaining modifications during exercise. Therefore, we speculate that the observed relationships between CPTT, CBPV index and flow may prevent

  11. Transit-timing variations in the system Kepler-410Ab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdoš, Pavol; Parimucha, Štefan; Hambálek, Ľubomír; Vaňko, Martin

    2017-08-01

    We present a new analysis of the transit timing variations displayed by the extrasolar planet Kepler-410Ab. We obtained and improved the orbital and physical parameters for the planet and analysed 70 transit times obtained by the Kepler satellite. In our analysis of the O-C diagram (observed minus calculated), we assumed that the observed changes in the transit times are probably caused by the gravitational influence of another body in the system. To determine the mass of the perturbing body, we considered the light-time effect and an analytical approximation of the perturbation model. The solutions resulting from both methods give comparable results, with an orbital period P3 ∼ 970 d and a slightly eccentric orbit of the third body. We also showed that this orbit is nearly coplanar with the orbit of the Neptune-like planet Kepler-410Ab (orbital period 17.8 d). We propose two possible models for the perturbing body orbiting a common barycentre with Kepler-410A: (i) a single star with mass at least 0.906 M⊙, (ii) a binary star with the total mass of its components at least 2.15 M⊙. In both cases, the star Kepler-410B is on a long orbit (period more than 2200 yr). Small amplitude variations (∼5-8 min) detected in O-C residuals can be explained by the stellar activity of the host star (spots and pulsations), which affects the shape of the light curve during the transit. The presence of a single or binary companion of the mentioned masses heavily affects the total observed flux from the system. After removing the flux contamination from the Kepler-410A light curve, we found that the radius of the transiting planet Kepler-410Ab should be in the range from about 3.7 to 4.2 R⊕.

  12. Visual Analysis and Comparison of Kepler Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Mackenzie; Ragozzine, Darin; Holczer, Tomer; Mazeh, Tsevi; Rowe, Jason

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope is designed to find extrasolar planets by watching a section of the sky and observing if an object transits in front its parent star. By noticing the dimming and brightening of the star as a prospective transit occurs, Kepler records the times when the planet moves in front of its star. If other planets are gravitationally influencing the transiting planet, the planet might transit late or early; these deviations from a perfectly periodic set of transits are called "transit timing variations (TTVs). Therefore, Kepler TTVs are useful in determining exoplanet masses which are hard to measure in other ways.We decided to visually analyze the TTV data of all ~6000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) to determine whether interesting TTV signals would be missed by purely statistical analyses. Using data from Rowe et al. 2014 and Holczer et al. 2015, submitted, we created combined TTV plots, periodigrams, and folded quadratic+sinusoid fits. The raw TTV data and ancillary plots were visually inspected for each of the ~6000 KOIs. To find the most likely KOIs containing visible TTVs and to organize the over 6000 KOIs analyzed, a rating system was developed based on numerous visual factors. These rating factors include the amount of outliers, if there is a clear sinusoidal period within the folded plots, and if there is a clear peak in the periodigram. By sorting KOIs as such, we were able to compare our findings of the strongest candidates with the same KOIs statistically analyzed by Holczer et al. 2015 (submitted, see also Mazeh et al. 2013).It was found that the majority of our findings matched those of Holczer et al. 2015, with only small discrepancies that were understandable based on our different methodologies. Our visual inspection of the full list of KOIs contributed multiple systems that were not included in the initial list of KOIs with significant TTVs identified statistically.

  13. Relationship between pulse transit time and blood pressure is impaired in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel R; Roesch, Norbert; Harpes, Patrick; Körtke, Heinrich; Plumer, Pierre; Saberin, Amir; Chakoutio, Viviane; Oundjede, Denis; Delagardelle, Charles; Beissel, Jean; Gilson, Georges; Kindermann, Ingrid; Böhm, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT), the interval between ventricular electrical activity and arrival of the peripheral pulse wave, has been used to detect changes in autonomic tone during sleep and anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PTT in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Pulse transit time was measured with R-wave gated photoplethysmography in 24 healthy volunteers and in 112 patients with chronic HF and ejection fraction (EF) <40%. PTT was mildly elevated in patients with HF (468 ± 12 vs. 430 ± 23 ms, p = 0.001). In healthy volunteers, PTT was directly proportional to blood pressure (BP): when BP increased, PTT shortened, and vice versa. This relationship between PTT and BP (PTTi) was altered in patients with HF and particularly in the 26 patients with decompensated HF (3.6 ± 0.4 vs. 4.2 ± 0.9, p = 0.04). PTTi did not correlate with functional NYHA class and levels of pro-BNP, epinephrine or norepinephrine. There was a modest correlation between PTTi and EF (p = 0.01, r = -0.48) and PTTi tended to correlate with microvascular flow measured with Laser Doppler (p = 0.08). However, there was an excellent correlation between PTTi and systolic time intervals, left ventricular ejection time (LVET) (p = 0.0014, r = -0.75) and pre-ejection time/LVET (p = 0.006, r = 0.80). The latter ratio reflects ventricular-arterial coupling. The relationship between PTT and BP is altered in severe HF and may indicate impaired ventricular-arterial coupling. It merits further investigation as both parameters can be easily determined and used for serial monitoring in HF.

  14. Time recovery measurements using operational GOES and transit satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beehler, R. E.; Davis, D. D.; Cateora, J. V.; Clements, A. J.; Barnes, J. A.; Mendez-Quinones, E.

    1979-01-01

    Results of regular monitoring of both the GOES and TRANSIT timing signals over a number of months at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), Boulder, Colorado are presented. The TRANSIT results include an analysis of how received timing accuracy and stability are affected by: (1) averaging over varying numbers of satellite passes; (2) averaging over different combinations of the five available satellites; (3) using several independent receivers of the same type; and (4) application of published corrections to the received data. Based on monitoring experience to date at NBS, some pros and cons of using each of the available operational systems are discussed. Updated information on recent improvements incorporated into the GOES time code generation and monitoring system at Wallops Island, Virginia is also included.

  15. Electron transit time measurements of 5-in photomultiplier tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, T.; Peatross, J.; Ware, M.; Rees, L.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the uniformity of electron transit times for two 5-in photomultiplier tubes: the Hamamatsu R1250 and the Adit B133D01S. We focused a highly attenuated short-pulse laser on the tubes while they were mounted on a programmable stage. The stage translated the tubes relative to the incident beam so that measurements could be made with light focused at points along a grid covering the entire photocathodes. A portion of the incident light was split from the incident beam and measured and recorded by a fast photodiode. Electron transit times were measured by computing the time delay between the recorded photodiode signal and photomultiplier signal using software constant-fraction discrimination. The Hamamatsu tube exhibited a uniform timing response that varied by no more than 1.7 ns. The Adit tube was much less uniform, with transit times that varied by as much as 57 ns. The Adit response also exhibited a spatially varying double-peak structure in its response. The technique described in this paper could be usefully employed by photomultiplier tube manufacturers to characterize the performance of their products.

  16. Assessment of umbilical artery flow and fetal heart rate to predict delivery time in bitches.

    PubMed

    Giannico, Amália Turner; Garcia, Daniela Aparecida Ayres; Gil, Elaine Mayumi Ueno; Sousa, Marlos Gonçalves; Froes, Tilde Rodrigues

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the oscillation of the fetal heart rate (HR) in advance of normal delivery and whether this index could be used to indicate impending delivery. In addition, fetal HR oscillation and umbilical artery resistive index (RI) were correlated to determine if the combination of these parameters provided a more accurate prediction of the time of delivery. Sonographic evaluation was performed in 11 pregnant bitches to evaluate the fetal HR and umbilical artery RI at the following antepartum times: 120 to 96 hours, 72 to 48 hours, 24 to 12 hours, and 12 to 1 hours. Statistical analysis indicated a correlation between the oscillation of fetal HR and the umbilical artery RI. As delivery approached a considerable reduction in the umbilical artery RI was documented and greater oscillations between maximum and minimum HRs occurred. We conclude that the quantitative analysis of fetal HR oscillations may be used to predict the time of delivery in bitches. The combination of fetal HR and umbilical artery RI together may provide more accurate predictions of time of delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between pulmonary artery acceleration time and mean pulmonary artery pressure in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Brian; Kluger, Roman; Rex, Steffen; Missant, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    A noninvasive method of estimating pulmonary arterial pressures is required, as the use of the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is decreasing in cardiac anaesthesia. Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) at least 25 mmHg and this can be estimated echocardiographically by measuring the pulmonary acceleration time (PAT). This relationship has not been validated when measured using transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in anaesthetised patients having cardiac surgery. We hypothesised that there was a quantifiable relationship between PAT and MPAP. We aimed to assess this relationship in cardiac surgical patients undergoing general anaesthesia with TOE. An observational study. Catholic University Hospital, Leuven, Belgium, between August and December 2013. Ninety-eight patients having cardiac surgery, where intraoperative TOE was used and a PAC was inserted as part of routine care. Nil. PAT and MPAP were measured simultaneously with TOE and the PAC and this relationship was assessed. PAT and MPAP measurements were possible in all patients. There was a curvilinear relationship between PAT and MPAP with a PAT of less than 107 ms detecting pulmonary hypertension with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 94.8%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.80 to 0.95]. Below a PAT of 107 ms, the relationship was relatively linear and could be described by the equation MPAP (mmHg) = 77 -  (0.49 x PAT). Ninety-five percent of the pressures estimated by this equation are within ±13.8 mmHg of the measured pressure. Estimation of PAT with TOE in anaesthetised cardiac surgical patients is possible. PAT is good at discriminating between patients with and without pulmonary hypertension, with a cut-off of less than 107 ms detecting pulmonary hypertension with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 94.8%.

  18. Effects of fiber on digestibility and transit time in dogs.

    PubMed

    Burrows, C F; Kronfeld, D S; Banta, C A; Merritt, A M

    1982-09-01

    This study examines effects of variations in fiber content on nutrient assimilation, fecal output, and gastrointestinal transit time in the dog. Four normal Beagles were fed four diets in a randomized block design. The basal diet was a canned, balanced, meat-based dog food (Alpo Trio) to which added 3, 6, and 9% by weight of alpha cellulose (Solka Flok). Food intake and fecal outputs were recorded for 5-day periods. Samples of diets and fecal collections were analyzed for dry matter, nitrogen, fat, carbohydrate and ash; digestibilities were calculated. Transit times were measured by a radiographic marker technique. Fecal weight and water increased linearly; digestibility of dry matter decreased from 90 to 70% and ash from 43 to 32% with added fiber. Responses of protein, carbohydrate and fat were less pronounced but were regular; regressions of their digestibilities on added fiber were significant. Regression estimate of true digestibility for alpha-cellulose was 6%. Intestinal transit time decreased from a mean of 37.4 to 28.7 hours with added fiber. Decreased intestinal time would contribute to depression of fry matter digestibility. Increased fecal water output probably also reflected retention by fiber.

  19. Time for the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Roebroeks, Wil

    2008-11-01

    The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is a key period of change in the prehistory of the Old World and one of the most studied issues in paleoanthropology, as the nature of the transition(s) is still, after at least a century of archaeological research, largely unknown. Many of the issues at stake in the transition relate to the problem of building a reliable chronology for this period, which is at the limits of the radiocarbon method. The papers in this volume show that much progress has been made in our chronological knowledge of significant aspects of the transition, such as the age of the most recent Neandertal fossils and the earliest modern human remains in Europe, and the inferred overlap between the Châtelperronian and the Aurignacian. At the same time, the volume also shows where the chronological database for the period 40 to 30 ka 14C BP is flawed and that significant contextual and methodological problems have been underestimated in a number of studies of the biological and cultural changes during this crucial period. Chronology is employed by paleoanthropologists to relate the record of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition to major biological and cultural developments. This paper takes a broader paleoanthropological perspective and attempts to evaluate and, to some degree, synthesize the main results of these proceedings, while also presenting a brief discussion of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic archaeological and fossil records, and possible explanations for the differences between the two, focusing on the role of differences in the ecology of Neandertals and early European modern humans.

  20. Studying time-like baryonic transitions with HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstein, B.

    2016-05-01

    Recent results of the HADES collaboration are presented with emphasis on the e+e- production in elementary reactions. Via the Dalitz decay of baryonic resonances (R →Ne+e-), access is given to the time-like electromagnetic structure of baryonic transitions. This process could be measured for the first time for Δ(1232) in pp reactions at 1.25 GeV. At higher energies, the sensitivity of e+e- emission to transition form factors of the Vector Dominance type has been demonstrated. Very recently, experiments with the GSI pion beam started, allowing for more direct studies of baryonic resonances Dalitz decays. In addition, the measurement of hadronic channels provides a new data base for baryon spectroscopy issues, in particular in the 2πN channel.

  1. The time of a photoinduced spin-Peierls phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, A. L.

    2015-02-15

    The time τ of the spin-Peierls phase transition is analyzed theoretically as a function of the duration τ{sub p} of the exciting light pulse and the average number x{sub 0} of absorbed photons per magnetic ion after the transmission of the pulse. It is shown that the phase transition occurs at x{sub 0} > x{sub c}. The critical value x{sub c} is determined as a function of the duration τ{sub p} of the light pulse. A photoinduced variation in the optical reflection coefficient R is calculated as a function of time t. The results of calculation are compared with experimental data on ultrafast photoinduced melting of the low-temperature spin-Peierls phase into potassium tetracyanoquinodimethan (K-TCNQ)

  2. New contributions to transit-time damping in multidimensional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of two previously unrecognized contributions to transit-time damping in systems of more than one dimension is demonstrated and discussed. It is shown that these contributions cannot be treated by one-dimensional analyses unless it is assumed that the gradient of the field perpendicular to itself always vanishes. Such an assumption is unjustified in general and the new contributions can dominate damping by fast particles in more general situations. Analytic expressions obtained using a Born approximation are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical test-particle calculations of transit-time damping for a variety of field configurations. These configurations include those of a resonance layer and of a spherical wave packet, which approximates a collapsing wave packet in a strongly turbulent plasma. It is found that the fractional power absorption can be strongly enhanced in non-slablike field configurations.

  3. Coupling of transit time instabilities in electrostatic confinement fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenwald, J. Fröhlich, M.

    2015-07-15

    A model of the behavior of transit time instabilities in an electrostatic confinement fusion reactor is presented in this letter. It is demonstrated that different modes are excited within the spherical cathode of a Farnsworth fusor. Each of these modes is dependent on the fusion products as well as the acceleration voltage applied between the two electrodes and they couple to a resulting oscillation showing non-linear beat phenomena. This type of instability is similar to the transit time instability of electrons between two resonant surfaces but the presence of ions and the occurring fusion reactions alter the physics of this instability considerably. The physics of this plasma instability is examined in detail for typical physical parameter ranges of electrostatic confinement fusion devices.

  4. Tunnel transit-time (TUNNETT) devices for terahertz sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, G. I.; East, J. R.; Kidner, C.

    1991-01-01

    The potential and capabilities of tunnel transit-time (TUNNETT) devices for power generation in the 100-1000 GHz range are presented. The basic properties of these devices and the important material parameters which determine their properties are discussed and criteria for designing such devices are presented. It is shown from a first-order model that significant amounts of power can be obtained from these devices in the terahertz frequency range.

  5. Watching excitons move: the time-dependent transition density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Carsten

    2012-02-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory allows one to calculate excitation energies and the associated transition densities in principle exactly. The transition density matrix (TDM) provides additional information on electron-hole localization and coherence of specific excitations of the many-body system. We have extended the TDM concept into the real-time domain in order to visualize the excited-state dynamics in conjugated molecules. The time-dependent TDM is defined as an implicit density functional, and can be approximately obtained from the time-dependent Kohn-Sham orbitals. The quality of this approximation is assessed in simple model systems. A computational scheme for real molecular systems is presented: the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are solved with the OCTOPUS code and the time-dependent Kohn-Sham TDM is calculated using a spatial partitioning scheme. The method is applied to show in real time how locally created electron-hole pairs spread out over neighboring conjugated molecular chains. The coupling mechanism, electron-hole coherence, and the possibility of charge separation are discussed.

  6. Ergodic transitions in continuous-time random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa, Alberto; Venegeroles, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    We consider continuous-time random walk models described by arbitrary sojourn time probability density functions. We find a general expression for the distribution of time-averaged observables for such systems, generalizing some recent results presented in the literature. For the case where sojourn times are identically distributed independent random variables, our results shed some light on the recently proposed transitions between ergodic and weakly nonergodic regimes. On the other hand, for the case of nonidentical trapping time densities over the lattice points, the distribution of time-averaged observables reveals that such systems are typically nonergodic, in agreement with some recent experimental evidences on the statistics of blinking quantum dots. Some explicit examples are considered in detail. Our results are independent of the lattice topology and dimensionality.

  7. Estimation of liquid volume fraction using ultrasound transit time spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qahtani, Saeed M.; Langton, Christian M.

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been proposed that the propagation of an ultrasound wave through complex structures, consisting of two-materials of differing ultrasound velocity, may be considered as an array of parallel ‘sonic rays’, the transit time of each determined by their relative proportion; being a minimum (t min) in entire higher velocity material, and a maximum (t max) in entire lower velocity material. An ultrasound transit time spectrum (UTTS) describes the proportion of sonic rays at an individual transit time. It has previously been demonstrated that the solid volume fraction of a solid:liquid composite, specifically acrylic step-wedges immersed in water, may be reliably estimated from the UTTS. The aim of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that the volume fraction of a two-component liquid mixture, of unequal ultrasound velocity, may also be estimated by UTTS. A through-transmission technique incorporating two 1 MHz ultrasound transducers within a horizontally-aligned cylindrical tube-housing was utilised, the proportion of silicone oil to water being varied from 0% to 100%. The liquid volume fraction was estimated from the UTTS at each composition, the coefficient of determination (R 2%) being 98.9  ±  0.7%. The analysis incorporated a novel signal amplitude normalisation technique to compensate for absorption within the silicone oil. It is therefore envisaged that the parallel sonic ray concept and the derived UTTS may be further applied to the quantification of liquid mixture composition assessment.

  8. Kepler Planet Masses and Eccentricities from Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Sam; Lithwick, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler mission’s census of transiting exoplanets has shown that planets between one and four times the radius of Earth with short orbital periods are extremely common. Given their small sizes, the properties of these planets can be difficult or impossible to constrain via radial velocity observations. Mutual gravitational interactions in multi-planet systems induce variations in the arrival times of planets’ transits. These variations can used to probe planets’ masses and eccentricities, which in turn constrain their compositions and formation histories. I will discuss the results of our analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) of 145 Kepler planets from 55 multi-planet systems. Bulk densities inferred from TTVs imply that many of these planets are covered in gaseous envelopes ranging from a few percent to ~20% of their total mass. Eccentricities in these systems are small but in a many instances definitively non-zero. These results support theoretical predictions for super-Earth/sub-Neptune planets accreting their envelopes from a depleting proto-planetary disk.

  9. Transit Timing Variations of Resonant Three-planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libert, Anne-Sophie; Renner, S.

    2012-10-01

    The transit timing variations (TTV) method is a powerful technique to infer the existence of additional non-transiting planets. This is especially the case for resonant systems where the variations can be strongly enhanced. Here we focus on resonant 3-planet systems and assume that the inner body transits the star. We show that the TTV curve exhibits three periodicities related to the resonant evolution of the system. We perform a dynamical study for different mass values of the three planets, with a special attention to the detection of terrestrial planets. A very interesting result is that the existence of two terrestrial companions can be deduced from the TTV curve only. We also highlight the degeneracy in the characterization of non-transiting planets: a system of two giant planets in mean-motion resonance can hide a third terrestrial planet in a multi-resonant configuration. The work of A-S L is supported by an F.R.S.-FNRS Postdoctoral Research Fellowship.

  10. Can pulse transit time be useful for detecting hypertension in patients in a sleep unit?

    PubMed

    Gómez García, Maria Teresa; Troncoso Acevedo, Maria Fernanda; Rodriguez Guzmán, Marcel; Alegre de Montaner, Raquel; Fernández Fernández, Beatriz; del Río Camacho, Genoveva; González-Mangado, Nicolás

    2014-07-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is the time that a pulse wave takes to travel between two different arterial points, and may be useful in estimating blood pressure. This noninvasive technique, which does not add any cost to the procedure, offers the advantage of avoiding 'arousals' during sleep measurement as occurs with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We aim to confirm the usefulness of PTT for the detection of hypertension, and to study the correlation between both measurements. Prospective observational study in a multidisciplinary sleep unit. We recruited 30consecutive patients attending a sleep clinic and ran a baseline polysomnography followed by an ABPM the following day. Average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) by PTT were calculated and compared with ABMP results. In accordance with international guidelines, patients with mean nocturnal ABMP ≥ 120/70 mmHg were diagnosed as having arterial hypertension. Mean age of 60years; 66% male, 80% suffered from sleep apnoea (OSAS). Taking the ABPM as the reference technique, we found that the diagnostic sensitivity of PTT is 85% with a specificity of 88% in the case of SBP, with a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 88%. By studying the relationship between mean SBP measured by ABPM and PTT, we found a linear correlation coefficient (R) of 0.88, showing a distribution of all subjects with a difference of between ±15mmHg between tests. There is also a positive correlation between mean DBP measured for the two tests, with a weaker linear correlation. Pulse transit time shows a strong correlation with blood pressure (measured by ABPM). PTT provides continuous, non-invasive, cuffless blood pressure monitoring free of additional cost and could be an alternative for screening hypertension. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Weighing Scale-Based Pulse Transit Time is a Superior Marker of Blood Pressure than Conventional Pulse Arrival Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stephanie L.-O.; Carek, Andrew M.; Kim, Chang-Sei; Ashouri, Hazar; Inan, Omer T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-12-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is being widely pursued for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Most efforts have employed the time delay between ECG and finger photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms as a convenient surrogate of PTT. However, these conventional pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements include the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the time delay through small, muscular arteries and may thus be an unreliable marker of BP. We assessed a bathroom weighing scale-like system for convenient measurement of ballistocardiography and foot PPG waveforms - and thus PTT through larger, more elastic arteries - in terms of its ability to improve tracking of BP in individual subjects. We measured “scale PTT”, conventional PAT, and cuff BP in humans during interventions that increased BP but changed PEP and smooth muscle contraction differently. Scale PTT tracked the diastolic BP changes well, with correlation coefficient of -0.80 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) and root-mean-squared-error of 7.6 ± 0.5 mmHg after a best-case calibration. Conventional PAT was significantly inferior in tracking these changes, with correlation coefficient of -0.60 ± 0.04 and root-mean-squared-error of 14.6 ± 1.5 mmHg (p < 0.05). Scale PTT also tracked the systolic BP changes better than conventional PAT but not to an acceptable level. With further development, scale PTT may permit reliable, convenient measurement of BP.

  12. Weighing Scale-Based Pulse Transit Time is a Superior Marker of Blood Pressure than Conventional Pulse Arrival Time

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Stephanie L.-O.; Carek, Andrew M.; Kim, Chang-Sei; Ashouri, Hazar; Inan, Omer T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is being widely pursued for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Most efforts have employed the time delay between ECG and finger photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms as a convenient surrogate of PTT. However, these conventional pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements include the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the time delay through small, muscular arteries and may thus be an unreliable marker of BP. We assessed a bathroom weighing scale-like system for convenient measurement of ballistocardiography and foot PPG waveforms – and thus PTT through larger, more elastic arteries – in terms of its ability to improve tracking of BP in individual subjects. We measured “scale PTT”, conventional PAT, and cuff BP in humans during interventions that increased BP but changed PEP and smooth muscle contraction differently. Scale PTT tracked the diastolic BP changes well, with correlation coefficient of −0.80 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) and root-mean-squared-error of 7.6 ± 0.5 mmHg after a best-case calibration. Conventional PAT was significantly inferior in tracking these changes, with correlation coefficient of −0.60 ± 0.04 and root-mean-squared-error of 14.6 ± 1.5 mmHg (p < 0.05). Scale PTT also tracked the systolic BP changes better than conventional PAT but not to an acceptable level. With further development, scale PTT may permit reliable, convenient measurement of BP. PMID:27976741

  13. Masses of Kepler-46b, c from Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad-Olivera, Ximena; Nesvorný, David; Kipping, David M.; Roig, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    We use 16 quarters of the Kepler mission data to analyze the transit timing variations (TTVs) of the extrasolar planet Kepler-46b (KOI-872). Our dynamical fits confirm that the TTVs of this planet (period P={33.648}-0.005+0.004 days) are produced by a non-transiting planet Kepler-46c (P={57.325}-0.098+0.116 days). The Bayesian inference tool MultiNest is used to infer the dynamical parameters of Kepler-46b and Kepler-46c. We find that the two planets have nearly coplanar and circular orbits, with eccentricities ≃ 0.03 somewhat higher than previously estimated. The masses of the two planets are found to be {M}b={0.885}-0.343+0.374 and {M}c={0.362}-0.016+0.016 Jupiter masses, with M b being determined here from TTVs for the first time. Due to the precession of its orbital plane, Kepler-46c should start transiting its host star a few decades from now.

  14. External beam irradiation in angioplasted arteries of hypercholesterolemic rabbits The dose and time effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kalef-Ezra, J.; Michalis, L.K.; Malamou-Mitsi, V.; Tsekeris, P.; Katsouras, C.; Boziari, A.; Toumpoulis, I.; Bozios, G.; Charchanti, A.; Sideris, D.A

    2002-03-01

    Purpose: To study the dose and time effect of external beam irradiation on the morphometry of both angioplasted and nonangioplasted arteries in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. Methods and materials: Eight groups of rabbit femoral arteries were studied: arteries (a) with no intervention, (b) irradiated with a 12-Gy 6 MV X-ray dose, (c) with a 18-Gy, (d) treated with balloon angioplasty, (e) dosed with 12-Gy half an hour post-angioplasty, (f) dosed with 18-Gy half an hour post-angioplasty, (g) dosed with 12-Gy 48 h post angioplasty, (g) dosed with 18-Gy 48 h post angioplasty. Results: External irradiation at either 12 or 18 Gy was not found to change vessel morphometry in noninjured arteries. The 12-Gy dose given soon after angioplasty further increased percentage stenosis (63% on the average), despite the preservation of the lumen cross-sectional area. Positive remodeling was not observed in arteries given 18-Gy half an hour post angioplasty to counterbalance the increased neointimal formation. Therefore, this treatment resulted in a drastic reduction in lumen area and in enhancement of percentage stenosis (84% on the average). On the contrary, the delayed irradiation of the angioplasted arteries at either 12 or 18 Gy was not found to influence any of the studied morphometric parameters 5 weeks after angioplasty. Conclusions: Uniform external beam irradiation up to 18 Gy was well tolerated by intact femoral arteries. Prompt 12- or 18-Gy irradiations accentuated percentage stenosis. However the lumen cross-sectional area was preserved only at the lower dose point. Delayed irradiation at any dose did not influence the restenosis process.

  15. Brief communications: visualization of coronary arteries in rats by 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Hirayama, Hideo; Iwata, Akiko; Toshida, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kasumi; Otani, Kentaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Beppu, Shintaro

    2008-05-01

    Angiogenesis is under intense investigation to advance the treatment of various ischemic diseases. Small animals, such as mice and rats, are often used for this purpose. However, evaluating the structure of coronary arteries in small animals in situ is not easy. We succeeded in visualizing the coronary artery in rats on 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography using a high-frequency transducer. These methods will be applied for more convenient assessment in a new study, examining issues such as angiogenesis using rats in situ.

  16. Accuracy and reproducibility of long-term implanted transit-time ultrasound flow probes in dogs.

    PubMed

    Picker, O; Schindler, A; Scheeren, T W

    2000-05-01

    To assess the accuracy and reproducibility of long-term implanted ultrasound transit-time flow probes for measuring cardiac output. Prospective animal study. Animal research laboratory in a university department. Eleven anaesthetised dogs, 24-34 kg. Flow probes (16-24 mm S-series, Transonic) were implanted around the pulmonary artery for a mean duration of 22 months (range 6-47 months). Comparisons (n = 147) were made between cardiac output thus obtained and that measured by the direct Fick principle using oxygen uptake (Deltatrac II Metabolic Monitor) and the arterial to mixed venous oxygen content difference measured by a galvanic cell (Lex-O2-Con-TL). Measurements were made either during baseline conditions or during pharmacologically altered cardiac output (range 22-180 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Regardless of the intervention, the two methods yielded the same results in half of the dogs. In the others, however, cardiac output was underestimated by the flow probes by up to 38% (probably because of non-perpendicular position of the probe towards the vessel). This difference was constant for the whole range of cardiac output studied and remained constant over the entire observation period for each individual dog, so that a correction factor was used. Thereafter, the mean difference between the two methods was -1.1 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) with a precision (SD) of 14.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) for all experiments. After in vivo calibration, ultrasound transit-time flow probes measure cardiac output precisely for several years, regardless of the intervention.

  17. Beta blockade increases pulmonary and systemic transit time heterogeneity: evaluation based on indocyanine green kinetics in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Krejcie, Tom C; Avram, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing the heterogeneity of blood transit times is important in cardiovascular physiology. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on blood transit time dispersion in awake, anxious volunteers. Recirculatory modelling of the disposition of intravascular markers using parametric forms for transit time distributions, such as the inverse Gaussian distribution, provides the opportunity to estimate the systemic and pulmonary transit time dispersion in vivo. The latter is determined by the flow heterogeneity in the microcirculatory network. Using this approach, we have analysed indocyanine green (ICG) disposition data obtained in four subjects by frequent early arterial blood sampling before and after beta-adrenergic blockade by propranolol. Propranolol decreased cardiac output from 9·3 ± 2·8 l min(-1) to 3·5 ± 0·47 l min(-1) (P<0·05). This reduction was accompanied by a 4·5 ± 0·6-fold and 2·1 ± 0·3-fold increase (P<0·001) in the relative dispersion (dimensionless variance) of blood transit times through the systemic and pulmonary circulation, respectively.

  18. Predictable patterns in planetary transit timing variations and transit duration variations due to exomoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René; Hippke, Michael; Placek, Ben; Angerhausen, Daniel; Agol, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We present new ways to identify single and multiple moons around extrasolar planets using planetary transit timing variations (TTVs) and transit duration variations (TDVs). For planets with one moon, measurements from successive transits exhibit a hitherto undescribed pattern in the TTV-TDV diagram, originating from the stroboscopic sampling of the planet's orbit around the planet-moon barycenter. This pattern is fully determined and analytically predictable after three consecutive transits. The more measurements become available, the more the TTV-TDV diagram approaches an ellipse. For planets with multiple moons in orbital mean motion resonance (MMR), like the Galilean moon system, the pattern is much more complex and addressed numerically in this report. Exomoons in MMR can also form closed, predictable TTV-TDV figures, as long as the drift of the moons' pericenters is sufficiently slow. We find that MMR exomoons produce loops in the TTV-TDV diagram and that the number of these loops is equal to the order of the MMR, or the largest integer in the MMR ratio. We use a Bayesian model and Monte Carlo simulations to test the discoverability of exomoons using TTV-TDV diagrams with current and near-future technology. In a blind test, two of us (BP, DA) successfully retrieved a large moon from simulated TTV-TDV by co-authors MH and RH, which resembled data from a known Kepler planet candidate. Single exomoons with a 10% moon-to-planet mass ratio, like to Pluto-Charon binary, can be detectable in the archival data of the Kepler primary mission. Multi-exomoon systems, however, require either larger telescopes or brighter target stars. Complementary detection methods invoking a moon's own photometric transit or its orbital sampling effect can be used for validation or falsification. A combination of TESS, CHEOPS, and PLATO data would offer a compelling opportunity for an exomoon discovery around a bright star.

  19. Predictable Patterns in Planetary Transit Timing Variations and Transit Duration Variations Due to Exomoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, Rene; Hippke, Michael; Placek, Ben; Angerhausen, Daniel; Agol, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present new ways to identify single and multiple moons around extrasolar planets using planetary transit timing variations (TTVs) and transit duration variations (TDVs). For planets with one moon, measurements from successive transits exhibit a hitherto undescribed pattern in the TTV-TDV diagram, originating from the stroboscopic sampling of the planet's orbit around the planet-moon barycenter. This pattern is fully determined and analytically predictable after three consecutive transits. The more measurements become available, the more the TTV-TDV diagram approaches an ellipse. For planets with multiple moons in orbital mean motion resonance (MMR), like the Galilean moon system, the pattern is much more complex and addressed numerically in this report. Exomoons in MMR can also form closed, predictable TTV-TDV figures, as long as the drift of the moons' pericenters is suciently slow.We find that MMR exomoons produce loops in the TTV-TDV diagram and that the number of these loops is equal to the order of the MMR, or the largest integer in the MMR ratio.We use a Bayesian model and Monte Carlo simulations to test the discoverability of exomoons using TTV-TDV diagrams with current and near-future technology. In a blind test, two of us (BP, DA) successfully retrieved a large moon from simulated TTV-TDV by co-authors MH and RH, which resembled data from a known Kepler planet candidate. Single exomoons with a 10 percent moon-to-planet mass ratio, like to Pluto-Charon binary, can be detectable in the archival data of the Kepler primary mission. Multi-exomoon systems, however, require either larger telescopes or brighter target stars. Complementary detection methods invoking a moon's own photometric transit or its orbital sampling effect can be used for validation or falsification. A combination of TESS, CHEOPS, and PLATO data would offer a compelling opportunity for an exomoon discovery around a bright star.

  20. Detection and Characterization of Non-Transiting Planets from Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorny, David; Kipping, David; Terrell, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    The Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) can be used as a diagnostic of gravitational interactions between planets in a multi-planet system. Here we conduct a photo-dynamical analysis of several Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) that exhibit significant TTVs. We show that KOI-142, KOI-227 and KOI-319 are (at least) two planet systems. KOI-142.01's TTVs uniquely detect a non-transiting companion with a mass 0.63 that of Jupiter. KOI-142.01's mass inferred from the TTVs is consistent with the measured transit depth, suggesting a Neptune-class planet. The orbital period ratio 2.03 indicates that the two planets are just wide of the 2:1 resonance. For KOI-319 and KOI-884, the observed TTVs of the inner transiting planet are used to detect an outer non-transiting planet. The outer planet in KOI-884 is 2.6 Jupiter masses and has the orbital period just narrow of the 3:1 resonance with the inner planet (orbital period ratio 2.93). The distribution of parameters inferred from KOI-319.01's TTVs is bimodal with either a 1.6 Neptune-mass planet wide of the 5:3 resonance (period 80.1 d) or a Saturn-mass planet wide of the 7:3 resonance (period 109.2 d). The radial velocity measurements can be used in this case to determine which of these parameter modes is correct. We discuss how the orbital architecture of KOI-142, KOI-227 and KOI-319 systems constrains their formation.

  1. Measuring Interior Properties of Very Hot Jupiters Through Transit Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragozzine, Darin; Wolf, A. S.

    2008-05-01

    The radius of an extra-solar planet is measured photometrically when the planet transits its parent star. Many of these planets have anomalously large radii, while others are extremely compact. Despite many theoretical efforts, these radius anomalies are still unexplained, though they clearly depend on the diversity of planetary interiors. We show that the currently unknown interior properties of extra-solar planets can be directly measured by observing the orbital precession induced by the quadrupole moment of the planet as evidenced by subtle but observable changes in the transit light curves (Ragozzine & Wolf, 2008, ApJ, pending submission). Other authors have suggested using transit timing to observe the effects of general relativity, stellar oblateness, or additional planets in the system. We show that precession due to the quadrupole moment of the planet dominates over other perturbations by 1-2 orders of magnitude in the case of single very hot Jupiters (a ≃ 0.02 AU). We assess the realistic measurement accuracy of extra-solar gravitational moments (e.g. J2) and find that it is a sensitive function of eccentricity, but clearly measurable for reasonable eccentricities (e < 0.01). We will discuss the capabilities of this new technique to directly characterize the diversity of extra-solar planet interiors in light of future observations, particularly those provided by the Kepler space-based photometry mission.

  2. Biomechanics of Ergometric Stress Test: regional and local effects on elastic, transitional and muscular human arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valls, G.; Torrado, J.; Farro, I.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Lluberas, S.; Craiem, D.; Armentano, Rl

    2011-09-01

    Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. In this context, this work aims were to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical behaviour in response to EST; to evaluate its temporal profile in the post-EST recovery phase; and to compare the biomechanical response of different to EST. Methods: In 16 non-trained healthy young subjects the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the carotid, femoral and brachial arterial distensibility were non-invasively evaluated before (Rest) and after EST. Main results: The EST resulted in an early increase in the arterial stiffness, evidenced by both, regional and local parameters (pulse wave velocity increase and distensibility reduction). When analyzing conjunctly the different post-EST recovery stages there were quali-quantitative differences among the arterial local stiffness response to EST. The biomechanical changes could not be explained only by blood pressure variations.

  3. Controllability of timed continuous Petri nets with uncontrollable transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, C. Renato; Ramírez-Treviño, Antonio; Silva, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    This paper is concerned with controllability of Timed Continuous Petri nets, under infinite server semantics, with uncontrollable transitions, which are a class of hybrid systems (piecewise-linear). This class of hybrid systems is suitable for representing biological systems, high traffic information networks, heavily loaded supply chains, etc. By adopting a Control Theory approach, the contribution of this paper is the characterisation of controllability over sets of equilibrium markings (potential equilibrium points), first inside a single marking region (or linear mode) and later extended to several regions.

  4. Numerical and Analytical Modeling of Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Sam; Lithwick, Yoram

    2016-09-01

    We develop and apply methods to extract planet masses and eccentricities from observed transit timing variations (TTVs). First, we derive simple analytic expressions for the TTV that include the effects of both first- and second-order resonances. Second, we use N-body Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, as well as the analytic formulae, to measure the masses and eccentricities of 10 planets discovered by Kepler that have not previously been analyzed. Most of the 10 planets have low densities. Using the analytic expressions to partially circumvent degeneracies, we measure small eccentricities of a few percent or less.

  5. Times of transition: elder abuse and neglect in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Ariela; Doron, Israel

    2008-01-01

    The present paper addresses the advancement of research, policies, legislation, and practice experiences designed to deal with the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in Israel in times of transition. The paper presents a short overview of the demographic scene, reflecting population characteristics and needs that impact care giving as well as elder abuse and neglect. The developments of scientific knowledge and its accumulation, especially the empirical data from the first national survey on elder abuse and neglect are discussed. Further, legislative developments relating to four generational laws and the advancement of policies and innovative practice experiences are described and analyzed. Finally, future challenges in the field are identified.

  6. Radial electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Mostrom, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    A radial electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator (RBTO) provides a compact high power microwave generator. The RBTO includes a coaxial vacuum transmission line having an outer conductor and an inner conductor. The inner conductor defines an annular cavity with dimensions effective to support an electromagnetic field in a TEM.sub.00m mode. A radial field emission cathode is formed on the outer conductor for providing an electron beam directed toward the annular cavity electrode. Microwave energy is then extracted from the annular cavity electrode.

  7. A new approach to determine time variant catchment transit times and their time distribution based on field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Julian; Pan Chun, Kwok; McGuire, Kevin J.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2014-05-01

    Mean transit times (MTT) and their transit time distributions (TTD) are a physical measure integrating all catchment processes, flow path variability, and the combined effects of water storage and water fluxes. The traditional approach for quantifying MTT and TTD of stream water is based on the convolution integral that relates the input and the output of a conservative tracer time series with a transfer function that determines the shape of the TTD. The main limitation with this standard approach is that convolution overlooks the temporal dynamics of water flow paths and their changing distributions through time. Despite recent progress, we still lack an approach for determining TT and TTD based on field data; one that accounts for the new theoretical developments and understanding, but also embraces the time series of isotope data that an experimentalist might have from an experimental watershed. Here we introduce a new, simple approach for calculating time-varying TT and TTD based on measured tracer input and output data and the hydrological fluxes from a catchment. Our approach is designed to account for time variance in the transit time and the transit time distribution and the irregular shape of the transit time distribution. The objectives for this presentation are to (1) demonstrate the conceptual background and the validation of the approach in a proof of concept with artificial data (2) and apply it to an actual dataset from the well-characterized WS10 in the HJA Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA. Applied to a virtual data set the model reproduces known isotope values and transit times with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of over 0.9, while it reproduces the observed 18Oxygen signatures in WS10 with a NSE of 0.86. Transit time in WS 10 varies between approximately 250 and 550 days. The transit time distributions are highly irregular in shape; these distributions do not follow a predetermined distribution such as the gamma or exponential distributions

  8. Arterial Stiffness is Associated with Increase in Blood Pressure Over Time in Treated Hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, T; Bailey, KR; Turner, ST; Kullo, IJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is associated with incident hypertension. We hypothesized that arterial stiffness would predict increases in systolic (SBP), mean (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) over time in treated hypertensives. Methods Blood pressure (BP) was measured a mean of 8.5±0.9 years apart in 414 non-Hispanic white hypertensives (mean age 60±8 years, 55% women). The average of 3 supine right brachial BPs was recorded. Measures of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), aortic augmentation index (AIx) and central pulse pressure (CPP) were obtained at baseline by applanation tonometry. We performed stepwise multivariable linear regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders to assess the associations of arterial stiffness parameters with BP changes over time. Results Systolic, mean and pulse pressure increased in 80% of participants. After adjustment for the covariates listed above, cfPWV was significantly associated with increases in SBP (β±SE: 0.71±0.31) and PP (β±SE: 1.09±0.27); AIx was associated with increases in SBP (β±SE: 0.23±0.10) and MAP (β±SE: 0.27±0.07); and CPP was associated with increases in SBP (β±SE: 0.44±0.07), MAP (β±SE: 0.24±0.05) and PP (β±SE: 0.42±0.06) over time (P≤0.02 for all). Conclusions Baseline arterial stiffness measures were associated with longitudinal increases in SBP, MAP and PP in treated hypertensives. PMID:24952654

  9. Delivering on the promise of transit timing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Transiting timing variations (TTVs) have held the promise of enabling the measurement of planet masses and radii in multi-transiting planet systems found with the Kepler spacecraft. However, when a single TTV frequency is detected, a degeneracy commonly exists between the eccentricities and masses of the planets (Lithwick, Xie & Wu 2012), making the masses and eccentricities indeterminate. In some cases this degeneracy has been broken with n-body integrations, but this enshrouds the answer in complex numerics. It may also be broken statistically, but this still does not provide measurements for individual planets.We show how this degeneracy may be broken with a measurement of TTV at the synodic frequency, which has an amplitude that depends strongly on the planet-star mass ratios and on the planets' semi-major axis ratio, yet weakly on their eccentricities. This "chopping" signal is generally modest in amplitude, but when it is detected it can provide the primary constraint upon planet masses, such as in Kepler 11d&e and KOI-872c. We show by example how harmonic analysis of TTVs combined with analytic formulae can break the eccentricity-mass degeneracy without the need for dynamical integrations, thus delivering on the promise of TTVs, while at the same time clarifying the origin of the planetary mass constraints resulting from TTV analysis.

  10. Analytical approximation of transit time scattering due to magnetosonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Ni, B.; Li, J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent test particle simulations have shown that energetic electrons traveling through fast magnetosonic (MS) wave packets can experience an effect which is specifically associated with the tight equatorial confinement of these waves, known as transit time scattering. However, such test particle simulations can be computationally cumbersome and offer limited insight into the dominant physical processes controlling the wave-particle interactions, that is, in determining the effects of the various wave parameters and equatorial confinement on the particle scattering. In this paper, we show that such nonresonant effects can be effectively captured with a straightforward analytical treatment that is made possible with a set of reasonable, simplifying assumptions. It is shown that the effect of the wave confinement, which is not captured by the standard quasi-linear theory approach, acts in such a way as to broaden the range of particle energies and pitch angles that can effectively resonate with the wave. The resulting diffusion coefficients can be readily incorporated into global diffusion models in order to test the effects of transit time scattering on the dynamical evolution of radiation belt fluxes.

  11. Excitation signal's influence on ultrasonic transit time flow meter's performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilainis, L.; Kabisius, P.; Aleksandrovas, A.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasonic flow meter performance was analyzed. Ultrasound transit time was used for flow rate estimation. Time of flight was measured using cross correlation processing. Simultaneous channels excitation was used. Ultrasonic signals were excited using low voltage (4V pp) signal generator, received signals were amplified 30 dB and simultaneously acquired by 100 Ms/s 10 bit analog-to-digit converters. Subsample delay estimation was used. Flow rate was varied from 10 l/h to 200 l/h. Measurement channel diameter 8 mm was used. It is complicated to obtain the unbiased reference signal for correlation processing. Various combinations of signals travelling in measurement channel were used for cross-correlation processing. Performance of correlation function and time of flight estimator variance were studied. Variable gain amplifier usually is used for signal dynamic range matching to A/D converter input. Gain influence on time of flight was a subject to study. It has been concluded that gain control introduces systematic errors in time of flight estimator. Influence of the temperature of electronics (pulser, receiver, A/D converter, reference clock etc.) and ultrasonic transducers on the delay estimator was studied. It was concluded that the major temperature-related systematic error comes from the pulser. Performance of the meter was studied when narrowband and spread spectrum signals were used for ultrasound excitation across temperature and flow rate range. It has been concluded that spread spectrum signal allows for better zero flow stability over temperature and lower time of flight variation.

  12. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions.

    PubMed

    Limmer, David T

    2014-06-07

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  13. Space and time renormalization in phase transition dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Francuz, Anna; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Gardas, Bartłomiej; ...

    2016-02-18

    Here, when a system is driven across a quantum critical point at a constant rate, its evolution must become nonadiabatic as the relaxation time τ diverges at the critical point. According to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM), the emerging post-transition excited state is characterized by a finite correlation length ξˆ set at the time tˆ=τˆ when the critical slowing down makes it impossible for the system to relax to the equilibrium defined by changing parameters. This observation naturally suggests a dynamical scaling similar to renormalization familiar from the equilibrium critical phenomena. We provide evidence for such KZM-inspired spatiotemporal scaling by investigatingmore » an exact solution of the transverse field quantum Ising chain in the thermodynamic limit.« less

  14. Space and time renormalization in phase transition dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Francuz, Anna; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Gardas, Bartłomiej; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2016-02-18

    Here, when a system is driven across a quantum critical point at a constant rate, its evolution must become nonadiabatic as the relaxation time τ diverges at the critical point. According to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM), the emerging post-transition excited state is characterized by a finite correlation length ξˆ set at the time tˆ=τˆ when the critical slowing down makes it impossible for the system to relax to the equilibrium defined by changing parameters. This observation naturally suggests a dynamical scaling similar to renormalization familiar from the equilibrium critical phenomena. We provide evidence for such KZM-inspired spatiotemporal scaling by investigating an exact solution of the transverse field quantum Ising chain in the thermodynamic limit.

  15. Cerenkov and transition radiation in space-time periodic media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1972-01-01

    The solution to the problem of determining the radiation emitted by a uniformly moving charged particle in a sinusoidally space-time periodic medium is obtained. The space-time periodicity can be considered as due to a strong pump wave and is expressed as a traveling-wave-type change in the dielectric constant or the plasma density. The solution covers also the limiting case of sinusoidally stratified media. The expression and spectrum of the radiated electromagnetic field are determined for different media: dielectric, isotropic and uniaxial plasma. Depending on the nature of the medium and the velocity of the particle, the radiated field is of the Cerenkov and/or transition type. The Brillouin diagram is used extensively in understanding and determining the nature, extent, and spectrum of the different modes of radiation, and a focusing effect is also studied.

  16. Daylight saving time transitions and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Čulić, Viktor

    2013-06-01

    Most recently, the possible impact of transitions to and from daylight saving time (DST) on the increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been suggested. The goal of this report was to analyze independent influence of DST transitions on the incidence of AMI with simultaneous control for the confounding presence of situational triggers such as physical exertion, emotional stress, heavy meals, and sexual intercourse, as well as for other clinical factors. Detailed information was obtained from 2412 patients and included baseline characteristics, working status, exact time of AMI, possible external triggers, cardiovascular risk factors, and prehospital medication. AMI incidence on days after the DST was compared with incidence during control periods and patient characteristics, cardiovascular medication, and circumstances of AMI were evaluated to identify potential risk modifiers. Relative risks of AMI and differences in patient characteristics were expressed through incidence ratios and odds ratios, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis was performed by using a stepwise multiple regression to assess the independent predictive significance of the characteristics of patients for the AMI occurring in the posttransitional period. The incidence ratio for AMI for the first four workdays after the spring DST transition was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.09-1.49) and the excess was particularly prominent on Monday. In autumn, the incidence ratio for AMI for this 4-d period was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.19-1.69), with peaks on Tuesday and Thursday. The independent predictors for AMI during this period in spring were male sex (p = 0.03) and nonengagement in physical activity (p = 0.02) and there was a trend for the lower risk of incident among those taking calcium antagonists (p = 0.07). In autumn, the predictors were female sex (p = 0.04), current employment (p = 0.006), not taking β-blocker (p = 0.03), and nonengagement in physical activity (p

  17. RSRM Chamber Pressure Oscillations: Transit Time Models and Unsteady CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Stewart, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Space Shuttle solid rocket motor low frequency internal pressure oscillations have been observed since early testing. The same type of oscillations also are present in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM). The oscillations, which occur during RSRM burn, are predominantly at the first three motor cavity longitudinal acoustic mode frequencies. Broadband flow and combustion noise provide the energy to excite these modes at low levels throughout motor burn, however, at certain times during burn the fluctuating pressure amplitude increases significantly. The increased fluctuations at these times suggests an additional excitation mechanism. The RSRM has inhibitors on the propellant forward facing surface of each motor segment. The inhibitors are in a slot at the segment field joints to prevent burning at that surface. The aft facing segment surface at a field joint slot burns and forms a cavity of time varying size. Initially the inhibitor is recessed in the field joint cavity. As propellant burns away the inhibitor begins to protrude into the bore flow. Two mechanisms (transit time models) that are considered potential pressure oscillation excitations are cavity-edge tones, and inhibitor hole-tones. Estimates of frequency variation with time of longitudinal acoustic modes, cavity edge-tones, and hole-tones compare favorably with frequencies measured during motor hot firing. It is believed that the highest oscillation amplitudes occur when vortex shedding frequencies coincide with motor longitudinal acoustic modes. A time accurate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was made to replicate the observations from motor firings and to observe the transit time mechanisms in detail. FDNS is the flow solver used to detail the time varying aspects of the flow. The fluid is approximated as a single-phase ideal gas. The CFD model was an axisymmetric representation of the RSRM at 80 seconds into burn.Deformation of the inhibitors by the internal flow was determined

  18. Timing of Incident Stroke Risk After Cervical Artery Dissection Presenting Without Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nicholas A; Merkler, Alexander E; Gialdini, Gino; Kamel, Hooman

    2017-03-01

    Cervical artery dissection is a common cause of stroke in young people. The temporal profile of stroke risk after cervical artery dissection presenting without ischemia remains uncertain. We performed a crossover cohort study using administrative claims data on all emergency department visits and acute care hospitalizations from 2005 to 2011 in CA, 2006 to 2013 in NY, and 2005 to 2013 in FL. Using previously validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes, we identified patients with a cervical artery dissection and no previous or concurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack diagnosis. We compared the risk of stroke in successive 2-week periods during the 12 weeks after dissection versus the corresponding 2-week period 1 year later. Absolute risk increases were calculated using McNemar test for matched data. In a sensitivity analysis, we limited our population to patients presenting with typical symptoms of cervical artery dissection. We identified 2791 patients with dissection without ischemia. The absolute increase in stroke risk was 1.25% (95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.67%) in the first 2 weeks after dissection compared with the same time period 1 year later. The absolute risk increase was 0.18% (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.34%) during weeks 3 to 4 and was no longer significant during the remainder of the 12-week postdissection period. Our findings were similar in a sensitivity analysis identifying patients who presented with typical symptoms of acute dissection. The risk of stroke after cervical artery dissection unaccompanied by ischemia at time of diagnosis seems to be limited to the first 2 weeks. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR INCLINED AND RETROGRADE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Veras, Dimitri

    2010-03-20

    We perform numerical calculations of the expected transit timing variations (TTVs) induced on a hot-Jupiter by an Earth-mass perturber. Motivated by the recent discoveries of retrograde transiting planets, we concentrate on an investigation of the effect of varying relative planetary inclinations, up to and including completely retrograde systems. We find that planets in low-order (e.g., 2:1) mean-motion resonances (MMRs) retain approximately constant TTV amplitudes for 0 deg. < i < 170 deg., only reducing in amplitude for i>170 deg. Systems in higher order MMRs (e.g., 5:1) increase in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase toward 45 deg., becoming approximately constant for 45 deg. < i < 135 deg., and then declining for i>135 deg. Planets away from resonance slowly decrease in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase from 0 deg. to 180 deg., whereas planets adjacent to resonances can exhibit a huge range of variability in TTV amplitude as a function of both eccentricity and inclination. For highly retrograde systems (135 deg. < i {<=} 180 deg.), TTV signals will be undetectable across almost the entirety of parameter space, with the exceptions occurring when the perturber has high eccentricity or is very close to an MMR. This high inclination decrease in TTV amplitude (on and away from resonance) is important for the analysis of the known retrograde and multi-planet transiting systems, as inclination effects need to be considered if TTVs are to be used to exclude the presence of any putative planetary companions: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

  20. Measurements Of Coronary Mean Transit Time And Myocardial Tissue Blood Flow By Deconvolution Of Intravasal Tracer Dilution Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, H.; Hoeft, A.; Hellige, G.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that intramyocardial blood volume does not vary to a major extent even during extreme variation of hemodynamics and coronary vascular tone. Based on a constant intramyocardial blood volume it is therefore possible to calculate tissue blood flow from the mean transit time of an intravascular tracer. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically applicable method for measurement of coronary blood flow. The new method was based on indocyanine green, a dye which is bound to albumin and intravasally detectable by means of a fiberoptic catheter device. One fiberoptic catheter was placed in the aortic root and another in the coronary sinus. After central venous dye injection the resulting arterial and coronary venous dye dilution curves were processed on-line by a micro-computer. The mean transit time as well as myocardial blood flow were calculated from the step response function of the deconvoluted arterial and coronary venous signals. Reference flow was determined with an extracorporeal electromagnetic flowprobe within a coronary sinus bypass system. 38 steady states with coronary blood flow ranging from 49 - 333 ml/min*100g were analysed in 5 dogs. Mean transit times varied from 2.9 to 16.6 sec. An average intracoronary blood volume of 13.9 -7 1.8 m1/100g was calculated. The correlation between flow determined by the dye dilution technique and flow measured with the reference method was 0.98. According to these results determination of coronary blood flow with a double fiberoptic system and indocyanine green should be possible even under clinical conditions. Furthermore, the arterial and coronary venous oxygen saturation can be monitored continuously by the fiberoptic catheters. Therefore, additional information about the performance of the heart such as myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial efficiency is available with the same equipment.

  1. Detection of artery interfaces: a real-time system and its clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faita, Francesco; Gemignani, Vincenzo; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Giannarelli, Chiara; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Demi, Marcello

    2008-03-01

    Analyzing the artery mechanics is a crucial issue because of its close relationship with several cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes. Moreover, most of the work can be carried out by analyzing image sequences obtained with ultrasounds, that is with a non-invasive technique which allows a real-time visualization of the observed structures. For this reason, therefore, an accurate temporal localization of the main vessel interfaces becomes a central task for which the manual approach should be avoided since such a method is rather unreliable and time consuming. Real-time automatic systems are advantageously used to automatically locate the arterial interfaces. The automatic measurement reduces the inter/intra-observer variability with respect to the manual measurement which unavoidably depends on the experience of the operator. The real-time visual feedback, moreover, guides physicians when looking for the best position of the ultrasound probe, thus increasing the global robustness of the system. The automatic system which we developed is a stand-alone video processing system which acquires the analog video signal from the ultrasound equipment, performs all the measurements and shows the results in real-time. The localization algorithm of the artery tunics is based on a new mathematical operator (the first order absolute moment) and on a pattern recognition approach. Various clinical applications have been developed on board and validated through a comparison with gold-standard techniques: the assessment of intima-media thickness, the arterial distension, the flow-mediated dilation and the pulse wave velocity. With this paper, the results obtained on clinical trials are presented.

  2. Transit times of baseflow in New Zealand rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike; Daughney, Chris; Townsend, Dougal

    2015-04-01

    Water quantity and quality responses of catchments to climate and land-use changes are difficult to understand and predict due to complexities of subsurface water flow paths and potentially large groundwater stores. It is difficult to relate the hydrologic responses of catchments to measurable catchment properties. Tritium is ideally suited to provide a measurable parameter of hydrologic response. Tritium, a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years after the water enters the groundwater system, and can therefore provide information on transit time of water through the groundwater system over the time range 0 to 200 years mean residence time (MRT). Transit time of the water discharge is one of the most crucial parameters for understanding the response of catchments. In recent years it has become possible to use tritium in a straightforward way for dating of stream and river water due to the decay of the bomb-tritium from atmospheric thermo-nuclear weapons testing, and to improved measurement accuracy for the extremely low natural tritium concentrations. Tritium dating of river water during baseflow conditions from over 120 sites throughout New Zealand show consistent patterns and a good correlation between geology and residence times of the water discharges. Basement rock catchments (greywacke, schist) have very young water of MRT less than 1year, sand-, mud-, limestone catchments have moderately old water of MRT 3-15 years, and porous ignimbrite catchments have very old water of MRT greater than 100 years. For example, the tritium data indicate MRT of 6 - 7 years in the Whanganui River, 3 - 3.5 years in the Rangitikei River, and 9 - 11 years in the large discharges from the Tertiary sediments in the Manawatu catchment. The discharges from the greywacke Ruahine and Tararua Ranges contain very young water with MRT of 0 - 2 years. Associated groundwater stores for the Rangitikei, Manawatu, and Whanganui Rivers are 1, 2, and 5 x 109 m3 of

  3. Analytic formulae for transit timing variations of planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Katherine Michele; Agol, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Gravitational interactions between planets in transiting exoplanetary systems lead to variations in the times of transit (TTVs) that are diagnostic of the planetary masses and the dynamical state of the system. I will present analytic formulae for TTVs which can be applied to planetary systems with nearly circular orbits which are not caught in a mean motion resonance. The formulae relate physical parameters, like masses and orbital elements, to direct TTV observables, including shape, amplitude, and timescales. Importantly, the formulae highlight which components of TTVs break degeneracies to allow for unique measurements of planet masses and eccentricities. Additionally, modeling of TTV data using our analytic formulae can be nearly 4 orders of magnitude faster compared with n-body integration. For a number of Kepler systems with TTVs, I will show that our formulae lead to accurate mass and orbital element measurements without full dynamical analyses involving direct integration of the equations of motion. The analytic formulae may ultimately allow for a homogenous analysis of the TTVs (or lack thereof) of many multi-planet systems.

  4. Blood pressure class and carotid artery intima-media thickness in a population at the secondary epidemiological transition.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Sharif M; Wiria, Aprilianto E; Wammes, Linda J; Smit, Johannes W A; Partono, Felix; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Tamsma, Jouke T

    2011-11-01

    Data relating blood pressure (BP) class to subclinical organ damage are infrequently reported in populations with a traditional 'nonwestern' lifestyle. As the relevance of BP stratification to cardiovascular prognosis has not been elucidated in these low-income countries at the second epidemiological transition, we aimed to study the effect of BP class on carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in Flores Island, Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was performed in 476 inhabitants (men/women) of Flores. BP was classified using the European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology classification. The primary endpoint was mean carotid-IMT measured by ultrasonography in classes of BP. Covariate analysis was performed adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. BP ranged from 94 to 250 mmHg systolic and 50 to 125 mmHg diastolic, 35% of the population had 'grade-I hypertension' or higher, 1.7% of the population was short-term treated with antihypertensive therapy. IMT significantly differed for BP classes (P < 0.001). Mean (± SEM) IMT was 587.8 (± 9.3) μm, 621.5 (± 7.6) μm, 653.6 (± 10.5) μm, 717.9 (± 14.0) μm, and 750.1 (± 21.8) μm for 'optimal', '(high) normal', 'grade-I, grade-II, and grade-III hypertension' classes, respectively. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, similar results were obtained. A strong association was found between BP class and carotid artery IMT in treatment-naive participants of a population with a traditional lifestyle, at the second epidemiological transition. Intriguingly, the increase of IMT was already observed at the 'high normal' BP class. This study may help to prioritize preventive and therapeutic measures to lower BP in countries at the second epidemiological transition.

  5. The helpfulness and timing of transition program education.

    PubMed

    Rush, Kathy L; Adamack, Monica; Janke, Robert; Gordon, Jason; Ghement, Isabella R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between transition program education and new graduate nurse transition. Although new graduates preferred hands-on learning, the helpfulness of workshops was associated with better transition. New graduates, many of whom were from the Millennial Generation, liked a variety of educational modalities. Access to support was better for nurse graduates who received education delivered throughout the first year of transition.

  6. Time-Distance Seismology and the Solar Transition Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Shelley C.; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-12-01

    Time-Distance `travel time' perturbations (as inferred from wave phase) are calculated relative to the quiet-Sun as a function of wave orientation and field inclination in a uniform inclined magnetic field. Modelling indicates that the chromosphere-corona Transition Region (TR) profoundly alters travel times at inclinations from the vertical θ for which the ramp-reduced acoustic cutoff frequency ω c cos θ is similar to the wave frequency ω. At smaller inclinations phase shifts are much smaller as the waves are largely reflected before reaching the TR. At larger inclinations, the shifts resume their quiet-Sun values, although with some resonant oscillatory behaviour. Changing the height of the TR in the model atmosphere has some effect, but the thickness and temperature jump do not change the results substantially. There is a strong correspondence between travel-time shifts and the Alfvén flux that emerges at the top of the modelled region as a result of fast/Alfvén mode conversion. We confirm that the TR transmission coefficient for Alfvén waves generated by mode conversion in the chromosphere is far larger (typically 30 % or more) than for Alfvén waves injected from the photosphere.

  7. Quantum to classical transition induced by gravitational time dilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Boris; Vilja, Iiro; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2017-07-01

    We study the loss of quantumness caused by time dilation [I. Pikovski, M. Zych, F. Costa, and Č. Brukner, Nat. Phys. 11, 668 (2015), 10.1038/nphys3366] for a Schrödinger cat state. We give a holistic view of the quantum to classical transition by comparing the dynamics of several nonclassicality indicators, such as the Wigner function interference fringe, the negativity of the Wigner function, the nonclassical depth, the Vogel criterion, and the Klyshko criterion. Our results show that only two of these indicators depend critically on the size of the cat, namely, on how macroscopic the superposition is. Finally we compare the gravitation-induced decoherence times to the typical decoherence times due to classical noise originating from the unavoidable statistical fluctuations in the characteristic parameters of the system [J. Trapani, M. Bina, S. Maniscalco, and M. G. A. Paris, Phys. Rev. A 91, 022113 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.022113]. We show that the experimental observation of decoherence due to time dilation imposes severe limitations on the allowed levels of classical noise in the experiments.

  8. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…

  9. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…

  10. Detecting nonstationarity and state transitions in a time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J. B.

    2001-06-01

    One cause of complexity in a time series may be due to nonstationarity and transience. In this paper, we analyze the nonstationarity and transience in a number of dynamical systems. We find that the nonstationarity in the metastable chaotic Lorenz system is due to nonrecurrence. The latter determines a lack of fractal structure in the signal. In 1/fα noise, we find that the associated correlation dimension are local graph dimensions calculated from sojourn points. We also design a transient Lorenz system with a slowly oscillating controlling parameter, and a transient Rossler system with a slowly linearly increasing parameter, with parameter ranges covering a sequence of chaotic dynamics with increased phase incoherence. State transitions, from periodic to chaotic, and vice versa, are identified, together with different facets of nonstationarity in each phase.

  11. Toward a Smartphone Application for Estimation of Pulse Transit Time.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Ivanov, Kamen; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Lei

    2015-10-27

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is an important physiological parameter that directly correlates with the elasticity and compliance of vascular walls and variations in blood pressure. This paper presents a PTT estimation method based on photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGi). The method utilizes two opposing cameras for simultaneous acquisition of PPGi waveform signals from the index fingertip and the forehead temple. An algorithm for the detection of maxima and minima in PPGi signals was developed, which includes technology for interpolation of the real positions of these points. We compared our PTT measurements with those obtained from the current methodological standards. Statistical results indicate that the PTT measured by our proposed method exhibits a good correlation with the established method. The proposed method is especially suitable for implementation in dual-camera-smartphones, which could facilitate PTT measurement among populations affected by cardiac complications.

  12. Toward a Smartphone Application for Estimation of Pulse Transit Time

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Ivanov, Kamen; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is an important physiological parameter that directly correlates with the elasticity and compliance of vascular walls and variations in blood pressure. This paper presents a PTT estimation method based on photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGi). The method utilizes two opposing cameras for simultaneous acquisition of PPGi waveform signals from the index fingertip and the forehead temple. An algorithm for the detection of maxima and minima in PPGi signals was developed, which includes technology for interpolation of the real positions of these points. We compared our PTT measurements with those obtained from the current methodological standards. Statistical results indicate that the PTT measured by our proposed method exhibits a good correlation with the established method. The proposed method is especially suitable for implementation in dual-camera-smartphones, which could facilitate PTT measurement among populations affected by cardiac complications. PMID:26516861

  13. Time-resolved PIV measurements of the flow field in a stenosed, compliant arterial model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoghegan, P. H.; Buchmann, N. A.; Soria, J.; Jermy, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    Compliant (flexible) structures play an important role in several biological flows including the lungs, heart and arteries. Coronary heart disease is caused by a constriction in the artery due to a build-up of atherosclerotic plaque. This plaque is also of major concern in the carotid artery which supplies blood to the brain. Blood flow within these arteries is strongly influenced by the movement of the wall. To study these problems experimentally in vitro, especially using flow visualisation techniques, can be expensive due to the high-intensity and high-repetition rate light sources required. In this work, time-resolved particle image velocimetry using a relatively low-cost light-emitting diode illumination system was applied to the study of a compliant flow phantom representing a stenosed (constricted) carotid artery experiencing a physiologically realistic flow wave. Dynamic similarity between in vivo and in vitro conditions was ensured in phantom construction by matching the distensibility and the elastic wave propagation wavelength and in the fluid system through matching Reynolds ( Re) and Womersley number ( α) with a maximum, minimum and mean Re of 939, 379 and 632, respectively, and a α of 4.54. The stenosis had a symmetric constriction of 50 % by diameter (75 % by area). Once the flow rate reached a critical value, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were observed to occur in the shear layer between the main jet exiting the stenosis and a reverse flow region that occurred at a radial distance of 0.34 D from the axis of symmetry in the region on interest 0-2.5 D longitudinally downstream from the stenosis exit. The instability had an axis-symmetric nature, but as peak flow rate was approached this symmetry breaks down producing instability in the flow field. The characteristics of the vortex train were sensitive not only to the instantaneous flow rate, but also to whether the flow was accelerating or decelerating globally.

  14. Impact of timing of cranioplasty on hydrocephalus after decompressive hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Finger, Tobias; Prinz, Vincent; Schreck, Evelyn; Pinczolits, Alexandra; Bayerl, Simon; Liman, Thomas; Woitzik, Johannes; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction frequently develop hydrocephalus after decompressive hemicraniectomy. Hydrocephalus itself and known shunt related complications after ventriculo-peritoneal shunt implantation may negatively impact patientś outcome. Here, we aimed to identify factors associated with the development of hydrocephalus after decompressive hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. A total of 99 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of large hemispheric infarctions and the indication for decompressive hemicraniectomy were included. We retrospectively evaluated patient characteristics (gender, age and selected preoperative risk factors), stroke characteristics (side, stroke volume and existing mass effect) and surgical characteristics (size of the bone flap, initial complication rate, time to cranioplasty, complication rate following cranioplasty, type of implant, number of revision surgeries and mortality). Frequency of hydrocephalus development was 10% in our cohort. Patients who developed a hydrocephalus had an earlier time point of bone flap reimplantation compared to the control group (no hydrocephalus=164±104days, hydrocephalus=108±52days, p<0.05). Additionally, numbers of revision surgeries after cranioplasty was associated with hydrocephalus with a trend towards significance (p=0.08). Communicating hydrocephalus is frequent in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction after decompressive hemicraniectomy. A later time point of cranioplasty might lead to a lower incidence of required shunting procedures in general as we could show in our patient cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors influencing stream baseflow transit times in tropical montane watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Villers, Lyssette E.; Geissert, Daniel R.; Holwerda, Friso; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-04-01

    Stream water mean transit time (MTT) is a fundamental hydrologic parameter that integrates the distribution of sources, flow paths, and storages present in catchments. However, in the tropics little MTT work has been carried out, despite its usefulness for providing important information on watershed functioning at different spatial scales in (largely) ungauged basins. In particular, very few studies have quantified stream MTTs or have related these to catchment characteristics in tropical montane regions. Here we examined topographic, land use/cover and soil hydraulic controls on baseflow transit times for nested catchments (0.1-34 km2) within a humid mountainous region, underlain by volcanic soil (Andisols) in central Veracruz (eastern Mexico). We used a 2-year record of bi-weekly isotopic composition of precipitation and stream baseflow data to estimate MTT. Land use/cover and topographic parameters (catchment area and form, drainage density, slope gradient and length) were derived from geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Soil water retention characteristics, and depth and permeability of the soil-bedrock interface were obtained from intensive field measurements and laboratory analysis. Results showed that baseflow MTTs ranged between 1.2 and 2.7 years across the 12 study catchments. Overall, MTTs across scales were mainly controlled by catchment slope and the permeability observed at the soil-bedrock interface. In association with topography, catchment form and the depth to the soil-bedrock interface were also identified as important features influencing baseflow MTTs. The greatest differences in MTTs were found both within groups of small (0.1-1.5 km2) and large (14-34 km2) catchments. Interestingly, the longest stream MTTs were found in the headwater cloud forest catchments.

  16. Acute Appendicitis as Complication of Colon Transit Time Study; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghahramani, Leila; Roshanravan, Reza; Khodaei, Shahin; Rahimi Kazerooni, Salar; Moslemi, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Colon transit time study with radio opaque markers is a simple method for assessment of colon motility disorder in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. We report a case of acute appendicitis that was induced by impaction of radio opaque markers after colon transit time study. We think that this case report is first significant complication of colon transit time study until now PMID:26396723

  17. Effect of electrical forepaw stimulation on capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Eugenio; Cai, Changsi; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Angleys, Hugo; Merrild, Mads; Mouridsen, Kim; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Lee, Jonghwan; Iversen, Nina Kerting; Sakadzic, Sava; Østergaard, Leif

    2016-12-01

    Functional hyperemia reduces oxygen extraction efficacy unless counteracted by a reduction of capillary transit-time heterogeneity of blood. We adapted a bolus tracking approach to capillary transit-time heterogeneity estimation for two-photon microscopy and then quantified changes in plasma mean transit time and capillary transit-time heterogeneity during forepaw stimulation in anesthetized mice (C57BL/6NTac). In addition, we analyzed transit time coefficient of variance = capillary transit-time heterogeneity/mean transit time, which we expect to remain constant in passive, compliant microvascular networks. Electrical forepaw stimulation reduced, both mean transit time (11.3% ± 1.3%) and capillary transit-time heterogeneity (24.1% ± 3.3%), consistent with earlier literature and model predictions. We observed a coefficient of variance reduction (14.3% ± 3.5%) during functional activation, especially for the arteriolar-to-venular passage. Such coefficient of variance reduction during functional activation suggests homogenization of capillary flows beyond that expected as a passive response to increased blood flow by other stimuli. This finding is consistent with an active neurocapillary coupling mechanism, for example via pericyte dilation. Mean transit time and capillary transit-time heterogeneity reductions were consistent with the relative change inferred from capillary hemodynamics (cell velocity and flux). Our findings support the important role of capillary transit-time heterogeneity in flow-metabolism coupling during functional activation.

  18. Determination of total blood volume by indicator dilution: a comparison of mean transit time and mass conservation principle.

    PubMed

    Picker, O; Wietasch, G; Scheeren, T W; Arndt, J O

    2001-04-01

    Using indocyanine green (ICG), blood volume can be determined within minutes according to the mass conservation principle by back-extrapolation of the concentration/time curve to the time of injection (BVTinj) or by the transit time approach (BVMTT) as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time (MTT) of ICG through the circulation. To see which factor accounts for the difference between the two methods we measured cardiac output and MTT independently and compared the volumes with those obtained by dilution of Evans blue (BVEB). Prospective animal study. University department of experimental anaesthesiology. Six anaesthetised, spontaneously breathing dogs with chronically implanted ultrasound flow probes around the pulmonary artery. BVMTT and BVTinj agreed closely (48 +/- 2 ml.kg-1 and 49 +/- 2 ml.kg-1), but underestimated blood volume by about 40% compared with BVEB (75 +/- 1 ml.kg-1). Transit times measured were 33 +/- 1 s and should be about 50 s as calculated from the quotient of BVEB and cardiac output. Both methods underestimate blood volume by about the same extent compared with BVEB, probably because slowly perfused compartments are not detected during the short measurement period of 4 min. In the case of the transit time approach, rather short transit times result and in the case of the mass conservation principle, back-extra-polation yields rather high plasma concentrations of ICG at the time of injection. Accordingly, the two methods seem to be equivalent for measuring blood volume rapidly, although the absolute volume is underestimated by about 40%.

  19. Self-Powered Real-Time Arterial Pulse Monitoring Using Ultrathin Epidermal Piezoelectric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Yong; Joe, Daniel J; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Hyewon; Han, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Park, Hyelim; Park, Jung Gyu; Joung, Boyoung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2017-10-01

    Continuous monitoring of an arterial pulse using a pressure sensor attached on the epidermis is an important technology for detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and assessing personal health status. Conventional pulse sensors have the capability of detecting human biosignals, but have significant drawbacks of power consumption issues that limit sustainable operation of wearable medical devices. Here, a self-powered piezoelectric pulse sensor is demonstrated to enable in vivo measurement of radial/carotid pulse signals in near-surface arteries. The inorganic piezoelectric sensor on an ultrathin plastic achieves conformal contact with the complex texture of the rugged skin, which allows to respond to the tiny pulse changes arising on the surface of epidermis. Experimental studies provide characteristics of the sensor with a sensitivity (≈0.018 kPa(-1) ), response time (≈60 ms), and good mechanical stability. Wireless transmission of detected arterial pressure signals to a smart phone demonstrates the possibility of self-powered and real-time pulse monitoring system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Real-time Doppler-based arterial vascular impedance and peripheral pressure-flow loops: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Robert H; Bartels, Karsten; Esper, Stephen; Ikeda, Keita; Gan, Tong-Joo

    2014-02-01

    Arterial pressure-flow loops and vascular impedance provide additional data that could be used to assess the hemodynamic effects of therapeutic interventions in anesthetized patients. To evaluate the utility of such an approach, the authors sought to design a device that combines flow waveforms from an esophageal Doppler probe and pressure waveforms from a peripheral artery to produce real-time pressure-flow loops and estimates of arterial vascular impedance. Prospective, cohort study. Single center, university-based teaching hospital. Patients undergoing surgery in whom the attending anesthesiologist had opted to place an esophageal Doppler probe and a peripheral arterial catheter for hemodynamic monitoring. This was a non-interventional study designed to record pressure-flow loops and arterial vascular impedance intraoperatively using a novel, noninvasive device. Pressure-flow loops and arterial vascular impedance were measured noninvasively using radial artery pressure and descending thoracic aorta flow waveforms in real time. Real-time arterial vascular impedance and peripheral pressure-volume loops can be determined using available monitoring devices. Technical feasibility of this technology in patients is a crucial first step to permit meaningful evaluation of the clinical value of this approach for accurate determination of complex hemodynamic indices and, eventually, improvement of outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Remotely detected differential pulse transit time as a stress indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Tarbox, Elizabeth; Cissel, Marty; Moses, Sophia; Luthra, Megha; Vaidya, Misha; Tran, Nhien; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.

    2015-05-01

    The human cardiovascular system, controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), is one of the first sites where one can see the "fight-or-flight" response due to the presence of external stressors. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of detecting mental stress using a novel measure that can be measured in a contactless manner: Pulse transit time (dPTT), which refers to the time that is required for the blood wave (BW) to cover the distance from the heart to a defined remote location in the body. Loosely related to blood pressure, PTT is a measure of blood velocity, and is also implicated in the "fight-or-flight" response. We define the differential PTT (dPTT) as the difference in PTT between two remote areas of the body, such as the forehead and the palm. Expanding our previous work on remote BW detection from visible spectrum videos, we built a system that remotely measures dPTT. Human subject data were collected under an IRB approved protocol from 15 subjects both under normal and stress states and are used to initially establish the potential use of remote dPPT detection as a stress indicator.

  2. MOST Space-based Photometry of the Transiting Exoplanet System HD 209458: Transit Timing to Search for Additional Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Ricci, Eliza; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Walker, Gordon A. H.; Weiss, Werner W.

    2008-07-01

    We report on the measurement of transit times for the HD 209458 planetary system from photometry obtained with the MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) space telescope. Deviations from a constant orbital period can indicate the presence of additional planets in the system that are yet undetected, potentially with masses approaching an Earth mass. The MOST data sets of HD 209458 from 2004 and 2005 represent unprecedented time coverage with nearly continuous observations spanning 14 and 43 days and monitoring three transits and 12 consecutive transits, respectively. The transit times that we obtain show no variations on three scales: (1) no long-term change in P since before 2004 at 25 ms level, (2) no trend in transit timings during the 2005 run, and (3) no individual transit timing deviations above 80 s level. Together with previously published transit times from Agol & Steffen, this allows us to place limits on the presence of additional close-in planets in the system, in some cases down to below an Earth mass. This result, along with previous radial velocity work, now eliminates the possibility that a perturbing planet could be responsible for the additional heat source needed to explain HD 209458b's anomalous low density.

  3. Racial Differences in the Association between Carotid Plaque and Aortic and Coronary Artery Calcification Among Women Transitioning the Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Genevieve A.; Narla, Vinod V.; Ye, Rong; Cauley, Jane A.; Thompson, Trina; Matthews, Karen A.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background Carotid atherosclerosis is a marker for atherosclerotic disease in other vascular beds; however, racial differences in this association have not been fully examined. The purpose of this report is to evaluate racial differences in the relationship between carotid plaque and calcification in the aorta and coronary arteries among women transitioning the menopause. Methods 540 African American and White women with a median age of 50 years were evaluated from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Carotid plaque (none versus any) was assessed with B-mode ultrasound and aortic (AC; 0, >0–100, >100) and coronary artery calcification (CAC; 0, >0–10, >10) with computed tomography. Results For the total cohort, higher prevalence of plaque was significantly associated with higher levels of AC, but not CAC. The interaction of race and carotid plaque was significant in models with AC and CAC as dependent variables (p=0.03, 0.002, respectively). Among African Americans, there was an inverse relationship, although not significant, between carotid plaque and high AC (>100) (OR 0.75, 95%CI: 0.10–5.48), and between plaque and high CAC (>10) (OR 0.20, 95%CI: 0.03–1.52) in fully adjusted models. In contrast, for Whites, significant positive associations existed between carotid plaque and high AC (OR 4.12, 95%CI: 1.29–13.13) and borderline for high CAC (OR 1.83, 95%CI: 0.66–5.19). Conclusions This study demonstrated the presence of carotid plaque appeared to be a marker for AC and potentially CAC in White women during the menopause transition, but not African American middle-aged women. PMID:22037218

  4. Transition Between the Timed up and Go Turn to Sit Subtasks: Is Timing Everything?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aner; Mirelman, Anat; Giladi, Nir; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG), one of the most widely used tests of mobility, has been validated and associated with adverse outcomes in the community, acute care, and nursing home setting. It is composed of several distinct subtasks; however, the temporal relationship when transitioning between subtasks has not been well-studied. We tested the hypothesis that longer transition durations between the final turn to the sitting subtasks are associated with worse motor and cognitive performance in older adults. A total of 1055 participants (80.33 ± 7.57 years, 76.96% female) performed the TUG while wearing a 3-dimensional inertial sensor on their lower back. We employed a series of linear regressions to examine the association of the duration between the turn and sitting subtasks with clinical characteristics including motor and cognitive functions. Participants employed 2 different strategies when they transitioned from turning to sitting. (1) Distinct transition strategy: 816 participants (77.34%) first completed the turn before starting to sit. The average duration between these distinct subtasks (D-interval) was 715 ± 980 ms. (2) Overlapping transition strategy: 239 participants (22.65%) started to sit before completing the turn. The average overlap duration between these tasks (O-interval) was 237 ± 269 ms. Participants who employed the distinct transition strategy were slightly younger than those who employed the overlapping transition strategy (P ≤ .013). Higher D-intervals and O-intervals were associated with worse TUG performance (P ≤ .02), with poorer motor and cognitive function, [ie, worse parkinsonian gait (P ≤ .001), lower level of perceptual speed (P ≤ .03), and with worse mobility disability (P ≤ .001)]. A longer D-interval was associated with worse gait speed and bradykinesia (P ≤ .001), whereas a longer O-interval was associated with increased rigidity (P = .004). Older adults apparently employ 2 different strategies

  5. A Transit Timing Posterior Distribution Catalog for all Kepler Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin; Becker, Juliette; Johnson, John

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the unprecedented precision of Kepler, the first unambiguous observations of transit timing variations (TTVs) are now in hand. TTVs have afforded us the ability to precisely characterize both transiting and non-transiting exoplanets by observing dynamical interactions in multi-transiting systems. Catalogs attempting to publish transit times of large numbers of Kepler systems exist. However, these catalogs are incomplete: for each event only a point estimate and assumed Gaussian uncertainity of the transit time is included. Moreover, published catalogs only include long-cadence data, do not cover the full Kepler observing baseline, and assume the Kepler noise is perfectly uncorrelated. Here, we present a complete TTV catalog, in which we produce full posterior distributions on the time of each transit for every Kepler planet candidate without any assumptions of Gaussianity in the transit times.

  6. Deconfinement phase transition in an expanding quark system in the relaxation time approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenwei; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the effects of nonequilibrium and collision terms on the deconfinement phase transition of an expanding quark system in Friedberg-Lee model in relaxation time approximation. By calculating the effective quark potential, the critical temperature of the phase transition is dominated by the mean field, while the collisions among quarks and mesons change the time structure of the phase transition significantly.

  7. Conductivity and transit time estimates of a soil liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Cartwright, K.; Panno, S.V.; Hensel, B.R.; Rehfeldt, K.H.; Herzog, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field-scale soil linear was built to assess the feasibilty of constructing a liner to meet the saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement of the U.S. EPA (i.e., less than 1 ?? 10-7 cm/s), and to determine the breakthrough and transit times of water and tracers through the liner. The liner, 8 ?? 15 ?? 0.9 m, was constructed in 15-cm compacted lifts using a 20,037-kg pad-foot compactor and standard engineering practices. Estimated saturated hydraulic conductivities were 2.4 ?? 10-9 cm/s, based on data from large-ring infiltrometers; 4.0 ?? 10-8 cm/s from small-ring infiltrometers; and 5.0 ?? 10-8 cm/s from a water-balance analysis. These estimates were derived from 1 year of monitoring water infiltration into the linear. Breakthrough of tracers at the base of the liner was estimated to be between 2 and 13 years, depending on the method of calculation and the assumptions used in the calculation.

  8. Pulse transit time and heart rate variability in sleep staging.

    PubMed

    Shahrbabaki, Sobhan Salari; Ahmed, Beena; Penzel, Thomas; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new and robust algorithm for detection of sleep stages by using the lead I of the Electrocardiography (ECG) and a fingertip Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor, validated using multiple overnight PSG recordings consisting of 20 human subjects (9 insomniac and 11 healthy). Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Pulse Transit Time (PTT) biomarkers which were extracted from ECG and PPG biosignals then employed to extract features. Distance Weighted k-Nearest Neighbours (DWk-NN) was used as classifier to differentiate sleep epochs. The validation of the algorithm was evaluated by Leave-One-Out-Cross-Validation method. The average accuracy of 73.4% with standard deviation of 6.4 was achieved while the algorithm could distinguish stages 2, 3 of non-rapid eye movement sleep by average sensitivity of almost 80%. The lowest mean sensitivity of 53% was for stage 1. These results demonstrate that an algorithm based on PTT and HRV spectral analysis is able to classify and distinguish sleep stages with high accuracy and sensitivity. In addition the proposed algorithm is capable to be improved and implemented as a wearable, comfortable and cheap instrument for sleep screening.

  9. Constipation and colonic transit times in children with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    vd Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; Liem, Olivia; Bekkali, Noor; van Aalderen, Wim M C; Rijcken, Tammo H Pels; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Benninga, Marc A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria in children with morbid obesity and to evaluate by measuring colonic transit times (CTTs) whether decreased colonic motility is present in these children. Ninety-one children with morbid obesity ages 8 to 18 years, entering a prospective, randomized controlled study evaluating the effect of an outpatient versus inpatient treatment program of obesity, participated. All of the children filled out a standardized questionnaire regarding their bowel habits, and CTTs were measured using radioopaque markers. Food diaries were also recorded to evaluate their diet. A total of 19 children (21%) had functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria, whereas 1 child had functional nonretentive fecal incontinence. Total CTT exceeded 62 hours in only 10.5% of the children with constipation, and among them, 2 had a total CTT of >100 hours. In the nonconstipated group 8.3% had a delayed CTT. Furthermore, no difference was found between the diet of children with or without constipation, specifically not with respect to fiber and fat intake. Our study confirms a high frequency of functional constipation in children with obesity, using the Rome III criteria. However, abnormal colonic motility, as measured by CTT, was delayed in only a minority of patients. No relation was found between constipation in these children and fiber or fat intake.

  10. Transit time kinetics in ordered and disordered vascular trees.

    PubMed

    Karshafian, Raffi; Burns, Peter N; Henkelman, Mark R

    2003-10-07

    Imaging modalities exploit tracer-dilution methods to measure bulk haemodynamic parameters such as blood flow and volume at the level of the microcirculation. Here, we ask the question of whether the kinetics of a tracer can reveal morphological information about the vessels through which the tracers flow. The goal is to relate the acquired time-intensity characteristic to details of the vascular structure that lies below the imaging resolution. Two fractal vascular models are developed that represent organized 'kidney-like' and disorganized 'tumour-like' structures. The models are generated using simple rules of branching and fractal geometry in two dimensions. Blood flow and tracer kinetics are simulated using fundamental laws of haemodynamics. The flow conditions are matched in the two models. The fractal box dimensions of the kidney (D(B) = 1.67 +/- 0.01) and the tumour (D(B) = 1.80 +/- 0.01) vasculatures fall in the range given in the literature (D(B) = 1.61 +/- 0.06 and D(B) = 1.84 +/- 0.04, respectively). The tracer kinetic curves of the kidney and the tumour vasculatures have the same initial slope and final asymptote, corresponding to the same flow rate and vascular volume, but have different forms. The difference in the two curves is related to the distribution function of transit times of the vascular models, and is a consequence of the randomness introduced in vessel diameter and length. In principle, the form of the tracer kinetic curve from a contrast imaging study may offer information relating not only to vascular volume and flow rate, but also to the organization of a microvascular network.

  11. Modeling hyporheic exchange and in-stream transport with time-varying transit time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, A.; Harman, C. J.; Ward, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Transit time distributions (TTD) are used to understand in-stream transport and exchange with the hyporheic zone by quantifying the probability of water (and of dissolved material) taking time T to traverse the stream reach control volume. However, many studies using this method assume a TTD that is time-invariant, despite the time-variability of the streamflow. Others assume that storage is 'randomly sampled' or 'well-mixed' with a fixed volume or fixed exchange rate. Here we present a formulation for a time-variable TTD that relaxes both the time-invariant and 'randomly sampled' assumptions and only requires a few parameters. The framework is applied to transient storage, representing some combination of in-stream and hyporheic storage, along a stream reach. This approach does not assume that hyporheic and dead-zone storage is fixed or temporally-invariant, and allows for these stores to be sampled in more physically representative ways determined by the system itself. Instead of using probability distributions of age, probability distributions of storage (ranked by age) called Ω functions are used to describe how the off-stream storage is sampled in the outflow. Here the Ω function approach is used to describe hyporheic exchange during diurnal fluctuations in streamflow in a gaining reach of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. The breakthrough curves of salt slugs injected four hours apart over a 28-hour period show a systematic variation in transit time distribution. This new approach allows us to relate these salt slug TTDs to a corresponding time-variation in the Ω function, which can then be related to changes in in-stream storage and hyporheic zone mobilization under varying flow conditions. Thus, we can gain insights into how channel storage and hyporheic exchange are changing through time without having to specify difficult to measure or unmeasurable quantities of our system, such as total storage.

  12. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during a 4 km cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Rattray, Ben; Smale, Brittany A; Northey, Joseph M; Smee, Disa J; Versey, Nathan G

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to describe middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) during a 4 km cycling time trial, and relate it to different pacing strategies adopted by participants. After familiarisation and a standardised exercise protocol, 15 male trained cyclists rode a 4 km time trial on a cycling ergometer. MCAv was assessed via transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the right hemisphere at resting baseline, and throughout the time trial. Mean arterial pressure, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and heart rate were assessed alongside MCAv. Plasma lactate was assessed post time trial. Data were compared depending upon whether participants completed the time trial with a positive (first half faster than the last) or negative pacing profile although there was no difference in the time to completion with either pacing strategy (positive 344 ± 23 s, negative 334 ± 14 s; p = 0.394). Lower mean MCAv (positive pacing -7.6 ± 14.2%, negative pacing +21.2 ± 15.0% compared to resting baseline measures; p = 0.004) and lower PetCO2 (significant interaction p < 0.001) towards the end of the time trial were observed with positive compared to negative pacing. Heart rate and lactate did not differ between pacing strategies. Changes in MCAv appear to depend on the pacing strategy adopted, with a positive pacing strategy likely to contribute to a hyperventilatory drop in PetCO2 and subsequent reduction in MCAv. Although lower cerebral blood flow cannot be directly linked to an inability to raise or maintain power output during the closing stages of the time trial, this potential contributor to fatigue is worth further investigation.

  13. Time-variant Catchment Transit Time Distribution and StorAge Selection Functions in Neighbouring Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, J.; Rodriguez, N. B.; McGuire, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    The understanding of the catchment functions of storage, mixing, and release is a major research challenge as their behavior is fundamental for understanding water quality and flow quantity and timing. Generally, the complexity of the flow paths and associated mixing processes is still a major hindrance to a thorough understanding of catchment functions. Catchment transit time distributions can be used as an integrative descriptor of catchment functions. Here we aim to understand these fundamental catchment functions in four neighboring catchments of the HJA Experimental Forest in Oregon, USA. The areas of the four catchments (WS2, WS3, WS9, WS10) range from 0.085 to 1.011 km2. The catchments are fully forested with Douglas fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar dominating the lower elevations, and noble fir, Pacific silver fir, Douglas fir dominating higher elevations. Geology is dominated by volcaniclastics, covering 68% to 99% of the catchments. We employed a two storage conceptual model in each catchment for stream flow and transport modeling. We used solutions of the Master Equation to determine transit time distributions. We assumed randomly sampled/fully mixed conditions in each storage to model 18Oxygen in stream flow over a two year period. For example, modeling results for WS10 yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.84 for stream flow of and a NSE of 0.7 for the (volume weighted) 18O in stream flow. Furthermore, we derived the master transit time distribution (mttd) for the catchments. Eventually we investigated the landscape controls (topography, geology, morphology) on mttd and the dynamics of storage selection functions of each catchment.

  14. Colonic transit time after spinal cord injury: any clinical significance?

    PubMed

    Leduc, Bernard E; Spacek, Elena; Lepage, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Both bowel dysfunction and increases in colonic transit time (CTT) are frequently observed in individuals with spinal cord injury; however, it is unknown whether there is an association between chronic intestinal problems and changes in CTTs. The current study investigates a possible relationship between the main intestinal symptoms of SCI patients and CTT values. The following clinical variables and symptoms were investigated and collected in 30 individuals with SCI: total time for bowel care, abdominal pain, abdominal gas, success of rectal emptying, fecal incontinence, and decrease in quality of life. Total and segmental CTTs (right colon, left colon, and rectosigmoid colon) were assessed using radiopaque markers. The effects of the sociodemographic variables and the clinical symptoms on the different CTTs (total and segmental) were analyzed. The assessed clinical conditions were observed in the following percentages of subjects: abdominal gas symptoms (70%), fecal incontinence (56%), abdominal pain (63%), total time for bowel care > 1 hour (11%), difficult rectal emptying (66%), and decrease in quality of life (36%). We also observed an increase in total CTT in 47% of subjects; increases in segmental CTT were found in the right colon in 23%, in the left colon (60%), and in the rectosigmoid segment (23%). Statistical analyses failed to show a significant difference in mean CTT values between the group of symptomatic patients (1 or more symptoms) and the group of asymptomatic patients. No significant difference could be detected in the incidence of each intestinal symptom between the group of participants with normal CTT values and those with abnormal CTT values. For each of the clinical data assessed separately, a significantly longer CTT (left colon) was associated with the lack of abdominal pain (P < .03) and the presence of fecal incontinence (P < .01); successful rectal emptying was associated with significantly shorter total (P < .02) and segmental CTTs for

  15. A wearable vital signs monitor at the ear for continuous heart rate and pulse transit time measurements.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Eric S; He, David Da; Sodini, Charles G

    2012-01-01

    A continuous, wearable and wireless vital signs monitor at the ear is demonstrated. The device has the form factor of a hearing aid and is wirelessly connected to a PC for data recording and analysis. The device monitors the electrocardiogram (ECG) in a single lead configuration, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) with a MEMS triaxial accelerometer, and the photoplethysmograms (PPG) with 660 nm and 940 nm LED sources and a static photocurrent subtraction analog front end. Clinical tests are conducted, including Valsalva and head-up tilt maneuvers. Peak timing intervals between the ECG, BCG and PPG are extracted and are shown to relate to pre-ejection period and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pulse Transit Time (PTT) extracted from cross-correlation between the PPG and BCG shows improved results compared to the pulse arrival time (PAT) method for tracking changes in MAP.

  16. Transition between the Timed Up and Go turn to sit subtasks: Is timing everything?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Aner; Mirelman, Anat; Giladi, Nir; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Timed Up and Go (TUG), one of the most widely used tests of mobility, has been validated and associated with adverse outcomes in the community, acute care and nursing home setting. It is composed of several distinct subtasks, however, the temporal relationship when transitioning between subtasks has not been well-studied. We tested the hypothesis that longer transition durations between the final turn to the sitting subtasks are associated with worse motor and cognitive performance in older adults. Methods 1,055 participants (80.33±7.57 yrs, 76.96% female) performed the TUG while wearing a 3-D inertial sensor on their lower back. We employed a series of linear regressions to examine the association of the duration between the turn and sitting subtasks with clinical characteristics including motor and cognitive functions. Results Subjects employed two different strategies when they transitioned from turning to sitting: (1) Distinct Transition strategy (DTS): 816 participants (77.34%) first completed the turn before starting to sit. The average duration between these distinct subtasks (D-interval) was 715±980msec. (2) Overlapping Transition strategy (OTS): 239 participants (22.65%) started to sit before completing the turn. The average overlap duration between these tasks (O-interval) was 237±269msec. Participants who employed the DTS were slightly younger than those who employed the OTS (p≤0.013). Higher D-intervals and O-intervals were associated with worse TUG performance (p≤0.02), with poorer motor and cognitive function, i.e. worse parkinsonian gait (p≤0.001), lower level of perceptual speed (p≤0.03), and with worse mobility disability (p≤0.001). A longer D-interval was associated with worse gait speed and bradykinesia (p≤0.001), while a longer O-interval was associated with increased rigidity (p=0.004). Conclusion Older adults apparently employ two different strategies when transitioning from turning to sitting. The instrumented TUG

  17. Capillary blood transit time in muscles in relation to body size and aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Kayar, S R; Hoppeler, H; Jones, J H; Longworth, K; Armstrong, R B; Laughlin, M H; Lindstedt, S L; Bicudo, J E; Groebe, K; Taylor, C R

    1994-09-01

    The mean minimal transit time for blood in muscle capillaries (tc) was estimated in six species, spanning two orders of magnitude in body mass and aerobic capacity: horse, steer, dog, goat, fox and agouti. Arterial (CaO2) and mixed venous (CvO2) blood O2 concentrations, blood hemoglobin concentrations ([Hb]) and oxygen uptake rates were measured while the animals ran on a treadmill at a speed that elicited the maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO2max) from each animal. Blood flow to the muscles (Qm) was assumed to be 85% of cardiac output, which was calculated using the Fick relationship. Total muscle capillary blood volume (Vc) and total muscle mitochondrial volume were estimated by morphometry, using a whole-body muscle sampling scheme. The tc was computed as Vc/Qm. The tc was 0.3-0.5 s in the 4 kg foxes and agoutis, 0.7-0.8 s in the 25 kg dogs and goats, and 0.8-1.0 s in the 400 kg horses and steers. The tc was positively correlated with body mass and negatively correlated with transcapillary O2 release rate per unit capillary length. Mitochondrial content was positively correlated with VO2max and with the product of Qm and [Hb]. These data suggested that Qm, Vc, maximal hemoglobin flux, and consequently tc, are co-adjusted to result in muscle O2 supply conditions that are matched to the O2 demands of the muscles at VO2max.

  18. A Gaussian Model-Based Probabilistic Approach for Pulse Transit Time Estimation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Seung-Hun; Hahn, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new probabilistic approach to pulse transit time (PTT) estimation using a Gaussian distribution model. It is motivated basically by the hypothesis that PTTs normalized by RR intervals follow the Gaussian distribution. To verify the hypothesis, we demonstrate the effects of arterial compliance on the normalized PTTs using the Moens-Korteweg equation. Furthermore, we observe a Gaussian distribution of the normalized PTTs on real data. In order to estimate the PTT using the hypothesis, we first assumed that R-waves in the electrocardiogram (ECG) can be correctly identified. The R-waves limit searching ranges to detect pulse peaks in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) and to synchronize the results with cardiac beats--i.e., the peaks of the PPG are extracted within the corresponding RR interval of the ECG as pulse peak candidates. Their probabilities of being the actual pulse peak are then calculated using a Gaussian probability function. The parameters of the Gaussian function are automatically updated when a new pulse peak is identified. This update makes the probability function adaptive to variations of cardiac cycles. Finally, the pulse peak is identified as the candidate with the highest probability. The proposed approach is tested on a database where ECG and PPG waveforms are collected simultaneously during the submaximal bicycle ergometer exercise test. The results are promising, suggesting that the method provides a simple but more accurate PTT estimation in real applications.

  19. Defaecography and colonic transit time for the evaluation of female patients with obstructed defaecation.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Maria; Beati, Claudio; Fornari, Simona; Capalbo, Emanuela; Peli, Michela; Lovisatti, Maria; Cariati, Maurizio; Cornalba, Gianpaolo

    2014-11-01

    Colonic transit time and defaecography are well known, commonly used studies for evaluating patients with chronic constipation. The aim of this study was to compare colonic transit time with radiopaque markers and defaecography in female patients with obstructed defaecation. In a prospective observational study, between January 2010 and December 2012, a total of 30 female patients, mean age 60 years, with symptoms of obstructed defaecation were subjected to colonic transit time and defaecography, and divided into two groups: normal or abnormal colon transit time. The results were statistically compared using the Chi-square test. The comparison of data between colonic transit time and defaecography showed the following groups: group 1 (6/30 = 20 %) with normal colonic transit time but abnormal defaecography, and group 2 (24/30 = 80 %) with abnormal colonic transit time; the latter was further divided into two subgroups: group 2a (4/24 = 17 %), patients with inertia coli; group 2b (20/24 = 83 %), patients with impaired defaecation demonstrated at defaecography. There was a significant statistical difference between the radiological findings in these groups. This study confirmed the value of both defaecography and colonic transit time in assessing clinically obstructed women. Obstructed defaecation might not always be associated with abnormal colonic transit time. Likewise, not all constipated patients had signs of obstructed defaecation. The differential diagnosis between colonic slow transit constipation and constipation due to pelvic floor disorders is essential for an adequate strategy of care.

  20. TRANSIT MONITORING IN THE SOUTH (TraMoS) PROJECT: DISCARDING TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-5b

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, S.; Rojo, P.; Lopez-Morales, M. E-mail: pato@das.uchile.cl

    2012-03-20

    We report nine new transit epochs of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b, observed in the Bessell I band with the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope at the Cerro Pachon Observatory and with the SMARTS 1 m Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, between 2008 August and 2009 October. The new transits have been combined with all previously published transit data for this planet to provide a new Transit Timing Variation (TTV) analysis of its orbit. We find no evidence of TTV rms variations larger than 1 minute over a 3 year time span. This result discards the presence of planets more massive than about 5 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 1 M{sub Circled-Plus }, and 2 M{sub Circled-Plus} around the 1:2, 5:3, and 2:1 orbital resonances, respectively. These new detection limits exceed by {approx}5-30 times the limits imposed by current radial velocity observations in the mean motion resonances of this system. Our search for the variation of other parameters, such as orbital inclination and transit depth, also yields negative results over the total time span of the transit observations. This result supports formation theories that predict a paucity of planetary companions to hot Jupiters.

  1. Pulse transit time shows vascular changes caused by propofol in children.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joo-Eun; Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Hur, Min; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kim, Hee-Soo

    2015-08-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is the time that it takes for the arterial pulse pressure wave to travel from the aortic valve to the periphery. It is a simple noninvasive technique for evaluating vascular changes. This study investigated the vascular changes by propofol during the induction of anesthesia in pediatric patients with the measuring of PTT. Without premedication, 2 mg/kg of propofol was administered intravenously with monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmograph (PPG) in 20 pediatric patients aged 3-7 years. The ECG and PPG data were obtained for 1 min before propofol injection (baseline PTT) and 2 min after administration of propofol in the operating room. The PTT was defined as the time interval from the R-wave on the ECG to the maximum upslope of the corresponding PPG. The PTT was calculated off-line after collecting the data. The mean baseline PTT was 166.2 ± 25.9 ms and maximum PTT after propofol injection was 315.9 ± 64.9 ms (the interval between injection and the peak was 17.3 ± 7.6 s). The PTT after the peak changed variously; most of the patients showed no plateau; the PTT decreased progressively after the peak. The PTT after propofol administration prolonged in short time and rapidly recovered toward to the baseline values in pediatric patients. In conclusion, the baseline PTT in children is shorter comparing with adults and the vasodilatory effect of propofol on the vessels as described by the PTT was rapid and the recovery was faster, although the response to propofol was more varied than in adults.

  2. Real-time frequency-domain fiber optic sensor for intra-arterial blood oxygen measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcala, J. R.; Scott, Ian L.; Parker, Jennifer W.; Atwater, Beauford W.; Yu, Clement; Fischer, Russell; Bellingrath, K.

    1993-05-01

    A real time frequency domain phosphorimeter capable of measuring precise and accurate excited state lifetimes for determining oxygen is described. This frequency domain instrument does not make use of cross correlation techniques traditionally used in frequency domain fluorometers. Instead, the electrical signal from the detector is filtered to contain only the first several harmonics. This filtered signal is then sampled and averaged over a few thousand cycles. The absolute phase and absolute modulation of each sampled harmonic of the excitation and of the luminescence is computed by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio is then calculated at each harmonic frequency. A least squares fit is performed in the frequency domain to obtain the lifetimes of discrete exponentials. Oxygen concentrations are computed from these lifetimes. Prototypes based on these techniques were built employing commercially available components. Results from measurements in saline solution and in the arterial blood of dogs show that oxygen concentrations can be determined reproducibly. The system drift is less than 1% in over 100 hours of continuous operation. The performance of fiber optic sensors was evaluated in dogs over a period of 10 hours. The sensors tracked changes in arterial oxygen tension over the course of the experiment without instabilities. The overall response of the system was about 90 seconds. The update time was 3 seconds.

  3. Digital image correlation for full-field time-resolved assessment of arterial stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Adriaan; Soons, Joris; Heuten, Hilde; Ennekens, Guy; Goovaerts, Inge; Vrints, Christiaan; Lava, Pascal; Dirckx, Joris

    2014-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the arterial system is a very important parameter to evaluate cardiovascular health. Currently, however, there is no golden standard for PWV measurement. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used for full-field time-resolved assessment of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and strains of the skin in the neck directly above the common carotid artery. By assessing these parameters, propagation of the pulse wave could be tracked, leading to a new method for PWV detection based on DIC. The method was tested on five healthy subjects. As a means of validation, PWV was measured with ultrasound (US) as well. Measured PWV values were between 3.68 and 5.19 m/s as measured with DIC and between 5.14 and 6.58 m/s as measured with US, with a maximum absolute difference of 2.78 m/s between the two methods. DIC measurements of the neck region can serve as a test base for determining a robust strategy for PWV detection, they can serve as reference for three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction models, or they may even evolve into a screening method of their own. Moreover, full-field, time-resolved DIC can be adapted for other applications in biomechanics.

  4. Discovering the space-time dimensions of schedule padding and delay from GTFS and real-time transit data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Nate; Widener, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Schedule padding is the extra time added to transit schedules to reduce the risk of delay. Where there is more random delay, there should be more schedule padding. While schedule padding is a product of transit planners, a method for detecting when and where it exists could provide valuable feedback as transit agencies continually develop their networks. By analyzing transit schedules and real-time vehicle location data at the level of stop-to-stop segments, we can locate padding in space and time and identify the places that may be most effected by stochastic delay. Such information could be used to target delay-reduction interventions such as fare prepayment or transit-only rights of way. The Toronto Transit Commission is used as a case study, and initial results suggest that highly delayed segments appear mostly in the expected, but some surprising, places.

  5. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the gut.

    PubMed

    Roager, Henrik M; Hansen, Lea B S; Bahl, Martin I; Frandsen, Henrik L; Carvalho, Vera; Gøbel, Rikke J; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Plichta, Damian R; Sparholt, Morten H; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Pedersen, Oluf; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kristensen, Mette; Gupta, Ramneek; Licht, Tine R

    2016-06-27

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism and its importance for host health, although a firm stool consistency, a proxy for a long colonic transit time, has recently been positively associated with gut microbial richness. Here, we show that colonic transit time in humans, assessed using radio-opaque markers, is associated with overall gut microbial composition, diversity and metabolism. We find that a long colonic transit time associates with high microbial richness and is accompanied by a shift in colonic metabolism from carbohydrate fermentation to protein catabolism as reflected by higher urinary levels of potentially deleterious protein-derived metabolites. Additionally, shorter colonic transit time correlates with metabolites possibly reflecting increased renewal of the colonic mucosa. Together, this suggests that a high gut microbial richness does not per se imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies.

  6. Iterative Bayesian Estimation of Travel Times on Urban Arterials: Fusing Loop Detector and Probe Vehicle Data

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Meng-Ying; Cao, Peng; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    On urban arterials, travel time estimation is challenging especially from various data sources. Typically, fusing loop detector data and probe vehicle data to estimate travel time is a troublesome issue while considering the data issue of uncertain, imprecise and even conflicting. In this paper, we propose an improved data fusing methodology for link travel time estimation. Link travel times are simultaneously pre-estimated using loop detector data and probe vehicle data, based on which Bayesian fusion is then applied to fuse the estimated travel times. Next, Iterative Bayesian estimation is proposed to improve Bayesian fusion by incorporating two strategies: 1) substitution strategy which replaces the lower accurate travel time estimation from one sensor with the current fused travel time; and 2) specially-designed conditions for convergence which restrict the estimated travel time in a reasonable range. The estimation results show that, the proposed method outperforms probe vehicle data based method, loop detector based method and single Bayesian fusion, and the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 4.8%. Additionally, iterative Bayesian estimation performs better for lighter traffic flows when the variability of travel time is practically higher than other periods. PMID:27362654

  7. Iterative Bayesian Estimation of Travel Times on Urban Arterials: Fusing Loop Detector and Probe Vehicle Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Cui, Meng-Ying; Cao, Peng; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    On urban arterials, travel time estimation is challenging especially from various data sources. Typically, fusing loop detector data and probe vehicle data to estimate travel time is a troublesome issue while considering the data issue of uncertain, imprecise and even conflicting. In this paper, we propose an improved data fusing methodology for link travel time estimation. Link travel times are simultaneously pre-estimated using loop detector data and probe vehicle data, based on which Bayesian fusion is then applied to fuse the estimated travel times. Next, Iterative Bayesian estimation is proposed to improve Bayesian fusion by incorporating two strategies: 1) substitution strategy which replaces the lower accurate travel time estimation from one sensor with the current fused travel time; and 2) specially-designed conditions for convergence which restrict the estimated travel time in a reasonable range. The estimation results show that, the proposed method outperforms probe vehicle data based method, loop detector based method and single Bayesian fusion, and the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 4.8%. Additionally, iterative Bayesian estimation performs better for lighter traffic flows when the variability of travel time is practically higher than other periods.

  8. Transitive Lie groups on S^1\\times S^{2m}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V.

    2007-10-01

    The structure of Lie groups acting transitively on the direct product of a circle and an even-dimensional sphere is described. For products of two spheres of dimension >1 a similar problem has already been solved by other authors. The minimal transitive Lie groups on S^1 and S^{2m} are also indicated. As an application of these results, the structure of the automorphism group of one class of geometric structures, generalized quadrangles (a special case of Tits buildings) is considered. A conjecture put forward by Kramer is proved: the automorphism group of a connected generalized quadrangle of type (1,2m) always contains a transitive subgroup that is the direct product of a compact simple Lie group and a one-dimensional Lie group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  9. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: III. Confirmation of 4 Multiple Planet Systems by a Fourier-Domain Study of Anti-correlated Transit Timing Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fressin, Francois; Holman, Matthew J.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Ragozzine, Darin; Welsh, William F.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames /UC, Santa Barbara

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to confirm the planetary nature of objects in systems with multiple transiting exoplanet candidates. This method involves a Fourier-domain analysis of the deviations in the transit times from a constant period that result from dynamical interactions within the system. The combination of observed anticorrelations in the transit times and mass constraints from dynamical stability allow us to claim the discovery of four planetary systems, Kepler-25, Kepler-26, Kepler-27 and Kepler-28, containing eight planets and one additional planet candidate.

  10. Decreasing Transition Times in Elementary School Classrooms: Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Automate Intervention Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Jeffrey F.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Foster, Tori E.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined…

  11. How old is streamwater? Open questions in catchment transit time conceptualization, modeling and analysis

    Treesearch

    J.J. McDonnell; K. McGuire; P. Aggarwal; K.J. Beven; D. Biondi; G. Destouni; S. Dunn; A. James; J. Kirchner; P. Kraft; S. Lyon; P. Maloszewski; B. Newman; L. Pfister; A. Rinaldo; A. Rodhe; T. Sayama; J. Seibert; K. Solomon; C. Soulsby; M. Stewart; D. Tetzlaff; C. Tobin; P. Troch; M. Weiler; A. Western; A. Wörman; S. Wrede

    2010-01-01

    The time water spends travelling subsurface through a catchment to the stream network (i.e. the catchment water transit time) fundamentally describes the storage, flow pathway heterogeneity and sources of water in a catchment. The distribution of transit times reflects how catchments retain and release water and solutes that in turn set biogeochemical conditions and...

  12. Transit time homogenization in ischemic stroke - A novel biomarker of penumbral microvascular failure?

    PubMed

    Engedal, Thorbjørn S; Hjort, Niels; Hougaard, Kristina D; Simonsen, Claus Z; Andersen, Grethe; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Boldsen, Jens K; Eskildsen, Simon F; Hansen, Mikkel B; Angleys, Hugo; Jespersen, Sune N; Pedraza, Salvador; Cho, Tae H; Serena, Joaquín; Siemonsen, Susanne; Thomalla, Götz; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Fiehler, Jens; Mouridsen, Kim; Østergaard, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia causes widespread capillary no-flow in animal studies. The extent of microvascular impairment in human stroke, however, is unclear. We examined how acute intra-voxel transit time characteristics and subsequent recanalization affect tissue outcome on follow-up MRI in a historic cohort of 126 acute ischemic stroke patients. Based on perfusion-weighted MRI data, we characterized voxel-wise transit times in terms of their mean transit time (MTT), standard deviation (capillary transit time heterogeneity - CTH), and the CTH:MTT ratio (relative transit time heterogeneity), which is expected to remain constant during changes in perfusion pressure in a microvasculature consisting of passive, compliant vessels. To aid data interpretation, we also developed a computational model that relates graded microvascular failure to changes in these parameters. In perfusion-diffusion mismatch tissue, prolonged mean transit time (>5 seconds) and very low cerebral blood flow (≤6 mL/100 mL/min) was associated with high risk of infarction, largely independent of recanalization status. In the remaining mismatch region, low relative transit time heterogeneity predicted subsequent infarction if recanalization was not achieved. Our model suggested that transit time homogenization represents capillary no-flow. Consistent with this notion, low relative transit time heterogeneity values were associated with lower cerebral blood volume. We speculate that low RTH may represent a novel biomarker of penumbral microvascular failure.

  13. Transition to daylight saving time reduces sleep duration plus sleep efficiency of the deprived sleep.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Leppämäki, Sami; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2006-10-09

    Daylight saving time (DST) is widely adopted. We explored the effects of transition to daylight saving time on sleep. With the use of wrist-worn accelerometers, we monitored the rest-activity cycles on a sample of 10 healthy adults for 10 days around the transition to summer time. Identical measurement protocols were carried out twice on the same individuals during the transitions in the years of 2003 and 2004, yielding data on 200 person-days for analysis. Both sleep duration and sleep efficiency were reduced after the transition both years. After the transition sleep time was shortened by 60.14min (P<0.01) and sleep efficiency was reduced by 10% (P<0.01) on average. Transition to daylight saving time appears to compromise the process of sleep by decreasing both sleep duration and sleep efficiency.

  14. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Yu, Mi Hye; Kim, Eun Ju; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ(2) test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  15. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Jeanne L.; Choike, James R.

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical observations are made about some continuous curves, called transitions, encountered in well-known experiences. The transition parabola, the transition spiral, and the sidestep maneuver are presented. (MNS)

  16. Gastrointestinal Transit Time in Parkinson's Disease Using a Magnetic Tracking System.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Karoline; Haase, Anne-Mette; Fedorova, Tatyana D; Bekker, Anne Charlotte; Østergaard, Karen; Krogh, Klaus; Borghammer, Per

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract are highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD), but knowledge of the underlying pathology is incomplete and valid objective markers on regional gastrointestinal function are limited. The aims were to evaluate gastrointestinal transit time and motility in PD patients and controls. Twenty-two PD patients and 15 controls were included. Gastric-, small intestinal-, and caecum-ascending colonic transit times as well as colonic motility, defined as mass- and fast movements, were performed using the ambulatory 3D-Transit system. Gastrointestinal transit time with radio opaque markers, gastric emptying scintigraphy, and subjective non-motor symptoms were also evaluated. Using the 3D-Transit system, the patient group displayed significantly longer small intestinal- and caecum-ascending transit times (p = 0.030 and p = 0.0063). No between-group difference was seen in gastric transit time (p = 0.91). Time to first mass- and fast colonic movement were significantly increased in PD (p = 0.023 and p = 0.006). Radio opaque marker gastrointestinal transit time was significantly increased in the patient group (p < 0.0001), whereas no difference was seen in scintigraphic gastric emptying time (p = 0.68). Prevalence of constipation symptoms on the NMSQuest was 41% in PD and 7% in controls. Significantly increased small intestinal- and caecum-ascending 3D-Transit times were detected in PD patients. Also, time to first propagating colonic movement was increased. Radio opaque marker gastrointestinal transit time was significantly delayed, but no difference was seen in gastric transit time and gastric emptying time. The present findings highlight widespread intestinal involvement in PD increasing throughout the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Estimation of arterial arrival time and cerebral blood flow from QUASAR arterial spin labeling using stable spline.

    PubMed

    Castellaro, Marco; Peruzzo, Denis; Mehndiratta, Amit; Pillonetto, Gianluigi; Petersen, Esben Thade; Golay, Xavier; Chappell, Michael A; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2015-12-01

    QUASAR arterial spin labeling (ASL) permits the application of deconvolution approaches for the absolute quantification of cerebral perfusion. Currently, oscillation index regularized singular value decomposition (oSVD) combined with edge-detection (ED) is the most commonly used method. Its major drawbacks are nonphysiological oscillations in the impulse response function and underestimation of perfusion. The aim of this work is to introduce a novel method to overcome these limitations. A system identification method, stable spline (SS), was extended to address ASL peculiarities such as the delay in arrival of the arterial blood in the tissue. The proposed framework was compared with oSVD + ED in both simulated and real data. SS was used to investigate the validity of using a voxel-wise tissue T1 value instead of using a single global value (of blood T1 ). SS outperformed oSVD + ED in 79.9% of simulations. When applied to real data, SS exhibited a physiologically realistic range for perfusion and a higher mean value with respect to oSVD + ED (55.5 ± 9.5 SS, 34.9 ± 5.2 oSVD + ED mL/100 g/min). SS can represent an alternative to oSVD + ED for the quantification of QUASAR ASL data. Analysis of the retrieved impulse response function revealed that using a voxel wise tissue T1 might be suboptimal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  19. Real-time functional MRI using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Greenwald, Mark K; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Peltier, Scott J

    2011-06-01

    The first implementation of real-time acquisition and analysis of arterial spin labeling-based functional magnetic resonance imaging time series is presented in this article. The implementation uses a pseudo-continuous labeling scheme followed by a spiral k-space acquisition trajectory. Real-time reconstruction of the images, preprocessing, and regression analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were implemented on a laptop computer interfaced with the MRI scanner. The method allows the user to track the current raw data, subtraction images, and the cumulative t-statistic map overlaid on a cumulative subtraction image. The user is also able to track the time course of individual time courses and interactively selects a region of interest as a nuisance covariate. The pulse sequence allows the user to adjust acquisition and labeling parameters while observing their effect on the image within two successive pulse repetition times. This method is demonstrated by two functional imaging experiments: a simultaneous finger-tapping and visual stimulation paradigm, and a bimanual finger-tapping task.

  20. Brain capillary transit time heterogeneity in healthy volunteers measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced T1 -weighted perfusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Vestergaard, Mark B; Lindberg, Ulrich; Iversen, Helle K; Cramer, Stig P

    2017-06-01

    Capillary transit time heterogeneity, measured as CTH, may set the upper limit for extraction of substances in brain tissue, e.g., oxygen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced T1 weighted MRI (DCE-MRI) at 3 Tesla (T), in estimating CTH based on a gamma-variate model of the capillary transit time distribution. In addition, we wanted to investigate if a subtle increase of the blood-brain barrier permeability can be incorporated into the model, still allowing estimation of CTH. Twenty-three healthy subjects were scanned at 3.0T MRI system applying DCE-MRI and using a gamma-variate model to estimate CTH as well as cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and permeability of the blood-brain barrier, measured as the influx constant Ki . For proof of principle we also investigated three patients with recent thromboembolic events and a patient with a high grade brain tumor. In the healthy subjects, we found a narrow symmetric delta-like capillary transit time distribution in basal ganglia gray matter with median CTH of 0.93 s and interquartile range of 1.33 s. The corresponding residue impulse response function was compatible with the adiabatic tissue homogeneity model. In two patients with complete occlusion of the internal carotid artery and in the patient with a brain tumor CTH was increased with values up to 6 s in the affected brain tissue, with an exponential like residue impulse response function. Our results open the possibility of characterizing brain perfusion by the capillary transit time distribution using DCE-MRI, theoretically a determinant of efficient blood to brain transport of important substances. 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1809-1820. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time compromise sleep and the rest-activity cycles

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Leppämäki, Sami; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of transition out of and into daylight saving time on the rest-activity cycles and sleep. Rest-activity cycles of nine healthy participants aged 20 to 40 years were measured around transitions out of and into daylight saving time on fall 2005 and spring 2006 respectively. Rest-activity cycles were measured using wrist-worn accelerometers. The participants filled in the Morningness-Eveningness and Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaires before starting the study and kept a sleep diary during the study. Results Fall transition was more disturbing for the more morning type and spring transition for the more evening type of persons. Individuals having a higher global seasonality score suffered more from the transitions. Conclusion Transitions out of and into daylight saving time enhanced night-time restlessness and thereby compromised the quality of sleep. PMID:18269740

  2. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time compromise sleep and the rest-activity cycles.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Leppämäki, Sami; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-02-12

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of transition out of and into daylight saving time on the rest-activity cycles and sleep. Rest-activity cycles of nine healthy participants aged 20 to 40 years were measured around transitions out of and into daylight saving time on fall 2005 and spring 2006 respectively. Rest-activity cycles were measured using wrist-worn accelerometers. The participants filled in the Morningness-Eveningness and Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaires before starting the study and kept a sleep diary during the study. Fall transition was more disturbing for the more morning type and spring transition for the more evening type of persons. Individuals having a higher global seasonality score suffered more from the transitions. Transitions out of and into daylight saving time enhanced night-time restlessness and thereby compromised the quality of sleep.

  3. Instantaneous frequency time analysis of physiology signals: The application of pregnant women’s radial artery pulse signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-Chen; Wu, Tzuyin; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study used the Hilbert-Huang transform, a recently developed, instantaneous frequency-time analysis, to analyze radial artery pulse signals taken from women in their 36th week of pregnancy and after pregnancy. The acquired instantaneous frequency-time spectrum (Hilbert spectrum) is further compared with the Morlet wavelet spectrum. Results indicate that the Hilbert spectrum is especially suitable for analyzing the time series of non-stationary radial artery pulse signals since, in the Hilbert-Huang transform, signals are decomposed into different mode functions in accordance with signal’s local time scale. Therefore, the Hilbert spectrum contains more detailed information than the Morlet wavelet spectrum. From the Hilbert spectrum, we can see that radial artery pulse signals taken from women in their 36th week of pregnancy and after pregnancy have different patterns. This approach could be applied to facilitate non-invasive diagnosis of fetus’ physiological signals in the future.

  4. Regional Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Patients With Carcinoid Diarrhea: Assessment With the Novel 3D-Transit System.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Tine; Haase, Anne-Mette; Schlageter, Vincent; Gronbaek, Henning; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-07-30

    The paucity of knowledge regarding gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid diarrhea re-stricts targeted treatment. 3D-Transit is a novel, minimally invasive, ambulatory method for description of gastrointestinal motility. The system has not yet been evaluated in any group of patients. We aimed to test the performance of 3D-Transit in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and to compare the patients' regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) and colonic motility patterns with those of healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy volunteers and seven patients with neuroendocrine tumor and at least 3 bowel movements per day were inves-tigated with 3D-Transit and standard radiopaque markers. Total GITT assessed with 3D-Transit and radiopaque markers were well correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.64, P = 0.002). Median total GITT was 12.5 (range: 8.5-47.2) hours in patients versus 25.1 (range: 13.1-142.3) hours in healthy (P = 0.007). There was no difference in gastric emptying (P = 0.778). Median small intestinal transit time was 3.8 (range: 1.4-5.5) hours in patients versus 4.4 (range: 1.8-7.2) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.044). Median colorectal transit time was 5.2 (range: 2.9-40.1) hours in patients versus 18.1 (range: 5.0-134.0) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.012). Median frequency of pansegmental co-lonic movements was 0.45 (range: 0.03-1.02) per hour in patients and 0.07 (range: 0-0.61) per hour in healthy subjects (P = 0.045). Three-dimensional Transit allows assessment of regional GITT in patients with diarrhea. Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have faster than normal gastrointestinal transit due to faster small intestinal and colorectal transit times. The latter is caused by an increased frequency of pansegmental colonic movements.

  5. Regional Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Patients With Carcinoid Diarrhea: Assessment With the Novel 3D-Transit System

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Tine; Haase, Anne-Mette; Schlageter, Vincent; Gronbaek, Henning; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The paucity of knowledge regarding gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid diarrhea restricts targeted treatment. 3D-Transit is a novel, minimally invasive, ambulatory method for description of gastrointestinal motility. The system has not yet been evaluated in any group of patients. We aimed to test the performance of 3D-Transit in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and to compare the patients’ regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) and colonic motility patterns with those of healthy subjects. Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers and seven patients with neuroendocrine tumor and at least 3 bowel movements per day were investigated with 3D-Transit and standard radiopaque markers. Results Total GITT assessed with 3D-Transit and radiopaque markers were well correlated (Spearman’s rho = 0.64, P = 0.002). Median total GITT was 12.5 (range: 8.5–47.2) hours in patients versus 25.1 (range: 13.1–142.3) hours in healthy (P = 0.007). There was no difference in gastric emptying (P = 0.778). Median small intestinal transit time was 3.8 (range: 1.4–5.5) hours in patients versus 4.4 (range: 1.8–7.2) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.044). Median colorectal transit time was 5.2 (range: 2.9–40.1) hours in patients versus 18.1 (range: 5.0–134.0) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.012). Median frequency of pansegmental colonic movements was 0.45 (range: 0.03–1.02) per hour in patients and 0.07 (range: 0–0.61) per hour in healthy subjects (P = 0.045). Conclusions Three-dimensional Transit allows assessment of regional GITT in patients with diarrhea. Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have faster than normal gastrointestinal transit due to faster small intestinal and colorectal transit times. The latter is caused by an increased frequency of pansegmental colonic movements. PMID:26130638

  6. No Timing Variations Observed in Third Transit of Snow-line Exoplanet Kepler-421b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalba, Paul A.; Muirhead, Philip S.

    2016-07-01

    We observed Kepler-421 during the anticipated third transit of the snow-line exoplanet Kepler-421b in order to constrain the existence and extent of transit timing variations (TTVs). Previously, the Kepler spacecraft only observed two transits of Kepler-421b, leaving the planet’s transit ephemeris unconstrained. Our visible light, time-series observations from the 4.3 m Discovery Channel Telescope were designed to capture pre-transit baseline and the partial transit of Kepler-421b, barring significant TTVs. We use the light curves to assess the probabilities of various transit models using both the posterior odds ratio and the Bayesian Information Criterion, and find that a transit model with no TTVs is favored to 3.6σ confidence. These observations suggest that Kepler-421b is either alone in its system or is only experiencing minor dynamic interactions with an unseen companion. With the Kepler-421b ephemeris constrained, we calculate future transit times and discuss the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of this cold, long-period exoplanet via transmission spectroscopy. Our investigation emphasizes the difficulties associated with observing long-period exoplanet transits and the consequences that arise from failing to refine transit ephemerides.

  7. How many segments are necessary to characterize delayed colonic transit time?

    PubMed

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Bon, Cyriaque; Raynaud, Jean-Jacques; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Benamouzig, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Measuring colonic transit time with radiopaque markers is simple, inexpensive, and very useful in constipated patients. Yet, the algorithm used to identify colonic segments is subjective, rather than founded on prior experimentation. The aim of the present study is to describe a rational way to determine the colonic partition in the measurement of colonic transit time. Colonic transit time was measured in seven segments: ascending colon, hepatic flexure, right and left transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and rectosigmoid in 852 patients with functional bowel and anorectal disorders. An unsupervised algorithm for modeling Gaussian mixtures served to estimate the number of subgroups from this oversegmented colonic transit time. After that, we performed a k-means clustering that separated the observations into homogenous groups of patients according to their oversegmented colonic transit time. The Gaussian mixture followed by the k-means clustering defined 4 populations of patients: "normal and fast transit" (n = 548) and three groups of patients with delayed colonic transit time "right delay" (n = 82) in which transit is delayed in the right part of the colon, "left delay" (n = 87) with transit delayed in the left part of colon and "outlet constipation" (n = 135) for patients with transit delayed in the terminal intestine. Only 3.7 % of patients were "erroneously" classified in the 4 groups recognized by clustering. This unsupervised analysis of segmental colonic transit time shows that the classical division of the colon and the rectum into three segments is sufficient to characterize delayed segmental colonic transit time.

  8. Hillslope permeability architecture controls on subsurface transit time distribution and flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, A. A.; Amvrosiadi, N.; Grabs, T.; Laudon, H.; Creed, I. F.; McDonnell, J. J.; Bishop, K.

    2016-12-01

    Defining the catchment transit time distribution remains a challenge. Here, we used a new semi-analytical physically-based integrated subsurface flow and advective-dispersive particle movement model to assess the subsurface controls on subsurface water flow paths and transit time distributions. First, we tested the efficacy of the new model for simulation of the observed groundwater dynamics at the well-studied S-transect hillslope (Västrabäcken sub-catchment, Sweden). This system, like many others, is characterized by exponential decline in saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity with soil depth. The model performed well relative to a tracer-based estimate of transit time distribution as well as observed groundwater depth-discharge relationship within 30 m of the stream. Second, we used the model to assess the effect of changes in the subsurface permeability architecture on flow pathlines and transit time distribution in a set of virtual experiments. Vertical patterns of saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity with soil depth significantly influenced hillslope transit time distribution. Increasing infiltration rates significantly decreased mean groundwater age, but not the distribution of transit times relative to mean groundwater age. The location of hillslope hydrologic boundaries, including the groundwater divide and no-flow boundary underlying the hillslope, changed the transit time distribution less markedly. These results can guide future decisions on the degree of complexity that is warranted in a physically-based rainfall-runoff model to efficiently and explicitly estimate time invariant subsurface pathlines and transit time distribution.

  9. Hydrogen breath test assessment of orocecal transit time: comparison with barium meal study.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, M; Iida, M; Kohrogi, N; Fujishima, M

    1988-12-01

    Orocecal transit time was measured simultaneously by the hydrogen breath test and a barium meal study in 12 hospitalized patients, the objective being to determine whether the former test accurately represents the orocecal transit time, and to establish an adequate criterion for the transit time, based on the former test. Two definitions of orocecal transit time by the hydrogen breath test were evaluated: the time from lactulose ingestion to a sustained increase of over 5 ppm above fasting levels in the end-expiratory hydrogen concentration (definition A) and the interval to that of over 10 ppm (definition B). The orocecal transit time measured by the radiologic method was 63 +/- 9 min (mean +/- SEM), whereas that using definition A of the hydrogen breath test was 74 +/- 9 min, and that using definition B was 87 +/- 10 min. Transit times determined by both definitions closely correlated with that obtained by the radiologic method (A, r = 0.86, p less than 0.01; B, r = 0.81, p less than 0.01). Therefore, elevation of end-expiratory hydrogen concentrations seemed to coincide with cecal appearance of the head of the lactulose load. When the mean transit times were compared with findings in case of the radiologic method, definition A rather than B appeared to be more appropriate to determine orocecal transit time.

  10. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  11. Real-Time Functional MRI Using Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Greenwald, Mark K.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Peltier, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    The first implementation of real-time acquisition and analysis of Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) based functional MRI time series is presented in this article. The implementation uses a pseudo-continuous labeling scheme followed by a spiral k-space acquisition trajectory. Real-time reconstruction of the images, preprocessing and regression analysis of the fMRI data were implemented on a laptop computer interfaced with the MRI scanner. The method allows the user to track the current raw data, subtraction images, and the cumulative t-statistic map overlaid on a cumulative subtraction image. The user is also able to track the time course of individual time courses, and interactively select an ROI as a nuisance covariate. The pulse sequence allows the user to adjust acquisition and labeling parameters while observing their effect on the image within two successive TRs. This method is illustrated on a stimulation paradigm consisting of simultaneous finger-tapping and visual stimulation and on a bimanual finger tapping task alternating hands. PMID:21446035

  12. Arterial fluorescent components involved in atherosclerotic plaque instability: differentiation by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Laura; Grundfest, Warren S.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.

    2001-05-01

    As part of our ongoing research on spectroscopic differentiation between unstable and stable atherosclerotic lesions, we report data on time-resolved fluorescence of components of arterial intima matrix (different types of cholesterols, lipoproteins, and collagens). Certain compositional features of atherosclerotic plaque have been associated with plaque instability and rupture. We have characterized and compared the time-resolved spectra of structural proteins (Types I and III collagens, and elastin), lipoproteins (LDL, VLDL), and cholesterols (free cholesterol, and cholesteryl oleate and linoleate) induced with nitrogen laser excitation pulses (337 nm, 3 ns) and detected (360-510 nm range, 5 nm interval) with an MCP-PMT connected to a fast digitizer (2 Gsamples/s). Spectral intensities and time-dependent parameters (lifetime (tau) f; decay constants (tau) 1 (fast-term), (tau) 2 (slow-term), A1 (fast-term amplitude contribution)) derived from the time-resolved spectra were used for samples characterization and comparison. We observed that time- resolved data distinguish collagens from cholesterols and from lipoproteins, and additionally, distinguish different types of cholesterols, different types of lipoproteins and different types of collagen from each other. For instance, the collagen lifetime (390 nm: Type I 5.2 ns, Type III 2.95 ns) was significantly longer than that of cholesterols (free 1.5 ns, linoleate 0.9 ns, oleate 1.0 ns) and that of lipoproteins (LDL 0.95 ns, VLDL 0.85 ns).

  13. The physical origins of transit time measurements for rapid, single cell mechanotyping.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Kendra D; Scott, Michael B; Bruce, Samuel L; Gopinath, Ajay B; Bikos, Dimitri; Mason, Thomas G; Kim, Jin Woong; Choi, Hong Sung; Rowat, Amy C

    2016-08-16

    The mechanical phenotype or 'mechanotype' of cells is emerging as a potential biomarker for cell types ranging from pluripotent stem cells to cancer cells. Using a microfluidic device, cell mechanotype can be rapidly analyzed by measuring the time required for cells to deform as they flow through constricted channels. While cells typically exhibit deformation timescales, or transit times, on the order of milliseconds to tens of seconds, transit times can span several orders of magnitude and vary from day to day within a population of single cells; this makes it challenging to characterize different cell samples based on transit time data. Here we investigate how variability in transit time measurements depends on both experimental factors and heterogeneity in physical properties across a population of single cells. We find that simultaneous transit events that occur across neighboring constrictions can alter transit time, but only significantly when more than 65% of channels in the parallel array are occluded. Variability in transit time measurements is also affected by the age of the device following plasma treatment, which could be attributed to changes in channel surface properties. We additionally investigate the role of variability in cell physical properties. Transit time depends on cell size; by binning transit time data for cells of similar diameters, we reduce measurement variability by 20%. To gain further insight into the effects of cell-to-cell differences in physical properties, we fabricate a panel of gel particles and oil droplets with tunable mechanical properties. We demonstrate that particles with homogeneous composition exhibit a marked reduction in transit time variability, suggesting that the width of transit time distributions reflects the degree of heterogeneity in subcellular structure and mechanical properties within a cell population. Our results also provide fundamental insight into the physical underpinnings of transit measurements

  14. Regularity and stability of transition fronts in nonlocal equations with time heterogeneous ignition nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wenxian; Shen, Zhongwei

    2017-03-01

    The present paper is devoted to the investigation of various properties of transition fronts in one-dimensional nonlocal equations in heterogeneous media of ignition type, whose existence has been established by the authors of the present paper in a previous work. It is first shown that transition fronts are continuously differentiable in space with uniformly bounded and uniformly Lipschitz continuous space partial derivative. This is the first time that space regularity of transition fronts in nonlocal equations is ever studied. It is then shown that transition fronts are uniformly steep. Finally, asymptotic stability, in the sense of exponentially attracting front-like initial data, of transition fronts is studied.

  15. Simulation of carotid artery stenting reduces training procedure and fluoroscopy times.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Andre F; Kendrick, Daniel E; Kim, Ann H; Nagavalli, Anil; Kimball, Ethan S; Liu, Nathaniel T; Kashyap, Vikram S; Wang, John C

    2017-07-01

    Outcomes from carotid artery stenting (CAS) are related to experience and technical expertise of the operator. Simulation of CAS may enhance clinical proficiency. We interrogated the impact of endovascular simulation of CAS procedures in operators who are at various stages of training. Twelve trainees (students [n = 4]; junior surgery residents, postgraduate year [PGY] 1-3 [n = 4]; and senior surgery residents or fellows, PGY 4-7 [n = 4]) were apprised of characteristics of an endovascular simulator and CAS procedures. This was followed by four independent sessions that were assessed for objective measures including procedure and fluoroscopy times and contrast agent use. A qualitative analysis grading steps of CAS by two observers using a Likert scale was performed. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-tests were employed for data analysis. For all participants (n = 12), procedure times (mean, 920 ± 279 seconds for the first session vs 454 ± 156 seconds for the fourth session; P < .01; confidence interval [CI], 315-621) and fluoroscopy cumulative times (mean, 421 ± 230 seconds for the first session vs 222 ± 102 seconds for the fourth session; P < .01; CI, 78-285) decreased with progression of cases. Students and PGY 1-3 residents decreased their procedure times significantly in comparison of initial and final sessions (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). For all groups, fluoroscopy cumulative times were reduced, and this decrement was significant in the PGY 1-3 cohort (mean, 444 ± 8 seconds for the first session vs 265 ± 51 seconds for the fourth session; P < .01; CI, 81-276). Initial CAS procedure times were significantly different between groups (P < .05), but this was observed to resolve by the final case at study completion. Qualitatively, the Likert scores of students and PGY 1-3 residents significantly improved with case repetition, specifically in the following steps: (1) cannulation of common carotid artery and (2) sizing

  16. Orbital parameter estimation of extrasolar multi-planet systems by Transit Time Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, J.; Grziwa, S.; Pätzold, M.

    2014-04-01

    Transit Time Variation (TTV) is the earlier or later occurrence of a planetary transit relative to the time of a reference transit. TTV may be dominantly caused by the gravitational perturbation of the orbit of the transiting planet by another still unknown planet(s) inside or outside of the orbit of the known transiting planet. Gravitational interactions perturb the velocity of the transiting planet in its orbit which manifests in the periodical perturbation of the revolution period. Measurements of the transit times and the identification of differences from a mean transit period may then indicate the presence of another unknown planet and is therefore proof for the existence of further planets. The estimation of the mass of the transiting planet and the orbital parameters of the undetected planet(s) are constrained by the amplitude of the periodical variation of the transit times. Simulations of known multi-planet systems which show TTV shall be presented. The resulting TTV amplitude is analyzed with regard to the main dependencies: mass of the perturbing planet and the orbit eccentricities.

  17. Relationship between longitudinal stress wave transit time and moisture content of lumber during kiln-drying

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping. Wang

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between longitudinal stress wave transit time and wood moisture content (MC) was examined as a potential means of estimating MC control points in dry kiln schedules for lumber. A linear relationship was found between the relative transit time and the average MC of sugar maple and ponderosa pine boards dried according to typical kiln schedules.

  18. Integral definition of transition time in the Landau-Zener model

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Yue; Wu Biao

    2010-02-15

    We give a general definition for the transition time in the Landau-Zener model. This definition allows us to compute numerically the Landau-Zener transition time at any sweeping rate without ambiguity in both diabatic and adiabatic bases. With this new definition, analytical results are obtained in both the adiabatic limit and the sudden limit.

  19. Prediction of arterial "burst" activity and transitions between chaotic attractors with a multilayer perceptron optimized by a new stopping criterion.

    PubMed

    Stamatis, N; Parthimos, D; Griffith, T M

    1996-09-01

    We have explored the potential of an artificial neural network to capture the dynamics of chaotic temporal fluctuations in arterial pressure and flow. Model generated signals that simulate this ubiquitous physiological phenomenon in both form and complexity were used to train a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) after first locating the optimum time delay to unfold the attractor governing the dynamics. Prediction horizons were maximized with a new stopping criterion capable of continuously tracking the trajectories of the model system. Single-step predictions were consistently good throughout the study. Long-term predictions obtained by using the MLP as a signal generator were very successful when the number of hidden nodes was carefully chosen. Moreover, short- and long-term predictions could also be obtained even when the dynamics was nonstationary.

  20. Real-time ultrasound: Key factor in identifying celiac artery compression syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tembey, Raina Anil; Bajaj, Aneeta S; Wagle, Prasad K; Ansari, Abdul Samad

    2015-01-01

    The median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) or celiac artery compression syndrome (CACS) is a rare entity, presenting clinically with postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss. The diagnosis is made on computed tomography (CT) angiography, which reveals extrinsic compression of the proximal part of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament, producing a characteristic hooked appearance. We report a case of the celiac artery compression syndrome, diagnosed by Doppler USG evaluation.

  1. Generalizing memories over time: sleep and reinforcement facilitate transitive inference.

    PubMed

    Werchan, Denise M; Gómez, Rebecca L

    2013-02-01

    The use of reinforcement and rewards is known to enhance memory retention. However, the impact of reinforcement on higher-order forms of memory processing, such as integration and generalization, has not been directly manipulated in previous studies. Furthermore, there is evidence that sleep enhances the integration and generalization of memory, but these studies have only used reinforcement learning paradigms and have not examined whether reinforcement impacts or is critical for memory integration and generalization during sleep. Thus, the aims of the current study were to examine: (1) whether reinforcement during learning impacts the integration and generalization of memory; and (2) whether sleep and reinforcement interact to enhance memory integration and generalization. We investigated these questions using a transitive inference (TI) task, which is thought to require the integration and generalization of disparate relational memories in order to make novel inferences. To examine whether reinforcement influences or is required for the formation of inferences, we compared performance using a reinforcement or an observation based TI task. We examined the impact of sleep by comparing performance after a 12-h delay containing either wake or sleep. Our results showed that: (1) explicit reinforcement during learning is required to make transitive inferences and that sleep further enhances this effect; (2) sleep does not make up for the inability to make inferences when reinforcement does not occur during learning. These data expand upon previous findings and suggest intriguing possibilities for the mechanisms involved in sleep-dependent memory transformation.

  2. Mapping the Timing, Pace, and Scale of the Fertility Transition in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Potter, Joseph E; Schmertmann, Carl P; Assunção, Renato M; Cavenaghi, Suzana M

    2010-01-01

    Between 1960 and 2000, fertility fell sharply in Brazil, but this transition was unevenly distributed in space and time. Using Bayesian spatial statistical methods and microdata from five censuses, we develop and apply a procedure for fitting logistic curves to the fertility transitions in more than 500 small regions of Brazil over this 40-year period. Doing so enables us to map the main features of the Brazilian fertility transition in considerable detail. We detect early declines in some regions of the country and document large differences between early and late transitions in regard to both the initial level of fertility and the speed of the transition. We also use our results to test hypotheses regarding changes in the level of development at the onset of the fertility transition and identify a temporary stall in the Brazilian transition that occurred in the late 1990s. A web site with project details is at http://schmert.net/BayesLogistic.

  3. Does the transition into daylight saving time really cause partial sleep deprivation?

    PubMed

    Toth Quintilham, Manoel Carlos; Adamowicz, Taísa; Pereira, Erico Felden; Pedrazzoli, Mario; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli

    2014-01-01

    To identify possible changes in the sleep patterns according to chronotype in undergraduate students during the daylight saving time (DST) transition. A total of 378 students answered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) to determine their chronotype and kept a diary about sleep-wake schedules 1 week before and after the DST transition. Oral mucosal cell samples were collected for genetic analysis. After the DST transition, intermediate types (I-types) delayed bedtime and increased their time in bed and all groups delayed their wake-up time. All groups presented a shorter phase angle between sunset and the bedtime after the DST transition. On the other hand, only E-types showed a tendency to reduce the phase angle between sunrise and wake-up time, while I-types and M-types kept the same phase angles between sunrise and wake-up time after the DST transition. The polymorphisms in the human genes CLOCK and PER3 were not associated with individual differences in sleep patterns, nor were they associated with an adjustment to the DST transition. Under the new set of social times determined by DST, the adjustment was only partial. I-types delayed bedtime and all groups delayed their wake-up times after the beginning of DST. Consequently, the time in bed after the DST transition was not reduced; Morning (M-types) and Evening-types (E-types) kept the same time in bed and I-types showed an increase on it.

  4. Investigation of Timing to Switch Control Mode in Powered Knee Prostheses during Task Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Ming; Huang, He

    2015-01-01

    Current powered prosthetic legs require switching control modes according to the task the user is performing (e.g. level-ground walking, stair climbing, walking on slopes, etc.). To allow prosthesis users safely and seamlessly transition between tasks, it is critical to determine when to switch the prosthesis control mode during task transitions. Our previous study defined critical timings for different types of task transitions in ambulation; however, it is unknown whether it is the unique timing that allows safe and seamless transitions. The goals of this study were to (1) systematically investigate the effects of mode switch timing on the prosthesis user’s performance in task transitions, and (2) identify appropriate timing to switch the prosthesis control mode so that the users can seamlessly transition between different locomotion tasks. Five able-bodied (AB) and two transfemoral (TF) amputee subjects were tested as they wore a powered knee prosthesis. The prosthesis control mode was switched manually at various times while the subjects performed different types of task transitions. The subjects’ task transition performances were evaluated by their walking balance and success in performing seamless task transitions. The results demonstrated that there existed a time window within which switching the prosthesis control mode neither interrupted the subjects’ task transitions nor disturbed their walking balance. Therefore, the results suggested the control mode switching of a lower limb prosthesis can be triggered within an appropriate time window instead of a specific timing or an individual phase. In addition, a generalized criterion to determine the appropriate mode switch timing was proposed. The outcomes of this study could provide important guidance for future designs of neurally controlled powered knee prostheses that are safe and reliable to use. PMID:26197084

  5. Investigation of Timing to Switch Control Mode in Powered Knee Prostheses during Task Transitions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Ming; Huang, He

    2015-01-01

    Current powered prosthetic legs require switching control modes according to the task the user is performing (e.g. level-ground walking, stair climbing, walking on slopes, etc.). To allow prosthesis users safely and seamlessly transition between tasks, it is critical to determine when to switch the prosthesis control mode during task transitions. Our previous study defined critical timings for different types of task transitions in ambulation; however, it is unknown whether it is the unique timing that allows safe and seamless transitions. The goals of this study were to (1) systematically investigate the effects of mode switch timing on the prosthesis user's performance in task transitions, and (2) identify appropriate timing to switch the prosthesis control mode so that the users can seamlessly transition between different locomotion tasks. Five able-bodied (AB) and two transfemoral (TF) amputee subjects were tested as they wore a powered knee prosthesis. The prosthesis control mode was switched manually at various times while the subjects performed different types of task transitions. The subjects' task transition performances were evaluated by their walking balance and success in performing seamless task transitions. The results demonstrated that there existed a time window within which switching the prosthesis control mode neither interrupted the subjects' task transitions nor disturbed their walking balance. Therefore, the results suggested the control mode switching of a lower limb prosthesis can be triggered within an appropriate time window instead of a specific timing or an individual phase. In addition, a generalized criterion to determine the appropriate mode switch timing was proposed. The outcomes of this study could provide important guidance for future designs of neurally controlled powered knee prostheses that are safe and reliable to use.

  6. Time Resolved Phase Transitions via Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B W; Armstrong, M R; Blobaum, K J; Browning, N D; Burnham, A K; Campbell, G H; Gee, R; Kim, J S; King, W E; Maiti, A; Piggott, W T; Torralva, B R

    2007-02-22

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) project is developing an in situ electron microscope with nanometer- and nanosecond-scale resolution for the study of rapid laser-driven processes in materials. We report on the results obtained in a year-long LDRD-supported effort to develop DTEM techniques and results for phase transitions in molecular crystals, reactive multilayer foils, and melting and resolidification of bismuth. We report the first in situ TEM observation of the HMX {beta}-{delta} phase transformation in sub-{micro}m crystals, computational results suggesting the importance of voids and free surfaces in the HMX transformation kinetics, and the first electron diffraction patterns of intermediate states in fast multilayer foil reactions. This project developed techniques which are applicable to many materials systems and will continue to be employed within the larger DTEM effort.

  7. Frequency of Close Companions among Kepler Planets—a Transit Time Variation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Wu, Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-07-01

    A transiting planet exhibits sinusoidal transit time variations (TTVs) if perturbed by a companion near a mean-motion resonance. We search for sinusoidal TTVs in more than 2600 Kepler candidates, using the publicly available Kepler light curves (Q0-Q12). We find that the TTV fractions rise strikingly with the transit multiplicity. Systems where four or more planets transit enjoy a TTV fraction that is roughly five times higher than those where a single planet transits, and about twice as high as those for doubles and triples. In contrast, models in which all transiting planets arise from similar dynamical configurations predict comparable TTV fractions among these different systems. One simple explanation for our results is that there are at least two different classes of Kepler systems, one closely packed and one more sparsely populated.

  8. Frequency of close companions among Kepler planets—a transit time variation study

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Wu, Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram E-mail: wu@astro.utoronto.ca

    2014-07-10

    A transiting planet exhibits sinusoidal transit time variations (TTVs) if perturbed by a companion near a mean-motion resonance. We search for sinusoidal TTVs in more than 2600 Kepler candidates, using the publicly available Kepler light curves (Q0-Q12). We find that the TTV fractions rise strikingly with the transit multiplicity. Systems where four or more planets transit enjoy a TTV fraction that is roughly five times higher than those where a single planet transits, and about twice as high as those for doubles and triples. In contrast, models in which all transiting planets arise from similar dynamical configurations predict comparable TTV fractions among these different systems. One simple explanation for our results is that there are at least two different classes of Kepler systems, one closely packed and one more sparsely populated.

  9. The use of transit timing to detect terrestrial-mass extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Holman, Matthew J; Murray, Norman W

    2005-02-25

    Future surveys for transiting extrasolar planets are expected to detect hundreds of jovian-mass planets and tens of terrestrial-mass planets. For many of these newly discovered planets, the intervals between successive transits will be measured with an accuracy of 0.1 to 100 minutes. We show that these timing measurements will allow for the detection of additional planets in the system (not necessarily transiting) by their gravitational interaction with the transiting planet. The transit-time variations depend on the mass of the additional planet, and in some cases terrestrial-mass planets will produce a measurable effect. In systems where two planets are seen to transit, the density of both planets can be determined without radial-velocity observations.

  10. TEE, an estimator for the precision of eclipse and transit minimum times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, H. J.; Tingley, B.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Transit or eclipse timing variations have proven to be a valuable tool in exoplanet research. However, no simple way to estimate the potential precision of such timing measures has been presented yet, nor are guidelines available regarding the relation between timing errors and sampling rate. Aims: A timing error estimator (TEE) equation is presented that requires only basic transit parameters as input. With the TEE, estimating timing precision for actual data and for future instruments, such as the TESS and PLATO space missions, is straightforward. Methods: A derivation of the timing error based on a trapezoidal transit shape is given. We also verify the TEE on realistically modelled transits using Monte Carlo simulations and determine its validity range, exploring in particular the interplay between ingress/egress times and sampling rates. Results: The simulations show that the TEE gives timing errors very close to the correct value, as long as the temporal sampling is faster than transit ingress/egress durations and transits with very low S/N are avoided. Conclusions: The TEE is a useful tool for estimating eclipse or transit timing errors in actual and future data sets. In combination with a previously published equation to estimate period-errors, predictions for the ephemeris precision of long-coverage observations are possible as well. The tests for the TEE's validity range also led to implications for instrumental design. Temporal sampling has to be faster than transit ingress or egress durations, or a loss in timing precision will occur. An application to the TESS mission shows that transits close to its detection limit will have timing uncertainties that exceed 1 h within a few months of their acquisition. Prompt follow-up observations will be needed to avoid "losing" their ephemerides.

  11. Modeling unsteady lumped transport with time-varying transit time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Ciaran

    2014-05-01

    Transit time distributions (TTD) offer a powerful tool for characterizing 'lumped' hydrologic transport (i.e. with few parameters, and without resolving the internal dynamics), but their general application for transport modeling has been hampered by the challenge of dealing with time-variable TTD. A way forward has emerged with the development of the 'age function' approach, but it has not been clear how to parameterize the age function, or how to interpret it physically and compare it to perceptual models. It also requires specification of the total storage, which is not possible in many cases of interest. This paper presents a more general formulation for TTD modeling that addresses these limitations. Transport is parameterized in terms of a probability density function Ω that represents the relative contribution of age-ranked water in storage to the flux out. Other frameworks are shown to be a special case of this one if the total storage is known. A new equation is obtained describing the time-evolution of the TTD that does not require specification of the total storage. In fact, the storage can be indefinitely large, allowing pdfs with semi-infinite support to parameterize Ω. Classical equations for random-sampling ('completely mixed') and piston-flow type transport fall out as special cases of Ω at steady-state. Other choices for Ω yield TTD capable of replicating observed transport phenomena like heavy tails and fractal 1/f-noise. Application of the model to long term and high frequency passive tracer datasets demonstrates its promise as a framework for new models of transport in time-variable landscape hydrologic systems with a unique ability to capture these important features.

  12. Travel time based approach for the assessment of vulnerability of karst groundwater: the Transit Time Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosig, Karolin; Geyer, Tobias; Subah, Ali; Sauter, Martin

    2008-05-01

    Karst aquifers represent important water resources in many parts of the world. Unfortunately, karst aquifers are characterised by high contamination risks. This paper presents a travel time based method for the estimation of karst groundwater vulnerability. It considers (1) physics-based lateral flow within the uppermost weathered zone (epikarst) in a limestone-dominated region and (2) high velocities of vertical infiltration at discrete infiltration points (e.g. sinkholes) or lines (e.g. dry valleys, faults). Consequently, the Transit Time Method honours the actual flow path within the unsaturated zone of a karst aquifer system. A test site in Northern Jordan was chosen for the demonstration of the assessment technique, i.e. the catchment area of the Qunayyah Spring north of the capital Amman. The results demonstrate that zones of highest vulnerability lie within valleys and nearby main fault zones. It also reveals that regions, categorised as protected areas by other methods due to thick unsaturated zones, contribute to a major degree to the total risk.

  13. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  14. Not ready for prime time: transitional events in the extremely preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Successful transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life involves significant physiologic changes. The majority of these changes occur relatively quickly during those first moments following delivery; however, transition for the extremely preterm infant occurs over a longer period of time. Careful assessment and perceptive interventions on the part of neonatal care providers is essential as the extremely preterm infant adjusts to life outside the womb. This article will focus on respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurologic transitional events experienced by the extremely premature infant.

  15. Arterial-phase three-dimensional gadolinium magnetic resonance angiography of the renal arteries. Strategies for timing and contrast media injection: original investigation.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, S O; Knopp, M V; Prince, M R; Londy, F; Knopp, M A

    1998-09-01

    The authors review different imaging and contrast-media infusion strategies for arterial-phase three-dimensional (3D) gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-MRA). The influence of physicochemical factors on the infusion of contrast media, including viscosity, flow rate, inline pressure, and cannula size, is assessed. The combination of manual or automated contrast-media administration with timing-dependent or -independent 3D Gd-MRA techniques is reviewed regarding the aspects of effectiveness, robustness, image quality, and costs. For effective bolus delivery with high flow rates, the type and temperature of the contrast media, the size of the cannula, and an immediate saline flush must be considered. Timing-dependent techniques based on a test bolus and using automated contrast-media infusion as well as timing independent techniques such as MR SmartPrep or multiphase 3D Gd-MRA by using a manual injection with a SmartSet tubing set, are all effective procedures for arterial phase 3D Gd-MRA. Manual contrast-media injection with a tubing set can be used for timing-independent MRA techniques. The multiphase 3D Gd-MRA approach seems to be favorable for different MR systems, robustness, and speed.

  16. In vivo measurement of the longitudinal relaxation time of arterial blood (T1a) in the mouse using a pulsed arterial spin labeling approach.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David L; Lythgoe, Mark F; Gadian, David G; Ordidge, Roger J

    2006-04-01

    A novel method for measuring the longitudinal relaxation time of arterial blood (T1a) is presented. Knowledge of T1a is essential for accurately quantifying cerebral perfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques. The method is based on the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) pulsed ASL (PASL) approach. We modified the standard FAIR acquisition scheme by incorporating a global saturation pulse at the beginning of the recovery period. With this approach the FAIR tissue signal difference has a simple monoexponential dependence on the recovery time, with T1a as the time constant. Therefore, FAIR measurements performed over a range of recovery times can be fitted to a monoexponential recovery curve and T1a can be calculated directly. This eliminates many of the difficulties associated with the measurement of T1a. Experiments performed in vivo in the mouse at 2.35T produced a mean value of 1.51 s for T1a, consistent with previously published values. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Hepatic vein transit time of second-generation ultrasound contrast agent: new tool in the assessment of portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Luisa, Siciliani; Vitale, Giovanna; Sorbo, Anna Rita; Maurizio, Pompili; Lodovico, Rapaccini Gian

    2017-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that Doppler waveform of the hepatic vein (normally triphasic) is transformed into a biphasic or monophasic waveform in cirrhotic patients. The compressive mechanism of liver tissue has been considered up till now the cause of this change. Moreover, cirrhotics show, after USCA injection, a much earlier HVTT due to intrahepatic shunts. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the correlation between Doppler pattern of hepatic vein and HVTT of a second-generation USCA; we also correlated HVTT with the most common indexes of portal hypertension. We enrolled 38 participants: 33 cirrhotics and 5 healthy controls. Doppler shift signals were obtained from the right hepatic vein. To characterize the hepatic vein pattern, we used the hepatic vein waveform index (HVWI). This index becomes >1 with the appearance of the triphasic waveform. We recorded a clip from 20 s before to 2 min after a peripheral intravenous bolus injection of 2.4 ml of USCA (sulfur hexafluoride).The time employed by USCA to cross the liver from the hepatic artery and portal vein to the hepatic vein was defined as HA-HVTT and PV-HVTT, respectively. Cirrhotics with low HVWI showed an earlier transit time; participants with higher HVWI had a longer transit time (p < 0.001). HVTT was earlier as MELD, Child-Pugh score and spleen diameter increased. Patients with ascites and varices of large size had significantly shorter transit times. Abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform in cirrhotic patients could be due to intrahepatic shunts. HVTT could be useful in the non-invasive evaluation of portal hypertension.

  18. Solid volume fraction estimation of bone:marrow replica models using ultrasound transit time spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wille, Marie-Luise; Langton, Christian M

    2016-02-01

    The acceptance of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) for the assessment of osteoporosis suffers from a limited understanding of both ultrasound wave propagation through cancellous bone and its exact dependence upon the material and structural properties. It has recently been proposed that ultrasound wave propagation in cancellous bone may be described by a concept of parallel sonic rays; the transit time of each ray defined by the proportion of bone and marrow propagated. A Transit Time Spectrum (TTS) describes the proportion of sonic rays having a particular transit time, effectively describing the lateral inhomogeneity of transit times over the surface aperture of the receive ultrasound transducer. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the solid volume fraction (SVF) of simplified bone:marrow replica models may be reliably estimated from the corresponding ultrasound transit time spectrum. Transit time spectra were derived via digital deconvolution of the experimentally measured input and output ultrasonic signals, and compared to predicted TTS based on the parallel sonic ray concept, demonstrating agreement in both position and amplitude of spectral peaks. Solid volume fraction was calculated from the TTS; agreement between true (geometric calculation) with predicted (computer simulation) and experimentally-derived values were R(2)=99.9% and R(2)=97.3% respectively. It is therefore envisaged that ultrasound transit time spectroscopy (UTTS) offers the potential to reliably estimate bone mineral density and hence the established T-score parameter for clinical osteoporosis assessment.

  19. The role of hillslopes in stream flow response: connectivity, flow path, and transit time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, K. J.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    Subsurface flow from hillslopes is widely recognized as an important contributor to stream flow generation; however, processes that control how and when hillslopes connect to streams remain unclear. Much of the difficulty in deciphering hillslope response in the stream is due to riparian zone modulation of these inputs. We investigated stream and hillslope runoff dynamics in a 10 ha catchment in the western Cascades of Oregon where the riparian zone has been removed by debris flows, providing an unambiguous hillslope hydrologic signal to the stream channel. Water transit time was used as a framework to develop a conceptual stream flow generation model for the small basin. We based our conceptualization on observations of hydrometric, stable isotope, and applied tracer responses and computed transit times for multiple runoff components using a simple linear systems model. Event water mean transit times (8 to 34 h) and rapid breakthrough from applied hillslope tracer additions, demonstrated that contributing areas extend far upslope during events. Despite rapid hillslope transport processes during events, vadose zone water and runoff mean transit times during non-storm conditions were greater than the timescale of storm events. Vadose zone water mean transit times ranged between 10 and 25 days. Hillslope seepage and catchment baseflow mean transit times were between 1 and 2 years. We describe a conceptual model that captures variable physical flow pathways and transit times through changing antecedent wetness conditions that illustrate the different stages of hillslope and stream connectivity.

  20. How to assess regional and whole gut transit time with wireless motility capsule.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Erdogan, Askin; Rao, Satish S C

    2014-04-30

    Assessment of transit through the gastrointestinal tract provides useful information regarding gut physiology and patho-physiology. Although several methods are available, each has distinct advantages and limitations. Recently, an ingestible wire-less motility capsule (WMC), similar to capsule video endoscopy, has become available that offers a less-invasive, standardized, radiation-free and office-based test. The capsule has 3 sensors for measurement of pH, pressure and temperature, and collec-tively the information provided by these sensors is used to measure gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, colonic transit time and whole gut transit time. Current approved indications for the test include the evaluation of gastric emptying in gastroparesis, colonic transit in constipation and evaluation of generalised dysmotility. Rare capsule retention and malfunc-tion are known limitations and some patients may experience difficulty with swallowing the capsule. The use of WMC has been validated for the assessment of gastrointestinal transit. The normal range for transit time includes the following: gastric empty-ing (2-5 hours), small bowel transit (2-6 hours), colonic transit (10-59 hours) and whole gut transit (10-73 hours). Besides avoiding the use of multiple endoscopic, radiologic and functional gastrointestinal tests, WMC can provide new diagnoses, leads to a change in management decision and help to direct further focused work-ups in patients with suspected disordered motility. In conclusion, WMC represents a significant advance in the assessment of segmental and whole gut transit and mo-tility, and could prove to be an indispensable diagnostic tool for gastrointestinal physicians worldwide.

  1. Measurement of vascular water transport in human subjects using time-resolved pulsed arterial spin labelling.

    PubMed

    Bibic, Adnan; Knutsson, Linda; Schmidt, Anders; Henningsson, Erik; Månsson, Sven; Abul-Kasim, Kasim; Åkeson, Jonas; Gunther, Matthias; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Wirestam, Ronnie

    2015-08-01

    Most approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) data analysis aim to provide a quantitative measure of the cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study, however, focuses on the measurement of the transfer time of blood water through the capillaries to the parenchyma (referred to as the capillary transfer time, CTT) as an alternative parameter to characterise the haemodynamics of the system. The method employed is based on a non-compartmental model, and no measurements need to be added to a common time-resolved ASL experiment. Brownian motion of labelled spins in a potential was described by a one-dimensional general Langevin equation as the starting point, and as a Fokker-Planck differential equation for the averaged distribution of labelled spins at the end point, which takes into account the effects of flow and dispersion of labelled water by the pseudorandom nature of the microvasculature and the transcapillary permeability. Multi-inversion time (multi-TI) ASL data were acquired in 14 healthy subjects on two occasions in a test-retest design, using a pulsed ASL sequence and three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (3D-GRASE) readout. Based on an error analysis to predict the size of a region of interest (ROI) required to obtain reasonably precise parameter estimates, data were analysed in two relatively large ROIs, i.e. the occipital lobe (OC) and the insular cortex (IC). The average values of CTT in OC were 260 ± 60 ms in the first experiment and 270 ± 60 ms in the second experiment. The corresponding IC values were 460 ± 130 ms and 420 ± 139 ms, respectively. Information related to the water transfer time may be important for diagnostics and follow-up of cerebral conditions or diseases characterised by a disrupted blood-brain barrier or disturbed capillary blood flow.

  2. Biomarkers in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Ready for Prime Time and Outcome Prediction?

    PubMed Central

    Parolari, Alessandro; Poggio, Paolo; Myasoedova, Veronika; Songia, Paola; Bonalumi, Giorgia; Pilozzi, Alberto; Pacini, Davide; Alamanni, Francesco; Tremoli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is still one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures all over the world. The results of this procedure have been constantly improved over the years with low perioperative mortality rates, with relatively low complication rates. To further improve these outstanding results, the clinicians focused their attention at biomarkers as outcome predictors. Although biological testing for disease prediction has already been discussed many times, the role of biomarkers in outcome prediction after CABG is still controversial. In this article, we reviewed the current knowledge regarding the role of genetic and dynamic biomarkers and their possible association with the occurrence of adverse clinical outcomes after CABG. We also took into consideration that the molecular pathway activation and the possible imbalance may affect hard outcomes and graft patency. We analyzed biomarkers classified in two different categories depending on their possibility to change over time: genetic markers and dynamic markers. Moreover, we evaluated these markers by dividing them, into sub-categories, such as inflammation, hemostasis, renin–angiotensin, endothelial function, and other pathways. We showed that biomarkers might be associated with unfavorable outcomes after surgery, and in some cases improved outcome prediction. However, the identification of a specific panel of biomarkers or of some algorithms including biomarkers is still in an early developmental phase. Finally, larger studies are needed to analyze broad panel of biomarkers with the specific aim to evaluate the prediction of hard outcomes and graft patency. PMID:26779491

  3. The acceleration of energetic particles in the interplanetary medium by transit-time damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Transit time damping is examined as a possible means for accelerating low energy particles in co-rotating streams and interstellar ions. Data show that: the protons in co-rotating streams may be accelerated by transient-time damping the small-scale variations in the field magnitude that are observed at a low level in the inner solar system. The interstellar ions may be accelerated by transit time damping large-scale field variations in the outer solar system.

  4. Time-Varying Transition Probability Matrix Estimation and Its Application to Brand Share Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tomoaki; Hino, Hideitsu; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    In a product market or stock market, different products or stocks compete for the same consumers or purchasers. We propose a method to estimate the time-varying transition matrix of the product share using a multivariate time series of the product share. The method is based on the assumption that each of the observed time series of shares is a stationary distribution of the underlying Markov processes characterized by transition probability matrices. We estimate transition probability matrices for every observation under natural assumptions. We demonstrate, on a real-world dataset of the share of automobiles, that the proposed method can find intrinsic transition of shares. The resulting transition matrices reveal interesting phenomena, for example, the change in flows between TOYOTA group and GM group for the fiscal year where TOYOTA group's sales beat GM's sales, which is a reasonable scenario.

  5. Time-Varying Transition Probability Matrix Estimation and Its Application to Brand Share Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tomoaki; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    In a product market or stock market, different products or stocks compete for the same consumers or purchasers. We propose a method to estimate the time-varying transition matrix of the product share using a multivariate time series of the product share. The method is based on the assumption that each of the observed time series of shares is a stationary distribution of the underlying Markov processes characterized by transition probability matrices. We estimate transition probability matrices for every observation under natural assumptions. We demonstrate, on a real-world dataset of the share of automobiles, that the proposed method can find intrinsic transition of shares. The resulting transition matrices reveal interesting phenomena, for example, the change in flows between TOYOTA group and GM group for the fiscal year where TOYOTA group’s sales beat GM’s sales, which is a reasonable scenario. PMID:28076383

  6. Anxiety and fear in patients with short waiting times before coronary artery bypass surgery--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Feuchtinger, Johanna; Burbaum, Christina; Heilmann, Claudia; Imbery, Claudia; Siepe, Matthias; Stotz, Ulrike; Fritzsche, Kurt; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2014-07-01

    To obtain qualitative information on fears and anxieties of coronary artery bypass grafting patients with short waiting periods (up to a maximum of four weeks) before surgery. Coronary artery bypass grafting is a standard procedure in cardiac surgery. However, many patients suffer significant anxiety and fear before the operation. Preoperative anxiety and fear correlate with adverse outcomes, but there is a lack of data on the emotional stressors for patients with short waiting periods as applicable in Germany. This knowledge would be a prerequisite for the development of in-hospital interventions to reduce patients' anxieties and fears. An exploratory study was chosen to learn about patients' anxieties and fears. The day before coronary artery bypass grafting, 24 patients were examined with respect to their emotional experience using semi-structured interviews. The results were categorised by inductive content analysis. The overall waiting time for coronary artery bypass grafting was 6 ± 6 days. According to the analysis, the patients' statements were grouped in 'fears', 'negation of fears' and 'other emotional and physical conditions'. The interviews could cover all categories simultaneously. Eighteen patients mentioned fears, and most of them referred to specific issues. However, 16 of the 18 patients also named nonspecific fears and uncertainties. Fifteen patients negated fear. Twenty-three patients described their emotions and/or somatic conditions. Patients with short waiting periods before coronary artery bypass grafting experience specific as well as nonspecific fears on the day before surgery. In contrast to patients with long waiting (longer than four weeks), uncertainty and frustration about waiting time and feelings of disability are no concerns. The detailed insight into the emotional experiences of patients with a short waiting time before coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is a basis for targeted anxiety-reducing interventions. © 2013 John

  7. Deriving the time-variant transit time distributions of an Austrian karst system by a semi-distributed karst model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Kobler, Johannes; Kralik, Martin; Dirnboeck, Thomas; Humer, Franko; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Karst systems contribute around 50% to Austria's drinking water supply. Distributions of transit times of water and hence other water quality parameters can be highly valuable when assessing the risk of contamination of a karst aquifer. In this study we assess the transit time distributions of a dolomite karst system in Austria. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of the karst system by distribution functions we simulated a range of spatially variable pathways through the karst system. To assure a reliable calibration of the model we used observations of discharge at 2 different locations and 3 time series of solute concentrations (DOC, NO3 and SO4). We benchmarked the model with a split sample test using all 5 types of observations. Having enough indication for a realistic representation of the system and its flow and storage behaviour, the range of simulated pathways through the karst system was used to derive transit time distributions for different initial conditions. We use experimentally derived information about transit times (water ages, O 18 observations, tracer experiments) to evaluate the simulated residence time distributions. Finally, the process-based structure of the model allows to attribute the different transit time distributions to physical processes and pathways in the karst system and to assess the system's vulnerability on contamination.

  8. Supporting Students in Military Families during Times of Transition: A Call for Awareness and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rebekah F.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout their time in school, students in military families face many challenging periods of transition, which include deployments, relocations, and the family's separation from the military. During these transitions, students in military families may be especially susceptible to social, emotional, and academic challenges both in their home…

  9. Psychosocial Adversities and Timing of Adolescent Transitions: A Comparison of the Former East and West Germanies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the timing of adolescent transitions. Its first aim was to investigate the hypothesis that cumulated family adversities during childhood would predict earlier transitions in domains such as behavioral autonomy and friendship formation during adolescence. Subjects (N=1,631) were adolescents between the ages of 13…

  10. Supporting Students in Military Families during Times of Transition: A Call for Awareness and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rebekah F.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout their time in school, students in military families face many challenging periods of transition, which include deployments, relocations, and the family's separation from the military. During these transitions, students in military families may be especially susceptible to social, emotional, and academic challenges both in their home…

  11. Tests of correlation between immediate postoperative gastroduodenal transit times and weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Manish; Eisner, Joseph; Hindman, Nicole; Balthazar, Emil; Saunders, John K

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown accelerated gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy. This study aimed to determine whether a correlation exists between immediate postoperative gastroduodenal transit time and weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Specifically, correlation tests were conducted to determine whether more rapid transit after LSG correlated with increased weight loss. Data were collected from an institutional review board-approved electronic registry. All LSGs were performed over a 40-Fr bougie, starting 5 to 7 cm proximal to the pylorus. Gastroduodenal transit time (antrum to duodenum) was calculated from a postoperative day 1 esophagram. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. The analysis included 62 consecutive LSG patients. The mean gastroduodenal transit time was 12.3 ± 19.8 s. Almost all the patients (99%) had a transit time less than 60 s. The mean percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) was 23.8 ± 9.8% at 3 months, 37.9 ± 11.8% at 6 months, and 52.2 ± 10.8% at 12 months. No correlation was found between gastroduodenal transit time and %EWL at 3, 6, or 12 months. No correlation was found between gastroduodenal transit time and weight loss after LSG.

  12. An efficient tracer experimental design for measuring time-variable transit time distributions in periodic hydrodynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Ciaran; Kim, Minseok

    2014-05-01

    The time-varying transport dynamics of complex hydrodynamic systems with long transit times are difficult to observe even in experimental systems due to the need for multiple tracer injections. Where only one or two distinct tracers are available, overprinting in the output concentrations limits the injection frequency. We will present an experimental method (the PERiodic Tracer Hierarchy - PERTH) that allows overprinted breakthrough curves to be decomposed into contributions from multiple injections of the same tracer, so long as the transporting flow is periodic. This method allows the time varying transit time distributions to be observed efficiently while making no a priori assumptions about the transport processes operating in the system. Simulations of transport through a soil column subject to a periodic sequence of irrigation events demonstrate that the distinct transit time distributions associated with each irrigation event can be retrieved almost exactly.

  13. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  14. Fatty Liver, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity: Relationships With Increase in Coronary Artery Calcium Over Time.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, Eun Sun; Wild, Sarah H; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance (IR), and obesity frequently coexist with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but it is uncertain whether these risk factors for vascular disease contribute to a change in atherosclerosis over time, independently of DM status. We hypothesized that the combination of fatty liver, IR, and obesity would be associated with an increase in coronary artery calcium (CAC) score over time, independently of DM status, other cardiovascular risk factors, and medications. Data were analyzed from a South Korean occupational cohort of 2175 people. The outcome was increase in cardiac computed tomography CAC score between baseline and follow-up. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥75th percentile and fatty liver by ultrasound. In 592 (27.2%) participants, CAC score increased from baseline (mean ± SD; mean age at baseline, 44.8 ± 5.5 years); and in 1583 subjects, CAC did not change or improved during follow-up (mean age, 41.6 ± 5.6 years). Diabetes mellitus, HOMA-IR, fatty liver, and obesity prevalence were all higher (all P < 0.001) in participants whose CAC score increased from baseline. Adjusting for DM and potential confounders, the combination of IR, obesity, and fatty liver was independently associated with increase in CAC score over time (hazard ratio: 2.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.50-4.03). The combination of fatty liver, IR, and obesity is associated with progression of atherosclerosis over time independently of DM, cardiovascular risk factors, and all medications for cardiovascular disease and DM. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The use of content and timing to predict turn transitions.

    PubMed

    Garrod, Simon; Pickering, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    For addressees to respond in a timely fashion, they cannot simply process the speaker's utterance as it occurs and wait till it finishes. Instead, they predict both when the speaker will conclude and what linguistic forms will be used. While doing this, they must also prepare their own response. To explain this, we draw on the account proposed by Pickering and Garrod (2013a), in which addressees covertly imitate the speaker's utterance and use this to determine the intention that underlies their upcoming utterance. They use this intention to predict when and how the utterance will end, and also to drive their own production mechanisms for preparing their response. Following Arnal and Giraud (2012), we distinguish between mechanisms that predict timing and content. In particular, we propose that the timing mechanism relies on entrainment of low-frequency oscillations between speech envelope and brain. This constrains the context that feeds into the determination of the speaker's intention and hence the timing and form of the upcoming utterance. This approach typically leads to well-timed contributions, but also provides a mechanism for resolving conflicts, for example when there is unintended speaker overlap.

  16. The use of content and timing to predict turn transitions

    PubMed Central

    Garrod, Simon; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    For addressees to respond in a timely fashion, they cannot simply process the speaker's utterance as it occurs and wait till it finishes. Instead, they predict both when the speaker will conclude and what linguistic forms will be used. While doing this, they must also prepare their own response. To explain this, we draw on the account proposed by Pickering and Garrod (2013a), in which addressees covertly imitate the speaker's utterance and use this to determine the intention that underlies their upcoming utterance. They use this intention to predict when and how the utterance will end, and also to drive their own production mechanisms for preparing their response. Following Arnal and Giraud (2012), we distinguish between mechanisms that predict timing and content. In particular, we propose that the timing mechanism relies on entrainment of low-frequency oscillations between speech envelope and brain. This constrains the context that feeds into the determination of the speaker's intention and hence the timing and form of the upcoming utterance. This approach typically leads to well-timed contributions, but also provides a mechanism for resolving conflicts, for example when there is unintended speaker overlap. PMID:26124728

  17. First-time viewers' comprehension of films: bridging shot transitions.

    PubMed

    Ildirar, Sermin; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Which perceptual and cognitive prerequisites must be met in order to be able to comprehend a film is still unresolved and a controversial issue. In order to gain some insights into this issue, our field experiment investigates how first-time adult viewers extract and integrate meaningful information across film cuts. Three major types of commonalities between adjacent shots were differentiated, which may help first-time viewers with bridging the shots: pictorial, causal, and conceptual. Twenty first-time, 20 low-experienced and 20 high-experienced viewers from Turkey were shown a set of short film clips containing these three kinds of commonalities. Film clips conformed also to the principles of continuity editing. Analyses of viewers' spontaneous interpretations show that first-time viewers indeed are able to notice basic pictorial (object identity), causal (chains of activity), as well as conceptual (links between gaze direction and object attention) commonalities between shots due to their close relationship with everyday perception and cognition. However, first-time viewers' comprehension of the commonalities is to a large degree fragile, indicating the lack of a basic notion of what constitutes a film.

  18. Primary Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma on Dual-Time Point FDG PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Qian; He, Lirong; Zhuang, Xiaoqing; Li, Fang

    2016-08-01

    A 59-year-old man presented cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath for 2 weeks and fever for 4 days. A contrast chest CT revealed a large right pulmonary artery filling defect, suggestive of pulmonary embolism that failed to respond to anticoagulation therapy. FDG PET/CT was performed to evaluate possible malignancy, which revealed intense activity in the right main pulmonary artery without any extrathoracic abnormality. The ratio of the SUVmax of this lesion to the liver was significantly increased in the delayed PET images. The pathological examination demonstrated primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.

  19. Optimization of breathing instructions and timing of late arterial phase acquisition on gadobutrol-enhanced MRI of the liver.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Daniella F; Lev-Cohain, Naama; Awdeh, Haitham; Xi, Yin; Khatri, Gaurav; Yokoo, Takeshi; Pedrosa, Ivan

    To compare a protocol with higher concentration macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) [study group] to the traditional protocol with lower-concentration linear GBCAs [control group] for breath-held arterial phase magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 136 patients were quantitatively evaluated for image quality (IQ), breathing artifacts (BA), and timing of the arterial phase (Tap). Quantitative analysis was also performed. No significant differences in IQ, BA and Tap (P>.05). Study group exhibited less enhancement of the aorta (P=.0091) and smaller standard deviation for the portal vein enhancement (P=.0173). Similar arterial-phase image quality can be achieved with a macrocyclic GBCA compared to traditional linear GBCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using a physically-based transit time distribution function to estimate the hydraulic parameters and hydraulic transit times of an unconfined aquifer from tritium measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farlin, Julien; Maloszewski, Piotr; Schneider, Wilfried; Gallé, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater transit time is of interest in environmental studies pertaining to the transport of pollutants from its source to the aquifer outlet (spring or pumping well) or to an observation well. Different models have been proposed to describe the distribution of transit times within groundwatersheds, the most common being the dispersion model, the exponential-piston-flow model (EPM) both proposed by Maloszewski and Zuber (Maloszewski and Zuber, 1982) and the (two or three parameter) gamma model (Amin and Campana, 1996; Kirchner et al., 1999). Choosing which function applies best is a recurrent and controversial problem in hydrogeology. The object of this study is to revisit the applicability of the EPM for unconfined aquifers, and to introduce an alternative model based explicitly on groundwater hydraulics. The alternative model is based on the transit time of water from any point at the groundwater table to the aquifer outlet, and is used to calculate inversely the hydraulic parameters of a fractured unconfined sandstone aquifer from tritium measurements made in a series of contact springs. This model is compared to the EPM, which is usually adopted to describe the transit time distribution of confined and unconfined aquifers alike. Both models are tested against observations, and it is shown that the EPM fails the test for some of the springs, and generally seems to overestimate the older water component. Amin, I. E., and M. E. Campana (1996), A general lumped parameter model for the interpretation of tracer data and transit time calculation in hydrologic systems, Journal of Hydrology, 179, 1-21, doi: 10.1016/0022-1694(95)02880-3. Kirchner, J. W., X. H. Feng, and C. Neal (1999), Fractal stream chemistry and its implications for contaminant transport in catchments, Nature physics, 403, 524-527, doi: 10.1038/35000537. Maloszewski, P., and A. Zuber (1982), Determining the turnover time of groundwater systems with the aid of environmental tracers, Journal of

  1. Genetic Associations for Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time and Prothrombin Time, their Gene Expression Profiles, and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weihong; Schwienbacher, Christine; Lopez, Lorna M.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Johnson, Andrew D.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Basu, Saonli; Gögele, Martin; Davies, Gail; Lowe, Gordon D.O.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tan, Adrian; Pankow, James S.; Tenesa, Albert; Levy, Daniel; Volpato, Claudia B.; Rumley, Ann; Gow, Alan J.; Minelli, Cosetta; Yarnell, John W.G.; Porteous, David J.; Starr, John M.; Gallacher, John; Boerwinkle, Eric; Visscher, Peter M.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Cushman, Mary; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew S.; Matijevic, Nena; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2012-01-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) are clinical tests commonly used to screen for coagulation-factor deficiencies. One genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been reported previously for aPTT, but no GWAS has been reported for PT. We conducted a GWAS and meta-analysis to identify genetic loci for aPTT and PT. The GWAS for aPTT was conducted in 9,240 individuals of European ancestry from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, and the GWAS for PT was conducted in 2,583 participants from the Genetic Study of Three Population Microisolates in South Tyrol (MICROS) and the Lothian Birth Cohorts (LBC) of 1921 and 1936. Replication was assessed in 1,041 to 3,467 individuals. For aPTT, previously reported associations with KNG1, HRG, F11, F12, and ABO were confirmed. A second independent association in ABO was identified and replicated (rs8176704, p = 4.26 × 10−24). Pooling the ARIC and replication data yielded two additional loci in F5 (rs6028, p = 3.22 × 10−9) and AGBL1 (rs2469184, p = 3.61 × 10−8). For PT, significant associations were identified and confirmed in F7 (rs561241, p = 3.71 × 10−56) and PROCR/EDEM2 (rs2295888, p = 5.25 × 10−13). Assessment of existing gene expression and coronary artery disease (CAD) databases identified associations of five of the GWAS loci with altered gene expression and two with CAD. In summary, eight genetic loci that account for ∼29% of the variance in aPTT and two loci that account for ∼14% of the variance in PT were detected and supported by functional data. PMID:22703881

  2. Genetic associations for activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, their gene expression profiles, and risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihong; Schwienbacher, Christine; Lopez, Lorna M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Johnson, Andrew D; Samani, Nilesh J; Basu, Saonli; Gögele, Martin; Davies, Gail; Lowe, Gordon D O; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tan, Adrian; Pankow, James S; Tenesa, Albert; Levy, Daniel; Volpato, Claudia B; Rumley, Ann; Gow, Alan J; Minelli, Cosetta; Yarnell, John W G; Porteous, David J; Starr, John M; Gallacher, John; Boerwinkle, Eric; Visscher, Peter M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Cushman, Mary; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew S; Matijevic, Nena; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J; Hicks, Andrew A; Folsom, Aaron R

    2012-07-13

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) are clinical tests commonly used to screen for coagulation-factor deficiencies. One genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been reported previously for aPTT, but no GWAS has been reported for PT. We conducted a GWAS and meta-analysis to identify genetic loci for aPTT and PT. The GWAS for aPTT was conducted in 9,240 individuals of European ancestry from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, and the GWAS for PT was conducted in 2,583 participants from the Genetic Study of Three Population Microisolates in South Tyrol (MICROS) and the Lothian Birth Cohorts (LBC) of 1921 and 1936. Replication was assessed in 1,041 to 3,467 individuals. For aPTT, previously reported associations with KNG1, HRG, F11, F12, and ABO were confirmed. A second independent association in ABO was identified and replicated (rs8176704, p = 4.26 × 10(-24)). Pooling the ARIC and replication data yielded two additional loci in F5 (rs6028, p = 3.22 × 10(-9)) and AGBL1 (rs2469184, p = 3.61 × 10(-8)). For PT, significant associations were identified and confirmed in F7 (rs561241, p = 3.71 × 10(-56)) and PROCR/EDEM2 (rs2295888, p = 5.25 × 10(-13)). Assessment of existing gene expression and coronary artery disease (CAD) databases identified associations of five of the GWAS loci with altered gene expression and two with CAD. In summary, eight genetic loci that account for ∼29% of the variance in aPTT and two loci that account for ∼14% of the variance in PT were detected and supported by functional data.

  3. TTVFast: An Efficient and Accurate Code for Transit Timing Inversion Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Katherine M.; Agol, Eric; Holman, Matthew J.; Nesvorný, David

    2014-06-01

    Transit timing variations (TTVs) have proven to be a powerful technique for confirming Kepler planet candidates, for detecting non-transiting planets, and for constraining the masses and orbital elements of multi-planet systems. These TTV applications often require the numerical integration of orbits for computation of transit times (as well as impact parameters and durations); frequently tens of millions to billions of simulations are required when running statistical analyses of the planetary system properties. We have created a fast code for transit timing computation, TTVFast, which uses a symplectic integrator with a Keplerian interpolator for the calculation of transit times. The speed comes at the expense of accuracy in the calculated times, but the accuracy lost is largely unnecessary, as transit times do not need to be calculated to accuracies significantly smaller than the measurement uncertainties on the times. The time step can be tuned to give sufficient precision for any particular system. We find a speed-up of at least an order of magnitude relative to dynamical integrations with high precision using a Bulirsch-Stoer integrator.

  4. TTVFast: An efficient and accurate code for transit timing inversion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Deck, Katherine M.; Agol, Eric; Holman, Matthew J.; Nesvorný, David

    2014-06-01

    Transit timing variations (TTVs) have proven to be a powerful technique for confirming Kepler planet candidates, for detecting non-transiting planets, and for constraining the masses and orbital elements of multi-planet systems. These TTV applications often require the numerical integration of orbits for computation of transit times (as well as impact parameters and durations); frequently tens of millions to billions of simulations are required when running statistical analyses of the planetary system properties. We have created a fast code for transit timing computation, TTVFast, which uses a symplectic integrator with a Keplerian interpolator for the calculation of transit times. The speed comes at the expense of accuracy in the calculated times, but the accuracy lost is largely unnecessary, as transit times do not need to be calculated to accuracies significantly smaller than the measurement uncertainties on the times. The time step can be tuned to give sufficient precision for any particular system. We find a speed-up of at least an order of magnitude relative to dynamical integrations with high precision using a Bulirsch-Stoer integrator.

  5. Improved Pulse Transit Time Estimation by System Identification Analysis of Proximal and Distal Arterial Waveforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    e.g., elderly , hypertensives) is a must. Thorough reproducibility testing also remains to be performed. In addition, refinements to the specific...was supported by National Science Foundation CAREER Grant 0643477 and by the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center at the U.S. Army

  6. Methods for Detecting Early Warnings of Critical Transitions in Time Series Illustrated Using Simulated Ecological Data

    PubMed Central

    Dakos, Vasilis; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brock, William A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Guttal, Vishwesha; Ives, Anthony R.; Kéfi, Sonia; Livina, Valerie; Seekell, David A.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Many dynamical systems, including lakes, organisms, ocean circulation patterns, or financial markets, are now thought to have tipping points where critical transitions to a contrasting state can happen. Because critical transitions can occur unexpectedly and are difficult to manage, there is a need for methods that can be used to identify when a critical transition is approaching. Recent theory shows that we can identify the proximity of a system to a critical transition using a variety of so-called ‘early warning signals’, and successful empirical examples suggest a potential for practical applicability. However, while the range of proposed methods for predicting critical transitions is rapidly expanding, opinions on their practical use differ widely, and there is no comparative study that tests the limitations of the different methods to identify approaching critical transitions using time-series data. Here, we summarize a range of currently available early warning methods and apply them to two simulated time series that are typical of systems undergoing a critical transition. In addition to a methodological guide, our work offers a practical toolbox that may be used in a wide range of fields to help detect early warning signals of critical transitions in time series data. PMID:22815897

  7. FAST INVERSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLANETARY PARAMETERS FROM TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David; Beauge, Cristian

    2010-01-20

    The transit timing variation (TTV) method relies on monitoring changes in timing of transits of known exoplanets. Non-transiting planets in the system can be inferred from TTVs by their gravitational interaction with the transiting planet. The TTV method is sensitive to low-mass planets that cannot be detected by other means. Here we describe a fast algorithm that can be used to determine the mass and orbit of the non-transiting planets from the TTV data. We apply our code, ttvim.f, to a wide variety of planetary systems to test the uniqueness of the TTV inversion problem and its dependence on the precision of TTV observations. We find that planetary parameters, including the mass and mutual orbital inclination of planets, can be determined from the TTV data sets that should become available in near future. Unlike the radial velocity technique, the TTV method can therefore be used to characterize the inclination distribution of multi-planet systems.

  8. Daytime sleepiness during transition into daylight saving time in adolescents: Are owls higher at risk?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Anne-Marie; Randler, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    Individuals differ in their biological rhythms and preferences for time of day. Here, we looked at the transition into daylight saving time (DST) in adolescents. As adolescents tend to be evening types, one may expect that they suffer from a transition into DST. To assess these changes, we measured daytime sleepiness and morningness-eveningness preference (CSM score) in adolescents. Daytime sleepiness correlated with age and CSM score. Older pupils and evening types showed a higher sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness was higher after the transition until the third week after. Older pupils and pupils scoring higher on eveningness reported higher daytime sleepiness after the transition, suggesting that these pupils suffer most from the change. Using cut-off scores for larks and owls, we found that owls showed higher sleepiness than larks. As one consequence, class and school performance tests should not take place in the first week(s) after the transition into DST.

  9. Effect of leisure-time physical activity on the prognosis of coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Nery, Rosane Maria; Barbisan, Juarez Neuhaus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in the early outcome of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). This prospective cohort study analyzed 202 patients submitted to CABG. The patients were assigned to two groups, active or sedentary, according to the practice of LTPA in the preoperative period. The independent variable LTPA practiced by the patients in the previous year of the surgery was evaluated. The occurrence of the major adverse cardiac events as death, acute myocardial infarction, reoperation and the hospital stay after surgery were planned to be evaluated. The mean age of patients was 62 +/- 10 years, and 134 (66%) were men. Sixty-six (33%) patients practiced LTPA and were classified as active, and 136 (67%) were sedentary. The active group showed 78% less probability (OR= 0.22; CI 95%: 0.09-0.51) to suffer a MACE P<0.001 and a reduction of 33% in length of hospital stay as compared for sedentary patients (HR= 0.67; IC 95%: 0.49 - 0.93). P= 0.018. LTPA is an important predictor of major adverse cardiac events and hospital stay.

  10. Restrictive hemodynamics are present at the time of diagnosis of allograft coronary artery disease in children.

    PubMed

    Law, Yuk; Boyle, Gerard; Miller, Susan; Clendaniel, James; Ettedgui, Jose; Beerman, Lee; Counihan, Peter; Webber, Steven

    2006-12-01

    Clinical recognition of allograft coronary artery disease (ACAD) is challenging. We examined whether right heart hemodynamics can aid its diagnosis in pediatric recipients. We retrospective analyzed hemodynamic data of recipients with ACAD versus age and date-of-transplant matched controls. From 1982-2001, 18 cases fulfilled study entry criteria. Median age at transplant was 12 years for subjects and 8 years for controls. Median time to diagnosis of ACAD was 65 months (14.5-124 months) and 67 months (16-140 months) to arteriography for controls. The median right ventricular end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP) at diagnosis was 11.0 vs. 6.0 mmHg for controls (p = 0.003). Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) at diagnosis was 14.0 vs. 8.0 mmHg for controls (p = 0.001). When subdivided by severity of ACAD, the difference was greater in the moderate/severe group. Compared to the previous catheterization (median interval 10 months for subjects, 12.0 for controls ), there was an increase of 4.0 mmHg in RVEDP in ACAD subjects (n = 13, p = .003) versus 0 mmHg in controls (p = 0.042), and an increase in PCWP of 5.5 in subjects (p = .002) versus 0 mmHg in controls (p = 0.066). The presence of elevated filling pressures plus an interim increase should alert to the presence of ACAD and help guide further investigation.

  11. Control analysis of transit time for free and enzyme-bound metabolites: physiological and evolutionary significance of metabolic response times.

    PubMed Central

    Cascante, M; Meléndez-Hevia, E; Kholodenko, B; Sicilia, J; Kacser, H

    1995-01-01

    Control analysis of transit time, defined as tau = delta/J, has previously been considered with the constraint of low enzyme concentrations compared with free pools of metabolites [Meléndez-Hevia, Torres, Sicilia and Kacser (1990) Biochem. J. 265, 195-202]. One of the conclusions was that the sum of the control coefficients of the transition time with respect to enzyme concentration was -1. Here we demonstrate that, if the enzyme-bound pools are taken into consideration (which would be important at high enzyme concentrations and high affinities), the sum lies between 0 and -1. The transition time between two steady states, which are frequent physiological events, is mainly governed by time constants involved in changing the enzyme concentrations. Some physiological and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:8948448

  12. Time course of arterial hyperintensity with fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery imaging in acute and subacute middle cerebral arterial infarction.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Koshimoto, Y; Uematsu, H; Yamada, H; Kimura, H; Kawamura, Y; Itoh, H; Sakuma, H; Takeda, K

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of arterial hyperintensity (AH) in acute and subacute cerebral infarctions of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution by using fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) imaging. A total of 40 FLAIR MR examinations were performed in 27 patients with MCA infarction within 13 days after ictus. Thirteen patients underwent two MR examinations during this period. Thrombotic or embolic infarctions were included in this study, but lacunar infarctions were excluded. The presence or absence of AH and the location of AH were analyzed. Overall, AH was found in 24 (60%) of 40 FLAIR examinations within 13 days after onset. AH was seen in 17 (100%) examinations less than 24 hours old, four (40%) of 10 examinations 1-4 days old, two (18%) of 11 examinations 5-9 days old, and one (50%) of two examinations 10-13 days old. AH was most frequently found at the sylvian fissure (87%), followed by the sulci (54%), and the horizontal segment of MCA (29%) in the affected MCA distribution. Although AH could be seen even at 13 days after ictus, the presence of AH declined over time. AH represented an early sign of acute embolic or thrombotic infarction. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:987-990. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Studies in Transition and Time Varying Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, Chester E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on two areas: (a) the dynamics of forced turbulent flows and (b) time filtered Large Eddy Simulations (TLES). The dynamics of turbulent flows arising from external forcing of the turbulence are poorly understood. In particular, here are many unanswered questions relating the basic dynamical balances and the existence or nonexistence of statistical equilibrium of forced turbulent flows. The research used direct numerical simulations to explore these questions. The properties of the temporally filtered Navier-Stokes equations were also studied.

  14. Scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time: Comparison with the hydrogen breath technique

    SciTech Connect

    Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; Buddoura, W.; Winchenbach, K.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-04-01

    The hydrogen breath test was used as a standard against which a scintigraphic method for determination of small intestinal transit time was evaluated and compared. A total of 19 male volunteers ranging in age from 23 to 28 yr participated in the study. The subjects ingested an isosmotic lactulose solution containing /sup 99m/technetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Sn) and then remained supine under a large field of view gamma-camera that interfaced with a computer system. Data were visually analyzed and then quantified to determine gastric emptying and small intestinal transit time. The small intestinal transit time ranged from 31 to 139 min with the scintigraphic method and 30 to 190 min with the hydrogen breath test (r . 0.77). The mean small intestinal transit time for 20 individual determinations with the scintigraphic method, 73.0 +/- 6.5 min (mean +/- SEM), was similar to the results from the hydrogen breath test technique, 75.1 +/- 8.3 min. Thirteen volunteers underwent two studies with the scintigraphic method separated by intervals ranging from 2 days to 8 wk. Individual variations in small intestinal transit time were significantly correlated with individual variations in gastric emptying (p less than 0.05). We conclude that the scintigraphic method allows accurate determination of gastrocecal time and is a noninvasive technique which may be a useful clinical test for small intestinal transit time as well as for providing information on the pathophysiology and pharmacology of intestinal motility.

  15. Route selection for double-balloon endoscopy, based on capsule transit time, in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masanao; Ohmiya, Naoki; Shirai, Osamu; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Kenji; Miyahara, Ryoji; Ando, Takafumi; Watanabe, Osamu; Kawashima, Hiroki; Itoh, Akihiro; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi

    2010-06-01

    Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) utilizes both oral and anal routes. The proper selection of the initial route is important for more rapid management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). The aim of this retrospective study was to clarify the accuracy of the transit time of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to the lesion as a predictive indicator for the decision on the initial DBE route. Of 172 patients who underwent both DBE and VCE, 65 who were diagnosed with small-intestinal hemorrhagic lesions by both means were enrolled. The relation between VCE transit time to the lesion and the DBE route by which the lesion was discovered was analyzed, distinguishing between 46 complete and 19 incomplete VCEs. Among the 46 patients with a complete VCE, the transit time and position of the lesion were strongly correlated. The best cutoff values for route selection by the VCE transit time from capsule intake and from the duodenal bulb to the lesion, determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, were 60% and 50%, respectively, of the transit time to the cecum. At that point, the accuracy of route selection was 90% and 94%, respectively. Positions shown by VCE for ileal lesions tended to be more proximal than those shown by surgery. In the 19 patients with incomplete VCEs, the best cutoff for transit time was 180 min from the duodenal bulb. The VCE transit time was useful for determining the route for DBE in OGIB. This parameter was most accurate when the cutoff value for the selection was half of the small-bowel transit time in the complete VCE examination.

  16. Using Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy to Characterize the Glass Transition Time of Polydextrose.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Martin G; Kindle, Michael L; Carter, Brady P

    2015-06-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy was used to characterize the glass transition time, tg , of polydextrose, where the glass transition temperature, Tg , and water activity, aw (relative humidity), were held constant during polydextrose relaxation. The tg was determined from a shift in the peak frequency of the imaginary capacitance spectrum with time. It was found that when the peak frequency reaches 30 mHz, polydextrose undergoes glass transition. Glass transition time, tg , is the time for polydextrose to undergo glass transition at a specific Tg and aw . Results lead to a modified state diagram, where Tg is depressed with increasing aw . This curve forms a boundary: (a) below the boundary, polydextrose does not undergo glass transition and (b) above the boundary, polydextrose rapidly undergoes glass transition. As the boundary curve is specified by a tg value, it can assist in the selection of storage conditions. An important point on the boundary curve is at aw = 0, where Tg0 = 115 °C. The methodology can also be used to calculate the stress-relaxation viscosity of polydextrose as a function of Tg and aw , which is important when characterizing the flow properties of polydextrose initially in powder form.

  17. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: VII. Potentially interesting candidate systems from Fourier-based statistical tests

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Holman, Matthew J.; Welsh, William F.; Borucki, William J.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Bryson, Steve; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Ciardi, David R.; /Caltech /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through Quarter six (Q6) of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 4 Kepler systems transit timing observations (Steffen+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, J. H.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Ford, E. B.; Carter, J. A.; Desert, J.-M.; Fressin, F.; Holman, M. J.; Lissauer, J. J.; Moorhead, A. V.; Rowe, J. F.; Ragozzine, D.; Welsh, W. F.; Batalha, N. M.; Borucki, W. J.; Buchhave, L. A.; Bryson, S.; Caldwell, D. A.; Charbonneau, D.; Ciardi, D. R.; Cochran, W. D.; Endl, M.; Everett, M. E.; Gautier, T. N., III; Gilliland, R. L.; Girouard, F. R.; Jenkins, J. M.; Horch, E.; Howell, S. B.; Isaacson, H.; Klaus, T. C.; Koch, D. G.; Latham, D. W.; Li, J.; Lucas, P.; MacQueen, P. J.; Marcy, G. W.; McCauliff, S.; Middour, C. K.; Morris, R. L.; Mullally, F. R.; Quinn, S. N.; Quintana, E. V.; Shporer, A.; Still, M.; Tenenbaum, P.; Thompson, S. E.; Twicken, J. D.; van Cleve, J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a method to confirm the planetary nature of objects in systems with multiple transiting exoplanet candidates. This method involves a Fourier-domain analysis of the deviations in the transit times from a constant period that result from dynamical interactions within the system. The combination of observed anticorrelations in the transit times and mass constraints from dynamical stability allow us to claim the discovery of four planetary systems, Kepler-25, Kepler-26, Kepler-27 and Kepler-28, containing eight planets and one additional planet candidate. (4 data files).

  19. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. VI. POTENTIALLY INTERESTING CANDIDATE SYSTEMS FROM FOURIER-BASED STATISTICAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David G.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Seader, Shawn; Twicken, Joseph D.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Welsh, William F.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Ciardi, David R.; Prsa, Andrej

    2012-09-10

    We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through quarter six of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies.

  20. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend; Kjeldsen, Jens; Gerke, Oke; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3–77) and 62% (17–98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful. PMID:26854162

  1. Effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on mouth to caecum transit time in humans.

    PubMed

    Ladas, S D; Frydas, A; Papadopoulos, A; Raptis, S A

    1992-09-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol have been successfully used to control postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetics. They probably work by slowing carbohydrate digestion and absorption, but their effect on mouth to caecum transit time has not been studied. The effect acarbose (100 mg), miglitol (100 mg), and placebo on mouth to caecum transit time (380 kcal breakfast with 20 g of lactulose) was investigated in 18 normal volunteers using breath hydrogen analysis. Both miglitol and acarbose significantly increased breath hydrogen excretion (F2,34 = 6.31, p = 0.005) and shortened the mouth to caecum transit time (F2,34 = 3.49, p = 0.04) after breakfast compared with placebo. There was a significant negative correlation between breath hydrogen excretion and mouth to caecum transit time suggesting that with shorter transit times significantly more carbohydrates were spilled into the colon. These results indicate that alpha-glucosidase inhibitors accelerate mouth to caecum transit time by inducing carbohydrate malabsorption.

  2. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend; Kjeldsen, Jens; Gerke, Oke; Qvist, Niels

    2015-10-10

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105-365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3-77) and 62% (17-98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100-360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4-25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  3. Transition path times reveal memory effects and anomalous diffusion in the dynamics of protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satija, Rohit; Das, Atanu; Makarov, Dmitrii E.

    2017-10-01

    Recent single-molecule experiments probed transition paths of biomolecular folding and, in particular, measured the time biomolecules spend while crossing their free energy barriers. A surprising finding from these studies is that the transition barriers crossed by transition paths, as inferred from experimentally observed transition path times, are often lower than the independently determined free energy barriers. Here we explore memory effects leading to anomalous diffusion as a possible origin of this discrepancy. Our analysis of several molecular dynamics trajectories shows that the dynamics of common reaction coordinates used to describe protein folding is subdiffusive, at least at sufficiently short times. We capture this effect using a one-dimensional fractional Brownian motion (FBM) model, in which the system undergoes a subdiffusive process in the presence of a potential of mean force, and show that this model yields much broader distributions of transition path times with stretched exponential long-time tails. Without any adjustable parameters, these distributions agree well with the transition path times computed directly from protein trajectories. We further discuss how the FBM model can be tested experimentally.

  4. Acceleration time-to-ejection time ratio in fetal pulmonary artery predicts the development of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Min; Park, Joong Shin; Norwitz, Errol R; Hwang, Eun Ju; Kang, Hye Sim; Park, Chan-Wook; Jun, Jong Kwan

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates whether fetal pulmonary artery Doppler waveforms can predict the subsequent development of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). A prospective cohort study was performed in women with impending preterm birth. Pulsatility index, resistance index, systolic-to-diastolic ratio, peak systolic velocity, and acceleration time-to-ejection time (At/Et) ratio were measured in the main pulmonary artery of fetus just before delivery. Neonates who developed RDS (n = 11) had significantly lower gestational age at birth than those without RDS (n = 31; median: 28.7 [range: 24.7 to 34.9] versus 32.9 [range: 25.7 to 36.0] weeks; p = 0.003); there was no difference in antenatal corticosteroid administration. Pulmonary artery At/Et ratio was significantly higher in fetuses that developed RDS compared with those that did not (median: 0.37 [range: 0.26 to 0.41] versus median: 0.30 [range: 0.21 to 0.44]; p = 0.008). RDS prediction score (=a hundredfold At/Et ratio) is significantly associated with the subsequent development of RDS after controlling for gestational age by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.63, p = 0.017). An elevated At/Et ratio in the fetal pulmonary artery is independently associated with the development of RDS in preterm infants. These data suggest that fetal pulmonary artery Doppler velocimetry may provide a reliable noninvasive technique to evaluate fetal lung maturity, similar to the way in which middle cerebral artery Doppler has replaced amniocentesis for the assessment of fetal anemia. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Selda; Uslu, Fazil E.; Kowalski, William J.; Ermek, Erhan; Keller, Bradley B.

    2016-01-01

    The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD) and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for 3 consecutive early embryonic stages in the chick embryo. In conjunction with the in vivo growth and hemodynamics data, in vitro reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed to track changes in transcript expression relevant to histogenesis and remodeling of the embryonic arterial wall. Our non-invasive extended OCT imaging technique for the microstructural data showed continuous vessel growth. OCT data coupled with the PIV technique revealed significant but intermitted increases in wall shear stress (WSS) between first and second assigned stages and a noticeable decrease afterwards. Growth rate, however, did not vary significantly throughout the embryonic period. Among all the genes studied, only the MMP-2 and CASP-3 expression levels remained unchanged during the time course. Concurrent relationships were obtained among the transcriptional modulation of the genes, vascular growth and hemodynamics-related changes. Further studies are indicated to determine cause and effect relationships and reversibility between mechanical and molecular regulation of vasculogenesis. PMID:27552150

  6. Proof of Concept: Design and Initial Evaluation of a Device to Measure Gastrointestinal Transit Time.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert H; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Halama, James R; Venu, Mukund; Gabriel, Medhat S; Bova, Davide

    2017-09-01

    Chronic constipation and gastrointestinal motility disorders constitute a large part of a gastroenterology practice and have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life and lifestyle. In most cases, medications are prescribed to alleviate symptoms without there being an objective measurement of response. Commonly used investigations of gastrointestinal transit times are currently limited to radiopaque markers or electronic capsules. Repeated use of these techniques is limited because of the radiation exposure and the significant cost of the devices. We present the proof of concept for a new device to measure gastrointestinal transit time using commonly available and inexpensive materials with only a small amount of radiotracer. Methods: We assembled gelatin capsules containing a (67)Ga-citrate-radiolabeled grain of rice embedded in paraffin for use as a point-source transit device. It was tested for stability in vitro and subsequently was given orally to 4 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with constipation or diarrhea. Imaging was performed at regular intervals until the device was excreted. Results: The device remained intact and visible as a point source in all subjects until excretion. When used along with a diary of bowel movement times and dates, the device could determine the total transit time. The device could be visualized either alone or in combination with a barium small-bowel follow-through study or a gastric emptying study. Conclusion: The use of a point-source transit device for the determination of gastrointestinal transit time is a feasible alternative to other methods. The device is inexpensive and easy to assemble, requires only a small amount of radiotracer, and remains inert throughout the gastrointestinal tract, allowing for accurate determination of gastrointestinal transit time. Further investigation of the device is required to establish optimum imaging parameters and reference values. Measurements of gastrointestinal transit time

  7. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition…

  8. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. I. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Li Jie; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Koch, David G.; Steffen, Jason H.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; McCauliff, Sean

    2011-11-01

    The architectures of multiple planet systems can provide valuable constraints on models of planet formation, including orbital migration, and excitation of orbital eccentricities and inclinations. NASA's Kepler mission has identified 1235 transiting planet candidates. The method of transit timing variations (TTVs) has already confirmed seven planets in two planetary systems. We perform a transit timing analysis of the Kepler planet candidates. We find that at least {approx}11% of planet candidates currently suitable for TTV analysis show evidence suggestive of TTVs, representing at least {approx}65 TTV candidates. In all cases, the time span of observations must increase for TTVs to provide strong constraints on planet masses and/or orbits, as expected based on N-body integrations of multiple transiting planet candidate systems (assuming circular and coplanar orbits). We find the fraction of planet candidates showing TTVs in this data set does not vary significantly with the number of transiting planet candidates per star, suggesting significant mutual inclinations and that many stars with a single transiting planet should host additional non-transiting planets. We anticipate that Kepler could confirm (or reject) at least {approx}12 systems with multiple transiting planet candidates via TTVs. Thus, TTVs will provide a powerful tool for confirming transiting planets and characterizing the orbital dynamics of low-mass planets. If Kepler observations were extended to at least seven years, then TTVs would provide much more precise constraints on the dynamics of systems with multiple transiting planets and would become sensitive to planets with orbital periods extending into the habitable zone of solar-type stars.

  9. Transiting Exoplanet Monitoring Project (TEMP). II. Refined System Parameters and Transit Timing Analysis of HAT-P-33b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Hao; Wang, Songhu; Liu, Hui-Gen; Hinse, Tobias C.; Laughlin, Gregory; Wu, Dong-Hong; Zhang, Xiaojia; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Eastman, Jason; Zhang, Hui; Hori, Yasunori; Narita, Norio; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ma, Jun; Peng, Xiyan; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Zou, Hu; Nie, Jun-Dan; Zhou, Zhi-Min

    2017-08-01

    We present 10 R-band photometric observations of eight different transits of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-33b, which has been targeted by our Transiting Exoplanet Monitoring Project. The data were obtained by two telescopes at the Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) from 2013 December through 2016 January, and exhibit photometric scatter of 1.6{--}3.0 {mmag}. After jointly analyzing the previously published photometric data, radial-velocity (RV) measurements, and our new light curves, we revisit the system parameters and orbital ephemeris for the HAT-P-33b system. Our results are consistent with the published values except for the planet to star radius ratio ({R}{{P}}/{R}* ), the ingress/egress duration (τ) and the total duration (T 14), which together indicate a slightly shallower and shorter transit shape. Our results are based on more complete light curves, whereas the previously published work had only one complete transit light curve. No significant anomalies in Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) are found, and we place upper mass limits on potential perturbers, largely supplanting the loose constraints provided by the extant RV data. The TTV limits are stronger near mean-motion resonances, especially for the low-order commensurabilities. We can exclude the existence of a perturber with mass larger than 0.6, 0.3, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.3 {M}\\oplus near the 1:3, 1:2, 2:3, 3:2, and 2:1 resonances, respectively.

  10. Comparing Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy Combined With Intravesical Chemotherapy Versus Intravesical Chemotherapy Alone: A Randomised Prospective Pilot Study for T1G3 Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma After Bladder-Preserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junxing Yao, Zhijun Qiu, Shaopeng Chen, Lingwu; Wang, Yu Yang, Jianyong Li, Jiaping

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) followed by bladder-preserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with T1G3 BTCC were randomly divided into two groups. After bladder-preserving surgery, 29 patients (age 30-80 years, 24 male and 5 female) received intra-arterial chemotherapy in combination with intravesical chemotherapy (group A), whereas 31 patients (age 29-83 years, 26 male and 5 female) were treated with intravesical chemotherapy alone (group B). Twenty-nine patients were treated with intra-arterial epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) + cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy 2-3 weeks after bladder-preserving surgery once every 4-6 weeks. All of the patients received the same intravesical chemotherapy: An immediate prophylactic was administered in the first 6 h. After that, therapy was administered one time per week for 8 weeks and then one time per month for 8 months. The instillation drug was epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) and lasted for 30-40 min each time. The end points were tumour recurrence (stage Ta, T1), tumour progression (to T2 or greater), and disease-specific survival. During median follow-up of 22 months, the overall survival rate, tumour-specific death rate, recurrence rate, progression rate, time to first recurrence, and adverse reactions were compared between groups. Results: The recurrence rates were 10.3 % (3 of 29) in group A and 45.2 % (14 of 31) in group B, and the progression rates were 0 % (0 of 29) in group A and 22.6 % (7 of 31) in group B. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding recurrence (p = 0.004) and progression rates (p = 0.011). Median times to first recurrence in the two groups were 15 and 6.5 months, respectively. The overall survival rates were 96.6 and 87.1 %, and the tumour-specific death rates were 0 % (0 of 29) and 13.5 % (4 of 31

  11. Effects of cardiac timing and peripheral resistance on measurement of pulse wave velocity for assessment of arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hanguang; Butlin, Mark; Tan, Isabella; Avolio, Alberto

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the effects of heart rate (HR), left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and wave reflection on arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), a pulse wave propagation simulation system (PWPSim) based on the transmission line model of the arterial tree was developed and was applied to investigate pulse wave propagation. HR, LVET, arterial elastic modulus and peripheral resistance were increased from 60 to 100 beats per minute (bpm), 0.1 to 0.45 seconds, 0.5 to 1.5 times and 0.5 to 1.5 times of the normal value, respectively. Carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) were calculated by intersecting tangent method (cfPWVtan and baPWVtan), maximum slope (cfPWVmax and baPWVmax), and using the Moens-Korteweg equation ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Results showed cfPWV and baPWV increased significantly with arterial elastic modulus but did not increase with HR when using a constant elastic modulus. However there were significant LVET dependencies of cfPWVtan and baPWVtan (0.17 ± 0.13 and 0.17 ± 0.08 m/s per 50 ms), and low peripheral resistance dependencies of cfPWVtan, cfPWVmax, baPWVtan and baPWVmax (0.04 ± 0.01, 0.06 ± 0.04, 0.06 ± 0.03 and 0.09 ± 0.07 m/s per 10% peripheral resistance), respectively. This study demonstrated that LVET dominates the effect on calculated PWV compared to HR and peripheral resistance when arterial elastic modulus is constant.

  12. The effect of conjunctions on the transit timing variations of exoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David E-mail: vokrouhl@cesnet.cz

    2014-07-20

    We develop an analytic model for transit timing variations produced by orbital conjunctions between gravitationally interacting planets. If the planetary orbits have tight orbital spacing, which is a common case among the Kepler planets, the effect of a single conjunction can be best described as: (1) a step-like change of the transit timing ephemeris with subsequent transits of the inner planet being delayed and those of the outer planet being sped up, and (2) a discrete change in sampling of the underlying oscillations from eccentricity-related interaction terms. In the limit of small orbital eccentricities, our analytic model gives explicit equations for these effects as a function of the mass and orbital separation of planets. We point out that a detection of the conjunction effect in real data is of crucial importance for the physical characterization of planetary systems from transit timing variations.

  13. Landau level transitions in doped graphene in a time dependent magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardenghi, J. S.; Bechthold, P.; Jasen, P.; Gonzalez, E.; Nagel, O.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the Landau level transitions of Bloch electrons in doped graphene with an arbitrary time dependent magnetic field in the long wavelength approximation. In particular, transitions from the m Landau level to the m±1 and m±2 Landau levels are studied using the time dependent perturbation theory. Time intervals are computed in which transition probabilities tend to zero at a low order in the coupling constant. In particular, Landau level transitions are studied in the case of Bloch electrons traveling in the direction of the applied magnetic force and the results are compared with classical and revival periods of electrical current in graphene. Finally, current probabilities are computed for the n=0 and n=1 Landau levels showing expected oscillating behavior with modified cyclotron frequency.

  14. A time-dependent order parameter for ultrafast photoinduced phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Beaud, P; Caviezel, A; Mariager, S O; Rettig, L; Ingold, G; Dornes, C; Huang, S-W; Johnson, J A; Radovic, M; Huber, T; Kubacka, T; Ferrer, A; Lemke, H T; Chollet, M; Zhu, D; Glownia, J M; Sikorski, M; Robert, A; Wadati, H; Nakamura, M; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y; Johnson, S L; Staub, U

    2014-10-01

    Strongly correlated electron systems often exhibit very strong interactions between structural and electronic degrees of freedom that lead to complex and interesting phase diagrams. For technological applications of these materials it is important to learn how to drive transitions from one phase to another. A key question here is the ultimate speed of such phase transitions, and to understand how a phase transition evolves in the time domain. Here we apply time-resolved X-ray diffraction to directly measure the changes in long-range order during ultrafast melting of the charge and orbitally ordered phase in a perovskite manganite. We find that although the actual change in crystal symmetry associated with this transition occurs over different timescales characteristic of the many electronic and vibrational coordinates of the system, the dynamics of the phase transformation can be well described using a single time-dependent 'order parameter' that depends exclusively on the electronic excitation.

  15. An international multicenter comparison of time-SLIP unenhanced MR angiography and contrast-enhanced CT angiography for assessing renal artery stenosis: the renal artery contrast-free trial.

    PubMed

    Albert, Timothy S E; Akahane, Masaaki; Parienty, Isabelle; Yellin, Nancy; Catalá, Violeta; Alomar, Xavier; Prot, Antoine; Tomizawa, Nobuo; Xue, Huadan; Katabathina, Venkata S; Lopera, Jorge E; Jin, Zhengyu

    2015-01-01

    The unenhanced MR angiography (MRA) technique time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) may provide a safe alternative for evaluating the renal arteries for stenosis. This international multicenter trial tested the hypothesis that time-SLIP unenhanced MRA is accurate and robust for assessing the renal arteries for stenosis in comparison with contrast-enhanced CT angiography (CTA). Four centers (United States, Europe, Asia) enrolled 75 patients (average age ± SD, 58 ± 13 years; 41 [55%] men and 34 [45%] women). Each patient underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced CTA and abdominal unenhanced MRA using time-SLIP with balanced steady-state free precession. All images were visually assessed for quality (arterial signal intensity) and for the absence or presence of renal artery stenosis (≤ 50% or > 50% stenosis, respectively). In addition, for arteries with any visible disease, the severity of the stenosis was quantified. Two blinded readers evaluated each study. No arteries were excluded from analysis. Unenhanced MRA image quality was excellent for 56 of 75 patients (75%) and good for 16 of 75 patients (21%). CTA was used as the reference standard and showed that 23 of 161 renal arteries (14.3%) had stenosis > 50%. Unenhanced MRA correctly classified 17 of the 23 renal arteries with > 50% stenosis and correctly classified 128 of the 138 renal arteries as not having disease (≤ 50% stenosis) to yield a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 93%, and accuracy of 90% (χ(2) = 0.56; p = 0.45, no statistically significant difference). Of the 16 misclassified arteries, only three had a clinically relevant misclassification (CTA ≥ 70% stenosis and unenhanced MRA ≤ 50% stenosis or unenhanced MRA ≥ 70% stenosis and CTA ≤ 50% stenosis). On average, measured stenotic severity (n = 28 arteries) was similar for unenhanced MRA (64% ± 17%) and CTA (62% ± 16%) (p = 0.51). Compared with contrast-enhanced CTA, the unenhanced MRA technique time-SLIP shows promise for

  16. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Subtypes. Transitions over Time

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Cristóbal; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Aburto, Myriam; Moraza, Javier; Quintana, José M.; García-Loizaga, Amaia; Basualdo, Luis V.; Aramburu, Amaia; Aizpiri, Susana; Uranga, Ane; Capelastegui, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Although subtypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are recognized, it is unknown what happens to these subtypes over time. Our objectives were to assess the stability of cluster-based subtypes in patients with stable disease and explore changes in clusters over 1 year. Methods Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were used to evaluate data collected from 543 stable patients included consecutively from 5 respiratory outpatient clinics. Results Four subtypes were identified. Three of them, A, B, and C, had marked respiratory profiles with a continuum in severity of several variables, while the fourth, subtype D, had a more systemic profile with intermediate respiratory disease severity. Subtype A was associated with less dyspnea, better health-related quality of life and lower Charlson comorbidity scores, and subtype C with the most severe dyspnea, and poorer pulmonary function and quality of life, while subtype B was between subtypes A and C. Subtype D had higher rates of hospitalization the previous year, and comorbidities. After 1 year, all clusters remained stable. Generally, patients continued in the same subtype but 28% migrated to another cluster. Together with movement across clusters, patients showed changes in certain characteristics (especially exercise capacity, some variables of pulmonary function and physical activity) and changes in outcomes (quality of life, hospitalization and mortality) depending on the new cluster they belonged to. Conclusions Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clusters remained stable over 1 year. Most patients stayed in their initial subtype cluster, but some moved to another subtype and accordingly had different outcomes. PMID:27611911

  17. Timing of the maturation transition in haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus.

    PubMed

    Tobin, D; Wright, P J; O'Sullivan, M

    2010-10-01

    The timing of maturation in haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus was examined using changes in gonad development, follicle stimulating hormone β (FSH-β) transcript expression profile, growth and condition of 1 year old females held under a common environment between the summer and winter solstices. The circumnuclear ring, cortical alveolus and vitellogenic oocyte stages were first observed in August, October and November, respectively. FSH-β transcript levels did not change significantly until September but increased markedly thereafter in maturing fish. A combined analysis of the mean oocyte diameter of the leading cohort, histological staging and FSH-β transcript profile provided evidence of a commitment to maturation by October or November. Contrary to that previously proposed for gadoid species, histological analysis of field-caught immature M. aeglefinus during the spawning season indicated that cortical alveolar, rather than circumnuclear ring, stage oocytes provided definitive evidence of maturation. A decrease in relative liver size following the summer solstice suggested a possible link between energy status and maturation.

  18. THE IMPACT OF CIRCUMPLANTARY JETS ON TRANSIT SPECTRA AND TIMING OFFSETS FOR HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Agol, Eric; Burrows, Adam

    2012-06-01

    We present theoretical wavelength-dependent transit light curves for the giant planet HD 209458b based on a number of state-of-the-art three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamical models. By varying the kinematic viscosity in the model, we calculate observable signatures associated with the emergence of a super-rotating circumplanetary jet that strengthens with decreased viscosity. We obtain excellent agreement between our mid-transit transit spectra and existing data from Hubble and Spitzer, finding the best fit for intermediate values of viscosity. We further exploit dynamically driven differences between eastern and western hemispheres to extract the spectral signal imparted by a circumplanetary jet. We predict that (1) the transit depth should decrease as the jet becomes stronger; (2) the measured transit times should show timing offsets of up to 6 s at wavelengths with higher opacity, which increases with jet strength; (3) wavelength-dependent differences between ingress and egress spectra increase with jet strength; and (4) the color-dependent transit shape should exhibit stronger asymmetry for planets with stronger jets. These techniques and trends should be valid for other hot Jupiters as well. Observations of transit timing offsets may be accessible with current instrumentation, though the other predictions may require the capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope and other future missions. Hydrodynamical models utilized solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations together with decoupled thermal and radiative energy equations and wavelength-dependent stellar heating.

  19. Transit Timing Variations as a Tool for the Bayesian Characterization of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Eric B.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Dawson, Rebekah; Fabrycky, Daniel; Mills, Sean; Ragozzine, Darin; Rogers, Leslie Anne; Shabram, Megan

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Kepler mission has revolutionized time-domain photometry with its photometric precision, high duty cycle, and long observing baseline. In addition to discovering thousands of planet candidates that pass in front of their host star, Kepler's has enabled the precise measurement of transit timing variations (TTV), deviations of transit times from a Keplerian ephemeris due to gravitational interactions among planets (or more massive bodies in the same planetary system). For dozens of planets, TTVs enable the precise characterization of planet masses and orbits, including many planets for which characterization via Doppler observations is impractical.For example, TTVs have: 1) characterized of masses of planets in systems with 2-6 transiting exoplanets, 2) measured densities for low-mass, low-density mass planets that orbit stars with periods of ~50-200 days, and provided precise measurements of orbital eccentricities even in the challenging regime of e<0.1. In addition to characterizing properties of individual planets, analysing the transit times for populations of transiting planets (including those for which no deviations from Keplerian orbits are detected) enable the characterization of the exoplanet distribution function.In both cases, attention to details of the statistical model and computational methods are essential for drawing robust conclusions. I will present selected TTV success stories, describing how these studies dealt with various statistical and computational challenges. Finally, I will describe opportunities for further improvements in the statistical analyses of transit timing variations and the potential science return.

  20. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Haukka, Jari; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Background Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of transitions into and out of daylight saving time on the incidence of accidents and manic episodes in the Finnish population during the years of 1987 to 2003. Methods The nationwide data were derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. From the register we obtained the information about the hospital-treated accidents and manic episodes during two weeks before and two weeks after the transitions in 1987–2003. Results The results were negative, as the transitions into or out of daylight saving time had no significant effect on the incidence of accidents or manic episodes. Conclusion One-hour transitions do not increase the incidence of manic episodes or accidents which require hospital treatment. PMID:18302734

  1. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Haukka, Jari; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-02-26

    Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of transitions into and out of daylight saving time on the incidence of accidents and manic episodes in the Finnish population during the years of 1987 to 2003. The nationwide data were derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. From the register we obtained the information about the hospital-treated accidents and manic episodes during two weeks before and two weeks after the transitions in 1987-2003. The results were negative, as the transitions into or out of daylight saving time had no significant effect on the incidence of accidents or manic episodes. One-hour transitions do not increase the incidence of manic episodes or accidents which require hospital treatment.

  2. Exploring business process modelling paradigms and design-time to run-time transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Filip; Vanthienen, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The business process management literature describes a multitude of approaches (e.g. imperative, declarative or event-driven) that each result in a different mix of process flexibility, compliance, effectiveness and efficiency. Although the use of a single approach over the process lifecycle is often assumed, transitions between approaches at different phases in the process lifecycle may also be considered. This article explores several business process strategies by analysing the approaches at different phases in the process lifecycle as well as the various transitions.

  3. Transit times and age distributions for reservoir models represented as nonlinear non-autonomuous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Markus; Meztler, Holger; Glatt, Anna; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We present theoretical methods to compute dynamic residence and transit time distributions for non-autonomous systems of pools governed by coupled nonlinear differential equations. Although transit time and age distributions have been used to describe reservoir models for a long time, a closer look to their assumptions reveals two major restrictions of generality in previous studies. First, the systems are assumed to be in equilibrium; and second, the equations under consideration are assumed to be linear. While both these assumptions greatly ease the computation and interpretation of transit time and age distributions they are not applicable to a wide range of problems. Moreover, the transfer of previous results learned from linear systems in steady state to the more complex nonlinear non-autonomous systems that do not even need to have equilibria, can be dangerously misleading. Fortunately the topic of time dependent age and transit time distributions has received some attention recently in hydrology, we aim to compute these distributions for systems of multiple reservoirs. We will discuss how storage selection functions can augment the information represented in an ODE system describing a system of reservoirs. We will present analytical and numerical algorithms and a Monte Carlo simulator to compute solutions for system transit time and age distributions for system-wide storage selection functions including the most simple, but important case of well mixed pools.

  4. Finite-time quantum-to-classical transition for a Schroedinger-cat state

    SciTech Connect

    Paavola, Janika; Hall, Michael J. W.; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2011-07-15

    The transition from quantum to classical, in the case of a quantum harmonic oscillator, is typically identified with the transition from a quantum superposition of macroscopically distinguishable states, such as the Schroedinger-cat state, into the corresponding statistical mixture. This transition is commonly characterized by the asymptotic loss of the interference term in the Wigner representation of the cat state. In this paper we show that the quantum-to-classical transition has different dynamical features depending on the measure for nonclassicality used. Measures based on an operatorial definition have well-defined physical meaning and allow a deeper understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis shows that, for most nonclassicality measures, the Schroedinger-cat state becomes classical after a finite time. Moreover, our results challenge the prevailing idea that more macroscopic states are more susceptible to decoherence in the sense that the transition from quantum to classical occurs faster. Since nonclassicality is a prerequisite for entanglement generation our results also bridge the gap between decoherence, which is lost only asymptotically, and entanglement, which may show a ''sudden death''. In fact, whereas the loss of coherences still remains asymptotic, we emphasize that the transition from quantum to classical can indeed occur at a finite time.

  5. Finite-time quantum-to-classical transition for a Schrödinger-cat state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paavola, Janika; Hall, Michael J. W.; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2011-07-01

    The transition from quantum to classical, in the case of a quantum harmonic oscillator, is typically identified with the transition from a quantum superposition of macroscopically distinguishable states, such as the Schrödinger-cat state, into the corresponding statistical mixture. This transition is commonly characterized by the asymptotic loss of the interference term in the Wigner representation of the cat state. In this paper we show that the quantum-to-classical transition has different dynamical features depending on the measure for nonclassicality used. Measures based on an operatorial definition have well-defined physical meaning and allow a deeper understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis shows that, for most nonclassicality measures, the Schrödinger-cat state becomes classical after a finite time. Moreover, our results challenge the prevailing idea that more macroscopic states are more susceptible to decoherence in the sense that the transition from quantum to classical occurs faster. Since nonclassicality is a prerequisite for entanglement generation our results also bridge the gap between decoherence, which is lost only asymptotically, and entanglement, which may show a “sudden death.” In fact, whereas the loss of coherences still remains asymptotic, we emphasize that the transition from quantum to classical can indeed occur at a finite time.

  6. The detection and characterization of a nontransiting planet by transit timing variations.

    PubMed

    Nesvorný, David; Kipping, David M; Buchhave, Lars A; Bakos, Gáspár Á; Hartman, Joel; Schmitt, Allan R

    2012-06-01

    The Kepler mission is monitoring the brightness of ~150,000 stars, searching for evidence of planetary transits. As part of the Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler (HEK) project, we report a planetary system with two confirmed planets and one candidate planet discovered with the publicly available data for KOI-872. Planet b transits the host star with a period P(b) = 33.6 days and exhibits large transit timing variations indicative of a perturber. Dynamical modeling uniquely detects an outer nontransiting planet c near the 5:3 resonance (P(c) = 57.0 days) with a mass 0.37 times that of Jupiter. Transits of a third planetary candidate are also found: a 1.7-Earth radius super-Earth with a 6.8-day period. Our analysis indicates a system with nearly coplanar and circular orbits, reminiscent of the orderly arrangement within the solar system.

  7. Time-delayed transition of normal-to-abnormal glow in pin-to-water discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, S.-Y.; Byeon, Y.-S.; Yoo, S.; Hong, E. J.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, S. J.; Ryu, S.

    2016-08-15

    Time-delayed transition of normal-to-abnormal glow was investigated in discharge between spoke-like pins and ultrapure water by applying AC-driven power at a frequency of 14.3 kHz at atmospheric pressure. The normal-to-abnormal transition can be recognized from the slope changes of current density, gas temperature, electrode temperature, and OH density. The slope changes took place in tens of minutes rather than just after discharge, in other words, the transition was delayed. The time-delay of the transition was caused by the interaction between the plasma and water. The plasma affected water properties, and then the water affected plasma properties.

  8. Time-delayed transition of normal-to-abnormal glow in pin-to-water discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.-Y.; Byeon, Y.-S.; Yoo, S.; Hong, E. J.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, S. J.; Ryu, S.

    2016-08-01

    Time-delayed transition of normal-to-abnormal glow was investigated in discharge between spoke-like pins and ultrapure water by applying AC-driven power at a frequency of 14.3 kHz at atmospheric pressure. The normal-to-abnormal transition can be recognized from the slope changes of current density, gas temperature, electrode temperature, and OH density. The slope changes took place in tens of minutes rather than just after discharge, in other words, the transition was delayed. The time-delay of the transition was caused by the interaction between the plasma and water. The plasma affected water properties, and then the water affected plasma properties.

  9. Electric dipole transitions for four-times ionized cerium (Ce V)

    SciTech Connect

    Usta, Betül Karaçoban Akgün, Elif Alparslan, Büşra

    2016-03-25

    We have calculated the transition parameters, such as wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities (or rates), for the electric dipole (E1) transitions in four-times ionized cerium (Ce V, Z = 58) by using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method within the framework of Breit-Pauli (MCHF+BP) relativistic corrections and the relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) method. The obtained results have been compared with other works available in literature. A discussion of these calculations for Ce V in this study has also been in view of the MCHF+BP and HFR methods.

  10. Exhalation time effects on arterial and venous blood oxygen content and arterial PCO2 during high frequency jet ventilation of surfactant-depleted cats.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J; Carlstrom, J R; Gonzalez, F; Richardson, P

    1987-01-01

    Since high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) relies on lung mechanics for the passive removal of expiratory gas, one would predict that the time allowed for exhalation would have serious effects on cardiopulmonary function. To document these effects we lavaged the lungs of ten cats with 30 ml/kg of saline six times, then sampled arterial and venous blood while the animals were ventilated conventionally at 30 BPM and then with HFJV at 600 BPM, varying inspiratory/expiratory ratios (I/E) from 1:1 to 1:5. The animals breathed 100% O2 throughout the study, and the mean airway pressure was held constant for each animal when the I/E was varied during HFJV. Decreasing the I/E from 1:1 to 1:5 during HFJV resulted in an increase of arterial oxygen content (Cao2) from 11.3 +/- 1.2S E to 13.6 +/- 1.2 ml O2/100 ml blood (P less than 0.01), a decrease of PaCO2 from 43 +/- 6 to 27 +/- 4 mm Hg, and an increase of alveolar to arterial oxygen gradient from 351 +/- 49 to 377 +/- 49 mm Hg. The ratio of systemic blood flow to oxygen consumption (Q/VO2) was similar during conventional ventilation and with HFJV at I/E of 1:1 (18.9 +/- 3.7 vs 18.0 +/- 2.9) but decreased when I/E was reduced to 1:5 during HFJV (13.9 +/- 2.1). The ratio of the product of CaO2 and Q (systemic oxygen availability) to VO2 (SO2 T/VO2) remained unchanged during all modes of ventilation (1.75 +/- 0.15). The increase in CaO2 observed when I/E was reduced from 1:1 to 1:5 during HFJV was counterbalanced by a decrease in Q/VO2 such that SO2 T/VO2 remained relatively constant.

  11. [Synchonization of the blood flow rate in arterial with the changing rate of space of blood pressure with time].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-10-01

    In physiology-related books, there are many relationship curves about blood flow rate in arteries and blood pressure changes with time, but there are not much explanation about such relationship. This is the very the question that the present article tries to answer. We clarified the relations between blood flow rate and blood pressure gradient using the experimental curves as the basis, using Poiseuille Law and relative knowledge of phisics and mathematics, and using analysis and reasoning. Based on the study, it can be concluded that in every course of cardiac cycle, the blood flow rate of any section in artery blood vessel is roughly synchronized with changing rate of space and time of the blood pressure, but blood flow rate is not synchronized with blood pressure.

  12. Abrupt shift of the pattern of diurnal variation in stroke onset with daylight saving time transitions.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Korf, Horst-Werner; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Sitzer, Matthias

    2008-07-15

    Stroke onset shows a pattern of diurnal variation, with a peak in morning hours. Rhythmic changes in blood pressure, hormones, and other parameters have been suggested as underlying mechanisms, but exogenous factors such as increasing physical activity after awakening may also be of relevance. To characterize the impact of external clock changes on the rhythmic variation in stroke onset, this parameter was recorded in patients during transition periods into and out of Daylight Saving Time (DST). The present study was based on a prospective stroke registry in Germany that contains time points of stroke onset from 44 251 patients admitted between 2000 and 2005. To achieve a uniform timeline, time points of stroke onset were set back from Central European Summer Time (CEST) to Central European Time (CET) for patients admitted during DST periods. Compared with the last week before the clock change, transition to or from DST resulted in an immediate shift of stroke onset time points within the first week after the clock change in reference to the uniform timeline (transition from CET to CEST -60 minutes for the time points in both the 25th and 50th percentiles of the diurnal pattern, P<0.001; transition from CEST to CET +60 minutes for the time points in both the 25th and 50th percentiles, P<0.001; patients pooled on a weekly basis). A significant shift was already present the first and second day after the transitions (ie, Monday and Tuesday). Transition to or from DST is coupled with an immediate shift in the time pattern of stroke onset. This strengthens the idea that exogenous factors associated with awakening are important determinants of the pattern of diurnal variation of stroke onset, because entrainment of the human circadian clock within hours is unlikely.

  13. Determination of Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Barred Owls ( Strix varia ) by Contrast Fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Williams, Jackie M; Mans, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Contrast imaging studies are routinely performed in avian patients when an underlying abnormality of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is suspected. Fluoroscopy offers several advantages over traditional radiography and can be performed in conscious animals with minimal stress and restraint. Although birds of prey are commonly encountered as patients, little is known about GI transit times and contrast imaging studies in these species, especially owls. Owls are commonly encountered in zoological, educational, and wildlife settings. In this study, 12 adult barred owls ( Strix varia ) were gavage fed a 30% weight-by-volume barium suspension (25 mL/kg body weight). Fluoroscopic exposures were recorded at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes after administration. Overall GI transit time and transit times of various GI organs were recorded. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) overall GI transit time was 60 minutes (IQR: 19-60 minutes) and ranged from 5-120 minutes. Ventricular and small intestinal contrast filling was rapid. Ventricular emptying was complete by a median of 60 minutes (IQR: 30-120 minutes; range: 30-240 minutes), whereas small intestinal emptying was not complete in 9/12 birds by 300 minutes. Median small intestinal contraction rate was 15 per minute (IQR: 13-16 minutes; range: 10-19 minutes). Median overall GI transit time in barred owls is more rapid than mean transit times reported for psittacine birds and red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ). Fluoroscopy is a safe, suitable method for investigating GI motility and transit in this species.

  14. Transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous and autonomous compartmental systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Martin; Hastings, Alan; Smith, Matthew J.; Agusto, Folashade B.; Chen-Charpentier, Benito M.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Jiang, Jiang; Todd-Brown, Katherine E. O.; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying -Ping; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a theory for transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous compartmental systems. Using the McKendrick–von Förster equation, we show that the mean ages of mass in a compartmental system satisfy a linear nonautonomous ordinary differential equation that is exponentially stable. We then define a nonautonomous version of transit time as the mean age of mass leaving the compartmental system at a particular time and show that our nonautonomous theory generalises the autonomous case. We apply these results to study a nine-dimensional nonautonomous compartmental system modeling the terrestrial carbon cycle, which is a modification of the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model, and we demonstrate that the nonautonomous versions of transit time and mean age differ significantly from the autonomous quantities when calculated for that model.

  15. Transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous and autonomous compartmental systems

    DOE PAGES

    Rasmussen, Martin; Hastings, Alan; Smith, Matthew J.; ...

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a theory for transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous compartmental systems. Using the McKendrick–von Förster equation, we show that the mean ages of mass in a compartmental system satisfy a linear nonautonomous ordinary differential equation that is exponentially stable. We then define a nonautonomous version of transit time as the mean age of mass leaving the compartmental system at a particular time and show that our nonautonomous theory generalises the autonomous case. We apply these results to study a nine-dimensional nonautonomous compartmental system modeling the terrestrial carbon cycle, which is a modification of themore » Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model, and we demonstrate that the nonautonomous versions of transit time and mean age differ significantly from the autonomous quantities when calculated for that model.« less

  16. Impact of waiting time on the quality of life of patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Sampalis, J; Boukas, S; Liberman, M; Reid, T; Dupuis, G

    2001-08-21

    A lack of resources has created waiting lists for many elective surgical procedures within Canada's universal health care system. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for the treatment of atherosclerotic ischemic heart disease is one of these affected surgical procedures. We studied the impact of waiting times on the quality of life of patients awaiting CABG. A prospective cohort of 266 patients from 3 hospitals in Montreal was used. Patients who gave informed consent were followed from the time they were registered for CABG until 6 months after surgery; recruitment began in November 1993, and the last follow-up was completed in July 1995. Patient groups were classified according to the duration of the wait for CABG (< or = 97 days or > 97 days). We measured the following outcomes: quality of life (using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form [SF-36]), incidence of chest pain (using the New York Heart Association angina classification), frequency of symptoms (using the Cardiac Symptom Inventory) and rates of complications and death before and after surgery. There were no differences in quality of life at baseline between the 2 groups. Immediately before surgery, compared with patients who waited 97 days or less, those who waited longer had significantly reduced physical functioning (change from baseline SF-36 score 0 v. -4 respectively, p = 0.001), vitality (change from baseline score -0.1 v. -1.3, p = 0.01), social functioning (change from baseline score 0.4 v. -0.4, p = 0.03) and general health (change from baseline score 1.1 v. -1.7, p = 0.001). At 6 months after surgery, compared with patients who waited 97 days or less for CABG, those who waited longer had reduced physical functioning (change from baseline SF-36 score 4.0 v. -0.1 respectively, p = 0.001), physical role (change from baseline score 0.8 v. 0.0, p = 0.001), vitality (change from baseline score 2.2 v. 0.9, p = 0.001), mental health (change from baseline score 1.2 v. 0.0, p = 0.001) and

  17. Prompting technologies: A comparison of time-based and context-aware transition-based prompting

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kayela; Rosasco, Cody; Feuz, Kyle; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND While advancements in technology have encouraged the development of novel prompting systems to support cognitive interventions, little research has evaluated the best time to deliver prompts, which may impact the effectiveness of these interventions. OBJECTIVE This study examined whether transition-based context prompting (prompting an individual during task transitions) is more effective than traditional fixed time-based prompting. METHODS Participants were 42 healthy adults who completed 12 different everyday activities, each lasting 1–7 minutes, in an experimental smart home testbed and received prompts to record the completed activities from an electronic memory notebook. Half of the participants were delivered prompts during activity transitions, while the other half received prompts every 5 minutes. Participants also completed Likert-scale ratings regarding their perceptions of the prompting system. RESULTS Results revealed that participants in the transition-based context prompting condition responded to the first prompt more frequently and rated the system as more convenient, natural, and appropriate compared to participants in the time-based condition. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that prompting during activity transitions produces higher adherence to the first prompt and more positive perceptions of the prompting system. This is an important finding given the benefits of prompting technology and the possibility of improving cognitive interventions by using context-aware transition prompting. PMID:26409520

  18. Prompting technologies: A comparison of time-based and context-aware transition-based prompting.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kayela; Rosasco, Cody; Feuz, Kyle; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane

    2015-01-01

    While advancements in technology have encouraged the development of novel prompting systems to support cognitive interventions, little research has evaluated the best time to deliver prompts, which may impact the effectiveness of these interventions. This study examined whether transition-based context prompting (prompting an individual during task transitions) is more effective than traditional fixed time-based prompting. Participants were 42 healthy adults who completed 12 different everyday activities, each lasting 1-7 minutes, in an experimental smart home testbed and received prompts to record the completed activities from an electronic memory notebook. Half of the participants were delivered prompts during activity transitions, while the other half received prompts every 5 minutes. Participants also completed Likert-scale ratings regarding their perceptions of the prompting system. Results revealed that participants in the transition-based context prompting condition responded to the first prompt more frequently and rated the system as more convenient, natural, and appropriate compared to participants in the time-based condition. Our findings suggest that prompting during activity transitions produces higher adherence to the first prompt and more positive perceptions of the prompting system. This is an important finding given the benefits of prompting technology and the possibility of improving cognitive interventions by using context-aware transition prompting.

  19. New geometric transition as origin of particle production in time-dependent backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2013-10-01

    By extending the quantum evolution of a scalar field in time-dependent backgrounds to the complex-time plane and transporting the in-vacuum along a closed path, we argue that the geometric transition from the simple pole at infinity determines the multi-pair production depending on the winding number. We apply the geometric transition to Schwinger mechanism in the time-dependent vector potential for a constant electric field and to Gibbons-Hawking particle production in the planar coordinates of a de Sitter space.

  20. The use of Doppler evaluation of the canine umbilical artery in prediction of delivery time and fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Giannico, Amália Turner; Gil, Elaine Mayumi Ueno; Garcia, Daniela Aparecida Ayres; Froes, Tilde Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in umbilical artery blood flow in the later stages of canine pregnancy. Seventeen pregnant bitches were examined sonographically to evaluate umbilical artery blood flow at the following antepartum times: 120-96, 96-72, 72-48, 48-24, 24-12, 12-6 and 6-1h. The peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity were measured to calculate the resistive index (RI). Bitches were classified into two groups according to delivery method: normal delivery (Group 1, n=11) and Cesarean section, due to fetal distress, (Group 2, n=6). During the study, the RI of the umbilical artery in bitches in Group 1 significantly declined in the time periods 72-48, 24-12, 12-6 and 6-1h before delivery when compared to the reference RI (120-96h antepartum period), with values ​​below 0.7 in the 12-6 and 6-1h periods. In Group 2, the RI decreased significantly in the antepartum periods 96-72, 72-48, 48-24h with respect to the period 120-96h, and increased in the periods from 24-12, 12-6 and 6-1h (being significantly higher in this last period) until the time of Cesarean section. Therefore monitoring of changes in umbilical artery RI in the pre-partum period may provide information about time of delivery in bitches and also assist in the diagnosis of possible dystocia and fetal distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Arterial hypertension at the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in adults].

    PubMed

    Nibouche, W N; Biad, A

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension and evaluate its association with vascular chronic complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, in an observational, prospective study. We have recruited 327 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics aged from 40 to 70 years, in general practice units. Arterial blood pressure has been measured according to WHO guidelines. All data on clinical examination, diabetes's chronic complications were collected during 6 months and statistically analyzed with Epi-Info 6.04 database program. Among the patients, 66.7% had arterial hypertension at diagnosis of diabetes, 28% were known as hypertensive. They were 54.3±8.4years old and have metabolic syndrome in 88.4%. Men have more frequently a higher cardiovascular risk, higher glycaemia and albuminuria; women were more likely to have a metabolic syndrome and a higher BMI. Blood pressure increases with cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome components. Microangiopathy is present in 65.7%, atherosclerosis in 59.4 and 71.2% of hypertensive patients who have atherosclerosis have also microvascular complications. The prevalence of arterial hypertension in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes is high. This association is linked with an alarming level of vascular morbidity. Early detection and treatment of these two diseases need a better implication and motivation of patients and health care providers. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02002091. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Unpaid Work on the Transition Out of Full-Time Paid Work

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Dawn C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Continued employment after retirement and engagement in unpaid work are both important ways of diminishing the negative economic effects of the retirement of baby boomer cohorts on society. Little research, however, examines the relationship between paid and unpaid work at the transition from full-time work. Using a resource perspective framework this study examines how engagement in unpaid work prior to and at the transition from full-time work influences whether individuals partially or fully retire. Design and Methods: This study used a sample of 2,236 Americans between the ages 50 and 68, who were interviewed between 1998 and 2008. Logistic regression was used to estimate transitioning into partial retirement (relative to full retirement) after leaving full-time work. Results: We found that the odds of transitioning into part-time work were increased by continuous volunteering (78%) and reduced by starting parental (84%), grandchild (41%), and spousal (90%) caregiving and unaffected by all other patterns of engagement in unpaid work. Implications: Our findings suggest that volunteering is complementary with a transition to part-time work, and starting a new caregiving role at this transitioncreates a barrier to continued employment. In order to provide workers the opportunity to engage in the work force longer at the brink of retirement, it may be necessary to increase the support mechanisms for those who experience new caregiving responsibilities. PMID:22859436

  3. The Ebb and Flow of Filipino First-Time Fatherhood Transition Space: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Neil Jupiter E; de Guzman, Allan B; Matienzo, Evangeline T

    2016-11-01

    Fatherhood, as a developmental process, is both a human experience and a text that needs to be read. For developing nations like the Philippines, little is known about the process undergone by first-time fathers on their transition to fatherhood, and how nurses can play a significant role in assisting them. This grounded theory study purported to conceptualize the multifaceted process of transition from the lens of Filipino first-time fathers' lived experiences. A total of 20 first-time fathers from Metro Manila, Philippines, were purposively selected to take part in an individual, semistructured, and in-depth interview. The Glaserian (classical) method of analysis was specifically used, and field texts were inductively analyzed using a repertory grid. Member checking and correspondence were done to validate the findings of the study. Six surfacing stages emerged relative to the process of transition. Interestingly, The B.R.I.D.G.E. Theory of First-Time Fatherhood Transition Space describes how these fathers progress from the beholding, reorganizing, inhibiting, delivering, grasping, and embracing phases toward successful transition. This emerged theoretical model can be used in framing health care programs where the needs of fathers during this period are met and addressed. Finally, it can also be used in guiding nurses in their provision of a more empathetic care for first-time fathers.

  4. The influence of unpaid work on the transition out of full-time paid work.

    PubMed

    Carr, Dawn C; Kail, Ben Lennox

    2013-02-01

    Continued employment after retirement and engagement in unpaid work are both important ways of diminishing the negative economic effects of the retirement of baby boomer cohorts on society. Little research, however, examines the relationship between paid and unpaid work at the transition from full-time work. Using a resource perspective framework this study examines how engagement in unpaid work prior to and at the transition from full-time work influences whether individuals partially or fully retire. This study used a sample of 2,236 Americans between the ages 50 and 68, who were interviewed between 1998 and 2008. Logistic regression was used to estimate transitioning into partial retirement (relative to full retirement) after leaving full-time work. We found that the odds of transitioning into part-time work were increased by continuous volunteering (78%) and reduced by starting parental (84%), grandchild (41%), and spousal (90%) caregiving and unaffected by all other patterns of engagement in unpaid work. Our findings suggest that volunteering is complementary with a transition to part-time work, and starting a new caregiving role at this transitioncreates a barrier to continued employment. In order to provide workers the opportunity to engage in the work force longer at the brink of retirement, it may be necessary to increase the support mechanisms for those who experience new caregiving responsibilities.

  5. Time-course of ventilation, arterial and pulmonary CO(2) tension during CO (2) increase in humans.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Toru; Okada, Yasumasa; Hara, Yasushi; Sakamaki, Fumio; Kyotani, Shingo; Tomita, Takeshi; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Nakanishi, Norifumi

    2012-01-01

    A change of ventilation (VE), PaCO( 2 ) (arterial CO( 2 ) tension) and PvCO( 2 ) (pulmonary arterial CO( 2 ) tension) with time was not evaluated precisely during exercise or CO( 2 ) rebreathing in humans. In this study, changes of these variables with time were fitted to exponential curves {y = Exp ( x/ T + A ) + k} and compared. When exercise pulmonary hemodynamics was examined in 15 cardiac patients to decide therapies, we asked the patients to undergo CO( 2 ) rebreathing using air with supplementation of consumed O( 2 ). Arterial and pulmonary blood was drawn every minute. During exercise, T was 28.2 ± 8.4 and 26.8 ± 12.4, and A was 0.80 ± 0.50 and 0.50 ± 0.90 in VE and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with no statistical differences. During CO( 2 ) rebreathing, T was 18.6 ± 5.8, 41.8 ± 38.0 and 21.6 ± 9.7 and A was 0.39 ± 0.67, 1.64 ± 1.35 and 0.17 ± 0.83 in VE, PaCO( 2 ) and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with statistical difference of PaCO( 2 ) from other variables, suggesting that VE and PvCO( 2 ) showed same mode of change according to time but PaCO( 2 ) did not.

  6. Timing of Parenthood in Relation to Other Life Transitions and Adult Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea; Mesiainen, Paivi

    2009-01-01

    The timing of having one's first child, in relation to the timing of other transitions into adulthood and to social functioning, was investigated based on the Finnish Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, conducted from age 8 (173 females and 196 males) to 42. Results showed that in women, relatively early (less than…

  7. The role of time scale separation in a nonequilibrium roughening transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llas, M.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; López, J. M.; Gleiser, P. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we analyze the role of time scale separation between the external driving and the avalanche relaxation dynamics in a one-dimensional model of propagation of innovations among economic agents. When the time scales are separated the model presents a nonequilibrium roughening transition. We show that when avalanche overlapping is permitted, only a rough phase is observed.

  8. Determining the architecture of the Kepler-297 system using transit timing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Fabrycky, Daniel; Ballard, Sarah; Agol, Eric; Bean, Jacob; Holman, Matthew J.; Ragozzine, Darin

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to explore the architectures of exoplanetary systems as we attempt to understand planet formation histories and determine the rate of occurrence of habitable-zone rocky planets. We focus on the Kepler-297 system which hosts three transiting planets, Kepler-297b, Kepler-297c, and KOI-1426.03. We re-analyze extant Kepler data of the system, as well as new Spitzer data of Kepler-297c, to constrain the transit time variations (TTVs) of the three transiting planets in the system. We feed these results into a dynamical analysis in which the TTVs of the transiting planets constrain their orbital parameters, as well as those of potential non-transiting planets. The gravitational interactions between the Kepler-297 planets allow us to derive their mass ratios. We find that the orbital parameters of the three transiting planets are well-fit by a model that includes a non-transiting fourth planet outside of the three transitors. We are also able to constrain the orbital parameters of the outer-most transitor, thereby confirming it as the planet Kepler-297d.

  9. Impact of the augmentation time ratio on direct measurement of central aortic pressure in the presence of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Nishizaki, Yuji; Yamazoe, Masahiro; Komatsu, Ikki; Asano, Taku; Mitsuhashi, Hirotsugu; Nishi, Yutaro; Niwa, Koichiro; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    The augmentation index measured by using the central artery pressure is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, no study has examined the role of the time duration of the central artery pressure on CAD. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the central blood pressure time duration and the presence of CAD. All patients without a history of revascularization or prior myocardial infarction who underwent an elective coronary angiography at one of the two hospitals from January to September 2013 were analyzed. CAD was defined as a significant stenosis in one of the main coronary branches. The augmentation time ratio was defined as the ratio of the reflection to peak systolic time T2T1 duration divided by the peak systolic time to aortic notch T3T2 duration. We analyzed the relationship between the central pressure waveform (not only augmentation pressure) and the presence of CAD. A total of 146 (57.3%) out of 255 patients had a significant CAD. T2T1 duration was longer in the CAD group than the no CAD group, and the T3T2 duration was shorter in the CAD group than the no CAD group. The augmentation time ratio (T2T1/T3T2) was significantly larger in the CAD group than in the no CAD group. The augmentation index and augmentation pressure were lower in the no CAD group, but this difference was not statistically significant. The augmentation time ratio was an independent factor related to no CAD, especially in patients with a high augmentation index (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.63). The augmentation time ratio was an independent factor related to the presence of CAD.

  10. Magnet tracking allows assessment of regional gastrointestinal transit times in children

    PubMed Central

    Hedsund, Caroline; Joensson, Iben Moeller; Gregersen, Tine; Fynne, Lotte; Schlageter, Vincent; Krogh, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on small intestinal transit time in healthy children are lacking, and normal values for gastric emptying and colonic transit time are sparse. Conventional methods, including radiopaque markers, scintigraphy, and PillCam™ involve radiation or require the child to swallow a large pill. The minimally invasive, radiation-free Motility Tracking System-1 (MTS-1) has been introduced for description of gastrointestinal motility in adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the MTS-1 for assessment of gastrointestinal transit times and motility patterns in healthy children. Methods Twenty-one healthy children (nine girls), median age 10 (range 7–12) years were included. For evaluation with MTS-1, a small magnetic pill was ingested and tracked through the gastrointestinal tract by a matrix of 16 magnetic sensors placed behind a nonmagnetic bed. The children were investigated for 8 hours after swallowing the magnetic pill and again for 4 hours the following morning. After leaving the unit, each child came back after every bowel movement to determine if the pill had been expelled. Results Nineteen children could swallow the pill. Characteristic contraction patterns were identified for the stomach (three per minute), small intestine (9–11 per minute), and colon (4–5 per minute). Median total gastrointestinal transit time was 37.7 (range 9.5–95.8) hours, median gastric emptying time was 37 (range 2–142) minutes, median small intestinal transit time was 302 (range 164 to >454) minutes, and median colorectal transit time was 38.1 (range 5.6–90.0) hours. Conclusion MTS-1 allows minimally invasive evaluation of gastrointestinal motility in children. Use of the method is, however, restricted by the nonambulatory setup. PMID:24399881

  11. Pulse-echo ultrasound transit time spectroscopy: A comparison of experimental measurement and simulation prediction.

    PubMed

    Wille, Marie-Luise; Almualimi, Majdi A; Langton, Christian M

    2016-01-01

    Considering ultrasound propagation through complex composite media as an array of parallel sonic rays, a comparison of computer-simulated prediction with experimental data has previously been reported for transmission mode (where one transducer serves as transmitter, the other as receiver) in a series of 10 acrylic step-wedge samples, immersed in water, exhibiting varying degrees of transit time inhomogeneity. In this study, the same samples were used but in pulse-echo mode, where the same ultrasound transducer served as both transmitter and receiver, detecting both 'primary' (internal sample interface) and 'secondary' (external sample interface) echoes. A transit time spectrum was derived, describing the proportion of sonic rays with a particular transit time. A computer simulation was performed to predict the transit time and amplitude of various echoes created, and compared with experimental data. Applying an amplitude-tolerance analysis, 91.7% ± 3.7% of the simulated data were within ±1 standard deviation of the experimentally measured amplitude-time data. Correlation of predicted and experimental transit time spectra provided coefficients of determination (R(2)%) ranging from 100.0% to 96.8% for the various samples tested. The results acquired from this study provide good evidence for the concept of parallel sonic rays. Furthermore, deconvolution of experimental input and output signals has been shown to provide an effective method to identify echoes otherwise lost due to phase cancellation. Potential applications of pulse-echo ultrasound transit time spectroscopy include improvement of ultrasound image fidelity by improving spatial resolution and reducing phase interference artefacts.

  12. Impact of Public Reporting of 30-day Mortality on Timing of Death after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hua, May; Scales, Damon C; Cooper, Zara; Pinto, Ruxandra; Moitra, Vivek; Wunsch, Hannah

    2017-09-13

    Recent reports have raised concerns that public reporting of 30-day mortality after cardiac surgery may delay decisions to withdraw life-sustaining therapies for some patients. The authors sought to examine whether timing of mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery significantly increases after day 30 in Massachusetts, a state that reports 30-day mortality. The authors used New York as a comparator state, which reports combined 30-day and all in-hospital mortality, irrespective of time since surgery. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery in hospitals in Massachusetts and New York between 2008 and 2013. The authors calculated the empiric daily hazard of in-hospital death without censoring on hospital discharge, and they used joinpoint regression to identify significant changes in the daily hazard over time. In Massachusetts and New York, 24,864 and 63,323 patients underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, respectively. In-hospital mortality was low, with 524 deaths (2.1%) in Massachusetts and 1,398 (2.2%) in New York. Joinpoint regression did not identify a change in the daily hazard of in-hospital death at day 30 or 31 in either state; significant joinpoints were identified on day 10 (95% CI, 7 to 15) for Massachusetts and days 2 (95% CI, 2 to 3) and 12 (95% CI, 8 to 15) for New York. In Massachusetts, a state with a long history of publicly reporting cardiac surgery outcomes at day 30, the authors found no evidence of increased mortality occurring immediately after day 30 for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These findings suggest that delays in withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy do not routinely occur as an unintended consequence of this type of public reporting.

  13. Quantitative measurement of blood flow in paediatric brain tumours—a comparative study of dynamic susceptibility contrast and multi time-point arterial spin labelled MRI

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Laurence; Pizer, Barry; Avula, Shivaram; Parkes, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Arterial spin-labelling (ASL) MRI uses intrinsic blood water to quantify the cerebral blood flow (CBF), removing the need for the injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent used for conventional perfusion imaging such as dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC). Owing to the non-invasive nature of the technique, ASL is an attractive option for use in paediatric patients. This work compared DSC and multi-timepoint ASL measures of CBF in paediatric brain tumours. Methods: Patients (n = 23; 20 low-grade tumours and 3 high-grade tumours) had DSC and multi-timepoint ASL with and without vascular crushers (VC). VC removes the contribution from larger vessel blood flow. Mean perfusion metrics were extracted from control and T1-enhanced tumour regions of interest (ROIs): arterial arrival time (AAT) and CBF from the ASL images with and without VC, relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume, delay time (DT) and mean transit time (MTT) from the DSC images. Results: Significant correlations existed for: AAT and DT (r = 0.77, p = 0.0002) and CBF and rCBF (r = 0.56, p = 0.02) in control ROIs for ASL-noVC. No significant correlations existed between DSC and ASL measures in the tumour region. Significant differences between control and tumour ROI were found for MTT (p < 0.001) and rCBF (p < 0.005) measures. Conclusion: Significant correlations between ASL-noVC and DSC measures in the normal brain suggest that DSC is most sensitive to macrovascular blood flow. The absence of significant correlations within the tumour ROI suggests that ASL is sensitive to different physiological mechanisms compared with DSC measures. Advances in knowledge: ASL provides information which is comparable with that of DSC in healthy tissues, but appears to reflect a different physiology in tumour tissues. PMID:26975495

  14. Attenuation of systolic blood pressure and pulse transit time hysteresis during exercise and recovery in cardiovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Yan, Bryan P; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Poon, Carmen C Y

    2014-02-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is a cardiovascular parameter of emerging interest due to its potential to estimate blood pressure (BP) continuously and without a cuff. Both linear and nonlinear equations have been used in the estimation of BP based on PTT. This study, however, demonstrates that there is a hysteresis phenomenon between BP and PTT during and after dynamic exercise. A total of 46 subjects including 16 healthy subjects, 13 subjects with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, and 17 patients with cardiovascular disease underwent graded exercise stress test. PTT was measured from electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram of the left index finger of the subject, i.e., a pathway that includes predominately aorta, brachial, and radial arteries. The results of this study showed that, for the same systolic BP (SBP), PTT measured during exercise was significantly larger than PTT measured during recovery for all subject groups. This hysteresis was further quantified as both normalized area bounded by the SBP-PTT relationship (AreaN) and SBP difference at PTT during peak exercise plus 20 ms (ΔSBP20). Significant attenuation of both AreaN (p <; 0.05) and ΔSBP20 (p <; 0.01) is observed in cardiovascular patients compared with healthy subjects, independent of resting BP. Since the SBP-PTT relationship are determined by the mechanical properties of arterial wall, which is predominately mediated by the sympathetic nervous system through altered vascular smooth muscle (VSM) tone during exercise, results of this study are consistent with the previous findings of autonomic nervous dysfunction in cardiovascular patients. We further conclude that VSM tone has a nonnegligible influence on the BP-PTT relationship and thus should be considered in the PTT-based BP estimation.

  15. Optimal scan timing for artery-vein separation at whole-brain CT angiography using a 320-row MDCT volume scanner.

    PubMed

    Shirasaka, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Kondo, Masatoshi; Hamasaki, Hiroshi; Shimomiya, Yamato; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Funama, Yoshinori; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    A 320-row multidetector CT (MDCT) is expected for a good artery-vein separation in terms of temporal resolution. However, a shortened scan duration may lead to insufficient vascular enhancement. We assessed the optimal scan timing for the artery-vein separation at whole-brain CT angiography (CTA) when bolus tracking was used at 320-row MDCT. We analyzed 60 patients, who underwent whole-brain four-dimensional CTA. Difference in CT attenuation between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the superior sagittal sinus (Datt) was calculated in each phase. Using a visual evaluation score for the depiction of arteries and veins, we calculated the difference between the mean score for the intracranial arteries and the mean score for the veins (Dscore). We assessed the time at which the maximum Datt and Dscore were simultaneously observed. The maximum Datt was observed at 6.0 s and 8.0 s in the arterial-dominant phase and at 16.0 s and 18.0 s in the venous-dominant phase after the contrast media arrival time at the ICA (Taa). The maximum Dscore was observed at 6.0 s and 8.0 s in the arterial-dominant phase and at 16.0 s in the venous-dominant phase after the Taa. There were no statistically significant differences in Datt (p = 0.375) or Dscore (p = 0.139) between these scan timings. The optimal scan timing for artery-vein separation at whole-brain CTA was 6.0 s or 8.0 s for the arteries and 16.0 s for the veins after the Taa. Advances in knowledge: Optimal scan timing allowed us to visualize intracranial arteries or veins with minimal superimposition.

  16. Pulmonary artery acceleration time in identifying pulmonary hypertension patients with raised pulmonary vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Tossavainen, Erik; Söderberg, Stefan; Grönlund, Christer; Gonzalez, Manuel; Henein, Michael Y; Lindqvist, Per

    2013-09-01

    In patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), ascertaining raised vascular resistance as a cause is a clinical objective, for which various Doppler-based measurements have been proposed, but with modest accuracy. We hypothesize that pulmonary acceleration time (PAcT) and the ratio of PAcT/peak pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) reflect better the extent of the vascular resistance, compared with other available methods, and can differentiate accurately between pre- and post-capillary PH. We investigated 56 patients (mean age 61 ± 13 years, 23 males) in a simultaneous echocardiography and right heart catheterization (RHC) study. Based on the RHC, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), patients were divided into four groups: Group 1 = normal PVR [<3 WU (Wood units)] and PCWP (<12 mmHg), Group 2 = raised PVR but normal PCWP, Group 3 = raised PVR and PCWP; and Group 4 = normal PVR but raised PCWP. We used spectral Doppler to measure PAcT (corrected for heart rate) and to estimate PASP (peak tricuspid regurgitation pressure drop + estimated right atrial pressure of 7 mmHg). We also tested other available methods for assessing PVR. There were small age differences between patient groups but no age difference between Groups 2 and 4. PAcT and PAcT/PASP were both significantly (P = 0.008) reduced in Groups 2 and 3 compared with Groups 1 and 4. PAcT ≤90 had an 84% sensitivity and an 85% specificity in identifying patients with PVR ≥3 WU with a positive and a negative predictive value of 88% and 81%, respectively. The non-linear relationship between PVR and PAcT gave a quadratic r = 0.61, P < 0.001. ROC curve analysis showed PAcT having the best accuracy (83%) in detecting a PVR ≥3 WU. PAcT <90 ms can serve as a strong non-invasive predictor of PVR >3 WU, which could differentiate patients with pre- and post-capillary PH.

  17. Community walking speed, sedentary or lying down time, and mortality in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tian, Lu; Kibbe, Melina R; Greenland, Philip; Green, David; Liu, Kiang; Zhao, Lihui; Wilkins, John T; Huffman, Mark D; Shah, Sanjiv J; Liao, Yihua; Gao, Ying; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Criqui, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    We studied whether slower community walking speed and whether greater time spent lying down or sleeping were associated with higher mortality in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 0.90 were identified from Chicago medical centers. At baseline, participants reported their usual walking speed outside their home and the number of hours they spent lying down or sleeping per day. Cause of death was adjudicated using death certificates and medical record review. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, comorbidities, ABI, and other confounders. Of 1314 PAD participants, 189 (14.4%) died, including 63 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. Mean follow-up was 34.9 months ± 18.1. Relative to average or normal pace (2-3 miles/hour), slower walking speed was associated with greater CVD mortality: no walking at all: hazard ratio (HR) = 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.46-11.89; casual strolling (0-2 miles/hour): HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.16-4.32; brisk or striding (>3 miles/hour): HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.07-4.30. These associations were not significant after additional adjustment for the six-minute walk. Relative to sleeping or lying down for 8-9 hours, fewer or greater hours sleeping or lying down were associated with higher CVD mortality: 4-7 hours: HR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.06-4.05; 10-11 hours: HR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.86-8.89; ⩾ 12 hours: HR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.47-9.62. These associations were maintained after adjustment for the six-minute walk. In conclusion, slower walking speed outside the home and less than 8 hours or more than 9 hours lying down per day are potentially modifiable behaviors associated with increased CVD mortality in patients with PAD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Transition state geometry of driven chemical reactions on time-dependent double-well potentials.

    PubMed

    Junginger, Andrej; Craven, Galen T; Bartsch, Thomas; Revuelta, F; Borondo, F; Benito, R M; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2016-11-09

    Reaction rates across time-dependent barriers are difficult to define and difficult to obtain using standard transition state theory approaches because of the complexity of the geometry of the dividing surface separating reactants and products. Using perturbation theory (PT) or Lagrangian descriptors (LDs), we can obtain the transition state trajectory and the associated recrossing-free dividing surface. With the latter, we are able to determine the exact reactant population decay and the corresponding rates to benchmark the PT and LD approaches. Specifically, accurate rates are obtained from a local description regarding only direct barrier crossings and to those obtained from a stability analysis of the transition state trajectory. We find that these benchmarks agree with the PT and LD approaches for obtaining recrossing-free dividing surfaces. This result holds not only for the local dynamics in the vicinity of the barrier top, but also for the global dynamics of particles that are quenched at the reactant or product wells after their sojourn over the barrier region. The double-well structure of the potential allows for long-time dynamics related to collisions with the outside walls that lead to long-time returns in the low-friction regime. This additional global dynamics introduces slow-decay pathways that do not result from the local transition across the recrossing-free dividing surface associated with the transition state trajectory, but can be addressed if that structure is augmented by the population transfer of the long-time returns.

  19. Time scheduling of transit systems with transfer considerations using genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Deb, K; Chakroborty, P

    1998-01-01

    Scheduling of a bus transit system must be formulated as an optimization problem, if the level of service to passengers is to be maximized within the available resources. In this paper, we present a formulation of a transit system scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing the overall waiting time of transferring and nontransferring passengers while satisfying a number of resource- and service-related constraints. It is observed that the number of variables and constraints for even a simple transit system (a single bus station with three routes) is too large to tackle using classical mixed-integer optimization techniques. The paper shows that genetic algorithms (GAs) are ideal for these problems, mainly because they (i) naturally handle binary variables, thereby taking care of transfer decision variables, which constitute the majority of the decision variables in the transit scheduling problem; and (ii) allow procedure-based declarations, thereby allowing complex algorithmic approaches (involving if then-else conditions) to be handled easily. The paper also shows how easily the same GA procedure with minimal modifications can handle a number of other more pragmatic extensions to the simple transit scheduling problem: buses with limited capacity, buses that do not arrive exactly as per scheduled times, and a multiple-station transit system having common routes among bus stations. Simulation results show the success of GAs in all these problems and suggest the application of GAs in more complex scheduling problems.

  20. Transit time of a freely falling quantum particle in a background gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2004-12-01

    Using a model quantum clock, I evaluate an expression for the time of a non-relativistic quantum particle to transit a piecewise geodesic path in a background gravitational field with small spacetime curvature (gravity gradient), in the case in which the apparatus is in free fall. This calculation complements and extends an earlier one (Davies 2004) in which the apparatus is fixed to the surface of the Earth. The result confirms that, for particle velocities not too low, the quantum and classical transit times coincide, in conformity with the principle of equivalence. I also calculate the quantum corrections to the transit time when the de Broglie wavelengths are long enough to probe the spacetime curvature. The results are compared with the calculation of Chiao and Speliotopoulos (2003), who propose an experiment to measure the foregoing effects.

  1. Decreasing transition times in elementary school classrooms: Using computer-assisted instruction to automate intervention components.

    PubMed

    Hine, Jeffrey F; Ardoin, Scott P; Foster, Tori E

    2015-09-01

    Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined the effects of the intervention on the latency to on-task behavior of 4 students in 2 classrooms. Data also were collected on students' on-task behavior during activities and teachers' use of prompts and praise statements. Implementation of the intervention substantially decreased students' latencies to on-task behavior and increased on-task behavior overall. Further, the 2 teachers used fewer prompts to cue students to transition and stay on task and provided more praise during intervention phases. We discuss how automating classroom interventions may affect student and teacher behavior as well as how it may increase procedural fidelity.

  2. Finite-time thermodynamics and the gas-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, M.; Schön, J. C.; Jansen, M.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we study the application of the concept of finite-time thermodynamics to first-order phase transitions. As an example, we investigate the transition from the gaseous to the liquid state by modeling the liquification of the gas in a finite time. In particular, we introduce, state, and solve an optimal control problem in which we aim at achieving the gas-liquid first-order phase transition through supersaturation within a fixed time in an optimal fashion, in the sense that the work required to supersaturate the gas, called excess work, is minimized by controlling the appropriate thermodynamic parameters. The resulting set of coupled nonlinear differential equations is then solved for three systems, nitrogen N2 , oxygen O2 , and water vapor H2O .

  3. The Transit-Time Distribution from the Northern Hemisphere Midlatitude Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn W.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan; Steenrod, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of transit times from the Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitude surface is a fundamental property of tropospheric transport. Here we present an analysis of the transit time distribution (TTD) since air last contacted the northern midlatitude surface layer, as simulated by the NASA Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry Transport Model. We find that throughout the troposphere the TTD is characterized by long flat tails that reflect the recirculation of old air from the Southern Hemisphere and results in mean ages that are significantly larger than the modal age. Key aspects of the TTD -- its mode, mean and spectral width -- are interpreted in terms of tropospheric dynamics, including seasonal shifts in the location and strength of tropical convection and variations in quasi-isentropic transport out of the northern midlatitude surface layer. Our results indicate that current diagnostics of tropospheric transport are insufficient for comparing model transport and that the full distribution of transit times is a more appropriate constraint.

  4. Finite-time H∞ control for stochastic time-delayed Markovian switching systems with partly known transition rates and nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wenhai; Gao, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of finite-time H∞ control for stochastic time-delayed Markovian switching systems with partly known transition rates and nonlinearity. By employing an appropriate Lyapunov function and some appropriate free-weighting matrices, a state feedback controller is designed to ensure H∞ finite-time boundedness of the resulting closed-loop system that contains time-varying delay, admissible external disturbance, It ?-type stochastic disturbance and nonlinearity. All the proposed conditions are established in the form of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the validity of the main results.

  5. Nonlinear light behaviors near phase transition in non-parity-time-symmetric complex waveguides.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Sean; Yang, Jianke

    2016-06-15

    Many classes of non-parity-time (PT)-symmetric waveguides with arbitrary gain and loss distributions still possess all-real linear spectrum or exhibit phase transition. In this Letter, nonlinear light behaviors in these complex waveguides are probed analytically near a phase transition. Using multi-scale perturbation methods, a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) is derived for the light's amplitude evolution. This ODE predicts that a single class of these non-PT-symmetric waveguides supports soliton families and amplitude-oscillating solutions both above and below linear phase transition, in close analogy with PT-symmetric systems. For the other classes of waveguides, the light's intensity always amplifies under the effect of nonlinearity, even if the waveguide is below the linear phase transition. These analytical predictions are confirmed by direct computations of the full system.

  6. Reconciling transition path time and rate measurements in reactions with large entropic barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Dmitrii E.

    2017-02-01

    Recent experiments and simulation studies showed that protein/DNA folding barriers inferred from folding rates or from potentials of mean force are often much higher than the barriers estimated from the distributions of transition path times. Here a toy model is used to explain a possible origin of this effect: It is shown that when the transition in question involves an entropic barrier, the one-dimensional Langevin model commonly used to interpret experimental data, while adequately predicting the transition rate, fails to describe the properties of the subset of the trajectories that form the transition path ensemble; the latter may still be describable in terms of a one-dimensional model, but with a different potential, just as observed experimentally.

  7. Transit timing variation analysis in southern stars: the case of WASP-28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, R.; Jofré, E.; Melita, M.; Gómez, M.; Mauas, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present four new transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-28b observed between 2011 August and 2013 October. Employing another 11 transits available in the literature we compute new ephemeris and redetermine the physical parameters of the star and the exoplanet. Considering 3 yr of observations, we find no periodic transit timing variations (TTVs) or long-term variations of the inclination of the orbit, i, or the depth of the transit, k, that could be attributable to the presence of another planetary-mass body in the system. We also study the relations between i and k with different factors that characterize the light curves. The fits suggest a possible weak correlation between k with the red noise factor, β, and the photometric noise rate, PNR, and a weak anticorrelation between i and PNR, although more points are needed to confirm these trends. Finally, the kinematic study suggests that WASP-28 is a thin-disc star.

  8. Reconciling transition path time and rate measurements in reactions with large entropic barriers.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Dmitrii E

    2017-02-21

    Recent experiments and simulation studies showed that protein/DNA folding barriers inferred from folding rates or from potentials of mean force are often much higher than the barriers estimated from the distributions of transition path times. Here a toy model is used to explain a possible origin of this effect: It is shown that when the transition in question involves an entropic barrier, the one-dimensional Langevin model commonly used to interpret experimental data, while adequately predicting the transition rate, fails to describe the properties of the subset of the trajectories that form the transition path ensemble; the latter may still be describable in terms of a one-dimensional model, but with a different potential, just as observed experimentally.

  9. Determination of erythrocyte transit times through micropores. II. Influence of experimental and physicochemical factors.

    PubMed

    Koutsouris, D; Guillet, R; Wenby, R B; Meiselman, H J

    1989-01-01

    A new red blood cell filtration system, termed the Cell Transit Time Analyzer (CTTA), has been developed in order to measure the individual transit times of a large number of cells through cylindrical micropores in special "oligopore" filters; the system operates on the electrical conductometric principle and employs special computer software to provide several measures of the resulting transit time histogram. Using this system with filters having pore diameters of 4.5 or 5.0 microns and length to diameter ratios of 3.0 to 4.7, we have evaluated the effects of several experimental factors on the flow behavior of normal and modified human RBC. Our results indicate: 1) linear RBC pressure-flow behavior over a driving pressure range of 2 to 10.5 cm H2O with zero velocity intercepts at delta P = 0, thus suggesting the Poiseuille-like nature of the flow; 2) resistance to flow or "apparent viscosities" for normal RBC which are between 3.1 to 3.9 cPoise and are independent of driving pressure and pore geometry; 3) increased flow resistance (i.e., increased transit times) for old versus young RBC and for RBC made less deformable by DNP-induced crenation or by heat treatment at 48 degrees C; 4) increased mean transit time and poorer reproducibility when using EDTA rather than heparin as the anticoagulant agent. Further, using mixtures of heat-treated and normal RBC and various percentile values of the transit time histogram, we have been able to demonstrate the presence of sub-populations of rigid cells and thus the value of measurements which allow statistical analyses of RBC populations.

  10. Physical activity during video capsule endoscopy correlates with shorter bowel transit time.

    PubMed

    Stanich, Peter P; Peck, Joshua; Murphy, Christopher; Porter, Kyle M; Meyer, Marty M

    2017-09-01

     Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is limited by reliance on bowel motility for propulsion, and lack of physical activity has been proposed as a cause of incomplete studies. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between physical activity and VCE bowel transit.  Ambulatory outpatients receiving VCE were eligible for the study. A pedometer was attached at the time of VCE ingestion and step count was recorded at the end of the procedure. VCE completion was assessed by logistic regression models, which included step count (500 steps as one unit). Total transit time was analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models. The hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) indicated the "hazard" of completion, such that HRs > 1 indicated a reduced transit time.  A total of 100 patients were included. VCE was completed in 93 patients (93 %). The median step count was 2782 steps. Step count was not significantly associated with VCE completion (odds ratio 1.45, 95 %CI 0.84, 2.49). Pedometer step count was significantly associated with shorter total, gastric, and small-bowel transit times (HR 1.09, 95 %CI 1.03, 1.16; HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.00, 1.11; HR 1.07, 95 %CI 1.01, 1.14, respectively). Higher body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with VCE completion (HR 1.87, 95 %CI 1.18, 2.97) and shorter bowel transit times (HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.02, 1.08).  Increased physical activity during outpatient VCE was associated with shorter bowel transit times but not with study completion. In addition, BMI was a previously unreported clinical characteristic associated with VCE completion and should be included as a variable of interest in future studies.

  11. Investigation of powered 2-wheeler accident involvement in urban arterials by considering real-time traffic and weather data.

    PubMed

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2017-04-03

    Understanding the various factors that affect accident risk is of particular concern to decision makers and researchers. The incorporation of real-time traffic and weather data constitutes a fruitful approach when analyzing accident risk. However, the vast majority of relevant research has no specific focus on vulnerable road users such as powered 2-wheelers (PTWs). Moreover, studies using data from urban roads and arterials are scarce. This study aims to add to the current knowledge by considering real-time traffic and weather data from 2 major urban arterials in the city of Athens, Greece, in order to estimate the effect of traffic, weather, and other characteristics on PTW accident involvement. Because of the high number of candidate variables, a random forest model was applied to reveal the most important variables. Then, the potentially significant variables were used as input to a Bayesian logistic regression model in order to reveal the magnitude of their effect on PTW accident involvement. The results of the analysis suggest that PTWs are more likely to be involved in multivehicle accidents than in single-vehicle accidents. It was also indicated that increased traffic flow and variations in speed have a significant influence on PTW accident involvement. On the other hand, weather characteristics were found to have no effect. The findings of this study can contribute to the understanding of accident mechanisms of PTWs and reduce PTW accident risk in urban arterials.

  12. Alterations of calf venous and arterial compliance following acclimation to heat administered at a fixed daily time in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Megumi; Hara, Toshiko; Hashimoto, Michio; Koga, Miki; Shido, Osamu

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effects of heat acclimation on venous and arterial compliance in humans. Four male and four female volunteers were exposed to an ambient temperature of 40°C and relative humidity of 40% for 4 h (1330 1730 hours) per day for 9 10 consecutive days. The calf venous compliance (CV) was estimated using venous occlusion plethysmography with a mercury-in-silastic strain gauge placed around the right calf at its maximum girth. The compliance of the small (CSA) and large (CLA) arteries were assessed by reflective and capacitance compliance by analyzing the radial artery blood pressure waveforms, basing on the use of a modified Windkessel model. The calf CV, CSA, CLA, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate and core temperature were determined twice a day, 0930 1100 hours (AM test) and 1500 1630 hours (PM test), in both heat-acclimated and non-heat-acclimated (control) conditions. Heat acclimation appeared to decrease blood pressures, heart rate and significantly lowered core temperature only in the PM test. In the control condition, the calf CV was not affected by the time of day and the CSA was significantly depressed in the PM test. After acclimation to heat, the calf CV significantly increased and the CSA did not decrease in the PM test. The results presented suggest that repeated heat exposure in humans, for 4 h at a fixed time daily, increases the calf CV and the CSA particularly during the period when the subjects were previously exposed to heat.

  13. Mean transit times in contrasting headwater catchments from southeast Australia determined using Tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Irvine, Dylan

    2016-04-01

    Headwater streams contribute a significant proportion of the total discharge of many river systems. However, despite their importance, the time taken for rainfall to pass through the catchment into the streams (the transit time) in headwater catchments is largely unknown as are the catchment characteristics (such as drainage density, topography, landuse, or geology) that determine variations in transit times. Because the peak in Tritium activities in rainfall produced by atmospheric nuclear tests in the1950's and 1960's (the "bomb-pulse") was several orders of magnitude lower in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere, Tritium activities of remnant bomb pulse water in the southern hemisphere have decayed below those of modern rainfall. This allows mean transit times to be estimated from single Tritium measurements. Here we use Tritium to estimate transit times of water contributing to perennial streams in the adjacent upper catchments of the Yarra and Latrobe Rivers (southeast Australia). Samples were collected at varying flow from six headwater tributary sites in the Latrobe catchment, which is largely forested and four tributaries in the Yarra catchment which has been extensively cleared for dryland agriculture. The lowest Tritium activities were recorded during summer baseflow conditions and are between 1.25 and 1.75 TU, these are significantly below the Tritium activity of local rainfall (~2.8 TU). Mean transit times calculated using an exponential-piston flow lumped parameter model are 21 to 47 years. Tritium activities during the recession periods following winter high flows are higher (1.54 to 2.1 TU), which may reflect either the dilution of a baseflow component with recent surface runoff or mobilisation of different stores of water with different residence times (e.g., from the soils or the regolith) from within the catchment. The variation of major ion concentrations with discharge suggests it is more likely that that different stores of

  14. Application of transit timing variation method (TTV) to exoplanet system TrES-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznyetsova, Yu.; Shliakhetskaya, Y.; Matsiaka, O.; Krushevska, V.; Romanyuk, Ya.

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of the original photometric data, the light curves of several transits in the exoplanet system TrES-3 were simulated by Monte Carlo method. Using these curves, the estimates of precise values of mid-transit time were calculated to assess the possibility of finding new planets by timing method in already known exoplanet systems using ground-based observations at small telescopes. More accurate values of the some orbital and physical parameters of TrES-3 system were also obtained including following the planet-star radius ratio (RP/R*), the angle of the planet orbital plane inclination (i).

  15. Nonlinear ion dynamics in Hall thruster plasma source by ion transit-time instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youbong; Choe, Wonho; Mazouffre, Stéphane; Park, Jae Sun; Kim, Holak; Seon, Jongho; Garrigues, L.

    2017-03-01

    High-energy tail formation in an ion energy distribution function (IEDF) is explained in a Hall thruster plasma with the stationary crossed electric and magnetic fields whose discharge current is oscillated at the ion transit-time scale with a frequency of 360 kHz. Among ions in different charge states, singly charged Xe ions (Xe+) have an IEDF that is significantly broadened and shifted toward the high-energy side, which contributes to tail formation in the entire IEDF. Analytical and numerical investigations confirm that the IEDF tail is due to nonlinear ion dynamics in the ion transit-time oscillation.

  16. Study of the transit time of pressure propagation in an acoustic delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunn-Fang; Chen, Ching-Iue; Chang, Chu-Nan; You, Jean-Luh; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Hsu, Chih-Ying

    1986-12-01

    A fast sensor was used as a vacuum gauge to measure the transit time of a gas pressure through an acoustic delay line (ADL). The results were compared with the predictions of two theoretical models. We found that in the rupture pressure range of 101 to 104 Pa, the predictions of Jean and Rauss' model, based on the assumption that the flow of gas be a gas fluid, set lower boundaries for the observed transit times; while the predictions of our model, based on the molecular motion, set the upper ones.

  17. Hydroclimatic influences on non-stationary transit time distributions in a boreal headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta-Tapia, A.; Soulsby, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Sponseller, R.; Bishop, K.; Laudon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how water moves through catchments - from the time it enters as precipitation to when it exits via streamflow - is of fundamental importance to understanding hydrological and biogeochemical processes. A basic descriptor of this routing is the Transit Time Distribution (TTD) which is derived from the input-output behavior of conservative tracers, the mean of which represents the average time elapsed between water molecules entering and exiting a flow system. In recent decades, many transit time studies have been conducted, but few of these have focused on snow-dominated catchments. We assembled a 10-year time series of isotopic data (δ18O and δ2H) for precipitation and stream water to estimate the characteristics of the transit time distribution in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. We applied lumped parameter models using a gamma distribution to calculate the Mean Transit Time (MTT) of water over the entire period of record and to evaluate how inter-annual differences in transit times relate to hydroclimatic variability. The best fit MTT for the complete 10-year period was 650 days (Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency = 0.65), while the best fit inter-annual MTT ranged from 300 days up to 1200 days. Whilst there was a weak negative correlation between mean annual total precipitation and the annual MTT, this relationship was stronger (r2 = 0.53, p = 0.02) for the annual rain water input. This strong connection between the MTT and annual rainfall, rather than snowmelt, has strong implications for understanding future hydrological and biogeochemical processes in boreal regions, given that predicted warmer winters would translate into a greater proportion of precipitation falling as rain and thus shorter MTT in catchments. Such a change could have direct implications for the export of solutes and pollutants.

  18. QUANTIFYING THE CHALLENGES OF DETECTING UNSEEN PLANETARY COMPANIONS WITH TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Veras, Dimitri; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew J.

    2011-02-01

    Both ground- and space-based transit observatories are poised to significantly increase the number of known transiting planets and the number of precisely measured transit times. The variation in a planet's transit times may be used to infer the presence of additional planets. Deducing the masses and orbital parameters of such planets from transit time variations (TTVs) alone is a rich and increasingly relevant dynamical problem. In this work, we evaluate the extent of the degeneracies in this process, systematically explore the dependence of TTV signals on several parameters, and provide phase space plots that could aid observers in planning future observations. Our explorations are focused on a likely-to-be prevalent situation: a known transiting short-period Neptune- or Jupiter-sized planet and a suspected external low-mass perturber on a nearly coplanar orbit. Through {approx}10{sup 7} N-body simulations, we demonstrate how TTV signal amplitudes may vary by orders of magnitude due to slight variations in any one orbital parameter (10{sup -3} AU in a semimajor axis, 0.005 in eccentricity, or a few degrees in orbital angles), and quantify the number of consecutive transit observations necessary in order to obtain a reasonable opportunity of characterizing the unseen planet ({approx}>50 observations). Planets in or near period commensurabilities of the form p:q, where p {<=} 20 and q {<=} 3, produce distinct TTV signatures, regardless of whether the planets are actually locked in a mean motion resonance. We distinguish these systems from the secular systems in our explorations. Additionally, we find that computing the autocorrelation function of a TTV signal can provide a useful diagnostic for identifying possible orbits for additional planets and suggest that this method could aid integration of TTV signals in future studies of particular exosystems.

  19. Quantifying the Challenges of Detecting Unseen Planetary Companions with Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew J.

    2011-02-01

    Both ground- and space-based transit observatories are poised to significantly increase the number of known transiting planets and the number of precisely measured transit times. The variation in a planet's transit times may be used to infer the presence of additional planets. Deducing the masses and orbital parameters of such planets from transit time variations (TTVs) alone is a rich and increasingly relevant dynamical problem. In this work, we evaluate the extent of the degeneracies in this process, systematically explore the dependence of TTV signals on several parameters, and provide phase space plots that could aid observers in planning future observations. Our explorations are focused on a likely-to-be prevalent situation: a known transiting short-period Neptune- or Jupiter-sized planet and a suspected external low-mass perturber on a nearly coplanar orbit. Through ~107 N-body simulations, we demonstrate how TTV signal amplitudes may vary by orders of magnitude due to slight variations in any one orbital parameter (10-3 AU in a semimajor axis, 0.005 in eccentricity, or a few degrees in orbital angles), and quantify the number of consecutive transit observations necessary in order to obtain a reasonable opportunity of characterizing the unseen planet (gsim50 observations). Planets in or near period commensurabilities of the form p:q, where p <= 20 and q <= 3, produce distinct TTV signatures, regardless of whether the planets are actually locked in a mean motion resonance. We distinguish these systems from the secular systems in our explorations. Additionally, we find that computing the autocorrelation function of a TTV signal can provide a useful diagnostic for identifying possible orbits for additional planets and suggest that this method could aid integration of TTV signals in future studies of particular exosystems.

  20. EPITOME-2: An open-label study assessing the transition to a new formulation of intravenous epoprostenol in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sitbon, Olivier; Delcroix, Marion; Bergot, Emmanuel; Boonstra, Anco B; Granton, John; Langleben, David; Subías, Pilar Escribano; Galiè, Nazzareno; Pfister, Thomas; Lemarié, Jean-Christophe; Simonneau, Gérald

    2014-02-01

    Continuous infusion of epoprostenol is the treatment of choice in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in functional classes III to IV. However, this treatment's limitations include instability at room temperature. A new epoprostenol formulation offers improved storage conditions and patient convenience. The EPITOME-2 trial was an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm, phase IIIb study. Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension on long-term, stable epoprostenol therapy were transitioned from epoprostenol with glycine and mannitol excipients (Flolan; GlaxoSmithKline, Durham, NC) to epoprostenol with arginine and sucrose excipients (Veletri; Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland). Patients were followed up for 3 months, and dose adjustments were recorded. Efficacy measures included the 6-minute walk distance, hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization, and New York Heart Association functional class. Safety and tolerability of the transition were also evaluated. Quality of life was assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication. Forty-two patients enrolled in the study, and 1 patient withdrew consent before treatment; thus, 41 patients received treatment and completed the study. Six patients required dose adjustments. There were no clinically relevant changes from baseline to month 3 in any of the efficacy end points. Adverse events were those previously described with intravenous prostacyclin therapy. Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication scores showed an improvement from baseline to month 3 in the domain of treatment convenience. Transition from epoprostenol with glycine and mannitol excipients to epoprostenol with arginine and sucrose excipients did not affect treatment efficacy, raised no new safety or tolerability concerns, and provided patients with an increased sense of treatment convenience. © 2014.

  1. Unconventional Topological Phase Transition in Two-Dimensional Systems with Space-Time Inversion Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junyeong; Yang, Bohm-Jung

    2017-04-14

    We study a topological phase transition between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator in two-dimensional (2D) systems with time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries. Contrary to the case of ordinary time-reversal invariant systems, where a direct transition between two insulators is generally predicted, we find that the topological phase transition in systems with an additional twofold rotation symmetry is mediated by an emergent stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase between two insulators. Here the central role is played by the so-called space-time inversion symmetry, the combination of time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries, which guarantees the quantization of the Berry phase around a 2D Weyl point even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. Pair creation and pair annihilation of Weyl points accompanying partner exchange between different pairs induces a jump of a 2D Z_{2} topological invariant leading to a topological phase transition. According to our theory, the topological phase transition in HgTe/CdTe quantum well structure is mediated by a stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase because the quantum well, lacking inversion symmetry intrinsically, has twofold rotation about the growth direction. Namely, the HgTe/CdTe quantum well can show 2D Weyl semimetallic behavior within a small but finite interval in the thickness of HgTe layers between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator. We also propose that few-layer black phosphorus under perpendicular electric field is another candidate system to observe the unconventional topological phase transition mechanism accompanied by the emerging 2D Weyl semimetal phase protected by space-time inversion symmetry.

  2. Unconventional Topological Phase Transition in Two-Dimensional Systems with Space-Time Inversion Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Junyeong; Yang, Bohm-Jung

    2017-04-01

    We study a topological phase transition between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator in two-dimensional (2D) systems with time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries. Contrary to the case of ordinary time-reversal invariant systems, where a direct transition between two insulators is generally predicted, we find that the topological phase transition in systems with an additional twofold rotation symmetry is mediated by an emergent stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase between two insulators. Here the central role is played by the so-called space-time inversion symmetry, the combination of time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries, which guarantees the quantization of the Berry phase around a 2D Weyl point even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. Pair creation and pair annihilation of Weyl points accompanying partner exchange between different pairs induces a jump of a 2D Z2 topological invariant leading to a topological phase transition. According to our theory, the topological phase transition in HgTe /CdTe quantum well structure is mediated by a stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase because the quantum well, lacking inversion symmetry intrinsically, has twofold rotation about the growth direction. Namely, the HgTe /CdTe quantum well can show 2D Weyl semimetallic behavior within a small but finite interval in the thickness of HgTe layers between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator. We also propose that few-layer black phosphorus under perpendicular electric field is another candidate system to observe the unconventional topological phase transition mechanism accompanied by the emerging 2D Weyl semimetal phase protected by space-time inversion symmetry.

  3. Effect of Laparoscopic-assisted Gastropexy on Gastrointestinal Transit Time in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Balsa, I M; Culp, W T N; Drobatz, K J; Johnson, E G; Mayhew, P D; Marks, S L

    2017-09-20

    Prophylactic gastropexy has been promoted as a means of preventing gastric volvulus during gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) syndrome. Little is known about the impact of gastropexy on gastrointestinal transit time. Laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy (LAG) will not alter gastrointestinal transit times when comparing gastric (GET), small and large bowel (SLBTT), and whole gut transit times (TTT) before and after surgery. 10 healthy client-owned large-breed dogs. Prospective clinical trial. Before surgery, all dogs underwent physical examination and diagnostic evaluation to ensure normal health status. Dogs were fed a prescription diet for 6 weeks before determination of gastrointestinal transit with a wireless motility capsule. LAG was then performed, and dogs were fed the diet for 6 additional weeks. Measurement of transit times was repeated 6 weeks after surgery. Ten dogs of various breeds at-risk for GDV were enrolled. No complications were encountered associated with surgery or capsule administration. There were no significant differences in GET 429 [306-1,370] versus 541 [326-1,298] (P = 0.80), SLBTT 1,243 [841-3,070] versus 1,540 [756-2,623] (P = 0.72), or TTT 1,971 [1,205-3,469] versus 1,792 [1,234-3,343] minutes (median, range) (P = 0.65) before and after LAG. An effect of LAG on gastrointestinal transit time was not identified, and wireless motility capsule can be safely administered in dogs after LAG. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Gender Transitions in Later Life: The Significance of Time in Queer Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabbre, Vanessa D.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of time are ubiquitous in studies of aging. This article integrates an existential perspective on time with a notion of queer time based on the experiences of older transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life. Interviews were conducted with male-to-female identified persons aged 50 years or older (N=22), along with participant observation at three national transgender conferences (N=170 hours). Interpretive analyses suggest that an awareness of “time left to live” and a feeling of “time served” play a significant role in later life development and help expand gerontological perspectives on time and queer aging. PMID:24798691

  5. Memory-induced diffusive-superdiffusive transition: Ensemble and time-averaged observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budini, Adrián A.

    2017-05-01

    The ensemble properties and time-averaged observables of a memory-induced diffusive-superdiffusive transition are studied. The model consists in a random walker whose transitions in a given direction depend on a weighted linear combination of the number of both right and left previous transitions. The diffusion process is nonstationary, and its probability develops the phenomenon of aging. Depending on the characteristic memory parameters, the ensemble behavior may be normal, superdiffusive, or ballistic. In contrast, the time-averaged mean squared displacement is equal to that of a normal undriven random walk, which renders the process nonergodic. In addition, and similarly to Lévy walks [Godec and Metzler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 020603 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.020603], for trajectories of finite duration the time-averaged displacement apparently become random with properties that depend on the measurement time and also on the memory properties. These features are related to the nonstationary power-law decay of the transition probabilities to their stationary values. Time-averaged response to a bias is also calculated. In contrast with Lévy walks [Froemberg and Barkai, Phys. Rev. E 87, 030104(R) (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.030104], the response always vanishes asymptotically.

  6. The Real Time Disintegration of an Asteroid Transiting a White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Siyi; Rappaport, Saul; DeVore, John; Ivanov, Valentin; Debes, John; Provencal, Judith; Vanderburg, Andrew; Croll, Bryce; Dufour, Patrick; Zuckerman, Ben

    2016-08-01

    There is strong evidence that an actively disintegrating asteroid is orbiting the white dwarf WD 1145+017. This scenario is supported by several observations, including: (i) transits from multiple objects within the white dwarf's tidal radius; (ii) infrared excess from a circumstellar dust disk; (iii) ubiquitous high-velocity absorption lines from circumstellar gas; (iv) a heavily polluted atmosphere from the accretion of the circumstellar material. We were awarded Spitzer DDT time to perform photometric observation simultaneously with a few other telescopes on March 29, 2016. Our preliminary analysis has returned the first detection of a color-dependent transit. Here, we propose to monitor this system over the next two years to understand the change of the transiting material as well as the possible change of the dust disk. This system provides a unique window to study the real time disintegration of an asteroid around a white dwarf.

  7. Transit times from rainfall to baseflow in headwater catchments estimated using tritium: the Ovens River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, I.; Morgenstern, U.

    2015-06-01

    Headwater streams contribute a significant proportion of the total flow to many river systems, especially during summer low-flow periods. However, despite their importance, the time taken for water to travel through headwater catchments and into the streams (the transit time) is poorly constrained. Here, 3H activities of stream water are used to define transit times of water contributing to streams from the upper reaches of the Ovens River in southeast Australia at varying flow conditions. 3H activities of the stream water varied from 1.63 to 2.45 TU, which are below the average 3H activity of modern local rainfall (~3 TU). The highest 3H activities were recorded following higher winter flows and the lowest 3H activities were recorded at summer low-flow conditions. Variations of major ion concentrations and 3H activities with streamflow imply that different stores of water from within the catchment (e.g. from the soil or regolith) are mobilised during rainfall events rather than there being simple dilution of an older groundwater component by event water. Mean transit times calculated using an exponential-piston flow model range between 5 and 31 years and are higher at summer low-flow conditions. Mean transit times calculated using other flow models (e.g. exponential flow or dispersion) are similar. There are broad correlations between 3H activities and the percentage of rainfall exported from each catchment and between 3H activities and Na and Cl concentrations that allow first-order estimates of mean transit times in adjacent catchments or at different times in these catchments to be made. Water from the upper Ovens River has similar mean transit times to the headwater streams implying there is no significant input of old water from the alluvial gravels. The observation that the water contributing to the headwater streams in the Ovens catchment has a mean transit time of years to decades implies that these streams are buffered against rainfall variations on

  8. Transit times from rainfall to baseflow in headwater catchments estimated using tritium: the Ovens River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, I.; Morgenstern, U.

    2015-09-01

    Headwater streams contribute a significant proportion of the total flow to many river systems, especially during summer low-flow periods. However, despite their importance, the time taken for water to travel through headwater catchments and into the streams (the transit time) is poorly understood. Here, 3H activities of stream water are used to define transit times of water contributing to streams from the upper reaches of the Ovens River in south-east Australia at varying flow conditions. 3H activities of the stream water varied from 1.63 to 2.45 TU, which are below the average 3H activity of modern local rainfall (2.85 to 2.99 TU). The highest 3H activities were recorded following higher winter flows and the lowest 3H activities were recorded at summer low-flow conditions. Variations of major ion concentrations and 3H activities with streamflow imply that different stores of water from within the catchment (e.g. from the soil or regolith) are mobilised during rainfall events rather than there being simple dilution of an older groundwater component by event water. Mean transit times calculated using an exponential-piston flow model range from 4 to 30 years and are higher at summer low-flow conditions. Mean transit times calculated using other flow models (e.g. exponential flow or dispersion) are similar. There are broad correlations between 3H activities and the percentage of rainfall exported from each catchment and between 3H activities and Na and Cl concentrations that allow first-order estimates of mean transit times in adjacent catchments or at different times in these catchments to be made. Water from the upper Ovens River has similar mean transit times to the headwater streams implying there is no significant input of old water from the alluvial gravels. The observation that the water contributing to the headwater streams in the Ovens catchment has a mean transit time of years to decades implies that these streams are buffered against rainfall variations on

  9. A Time Integration Algorithm Based on the State Transition Matrix for Structures with Time Varying and Nonlinear Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    A variable order method of integrating the structural dynamics equations that is based on the state transition matrix has been developed. The method has been evaluated for linear time variant and nonlinear systems of equations. When the time variation of the system can be modeled exactly by a polynomial it produces nearly exact solutions for a wide range of time step sizes. Solutions of a model nonlinear dynamic response exhibiting chaotic behavior have been computed. Accuracy of the method has been demonstrated by comparison with solutions obtained by established methods.

  10. A multivariate time-frequency method to characterize the influence of respiration over heart period and arterial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orini, Michele; Bailón, Raquel; Laguna, Pablo; Mainardi, Luca T.; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2012-12-01

    Respiratory activity introduces oscillations both in arterial pressure and heart period, through mechanical and autonomic mechanisms. Respiration, arterial pressure, and heart period are, generally, non-stationary processes and the interactions between them are dynamic. In this study we present a methodology to robustly estimate the time course of cross spectral indices to characterize dynamic interactions between respiratory oscillations of heart period and blood pressure, as well as their interactions with respiratory activity. Time-frequency distributions belonging to Cohen's class are used to estimate time-frequency (TF) representations of coherence, partial coherence and phase difference. The characterization is based on the estimation of the time course of cross spectral indices estimated in specific TF regions around the respiratory frequency. We used this methodology to describe the interactions between respiration, heart period variability (HPV) and systolic arterial pressure variability (SAPV) during tilt table test with both spontaneous and controlled respiratory patterns. The effect of selective autonomic blockade was also studied. Results suggest the presence of common underling mechanisms of regulation between cardiovascular signals, whose interactions are time-varying. SAPV changes followed respiratory flow both in supine and standing positions and even after selective autonomic blockade. During head-up tilt, phase differences between respiration and SAPV increased. Phase differences between respiration and HPV were comparable to those between respiration and SAPV during supine position, and significantly increased during standing. As a result, respiratory oscillations in SAPV preceded respiratory oscillations in HPV during standing. Partial coherence was the most sensitive index to orthostatic stress. Phase difference estimates were consistent among spontaneous and controlled breathing patterns, whereas coherence was higher in spontaneous breathing

  11. Transition time of nonlinear Landau-Zener model in adiabatic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan-Zuo; Tian, Dong-Ping; Chong, Bo

    2016-06-01

    The impact of nonlinear interaction on the loop structure of lower energy level and on the time evolution curve of canonical momentum which corresponds to the lower eigenstate are analyzed respectively. We find that the curve changes from single-valued to multi-valued as nonlinear interaction grows. The fascinating part is that the time range delimited by turning points in the loop of energy level and the period between two inflexion points on the multi-valued part of the evolution curve of canonical momentum are the same. Therefore, we propose a characteristic time in the transition process of nonlinear Landau-Zener model in adiabatic limit. Last, the physical meaning of the transition time as a measure of how much time the system experiences a structural change which directly results in the breakdown of adiabaticity is discussed.

  12. Surgical problems and complex procedures: issues for operative time in robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Dominik; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Schachner, Thomas; Weidinger, Felix; Lehr, Eric J; Vesely, Mark; Bonatti, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB) is a viable option for closed chest coronary surgery, but it requires learning curves and longer operative times. This study evaluated the effect of extended operation times on the outcome of patients undergoing TECAB. From 2001 to 2009, 325 patients underwent TECAB with the da Vinci telemanipulation system. Correlations between operative times and preoperative, intraoperative, and early postoperative parameters were investigated. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to define the threshold of the procedure duration above which intensive care unit stay and ventilation time were prolonged. Demographic data, intraoperative and postoperative parameters, and survival data were compared. Patients with prolonged operative times more often underwent multivessel revascularization (P < .001) and beating-heart TECAB (P =.023). Other preoperative parameters were not associated with longer operative times. Incidences of technical difficulties and conversions (P < .001) were higher among patients with longer operative times. Prolonged intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation, hospital stay, and with requirement of blood products were associated with longer operative times. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed operative times >445 minutes and >478 minutes to predict prolonged (>48 hours) intensive care unit stay and mechanical ventilation, respectively. Patients with procedures >478 minutes had longer hospital stays and higher perioperative morbidity and mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed decreased survival among patients with operative times >478 minutes. Multivessel revascularization and conversions lead to prolonged operative times in totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting. Longer operative times significantly influence early postoperative and midterm outcomes. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by

  13. Direct measurement of sequence-dependent transition path times and conformational diffusion in DNA duplex formation.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Krishna; Wang, Feng; Woodside, Michael T

    2017-02-07

    The conformational diffusion coefficient, D, sets the timescale for microscopic structural changes during folding transitions in biomolecules like nucleic acids and proteins. D encodes significant information about the folding dynamics such as the roughness of the energy landscape governing the folding and the level of internal friction in the molecule, but it is challenging to measure. The most sensitive measure of D is the time required to cross the energy barrier that dominates folding kinetics, known as the transition path time. To investigate the sequence dependence of D in DNA duplex formation, we measured individual transition paths from equilibrium folding trajectories of single DNA hairpins held under tension in high-resolution optical tweezers. Studying hairpins with the same helix length but with G:C base-pair content varying from 0 to 100%, we determined both the average time to cross the transition paths, τtp, and the distribution of individual transit times, PTP(t). We then estimated D from both τtp and PTP(t) from theories assuming one-dimensional diffusive motion over a harmonic barrier. τtp decreased roughly linearly with the G:C content of the hairpin helix, being 50% longer for hairpins with only A:T base pairs than for those with only G:C base pairs. Conversely, D increased linearly with helix G:C content, roughly doubling as the G:C content increased from 0 to 100%. These results reveal that G:C base pairs form faster than A:T base pairs because of faster conformational diffusion, possibly reflecting lower torsional barriers, and demonstrate the power of transition path measurements for elucidating the microscopic determinants of folding.

  14. Measuring the Masses and Radii of Sub-Neptunes with Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, J. J.; Rowe, J. F.; Fabrycky, D.

    2013-10-01

    The bounty of sub-Neptunes discovered by Kepler enables us to study a regime in planetary size and mass that is absent from the Solar System. This regime includes a transition from rocky planets to those with substantial amounts of volatiles-- in either ice mantles or deep atmospheres. Characterizing these worlds by their bulk densities can probe this transition, and this requires mass and radius determinations. Outside our solar system, there is a small sample of planets with known masses and radii, mostly hot jupiters whose radii are known from transit depths, and whose masses are determined from radial velocity spectroscopy (RV). In the absence of mass determinations via RV observations, transit timing variations (TTVs) offer a chance to probe perturbations between planets that pass close to one another or are near resonance, and hence dynamical fits to observed transit times can measure planetary masses and orbital parameters. Such modelling can probe planetary masses at longer orbital periods than RV targets, although not without some challenges. For example, in modeling pairwise planetary perturbations, a degeneracy between eccentricity and mass exists that limits the accuracy of mass determinations. Nevertheless, in several compact multiplanet systems, fitting complex TTV signals can break the degeneracy, permitting useful mass determinations. The precision in measuring the radius of a transiting planet rests on the uncertainty in the stellar radius, which is typically ~10% for targets with spectral follow-up. With dynamical fits, however, solutions for the orbital parameters including the eccentricity vectors can, alongside the transit lightcurves, tightly constrain the stellar density and radius. Revisiting the six-planet system of Kepler-11, our dynamical fits to TTVs, alongside spectroscopic data on the host star, reduced the stellar and hence planetary radius uncertainties to just 2%, permitting useful planetary density determinations. In the case of

  15. Long-term transit timing monitoring and homogenous study of WASP-32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei-Lei; Gu, Sheng-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cao, Dong-Tao; Wang, Yi-Bo; Xiang, Yue; Hui, Ho-Keung; Kwok, Chi-Tai; Yeung, Bill; Leung, Kam-Cheung

    2015-01-01

    We report new photometric observations of the transiting exoplanetary system WASP-32 made by using CCD cameras at Yunnan Observatories and Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, China from 2010 to 2012. Following our usual procedure, the observed data are corrected for systematic errors according to the coarse decorrelation and SYSREM algorithms so as to enhance the signal of the transit events. Combined with radial velocity data presented in the literature, our newly observed data and earlier photometric data in the literature are simultaneously analyzed to derive the physical parameters describing the system by employing the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The derived parameters are consistent with the result published in the original paper about WASP-32b, but the uncertainties of the new parameters are smaller than those in the original paper. Moreover, our modeling result supports a circular orbit for WASP-32b. Through the analysis of all available mid-transit times, we have refined the orbital period of WASP-32b; no evident transit timing variation is found in these transit events.

  16. Time-delay effects on the aging transition in a population of coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhumika; Sharma, Devendra; Sen, Abhijit

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the influence of time-delayed coupling on the nature of the aging transition in a system of coupled oscillators that have a mix of active and inactive oscillators, where the aging transition is defined as the gradual loss of collective synchrony as the proportion of inactive oscillators is increased. We start from a simple model of two time-delay coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators that have identical frequencies but are located at different distances from the Hopf bifurcation point. A systematic numerical and analytic study delineates the dependence of the critical coupling strength (at which the system experiences total loss of synchrony) on time delay and the average distance of the system from the Hopf bifurcation point. We find that time delay can act to facilitate the aging transition by lowering the threshold coupling strength for amplitude death in the system. We then extend our study to larger systems of globally coupled active and inactive oscillators including an infinite system in the thermodynamic limit. Our model system and results can provide a useful paradigm for understanding the functional robustness of diverse physical and biological systems that are prone to aging transitions.

  17. The Importance of Timing of Transitions for Risk of Regular Smoking and Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; He, Jianping; Kalaydjian, Amanda; Swendsen, Joel; Degenhardt, Louisa; Glantz, Meyer; Conway, Kevin; Anthony, James; Chiu, Wai Tat; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald; Merikangas, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between the timing and speed of transition among major smoking milestones (onset, weekly and daily smoking) and onset and recovery from nicotine dependence. Method Analyses are based on data from The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted between February 2001 and April 2003. Results Of those who had ever smoked (n=5,692), 71.3% had reached weekly smoking levels and 67.5% had reached daily smoking. Four in ten who had ever smoked met criteria for nicotine dependence. A shorter time since the onset of weekly and daily smoking was associated with a transition to both daily smoking and nicotine dependence, respectively. The risk for each smoking transition was highest within the year following the onset of the preceding milestone. Recovery was associated with a longer period of time between smoking initiation and the development of dependence and a later age of smoking onset. Conclusions These findings shed light on the clinical course of smoking and nicotine dependence. Given the importance of timing of smoking transitions, prevalence may be further reduced through intervention targeted at adolescents and young adults in the months most proximal to smoking initiation. PMID:18704617

  18. Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment: Longitudinal Profiles and Transitions over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization…

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transit timing variations of 145 Kepler planets (Hadden+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, S.; Lithwick, Y.

    2017-08-01

    We compute Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) fits to the Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) of 55 Kepler multiplanet systems exhibiting significant TTVs, 33 of which do not have N-body TTV fits reported previously in the literature. In addition, our work provides a uniform treatment of TTV systems that have previously been analyzed elsewhere. (4 data files).

  20. Relationship of an Early Placement Program to the Transition from School to Full-Time Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Ronald L.

    To evaluate the relationship of an early placement program to the initial transition from school to full-time employment and to determine whether actual work experience as part of the high school curriculum affects attitudes toward work and/or self-esteem, 100 senior students received a 6-9 week early placement as part of their vocational…

  1. Detection of gravitational waves from the QCD phase transition with pulsar timing arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Caprini, Chiara; Durrer, Ruth; Siemens, Xavier

    2010-09-15

    If the cosmological QCD phase transition is strongly first order and lasts sufficiently long, it generates a background of gravitational waves which may be detected via pulsar timing experiments. We estimate the amplitude and the spectral shape of such a background and we discuss its detectability prospects.

  2. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler. IX. Catalog of the Full Long-cadence Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holczer, Tomer; Mazeh, Tsevi; Nachmani, Gil; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.; Fabrycky, Daniel; Ragozzine, Darin; Kane, Mackenzie; Steffen, Jason H.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new transit timing catalog of 2599 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), using the PDC-MAP long-cadence light curves that include the full 17 quarters of the mission (ftp://wise-ftp.tau.ac.il/pub/tauttv/TTV/ver_112). The goal is to produce an easy-to-use catalog that can stimulate further analyses of interesting systems. For 779 KOIs with high enough S/N, we derived the timing, duration, and depth of 69,914 transits. For 1820 KOIs with lower SNR, we derived only the timing of 225,273 transits. After removal of outlier timings, we derived various statistics for each KOI that were used to indicate significant variations. Including systems found by previous works, we have detected 260 KOIs that showed significant TTVs with long-term variations (>100 days), and another 14 KOIs with periodic modulations shorter than 100 days and small amplitudes. For five of those, the periodicity is probably due to the crossing of rotating stellar spots by the transiting planets.

  3. Educational Transition: A Qualitative Study of Full-time Married Male Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    1989-01-01

    Interviews with 14 from a random sample of 20 full-time married male students at the University of Guelph examined how their lives and their families' lives had changed because of their participation in education. Findings indicate that this population entered the university in response to developmental transition and that students and their…

  4. The Classroom Infrastructure and the Early Learner: Reducing Aggression during Transition Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardino, Caroline; Fullerton, Elizabeth Kirby

    2012-01-01

    High levels of aggressive behaviors were observed during the transition times in two selfcontained special education classrooms: a kindergarten and pre-kindergarten. The present case studies examine how modifying the classroom infrastructure impacts students' aggressive behavior. Teachers were assisted on the usage of select modifications (visual…

  5. The Influence of Unpaid Work on the Transition out of Full-Time Paid Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Dawn C.; Kail, Ben Lennox

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Continued employment after retirement and engagement in unpaid work are both important ways of diminishing the negative economic effects of the retirement of baby boomer cohorts on society. Little research, however, examines the relationship between paid and unpaid work at the transition from full-time work. Using a resource perspective…

  6. Effect of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) on colonic transit time in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Geyer, M; Manrique, I; Degen, L; Beglinger, C

    2008-01-01

    Yacon is a root crop which contains high amounts of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yacon syrup on colon transit time in healthy volunteers. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study yacon was administered to 16 healthy individuals (8 males, 8 females) in a dose of 20 g daily (equal to 6.4 g FOS) in a 2-week crossover design. Each period was interrupted by a 2-week wash-out phase. Transit time was assessed by a radio-opaque marker technique. Transit time (mean +/- SEM) through the gastrointestinal tract was significantly decreased from 59.7 +/- 4.3 to 38.4 +/- 4.2 h (p < 0.001). Yacon was well tolerated with an excellent side effect profile. Bloating is not an uncommon side effect observed with FOS, but bloating-related disturbances were not significantly more often reported with yacon compared to placebo. Stool frequency increased from 1.1 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.2 times per day and the consistency showed a tendency for softer stools as assessed by a numerical depicted stool protocol. Neither parameter did, however, reach statistical significance. Yacon markedly accelerates colonic transit in healthy individuals. Further studies are needed in constipated patients to confirm these preliminary data. Due to the low caloric content of yacon, the root could be a useful treatment in constipated diabetics or obese patients. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Non-Hermitian time-dependent perturbation theory: Asymmetric transitions and transitionless interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    The ordinary time-dependent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics, that describes the interaction of a stationary system with a time-dependent perturbation, predicts that the transition probabilities induced by the perturbation are symmetric with respect to the initial and final states. Here we extend time-dependent perturbation theory into the non-Hermitian realm and consider the transitions in a stationary Hermitian system, described by a self-adjoint Hamiltonian Hˆ0, induced by a time-dependent non-Hermitian interaction f(t) Hˆ1. In the weak interaction (perturbative) limit, the transition probabilities generally turn out to be asymmetric for exchange of initial and final states. In particular, for a temporal shape f(t) of the perturbation with one-sided Fourier spectrum, i.e. with only positive (or negative) frequency components, transitions are fully unidirectional, a result that holds even in the strong interaction regime. Interestingly, we show that non-Hermitian perturbations can be tailored to be transitionless, i.e. the perturbation leaves the system unchanged as if the interaction had not occurred at all, regardless the form of Hˆ0 and Hˆ1. As an application of our results, we provide important physical insights into the asymmetric (chiral) behavior of dynamical encircling of an exceptional point in two- and three-level non-Hermitian systems.

  8. The Measurement of Time: Children's Construction of Transitivity, Unit Iteration, and Conservation of Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathy; Kamii, Constance

    2001-01-01

    Interviews 120 children in kindergarten and grades 2, 4, and 6 with five Piagetian tasks to determine the grade level at which most have constructed transitive reasoning, unit iteration, and conservation of speed. Indicates that construction of the logic necessary to make sense of the measurement of time is generally not complete before sixth…

  9. Nonlinear transition dynamics in a time-delayed vibration isolator under combined harmonic and stochastic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Cao, Qingjie

    2017-04-01

    Based on the quasi-zero stiffness vibration isolation (QZS-VI) system, nonlinear transition dynamics have been investigated coupled with both time-delayed displacement and velocity feedbacks. Using a delayed nonlinear Langevin approach, we discuss a new mechanism for the transition of a vibration isolator in which the energy originates from harmonic and noise excitations. For this stochastic process, the effective displacement potential, stationary probability density function and the escape ratio are obtained. We investigate a variety of noise-induced behaviors affecting the transitions between system equilibria states. The results indicate that the phenomena of transition, resonant activation and delay-enhanced stability may emerge in the QZS-VI system. Moreover, we also show that the time delay, delay feedback intensities, and harmonic excitation play significant roles in the resonant activation and delay-enhanced stability phenomena. Finally, a quantitative measure for amplitude response has been carried out to evaluate the isolation performance of the controlled QZS-VI system. The results show that with properly designed feedback parameters, time delay and displacement feedback intensity can play the role of a damping force. This research provides instructive ideas on the application of the time-delayed control in practical engineering.

  10. The Family Transition Program: Implementation and Early Impacts of Florida's Initial Time-Limited Welfare Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; And Others

    Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP) combines a welfare time limit of 24-36 months with services, requirements, and financial incentives designed to help welfare recipients find and hold jobs. Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) applicants who were not incapacitated, disabled, or otherwise exempt from the FTP program were randomly…

  11. Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment: Longitudinal Profiles and Transitions over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization…

  12. Effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity on coherence resonance and synchronization transitions by time delay in adaptive neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huijuan; Gong, Yubing; Wang, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we numerically study how time delay induces multiple coherence resonance (MCR) and synchronization transitions (ST) in adaptive Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). It is found that MCR induced by time delay STDP can be either enhanced or suppressed as the adjusting rate Ap of STDP changes, and ST by time delay varies with the increase of Ap, and there is optimal Ap by which the ST becomes strongest. It is also found that there are optimal network randomness and network size by which ST by time delay becomes strongest, and when Ap increases, the optimal network randomness and optimal network size increase and related ST is enhanced. These results show that STDP can either enhance or suppress MCR and optimal STDP can enhance ST induced by time delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide a new insight into STDP's role for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  13. Change in brain perfusion after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery detected using the mean transit time of computed tomography perfusion.

    PubMed

    Teng, Michael Mu Huo; Jen, Sen-Li; Chiu, Fang-Ying; Kao, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Jung; Chang, Feng-Chi

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral perfusion can be evaluated using a computed tomography (CT) scan by intravenous bolus injection of contrast media. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of CT perfusion (CTP) in follow-up of extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. We retrospectively reviewed pre- and postoperative CTP studies in 14 patients who received EC-IC bypass surgery because of cerebral arterial occlusion or stenosis. Brain areas showing prolongation of the mean transit time (MTT) were automatically identified and quantitatively measured. All 14 patients showed MTT prolongation in the preoperative CTP study. In 13 patients, a reduction in brain volume with MTT prolongation was noted during postoperative CTP. These 13 patients had a patent EC-IC anastomosis, and 42 ± 21% of the brain area with MTT prolongation returned to normal MTT during CTP 7 ± 4 days (range 2-13 days) after surgery. On clinical follow up of 41 ± 16 months (range 14-60 months), no stroke or transient ischemic attack was noted after bypass surgery in these 13 patients. The brain volume with MTT prolongation did not decrease in just one patient whose EC-IC anastomosis was not patent, and the patient suffered a minor stroke during surgery. Quantitative results for the brain area with MTT prolongation were positively correlated with improvement in brain perfusion shown on MTT, EC-IC bypass patency, and patient outcome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Changes in Sleep Duration and Sleep Timing Associated with Retirement Transitions.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Erika W; Barnet, Jodi H; Hale, Lauren; Peppard, Paul E

    2016-03-01

    Investigate whether retirement transitions are associated with changes in sleep duration and sleep timing, and whether these associations are modified by age, sex, mental health, or circadian preference. The Retirement and Sleep Trajectories (REST) study is a longitudinal study consisting of four annual mailed surveys that collected information about employment, sleep, and health. Differences in reported sleep duration, bedtime and wake time between successive surveys were calculated to estimate change over 1, 2, and 3 y. Linear regression models were used to estimate changes in these sleep parameters associated with retirement 1, 2, and 3 y posttransition. Retiring from full-time work was associated with bedtimes that were 30, 31, and 36 min later 1, 2, and 3 y postretirement; wake times that were 63, 69, and 78 min later; and sleep durations that were 15, 16, and 22 min longer 1, 2, and 3 y postretirement. These associations did not differ by sex or mental health status. Age and circadian preference modified the associations between retirement and change in sleep parameters; the increase in sleep duration was shorter and the wake time extension was lesser with advancing retirement age; those with evening preference had longer wake time extensions than those with morning preference. Transitioning to retirement is associated with longer sleep duration, later bedtimes, and later wake times. These changes were detectable about 1 y postwork transition and were persistent up to 3 y later. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Spontaneous rupture of aneurysms of the ovarian artery at times remote from pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Yuzo; Iwamura, Taro; Hoshino, Hiroki; Takahashi, Ken; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Koshi

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm of the ovarian artery is usually considered a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. However, we observed this emergent condition in a 51-year-old postmenopausal woman. We report here our experiences and consider lessons about diagnosis and management that can be drawn from this case and 5 other published cases in multiparous middle-aged women. These lessons include application of contrast-enhanced computed tomography to focus emergent care, surgical intervention, and association with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We also consider how the cases might shed new light on the pathogenesis and evolution of this condition.

  16. Total and Segmental Colon Transit Time Study in Functional Constipation: Comparison With Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Prasad A.; Patel, Jatin A.; Parikh, Pathik; Ingle, Meghraj A.; Phadke, Anniruddha; Sawant, Prabha D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common problem worldwide. Constipation can be primary or secondary. Primary constipation is subdivided in slow transit constipation, normal transit constipation, and dyssynergic defecation. Colon transit time (CTT) is the most basic and primary tool in evaluating disorders of colonic motility. CTT helps to differentiate between types of constipation and plan the treatment. Methods Fifty functional constipation patients and 25 healthy controls were asked to ingest four gelatin capsules (each containing five radio-opaque markers) at 0, 12 and 24 hours. An abdominal X-ray was taken at 36 hours. Total or segmental CTT was measured after calculating the number of markers remaining in each segment at 36 hours on abdominal X-ray. Results Mean CTT in healthy controls in our study was 15.4 hours which is shorter than western population. Total CTT is significantly higher in constipation group (23 hours) compared to healthy subjects (15.4 hours). Transit time in right segment was significantly high in constipation group than healthy population (14.2 vs. 8.3 hours). Total as well as segmental transit times are slightly higher in females as compared to males in both the groups, however not statistically significant. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies from India that compared the CTTs in functional constipation and healthy controls. Conclusion Radio-opaque marker study for CTT is a simple and reliable technique for evaluation of constipation. Patients with functional constipation have significantly longer CTT than healthy population. Total CTT is much less in this study population compared to west. There is need to establish standards for slow colon transit. PMID:27785288

  17. Total and Segmental Colon Transit Time Study in Functional Constipation: Comparison With Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Bhate, Prasad A; Patel, Jatin A; Parikh, Pathik; Ingle, Meghraj A; Phadke, Anniruddha; Sawant, Prabha D

    2015-02-01

    Constipation is a common problem worldwide. Constipation can be primary or secondary. Primary constipation is subdivided in slow transit constipation, normal transit constipation, and dyssynergic defecation. Colon transit time (CTT) is the most basic and primary tool in evaluating disorders of colonic motility. CTT helps to differentiate between types of constipation and plan the treatment. Fifty functional constipation patients and 25 healthy controls were asked to ingest four gelatin capsules (each containing five radio-opaque markers) at 0, 12 and 24 hours. An abdominal X-ray was taken at 36 hours. Total or segmental CTT was measured after calculating the number of markers remaining in each segment at 36 hours on abdominal X-ray. Mean CTT in healthy controls in our study was 15.4 hours which is shorter than western population. Total CTT is significantly higher in constipation group (23 hours) compared to healthy subjects (15.4 hours). Transit time in right segment was significantly high in constipation group than healthy population (14.2 vs. 8.3 hours). Total as well as segmental transit times are slightly higher in females as compared to males in both the groups, however not statistically significant. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies from India that compared the CTTs in functional constipation and healthy controls. Radio-opaque marker study for CTT is a simple and reliable technique for evaluation of constipation. Patients with functional constipation have significantly longer CTT than healthy population. Total CTT is much less in this study population compared to west. There is need to establish standards for slow colon transit.

  18. Bunching transition in a time-headway model of a bus route.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, T

    2001-03-01

    A time-headway model is presented to mimic bus behavior on the bus route. The motion of a bus is described in terms of the time headway between its bus and the bus in front. We study the bunching behavior of buses induced by interacting with other buses and passengers. It is shown that the dynamical phase transitions among the inhomogeneous bunching phase, the homogeneous free phase, the coexisting phase, and the homogeneous congested phase occur with varying the initial time headway. We study the effect of not stopping at bus stops on the time-headway profile. It is found that the bunching transition lines are consistent with the neutral stability curves obtained by the linear stability analysis.

  19. The barrier method: a technique for calculating very long transition times.

    PubMed

    Adams, D A; Sander, L M; Ziff, R M

    2010-09-28

    In many dynamical systems, there is a large separation of time scales between typical events and "rare" events which can be the cases of interest. Rare-event rates are quite difficult to compute numerically, but they are of considerable practical importance in many fields, for example, transition times in chemical physics and extinction times in epidemiology can be very long, but are quite important. We present a very fast numerical technique that can be used to find long transition times (very small rates) in low-dimensional systems, even if they lack detailed balance. We illustrate the method for a bistable nonequilibrium system introduced by Maier and Stein and a two-dimensional (in parameter space) epidemiology model.

  20. Phase transition of charged-AdS black holes and quasinormal modes: A time domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabab, M.; El Moumni, H.; Iraoui, S.; Masmar, K.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the time evolution of a massless scalar perturbation around small and large RN-AdS4 black holes for the purpose of probing the thermodynamic phase transition. We show that below the critical point the scalar perturbation decays faster with increasing of the black hole size, both for small and large black hole phases. Our analysis of the time profile of quasinormal mode reveals a sharp distinction between the behaviors of both phases, providing a reliable tool to probe the black hole phase transition. However at the critical point P=Pc, as the black hole size extends, we note that the damping time increases and the perturbation decays faster, the oscillation frequencies raise either in small and large black hole phase. In this case the time evolution approach fails to track the AdS4 black hole phase.

  1. Establishment of a protocol for determining gastrointestinal transit time in mice using barium and radiopaque markers.

    PubMed

    Myagmarjalbuu, Bolormaa; Moon, Myeong Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Seo In; Park, Jong-Seong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a minimally invasive and reproducible protocol for estimating the gastrointestinal (GI) transit time in mice using barium and radiopaque markers. Twenty 5- to 6-week-old Balb/C female mice weighing 19-21 g were used. The animals were divided into three groups: two groups that received loperamide and a control group. The control group (n = 10) animals were administered physiological saline (1.5 mL/kg) orally. The loperamide group I (n = 10) and group II (n = 10) animals were administered 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg loperamide orally, respectively. Thirty minutes after receiving the saline or loperamide, the mice was administered 80 µL of barium solution and six iron balls (0.5 mm) via the mouth and the upper esophagus by gavage, respectively. Afterwards, the mice were continuously monitored with fluoroscopic imaging in order to evaluate the swallowing of the barium solution and markers. Serial fluoroscopic images were obtained at 5- or 10-min intervals until all markers had been excreted from the anal canal. For analysis, the GI transit times were subdivided into intestinal transit times (ITTs) and colon transit times (CTTs). The mean ITT was significantly longer in the loperamide groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean ITT in loperamide group II (174.5 ± 32.3) was significantly longer than in loperamide group I (133.2 ± 24.2 minute) (p < 0.05). The mean CTT was significantly longer in loperamide group II than in the control group (p < 0.05). Also, no animal succumbed to death after the experimental procedure. The protocol for our study using radiopaque markers and barium is reproducible and minimally invasive in determining the GI transit time of the mouse model.

  2. Establishment of a Protocol for Determining Gastrointestinal Transit Time in Mice Using Barium and Radiopaque Markers

    PubMed Central

    Myagmarjalbuu, Bolormaa; Moon, Myeong Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Seo In; Park, Jong-Seong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to establish a minimally invasive and reproducible protocol for estimating the gastrointestinal (GI) transit time in mice using barium and radiopaque markers. Materials and Methods Twenty 5- to 6-week-old Balb/C female mice weighing 19-21 g were used. The animals were divided into three groups: two groups that received loperamide and a control group. The control group (n = 10) animals were administered physiological saline (1.5 mL/kg) orally. The loperamide group I (n = 10) and group II (n = 10) animals were administered 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg loperamide orally, respectively. Thirty minutes after receiving the saline or loperamide, the mice was administered 80 µL of barium solution and six iron balls (0.5 mm) via the mouth and the upper esophagus by gavage, respectively. Afterwards, the mice were continuously monitored with fluoroscopic imaging in order to evaluate the swallowing of the barium solution and markers. Serial fluoroscopic images were obtained at 5- or 10-min intervals until all markers had been excreted from the anal canal. For analysis, the GI transit times were subdivided into intestinal transit times (ITTs) and colon transit times (CTTs). Results The mean ITT was significantly longer in the loperamide groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean ITT in loperamide group II (174.5 ± 32.3) was significantly longer than in loperamide group I (133.2 ± 24.2 minute) (p < 0.05). The mean CTT was significantly longer in loperamide group II than in the control group (p < 0.05). Also, no animal succumbed to death after the experimental procedure. Conclusion The protocol for our study using radiopaque markers and barium is reproducible and minimally invasive in determining the GI transit time of the mouse model. PMID:23323030

  3. LONG-TERM TRANSIT TIMING MONITORING AND REFINED LIGHT CURVE PARAMETERS OF HAT-P-13b

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Pal, Andras; Zachary Gazak, J.

    2011-09-15

    We present 10 new transit light curves of the transiting hot Jupiter HAT-P-13b, obtained during two observational seasons by three different telescopes. When combined with 12 previously published light curves, we have a sample consisting of 22 transit light curves, spanning 1041 days across four observational seasons. We use this sample to examine the recently observed large-amplitude transit timing variations (TTVs) by Pal et al. and give refined system parameters. We find that the transit times are consistent with a linear ephemeris, with the exception of a single transit time, from UT 2009 November 5, for which the measured mid-transit time significantly deviates from our linear ephemeris. The nature of this deviation is not clear, and the rest of the data do not show any significant TTVs.

  4. Late time cosmological phase transitions 1: Particle physics models and cosmic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Hill, Christopher T.; Watkins, Richard

    1991-01-01

    We described a natural particle physics basis for late-time phase transitions in the universe. Such a transition can seed the formation of large-scale structure while leaving a minimal imprint upon the microwave background anisotropy. The key ingredient is an ultra-light pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson with an astronomically large (O(kpc-Mpc)) Compton wavelength. We analyze the cosmological signatures of and constraints upon a wide class of scenarios which do not involve domain walls. In addition to seeding structure, coherent ultra-light bosons may also provide unclustered dark matter in a spatially flat universe, omega sub phi approx. = 1.

  5. Linear and nonlinear theory of the proton beam transit-time oscillator (TTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, John E.; Mostrom, Michael A.; Clark, Randy M.; Arman, M. Joseph; Campbell, Mark M.

    1989-07-01

    A theoretical characterization is presented for both the small- and large-amplitude behaviors of the intense beam-driven transit-time oscillator device which encompasses the effects of the beam self-fields and space-charge effects. The theory has been employed in the development of expressions for comparison with particle simulation results. Attention is given to the effect of beam-plasma frequency on gain, saturation growth in the monotron, the effects of space-charge depression on the transit angle, and the dependence of monotron performance on beam energy.

  6. The Diversity of Low-mass Exoplanets Characterized via Transit Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack. J.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2016-10-01

    Transit timing variations (TTV) in multi-transiting systems enables precise characterizations of low-mass planets and their orbits. The range of orbital periods and incident fluxes with detailed TTV constraints complements the radial velocity sample for low-mass planets, pushing exoplanet characterization to the regime sub-Earth size planets and out to Mercury-like distances. This has revealed an astonishing diversity in the density of super-Earth mass planets. We summarize these and other contributions to exoplanet science from TTVs.

  7. Changes in Sleep Duration and Sleep Timing Associated with Retirement Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Erika W.; Barnet, Jodi H.; Hale, Lauren; Peppard, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Investigate whether retirement transitions are associated with changes in sleep duration and sleep timing, and whether these associations are modified by age, sex, mental health, or circadian preference. Methods: The Retirement and Sleep Trajectories (REST) study is a longitudinal study consisting of four annual mailed surveys that collected information about employment, sleep, and health. Differences in reported sleep duration, bedtime and wake time between successive surveys were calculated to estimate change over 1, 2, and 3 y. Linear regression models were used to estimate changes in these sleep parameters associated with retirement 1, 2, and 3 y posttransition. Results: Retiring from full-time work was associated with bedtimes that were 30, 31, and 36 min later 1, 2, and 3 y postretirement; wake times that were 63, 69, and 78 min later; and sleep durations that were 15, 16, and 22 min longer 1, 2, and 3 y postretirement. These associations did not differ by sex or mental health status. Age and circadian preference modified the associations between retirement and change in sleep parameters; the increase in sleep duration was shorter and the wake time extension was lesser with advancing retirement age; those with evening preference had longer wake time extensions than those with morning preference. Conclusion: Transitioning to retirement is associated with longer sleep duration, later bedtimes, and later wake times. These changes were detectable about 1 y postwork transition and were persistent up to 3 y later. Citation: Hagen EW, Barnet JH, Hale L, Peppard PE. Changes in sleep duration and sleep timing associated with retirement transitions. SLEEP 2016;39(3):665–673. PMID:26564125

  8. Hepatic transit time analysis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound with BR1: A prospective study comparing patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer with healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Joachim; Müller, Christine; Oldenburg, Anja; Skrok, Jan; Frericks, Bernd B; Wolf, Karl-Jürgen; Albrecht, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    We prospectively compared hepatic transit time (HTT) measurements in subjects with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (group a) and healthy volunteers (group b) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound with BR1. The purpose of this study was to verify our hypothesis that the hemodynamic changes of the liver, which occur during metastasis seeding, would shorten the HTT, and we expect that such changes could be used for the detection of occult liver metastases from colorectal cancer in the future. The study had institutional review board approval and all subjects gave informed written consent. Group a and group b consisted of 22 subjects each. Baseline and post contrast images were acquired starting 10 s before and ending 40 s after administration of BR1, using nonlinear imaging at a frame rate of 5/s. The baseline images were used to determine the signal intensity without contrast enhancement as the reference signal. Arrival times (AT) of the contrast agent for the hepatic artery, the portal vein and one hepatic vein were determined using (i) quantitative analysis and (ii) subjective analysis by two blinded readers. HTT was calculated based on arrival time measurements. Quantitative and subjective analysis showed significantly shorter arterial to venous and portal to venous HTT in group a compared with group b (p < 0.001). Arterial to venous HTT (quantitative analysis) was < or = 9 s in 19 of 22 subjects of group a and >9 s in 18 of 22 subjects of group b (sensitivity 86%, specificity 82%, positive predictive value 83%, negative predictive value 86%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.87). Portal to venous HTT (quantitative analysis) was < 7 s in 21 of 22 subjects of group a and > 7s in 15 of 22 subjects of group b (sensitivity 95%, specificity 68%, PPV 75%, NPV 94%, AUC 0.85). There was an inverse relation with number of liver segments involved for arterial to venous and portal to venous HTT in group a (p < 0.05), but no correlation between HTT and overall volume of

  9. Incorporating real-time traffic and weather data to explore road accident likelihood and severity in urban arterials.

    PubMed

    Theofilatos, Athanasios

    2017-06-01

    The effective treatment of road accidents and thus the enhancement of road safety is a major concern to societies due to the losses in human lives and the economic and social costs. The investigation of road accident likelihood and severity by utilizing real-time traffic and weather data has recently received significant attention by researchers. However, collected data mainly stem from freeways and expressways. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to add to the current knowledge by investigating accident likelihood and severity by exploiting real-time traffic and weather data collected from urban arterials in Athens, Greece. Random Forests (RF) are firstly applied for preliminary analysis purposes. More specifically, it is aimed to rank candidate variables according to their relevant importance and provide a first insight on the potential significant variables. Then, Bayesian logistic regression as well finite mixture and mixed effects logit models are applied to further explore factors associated with accident likelihood and severity respectively. Regarding accident likelihood, the Bayesian logistic regression showed that variations in traffic significantly influence accident occurrence. On the other hand, accident severity analysis revealed a generally mixed influence of traffic variations on accident severity, although international literature states that traffic variations increase severity. Lastly, weather parameters did not find to have a direct influence on accident likelihood or severity. The study added to the current knowledge by incorporating real-time traffic and weather data from urban arterials to investigate accident occurrence and accident severity mechanisms. The identification of risk factors can lead to the development of effective traffic management strategies to reduce accident occurrence and severity of injuries in urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulation of Electron Cloud Density Distributions in RHIC Dipoles at Injection and Transition and Estimates for Scrubbing Times

    SciTech Connect

    He,P.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.

    2009-01-02

    In this report we summarize electron-cloud simulations for the RHIC dipole regions at injection and transition to estimate if scrubbing over practical time scales at injection would reduce the electron cloud density at transition to significantly lower values. The lower electron cloud density at transition will allow for an increase in the ion intensity.

  11. Radiographic analysis of the effect of dietary fibers on rat colonic transit time

    SciTech Connect

    Lupton, J.R.; Meacher, M.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The effect of different fiber sources on colonic transit time was charted using serial radiographs. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats, 10 rats per group, were provided with either a fiber-free control diet or the control diet uniformly diluted to provide 8% dietary fiber from guar, pectin, cellulose, wheat bran, or oat bran. At surgery, radiopaque markers were inserted at defined distances in the mesentary closest to the large bowel. Three weeks postsurgery, the animals were intubated with 0.5 ml of a radiopaque marker, and radiographs were taken at 15-min intervals. Of the two poorly fermented fibers, cellulose was as slow as and wheat bran was faster than the fiber-free controls at five out of the six bowel segments measured. The fermentable fibers (pectin, guar, and oat bran) were fast through some bowel segments and slow through others. This study provides in vivo data on colonic transit time and shows that neither 24-h fecal weight nor total transit time is a good predictor of the rate of transit through particular gut segments.

  12. Measurement of Planet Masses with Transit Timing Variations Due to Synodic “Chopping” Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Katherine M.; Agol, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational interactions between planets in transiting exoplanetary systems lead to variations in the times of transit that are diagnostic of the planetary masses and the dynamical state of the system. Here we show that synodic “chopping” contributions to these transit timing variations (TTVs) can be used to uniquely measure the masses of planets without full dynamical analyses involving direct integration of the equations of motion. We present simple analytic formulae for the chopping signal, which are valid (generally \\lt 10% error) for modest eccentricities e≲ 0.1. Importantly, these formulae primarily depend on the mass of the perturbing planet, and therefore the chopping signal can be used to break the mass/free-eccentricity degeneracy, which can appear for systems near first-order mean motion resonances. Using a harmonic analysis, we apply these TTV formulae to a number of Kepler systems, which had been previously modeled with full dynamical analyses. We show that when chopping is measured, the masses of both planets can be determined uniquely, in agreement with previous results, but without the need for numerical orbit integrations. This demonstrates how mass measurements from TTVs may primarily arise from an observable chopping signal. The formula for chopping can also be used to predict the number of transits and timing precision required for future observations, such as those made by TESS or PLATO, in order to infer planetary masses through analysis of TTVs.

  13. Dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: longitudinal profiles and transitions over time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization experienced by youth. The sample was ethnically diverse, consisting of 795 seventh-grade students from schools that were part of a multi-site, longitudinal evaluation of a dating violence initiative (50 % female; 27 % White, 32 % African American, 25 % Latino, 16 % other or multiple races). Results from latent transition analyses revealed five classes of students with distinct behavioral profiles: multi-problem (victimization and perpetration), bullying and sexual harassment (victimization and perpetration), bullying (victimization and perpetration) and sexual harassment (victimization only), bullying (victimization and perpetration), and a least problem group. The majority of classes were characterized by reports of both perpetration and victimization for at least one behavior. Girls were more likely to be in the less problematic classes. Class membership was fairly stable across the three time points. When students transitioned to a different class, the shift was most often from a more problematic to a less problematic class, particularly for girls. The findings support understanding dating violence within a dynamic, developmental process that recognizes related behaviors within and across individuals. Overall, the findings highlight the utility of person-oriented approaches to enhance our understanding of longitudinal profiles and transitions over time for dating violence and related behaviors.

  14. Parity-time symmetry-breaking mechanism of dynamic Mott transitions in dissipative systems

    DOE PAGES

    Tripathi, Vikram; Galda, Alexey; Barman, Himadri; ...

    2016-07-05

    Here, we describe the critical behavior of the electric field-driven (dynamic) Mott insulator-to-metal transitions in dissipative Fermi and Bose systems in terms of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians invariant under simultaneous parity (P) and time-reversal (T) operations. The dynamic Mott transition is identified as a PT symmetry-breaking phase transition, with the Mott insulating state corresponding to the regime of unbroken PT symmetry with a real energy spectrum. We also established that the imaginary part of the Hamiltonian arises from the combined effects of the driving field and inherent dissipation. We derive the renormalization and collapse of the Mott gap at the dielectric breakdownmore » and describe the resulting critical behavior of transport characteristics. The critical exponent we obtained is in an excellent agreement with experimental findings.« less

  15. Possible Transit Timing Variations of the TrES-3 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yeh, Li-Chin; Thakur, Parijat; Wu, Yu-Ting; Chien, Ping; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Hong-Yu; Hu, Juei-Hwa; Sun, Zhao; Ji, Jianghui

    2013-03-01

    Five newly observed transit light curves of the TrES-3 planetary system are presented. Together with other light-curve data from the literature, 23 transit light curves in total, which cover an overall timescale of 911 epochs, have been analyzed through a standard procedure. From these observational data, the system's orbital parameters are determined and possible transit timing variations (TTVs) are investigated. Given that a null TTV produces a fit with reduced χ2 = 1.52, our results agree with previous work, that TTVs might not exist in these data. However, a one-frequency oscillating TTV model, giving a fit with a reduced χ2 = 0.93, does possess a statistically higher probability. It is thus concluded that future observations and dynamical simulations for this planetary system will be very important.

  16. POSSIBLE TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS OF THE TrES-3 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Wu, Yu-Ting; Chien, Ping; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Hong-Yu; Hu, Juei-Hwa; Yeh, Li-Chin; Thakur, Parijat; Sun Zhao; Ji Jianghui

    2013-03-15

    Five newly observed transit light curves of the TrES-3 planetary system are presented. Together with other light-curve data from the literature, 23 transit light curves in total, which cover an overall timescale of 911 epochs, have been analyzed through a standard procedure. From these observational data, the system's orbital parameters are determined and possible transit timing variations (TTVs) are investigated. Given that a null TTV produces a fit with reduced {chi}{sup 2} = 1.52, our results agree with previous work, that TTVs might not exist in these data. However, a one-frequency oscillating TTV model, giving a fit with a reduced {chi}{sup 2} = 0.93, does possess a statistically higher probability. It is thus concluded that future observations and dynamical simulations for this planetary system will be very important.

  17. Single-point position and transition defects in continuous time quantum walks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z. J.; Wang, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of continuous time quantum walks (CTQW) with both position and transition defects defined at a single point in the line. Analytical solutions of both traveling waves and bound states are obtained, which provide valuable insight into the dynamics of CTQW. The number of bound states is found to be critically dependent on the defect parameters, and the localized probability peaks can be readily obtained by projecting the state vector of CTQW on to these bound states. The interference between two bound states are also observed in the case of a transition defect. The spreading of CTQW probability over the line can be finely tuned by varying the position and transition defect parameters, offering the possibility of precision quantum control of the system. PMID:26323855

  18. Parity-time symmetry-breaking mechanism of dynamic Mott transitions in dissipative systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Vikram; Galda, Alexey; Barman, Himadri; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2016-07-05

    Here, we describe the critical behavior of the electric field-driven (dynamic) Mott insulator-to-metal transitions in dissipative Fermi and Bose systems in terms of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians invariant under simultaneous parity (P) and time-reversal (T) operations. The dynamic Mott transition is identified as a PT symmetry-breaking phase transition, with the Mott insulating state corresponding to the regime of unbroken PT symmetry with a real energy spectrum. We also established that the imaginary part of the Hamiltonian arises from the combined effects of the driving field and inherent dissipation. We derive the renormalization and collapse of the Mott gap at the dielectric breakdown and describe the resulting critical behavior of transport characteristics. The critical exponent we obtained is in an excellent agreement with experimental findings.

  19. Transit time estimation using tritium and stable isotopes in a Mediterranean mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig-Planasdemunt, Maria; Stewart, Mike; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Water resources of Mediterranean regions mainly depend on runoff generated in mountain areas. Therefore, study of the time water spends travelling through Mediterranean mountains is important for water resources management as it reflects the ability of catchments to retain and release water. Natural isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes) have been used in different environments to quantify the ages of water within catchments. However, there are relatively few studies of water transit times in Mediterranean mountain regions. Additionally, tritium dating is more common in Southern Hemisphere streams because they were less affected by tritium produced mainly in the North Hemisphere by nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 60s. With the aim of improving knowledge of the hydrological catchment functioning of Mediterranean mountain areas, this work estimates water transit times in spring water, groundwater and stream water using tritium and stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) measurements in the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). Tritium measurements from a previous study carried out in 1996-1998 (Herrmann et al., 1999) were supplemented by new samples collected on 3 November 2013. Difficulties with the age interpretation of the tritium measurements arise from the determination of the tritium input function, the different accuracies of the tritium measurements and the ambiguous ages resulting from past input of tritium from nuclear testing to the atmosphere. Water stable isotope samples were collected in rainfall, spring water, groundwater and streamwater at baseflow conditions every 15 days over a 27 month period. Detailed distributed hydrometric measurements (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, discharge and water table level) were obtained during the same period. Preliminary results using δ18O, δ2H and tritium show that mean transit times in the Cal Rodó catchment (4.2 km2) ranged between 1.3 and 11.6 years. The lowest mean

  20. First Experiences in Percutaneous Arterial Chemoembolization of Malignant Liver Lesions by Means of Real-Time CT Fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, Johannes; Laufer, Ulf; Kickuth, Ralph; Schilling, Esther M.; Scherf, Claudia; Liermann, Dieter

    1999-11-15

    Computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF) allows real-time display (continuous imaging) and has been increasingly used in interventional procedures. We wished to demonstrate the usefulness of CTF in chemoembolization of the liver. Twenty-one patients with primary or secondary malignant lesions of the liver underwent CTF-guided chemoembolization after angiographic positioning of a catheter in the hepatic artery. Embolization materials such as Lipiodol and mitomycin C were administered under continuous CT scanning. CTF led to a change of the method (correction of catheter position, application of norepinephrine) in nine of 21 cases. There were no fatal complications.

  1. [Effects of various prokinetic drugs on gastrointestinal transit times in patients with progressive systemic scleroderma].

    PubMed

    Folwaczny, C; Läritz, M; Meurer, M; Endres, S P; König, A; Schindlbeck, N

    1997-10-01

    The intestine is involved in about half of the cases with progressive-systemic sclerosis. Intestinal transit disturbances which are caused by neuropathy of the enteric nerve system occur frequently. However, upto-date only few studies which determined the effect of prokinetic drugs exist. Patients with intestinal involvement caused by progressive-systemic sclerosis were treated with the prokinetic drugs cisapride (20 mg, TID; n = 9), erythromycin (250 mg, TID; n = 7) and octreotide (50 micrograms s. c., at night time; n = 5) over a period of four weeks. At study entry and after each treatment period the transit times through the stomach, small and large intestine were evaluated by use of the metal-detector test. Gastric emptying was only accelerated by erythromycin (42 +/- 3 min vs. 54 +/- 6 min; p = 0.0422), whereas treatment with cisapride and octreotide did not result in significant changes (48 +/- 4 min; p = 0.3743 and 44 +/- 4 min; p = 0.1975; resp.). Small intestinal transit times were not altered significantly by cisapride (108 +/- 15 min vs. 108 +/- 9 min; p = 0.2733), crythromycin (92 +/- 8 min; p = 0.0707) or octreotide (106 +/- 12 min; p = 0.8927). Furthermore colonic transit was not fastened by none of the prokinetic agents (study entry: 68 +/- 12 h; cisapride: 88 +/- 12 h; p = 0.0569; erythromycin 77 +/- 14 h; p = 0.7349; octreotide 107 +/- 14 h; p = 0.8927). Four patients were withdrawn from the study because of diarrhea. Prokinetic drugs do not seem to have a major impact on intestinal transit times in patients with progressive-systemic sclerosis. The use of these drugs is limited because of frequent side effects.

  2. Transit Timing Variation analysis with Kepler light curves of KOI 227 and Kepler 93b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulz, Shannon; Reed, Mike

    2017-01-01

    By searching for transit signals in approximately 150,000 stars, NASA’s Kepler Space telescope found thousands of exoplanets over its primary mission from 2009 to 2013 (Tenenbaum et al. 2014, ApJS, 211, 6). Yet, a detailed follow-up examination of Kepler light curves may contribute more evidence on system dynamics and planetary atmospheres of these objects. Kepler’s continuous observing of these systems over the mission duration produced light curves of sufficient duration to allow for the search for transit timing variations. Transit timing variations over the course of many orbits may indicate a precessing orbit or the existence of a non-transiting third body such as another exoplanet. Flux contributions of the planet just prior to secondary eclipse may provide a measurement of bond albedo from the day-side of the transiting planet. Any asymmetries of the transit shape may indicate thermal asymmetries which can measure upper atmosphere motion of the planet. These two factors can constrain atmospheric models of close orbiting exoplanets. We first establish our procedure with the well-documented TTV system, KOI 227 (Nesvorny et al. 2014, ApJ, 790, 31). Using the test case of KOI 227, we analyze Kepler-93b for TTVs and day-side flux contributions. Kepler-93b is likely a rocky planet with R = 1.50 ± 0.03 Earth Radii and M = 2.59 ± 2.0 Earth Masses (Marcy et al. 2014, ApJS, 210, 20). This research is funded by a NASA EPSCoR grant.

  3. Telemedicine-supported transition of stable coronary artery disease patients from tertiary to primary health care facilities: protocol for a randomized non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Batista, Joanna d'Arc Lyra; Furtado, Mariana Vargas; Katz, Natan; Agostinho, Milena Rodrigues; Neto, Brasil Silva; Harzheim, Erno; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2016-07-07

    Many Brazilian patients with complex diseases who are treated in tertiary referral clinics have been stable for long periods. The main needs of these patients involve monitoring of risk factors and review of drug prescriptions, which could be satisfactorily done in primary care facilities. The goal of this protocol is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of telemedicine services to support the transition of patients with stable chronic coronary artery disease from the tertiary to the primary level of care. We designed a randomized non-inferiority protocol that will include 280 patients with stable coronary artery disease (for at least 12 months). Patients will be selected from the Ischemic Heart Disease Clinic in a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. Enrolled participants will be randomized into one of two groups: 12 months of follow-up at the same clinic; or 12 months of follow-up at a primary care facility with clinical support from a telemedicine platform including a toll-free line for physicians (intervention group). In the intervention group, decisions to refer patients to tertiary care during follow-up will be made jointly by primary physicians and medical teleconsultants. The groups will be compared in terms of the primary outcome-maintenance of baseline functional class 1 or 2 after 12 months. Secondary outcomes include control of risk factors and instability of the disease. We intend to determine the effectiveness of using telemedicine to qualify the transition of patients with chronic coronary disease from the tertiary to the primary level of care. This should facilitate the access of patients to the healthcare system, since care will be provided closer to their homes, and provide more opportunities for treatment of severe cases at tertiary care hospitals that are often overcrowded. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT02489565 - trial registration date May 13, 2015.

  4. Autaptic self-feedback-induced synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts neuronal network with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Gong, Yubing; Wu, Yanan

    2015-04-01

    Autapse is a special synapse that connects a neuron to itself. In this work, we numerically study the effect of chemical autapse on the synchronization of Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron network with time delays. It is found that the neurons exhibit synchronization transitions as autaptic self-feedback delay is varied, and the phenomenon enhances when autaptic self-feedback strength increases. Moreover, this phenomenon becomes strongest when network time delay or coupling strength is optimal. It is also found that the synchronization transitions by network time delay can be enhanced by autaptic activity and become strongest when autaptic delay is optimal. These results show that autaptic delayed self-feedback activity can intermittently enhance and reduce the synchronization of the neuronal network and hence plays an important role in regulating the synchronization of the neurons. These findings could find potential implications for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  5. Enzyme dynamics and activity: time-scale dependence of dynamical transitions in glutamate dehydrogenase solution.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R M; Finney, J L; Réat, V; Dunn, R; Ferrand, M; Smith, J C

    1999-10-01

    We have examined the temperature dependence of motions in a cryosolution of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and compared these with activity. Dynamic neutron scattering was performed with two instruments of different energy re