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Sample records for arteries patent ductus

  1. Pulmonary artery rupture in pregnancy complicating patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Green, Nicholas J; Rollason, Terence P

    1992-01-01

    Fatal haemopericardium in a 27 year old pregnant woman was caused by rupture of a dissecting aneurysm of the pulmonary artery. She had an uncorrected patent ductus arteriosus and severe pulmonary hypertension. The wall of the pulmonary artery showed atherosclerosis and cystic medionecrosis. PMID:1467058

  2. Patent ductus arteriosus

    MedlinePlus

    ... the middle Patent ductus arteriosis (PDA) - series References Fraser CD, Carberry KE. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend ... Read More Heart failure - overview Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome Pediatric heart surgery Premature infant Patient Instructions Pediatric ...

  3. Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm Secondary To Patent Ductus Arteriosus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bezgin, Tahir; Demircan, Hacer C; Kaymaz, Cihangir

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms involving the main pulmonary artery and its branches are rare. Clinical experience is limited, and their management is not well established. We present the case of a 35-year-old male patient with dyspnea and hemoptysis in whom subsequent imaging studies revealed a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with an uncorrected patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger’s syndrome. We chose to treat the patient conservatively with medical management due to the development of Eisenmenger’s physiology while waiting for heart-lung transplantation. PMID:25545802

  4. Right pulmonary artery agenesis with patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger syndrome: a rare case diagnosed during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Ozkececi, Gulay; Unlu, Ebru; Hocaoglu, Elif; Kacar, Emre; Onrat, Ersel

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery a very rare congenital disorder. We here present a case of a 22-year-old female patient with agenesis of the right pulmonary artery accompanying patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger syndrome, diagnosed by chest X-ray and multidetector computed tomography 5 days after giving birth.

  5. Isolated left brachiocephalic artery with the right aortic arch: A rare differential of large patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Gajendra; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Kothari, Shyam Sundar

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of isolation of the left brachiocephalic artery with the right aortic arch in a 9-year-old male child masquerading as large patent ductus arteriosus with left-to-right shunt. We have emphasized the subtle clinical findings which served as clues to the diagnosis. PMID:28163435

  6. Thoracic Stent Graft Implantation for Aortic Coarctation with Patent Ductus Arteriosus via Retroperitoneal Iliac Approach in the Presence of Small Sized Femoral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Ozge; Beton, Osman; Goksel, Sabahattin; Kaya, Hakkı; Berkan, Ocal

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular stent graft implantation is a favorable method for complex aortic coarctation accompanied by patent ductus arteriosus. Herein, an 18-year-old woman with complex aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus was successfully treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach. The reason for retroperitoneal iliac approach was small sized common femoral arteries which were not suitable for stent graft passage. This case is the first aortic coarctation plus patent ductus arteriosus case described in the literature which is treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach. PMID:27242935

  7. Rare combination and transcatheter treatment during single session in an infant: Patent ductus arteriosus and major aortopulmonary collateral artery concordance.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Osman; Ödemiş, Ender; Saygı, Murat; Demir, İbrahim Halil

    2016-10-01

    Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries are abnormal vascular structures that may be seen in cyanotic diseases that progress with reduced pulmonary flow. They occur rather rarely in the absence of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Presently described is the case of an infant who underwent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and major aortopulmonary collateral artery occlusion in a single session, without presence of cyanotic congenital heart disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of congenital aortopulmonary collateral artery to be reported in a symptomatic infant with PDA.

  8. Range-gated pulsed Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of carotid arterial blood flow in small preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, W D; Carrigan, T A; Dooley, K J; Giddens, D P; Dykes, F D; Lazzara, A; Ray, J L; Ahmann, P A

    1983-02-01

    Range-gated pulsed Doppler (RGPD) ultrasonography was utilized to study the effect of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on carotid arterial blood flow in small preterm infants. Carotid arterial flow velocity studies were performed on 23 preterm infants, sampling right and left carotid arteries. Studies on seven infants after PDA ligation and on seven who developed no evidence of PDA were used as controls. A strong relationship was demonstrated between diastolic reversal in the carotid arteries and PDA. The results of this study indicate that the RGPD flow velocity curve from the carotid artery is more sensitive than M-mode echocardiography or clinical examination in detecting PDA, and that PDA in small preterm infants is associated with a distinct abnormality in the carotid arterial flow pattern.

  9. An unusual combination of congenital anomalies in an adult patient: patent ductus arteriosus, Kommerell's diverticulum with aberrant right subclavian artery, and heterotaxy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Celik, Murat; Celik, Turgay; Iyisoy, Atila; Guler, Adem

    2011-01-01

    The heterotaxy syndrome is a rare and sporadic disorder. This syndrome presents with situs ambiguus, splenic malformations such as asplenia or polysplenia, and congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases associated with this syndrome include a broad variety of manifestations. Patent ductus arteriosus is one of them and percutaneous transcatheter closure can be challenging in the setting of this syndrome. Kommerell's diverticulum is a saccular aneurysmal dilation at the origin of an aberrant subclavian artery, and can be related with other congenital anomalies. However, there is no previous report of Kommerell's diverticulum being found together with patent ductus arteriosus and heterotaxy syndrome.

  10. Patent ductus arteriosus in a lamb: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, Afshin; Hoseini, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent patency of a vessel normally present in the fetus that connects the pulmonary arterial system to the aorta. The ductus arteriosus fails to close at birth when breathing commences and placental blood circulation is removed. Closure of the ductus arteriosus arises in response to decline pulmonary vascular resistance and increased systemic vascular resistance. This report describes a case of PDA in a two-month-old male lamb with clinical signs of machinery murmur, tachycardia, increase respiratory rate, weakness and ill thrift. Echocardiographic examination and necropsy finding confirmed PDA. PMID:27226893

  11. [Pulmonary mechanics and small airways in patent ductus arteriosus and interventricular communication, in relation to pulmonary arterial flow and pressure].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guerra, M L; Fernández-Bonetti, P; Peraza, C; Lupi-Herrera, E

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen patients with ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus were studied to investigate the effects of an increase of pulmonary hypertension. In general group II showed similar results as previously reported in patients with atrial septal defect without pulmonary hypertension. In group I, we found an increased frequency of functional abnormalities in the small airways. We do not have a definitive explanation for the origin of these differences.

  12. Adult Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Treatment with a Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, J.J. Urbaneja, A.; Gonzalez, N.; Martinez, J.L.

    2008-03-15

    We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with a short patent ductus arteriosus and aneurysmal pulmonary arteries who was treated by placement of a stent-graft. The technique proved simple and safe. Further research is required to improve the design of stent-grafts and their release system for use of this technique in adult patients with this disorder.

  13. Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H.-Cg; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di

    2005-01-15

    We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

  14. A patent ductus arteriosus complicating cardiopulmonary bypass for combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement only discovered by computed tomography 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    van Middendorp, Lars B; Maessen, Jos G; Sardari Nia, Peyman

    2014-12-01

    We describe the case of a 59-year old male patient undergoing combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement. Manipulation of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass significantly decreased venous return. Several measures were necessary to improve venous return to a level at which continuation of the procedure was safe. Based on the initial troubles with venous return, we decided to selectively cross-clamp the aorta. This resulted in a large amount of backflow of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle, necessitating additional vents in the pulmonary artery and directly in the left ventricle. The procedure was continued uneventfully, and postoperative recovery was without significant complications. Postoperative 2D computed tomography did not show any signs of a shunt, but 3D reconstruction showed a small patent ductus arteriosus.

  15. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... two major arteries—the aorta and the pulmonary (PULL-mun-ary) artery—are connected by a blood vessel called the ductus arteriosus. This vessel is an essential part of fetal blood circulation. Within minutes or up to a few days after birth, the vessel ...

  16. Arteriovenous shunts resembling patent ductus arteriosus in dogs: 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoko; Aoki, Takuma; Takano, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Ryokichi; Wakao, Yoshito

    2009-12-01

    Three dogs presented for the evaluation of cardiac murmurs were diagnosed with aberrant arteriovenous shunts. All cases demonstrated the following findings: 1) relatively soft continuous murmur loudest at the left heart base resembling patent ductus arteriosus (PDA); 2) shunt flow signals in the pulmonary artery on echocardiography; and 3) no PDA on selective angiography, but evidence of anomalous shunting vessels from thoracic aorta to pulmonary vasculature. An aberrant arteriovenous shunt should be considered when a continuous murmur of relatively small intensity is heard.

  17. Abiotrophia defectiva endarteritis with infective spondylodiscitis in an adult patient with patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Miraclin, Angel T; Perumalla, Susmitha K; Daniel, Jaifrin; Sathyendra, Sowmya

    2017-04-07

    Endarteritis is a major complication in patients with patent ductus arteriosus, causing significant morbidity and mortality. We report an adult patient with asymptomatic patent ductus arteriosus and endarteritis involving the main pulmonary artery and secondary infective spondylodiscitis at the L5-S1 intervertebral disc caused by Abiotrophia defectivaA. defectiva, commonly referred to as nutritionally variant streptococci, cannot be identified easily by conventional blood culture techniques from clinical specimens. Its isolation was confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. The patient was successfully managed with a combination of penicillin G and gentamicin, pending surgical repair of the patent ductus arteriosus.

  18. Patent ductus arteriosus: an analysis of management.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Andrew J; Osman, Ahmed; Tulloh, Robert; Luyt, Karen

    2014-10-01

    To compare differences in the management of the neonatal patent ductus arteriosus between neonatologists and paediatric cardiologists, physicians throughout the South-West were contacted. In treatment-refractory cases, neonatologists considered ligation less frequently than paediatric cardiologists (0% versus 40%; p<0.05) and held haemodynamic effects more important for ligation decisions [median: 5 (range 2-5) versus median: 4 (range 2-5); p<0.05]. Furthermore, 81% felt the current guidelines were insufficient.

  19. Etiology of patent ductus arteriosus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, James W; Patterson, Donald F

    2003-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital heart disease in dogs and usually causes heart failure and death unless corrected at a young age. Previous histologic studies in a line of dogs derived from Miniature Poodles with hereditary PDA identified varying degrees of hypoplasia and asymmetry of ductus-specific smooth muscle and the presence of aortalike elastic tissue in the ductus wall sufficient to cause patency. To determine if similar structural abnormalities cause PDA in other dogs, serial-section, 3-dimensional histology of ductal architecture was studied in 8 non-Poodle purebred dogs with PDA with no immediate family history of PDA. Morphologic abnormalities were observed in 7 of 8 dogs with PDA and essentially were the same as those in dogs known to have a hereditary form of PDA. These findings suggest that apparently sporadic PDA in these breeds is caused by a genetic defect in the structure of the ductus arteriosus that is similar or identical to that in the Poodle. The relatives of dogs with PDA, particularly parents, offspring, and siblings, should be screened for evidence of PDA. Dogs with PDA should not be used for breeding, regardless of breed.

  20. An unusual morphology of patent ductus arteriosus in a dog.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Yool, D A; French, A T; Self, I A; del-Pozo, J

    2012-06-01

    A 12-week old, entire female Border terrier weighing 3·5 kg was presented for investigation of a continuous left heart base murmur. The clinical presentation and preoperative echocardiogram were consistent with a standard morphology of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but a discrete ductal vessel was not identified during surgical dissection. Surgery had to be abandoned due to deterioration of the patient's condition under general anaesthesia which led to cardiorespiratory arrest and death despite attempts at resuscitation. Necropsy identified a recess within the wall of the aorta communicating with the pulmonary artery via an ostium at the heart base which determined this structure as an intramural PDA. This morphology of PDA is previously unreported. This report demonstrates that an intramural PDA is not readily identifiable surgically because of the absence of a discrete ductal vessel and it is important to appreciate that unusual morphologies of PDA may occur.

  1. Adult patent ductus arteriosus complicated by endocarditis and hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    An adult with a large patent ductus arteriosus may present with fatigue, dyspnea or palpitations or in rare presentation with endocarditis. The case illustrated unique role of vegetation of endocarditis in hemolytic anemia in adult with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Despite treatment of endocarditis with complete course of appropriate antibiotic therapy and normality of C- reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and leukocytosis and wellness of general condition, transthoracic echocardiography revealed large vegetation in PDA lumen, surgical closure of PDA completely relieved hemolysis, and fragmented red cell disappeared from peripheral blood smear. The 3-month follow-up revealed complete occlusion of PDA and abolishment of hemolytic anemia confirmed by clinical and laboratory examination.

  2. Medical management of a patent ductus venosus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 2.5-year-old dog with signs of weight loss, vomiting, and hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed with a patent ductus venosus, based on serum biochemical analysis, jejunal portography, and biopsies, and treated with lactulose, antibiotics, and a reduced protein diet. Two years after initial presentation, the dog is still being managed medically. PMID:15943124

  3. Coarctation of the Aorta as a Complication of Surgical Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in a Premature Infant

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Amna; Jain, Sunil K.; Jiwani, Amyn K.

    2017-01-01

    Surgical ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a commonly performed procedure. Complications are infrequent and most commonly include recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and rarely ligation of left pulmonary artery. We report a case of accidental ligation of the descending thoracic aorta leading to a clinically significant coarctation. PMID:28386503

  4. Velocity time integral for right upper pulmonary vein in VLBW infants with patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Lista, Gianluca; Bianchi, Silvia; Mannarino, Savina; Schena, Federico; Castoldi, Francesca; Stronati, Mauro; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of significant patent ductus arteriosus reduces the risk of clinical worsening in very low birth weight infants. Echocardiographic patent ductus arteriosus shunt flow pattern can be used to predict significant patent ductus arteriosus. Pulmonary venous flow, expressed as vein velocity time integral, is correlated to ductus arteriosus closure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between significant reductions in vein velocity time integral and non-significant patent ductus arteriosus in the first week of life. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted to evaluate very low birth weight infants (<1500 g) on respiratory support. Echocardiography was used to evaluate vein velocity time integral on days 1 and 4 of life. The relationship between vein velocity time integral and other parameters was studied. RESULTS: In total, 98 very low birth weight infants on respiratory support were studied. On day 1 of life, vein velocity time integral was similar in patients with open or closed ductus. The mean vein velocity time integral significantly reduced in the first four days of life. On the fourth day of life, there was less of a reduction in patients with patent ductus compared to those with closed patent ductus arteriosus and the difference was significant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in vein velocity time integral in the first days of life is associated with ductus closure. This parameter correlates well with other echocardiographic parameters and may aid in the diagnosis and management of patent ductus arteriosus. PMID:27759846

  5. Eisenmenger syndrome in an adult patient with a large patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-12-01

    This is the case of a young female who was seen at our adult congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension service (Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK) at the age of 17 years. She initially presented at the age of 4 years with increasing shortness of breath. At that time, there was differential cyanosis with clubbing and lower oxygen saturations in the toes (82%) compared with her fingers (95%). On echocardiography there was evidence of severe pulmonary hypertension and a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with low velocity bidirectional shunting. She underwent cardiac catheterisation at the time which showed a pulmonary arterial pressure equal to that of the aorta.

  6. A Case of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in an Elderly Patient Treated by Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Yamada, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Yuki; Hagihara, Makiyo; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    The patient described herein was a 75-year-old female. Echocardiography showed patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Heart failure symptoms gradually appeared, and she was referred to our department for treatment. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a tubular structure communicating between the aortic arch and pulmonary artery trunk, suggesting adult PDA. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was performed to close PDA. Completion angiography confirmed the disappearance of PDA. Post-TEVAR CT revealed no endoleak. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 11th day after surgery. TEVAR is more useful and less invasive for adult PDA than conventional open surgery. PMID:28018507

  7. Is spontaneous closure of a patent arterial duct common?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Julien I E

    2017-01-01

    As closing a patent arterial duct is relatively simple, safe, and successful, most children with a patent arterial duct have it closed soon after diagnosis. The larger ducts are closed to prevent congestive heart failure, pulmonary vascular disease, or aneurysmal dilatation of the ductus, and smaller ducts are closed to prevent infective endocarditis. Consequently, there is no opportunity to determine whether spontaneous closure or diminution in size of the patent arterial duct is common. If the duct does become smaller, flow through it may be so low that no murmur is produced - the silent ductus. The frequency and best management of the silent patent arterial duct are unknown, and we do not know whether these tiny ducts are the last stage before spontaneous closure.

  8. Morphology of aortic arch obstruction with patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Bruno; Chiariello, Luigi; Mercanti, Corrado; Bosman, Cesare; Colloridi, Vicenzo; Reale, Attilio; Marino, Benedetto

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one hearts with aortic arch obstruction and patent ductus arteriosus were examined with special reference to associated cardiac anomalies. Six presented with complete interruption of the aortic arch, four with atretic isthmus, twelve with coarctation, and three with tubular hypoplasia. Associated cardiac anomalies were divided into two main groups: (1) septal defect with left-to-right shunt, and (2) left ventricular inflow and/or outflow obstruction. A high incidence (9/19=47.4%) of ventriculo-infundibular malalignment type of ventricular septal defect with subaortic stenosis was observed. Associated cardiac lesions that reduce blood flow in the aortic arch during fetal life may be responsible for poor development of this structure. Images PMID:15216214

  9. How a patent ductus arteriosus effects the premature lamb's ability to handle additional volume loads.

    PubMed

    Clyman, R I; Roman, C; Heymann, M A; Mauray, F

    1987-11-01

    A model of patent ductus arteriosus in premature lambs was created to examine the lamb's ability to handle the volume load imposed by a patent ductus arteriosus and to determine the lamb's ability to handle any additional volume load. Fifteen preterm lambs [133 +/- 2 (+/- SD) days gestation, term 145 days], whose ductal diameter could be regulated with a mechanical occluder, were studied to determine the independent effects of ductus patency and a saline volume load (50 ml/kg over 3 min) on left ventricular output and its distribution. During a saline infusion, preterm lambs with a closed ductus could only increase their stroke volume by 40% above baseline stroke volume. When challenged with a saline infusion, lambs with an open ductus still were able to increase their stroke volume significantly; the maximal increase in stroke volume during the saline load with the ductus open was 70% above baseline stroke volume. We hypothesize that the associated reduced left ventricular afterload plays a significant role in the preterm lamb's ability to increase its stroke volume when challenged with a patent ductus arteriosus. Even with a patent ductus arteriosus, the lamb still has the ability to handle additional volume loads.

  10. Down Syndrome with Patent Ductus Venosus and Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kosugiyama, Kiyotaka; Honda, Shohei; Tadao, Okada; Taketomi, Akinobu; Iwata, Seido

    2016-01-01

    The association between Down syndrome and congenital portosystemic shunts, most commonly caused by patent ductus venosus, remains relatively unknown. The authors present a girl with Down syndrome with patent ductus venosus, pancreaticobiliary maljunction and paucity of interlobular bile ducts, presenting with neonatal cholestasis and transient abnormal myeloproliferative disorder. To the best of authors' knowledge, no report of the concurrent presence of the above in Down syndrome has been published.

  11. Multidetector-row computed tomography of thoracic aortic anomalies in dogs and cats: Patent ductus arteriosus and vascular rings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of extracardiac intrathoracic vascular anomalies is of clinical importance, but remains challenging. Traditional imaging modalities, such as radiography, echocardiography, and angiography, are inherently limited by the difficulties of a 2-dimensional approach to a 3-dimensional object. We postulated that accurate characterization of malformations of the aorta would benefit from 3-dimensional assessment. Therefore, multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) was chosen as a 3-dimensional, new, and noninvasive imaging technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with 2 common diseases of the intrathoracic aorta, either patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly, by contrast-enhanced 64-row computed tomography. Results Electrocardiography (ECG)-gated and thoracic nongated MDCT images were reviewed in identified cases of either a patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly. Ductal size and morphology were determined in 6 dogs that underwent ECG-gated MDCT. Vascular ring anomalies were characterized in 7 dogs and 3 cats by ECG-gated MDCT or by a nongated thoracic standard protocol. Cardiac ECG-gated MDCT clearly displayed the morphology, length, and caliber of the patent ductus arteriosus in 6 affected dogs. Persistent right aortic arch was identified in 10 animals, 8 of which showed a coexisting aberrant left subclavian artery. A mild dilation of the proximal portion of the aberrant subclavian artery near its origin of the aorta was present in 4 dogs, and a diverticulum analogous to the human Kommerell's diverticulum was present in 2 cats. Conclusions Contrast-enhanced MDCT imaging of thoracic anomalies gives valuable information about the exact aortic arch configuration. Furthermore, MDCT was able to characterize the vascular branching patterns in dogs and cats with a persistent right aortic arch and the morphology and size of the patent ductus arteriosus in affected dogs. This additional information can be of help

  12. Incidental discovery of a patent ductus arteriosus in adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Harvey D; Cassidy, Lynsey A; Blackshear, Joseph L

    2009-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an uncommon clinical finding in adult primary care patients. However, with improved survival of premature infants at risk for PDA and an increase in cases discovered incidentally on echocardiograms performed for other purposes, the incidence of PDA is rising. Thus, primary care physicians need to be alert to the clinical situations suggesting a previously undiagnosed PDA. It is estimated that the incidence of PDA is approximately 0.02% to 0.04% in term infants and slightly higher in premature infants. PDA accounts for 6% to 11% of all congenital heart defects. Although most cases of PDA would seem to occur sporadically, multifactorial inheritance is believed to underlie many cases. These people are thought to possess a genetic predisposition acted on by an environmental trigger that occurs at an unknown but vulnerable time during the pregnancy. The clinical spectrum of presentation of a PDA may range from a "silent" PDA, one with no clinical manifestations but which is incidentally discovered on echocardiogram for other purposes, to patients who present with congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, signs of volume overload, endocarditis, atrial fibrillation, or "recurrent pneumonia." We describe 2 cases that illustrate the discovery of an asymptomatic PDA during routine physical examination of adult patients.

  13. C-reactive protein, platelets, and patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Meinarde, Leonardo; Hillman, Macarena; Rizzotti, Alina; Basquiera, Ana Lisa; Tabares, Aldo; Cuestas, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The association between inflammation, platelets, and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has not been studied so far. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether C-reactive protein (CRP) is related to low platelet count and PDA. This was a retrospective study of 88 infants with a birth weight ≤1500 g and a gestational age ≤30 weeks. Platelet count, CRP, and an echocardiogram were assessed in all infants. The subjects were matched by sex, gestational age, and birth weight. Differences were compared using the χ(2), t-test, or Mann-Whitney U-test, as appropriate. Significant variables were entered into a logistic regression model. The association between CRP and platelets was evaluated by correlation and regression analysis. Platelet count (167 000 vs. 213 000 µl(-1), p = 0.015) was lower and the CRP (0.45 vs. 0.20 mg/dl, p = 0.002) was higher, and the platelet count correlated inversely with CRP (r = -0.145, p = 0.049) in the infants with vs. without PDA. Only CRP was independently associated with PDA in a logistic regression model (OR 64.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-2941, p = 0.033).

  14. Successful two-stage correction of ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus in a patient with fixed pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pac, Aysenur; Polat, Tugcin Bora; Vural, Kerem; Pac, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with fixed severe pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to a ventricular septal defect (VSD) together with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). As a preliminary step, PDA embolization was performed following therapy with inhaled prostacyclin over a period of 6 months. Further, the patient underwent successful surgical VSD closure. We postulate that a staged procedure with long-term prostaglandin therapy might be capable of reducing pulmonary artery resistance and permitting total correction in a patient once considered to have inoperable pulmonary arteriopathy.

  15. Coil Occlusion of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Sanatani, Shubhayan; Potts, James E.; Ryan, Angela; Sandor, George G.S.; Human, Derek G.; Culham, J.A. Gordon

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To review the clinical outcomes of catheter-directed coil occlusion (coil occlusion) of persistently patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) at a pediatric tertiary care hospital.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients referred to the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory for coil occlusion at our institution was performed. Twenty-one consecutive patients (12 female) underwent coil occlusion and follow-up between May 1995 and December 1997. We undertook PDA occlusion if: (a) the PDA narrowed to less than 4 mm on echocardiogram and (b) the minimum body weight was approximately 10 kg. Standard right and retrograde left heart catheterization was performed, followed by coil occlusion. Color-flow mapping (CFM) was used intra-procedurally to confirm occlusion of the PDA with a follow-up study several weeks later.Results: The median age and weight of the patients were 33 months and 13.2 kg, respectively. Fourteen patients received one coil, with six requiring a second coil and one requiring multiple coils. Initial follow-up was at a median of 2.4 months. At latest follow-up, 2 patients still have persistent flow at the ductal level. The coils were deployed without complication or embolization.Conclusions: A review of our first 21 cases demonstrated three important lessons: (1) the maximum diameter of the PDA suitable for coil occlusion is approximately 3 mm; (2) CFM must show complete obliteration of flow in the catheterization lab in order to ensure occlusion of the PDA at follow-up; and (3) the Jackson detachable system allows for precise placement of the coil, often within another coil.

  16. Mechanical and in vitro evaluation of an experimental canine patent ductus arteriosus occlusion device.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, Mark A; Bryant, Jesse; Miller, Matthew W; Keller, Brandis; Maitland, Duncan J

    2016-06-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital cardiovascular malformation in which a fetal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery remains patent after birth. This defect commonly results in clinical complications, even death, necessitating closure. Surgical ligation is the most common treatment but requires a thoracotomy and is therefore invasive. A minimally invasive option is preferable. A prototype device for PDA occlusion which utilizes shape memory polymer foams has been developed and evaluated using mechanical and in vitro experiments. Removal force and radial pressure measurements show that the prototype device exhibited a lower removal force and radial pressure than a commercially available device. The in vitro experiments conducted within simplified and physiological PDA models showed that the prototype does not migrate out of position into the pulmonary artery at either physiological or elevated pressures in multiple model configurations. While the radial pressure and removal force were lower than commercial devices, the device performed acceptably in the in vitro benchtop experiments warranting further prototype development.

  17. Cardiac involvement of primary hyperoxaluria accompanied by non-compaction cardiomyopathy and patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Arat, Nurcan; Akyıldız, Murat; Tellioğlu, Gürkan; Tokat, Yaman

    2015-04-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare hereditary metabolic disorder resulting in accumulation of calcium oxalate in visceral organs, including the heart. We report a 19-year-old male with non- compaction cardiomyopathy combined with patent ductus arteriosus awaiting combined liver-kidney transplantation for primary hyperoxaluria. After surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus, the patient underwent a successful renal and subsequent liver transplantation. The presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in hyperoxaluria patients has been reported before, but this is the first report of non-compaction myocardium with patent ductus arteriosus in a patient with primary hyperoxaluria. At the third month after combined liver and renal transplantation, improvement in cardiac functions were observed. Primary hyperoxaluria is a clinical entity to be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of hypertrophied myocardium with high myocardial echocardiographic intensity. In cases of hyperoxaluria, additional congenital abnormalities may complicate the clinical picture.

  18. Self-repositioning of an embolized patent ductus arteriosus device--a nightmare turned into sweet dreams.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Venkateshwaran; Kavassery Mahadevan, Krishnamoorthy; Sivasubramonian, Sivasankaran

    2015-05-01

    A 7-month-old boy was admitted for the device closure of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with moderate pulmonary hypertension. The PDA measured 4.2 mm with adequate ampulla. It was closed with an 8-6 mm Heart R device from pulmonary artery (PA) end. Post extubation, the device embolized to proximal descending thoracic aorta just distal to PDA ampulla. While attempting to snare from the venous side, the device self-repositioned to PDA. It was stable thereafter and patient was discharged after 2 days. We report a complication, which got self-corrected.

  19. [Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans associated with patent ductus arteriosus and hypospadia in an Asiatic patient].

    PubMed

    Harth, W; Linse, R

    1999-04-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) appeared sporadically in an Asian boy, who also presented with naevus teleangiectaticus lateralis, patent ductus arteriosus (Botalli) and hypospadia. The association of these findings raises the question of a new syndrome. In addition, this is the first report of KFSD in a patient of Asian origin.

  20. Limb ischaemia and below-knee amputation following life-saving patent ductus arteriosus stent in a critically ill infant.

    PubMed

    Bharmanee, Apinya; Gowda, Srinath; Singh, Harinder R

    2015-08-01

    Limb ischaemia is a rare but catastrophic complication related to cardiac catheterisation. We report an infant weighing 3 kg with unrepaired tricuspid atresia type 1b, small patent ductus arteriosus, and ventricular septal defect presenting with cardiogenic shock owing to progressively reduced pulmonary blood flow from closing ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. An emergency palliative ductal stent was successfully placed with marked clinical improvement. However, acute limb ischaemia developed necessitating above-knee amputation, despite medical management and vascular surgery. The cause of limb loss in our patient was catheterisation-related vascular injury causing arterial dissection-arterial thrombosis in the presence of shock and coagulopathy. This report emphasises the complexity in managing limb ischaemia associated with coagulopathy and highlights the importance of early recognition of reduced pulmonary flow in a single ventricle patient. Timely elective placement of a surgical systemic to pulmonary shunt would prevent catastrophic clinical presentation of compromised pulmonary flow and avoid the need for an emergent life-saving intervention and its associated complications.

  1. Ibuprofen lysine (NeoProfen) for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) affects approximately 31% of infants whose birth weight is between 501 and 1500 g. The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that allows blood to bypass the pulmonary vasculature in utero. Oxygen delivery and elimination of prostaglandins are essential for the closure of the ductus after birth. For years, indomethacin has been the drug of choice for the treatment of PDA in the USA. Undesirable adverse effects prompted researchers to seek alternative agents. In April 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of ibuprofen lysine (NeoProfen) for closure of clinically significant PDA in premature neonates. Ibuprofen's mechanism of action for closure of PDA is believed to be through the inhibition of prostaglandins. Clinical studies have shown ibuprofen to be as effective as indomethacin with fewer adverse effects. PMID:17256050

  2. Percutaneous catheter-based treatment of pulmonic stenosis and patent ductus arteriosus in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bussadori, Claudio; Domenech, Oriol; Longo, Antonio; Pradelli, Danitza; Bussadori, Roberto

    2002-11-01

    A 6-months old female German shepherd dog was referred for management of congenital heart disease. A diagnosis of pulmonic stenosis (PS) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was confirmed by Doppler echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation. The conditions were treated during a single cardiac catheterisation procedure using percutaneous techniques. Gianturco coil embolisation was used to close the PDA, and the PS was relieved using a balloon valvuloplasty technique.

  3. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Douay, Guillaume; Drut, Amandine; Ribas, Thibault; Gomis, David; Graille, Mélanie; Lemberger, Karin; Bublot, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    A clinically healthy 16-yr-old female leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) was diagnosed with a patent ductus arteriosus on echocardiography and later confirmed on necropsy A murmur was heard on auscultation during a routine examination, and the congenital defect was an incidental finding. The animal had been asymptomatic its entire life. This deformity is rarely observed in nondomestic felids and may be asymptomatic, as has been described in domestic cats.

  4. Ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in very low birthweight premature neonates.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P K; Lubliner, J; Mogilnar, M; Yakirevich, V; Vidne, B A

    1985-01-01

    The results of ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus in 30 premature neonates with a very low birth weight were analysed. The mean gestational age at birth was 27 weeks and the mean weight 811 g. Attempted closure of the ductus with indomethacin in 19 infants failed, though there was temporary closure in nine. Congestive heart failure was present in 29 and respiratory distress in 22 patients. Endotracheal intubation with assisted ventilation was necessary in all cases. The mean age at operation was 13.5 days and ductal ligation was performed in the intensive care unit under local anaesthesia supplemented with pancuronium and pethidine. There were no intraoperative deaths, but five infants died in hospital. There were seven late deaths. Eighteen survivors have been followed for a mean of 26.5 months. Early ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants with a very low birth weight improved the cardiorespiratory state. Long term follow up showed good clinical progress in two thirds of the surviving group. PMID:4035621

  5. A review of stent’s failure on patent ductus arteriosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazim, Zulfaqih; Ismail, Al Emran; Taib, Ishkrizat; Atan, Bainun Akmal Mohd

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a review of stent’s failure on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Ductus arteriosus (DA) is an opening for newborn babies and some patient that experienced cynotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) should maintain the duct opening for survival. To date, there are no specific research on mechanical stent failure study at DA. The challenging of the stent implantation on PDA is the PDA morphology. The failure of stent in term of stent fracture have been reported and reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the failure prediction of stent is important for further stent design development. The morphology of PDA, stent type and material used in PDA and method for accessing the failure of stent is reviewed.

  6. Congenital Extrahepatic Abdominal Arteriovenous Fistula and Apparent Patent Ductus Venosus in a Dog.

    PubMed

    White, Robert N; Murphy, Kate; Renfrew, Helen; Shales, Chris

    2015-01-01

    A 3 mo old male German shepherd dog presented with a 2 wk history of diarrhea with possible melena followed by inappetence and progressive abdominal distension. Clinical findings, serum biochemical analysis, and abdominal ultrasound were highly suggestive of an extrahepatic abdominal arteriovenous fistula and concurrent patent ductus venosus, which were confirmed during an abdominal exploratory surgery. Renal biopsies taken at the time of surgery confirmed a chronic glomerulopathy. The dog made a good initial recovery from the procedure but was euthanatized 6 wk postoperatively for medically unresponsive renal disease.

  7. [Occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus with a Gianturco-Grifka device. First case at the Instituo Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS)].

    PubMed

    Munayer Calderón, J; Aldana Pérez, T; San Luis Miranda, R; Maza Juárez, G; Lázaro Castillo, J L; Ramírez Reyes, H; Quintero, L R; Arias Monroy, L; Campos Gómez, A

    2000-01-01

    We present the initial experience of closing of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with a new device; Gianturco-Grifka, at the General Hospital of The Medical Center "La Raza". The patient was a 4 year's old girl, in whom we detected continuous murmur in the second intercostal space, echocardiography showed a long conical patent ductus arteriosus 4.9 mm of diameter, systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery was 35 mm Hg with QP/QS 1.6:1. Hemodynamic study revealed a long conical ductus arteriosus 5 mm of diameter, type A1 from Krichenko classification. We proceeded to occlude the PDA with a Gianturco-Grifka device of 7 mm. Immediately after the PDA occlusion the shunt disappeared, there were no complications during the procedure. More cases are needed to determine long term benefits and limitations, of this procedure. However we conclude that technically it is easy to use. There is greater decrease of residual shunt that the one reported with other devices.

  8. Pulmonary artery aneurysm with patent arterial duct: resection of aneurysm and ductal division.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Endale; Teodori, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Congenital or acquired aneurysm of the pulmonary artery (PA) is rare. Although aneurysms are described following surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), occurrence of this lesion in association with PDA without previous surgery is extremely uncommon. An eight-year-old patient with PDA and aneurysm of the main PA is described in this report. Clinical diagnosis of PDA was made upon presentation. Diagnosis of PA aneurysm was suspected on chest x-ray and was confirmed on transthoracic echocardiography. Successful surgical resection of the aneurysm and division of the duct were performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient did well on follow-up both from clinical and echocardiographic point of view.

  9. Pentoxifylline as adjunct therapy to long-term clinical management of a right-to-left patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Management of a right-to-left (“reversed”) patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) focuses on control of clinical signs associated with hyperviscosity due to erythrocytosis. Pentoxifylline therapy is presented as an adjunct to routine phlebotomies for the long-term clinical management of reversed PDA in a 10-year-old Chihuahua. PMID:27247468

  10. Pentoxifylline as adjunct therapy to long-term clinical management of a right-to-left patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Management of a right-to-left ("reversed") patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) focuses on control of clinical signs associated with hyperviscosity due to erythrocytosis. Pentoxifylline therapy is presented as an adjunct to routine phlebotomies for the long-term clinical management of reversed PDA in a 10-year-old Chihuahua.

  11. [Closure of the patent ductus arteriosus by means of cardiac catheterization].

    PubMed

    Szatmári, A; Németh, J; Környei, L; Palik, I; Hartyánszky, I; Lozsádi, K

    1998-05-24

    Authors report their results with transcatheter closure of patent arterial duct during a period of 1 year. Thirty patients underwent the procedure at the mean age of 5.22 yrs (range 5 mos-22.3 yrs) and mean bodyweight of 19.1 kg (range 5.8-73 kg). There were 9 males and 21 females. The diagnosis of the patent arterial duct was established by physical examination and noninvasive techniques. The procedures were attempted in all patients above 5 kg bodyweight with patent arterial duct and normal pulmonary artery pressure, irrespective of the shunt-size. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia in one session with the diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. Transcatheter closure was successful in 29 patients. In one patient the device embolized into the left pulmonary artery, snaring was unsuccessful, surgical closure of the patent duct and removal of the device took place uneventfully. Control aortography 15 minutes after the coil placement showed insignificant residual shunt through the patent duct in 8 patients (27%), while echocardiography at 1 month proved complete closure in all. The patients were followed by noninvasive methods. No mortality was observed. Authors emphasize the low risk and cost-effectiveness of the procedure. They stress the importance of the patients selection. Authors applied the technique for the first time and introduced it to the regular patient-care practice in Hungary.

  12. Infective endocarditis of the aortic valve in a Border collie dog with patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4°C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status. PMID:25391395

  13. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus: experience with a new device.

    PubMed

    Agnetti, Aldo; Aldo, Agnetti; Carano, Nicola; Nicola, Carano; Tchana, Bertrand; Bertrand, Tchana; Allegri, Valentina; Valentina, Allegri; Saracino, Antonio; Antonio, Saracino; Squarcia, Umberto; Umberto, Squarcia; Hagler, Donald J; Donald J, Hagler

    2009-11-01

    Transcatheter closure is the preferred method of treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Detachable coils are widely used to close small ducts, while the Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) is generally employed for moderate or large ducts. Recently a new device, the Amplatzer duct occluder II (ADO II), a nitinol flexible mesh, with a symmetrical design to provide high conformability for treatment of all types of PDA, has received the European Community mark approval. We report on one of the first experience, four cases (1 male, 3 female, age ranging from six months to seven years old) with different type and size of PDA treated with the new device. The use of this new Amplatzer duct occluder in our experience has the advantage of ease and safety of placement, conformability, stability, low profile catheters, adaptability for long ducts as in type E.

  14. Mosaic ring chromosome 6 in an infant with significant patent ductus arteriosus and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jae; Han, Dong Kyun; Cho, Hwa Jin; Cho, Young Kuk; Ma, Jae Sook

    2012-08-01

    The clinical features of ring chromosome 6 include central nervous system anomalies, growth retardation, facial dysmorphism and other congenital anomalies. Ring chromosome 6 occurs rarely and manifests as various phenotypes. We report the case of mosaic ring chromosome 6 by conventional karyotyping in a 7-day-old male infant diagnosed with a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with hypoplasia of aortic valve and aortic arch. These have not been previously reported with ring chromosome 6. He recovered from heart failure symptoms after ligation of the PDA. He showed infantile failure to thrive and delayed milestone in a follow-up evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a Korean individual with ring chromosome 6 and hemodynamically significant PDA.

  15. Comparison of Oral Acetaminophen Versus Ibuprofen in Premature Infants With Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Mohammad Mehdi; Niknafs, Pedram; Sabsevari, Fatemeh; Torabi, Mohammad Hosein; Bahman Bijari, Bahareh; Noroozi, Elahe; Mossavi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common cause of morbidity. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of oral Acetaminophen and oral Ibuprofen for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. Objectives This study demonstrated that, there was no significant difference between treatment of PDA with either oral Acetaminophen or oral Ibuprofen in preterm neonates. Patients and Methods This clinical trial, randomized study, enrolled 120 infants, with a gestational age of < 37 weeks, who were admitted in neonatal intensive care unit of Afzalipour hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2014. PDA was confirmed echocardiographically. The trial was registered in Iranian registry of clinical trials (Reg. No. 25542). Sixty-seven infants received oral Acetaminophen (15mg/kg every six hours for three days) and 62 infants received Ibuprofen (an initial dose of 20 mg/kg, followed by 10 mg/kg at 24 and 48 hours). To evaluate the efficacy of the treatment, a second echocardiography was done after completing the treatment. Results After the first course of the treatment, PDA closed in 55 (82.1 %) patients who received oral Acetaminophen vs. 47 (75.8 %) of those given oral Ibuprofen (P = 0.38). After the second course of treatment, PDA closed in 50 % of oral Acetaminophen group and 73.3% of oral Ibuprofen group (P = 0.21). Conclusions This study demonstrated that, there was no significant difference between treatment of PDA with either oral Acetaminophen or oral Ibuprofen in preterm neonates. Oral Ibuprofen can effectively close PDA but is unfortunately associated with some adverse effects limiting its utility thus we studied an alternative drug with similar efficacy and less adverse effects. This study has recommends Acetaminophen with minimal complications for the treatment of PDA in preterm neonates instead of Ibuprofen. PMID:27713809

  16. Patent ductus venosus presenting with cholestatic jaundice in an infant with successful trans-catheter closure using a vascular plug device

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anith; Kock, Celeste; Joshi, Jayneel A; Mitchell, Lindi; Ahmad, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Persistent ductus venosus as a cause of cholestatic jaundice is very rare. Treatment varies, but is usually reserved for infants in whom complications develop. We report a 5-week-old female infant with cholestatic jaundice caused by a patent ductus venosus and subsequent successful treatment via a transcatheter occlusion using a vascular plug device. PMID:27857466

  17. A rare presentation of patent ductus arteriosus in an adult patient with normal pulmonary hypertension and limb edema

    PubMed Central

    Pishgoo, Bahram; Saburi, Amin; Khosravi, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) at childhood is one of the five major and frequent congenital abnormalities, but it can be rarely seen in adults. Pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) and other presentations such as heart failure and edema are the identified complications of longstanding PDA, but adult case with no permanent heart symptoms and PHTN was rare. We reported a rare case of with an obvious PDA and normal pulmonary pressure. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old woman presented with dyspnea (New York Heart Association class 2), chest pain, and lower limb edema. Echocardiogram showed; normal left ventricular chamber size and function, normal size of both atria. Furthermore, an obvious PDA (diameter = 6-7 mm) connecting the aortic arch to the pulmonary artery was reported in echocardiography. No lung congestion and evidence for PHTN was reported by computed tomographic angiography [Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) = 30 mmHg]. The patient was treated with antihypertensive drugs and after 1 and 3 months follow-up, edema and other symptoms were resolved. CONCLUSION Finally, we conclude that PDA in adulthood can present with nonspecific cardiovascular symptoms, and it seems that PHTN is not a fixed echocardiographic finding in these patients. PMID:25477985

  18. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult cat with pulmonary hypertension and right-sided congestive heart failure: hemodynamic evaluation and clinical outcome following ductal closure.

    PubMed

    Novo-Matos, José; Hurter, Karin; Bektas, Rima; Grest, Paula; Glaus, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) developed secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) in an 8-year-old cat with a left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Vascular reactivity was tested prior to shunt ligation by treatment with oxygen and sildenafil. This treatment was associated with a significant decrease in pulmonary artery pressure as assessed by echocardiography. Subsequently surgical shunt ligation was planned. During thoracotomy, digital occlusion of the PDA was performed for 10 min with simultaneous catheter measurement of right ventricular pressure, which did not increase. Permanent shunt ligation resulted in a complete and sustained clinical recovery. A lung biopsy sample obtained during thoracotomy demonstrated histopathological arterial changes typical of PH. Cats can develop clinically severe PH and right-sided CHF secondary to a left-to-right PDA even at an advanced age. Assuming there is evidence of pulmonary reactivity, PDA occlusion might be tolerated and can potentially produce long-term clinical benefits.

  19. Pharmacological Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Selecting the Agent and Route of Administration.

    PubMed

    Sivanandan, Sindhu; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Opinions are divided regarding the management of a persistently patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Some of the adverse effects associated with a large hemodynamically significant duct, including prolonged ventilation, pulmonary hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and mortality, indicate that active management of infants with large ductal shunts may sometimes be necessary. Indomethacin and ibuprofen are the two US FDA-approved cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors used for the closure of a ductus in preterm babies. Both these drugs are effective in 70-80% of extremely low birthweight infants. Treatment with COX inhibitors may be associated with renal impairment, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, NEC, and spontaneous intestinal perforation when given concurrently with steroids, as well as changes in cerebrovascular auto-regulation. Ibuprofen appears to be a better choice for PDA closure, with a better side effect profile and efficacy that equals that of indomethacin. However, long-term outcome studies of ibuprofen are lacking, and prophylactic ibuprofen is ineffective in decreasing severe IVH. The choice of one drug over the other also depends on local availability of both drugs and the intravenous or enteral preparation. The oral preparation of ibuprofen appears as effective as the intravenous preparation. The use of paracetamol to close a hemodynamically significant PDA has increased in recent years. Paracetamol also decreases prostacyclin synthesis; however, unlike COX inhibitors, it does not have a peripheral vaso-constrictive effect and can be given to infants with contraindications to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It appears to have similar efficacy based on limited data available from randomized trials. Until more data are available on efficacy, safety, and long-term outcomes, it cannot be recommended as the first choice.

  20. Evaluation of pulmonary arterial pressure by Doppler colour flow mapping in patients with a ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, K; Tasneem, H

    1990-01-01

    Blood flow in the pulmonary artery was studied by Doppler colour flow mapping and cardiac catheterisation in 19 patients with a ductus arteriosus and different pulmonary artery pressures. In the four patients with normal pulmonary artery pressures colour Doppler flow mapping showed multicoloured wide and long systolic and diastolic jets in the pulmonary artery. In the 15 patients with raised pulmonary arterial pressure the systolic jets varied from multicoloured to red and were thinner: in patients with considerably raised pulmonary arterial pressure the jets became redder during diastole. The Doppler velocity tracings showed that in patients with normal pulmonary artery pressures the mean peak systolic velocity was higher than the mean end diastolic velocity--so that in all four the ratio of peak systolic velocity to end diastolic velocity was less than 2. The mean peak systolic velocity was much higher than the mean end diastolic velocity in 13 of the 15 patients with raised pulmonary artery pressure; this meant that the ratio of peak systolic velocity to end diastolic velocity was greater than 2 in 10 of 11 patients. The end diastolic velocity was significantly lower in those patients with raised pulmonary artery pressure than in those with normal artery pressure. There was an inverse linear correlation between the mean pulmonary artery pressure and end diastolic ductal jet velocity in 17 of the 19 patients. Colour flow mapping and this quantitative Doppler technique can detect pulmonary artery hypertension in patients with a ductus arteriosus. Images PMID:2278800

  1. Pharmacoeconomics of Surgical Interventions vs. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Turck, Charles J; Marsh, Wallace; Stevenson, James G.; York, John M.; Miller, Henry; Patel, Snehal

    2007-01-01

    Management of neonatal patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) often is resource-intensive and costly. Therefore, it is in hospitals' best interests to ensure the most cost-efficient use of associated resources. Clinical status, comorbidities, and response to prior therapy are considered in selecting the most appropriate intervention for PDA management. Currently, supportive measures (e.g., fluid restriction), surgical ligation, and pharmacologically based medical therapy are the primary treatment modalities for correcting PDA. Medical therapy, which comprises a small percentage (2.0%–5.0%)1 of overall PDA treatment expenses in the United States, consists of either of the 2 intravenous (IV) cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors: IV indomethacin and the newly available IV ibuprofen lysine. Although IV COX inhibitors represent a small portion of medical expenses, their benefits appear to be considerable. Pharmacoeconomic studies have evaluated indomethacin's beneficial impact on cost-effectiveness per quality-adjusted life year in PDA prophylaxis; however, no analysis to date prospectively assesses the effect of COX inhibitors on resource use or expenses in treating PDA. Such analysis is desirable and should consider efficacy and safety outcomes, impact on health care resource use and length of stay (LOS), and any differential effects of the agents' safety profiles; notably, IV indomethacin adversely affects renal and mesenteric blood flow and increases serum creatinine and oliguria significantly more than IV ibuprofen. These observations lay the foundation to conduct studies assessing the influence of these differences on resource use, LOS and expenses associated with PDA management. PMID:23055853

  2. Variation in the diagnosis and management of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Lillian SW; McCrindle, Brian W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine variations in neonatology practice regarding the diagnosis and management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants. DESIGN: Standardized telephone interview of preferences and practices. SUBJECTS: Canadian neonatologists in active clinical practice. RESULTS: Of 136 eligible Canadian neonatologists, 100 respondents (74%) estimated the proportion of infants with suspected PDA who have echocardiography to be a median of 80% (range 0% to 100%), with considerable variation both within and between centres. Only two centres had written guidelines. More recent medical school graduates were significantly more likely to use echocardiography. Increased use of echocardiography was also significantly related to increased availability. Fluid restriction and indomethacin was used as initial therapy by 89% of respondents, with the indomethacin dose standardized for 83%; surgical ligation was used when indomethacin therapy was contraindicated or had failed. Personal guidelines directed decisions regarding therapy for the majority of neonatologists. CONCLUSIONS: Among Canadian neonatologists, there is considerable variation regarding practices related to the diagnosis and management of PDA in premature infants. This variation may potentially affect the cost effectiveness of care for these patients. PMID:20401223

  3. Feeding practices and patent ductus arteriosus ligation preferences-are they related?

    PubMed

    Jhaveri, Nami; Soll, Roger F; Clyman, Ronald I

    2010-09-01

    We hypothesized that there is a significant relationship between a neonatologist's belief that feedings must be stopped in the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and his or her willingness to ligate a PDA. We administered the same survey questionnaire to two separate populations of neonatologists to assess their beliefs regarding PDA treatment practices. Although >90% of U.S. and non-U.S. neonatologists reported that they would ligate a PDA when infants with birth weights <900 g required mechanical ventilation (and indomethacin was contraindicated or had failed to close the PDA), U.S. neonatologists reported that they were significantly more likely to ligate a PDA when less respiratory support was required. U.S. neonatologists were also more likely to stop feedings when a PDA was present. The reported likelihood that a neonatologist would ligate a PDA in infants who did not require mechanical ventilation was significantly increased if the neonatologist believed that feedings had to be stopped because of the PDA. After controlling for the belief that "feedings must be stopped in the presence of a PDA," the significant difference between U.S. and non-U.S. neonatologists, in their reported desire to ligate infants who did not require mechanical ventilation, was no longer present.

  4. Repeated courses of ibuprofen are effective in closure of a patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    van der Lugt, N Margreth; Lopriore, Enrico; Bökenkamp, Regina; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E H J; Steggerda, Sylke J; Walther, Frans J

    2012-11-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a frequent complication in preterm infants. Ibuprofen and indomethacin (both COX inhibitors) are used for pharmacological closure of PDA. In most centers, a failed second course of COX inhibitors is followed by surgical closure. Our aim was to estimate the closure rate of clinically significant PDA after second and third courses of ibuprofen and record possible side effects. A study population, consisting of 164 preterm infants (<32 weeks' gestational age) with PDA admitted at our tertiary care center between November 2005 and September 2011, was retrospectively analyzed. Primary outcome was the closure rate after repeated courses of ibuprofen. The closure rate was similar after the first (109/164), second (24/43), and third (6/11) course of ibuprofen (X(2) = 2.1, p = 0.350). Late start of the first course of ibuprofen was a predictive factor for increased need of a second course (X(2) = 4.4, p = 0.036). No additional side effects of multiple courses of ibuprofen were detected. In conclusion, repeated courses of ibuprofen are an effective and safe alternative for surgical closure and should be considered after failure of the first course of ibuprofen.

  5. Changing Management of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Effect on Neonatal Outcomes and Resource Utilization.

    PubMed

    Chock, Valerie Y; Goel, Veena V; Palma, Jonathan P; Luh, Thomas M; Wang, Nichole A; Gaskari, Shabnam; Punn, Rajesh; Silverman, Norman H; Benitz, William E

    2017-04-04

    Objective This historical cohort study investigated how a shift toward a more conservative approach of awaiting spontaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants has affected neonatal outcomes and resource utilization. Methods We retrospectively studied very low birth weight infants diagnosed with a PDA by echocardiogram (ECHO) in 2006-2008 (era 1), when medical or surgical PDA management was emphasized, to those born in 2010-2012 (era 2) when conservative PDA management was encouraged. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for gestational age were performed to assess differences in clinical outcomes and resource utilization between eras. Results More infants in era 2 (35/89, 39%) compared with era 1 (22/120, 18%) had conservative PDA management (p < 0.01). Despite no difference in surgical ligation rate, infants in era 2 had ligation later (median 24 vs. 8 days, p < 0.0001). There was no difference in clinical outcomes between eras, while number of ECHOs per patient was the only resource measure that increased in era 2 (median 3 vs. 2 ECHOs, p = 0.003). Conclusion In an era of more conservative PDA management, no increase in adverse clinical outcomes or significant change in resource utilization was found. Conservative PDA management may be a safe alternative for preterm infants.

  6. Treatment of severe pulmonary hypertension in the setting of the large patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mary C; Mallory, George B; Justino, Henri; Ruiz, Fadel E; Petit, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    Treatment of the large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the setting of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is challenging. Left patent, the large PDA can result in irreversible pulmonary vascular disease. Occlusion, however, may lead to right ventricular failure for certain patients with severe PH. Our center has adopted a staged management strategy using medical management, noninvasive imaging, and invasive cardiac catheterization to treat PH in the presence of a large PDA. This approach determines the safety of ductal closure but also leverages medical therapy to create an opportunity for safe PDA occlusion. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Patients with both severe PH and PDAs were studied. PH treatment history and hemodynamic data obtained during catheterizations were reviewed. Repeat catheterizations, echocardiograms, and clinical status at latest follow-up were also reviewed. Seven patients had both PH and large, unrestrictive PDAs. At baseline, all patients had near-systemic right ventricular pressures. Nine catheterizations were performed. Two patients underwent 2 catheterizations each due to poor initial response to balloon test occlusion. Six of 7 patients exhibited subsystemic pulmonary pressures during test occlusion and underwent successful PDA occlusion. One patient did not undergo PDA occlusion. In follow-up, 2 additional catheterizations were performed after successful PDA occlusion for subsequent hemodynamic assessment. At the latest follow-up, the 6 patients who underwent PDA occlusion are well, with continued improvement in PH. Five patients remain on PH treatment. A staged approach to PDA closure for patients with severe PH is an effective treatment paradigm. Aggressive treatment of PH creates a window of opportunity for PDA occlusion, echocardiography assists in identifying the timing for closure, and balloon test occlusion during cardiac catheterization is critical in determining safety of closure. By safely eliminating the large PDA

  7. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Following Two Different Treatment Approaches (Early Ligation versus Selective Ligation) for Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Wickremasinghe, Andrea C.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Piecuch, Robert E.; Johnson, Bridget C.; Golden, Suzanne; Moon-Grady, Anita J.; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine whether a change in the approach to management of persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), from “early ligation” to “selective ligation,” is associated with an increased risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Study design In 2005, we changed our PDA treatment protocol (in infants ≤27 6/7 weeks gestation) from an “early ligation” approach, with PDA ligation quickly if they failed to close after indomethacin (Period 1: 1/99–12/04), to a “selective ligation” approach, with PDA ligation only if specific criteria were met (Period 2: 1/05–5/09). All infants in both periods received prophylactic indomethacin. Multivariate analysis was used to compare the odds of a composite Abnormal Neurodevelopmental Outcome (Bayley MDI or Cognitive score <70, cerebral palsy, blindness, and/or deafness) associated with each treatment approach at 18–36 months (n=224). Results During Period 1, 23% of the infants in follow-up failed indomethacin treatment, and all were ligated; during Period 2, 30% of infants failed indomethacin, and 66% were ligated after meeting pre-specified criteria. Infants treated with the “selective ligation” strategy had fewer Abnormal Outcomes than infants treated with the “early ligation” approach (OR=0.07, p=0.046). Infants ligated before 10 days of age had an increased incidence of Abnormal Neurodevelopmental Outcome. The significant difference in outcomes between the two PDA treatment strategies could be accounted for, in part, by the earlier age of ligation during Period 1. Conclusions A “selective ligation” approach for PDAs that fail to close with indomethacin does not worsen neurodevelopmental outcome at 18–36 months. PMID:22795222

  8. Improved closure of patent ductus arteriosus with high doses of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Meißner, Udo; Chakrabarty, Raktima; Topf, Hans-Georg; Rascher, Wolfgang; Schroth, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with various complications of prematurity. Cyclooxygenase-inhibitors are the first-line intervention for closure of the PDA. However, the rates of PDA closure still are unsatisfactory. Therefore, an individual trial was performed by changing the strategy for treating neonates with ibuprofen to induce the closure of PDA. In a retrospective study, patients receiving 20, 10, and 10 mg/kg bodyweight ibuprofen (group 1) were compared by chart review with those receiving 10, 5, 5 mg/kg (group 2). The rate of PDA closure, the incidence of side effects related to the use of ibuprofen, and the need for surgical intervention for closure of the PDA were analyzed. A higher rate of closure after three doses in group 1 could be observed (60.9 vs 52.6%; p = 0.75), which was not significant but indicated a clear positive trend. If closure of the PDA was unsuccessful, intravenous ibuprofen was continued for an additional 2 days. After 5 days, 91.3% of PDA in group 1 was closed compared with 68.4% PDA in group 2. In summary, only 8.7% of the group 1 neonates needed surgical closure of PDA after insufficient medicamentous closure compared with 31.6% in group 2 (p = 0.25). Although not statistically significant, a clear positive trend for using the higher-dose medication can be seen. More work dealing with the limitations of a retrospective study must be done. Based on the data from this study, high-dose ibuprofen seems able to increase the rate of effective medicamentous PDA closure without any further unwanted side effects.

  9. Closure of large patent ductus arteriosus in renal failure under echocardiographic guidance without use of radiographic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kothandam; Bhagyavathy, Anpon; Gnanapragasam, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Large patent ductus arteriosus with large left-to-right shunt results in heart failure, and if untreated, leads to multiorgan dysfunction. Use of radiographic iodinated contrast media for angiogram during transcatheter duct closure may aggravate preexistent renal dysfunction. Aortogram with contrast media was avoided in a patient with renal failure, and echocardiogram guided deployment of duct occluder device in the cardiac catheterization laboratory for closure of a large duct. This article highlights use of a nitinol-based occluder that employs nonporous polytetrafluoroethylene fabric to aid in instantaneous duct closure.

  10. Comparison of the Mortality and In-Hospital Outcomes of Preterm Infants Treated with Ibuprofen for Patent Ductus Arteriosus with or without Clinical Symptoms Attributable to the Patent Ductus Arteriosus at the Time of Ibuprofen Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the mortality and in-hospital outcomes of preterm infants with < 28 weeks of gestation who received ibuprofen treatment according to the presence of clinical symptoms (any of oliguria, hypotension, or moderate to severe respiratory difficulty) attributable to hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) at the time of first ibuprofen treatment. In total, 91 infants born from April 2010 to March 2015 were included. Fourteen infants (15.4%) received ibuprofen treatment when there were clinical symptoms due to hsPDA (clinical symptoms group). In clinical symptoms group, infants were younger (25 [23–27] vs. 26 [23–27] weeks; P = 0.012) and lighter (655 [500–930] vs. 880 [370–1,780] grams; P < 0.001). Also, the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB)-II scores were higher and more infants received invasive ventilator care ≤ 2 postnatal days. More infants received multiple courses of ibuprofen in clinical symptoms group. Although the frequency of secondary patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was higher in the clinical symptoms group in the univariate analysis, after multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for the CRIB-II score, birthweight, birth year, and the invasive ventilator care ≤ 2 postnatal days, there were no significant differences in mortality, frequency of secondary ligation and in-hospital outcomes including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), BPD or death. Our data suggest that we can hold off on PDA treatment until the clinical symptoms become prominent. PMID:27914140

  11. Evaluation of in vivo biocompatibility of different devices for interventional closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, M; Handt, S; Seghaye, M; von Bernuth, G; Grabitz, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of three different devices following interventional closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in an animal model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS—A medical grade stainless steel coil (n = 8), a nickel/titanium coil (n = 10), and a polyvinylalcohol foam plug knitted on a titanium wire frame (n = 11) were used for interventional closure of PDA in a neonatal lamb model. The PDA had been maintained by repetitive angioplasty. Between one and 278 days after implantation the animals were killed and the ductal block removed. In addition to standard histology and scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemical staining for biocompatibility screening was also undertaken.
RESULTS—Electron microscopy revealed the growth of a cellular layer in a cobblestone pattern on the implant surfaces with blood contact, which was completed as early as five weeks after implantation of all devices. Immunohistochemical staining of these superficial cells showed an endothelial cell phenotype. After initial thrombus formation causing occlusion of the PDA after implantation there was ingrowth of fibromuscular cells resembling smooth muscle cells. Transformation of thrombotic material was completed within six weeks in the polyvinylalcohol plug and around the nickel/titanium coil, and within six months after implantation of the stainless steel coil. An implant related foreign body reaction was seen in only one of the stainless steel coil specimens and in two of the nickel/titanium coil specimens.
CONCLUSION—After implantation, organisation of thrombotic material with ingrowth of fibromuscular cells was demonstrated in a material dependent time pattern. The time it took for endothelium to cover the implants was independent of the type of implant. Little or no inflammatory reaction of the surrounding tissue was seen nine months after implantation.


Keywords: congenital heart disease; patent ductus arteriosus; catheter technique

  12. Patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm infant: a survey of clinical practices in French neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Brissaud, Olivier; Guichoux, Julie

    2011-06-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the most common problems in the care of premature infants, especially the extremely premature. There is no real consensus regarding the diagnostic criteria or treatment of a hemodynamically significant PDA. Its diagnosis, assessment, and treatment still remain challenges. Therefore, we investigated clinical practices in French tertiary neonatology centers regarding the management of PDA to compare their similarities and differences. We sent a questionnaire by email to the PDA specialist in every French tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. It contained 27 items regarding the unit's structure, method of diagnosing PDA, and treatment choices. The completed questionnaire were returned via email and analyzed blindly. The questionnaire response rate was 87.5%, which allowed us to draw some conclusions regarding French clinical practices in the care of neonates with PDA. Although the diagnostic criteria are quite similar, the therapeutic practices are rather different across neonatal care units. We highlight the great variability in French clinical practices when it comes to treating PDA and underscore the necessity for harmonization of these practices, which could be achieved using multicenter, randomized studies to identify the advantages of one approach compared with another.

  13. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus: 11 years of clinical experience in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Djer, Mulyadi M; Saputro, Dimas Dwi; Putra, Sukman Tulus; Idris, Nikmah Salamia

    2015-06-01

    Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has been suggested to be the standard treatment of PDA. Although, in general, the procedure shows a high successful rate, outcomes may vary among pediatric cardiology centers. To evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter closure of PDA in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, this was a retrospective study on patients who underwent transcatheter closure of PDA in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital during the period of 2002-2013. Hospital registry was reviewed and data about patients' characteristics, PDA severity, procedure, and outcomes were retrieved. There were 298 patients, of whom 90 were males, who underwent transcatheter closure of PDA during the study period. Median age was 3.4 years (1 months-18 years), and median body weight was 12 (3.6-59) kg. The diameter of PDA ranged from 1.1 to 15.4 mm with a median of 3.7 mm. Device could be deployed in all patients, in which most were the Amplatzer ductal occluder (69.8 %) and the remainders were coils. Median fluoroscopy time was 15.4 (1.5-87) min, and procedure time was 76 (30-200) min. Complete closure was achieved in most patients (97.3 %), whereas device migration occurred in a minority (0.3 %) of patients. No major complication occurred during or after the procedure. Transient anemia and bradycardia were found in 3.7 and 1.3 % patients, respectively. Most patients were discharged from the hospital at 1 day after the procedure. Transcatheter closure method is a safe and effective procedure to close PDA.

  14. Association Between Blood Spot Transforming Growth Factor-β and Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely Low-Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; McDonald, Scott A.; Das, Abhik; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Tyson, Jon E.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Schendel, Diana; Hougaard, David M; Skogstrand, Kristin; Thorsen, Poul; Carlo, Waldemar A.

    2013-01-01

    Permanent ductal closure involves anatomic remodeling, in which transforming growth factor (TGF)-β appears to play a role. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship, if any, between blood spot TGF-β on day 3 and day 7 of life and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Prospective observational study involving ELBW infants (n = 968) in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network who had TGF-β measured on filter paper spot blood samples using a Luminex assay. Infants with a PDA (n = 493) were significantly more immature, had lower birth weights, and had higher rates of respiratory distress syndrome than those without PDA (n = 475). TGF-β on days 3 and 7 of life, respectively, were significantly lower among neonates with PDA (median 1,177 pg/ml [range 642–1,896]; median 1,386 pg/ml [range 868–1,913]) compared with others without PDA (median 1,334 pg/ml [range 760–2,064]; median 1,712 pg/ml [range 1,014–2,518 pg/ml]). The significant difference persisted when death or PDA was considered a composite outcome. TGF-β levels were not significantly different among subgroups of infants with PDA who were not treated (n = 51) versus those who were treated medically (n = 283) or by surgical ligation (n = 159). TGF-β was not a significant predictor of death or PDA (day 3 odds ratio [OR] 0.99, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.83–1.17; day 7 OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.74–1.04) on adjusted analyses. Our results suggest that blood spot TGF-β alone is unlikely to be a reliable biomarker of a clinically significant PDA or its responsiveness to treatment. PMID:22684193

  15. MATR3 disruption in human and mouse associated with bicuspid aortic valve, aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Xi, Qiongchao J.; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Higgins, Anne W.; Anchan, Raymond M.; Roberts, Amy E.; Seong, Ihn Sik; Fan, Xueping; Lage, Kasper; Lu, Lily Y.; Tao, Joanna; Hu, Xuchen; Berezney, Ronald; Gelb, Bruce D.; Kamp, Anna; Moskowitz, Ivan P.; Lacro, Ronald V.; Lu, Weining; Morton, Cynthia C.; Gusella, James F.; Maas, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) defects represent a common but heterogeneous subset of congenital heart disease for which gene identification has been difficult. We describe a 46,XY,t(1;5)(p36.11;q31.2)dn translocation carrier with pervasive developmental delay who also exhibited LVOT defects, including bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The 1p breakpoint disrupts the 5′ UTR of AHDC1, which encodes AT-hook DNA-binding motif containing-1 protein, and AHDC1-truncating mutations have recently been described in a syndrome that includes developmental delay, but not congenital heart disease [Xia, F., Bainbridge, M.N., Tan, T.Y., Wangler, M.F., Scheuerle, A.E., Zackai, E.H., Harr, M.H., Sutton, V.R., Nalam, R.L., Zhu, W. et al. (2014) De Novo truncating mutations in AHDC1 in individuals with syndromic expressive language delay, hypotonia, and sleep apnea. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 94, 784–789]. On the other hand, the 5q translocation breakpoint disrupts the 3′ UTR of MATR3, which encodes the nuclear matrix protein Matrin 3, and mouse Matr3 is strongly expressed in neural crest, developing heart and great vessels, whereas Ahdc1 is not. To further establish MATR3 3′ UTR disruption as the cause of the proband's LVOT defects, we prepared a mouse Matr3Gt-ex13 gene trap allele that disrupted the 3′ portion of the gene. Matr3Gt-ex13 homozygotes are early embryo lethal, but Matr3Gt-ex13 heterozygotes exhibit incompletely penetrant BAV, CoA and PDA phenotypes similar to those in the human proband, as well as ventricular septal defect (VSD) and double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). Both the human MATR3 translocation breakpoint and the mouse Matr3Gt-ex13 gene trap insertion disturb the polyadenylation of MATR3 transcripts and alter Matrin 3 protein expression, quantitatively or qualitatively. Thus, subtle perturbations in Matrin 3 expression appear to cause similar LVOT defects in human and mouse. PMID

  16. Elevated NCX1 and NCKX4 expression in the patent postnatal ductus arteriosus of ductal-dependent congenital heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haifa; Xia, Yu; Sun, Yanjun; Ye, Lincai; Liu, Jinfen; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Haibo

    2015-04-01

    Patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA) after birth is essential in ductal-dependent congenital heart disease. The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) has been demonstrated to play a key role in regulating vascular tone. The potassium-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCKX) is a related family of NCX depending on the K(+) gradients which triggers DA constriction. The present study investigated the comparative expression of NCX and NCKX between a constricted DA and patent DA in human ductal-dependant congenital heart disease. Human DAs, which were patent (n = 10, age = 20.2 ± 4.3 days) or constricted (n = 10, age = 18.3 ± 3.9 days), were excised during surgery from neonates with ductal-dependent congenital heart disease. Western blotting analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunofluorescence studies were performed to detect the protein and mRNA levels of NCX1, NCKX3, and NCKX4. The expressions of NCX1 and NCKX4 were significantly higher in the patent DA group at both the protein and mRNA levels, and expression was localized to the smooth muscle layer. These findings indicate that NCX1 and NCKX4 are up-regulated in human postnatal patent DAs and may represent potential therapeutic targets for maintaining DA patency in ductal-dependent congenital heart disease.

  17. Indomethacin use for the management of patent ductus arteriosus in preterms: a web-based survey of practice attitudes among neonatal fellowship program directors in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amin, S B; Handley, C; Carter-Pokras, O

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal-perinatal fellowship programs (NFTPs) in the United States vary in indomethacin use for the management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in < or =28 week gestational age infants at birth. A 53-item web-based survey was sent to 84 NFTP directors who received prenotification, followed 2 weeks later by a reminder letter. A total of 56 NFTP directors responded (67% maximum response rate). Wide variation exists in the maximum number of indomethacin courses used to close ductus, use of indomethacin for reopened PDA beyond 14 days, ductal closure definition, contraindications before consideration of indomethacin, interventions for contraindications, and reported ductal closer rate after each indomethacin course. Indomethacin therapy for symptomatic PDA and short course of indomethacin are common practices. Indomethacin use for the management of PDA in premature infants varies among NFTP directors. Practice attitudes may explain variations in ductal closure and ligation rates. Because practice variations may have implications for long-term outcome of vulnerable premature infants, studies relevant to the management of PDA in premature infants are needed.

  18. Chorioamnionitis appears not to be a Risk Factor for Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Behbodi, Elham; Villamor-Martínez, Eduardo; Degraeuwe, Pieter L. J.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of chorioamnionitis (CA) to mortality and morbidity in preterm infants is difficult to assess because observational studies frequently present significant differences in baseline characteristics of the infants exposed or non-exposed to CA. In an attempt to perform a thorough assessment of the possible association between CA and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants, we conducted a meta-analysis in which adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were pooled and we analyzed the effects of potential confounders, such as gestational age (GA) or birth weight (BW). We identified 45 relevant studies (27186 patients, 7742 CA cases). Random effects meta-analysis of crude ORs showed a significant positive association between CA and PDA (OR 1.352, 95% CI 1.172 to 1.560). Adjusted ORs were reported in 11 studies (19577 infants). Meta-analysis of these studies showed a significant negative association between CA and PDA (OR 0.802, 95% CI 0.751 to 0.959). Meta-regression showed that the differences in GA or BW between the CA-exposed and non-exposed groups were significantly correlated with the effect size of the association between PDA and CA. In conclusion, our study confirms that confounders need to be taken into account when assessing the association between CA and clinical outcomes in preterm infants. PMID:27892517

  19. Cimetidine-associated patent ductus arteriosus is mediated via a cytochrome P450 mechanism independent of H2 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Robert B; Shah, Lisa P; Poole, Stanley D; Ehinger, Noah J; Brown, Naoko; Shelton, Elaine L; Slaughter, James C; Baldwin, H Scott; Paria, Bibhash C; Reese, Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common problem in preterm infants. The antacid cimetidine is a potent antagonist of the H2 histamine receptor but it also inhibits certain cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), which may affect DA patency. We examined whether cimetidine contributes to PDA and is mediated by CYP inhibition rather than H2 blockade. Analysis of a clinical trial to prevent lung injury in premature infants revealed a significant association between cimetidine treatment and PDA. Cimetidine and ranitidine, both CYP inhibitors as well as H2 blockers, caused relaxation of the term and preterm mouse DA. CYP enzymes that are inhibited by cimetidine were expressed in DA subendothelial smooth muscle. The selective CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole induced greater DA relaxation than cimetidine, whereas famotidine and other H2 antagonists with less CYP inhibitory effects caused less dilation. Histamine receptors were developmentally regulated and localized in DA smooth muscle. However, cimetidine caused DA relaxation in histamine-deficient mice, consistent with CYP inhibition, not H2 antagonism, as the mechanism for PDA. Oxygen-induced DA constriction was inhibited by both cimetidine and famotidine. These studies show that antacids and other compounds with CYP inhibitory properties pose a significant and previously unrecognized risk for PDA in critically ill newborn infants.

  20. [Patent ductus arteriosus in the dog: a retrospective study of clinical presentation, diagnostics and comparison of interventional techniques in 102 dogs (2003-2011)].

    PubMed

    Meijer, M; Beijerink, N J

    2012-06-01

    A left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common congenital heart defect in dogs. If it is left uncorrected, life expectancy in most cases is decreased due to the development of left-sided congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to describe the dogs diagnosed with PDA in the Utrecht University Companion Animal Clinic from 2003 to 2011. The medical records of 102 patients were retrieved, and the clinical presentation and outcome of PDA closure by surgical ligation or transarterial catheter occlusion (TCO) were reviewed. In the TCO group, the result of coiling was compared with the placement of an Amplatz Canine Duct Occluder (ACDO). A predisposition to PDA was found in the German Brak, Stabyhoun, and Schapendoes. Dogs treated with surgical ligation were significantly older and heavier than those treated with TCO; within the TCO group, dogs treated with ACDO were significantly older and heavier The initial success rate (complete disappearance of the audible murmur in a patient that survived the procedure) was not significantly different between the different treatment modalities. Major complications were more common with surgical ligation, but the incidence of minor complications was not significantly different. There was no diference in survival between dogs treated with surgical ligation and dogs treated with TCO. This study shows a previously unreported predisposition to PDA in certain breeds. Both surgical ligation and TCO are suitable techniques for PDA closure, although major complications were more common with surgical ligation. ACDO appears to be the method with the least complications and thus can be considered the safest method.

  1. Comparative study of the efficacy and safety of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and indomethacin in closure of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Abd El-Rahman; El-Mahdy, Heba; El Amrousy, Doaa; Elgendy, Marwa

    2017-02-01

    In this prospective study, we compared the efficacy and side effects of indomethacin, ibuprofen, and paracetamol in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure in preterm neonates. Three hundred preterm neonates with hemodynamically significant PDA (hs-PDA) admitted at our neonatal intensive care unit were enrolled in the study. They were randomized into three groups. Group I (paracetamol group) received 15 mg/kg/6 h IV paracetamol infusion for 3 days. Group II (ibuprofen group) received 10 mg/kg IV ibuprofen infusion followed by 5 mg/kg/day for 2 days. Group III (indomethacin group) received 0.2 mg/kg/12 h indomethacin IV infusion for three doses. Laboratory investigations such as renal function test, liver function test, complete blood count, and blood gases were conducted in addition to echocardiographic examinations. All investigations were done before and 3 days after treatment. There was no significant difference between all groups regarding efficacy of PDA closure (P = 0.868). There was a significant increase in serum creatinine levels and serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the ibuprofen and indomethacin groups (P < 0.001). There was a significant reduction in platelet count and urine output (UOP) in both ibuprofen and indomethacin groups (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in bilirubin levels in only the ibuprofen group (P = 0.003). No significant difference of hemoglobin (HB) level or liver enzymes in all groups (P > 0.05). Ventilatory settings improved significantly in patients with successful closure of PDA than those with failed PDA closure (P < 0.001).

  2. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in children weighing 10 kg or less: Initial experience at Sohag University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Safaa; El Sisi, Amel

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the challenges, feasibility, and efficacy of device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in small children weighing ⩽10 kg for different types of devices used in an initial experience at Sohag University hospital. Methods Between March 2011 and September 2014, 91 patients with PDA underwent transcatheter closure in our institute, among whom 54 weighed ⩽10 kg. All of these patients underwent transcatheter closure of PDA using either a Cook Detachable Coil, PFM Nit-Occlud, or Amplatzer duct occluder. A retrospective review of the treatment results and adverse events was performed. Results Successful device placement was achieved in 53/54 small children (98.1%). The median minimum PDA diameter was 2.4 mm [interquartile range (IQR, 1.8–3.5 mm), median weight 8 kg (IQR, 7–10 kg), and median age 10 months (IQR, 8–17 months)]. Mild aortic obstruction occurred in one case (1.9%), as the device became displaced towards the aorta after release. The device embolized in one case (1.9%) and no retrieval attempt was made. Five cases (9.3%) had minor vascular complications. Conclusion With the current availability of devices for PDA closure, transcatheter closure of PDA is considered safe and efficacious in small children weighing ⩽10 kg with good mid-term outcome. The procedure had a low rate of high-severity adverse events even with the initial experience of the catheterization laboratory. PMID:27053899

  3. Enhanced central and conduit pulmonary arterial reservoir function offsets reduced ductal systolic outflow during constriction of the fetal ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Smolich, Joseph J; Penny, Daniel J; Mynard, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Constriction of the fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) has disparate effects on mean and phasic hemodynamics, as mean DA blood flow is preserved until constriction is severe, but DA systolic and diastolic blood velocities change with only mild constriction. To determine the basis of this disparity and its physiological significance, seven anesthetized late-gestation fetal sheep were instrumented with pulmonary trunk (PT), DA, and left pulmonary artery (PA) micromanometer catheters and transit-time flow probes. Blood flow profile and wave intensity analyses were performed at baseline and during mild, moderate, and severe DA constriction (defined as pulmonary-aortic mean pressure differences of 4, 8, and 14 mmHg, respectively), produced with an adjustable snare. With DA constriction, mean DA flow was initially maintained but decreased with severe constriction (P < 0.05) in conjunction with a reduction (P < 0.05) in PT flow (i.e., right ventricular output). By contrast, DA systolic flow fell progressively during DA constriction (P < 0.001), due to decreased transmission of both early and midsystolic proximal flow-enhancing forward-running compression waves into the DA. However, DA constriction was also accompanied by greater systolic storage of blood in the PT and main PA (P < 0.025), and increased retrograde diastolic flow from compliant major branch PA (P < 0.001). Transductal discharge of these central and conduit PA blood reservoirs in diastole offset systolic DA flow reductions. These data suggest that, during DA constriction in the fetus, enhanced central and conduit PA reservoir function constitutes an important compensatory mechanism that contributes to preservation of mean DA flow via a systolic-to-diastolic redistribution of phasic DA flow.

  4. Retrograde lower body arterial reservoir discharge underlies rapid reversal of ductus arteriosus shunting after early cord clamping at birth in preterm lambs.

    PubMed

    Smolich, Joseph J; Kenna, Kelly R; Mynard, Jonathan P

    2016-02-15

    Arterial reservoir ("windkessel") function, whereby a part of left ventricular (LV) output is stored in elastic arteries during systole and discharged in diastole, is a well-established physiological phenomenon. However, its role in rapid reversal (to left-to-right) and a systolic-to-diastolic shift of shunting across the ductus arteriosus after birth is unknown. To address this question, ductal and aortic isthmus flows were measured with high-fidelity transit-time probes in six anesthetized preterm fetal lambs before and after cord clamping and subsequent early mechanical ventilation and for 30 min postbirth. Descending aortic flow was calculated as the sum of isthmus and ductal flows. Left-to-right ductal flow profiles were related to those of the isthmus and descending aorta, with upper body arterial reservoir discharge indicated by forward diastolic isthmus flow, and retrograde lower body arterial reservoir discharge by negative diastolic descending aortic flow. Left-to-right ductal shunting appeared immediately after cord clamping (P < 0.001), due entirely to newly emergent retrograde lower body reservoir discharge, and rose with ventilation via increased lower body reservoir discharge (P < 0.005), supplemented by upper body reservoir discharge after 45 s (P < 0.025) and LV systolic flow after 3 min (P = 0.025). The contribution of lower body reservoir discharge to left-to-right ductal shunting fell to 55 ± 8% at ≥15 min (P < 0.001) but remained higher (P < 0.002) than LV systolic flow (33 ± 8%) or upper body reservoir discharge (12 ± 5%). These results suggest that retrograde lower body arterial reservoir discharge plays a key role in rapid reversal and a systolic-to-diastolic shift of ductal shunting after cord clamping and early ventilation at birth.

  5. Absent or occult pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Presbitero, P; Bull, C; Haworth, S G; de Leval, M R

    1984-01-01

    Of 12 patients with angiographically absent pulmonary artery, 11 were investigated surgically. The previously occult pulmonary artery was found in 10 patients, in five of whom a vestige of an intrapericardial artery was present and in five the artery was patent only at the hilus, a gap existing between the main pulmonary artery and the hilar vessel, and no artery was found in one. All patients with an intrapericardial artery had right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a ductus descending vertically from underneath the aortic arch. In those without an intrapericardial vessel the occult artery was on the side opposite the aortic arch, and there was evidence of a ductus coming from the innominate artery on the side of the interruption. The occult pulmonary artery, where identified at operation, was usually joined initially to the systemic circulation. Ultimately, continuity between the hilar and main pulmonary artery may be established surgically. Where no intrapericardial vessel exists, however, a conduit may be required to bridge the gap. It seems advisable to search for the occult artery as early in life as is feasible in the hope that providing a blood supply will ensure development of the vessel and normal lung growth. Images PMID:6743435

  6. Evaluation of Previously Cannulated Radial Arteries as Patent Coronary Artery Bypass Conduits.

    PubMed

    Watson, Timothy; Pope, Adele; van Pelt, Niels; Ruygrok, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    In coronary artery bypass grafting, good-quality conduits are needed to maximize the potential for long-term patency. Revascularization has traditionally been achieved with use of the saphenous vein and the internal thoracic arteries. In recent years, total arterial revascularization with use of the radial arteries has been promoted. Meanwhile, use of the transradial approach for coronary angiography has also increased. The long-term effects of previous cannulation in radial artery bypass grafts are not known. Therefore, we used multidetector computed tomographic angiography to investigate radial-artery graft patency in a small series of patients who had undergone transradial angiography. We found a high patency rate, and we discuss those findings here.

  7. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions.

  8. Isolated Anomalous Origin of Left Pulmonary Artery From the Descending Aorta: An Embryologic Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Gnanappa, Ganesh Kumar; Laohachai, Karina; Orr, Yishay; Ayer, Julian

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta is a rare malformation, accounting for 0.12% of all congenital heart defects. Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the aorta (ALPA) constitutes a small proportion of these cases. ALPA has been reported to arise from the ascending aorta with various embryologic postulates. We report a case of isolated ALPA arising from the descending aorta in association with a patent ductus arteriosus, to emphasize its embryologic ambiguity.

  9. Retrospective study of neonatal ligation during 2002 in the United Kingdom of persistently patent arterial ducts.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Vidheya; Lee, Lleona; White, Deborah; Kelsall, Wilf

    2009-08-01

    Our aim was to ascertain the number of neonatal ligations of the patent arterial duct performed in the United Kingdom in 2002, and to determine the survival of the neonates after 30 days. A postal questionnaire was sent to the lead paediatician in every hospital in the United Kingdom possessing a special care or neonatal intensive care unit, requesting information on the number of babies referred for ligation of a persistently patent arterial duct. A separate questionnaire was sent to the paediatric cardiothoracic centres for information on babies who underwent the procedure. Cross-referencing the responses identified neonates who were not reported in the separate questionnaires. Additional information was requested from the central cardiac audit database. The overall response rate was 74%, with 172 forms returned of 234 distributed. From the combined responses, we ascertained that ligation has been performed in 244, with survival at 30 days of 94%. There were problems in identifying some babies because of the incomplete nature of the information received from both referring hospitals and specialist cardiothoracic centres. We would recommend a joint prospective study is conducted by paediatricians and paediatric cardiologists to determine the short and long term outcomes in this population known to be at high risk.

  10. Radiation dermatitis following radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: a case for prophylactic embolization of a patent falciform artery.

    PubMed

    Leong, Quor M; Lai, Hee K; Lo, Richard G H; Teo, Terence K B; Goh, Anthony; Chow, Pierce K H

    2009-06-01

    The most common use of radioembolization is in the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors, and the most common radioisotope used is yttrium-90. This form of therapy has been proven to be successful in achieving tumor reduction and prolonging survival. Adverse events, although uncommon and usually self-limiting, have been reported. The present report describes a case of radiation dermatitis caused by shunting of (90)Y microspheres to the anterior abdominal wall via a patent falciform artery. When identified, prophylactic embolization of this patent artery may prevent the potential adverse event of radiation-induced dermatitis after radioembolization.

  11. Importance of absent ductus arteriosus in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Yasir; Burkhart, Harold M; Julsrud, Paul; Cetta, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot without pulmonary valve syndrome is almost always associated with an absent ductus arteriosus. Patients with right aortic arch and retroesophageal left subclavian artery have a vascular ring if the left ductus arteriosus or its remnant and the Kommerell diverticulum are present. We report the cases of 2 infants in whom the role of an absent ductus arteriosus or its remnant is noteworthy. Both patients had a combination of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome and right aortic arch with retroesophageal left subclavian artery without a vascular ring. The absence of the ductus arteriosus has a role in the pathogenesis of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome. The absence of a ductus arteriosus in the right aortic arch with retroesophageal left subclavian artery precludes a vascular ring.

  12. How Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of their other health issues. The doctors and nurses at the hospital will teach you how to care for your child at home. They will talk to you about: Limits on ... closure of the PDA, and reopening of the PDA. ...

  13. Severe spinal cord ischemic injury secondary to device embolization after transcatheter closure of a patent arterial duct.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shen, Xiangqian

    2014-02-01

    Percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts with the Amplatzer Ductal Occluder has become an effective and widely accepted alternative to surgical management. Although rarely, the occluder can be dislodged after an initially successful deployment, and with catastrophic consequences. We describe such a case in a 12-month-old girl who underwent transcatheter closure of a patent arterial duct. After device deployment, the occluder embolized in the patient's descending thoracic aorta, and severe spinal cord ischemic injury resulted. To our knowledge, ours is the first report of this complication after the deployment of an Amplatzer Ductal Occluder. We discuss pathophysiologic mechanisms that could expose patients to the risk of device dislodgment, and we review the relevant medical literature.

  14. Technique of Coronary Transfer for TGA with Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Jung, Jae Jun; Kim, Yong Han; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2014-01-01

    An eight-day-old neonate was diagnosed with dextro-transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and a single sinus origin of the coronary arteries. The single coronary artery originated from the left sinus (sinus 2), had a proximal left circumflex arterial branch, and passed anteriorly to the right side of the aorta, further branching into the right coronary and left anterior descending arteries. We successfully performed an arterial switch operation and coronary transfer by tube graft reconstruction with autologous aortic tissue to treat the dextro-transposition of the great arteries and atrial septal defect with a single-sinus origin of the coronary arteries. PMID:25551074

  15. Single primitive ventricle with normally related great arteries and atresia of the left A-V valve.

    PubMed Central

    Coto, E O; Raggio, J M; Malo, P; Sainz, C; Aparisi, R; Gomez-Ullate, J M

    1978-01-01

    A child aged 2 years and 9 months was angiocardiographically diagnosed to have a single ventricle with normally related great arteries and atresia of the left A-V valve. A Blalock-Hanlon procedure and division of a large patent ductus arteriosus were followed by reduction in pulmonary artery pressure, but after operation the patient showed signs of left ventricular failure unresponsive to medical treatment, necessitating pulmonary artery banding. We have found only three similar published cases, and this is the only one with full angiographic documentation. Images PMID:725830

  16. A mitochondrial redox oxygen sensor in the pulmonary vasculature and ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J; Hong, Zhigang G; Xiong, Ping Y; Del Paggio, Joseph C; Herr, Julia E; Johri, Amer M; Archer, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian homeostatic oxygen sensing system (HOSS) initiates changes in vascular tone, respiration, and neurosecretion that optimize oxygen uptake and tissue oxygen delivery within seconds of detecting altered environmental or arterial PO2. The HOSS includes carotid body type 1 cells, adrenomedullary cells, neuroepithelial bodies, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in pulmonary arteries (PAs), ductus arteriosus (DA), and fetoplacental arteries. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes ventilation-perfusion matching. In utero, HPV diverts placentally oxygenated blood from the non-ventilated lung through the DA. At birth, increased alveolar and arterial oxygen tension dilates the pulmonary vasculature and constricts the DA, respectively, thereby transitioning the newborn to an air-breathing organism. Though modulated by endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors, O2 sensing is intrinsic to PASMCs and DASMCs. Within the SMC's dynamic mitochondrial network, changes in PO2 alter the reduction-oxidation state of redox couples (NAD(+)/NADH, NADP(+)/NADPH) and the production of reactive oxygen species, ROS (e.g., H2O2), by complexes I and III of the electron transport chain (ETC). ROS and redox couples regulate ion channels, transporters, and enzymes, changing intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i and calcium sensitivity and eliciting homeostatic responses to hypoxia. In PASMCs, hypoxia inhibits ROS production and reduces redox couples, thereby inhibiting O2-sensitive voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, depolarizing the plasma membrane, activating voltage-gated calcium channels (CaL), increasing [Ca(2+)]i, and causing vasoconstriction. In DASMCs, elevated PO2 causes mitochondrial fission, increasing ETC complex I activity and ROS production. The DASMC's downstream response to elevated PO2 (Kv channel inhibition, CaL activation, increased [Ca(2+)]i, and rho kinase activation) is similar to the PASMC's hypoxic response. Impaired O2 sensing contributes to

  17. Computerized axial tomography of the chest for visualization of ''absent'' pulmonary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sondheimer, H.M.; Oliphant, M.; Schneider, B.; Kavey, R.E.W.; Blackman, M.S.; Parker, F.B. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    To expand the search for central pulmonary arteries in six patients with absence of cardiac-pulmonary continuity, computerized axial tomography (CAT) of the chest was performed. The CAT scans were compared with previous arteriograms and pulmonary vein wedge angiograms. Three patients with type IV truncus arteriosus were studied, and none had a central, right or left pulmonary artery on CAT scan. However, two patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a patent ductus arteriosus to the right lung demonstrated the presence of a left pulmonary artery. In addition, one child with truncus arteriosus with ''absent'' left pulmonary artery demonstrated a left pulmonary artery on the CAT scan. The CAT scan may therefore enhance our ability to search for disconnected pulmonary arteries in children with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  18. Morphology of the embryonic and hatchling American alligator ductus arteriosi and implications for embryonic cardiovascular shunting.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Kimberley; Goy, Sarah K; Dzialowski, Edward M

    2012-02-01

    The ductus arteriosi (DA) are embryonic blood vessels found in amniotic vertebrates that shunt blood away from the pulmonary artery and lungs and toward the aorta. Here, we examine changes in morphology of the right and left DA (LDA), and right and left aorta (LAo) from embryonic and hatchling alligators. The developing alligator has two-patent DA that join the right and LAo. Both DA exhibit a muscular phenotype composed of an internal smooth muscle layer (2-4 cells thick). At hatching, the lumen diameter of both DA decreases as the vessels begin to close within the first 12 h of posthatch life. Between day 1 and day 12 posthatching, the vessel becomes fully occluded with endothelial and smooth muscle cells filling the lumen. A number of DA from hatchlings contained blood clots along their length. The lumen of the full term alligator DA is reduced in comparison with the full term chicken DA. The developing alligator embryo has an additional right-to-left shunt pathway in the LAo arising from the right ventricle. The embryonic LAo diameter is twice the diameter of either the right DA or LDA, providing a lower resistance pathway for blood leaving the right ventricle. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the paired DA of the embryonic alligator have a reduced role in the embryonic right-to-left shunt of blood from the right ventricle when compared with the avian DA.

  19. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in three cats

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Case 1 involved a 4-month-old intact male Somali cat in which peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPS) was recognized after a cardiac murmur remained following patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Case 2, which involved a 1-year-old neutered male Norwegian Forest cat, and Case 3, which involved a 6-month-old intact female American Curl cat, were referred, because of cardiac murmurs. Grades III to IV/VI systolic heart murmurs were auscultated at the left heart base in all 3 cats. All cases showed bilateral pulmonary artery stenosis, although there were no associated clinical signs. In Cases 1 and 2, the pressure gradient through the stenosis decreased after treatment with atenolol. PMID:25650057

  20. TEVAR for Flash Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm to Pulmonary Artery Fistula.

    PubMed

    Bornak, Arash; Baqai, Atif; Li, Xiaoyi; Rey, Jorge; Tashiro, Jun; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2016-01-01

    Enlarging aneurysms in the thoracic aorta frequently remain asymptomatic. Fistulization of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) to adjacent structures or the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus and TAA may lead to irreversible cardiopulmonary sequelae. This article reports on a large aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with communication to the pulmonary artery causing pulmonary edema and cardiorespiratory failure. The communication was ultimately closed after thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair allowing rapid symptom resolution. Early diagnosis and closure of such communication in the presence of TAA are critical for prevention of permanent cardiopulmonary damage.

  1. Chitosan hemostatic dressing for control of hemorrhage from femoral arterial puncture site in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Removal of an introducer-sheath from a femoral artery after completing transarterial embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus can cause life-threatening hemorrhage in dogs. In the present study, the effectiveness of chitosan acetate dressing in 10 experimental dogs was tested. Under general anesthesia, an introducer-sheath was placed into the femoral artery with percutaneous puncture using Seldinger's technique. The outer diameter of the introducer-sheaths varied from 3.0 to 4.0 mm with an introducer/artery ratio of 80 to 123%. The artery's diameter was measured using ultrasonography. Following removal of the introducer-sheath, a chitosan acetate dressing was applied to the wound and held in place with manual compression for 10 min. Successful hemostasis was reached on 12 arteries. However, on two arteries, hemorrhage was uncontrollable and led to a hypovolemic shock during 10 min of manual compression. Possible causes of the negative outcome in two dogs were their old age and an introducer-sheath with a too large diameter. The chitosan acetate dressing was easy to use and the artery remained patent. Dogs could walk directly after recovery from anesthesia and their femoral arteries were saved. In conclusion, the outer diameter of the introducer-sheath should not exceed 3 mm or the inner diameter of the artery. PMID:26119165

  2. Chitosan hemostatic dressing for control of hemorrhage from femoral arterial puncture site in dogs.

    PubMed

    Szatmári, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Removal of an introducer-sheath from a femoral artery after completing transarterial embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus can cause life-threatening hemorrhage in dogs. In the present study, the effectiveness of chitosan acetate dressing in 10 experimental dogs was tested. Under general anesthesia, an introducer-sheath was placed into the femoral artery with percutaneous puncture using Seldinger's technique. The outer diameter of the introducer-sheaths varied from 3.0 to 4.0 mm with an introducer/artery ratio of 80 to 123%. The artery's diameter was measured using ultrasonography. Following removal of the introducer-sheath, a chitosan acetate dressing was applied to the wound and held in place with manual compression for 10 min. Successful hemostasis was reached on 12 arteries. However, on two arteries, hemorrhage was uncontrollable and led to a hypovolemic shock during 10 min of manual compression. Possible causes of the negative outcome in two dogs were their old age and an introducer-sheath with a too large diameter. The chitosan acetate dressing was easy to use and the artery remained patent. Dogs could walk directly after recovery from anesthesia and their femoral arteries were saved. In conclusion, the outer diameter of the introducer-sheath should not exceed 3 mm or the inner diameter of the artery.

  3. Software Patents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  4. BMP9 and BMP10 are necessary for proper closure of the ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Levet, Sandrine; Ouarné, Marie; Ciais, Delphine; Coutton, Charles; Subileau, Mariela; Mallet, Christine; Ricard, Nicolas; Bidart, Marie; Debillon, Thierry; Faravelli, Francesca; Rooryck, Caroline; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Tillet, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The transition to pulmonary respiration after birth requires rapid alterations in the structure of the mammalian cardiovascular system. One dramatic change that occurs is the closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA), an arterial connection in the fetus that directs blood flow away from the pulmonary circulation. Two members of the TGFβ family, bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10, have been recently involved in postnatal angiogenesis, both being necessary for remodeling of newly formed microvascular beds. The aim of the present work was to study whether BMP9 and BMP10 could be involved in closure of the DA. We found that Bmp9 knockout in mice led to an imperfect closure of the DA. Further, addition of a neutralizing anti-BMP10 antibody at postnatal day 1 (P1) and P3 in these pups exacerbated the remodeling defect and led to a reopening of the DA at P4. Transmission electron microscopy images and immunofluorescence stainings suggested that this effect could be due to a defect in intimal cell differentiation from endothelial to mesenchymal cells, associated with a lack of extracellular matrix deposition within the center of the DA. This result was supported by the identification of the regulation by BMP9 and BMP10 of several genes known to be involved in this process. The involvement of these BMPs was further supported by human genomic data because we could define a critical region in chromosome 2 encoding eight genes including BMP10 that correlated with the presence of a patent DA. Together, these data establish roles for BMP9 and BMP10 in DA closure. PMID:26056270

  5. Reversible Closure of the Ductus Arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Marco; Quarti, Andrea; Iezzi, Federica

    2016-01-01

    There are cases in which ligation of the ductus arteriosus is part of a palliative or reparative procedure where the opportunity to reopen the ductus in the early period after surgery could be beneficial. This applies, particularly, to patients with borderline left ventricle in whom a biventricular repair is performed or in small babies in whom a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt is performed, particularly when a very small polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Conventional ductal ligation is generally irreversible. We describe a technique of ductal closure that allows easy reopening of the duct in the early postoperative period.

  6. Hepatic falciform ligament Tc-99m-macroaggregated albumin activity on SPECT/CT prior to Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization: prophylactic measures to prevent non-target microsphere localization via patent hepatic falciform arteries.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Tan, Andrew E H; Khoo, Li Ser; Lo, Richard H G; Chow, Pierce K H; Goh, Anthony S W

    2011-06-01

    Yttrium-90 (Y-90) selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is increasingly used to treat inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. We describe two patients where hepatic falciform ligament Technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m-MAA) activity was identified on single photon emission computed tomography with integrated low-dose CT (SPECT/CT) scan during pre-therapy planning, and the steps taken to prevent radiation dermatitis. The first patient underwent prophylactic coil embolization of the patent hepatic falciform artery; the second patient underwent super-selective infusion of Y-90 resin microspheres to avoid the patent hepatic falciform artery. The incidence of falciform ligament Tc-99m-MAA activity detected on SPECT/CT at our institution is 10%. Tc-99m-MAA SPECT/CT scan provides valuable diagnostic information for treatment planning prior to Y-90 SIRT.

  7. Unilateral right pulmonary artery agenesis and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the right lung with Ortner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    David, Jane Jackie; Mohanlal, Smilu; Sankhe, Punam; Ghildiyal, Radha

    2016-01-01

    We report a 2.5-year-old girl who presented with hoarseness of voice since 3 months of age and failure to thrive. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly with a deviation of the trachea and mediastinum to the right side. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed decreased flow across the right pulmonary artery, a small atrial septal defect (ASD) with a right-to-left shunt, and a dilated right atrium and right ventricle with severe tricuspid regurgitation suggestive of severe pulmonary hypertension. A silent large patent ductus arteriosus was also seen. Multiple detector computerized tomography aortogram confirmed the findings of absent right pulmonary artery and hypoplastic right lung with small cystic lesions suggestive of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in the right lower lobe. Hoarseness of voice was due to the left vocal cord palsy probably secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension (Ortner's syndrome).

  8. Patenting DNA.

    PubMed

    Bobrow, Martin; Thomas, Sandy

    2002-12-01

    The protection of inventions based on human DNA sequences has been achieved mainly through application of the patent system. Over the past decade, there has been continuing debate about whether this use of intellectual property rights is acceptable. Companies and universities have been active during this period in filing thousands of patent applications. Although many have argued that to claim a DNA sequence in a patent is to claim a discovery, patent law allows discoveries that are useful to be claimed as part of an invention. As the technology to isolate DNA sequences has advanced, the criterion for inventiveness, necessary for any invention to be eligible for filing, has become more difficult to justify in the case of claims to DNA sequences. Moreover, the discovery that a gene is associated with a particular disease is, it is argued, to discover a fact about the world and undeserving of the status of an invention. Careful examination of the grounds for allowing the patenting of DNA sequences as research tools suggests such rewards will rarely be justified. The patenting of DNA sequences as chemical intermediates necessary for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins is, however, reasonable given that the information within the sequence is applied to produce a tangible substance which has application as a medicine. Despite the legal, technical and political complexities of applying the flexibilities with the current law, it is argued that much could be achieved in the area of patenting DNA by raising the thresholds for patentability.

  9. Coil occlusion of the paient ductus arteriosus: lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Sanatani, Shubhayan; Potts, James E.; Ryan, Angela; Sandor, George G. S.; Human, Derek G.; Culham, J. A. Gordon

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To review the clinical outcomes of catheter-directed coil occlusion (coil occlusion) of persistently patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) at a pediatric tertiary care hospital.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients referred to the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory for coil occlusion at our institution was performed. Twenty-one consecutive patients (12 female) underwent coil occlusion and follow-up between May 1995 and December 1997. We undertook PDA occlusion if: (a) the PDA narrowed to less than 4 mm on echocardiogram and (b) the minimum body weight was approximately 10 kg. Standard right and retrograde left heart catheterization was performed, followed by coil occlusion. Color-flow mapping (CFM) was used intra-procedurally to confirm occlusion of the PDA with a follow-up study several weeks later.Results: The median age and weight of the patients were 33 months and 13.2 kg, respectively. Fourteen patients received one coil, with six requiring a second coil and one requiring multiple coils. Initial follow-up was at a median of 2.4 months. At latest follow-up, 2 patients still have persistent How at the ductal level. The coils were deployed without complication or embolization.Conclusions: A review of our first 21 cases demonstrated three important lessons: (1) the maximum diameter of the PDA suitable for coil occlusion is approximately 3 mm; (2) CFM must show complete obliteration of flow in the catheterization lab in order to ensure occlusion of the PDA at follow-up; and (3) the Jackson detachable system allows for precise placement of the coil, often within another coil.

  10. Bilateral ductal stenting in a neonate with right isolated pulmonary artery of ductal origin and differential pulmonary vascular resistances.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carlos D; Kenny, Damien

    2016-05-01

    We report our experience with stenting a right ductus arteriosus in a neonate with ductal origin of the right pulmonary artery (PA), who subsequently developed severe pulmonary hypertension in the left PA requiring decompression of the right ventricle with stenting of the left ductus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Outcome of Staged Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot with Pulmonary Atresia and a Ductus-dependent Pulmonary Circulation: Should Primary Repair Be Considered?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungtae; Chang, Yun Hee; Jung, Wonkil; Lee, Hyoung Doo; Park, Ji Ae; Huh, Up

    2011-01-01

    Background The tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with pulmonary atresia (PA) and a ductus-dependent pulmonary circulation (no major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs)) has been treated with staged repair or primary repair depending on the preference of surgeons or institutions. We evaluated the 19-year outcome of staged repair for this anomaly to find out whether our surgical strategy should be changed. Materials and Methods Forty-four patients with TOF/PA with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) who underwent staged repair from June 1991 to October 2010 were included in this retrospective study. The patients with MAPCAs were excluded. The average age at the first palliative shunt surgery was 40.8±67.5 days (range: 0~332 days). Thirty-one patients (31/44, 70%) were neonates. The average weight was 3.5±1.6 kg (range: 1.6~8.7 kg). A modified Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt was performed in 38 patients, classic BT shunt in 4 patients, and central shunt in 2 patients. Six patients required concomitant procedures: pulmonary artery angioplasty was performed in 4 patients, pulmonary artery reconstruction in one patient, and re-implantation of the left pulmonary artery to the main pulmonary artery in one patient. Four patients required a second shunt operation before the definitive repair was performed. Thirty-three patients underwent definitive repair at 24.2±13.3 months (range: 7.3~68 months) after the first palliative operation. The average age at the time of definitive repair was 25.4±13.5 months (range: 7.6~68.6 months) and their average weight was 11.0±2.1 kg. For definitive repair, 3 types of right ventricular outflow procedures were used: extra-cardiac conduit was performed in 30 patients, trans-annular patch in 2 patients, and REV operation in 1 patient. One patient was lost to follow-up after hospital discharge. The mean follow-up duration for the rest of the patients was 72±37 months (range: 4~160 months). Results Ten patients (10/44, 22.7%) died before the

  12. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table…

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of ductus arteriosus Botalli apertus in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Theissen, P; Deutsch, H J; Erdmann, E; Schicha, H

    1999-02-28

    Ductus arteriosus Botalli apertus is a congenital cardiovascular malformation usually diagnosed in childhood by echocardiography and/or cardiac catheterization. Reports about magnetic resonance imaging of ductus arteriosus Botalli apertus are rare. We report about three adult female patients and one adult male patient in whom magnetic resonance imaging was able to demonstrate the pathology. In all four patients quantitative data about right ventricular function were calculated. Pulmonary hypertension with Eisenmenger syndrome detected by cardiac catheterization had developed in three of the four patients excluding operative closure of the ductus. The patient in whom pulmonary hypertension had not developed underwent successful operative closure of the ductus. Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive tool that can be used for diagnosis of ductus arteriosus Botalli apertus and it allows to quantify right ventricular function. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used repetitively in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome which may be helpful for better timing of combined heart-lung transplantation as ultimate therapeutic strategy because deterioration of right ventricular function can be monitored.

  14. Prenatal Effects of Maternal Consumption of Polyphenol-Rich Foods in Late Pregnancy upon Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Zielinsky, Paulo; Busato, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Fetal circulation has characteristic features, being morphologically and functionally different from extrauterine circulation. The ductus arteriosus plays a fundamental role in directing the blood flow to fetal inferior body parts. Basically, the ductus arteriosus directs 80–85% of the right ventricular output arising from the superior vena cava, coronary sinus, and a small part from the inferior vena cava to descending aorta. Its histological structure is made up predominantly by a thick muscular layer, differently from the aorta and the pulmonary artery, which increases with gestational age. The fibers have a circumferential orientation, especially at the external layers, facilitating and making effective ductal constriction. These factors may generate lumen alterations which may cause fetal and neonatal complications, such as heart failure, hydrops, neonatal pulmonary hypertension, and even death. Classically, maternal administration of indomethacin and/or other antiinflammatory drugs interfere in prostaglandins metabolism, causing ductal constriction. However, many cases of fetal ductal constriction, as well as of persistent neonatal pulmonary artery hypertension, remain without an established etiology, being referred as “idiopathic.” In recent years, a growing body of evidence has shown that herbs, fruits, nuts, and a wide diversity of substances commonly used in daily diets have definitive effects upon the metabolic pathway of inflammation, with consequent inhibition of prostaglandins synthesis. This antiinflammatory action, especially of polyphenols, when ingested during the third trimester of pregnancy, may influence the dynamics of fetal ductus arteriosus flow. The goal of this review is to present these new observations and findings, which may influence dietary orientation during pregnancy. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 99:256–274, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24339037

  15. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  16. A Rare Case of Pulmonary Artery Dissection Associated With Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Kaiyu; Li, Yifei; Hua, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary artery dissection (PAD) is a rare condition with high mortality and has not been reported in patient with infective endocarditis (IE). Here, we report the first case of such patient who experienced PDA and survived after surgical intervention.A 10-year-old female child was diagnosed as IE with a patent ductus arteriosis (PDA) and a vegetation on the left side of pulmonary artery trunk (10 × 5 mm). Following 3-week antibacterial treatment, the body temperature of patient returned to normal, and the size of vegetation reduced (7 × 3 mm). However, the patient had a sudden attack of sustained and crushing right chest pain, orthopnea with increasing respiratory rate (> 60/min), and acute high fever. Echocardiography revealed the detachment of vegetation on the first day and dissection of pulmonary artery on the next day. The patient received immediate surgical intervention. It was found that aneurysm had a size of 28 × 20 mm and its orifice (the dissecting site) located on the opposite side of the PDA opening (right side of the pulmonary artery trunk). The dissected left wall of pulmonary artery trunk was reconstructed followed by the closure of PDA with suture. The patient recovered uneventfully.From this case, we learned that the surgical intervention should be considered at an early time for IE patients who have a vegetation in pulmonary artery and PDA. After the infection is under control, the earlier surgery may prevent severe complications.

  17. 'End-stage' heart failure therapy: potential lessons from congenital heart disease: from pulmonary artery banding and interatrial communication to parallel circulation.

    PubMed

    Schranz, Dietmar; Akintuerk, Hakan; Voelkel, Norbert F

    2017-02-15

    The final therapy of 'end-stage heart failure' is orthotopic heart, lung or heart-lung transplantation. However, these options are not available for many patients worldwide. Therefore, novel therapeutical strategies are needed. Based on pathophysiological insights regarding (1) the long-term impact of an obstructive pulmonary outflow tract in neonates with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, (2) the importance of a restrictive versus a non-restrictive atrial septum in neonates born with a borderline left ventricle and (3) the significance of both, a patent foramen ovale and/or open ductus arteriosus for survival of newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension, the current review introduces some therapeutical strategies that may be applicable to selected patients with heart failure. These strategies include (1) reversible pulmonary artery banding in left ventricular-dilated cardiomyopathy with preserved right ventricular function, (2) the creation of restrictive interatrial communication to treat diastolic (systolic) heart failure, (3) atrioseptostomy or reverse Potts shunt in pulmonary arterial hypertension and (4) return to a fetal, parallel circulation by combining atrioseptostomy and reversed Potts shunt with or without placement of a bilateral pulmonary artery banding. While still being experimental, it is hoped that the procedures presented in the current overview will inspire future novel therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to selected patients with heart failure.

  18. ‘End-stage’ heart failure therapy: potential lessons from congenital heart disease: from pulmonary artery banding and interatrial communication to parallel circulation

    PubMed Central

    Schranz, Dietmar; Akintuerk, Hakan; Voelkel, Norbert F

    2017-01-01

    The final therapy of ‘end-stage heart failure’ is orthotopic heart, lung or heart-lung transplantation. However, these options are not available for many patients worldwide. Therefore, novel therapeutical strategies are needed. Based on pathophysiological insights regarding (1) the long-term impact of an obstructive pulmonary outflow tract in neonates with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, (2) the importance of a restrictive versus a non-restrictive atrial septum in neonates born with a borderline left ventricle and (3) the significance of both, a patent foramen ovale and/or open ductus arteriosus for survival of newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension, the current review introduces some therapeutical strategies that may be applicable to selected patients with heart failure. These strategies include (1) reversible pulmonary artery banding in left ventricular-dilated cardiomyopathy with preserved right ventricular function, (2) the creation of restrictive interatrial communication to treat diastolic (systolic) heart failure, (3) atrioseptostomy or reverse Potts shunt in pulmonary arterial hypertension and (4) return to a fetal, parallel circulation by combining atrioseptostomy and reversed Potts shunt with or without placement of a bilateral pulmonary artery banding. While still being experimental, it is hoped that the procedures presented in the current overview will inspire future novel therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to selected patients with heart failure. PMID:28011759

  19. Patenting medical inventions.

    PubMed

    Schwertner, H A

    1994-12-01

    Medical, dental, nursing, and biomedical personnel often perform critical research that can lead to patents. Similarly, patentable discoveries can be made during the normal course of medical practice, e.g., the development of new biocompatible polymers, improved dental materials, new or modified catheters, new laboratory diagnostic tests, and improved medical devices. Many inventions may not be patented in federal organizations due to the lack of information available on the patenting process. In this article, the financial benefits that can be derived from patenting inventions are discussed, as well as the different types of patents that can be obtained, the conditions for patentability, bars or restrictions to obtaining a patent, the importance of proper record keeping, and the steps to take toward getting an invention patented.

  20. Isolated Hypoplasia of Left Pulmonary Artery with Agenesis of Left Lobe of Thyroid: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khadir, Mohammed Abdul; Narayana, Ganesh; Nayar, Pradeep G

    2016-01-01

    Isolated Unilateral hypoplasia or agenesis of a branch of pulmonary artery is very rare. It is usually seen associated with congenital heart diseases such as tetralogy of Fallot, atrial septal defect, coarctation of the aorta, right aortic arch, truncus arteriosus, patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia. It occurs as a result of lack of embryological development of either the left or right sixth aortic arch and has been found to present itself with various clinical manifestations as during childhood it presents as contralateral pulmonary hypertension and in adults as haemoptysis. Early diagnosis and early surgical indication avoids the evolution of pulmonary hypertension to unfavourble state of more severe and progressive degrees and also prevents the development of pulmonary systemic collateral circulation, which is mainly responsible for subsequent haemoptysis in the adulthood. We hereby, report the case of an infant who presented with features of lower respiratory tract infection and later diagnosed as isolated congenital hypoplasia of left pulmonary artery and hence planned for proper follow-up for early surgery thereby preventing complications in the future. PMID:28208970

  1. Giant pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Garg, Gaurav; Tyagi, Himanshu; Agrawal, Gaurav; Anil, S R

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old female child was admitted with complaints of progressive dyspnea on exertion since last 3 years. She was saturating 100% on room air with stable vitals. On clinical examination, left precordial bulge was seen with prominent epigastric pulsations. Chest X-ray showed rightward shift of mediastinum and huge homogenous opacity occupying almost entire left lung field. On two-dimensional echocardiography, a large aneurysmal mass was seen occupying left hemithorax which was suspected to be arising from pulmonary artery but its exact site of origin could not be determined. A small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was also seen. PDA could be seen directly supplying the aneurysm (Fig. 1). CT angiography was done to confirm the diagnosis. It showed a huge aneurysmal sac measuring 12 cm × 8.9 cm × 14 cm, arising from left pulmonary artery (LPA) opposite to the site of insertion of PDA. Sac was occupying most of the left lung and pushing down the left diaphragm (Fig. 2). Cause of formation of such a huge aneurysm could not be found out. Surgery was performed and mouth of the sac was closed along with ligation of duct, repair of LPA and drainage of the sac. After surgery, lung expansion was good. Patient was discharged and she is doing well.

  2. Isolated Hypoplasia of Left Pulmonary Artery with Agenesis of Left Lobe of Thyroid: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khadir, Mohammed Abdul; Narayana, Ganesh; Ramagopal, Ganavi; Nayar, Pradeep G

    2016-12-01

    Isolated Unilateral hypoplasia or agenesis of a branch of pulmonary artery is very rare. It is usually seen associated with congenital heart diseases such as tetralogy of Fallot, atrial septal defect, coarctation of the aorta, right aortic arch, truncus arteriosus, patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia. It occurs as a result of lack of embryological development of either the left or right sixth aortic arch and has been found to present itself with various clinical manifestations as during childhood it presents as contralateral pulmonary hypertension and in adults as haemoptysis. Early diagnosis and early surgical indication avoids the evolution of pulmonary hypertension to unfavourble state of more severe and progressive degrees and also prevents the development of pulmonary systemic collateral circulation, which is mainly responsible for subsequent haemoptysis in the adulthood. We hereby, report the case of an infant who presented with features of lower respiratory tract infection and later diagnosed as isolated congenital hypoplasia of left pulmonary artery and hence planned for proper follow-up for early surgery thereby preventing complications in the future.

  3. [Experience in the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus closure at a mexican hospital].

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, Horacio; Castro-Contreras, Uriel; Cerrud-Sánchez, Carmen Emma; López-Gallegos, Diana; Yáñez-Gutiérrez, Lucelli

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la persistencia del conducto arterioso (PCA) representa una de las enfermedades con mayor prevalencia en los hospitales que atienden cardiopatías congénitas (CC). En la actualidad en pacientes mayores de un año de edad el cierre percutáneo es la terapéutica estándar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la frecuencia, características y tratamiento de PCA en el servicio de Cardiopatías Congénitas en el Hospital de Cardiología del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Métodos: en el servicio de Cardiopatías Congénitas del Hospital de Cardiología del CMN SXXI se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 2010 a 2015 de los enfermos que fueron tratados con cierre percutáneo y cirugía de PCA. Se dividieron en las siguientes edades: lactantes, preescolares, escolares, adolescentes y adultos. Se registraron las frecuencias absolutas. Resultados: se seleccionaron 187 pacientes, de los cuales los preescolares y escolares representaron el 60% del total de la muestra. El cierre percutáneo por cateterismo intervencionsta se realizó en 90%; se registró un 2% de complicaciones. Conclusiones: en esta clínica de cardiopatías congénitas, la PCA es tratada por cateterismo intervencionista en la mayoría de las etapas del ser humano, lo que ha registrado mínimas complicaciones.

  4. [Echocardiographic screening vs. symptomatic diagnosis for patent ductus arteriosus in preterms].

    PubMed

    Juárez-Domínguez, Gabriela; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel; Patiño-Bahena, Emilia Josefina; Agami-Micha, Sion; Ortega-García, Karla Leticia; Torres-Palomino, Gregory; Delgado-Franco, Dagoberto

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es evaluar el posible beneficio en el tratamiento en el cierre de la persistencia del conducto arterioso cuando se realiza una pesquisa (< 72 horas de vida) por ecocardiograma, que cuando se realiza solo ante la presencia de síntomas asociados. Métodos: niños pretérmino sin malformaciones en dos estrategias diagnósticas: por pesquisa (asintomáticos) y por sintomatología asociada a la persistencia del conducto arterioso (PCA). Se analizaron las características del conducto, la presencia de hipertensión pulmonar y el tratamiento recibido. Se compararon los resultados entre: tardíos (34 a 36 semanas de gestación [SEG]), moderados (30 a 33 SEG) y extremos (< 30 SEG). Resultados: no hubo diferencias en las proporciones de diagnósticos de PCA por estrategias (pesquisa 18.6 % [101/543] contra 18.1 % [55/304], p = 0.92). Sin pesquisa, el 53 % se diagnosticó después de las 72 horas de vida. No hubo diferencias en las características del conducto entre los grupo. El tratamiento recibido no difirió entre las estrategias en los prematuros moderados y tardíos, pero sí fue más agresivo en los extremos. Conclusiones: la pesquisa de una PCA por ecocardiografía en los infantes pretérmino extremos acorta el tiempo de detección y permite un tratamiento menos agresivo. No lo recomendamos en pretérminos moderados y tardíos.

  5. Patent foramen ovale presenting as visual loss

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxuan; Calvert, Patrick A; Arif, Sayqa; Keane, Pearse A

    2016-01-01

    Retinal artery occlusion in an otherwise healthy, young patient is rare. In this context it is important to consider patent foramen ovale as a differential. Early referral to a cardiology specialist for diagnosis and treatment is important for preventing further ocular and non-ocular events. PMID:28203381

  6. Transcriptional profiling reveals ductus arteriosus-specific genes that regulate vascular tone

    PubMed Central

    Ector, Gerren; Galindo, Cristi L.; Hooper, Christopher W.; Brown, Naoko; Wilkerson, Irene; Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.; Paria, Bibhash C.; Cotton, Robert B.; Stoller, Jason Z.; Reese, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Failure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) to close at birth can lead to serious complications. Conversely, certain profound congenital cardiac malformations require the DA to be patent until corrective surgery can be performed. In each instance, clinicians have a very limited repertoire of therapeutic options at their disposal - indomethacin or ibuprofen to close a patent DA (PDA) and prostaglandin E1 to maintain patency of the DA. Neither treatment is specific to the DA and both may have deleterious off-target effects. Therefore, more therapeutic options specifically targeted to the DA should be considered. We hypothesized the DA possesses a unique genetic signature that would set it apart from other vessels. A microarray was used to compare the genetic profiles of the murine DA and ascending aorta (AO). Over 4,000 genes were differentially expressed between these vessels including a subset of ion channel-related genes. Specifically, the alpha and beta subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels are enriched in the DA. Gain- and loss-of-function studies showed inhibition of BKCa channels caused the DA to constrict, while activation caused DA relaxation even in the presence of O2. This study identifies subsets of genes that are enriched in the DA that may be used to develop DA-specific drugs. Ion channels that regulate DA tone, including BKCa channels, are promising targets. Specifically, BKCa channel agonists like NS1619 maintain DA patency even in the presence of O2 and may be clinically useful. PMID:24790087

  7. Modern evaluation of patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  8. Whole-genome patenting.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Bostanci, Adam; Calvert, Jane

    2005-06-01

    Gene patenting is now a familiar commercial practice, but there is little awareness that several patents claim ownership of the complete genome sequence of a prokaryote or virus. When these patents are analysed and compared to those for other biological entities, it becomes clear that genome patents seek to exploit the genome as an information base and are part of a broader shift towards intangible intellectual property in genomics.

  9. [Patenting human genes].

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    2002-05-10

    The problem of patenting of human genes, which was discussed at the Workshop organized by OECD, has become very actual due to granted patents that concern testing of genetic disposition for breast cancer. Companies that had made large investments into this research clearly support patenting of their discoveries. But such patents can reduce general accessibility of genetic testing. Existing laws, and namely the Directive of the European Council unfortunately are not unambiguous and allow rather free explanation.

  10. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  11. An anomalous portal vein crossing the lesser sac and ending at the upper part of ductus venosus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hee Chul; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2015-01-01

    In serial sagittal sections of a fetus on week 9 (crown-rump length, 36 mm), we incidentally found absence of the usual portal vein through the hepatoduodenal ligament. Instead, an anomalous portal vein originated behind the pancreatic body, crossed the lesser sac and merged with the upper part of the ductus venosus. During the course across the lesser sac, the vein provided a deep notch of the liver caudate lobe (Spiegel's lobe). The hepatoduodenal ligament contained the hepatic artery, the common bile duct and, at the right posterior margin of the ligament, and a branch of the anomalous portal vein which communicated with the usual right branch of the portal vein at the hepatic hilum. The umbilical portion of the portal vein took a usual morphology and received the umbilical vein and gave off the ductus venosus. Although it seemed not to be described yet, the present anomalous portal vein was likely to be a persistent left vitelline vein. The hepatoduodenal ligament was unlikely to include the left vitelline vein in contrast to the usual concept. PMID:26417483

  12. [Patents on life? No patent on life!].

    PubMed

    van Raden, L

    1998-03-01

    Inventions related to living material are in principle patentable as well as inventions in the "classical" fields of technology as long as they are new, industrially applicable and involve an inventive step. A patent gives to its owner for a limited period of time the exclusive right to prevent others from using his patented new technical know-how. Starting point of patent protection in the field of genetic engineering is a genetic information or a genetically induced characteristic of an organism; there is no such thing as a "Patent on Life". As far as inventions relate to genetically modified organisms, patents give to their owners no additional property rights that might exclude the applicability e.g. of the laws on animal protection. Intellectual property like any other property is subject to the limits set up by law. It is neither scientifically correct nor does it help in finding a solution for the conflict within society to shift the--undoubtedly necessary--discussion about research and application in the field of genetic engineering to a discussion about patent law.

  13. Evaluation of left pulmonary artery sling, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and surgical outcomes using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiajun; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Wang, Qiushi; Chen, Jimei; Zhuang, Jian; Xie, Zhaofeng; Liang, Changhong; Zhu, Yulei; Yu, Zhuliang; Li, Jinglei; Saboo, Sachin S.; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence, image appearance, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and surgical outcomes of left pulmonary artery sling (LPAS) using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA). A retrospective search of patients from our database between October 2007 and December 2014 identified 52,200 patients with congenital heart diseases (CHD) referred for CCTA, echocardiography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical information, CCTA findings, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. We showed a hospital-based prevalence of 71 patients with LPAS (0.14%, 71/52,200) among CHD patients. Of these, 47 patients with CCTA examinations were assessed further. Most patients (40/47, 85%) had associated cardiovascular anomalies, of which ventricular septal defects (22/47, 47%), atrial septal defects (20/47, 43%), patent ductus arteriosus (16/47, 34%), persistent left superior vena cava (14/47, 30%), and abnormal branching of the right pulmonary artery (ABRPA) (14/47, 30%) were most commonly identified. In total, 28 patients underwent LPA reanastomosis and/or tracheoplasty in our center, and 5 died. LPAS had a hospital-based prevalence of 0.14% among CHD patients. ABRPA is not uncommon and must be recognized. CCTA is a feasible method for demonstrating LPAS and its associated cardiovascular anomalies for an optimal pre-operative assessment of LPAS. PMID:28053308

  14. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio. PMID:26098313

  15. Patents and nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Big pharma's business model, which relies on a few blockbusters to generate profits, is clearly broken. Patent expiration on numerous blockbusters in recent years is already altering the drug landscape. Drug companies are also facing other challenges that necessitate development and implementation of novel R&D strategies, including those that focus on nanotechnology and miniaturization. Clearly, there is enormous excitement and expectation regarding nanomedicine's potential impact. However, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be critical. Although early forecasts for nanomedicine commercialization are encouraging, there are numerous bottlenecks as well. One of the major hurdles is an emerging thicket of patent claims, resulting primarily from patent proliferation as well as continued issuance of surprisingly broad patents by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Adding to this confusion is the fact that the US National Nanotechnology Initiative's widely cited definition of nanotechnology is inaccurate and irrelevant from a nanomedicine perspective. It is also the cause of the inadequate patent classification system that was recently unveiled by the PTO. All of this is creating a chaotic, tangled patent landscape in various sectors of nanomedicine where the competing players are unsure of the validity and enforceability of numerous issued patents. If this trend continues, it could stifle competition and limit access to some inventions. Therefore, reforms are urgently needed at the PTO to address problems ranging from poor patent quality and questionable examination practices to inadequate search capabilities, rising attrition, poor employee morale and a skyrocketing patent application backlog. Only a robust patent system will stimulate the development of commercially viable nanomedicine products that can drastically improve a patient's quality of life and reduce healthcare costs.

  16. Effects of advancing gestation and non-Caucasian race on ductus arteriosus gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Waleh, Nahid; Barrette, Anne Marie; Dagle, John M.; Momany, Allison; Jin, Chengshi; Hills, Nancy K.; Shelton, Elaine L.; Reese, Jeff; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify genes affected by advancing gestation and racial/ethnic origin in human ductus arteriosus (DA). Study design We collected three sets of DA tissue (n=93, n=89, n=91; total = 273 fetuses) from second trimester pregnancies. We examined four genes, with DNA polymorphisms that distribute along racial lines, to identify "Caucasian" and "Non-Caucasian" DA. We used RT-PCR to measure RNA expression of 48 candidate genes involved in functional closure of the DA, and used multivariable regression analyses to examine the relationships between advancing gestation, "Non-Caucasian" race, and gene expression. Results Mature gestation and Non-Caucasian race are significant predictors for identifying infants who will close their patent DA when treated with indomethacin. Advancing gestation consistently altered gene expression in pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction (e.g., calcium-channels, potassium-channels, and endothelin signaling), contractile protein maturation, tissue remodeling, and prostaglandin and nitric oxide signaling in all three tissue sets. None of the pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction appeared to be altered in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Two genes, SLCO2A1 and NOS3, (involved with prostaglandin reuptake/metabolism and nitric oxide production, respectively) were consistently decreased in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Conclusions Prostaglandins and nitric oxide are the most important vasodilators opposing DA closure. Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin production, but not nitric oxide production. Because decreased SLCO2A1 and NOS3 expression can lead to increased prostaglandin and decreased nitric oxide concentrations, we speculate that prostaglandin-mediated vasodilation may play a more dominant role in maintaining the "Non-Caucasian" PDA, making it more likely to close when inhibited by indomethacin. PMID:26265282

  17. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  18. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  19. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  20. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  1. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  2. Polyhydramnios with bidirectional fetal ductus arteriosus flow in a fetus with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: case report.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Marijo; Ramin, Kirk; Nyholm, Jessica; Gidvani, Monisha; Jacobs, Katherine; Sivanandam, Shanthi

    2011-06-01

    The etiology of polyhydramnios may be attributed to either increased production of amniotic fluid (fetal polyuria or high-output cardiac failure) or decreased fetal swallowing (obstruction or neurological impairment). Although idiopathic polyhydramnios occurs in nearly half of all cases, it is often associated with fetal abnormalities. Fetal ductus arteriosus flow is normally from right to left. We report a case of antenatally detected bidirectional fetal ductus arteriosus flow diagnosed concomitantly with polyhydramnios. Amnioreduction was performed due to severe maternal symptoms, which resulted in correction of the fetal ductus arteriosus flow. Postnatal diagnosis of a Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia indicates that our sonographic findings collectively may have been a diagnostic clue.

  3. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  4. Patent Law's Reproducibility Paradox.

    PubMed

    Sherkow, Jacob S

    2017-01-01

    Clinical research faces a reproducibility crisis. Many recent clinical and preclinical studies appear to be irreproducible--their results cannot be verified by outside researchers. This is problematic for not only scientific reasons but also legal ones: patents grounded in irreproducible research appear to fail their constitutional bargain of property rights in exchange for working disclosures of inventions. The culprit is likely patent law’s doctrine of enablement. Although the doctrine requires patents to enable others to make and use their claimed inventions, current difficulties in applying the doctrine hamper or even actively dissuade reproducible data in patents. This Article assesses the difficulties in reconciling these basic goals of scientific research and patent law. More concretely, it provides several examples of irreproducibility in patents on blockbuster drugs--Prempro, Xigris, Plavix, and Avastin--and discusses some of the social costs of the misalignment between good clinical practice and patent doctrine. Ultimately, this analysis illuminates several current debates concerning innovation policy. It strongly suggests that a proper conception of enablement should take into account after-arising evidence. It also sheds light on the true purpose--and limits--of patent disclosure. And lastly, it untangles the doctrines of enablement and utility.

  5. Oxygen-induced tension in the sheep ductus arteriosus: effects of gestation on potassium and calcium channel regulation

    PubMed Central

    Waleh, Nahid; Reese, Jeff; Kajino, Hiroki; Roman, Christine; Seidner, Steven; McCurnin, Donald; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2009-01-01

    Compared with the full term ductus arteriosus, the premature ductus is less likely to constrict when exposed to postnatal oxygen concentrations. We used isolated fetal sheep ductus arteriosus (pretreated with inhibitors of prostaglandin and nitric oxide production) to determine if changes in K+- and CaL-channel activity could account for the developmental differences in oxygen-induced tension. In the mature ductus, KV-channels appear to be the only K+-channels that oppose ductus tension. Oxygen concentrations between (2 and 15%) inhibit KV-channel activity, which increases the CaL-channel-mediated increase in tension. Low oxygen concentrations have a direct inhibitory effect on CaL-channel activity in the immature ductus; this is not the case in the mature ductus. In the immature ductus, 3 different K+-channel activities (KV, KCa, and KATP) oppose ductus tension and contribute to its decreased tone. Oxygen inhibits the activities of all 3 K+-channels. The inhibitory effects of the 3 K+-channel activities decline with advancing gestation. The decline in K+-channel activity is not due to decreased K+-channel expression. Super-physiologic oxygen concentrations (≥30% O2) constrict the ductus by utilizing calcium dependent pathways that are independent of K+- and CaL-channel activities. Super-physiologic oxygen concentrations eliminate the difference in tensions between the 2 age groups. PMID:19092721

  6. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation.

  7. A ruptured large aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, S; Hirose, K; Ohyagi, A

    1987-01-01

    A 60 year old man was admitted with acute back pain followed by hoarseness. An aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus Botalli was diagnosed and an operation was recommended because of the high risk of complications such as rupture, embolism, or infection. The patient and his family refused surgery, however. The patient died suddenly of a rupture of the aneurysm a year later; necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. Several diagnostic methods were used and enhanced computed tomography gave the best representation of the aneurysm as it was seen at necropsy. This case indicates that enhanced computed tomography is probably the most useful investigation in patients with this type of aneurysm and it confirms the importance of an aneurysmectomy. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3566989

  8. Internet Patent Databases: Everyone Is a Patent Searcher Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohrley, Andrew A.; Mitchell, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    Patent information has never been so available, at such low cost, to so many people. Describes patent databases accessible on the Web (Micropatent, Source Translation and Optimization Questel-Orbit QPAT, Internet Patents/Community of Science, and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office), lists their strengths and weaknesses, and recommends the best…

  9. Patenting malarial vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is an important tropical infection affecting millions of world population each year. Malarial vaccine development is the hope for successful control of malaria. Knowledge on malaria vaccine has been considered patentable subject for decades. Due to the present advance biotechnology, the number of patent applications related to malarial vaccine is growing exponentially. Several malarial vaccine candidates have been recently identified and the genetic manipulation of these candidates is becoming more efficient with the advancement of new biotechnologies. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents on malarial vaccines covering antigens, candidate epitopes and recombinant processing.

  10. Arterial stump pressure: a determinant of arterial patency?

    PubMed

    Nunley, J A; Goldner, R D; Koman, L A; Gelberman, R; Urbaniak, J R

    1987-03-01

    Twenty-seven patients with acute injuries to the radial or ulnar arteries had arterial repairs using microvascular techniques. No patient had an ischemic hand secondary to his arterial injury. The overall patency rate for all repaired vessels was 56%. For sharp, clean lacerations, the success rate for repairs was 55%. Repairs of acute, sharp lacerations yielded no better results than delayed reconstructions. The average distal end arterial stump pressure for patent arteries was 66% of mean, while for thrombosed vessels it was 76% of mean; this was not a statistically significant difference (p = 0.9). There was no statistical correlation between forearm arterial patency, age, sex, vessel injured, mechanism of injury, time of repair, or clinically measured distal arterial stump pressure. At the present time, it does not appear to be possible to predict arterial patency by measuring arterial stump pressure at the time of definitive repair.

  11. Patent urachus repair

    MedlinePlus

    Patent urachal tube repair ... belly. Next, the surgeon will find the urachal tube and remove it. The bladder opening will be ... surgeon uses the tools to remove the urachal tube and close off the bladder and area where ...

  12. Trends in Nanopharmaceutical Patents

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Adelaide; Fierro, Iolanda; Guerrante, Rafaela; Mendes, Flavia; Alencar, Maria Simone de M.

    2013-01-01

    Investment in nanotechnology is now a given constant by governments, research centers and companies in both more developed countries and emerging markets. Due to their characteristics, such as high stability, ability to enable antigen identification on specific cells in the human body and controlling the release of drugs and, therefore, improving therapies, nanoparticles have been the subject of research and patent applications in the pharmaceutical field. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCDE), patent data can be used as a source of information in order to measure science and technology activities. Thereby, this paper presents an analysis based on patent documents related to nanotechnology in the pharmaceutical sector. As a result, the analysis of patents demonstrate primarily that nanobiotechnology attracts high levels of R&D investments, including nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutic agents/drugs, monoclonal antibody nanoparticle complexes and their role in drug delivery or contrast agents with non-toxic effects. PMID:23535336

  13. Retrieving Patent Information Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses patent information retrieval from online files in terms of types of questions, file contents, coverage, timeliness, and other file variations. CLAIMS, Derwent, WPI, APIPAT and Chemical Abstracts Service are described. (KP)

  14. 76 FR 40339 - Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Patent and Trade Mark Office (DPMA), National Board of Patents and Registration of Finland (NBPR), Russian Patent Office (ROSPATENT), Hungarian Patent Office (HPO), Spanish Patent and Trademark...

  15. Selling Complementary Patents: Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J; Santore, Rudy; McKee, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Production requiring licensing groups of complementary patents implements a coordination game among patent holders, who can price patents by choosing among combinations of fixed and royalty fees. Summed across patents, these fees become the total producer cost of the package of patents. Royalties, because they function as excise taxes, add to marginal costs, resulting in higher prices and reduced quantities of the downstream product and lower payoffs to the patent holders. Using fixed fees eliminates this inefficiency but yields a more complex coordination game in which there are multiple equilibria, which are very fragile in that small mistakes can lead the downstream firm to not license the technology, resulting in inefficient outcomes. We report on a laboratory market investigation of the efficiency effects of coordinated pricing of patents in a patent pool. We find that pool-like pricing agreements can yield fewer coordination failures in the pricing of complementary patents.

  16. Edison's vacuum technology patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

  17. Recanalization of an occluded popliteal artery following posterior knee dislocation.

    PubMed

    Kirby, L; Abbas, J; Brophy, C

    1999-11-01

    Posterior knee dislocation results in popliteal artery injury in up to one-third of cases. Prompt recognition and treatment of arterial injury is essential for limb salvage. We report a case of complete occlusion of the popliteal artery following posterior knee dislocation treated with saphenous vein bypass without exclusion of the injured arterial segment. Follow-up duplex scanning demonstrated a patent vein graft and a patent ipsilateral popliteal artery. This report suggests that, in some instances, a traumatically occluded popliteal artery may recanalize, and that revascularization with a bypass graft may be the preferred method of repair, particularly in young patients.

  18. Echocardiographic Follow-Up of Patent Foramen Ovale and the Factors Affecting Spontaneous Closure

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Ali; Aydin, Alperen; Demir, Tevfik; Aydin, Fatma; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the echocardiographic follow-up of patent foramen ovale, which is considered a potential etiological factor in various diseases, and to determine the factors affecting spontaneous closure. Methods Between January 2000 and June 2012, records of 918 patients with patent foramen ovale were retrospectively reviewed. Patency of less than 3 mm around the fossa ovalis is called patent foramen ovale. Patients with cyanotic congenital heart diseases, severe heart valve disorders and severe hemodynamic left to right shunts were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into three groups based on age; 1 day-1 month in group 1, 1 month-12 months in group 2, and more than 12 months in group 3. Results Of the 918 patients, 564 (61.4%) had spontaneous closure, 328 (35.8%) had patent foramen ovale continued, 15 (1.6%) patients had patent foramen ovale enlarged to 3-5 mm, 6 patients were enlarged to 5-8 mm, and in one patient patent foramen ovale reached to more than 8 mm size. Defect was spontaneously closed in 65.9% of the patients in group 1, 66.7% of the patients in group 2, and 52.3% of the patients in group 3. There was a negative correlation between the age of diagnosis and spontaneous closure (p < 0.05). Gender, prematurity and coexisting malformations such as patent ductus arteriosus and atrial septal aneurysm did not have any effect on spontaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (p > 0.05). However, ventricular septal defect and spontaneous closure of patent foramen ovale had a positive correlation (p < 0.01). No correlation was noted between the existence of atrial septal aneurysm, prematurity, and maturity of the patients. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that spontaneous closure rate of patent foramen ovale is high. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between spontaneous closure of patent foramen ovale with early diagnosis and small defect size. PMID:27899861

  19. Biotools: Patenting DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, M.D.; Hone, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    The decision, known as In re Deuel{sup 2}, rejects the PTO`s interpretation of a previous decision of the Federal Circuit and makes it more possible that a {open_quotes}nucleic acid of a particular sequence{close_quotes} - commonly known as a gene sequence - may be patentable. 15 refs.

  20. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  1. Biotechnology patents: new move confuses US patents world.

    PubMed

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1983-03-17

    Patent attorneys are perplexed and dismayed over a surprise decision by the U.S. Patent Office to drop its earlier objections to the second Cohen-Boyer patent application, covering basic processes in recombinant DNA technology. The patent proceedings, which were closed to public access at the request of Stanford University, have resulted in confusion over the meaning of the patent law's disclosure requirement as it applies to new organisms. Meanwhile, evidence of a prior Ph.D. thesis has called into question the originality of the Cohen-Boyer process.

  2. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  3. [Antenatal closure of ductus arteriosus following maternal intoxication by niflumic acid].

    PubMed

    Bouissou, A; Glorieux, I; Dulac, Y; Marcoux, M O; Casper, C

    2006-01-01

    Antenatal closure of the ductus arteriosus is an uncommon event that has been considered as a risk factor for development of congestive heart failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We report here on a case of antenatal ductus arteriosus closure due to niflumic acid maternal intoxication at 32 weeks of gestation. Fetal extraction was performed few days later because of echographic signs of congestive heart failure. The child survived after 3 days of severe persistent pulmonary hypertension. This case emphasizes the potential risk of niflumic acid during pregnancy and the need of antenatal echographic monitoring for optimal management.

  4. Fetal Pulmonary Arterial Vascular Impedance Reflects Changes in Fetal Oxygenation at Near-Term Gestation in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Arraut, Amaryllis Maria Elpida; Frias, Antonio E.; Hobbs, Theodore R.; McEvoy, Cindy; Spindel, Eliot R.; Rasanen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that fetal pulmonary arterial circulation reacts to changes in fetal oxygenation status at near-term gestation. Study Design: A total of 20 rhesus macaques underwent fetal Doppler ultrasonography at near-term gestation. Right pulmonary artery (RPA), umbilical artery (UA), ductus arteriosus (DA), and ductus venosus (DV) blood velocity waveforms were obtained, and pulsatility index (PI) values were calculated. Fetal right and left ventricular cardiac outputs were determined. Ultrasonographic data were collected during 3 maternal oxygenation states: room air (baseline), hyperoxemia, and hypoxemia. Results: Fetal RPA PI values increased (P < .05) during maternal hypoxemia and decreased (P < .05) during maternal hyperoxemia, compared with baseline. Maternal hyperoxemia increased (P < .05) DA PI values from baseline. Fetal cardiac outputs, UA, and DV PI values were not affected. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that at near-term gestation, fetal pulmonary arterial circulation is a dynamic vascular bed that reflects acute and short-term changes in fetal oxygenation. PMID:22991382

  5. Ductus venosus in the first trimester: contribution to screening of chromosomal, cardiac defects and monochorionic twin complications.

    PubMed

    Maiz, Nerea; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2010-01-01

    In the first trimester the ductus venosus can be easily identified with color Doppler and a ductus venosus waveform can be obtained by pulsed Doppler. At 11-13 weeks the prevalence of abnormal a-wave in the ductus venosus is inversely related to fetal crown-rump length and maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), increases with fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and is more common in women of Black racial origin and in fetuses with abnormal karyotype or cardiac defects. Ductus venosus flow provides an independent contribution in the prediction of chromosomal abnormalities when combined with NT and the maternal serum markers of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG, increasing the detection rate to 96% at a false-positive rate of 2.6%. Abnormal ductus venosus flow increases the risk of cardiac defects in fetuses with NT above the 95th centile, and it may increase the risk in fetuses with normal NT. In twin pregnancies, abnormal ductus venosus flow is associated with chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. In monochorionic twins, abnormal flow in the ductus venosus in at least 1 of the fetuses increases the risk of developing twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

  6. Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome associated with patent ductus arteriosus: First case report from Kashmir Valley of the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Ali, Imran; Ahangar, A. G.; Wani, Mohd Maqbool; Ahmed, Sanjeed; Bhat, Manzoor Ahmed; Seth, Sulaiman; Mudasir, Syed

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome, an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by a triad of anemia, diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness is caused by a deficiency of a thiamine transporter protein. The disorder is rare and has not been reported from our community which has high background of consanguinity. We report a six years old girl who presented with diabetes mellitus which remitted after thiamine replacement. The girl in addition had sensorineural deafness, reinopathy, atrial septal defect and megaloblastic anemia which responded to high doses of thymine. This is the first case reported from Kashmir valley and third from India. The presentation and management in such cases is discussed. PMID:22837935

  7. Patents - An Information Resource.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    available abstracting services will be compared ard techniques for searching, including automated systems, will be described. Participants, thus having...as they stand or, if use is not permissible, to be avoided. Just as no scientist can keep up with all the articles published in his general subject...field, be It organic chemistry or radio astronomy, so no development engineer can possibly keep up with all the patent literature. Overall something

  8. [Inhaled nitric oxide: a physiologic treatment of persistent pulmonary arterial hypertension in the newborn].

    PubMed

    Thébaud, B; Mercier, J C

    1997-10-01

    Fetal pulmonary circulation is characterized by high resistance and low pulmonary blood flow. Right-to-left shunting through the foramen ovale and/or patent ductus arteriosus is necessary to perfuse the placenta and insure fetal life. At birth, pulmonary arterial blood flow increases immediately by 8- to 10-fold, and allows pulmonary gas exchange and postnatal life. In some circumstances, this adaptation to extra-uterine life is inadequate, because of persistent high pulmonary resistance (PPHN). Due to the lack of a selective pulmonary vasodilator, the treatment of this syndrome remained purely symptomatic using high oxygen levels and barotraumatic mechanical hyperventilation. When this medical treatment failed, the only alternative was extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The discovery of the major role of various endothelium-derived factors including nitric oxide (NO) in the control of vascular reactivity led to dramatic switches in the concepts of severe neonatal respiratory failure and the therapeutic approach of PPHN. It was shown, first in experimental animals then in a few infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure, that NO inhalation selectively vasodilated the vasoconstricted pulmonary vessels, and reversed right-to-left shunting and refractory hypoxemia. Whether inhaled NO also reduces mortality and/or morbidity in hypoxic infants remains to be proven by appropriate randomized clinical trials. However, not only PPHN is associated with pulmonary diseases of various etiologies and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, but also inhaled NO is used in conjunction with other validated therapeutic strategies including ante- or postnatal steroids, exogenous surfactants, and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Thus, the relevant primary endpoint might be not only crude survival but the most physiological and economical way of obtaining it.

  9. Patent and product piracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  10. Patenting genome research tools and the law.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Patenting genes encoding therapeutic proteins was relatively uncontroversial in the early days of biotechnology. Controversy arose in the era of high-throughput DNA sequencing, when gene patents started to look less like patents on drugs and more like patents on scientific information. Evolving scientific and business strategies for exploiting genomic information raised concerns that patents might slow subsequent research. The trend towards stricter enforcement of the utility and disclosure requirements by the patent offices should help clarify the current confusion.

  11. Recent patents on molecular cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

    2008-01-01

    The questions surrounding patenting of DNA sequences encoding specific proteins are relatively well reviewed in the available literature. However, neither applications nor molecular cytogenetic techniques, which use these sequences as a probe, have been reviewed in the light of the patenting. Furthermore, the patenting of the use of numerous probes, which are produced on different types of repetitive genome elements (i.e. satellite DNA or telomeric DNA sequences) and those generated by chromosome microdissection has not been reviewed. Molecular cytogenetic techniques are one of the most applied in current bioscience (as to June 2007, over 40,000 papers in browseable scientific databases mention one or several molecular cytogenetic techniques). Therefore, reviewing recent patents in this field is of general interest for numerous researchers in different areas of biology and medicine. Here, we address world-wide patents on DNA sequences used as molecular cytogenetic probes and molecular cytogenetic techniques to define current state and perspectives of this biomedical direction.

  12. [Patent rights and biotechnological inventions].

    PubMed

    Lobato García-Miján, M

    1998-01-01

    In spite of all the controversy surrounding it and the problems encountered in the process leading to its adoption, the Directive on the legal protection of biotechnology inventions does not feature anything substantially new compared to the criteria used by patent offices in determining whether inventions of this type can be patented. The Directive's originality stems not so much from the interpretation given of patenting requirements but rather from the legal importance attached to issues of public policy or morality. It sets out and interprets for the member states of the European Union what is meant by the term. However, in our opinion this regulation of morality reflects above all else an attempt to satisfy the views of sectors opposed to the Directive. Clearly, there is some doubt as to whether in practice patents for genetic material can be turned down because they run counter to morality, except in blatant cases of immorality (applications for patents for human embryos, etc).

  13. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  14. Automated mapping system patented

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A patent on a satellite system dubbed Mapsat, which would be able to map the earth from space and would thereby reduce the time and cost of mapping on a smaller scale, has been issued to the U.S. Geological Survey.The Mapsat concept, invented by Alden F. Colvocoresses, a research cartographer at the USGS National Center, is based on Landsat technology but uses sensors that acquire higher-resolution image data in either a stereo or monoscopic mode. Stereo data can be processed relatively simply with automation to produce images for interpretation or to produce maps. Monoscopic and multispectral data can be processed in a computer to derive information on earth resources. Ground control, one of the most expensive phases of mapping, could be kept to a minimum.

  15. Patenting the Life Sciences at the European Patent Office

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The European patent system is very much like those of the United States and other major countries. Patent applications can be filed as a first filing, as a priority application, or as a national phase of a Patent Cooperation Treaty application. The applications are searched, rigorously examined, and ultimately granted, with the time periods varying somewhat depending on the application type. The object of this article is to highlight some of the differences between the U.S. and European systems, particularly as they relate to life sciences. PMID:25342060

  16. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every other ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  17. The response of the lamb ductus arteriosus to endothelin: developmental changes and influence of light.

    PubMed

    Coceani, Flavio; Kelsey, Lois; Seidlitz, Eric

    2002-07-26

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a putative messenger of oxygen in the ductus arteriosus. Since the ability of the vessel to contract to oxygen increases with gestation, we wished to ascertain whether ET-1 action is also developmentally regulated. A corollary objective was to assess whether any gestational variation in the ET-1 contraction is due to a change in the ET(A)-mediated action or to a shift in the balance between opposing, contractile (ET(A) - mediated) and relaxant (ET(B)-mediated), actions. Experiments were performed with isolated ductal strips from preterm (0.7 gestation) and near-term fetal lambs. ET-1 contracted the ductus dose-dependently (10(-10)-10(-7) M) at both ages; however, the peak contraction was about double in magnitude at term. Regardless of age, ET-1 contraction was greater with preparations kept in the dark compared to those exposed to light. This effect of light was not seen after removing the endothelium or when treating the intact tissue with the ET(B) antagonist BQ788 (1 microM). In the dark, however, BQ788 did not modify significantly the ET-1 response at either age. We conclude that ET-1 becomes a stronger ductus constrictor with fetal age, conceivably by acting on ET(A) receptors. Hence, the concept of ET-1 mediating the oxygen contraction is further validated. Peculiarly, the ET-1 contraction is curtailed by light through a hitherto undefined ET(B) receptor-linked process.

  18. A Large Posttraumatic Subclavian Artery Aneurysm Complicated by Artery Occlusion and Arteriobronchial Fistula Successfully Treated Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Czeczotka, Jaroslaw; Elgalal, Marcin; Sapieha, Michal; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2011-02-15

    The treatment of posttraumatic aneurysms of peripheral arteries using covered stents is increasingly commonplace. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with a pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery complicated by an arteriobronchial fistula with hemorrhaging into the bronchial tree and distal subclavian artery occlusion. Despite the lack of artery patency, endovascular stent graft implantation was successful. Pseudoaneurysm exclusion and involution was achieved, together with a patent implant and maintained collateral circulation patency.

  19. The significance of medial sural artery integrity in popliteal artery trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tzilalis, V D; Georgiadis, G S; Papas, T T; Arvanitis, D P; Lazarides, M K

    2005-12-01

    Two patients with popliteal artery trauma who underwent secondary amputations due to refractory calf sepsis despite a patent arterial repair are presented in this case report. The medial sural artery, the main arterial supply of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, was surgically severed in both patients owing to the use of a continuous medial incision from the supra level to infragenicular level. The compromised arterial supply of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle may have contributed to the devitalization of the muscle and the subsequent calf sepsis, and it is speculated that this was related to the unfavorable outcome.

  20. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY... term restoration portion of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 (Pub. L... (USPTO) to extend the term of protection under a patent to compensate for delay during regulatory...

  1. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  2. Patenting drought tolerance in organisms.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, Vishal S

    2009-01-01

    Dehydration is a major form of osmotic stress in cells. Physiological and molecular basis of dehydration stress responses in cells and organisms has been intensively researched over past years. Almost all of the patented dehydration stress tolerance genes from different organisms were used in engineering drought tolerance in crop plants. In spite of the moral, religious and ethical controversies surrounding use of foreign DNA sequences in crop plants, the numbers of such patents has grown tremendously in recent years. In future, we might witness another rise in patents on use of dehydration stress related gene sequences in creating environmental stress tolerant biological control agents for plant disease and insect pest management in agriculture. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents related to drought tolerance genes and their use.

  3. Embryonic stem cell patents and human dignity.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2007-09-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells.

  4. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells. PMID:17922198

  5. Are DNA patents bad for medicine?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2003-08-01

    This paper considers the potential benefits and harms of DNA patenting for biomedical research and medical practice. It argues that, all things considered, the benefits of patenting DNA outweigh the harms, although societies should adopt policies designed to prevent or mitigate the harms associated with patenting. Some of these policies include: (1) reinforcing the research exemption for academic researchers, (2) raising the "bar" for the criteria of patentability, (3) restricting the scope of patents, (4) disclosing conflicts of interest related to DNA patents, (5) sharing the economic benefits of patenting with patients, and (6) providing insurance coverage for some types of genetic tests.

  6. The patenting of novel biotech products.

    PubMed

    Webber, Philip M

    2007-07-01

    Patent laws covering NCEs are well established in most developed countries. For such entities to be patentable, they must be novel, inventive and have some practical use. Furthermore, the patent applications must describe how to make the entities, and provide data to support the patent claims. The same criteria are being applied by Patent Offices to the patenting of the new generation of biotech products: genes, proteins, microorganisms, transgenic plants and transgenic animals. This feature review focuses on the patenting of these novel products.

  7. Recent patents in food nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Esteve, Edgar; Bernardos, Andrea; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Barat, José M

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of current interest. The huge possibilities in most industries are making nanoscience grow at a rapid pace, but what is the real impact of nanotechnology in a traditional industry such as food? The study of patents published in the last 20 years provides the answer, and the results are quite surprising; the food industry is the fifth largest sector in terms of patents related to nanotechnology.

  8. The patenting of medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Loughlan, P L

    1995-04-03

    The Full Federal Court of Australia recently held, in a decisive break with long-established legal principle, that methods of medical treatment are patentable inventions. The judgment signals the advent of monopolies and therefore monopoly prices on new therapeutic procedures until now made freely available to the medical profession. It also heralds delays in the dissemination of information about discoveries of such procedures through teaching and publication until a patent application can be prepared for and made.

  9. Rightpollex: From Patent To Startup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leba, Monica; Ionica, Andreea Cristina; Dobra, Remus

    2015-07-01

    RightPollex is an innovative product patented and developed by a multidisciplinary team from the University of Petrosani. The paper presents not only the idea and implementation possibilities of this patent, but also the current stage on the path towards the development of startups, an initiative of our university together with a private investor. The result of this initiative is JV Sensor Ventures that supports several startups.

  10. Universities and Patent Demands

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, Andrew K.; Feldman, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. ‘The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.’ The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose. PMID:27774221

  11. Universities and Patent Demands.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Andrew K; Feldman, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.' The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose.

  12. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  13. SURGICAL EMBOLECTOMY FOR FOVEA-THREATENING ACUTE RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David R.P.; Mammo, Zaid; Chin, Eric K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a technique of surgical intraocular embolectomy in patients with acute fovea-threatening branch retinal artery occlusion. Methods: Pars plana vitrectomy with embolectomy involving embolus isolation, dissection, and removal in patients with an acute fovea-threatening arterial occlusion without a patent cilioretinal artery. Results: The surgical technique involves a core vitrectomy. The blocked artery is incised using a microvitreoretinal blade, and microsurgical forceps are used to retrieve the embolus. No significant complications were noted. The study technique offers an excellent safety profile and minimizes the risk of vitreous hemorrhage by carefully dissecting the vascular adventitial sheath and isolating the embolus. Conclusion: Surgical embolectomy is a viable technique for patients with acute fovea-threatening arterial occlusions without patent cilioretinal artery. Careful dissection and retrieval of the embolus minimizes the risk of vitreous hemorrhage, which is an important improvement in previous techniques for management of acute retinal arterial occlusions. PMID:26674278

  14. Considerations on patent valuation based on patent classification and citation in biotechnological field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, Kenji

    Regarding innovation measurement utilizing patent information, a number of researchers are making great efforts to measure a "patent value (patent quality)." For patent valuation, patent classification and citation are often utilized as patent information. Also, biotechnological field is attracting attention from the viewpoint of application to environmental or medical study, and considerable researches on patent valuation are ongoing in this technical field. However, it is not enough recognized that researchers cannot be too careful when they deal with classification information in the biotech field because patent classification structure in this field is not well-established. And also, it is not known enough that citation patterns of both academic papers and patent documents are so complicated that the patterns cannot be easily generalized. In this article, the issues above were verified from a position based on working experiences of biotech patent examiner at Japan Patent Office, and considerations and implications were given on what patent valuation should be.

  15. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Patent § 1.315 Delivery of patent. The patent will be delivered or mailed upon issuance to...

  16. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Patent § 1.315 Delivery of patent. The patent will be delivered or mailed upon issuance to...

  17. [Reconstruction of foot arteries after injury in arterial occlusive disease].

    PubMed

    Flis, V; Tomazic, T

    1993-06-01

    At the Maribor Teaching Hospital two elderly with progressive atherosclerotic disease below the knee were treated between 1986-1992 for open fracture of ankle joint and pedal arterial trauma. The only patent atherosclerotic vessel (dorsal artery of the foot) that was disrupted was reconstructed in both cases by interposition of a part of the great and small saphenous vein in one case each. A termino-terminal anastomosis with a long, triangular patch was used, fixed with interrupted sutures. The fractures were stabilized with external fixators. Both extremities were saved.

  18. Ductus arteriosus aneurysm with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and spontaneous rupture: a potentially fatal quandary.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Audra; Dyamenahalli, Umesh; Greenberg, S Bruce; Drummond-Webb, Jonathan

    2006-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-month-old previously healthy girl who presented with high fever, labored breathing, and an enlarged cardiac silhouette on her chest radiograph. Comprehensive evaluation discovered a ductus arteriosus aneurysm and pericardial effusion with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Despite pericardiocentesis and appropriate intravenous antibiotics, there was rapid enlargement of the aneurysm and accumulation of echogenic material within the ductus arteriosus aneurysm. Infected aneurysm rupture was identified during emergency surgery. This infant also had vocal cord paresis, a likely complication of the surgery. The clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment of this patient are discussed. Infection of a ductus arteriosus or an infected ductal arteriosus aneurysm is a rare and potentially fatal clinical entity. In the era of increasing community-acquired methicillin-resistant S aureus infections, this is a diagnosis that requires a high index of suspicion.

  19. Developmentally regulated changes in extracellular matrix in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the ductus arteriosus may be related to intimal proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, N.; Rabinovitch, M. )

    1991-02-01

    In the late gestation fetal lamb ductus arteriosus (DA), intimal proliferation is observed, characterized by smooth muscle migration and proliferation in the subendothelium. The nature of changes in the endothelial and smooth muscle extracellular matrix associated with the development of this feature are not known. We assessed the production of glycoproteins (fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate) in endothelial and smooth muscle cells harvested from the DA, aorta (Ao), and pulmonary artery of fetal lambs at 100 days gestation, before the appearance of DA intimal proliferation, and at 138 days, when well-developed intimal cushions are seen. In passage 3 cells, glycoprotein synthesis was measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after 48 hours incubation with (35S)methionine, and GAGs were assessed by labeling with (3H) glucosamine and separation on DEAE ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. Analyses were carried out on culture medium, cell layer, and solubilized matrix. Fibronectin secretion by DA smooth muscle cells from 100-day lambs was found to be twice that of Ao or pulmonary artery cells. No significant differences were seen in smooth muscle cells from 138-day lambs or when comparing endothelial cells from each of the vascular sites at both gestational ages. As well, there were no DA-specific differences in laminin or type IV collagen. No significant differences in endothelial GAG secretion were observed comparing each vascular site at both gestational ages. Analysis of endothelial-derived matrices, however, revealed increased incorporation of hyaluronic acid in the DA from 100-day lambs, 10-fold that of the pulmonary artery and Ao, and increased heparan sulfate.

  20. Porcine radial artery decellularization by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Jun; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangoo; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Many types of decellularized tissues have been studied and some have been commercially used in clinics. In this study, small-diameter vascular grafts were made using HHP to decellularize porcine radial arteries. One decellularization method, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), has been used to prepare the decellularized porcine tissues. Low-temperature treatment was effective in preserving collagen and collagen structures in decellularized porcine carotid arteries. The collagen and elastin structures and mechanical properties of HHP-decellularized radial arteries were similar to those of untreated radial arteries. Xenogeneic transplantation (into rats) was performed using HHP-decellularized radial arteries and an untreated porcine radial artery. Two weeks after transplantation into rat carotid arteries, the HHP-decellularized radial arteries were patent and without thrombosis. In addition, the luminal surface of each decellularized artery was covered by recipient endothelial cells and the arterial medium was fully infiltrated with recipient cells.

  1. Persistence of ductus arteriosus with left to right shunt in the older patient.

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, R M; Miller, H C; McCormack, R J; Matthews, M B; Kitchin, A H

    1982-01-01

    Eight hundred and four patients with persistence of the ductus arteriosus were seen in Edinburgh between 1940 and 1979. Thirty-seven of them reached the age of 50 years, and in 32 the shunt was exclusively from left to right. Fifteen of the 32 were subsequently treated surgically. None of the 32 was lost to follow-up. Duration of clinical observation averaged 17 years and extended to over 30 years in eight patients. Their features have been correlated with those from reports of 48 comparable patients in an attempt to clarify the management of the persistent ductus in the older patient. Impairment of left ventricular function is shown as the major risk, even when the ductus is small. Bacterial endarteritis is infrequent. Surgical treatment carries greater risk than in childhood and early adult life but usually reduces heart size and restores exercise tolerance. Left ventricular dysfunction, however, occasionally vitiates the benefits; symptoms are then incompletely relieved and death from heart failure may occur months or years after operation. Experience in older patients thus emphasises the value of elective operation in childhood, however well the child, however trivial the shunt. It is concluded that in older patients, the presence or the development of symptoms or cardiac enlargement are almost always indications for surgical treatment. As age increases, especially by the eighth decade, medical treatment may be preferable. Continued follow-up of symptomless patients without cardiomegaly is important because increase in heart size usually precedes further deterioration which can then be prevented by timely surgical treatment. Images PMID:7138711

  2. Arterial insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common causes of arterial insufficiency is atherosclerosis or "hardening of the arteries." Fatty material (called ... Images Arteries of the brain Developmental process of atherosclerosis References Hansson GK, Hamsten A. Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and ...

  3. Recent Patents in Oncolytic Virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tauqeer; Venkataraman, Srividhya; AbouHaidar, Mounir; Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2016-01-01

    Recent innovative and advanced developments in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases as well as enhanced in-depth understanding of virus molecular biology have opened novel avenues with respect to the patent landscape. Included are viruses utilized in the development of anticancer agents, agents that are employed against the spread of infectious viral diseases, RNA silencing agents and virus-derived expression vectors that can be used for over-expression of therapeutic proteins or as gene therapy vehicles. The current review describes several recent patents pertaining to virus sequences and their medical and biotechnological applications.

  4. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    COMMAND United States Patent ij fill 4,102,610 Taboada et al. [45] Jul. 25,1i978 154] CONSTANT VOLUME SEAL-FREE 3.522,794 7/1970 DNJl................318...MATCHING [561 Rafaree. Cited SPACER U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS [751 Inventors: Sidney Michael Cole. Waved 7; Paul 3.533.607 1/1971 Lehrreld . ...... 331/34 tA...Schwadron 11) let. CV ....................... F16K 21/18; FI7C 13/02; Aiistant Examiner-A. Michael Chambers GOlF 23/24 Attorney Agent, orFirm-Joseph E

  5. Impact of bioethics on patentability of inventions.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Vishwas H

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of bioethics on patent claims. The increase in research activities involving human biological materials, and the rush to commercialise inventions derived from such biological materials, can at times result in unethical conduct of research. Questions arise as to whether patent law should concern itself with tainted research that has resulted in an invention or whether it should grant patent rights solely on the basis of the technical improvements resulting from such research. This paper highlights the significance of ethical practice in biomedical research, an issue that may influence the decision to grant patents on inventions. It explores the relation between morality, bioethics and patents from the perspective of the objectives of the patent system and current developments in the law on patents. The inclusion of the morality provision in patent law introduces a mechanism through which inventions derived from tainted research can be filtered at an early stage.

  6. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  7. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  8. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  9. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  10. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  11. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  12. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  14. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  15. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  16. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  17. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  18. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  19. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  20. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  1. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  2. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  3. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  4. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  5. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  6. 77 FR 4509 - Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    .... Dated: January 24, 2012. David J. Kappos, Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Chapter I Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office,...

  7. The patentability of human beings: the effect of a proposed exclusion in the Patents Act 1953.

    PubMed

    MacBean, Alexandra

    2002-11-01

    The author critically examines the debate over whether "human beings" ought to be patentable. The article outlines the choices between excluding just the patenting of whole organisms or parts of organisms. After considering New Zealand, Canadian, and European Union Patent law, the author concludes that at very least New Zealand must statutorily prevent the patenting of whole organisms.

  8. [Gene and gene sequence patenting].

    PubMed

    Bergel, S D

    1998-01-01

    According to the author, the patenting of elements isolated or copied from the human body boils down to the issue of genes and gene sequences. He describes the current situation from the comparative law standpoint (U.S. and Spanish law mainly) and then esamines the biotechnology industry's position.

  9. The US patent system is broken.

    PubMed

    Pieczenik, George

    2013-08-01

    In discussions in this issue of RBM Online relating to a patent granted to Auxogyn, Professor Renee Reijo Pera claims this is not about a "broken patent system". I shall demonstrate how dysfunctional the patent system has become and how much in denial 'inventor' Renee Reijo Pera is about her invention differing from a naturally occurring phenomenon.

  10. Patents and human rights: a heterodox analysis.

    PubMed

    Gold, E Richard

    2013-01-01

    Much international debate over access to medicines focuses on whether patent law accords with international human rights law. This article argues that this is the wrong question to ask. Following an analysis of both patent and human rights law, this article suggests that the better approach is to focus on national debates over the best calibration of patent law to achieve national objectives.

  11. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  12. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Patent rights. 1274.911 Section 1274.911... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.911 Patent rights. Patent Rights July 2002 (a... through 121.911 will be used.) (8) Subject Invention means any invention of a Recipient and/or...

  13. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patent rights. 1274.911 Section 1274.911... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.911 Patent rights. Patent Rights July 2002 (a... through 121.911 will be used.) (8) Subject Invention means any invention of a Recipient and/or...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patent rights. 1274.911 Section 1274.911... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.911 Patent rights. Patent Rights July 2002 (a... through 121.911 will be used.) (8) Subject Invention means any invention of a Recipient and/or...

  15. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  16. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  17. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  18. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  19. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  20. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  1. Of patents and patent disputes: The TNFα patent files. Part 1: Humira.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the patent strategy underlying the world's best selling drug, AbbVie's Humira®. Despite a non-optimal starting position, AbbVie has established an extensive portfolio to fend off biosimilar competition. This article is the first part of a trilogy that discusses IP issues related to anti-Tumor Necrosis factor α (TNFα) biologics.

  2. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  3. DNA patenting: implications for public health research.

    PubMed Central

    Dutfield, Graham

    2006-01-01

    I weigh the arguments for and against the patenting of functional DNA sequences including genes, and find the objections to be compelling. Is an outright ban on DNA patenting the right policy response? Not necessarily. Governments may wish to consider options ranging from patent law reforms to the creation of new rights. There are alternative ways to protect DNA sequences that industry may choose if DNA patenting is restricted or banned. Some of these alternatives may be more harmful than patents. Such unintended consequences of patent bans mean that we should think hard before concluding that prohibition is the only response to legitimate concerns about the appropriateness of patents in the field of human genomics. PMID:16710549

  4. DNA patenting: implications for public health research.

    PubMed

    Dutfield, Graham

    2006-05-01

    I weigh the arguments for and against the patenting of functional DNA sequences including genes, and find the objections to be compelling. Is an outright ban on DNA patenting the right policy response? Not necessarily. Governments may wish to consider options ranging from patent law reforms to the creation of new rights. There are alternative ways to protect DNA sequences that industry may choose if DNA patenting is restricted or banned. Some of these alternatives may be more harmful than patents. Such unintended consequences of patent bans mean that we should think hard before concluding that prohibition is the only response to legitimate concerns about the appropriateness of patents in the field of human genomics.

  5. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  6. Endovascular exclusion of patch aneurysms of intercostal arteries after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Juthier, Francis; Rousse, Natacha; Banfi, Carlo; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Vincentelli, André; Prat, Alain; Bachet, Jean

    2013-02-01

    Reimplantation of the largest patent intercostal arteries is usually performed during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This may lead to aneurysmal evolution of the intercostal arteries patch. We report the successful percutaneous endovascular repair in 4 Marfan patients of aneurysms of the intercostal arteries patch that developed after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair (Crawford type II) during a mean delay of 70 months (range, 48 to 91 months). All patients had previously undergone one or several aortic surgical procedures and had patent subclavian and hypogastric arterial networks. No in-hospital deaths or spinal cord ischemic injuries occurred, which emphasizes the importance of the vascular collateral network.

  7. Tubulin inhibitors: a patent survey.

    PubMed

    Nepali, Kunal; Ojha, Ritu; Sharma, Sahil; Bedi, Preet M S; Dhar, Kanaya L

    2014-05-01

    Tubulin is one of the most useful and strategic molecular targets for anticancer drugs. The dynamic process of microtubule assembly and disassembly can be blocked by various agents that bind to distinct sites in the β-tubulin subunit. By interfering with microtubule function in vitro, these agents arrest cells in mitosis, eventually leading to cell death, by both apoptosis and necrosis. So far, three binding domains have been identified a) the colchicine site close to the α/β interface, b) the area where the vinca alkaloids bind, and c) the taxane-binding pocket. This review compiles the patent literature up to 2013 and offers a detailed account of all the advances on Tubulin inhibitors (lead molecules) along with in depth knowledge about the number of novel scaffolds, modified analogs and derivatives of the lead molecules. Colchicine binding site remains the most explored site indicated by the patent survey as majority of the patents revolves around phenstatin and combretastatin based molecules where the key structural feature for tubulin inhibition is an appropriate arrangement of the two aromatic rings at an appropriate distance and optimal dihedral angle maximizing interactions with tubulin. A brief account of promising tubulin inhibitors in stages of clinical development and some strategies for the development of potent molecules overcoming the problem of drug resistance have also been discussed.

  8. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure constricts the mouse ductus arteriosus in utero.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Christopher W; Delaney, Cassidy; Streeter, Taylor; Yarboro, Michael T; Poole, Stanley; Brown, Naoko; Slaughter, James C; Cotton, Robert B; Reese, Jeff; Shelton, Elaine L

    2016-09-01

    Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common during pregnancy. Fetal exposure to SSRIs is associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN); however, a direct link between the two has yet to be established. Conversely, it is well known that PPHN can be caused by premature constriction of the ductus arteriosus (DA), a fetal vessel connecting the pulmonary and systemic circulations. We hypothesized that SSRIs could induce in utero DA constriction. Using isolated vessels and whole-animal models, we sought to determine the effects of two commonly prescribed SSRIs, fluoxetine and sertraline, on the fetal mouse DA. Cannulated vessel myography studies demonstrated that SSRIs caused concentration-dependent DA constriction and made vessels less sensitive to prostaglandin-induced dilation. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that SSRI-exposed mice had inappropriate DA constriction in utero. Taken together, these findings establish that SSRIs promote fetal DA constriction and provide a potential mechanism by which SSRIs could contribute to PPHN.

  9. Patent first, ask questions later: morality and biotechnology in patent law.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Margo A

    2003-12-01

    This Article explores the U.S. "patent first, ask questions later" approach to determining what subject matter should receive patent protection. Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on "anything under the sun made by man," and to the extent a patent's subject matter is sufficiently controversial, Congress acts retrospectively in assessing whether patents should issue on such interventions. This practice has important ramifications for morally controversial biotechnology patents specifically, and for American society generally. For many years a judicially created "moral utility" doctrine served as a type of gatekeeper of patent subject matter eligibility. The doctrine allowed both the USTPO and courts to deny patents on morally controversial subject matter under the fiction that such inventions were not "useful." The gate, however, is currently untended. A combination of the demise of the moral utility doctrine, along with expansive judicial interpretations of the scope of patent-eligible subject matter, has resulted in virtually no basis on which the USTPO or courts can deny patent protection to morally controversial, but otherwise patentable, subject matter. This is so despite position statements by the Agency to the contrary. Biotechnology is an area in which many morally controversial inventions are generated. Congress has been in react-mode following the issuance of a stream of morally controversial biotech patents, including patents on transgenic animals, surgical methods, and methods of cloning humans. With no statutory limits on patent eligibility, and with myriad concerns complicating congressional action following a patent's issuance, it is not Congress, the representative of the people, determining patent eligibility. Instead, it is patent applicants, scientific inventors, who are deciding matters of high public policy through the contents of the applications they file with the USTPO. This Article

  10. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... The arterial catheter allows accurate, second-to-second measurement of the blood pressure; repeated meas- urement is ... pressure must be lowered gradually in steps, and measurements with an arterial catheter help guide the treatment. ■ ...

  11. [Global patent overview of Ginkgo biloba preparation].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin-Min; Lei, Hai-Min; Liu, Wei

    2013-09-01

    With related global patent data as analysis samples, worldwide patent overview of Ginkgo biloba preparation is analyzed in application, applicant, technical distribution and so on. This research shows that the most important areas of G. biloba preparation are Europe and China. The European applicants start earliest along with developing smoothly, moreover, their patents have best quality. The Chinese applicants start late along with the fastest growing, and have already certain research capabilities, moreover, their patents' quality needs to be improved. This research result provides reference for development of G. biloba preparation. The author suggest that Chinese applicants learn techniques and layout experiences of other's patents fully to enhance the level of new drug development and patent protection.

  12. Inventions and patents: a practical tutorial.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, J Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and costly clinical testing necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, nonobviousness, and usefulness. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions of technology transfer: inventions, inventorship, and patent filing, which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  13. Are Patents Impeding Medical Care and Innovation?

    PubMed Central

    Gold, E. Richard; Kaplan, Warren; Orbinski, James; Harland-Logan, Sarah; N-Marandi, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    Background to the debate: Pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers argue that the current patent system is crucial for stimulating research and development (R&D), leading to new products that improve medical care. The financial return on their investments that is afforded by patent protection, they claim, is an incentive toward innovation and reinvestment into further R&D. But this view has been challenged in recent years. Many commentators argue that patents are stifling biomedical research, for example by preventing researchers from accessing patented materials or methods they need for their studies. Patents have also been blamed for impeding medical care by raising prices of essential medicines, such as antiretroviral drugs, in poor countries. This debate examines whether and how patents are impeding health care and innovation. PMID:20052274

  14. PATENTS IN GENOMICS AND HUMAN GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Heaney, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Genomics and human genetics are scientifically fundamental and commercially valuable. These fields grew to prominence in an era of growth in government and nonprofit research funding, and of even greater growth of privately funded research and development in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. Patents on DNA technologies are a central feature of this story, illustrating how patent law adapts---and sometimes fails to adapt---to emerging genomic technologies. In instrumentation and for therapeutic proteins, patents have largely played their traditional role of inducing investment in engineering and product development, including expensive postdiscovery clinical research to prove safety and efficacy. Patents on methods and DNA sequences relevant to clinical genetic testing show less evidence of benefits and more evidence of problems and impediments, largely attributable to university exclusive licensing practices. Whole-genome sequencing will confront uncertainty about infringing granted patents but jurisprudence trends away from upholding the broadest and potentially most troublesome patent claims. PMID:20590431

  15. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  16. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  17. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... exclusive license in the United States to practice the Government-Owned inventions described in U.S. Patent...//U.S. Patent No. 8,073,804: System and Method For Type 2 KASER (Knowledge Amplification by...

  18. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ....//U.S. Patent No. 7,925,496: Method for Summarizing Natural Language Text.//U.S. Patent No. 8,217,382: Optical-Powered Flexible Photonic Bandgap Sensor Device. DATES: Anyone wishing to object to the grant...

  19. New technique "Right Anterior Small Thoracotomy (RAST operation)" for beating heart grafting of the right internal thoracic artery to the posterior descending artery to the posterior descending artery in a third redo CABG patient. A novel coronary technique

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Maximo; Guida, Gustavo; Pecora, Giuseppina; Garate, Estefania De

    2014-01-01

    Third REDO-CABG is a challenge for the surgical team. Usually a patent mammary is the only graft working and the sternotomy becomes a risky procedure. Injury to a patent graft has been associated to a high mortality rate. Many different approaches have been proposed. We describe a novel technique to approach the right coronary artery through a right anterior small thoracotomy using the right mammary prolonged with saphenous vein for grafting the posterior descending artery on the beating heart. The technique is very simple and feasible because anatomically the right coronary artery and the right mammary are very close and the mobilization of the heart is minimal. PMID:25372923

  20. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-11-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an interesting and potentially lucrative career as a patent examiner, a patent agent, or a patent attorney. This information may be of interest to physics students as well as those who recruit or counsel physics students.

  1. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  2. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  3. The History of Patenting Genetic Material.

    PubMed

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Greely, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    The US Supreme Court's recent decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. declared, for the first time, that isolated human genes cannot be patented. Many have wondered how genes were ever the subjects of patents. The answer lies in a nuanced understanding of both legal and scientific history. Since the early twentieth century, "products of nature" were not eligible to be patented unless they were "isolated and purified" from their surrounding environment. As molecular biology advanced, and the capability to isolate genes both physically and by sequence came to fruition, researchers (and patent offices) began to apply patent-law logic to genes themselves. These patents, along with other biological patents, generated substantial social and political criticism. Myriad Genetics, a company with patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2, two genes critical to assessing early-onset breast and ovarian cancer risk, and with a particularly controversial business approach, became the antagonist in an ultimately successful campaign to overturn gene patents in court. Despite Myriad's defeat, some questions concerning the rights to monopolize genetic information remain. The history leading to that defeat may be relevant to these future issues.

  4. Patent law in dentistry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem A

    2011-01-01

    Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR) and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.

  5. Patenting Stem Cell Technologies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sheard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    European patent law as it applies to stem cell technologies is complex. The complexities have developed from different supranational sources of law during the last 50 years and from the various levels of exceptions to patentability embodied in the law. In relation to stem cells of human embryonic origin, the definition of a human embryo, although broad, is still in some respects unclear; and the definition of what constitutes the use of a human embryo for industrial or commercial purposes, which is excluded from patentability in Europe, is also remarkably broad. Further clarification is awaited from the courts and from the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office. PMID:25395376

  6. Patenting and licensing in genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Aymé, S; Matthijs, G; Soini, S

    2008-04-01

    Patents for inventions can be beneficial for society, if they drive innovation and promote progress. In most areas, the patenting system works satisfactorily. However, it must be recognized that in some instances it can also be problematic; this is the case in the field of genetics, and particularly in the area of genetic testing. As patents should serve their original purpose (promoting innovation through a fair reward system for the inventors), the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) suggests ways to improve the mechanisms that already form part of the patents system as a whole. In brief, the ESHG recommends limiting the breadth of the claims in genetic patents and, more practically, to reduce the number of patents by limiting the patentable subject matter, thereby improving the quality of the patents that will eventually be granted. There is also a suggestion to redefine the concept of utility in patent law, by taking account of downstream clinical experience. The ESHG sees no harm in the patenting of novel technical tools for genetic testing (eg PCR or chip technologies), as they can promote investment and still allow for invention around them. Many disputes between supporters of the patenting system and the public revolve around ethical issues. The European Patent Office should consider the benefit of having an ethics committee to consider issues of major interest, such as patents applied to genes. The problem of licensing should also be addressed. Practically, this means supporting the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines, which prescribe that licenses should be non-exclusive and easily obtainable, both in practical and in financial terms. To promote this, the practical exploration of alternative models for licensing, like patent pools and clearinghouses, is a prerequisite. To better track developments in this field, the establishment of a voluntary reporting system, whereby geneticists could report on any issues related to

  7. 78 FR 19416 - Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1 RIN 0651-AC84 Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment... changes to the patent term adjustment provisions in section 1(h) of the Act to correct and improve certain... patent term adjustment period is measured, and clarifies the date from which the three-year patent...

  8. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  9. Enhancing the DNA Patent Database

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, LeRoy B.

    2008-02-18

    Final Report on Award No. DE-FG0201ER63171 Principal Investigator: LeRoy B. Walters February 18, 2008 This project successfully completed its goal of surveying and reporting on the DNA patenting and licensing policies at 30 major U.S. academic institutions. The report of survey results was published in the January 2006 issue of Nature Biotechnology under the title “The Licensing of DNA Patents by US Academic Institutions: An Empirical Survey.” Lori Pressman was the lead author on this feature article. A PDF reprint of the article will be submitted to our Program Officer under separate cover. The project team has continued to update the DNA Patent Database on a weekly basis since the conclusion of the project. The database can be accessed at dnapatents.georgetown.edu. This database provides a valuable research tool for academic researchers, policymakers, and citizens. A report entitled Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health was published in 2006 by the Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy at the National Academies. The report was edited by Stephen A. Merrill and Anne-Marie Mazza. This report employed and then adapted the methodology developed by our research project and quoted our findings at several points. (The full report can be viewed online at the following URL: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11487&page=R1). My colleagues and I are grateful for the research support of the ELSI program at the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Length to width ratio of the ductus venosus in simple screening for fetal congenital heart diseases in the second trimester

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wei-Hsiu; Lee, Shy-Ming; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Chen, Ran-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Antenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) is still low even though screening was first introduced over 25 years ago. The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of a second-trimester prenatal ultrasonographic method of screening for CHD. From September 2012 to September 2013, the length and width of the fetal ductus venosus were measured sonographically in 1006 singleton fetuses, and the ratio of length to width was calculated. The accuracy of each fetal measurement and Doppler ultrasonography were determined. The standard fetal echocardiographic evaluations including 2-dimensional gray-scale imaging, color, and Doppler color flow mapping were performed. The transducer was aligned to the long axis of the fetal trunk to view the ductus venosus in its full length, including the inlet (isthmus) and outlet portions of the vessel. The diameters of the vessel inner wall and mid-point of the ductus venosus were measured using calipers. All scans and fetal measurements were conducted by a registered sonographer with more than 20 years of perinatal ultrasound screening experience. Of the 1006 singleton fetuses between 19+0 and 28+6 weeks’ gestation, 36 had CHD. The ductus venosus length/width ratio (DVR) for the first CHD screening was extremely sensitive at 88.90%, with a specificity of 99.10% for the cardiac abnormalities included in this study. Chromosomal anomalies accompanied CHD in 0.4% (4/1006) of all cases and 11.11% (4/36) of the CHD cases. The DVR differed significantly between fetuses with CHD and normal fetuses during the second trimester. Careful assessment of the ratio should be a part of the sonographic examination of every fetus. In the case of a small DVR, advanced echocardiography and karyotype analysis should be performed. The ratio is a helpful tool for screening CHD abnormalities prenatally in the Chinese population. PMID:27684831

  11. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  12. 37 CFR 1.33 - Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence respecting... Attorney Or Agent § 1.33 Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings. (a) Correspondence address and daytime telephone number. When filing...

  13. 37 CFR 1.33 - Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence respecting... Attorney Or Agent § 1.33 Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings. (a) Correspondence address and daytime telephone number. When filing...

  14. Twist buckling behavior of arteries.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Justin R; Lamm, Shawn D; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-10-01

    Arteries are often subjected to torsion due to body movement and surgical procedures. While it is essential that arteries remain stable and patent under twisting loads, the stability of arteries under torsion is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to experimentally investigate the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and to determine the critical buckling torque, the critical buckling twist angle, and the buckling shape. Porcine common carotid arteries were slowly twisted in vitro until buckling occurred while subjected to a constant axial stretch ratio (1.1, 1.3, 1.5 (in vivo level) and 1.7) and lumen pressure (20, 40, 70 and 100 mmHg). Upon buckling, the arteries snapped to form a kink. For a group of six arteries, the axial stretch ratio significantly affected the critical buckling torque ([Formula: see text]) and the critical buckling twist angle ([Formula: see text]). Lumen pressure also significantly affected the critical buckling torque ([Formula: see text]) but had no significant effect on the critical twist angle ([Formula: see text]). Convex material constants for a Fung strain energy function were determined and fit well with the axial force, lumen pressure, and torque data measured pre-buckling. The material constants are valid for axial stretch ratios, lumen pressures, and rotation angles of 1.3-1.5, 20-100 mmHg, and 0-270[Formula: see text], respectively. The current study elucidates the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and provides new insight into mechanical instability of blood vessels.

  15. Twist Buckling Behavior of Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Justin R.; Lamm, Shawn D.; Han, Hai-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Arteries are often subjected to torsion due to body movement and surgical procedures. While it is essential that arteries remain stable and patent under twisting loads, the stability of arteries under torsion is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to experimentally investigate the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and to determine the critical buckling torque, the critical buckling twist angle, and the buckling shape. Porcine common carotid arteries were slowly twisted in vitro until buckling occurred while subjected to a constant axial stretch ratio (1.1, 1.3, 1.5 (in vivo level), and 1.7) and lumen pressure (20, 40, 70, and 100 mmHg). Upon buckling, the arteries snapped to form a kink. For a group of six arteries, the axial stretch ratio significantly affected the critical buckling torque (p < 0.002) and the critical buckling twist angle (p < 0.001). Lumen pressure also significantly affected the critical buckling torque (p < 0.001) but had no significant effect on the critical twist angle (p = 0.067). Convex material constants for a Fung strain energy function were determined and fit well with the axial force, lumen pressure, and torque data measured pre-buckling. The material constants are valid for axial stretch ratios, lumen pressures, and rotation angles of 1.3 – 1.5, 20 – 100 mmHg, and 0 – 270 degrees, respectively. The current study elucidates the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and provides new insight into mechanical instability of blood vessels. PMID:23160845

  16. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  17. Adult Onset Dysphagia: Right Sided Aortic Arch, Ductus Diverticulum, and Retroesophageal Ligamentum Arteriosum Comprising an Obstructing Vascular Ring

    PubMed Central

    Raheja, Hitesh; Kamholz, Stephan; Shetty, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    A 49-year-old African American male patient with no past medical history was admitted because of 3 months of difficulty swallowing solid and liquid foods. He had constant retrosternal discomfort and appeared malnourished. The chest radiograph revealed a right sided aortic arch with tracheal deviation to the left. A swallow study confirmed a fixed esophageal narrowing at the level of T6. Contrast enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) angiogram of the chest and neck revealed a mirror image right aortic arch with a left sided cardiac apex and a prominent ductus diverticulum (measuring 1.7 × 1.8 cm). This structure extended posterior to and indented the mid esophagus. A left posterolateral thoracotomy was performed and the ductus diverticulum was resected. A retroesophageal ligamentum arteriosum was found during surgery and divided. This rare combination of congenital anatomical aberrations led to severe dysphagia in our patient. Successful surgical correction in the form of resection of the ductus diverticulum and division of the retroesophageal ligamentum arteriosum led to complete resolution of our patient's symptoms.

  18. Peptidase activities in the semen from the ductus deferens and uterus of the neotropical rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Camila Eduardo; Almeida Santos, Selma Maria; Yamasaki, Simone Cristina; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2009-07-01

    To understand the role of peptidases in seminal physiology of Crotalus durissus terrificus, intra- and inter-seasonal activity levels of acid (APA), basic (APB), puromycin-sensitive (APN-PS) and puromycin-insensitive neutral (APN-PI), cystyl (CAP), dipeptidyl-IV (DPPIV), type-1 pyroglutamyl (PAP-I) and prolyl-imino (PIP) aminopeptidases as well as prolyl endopeptidase (POP) were evaluated in soluble (SF) and/or membrane-bound (MF) fractions of semen collected from the ductus deferens of the male reproductive tract and from the posterior portion of the uterus. Seminal APB, PIP and POP were detected in SF, while other peptidases were detected in SF and MF. Only the convoluted posterior uterus in winter and autumn had semen. Relative to other examined peptidases, in general, APN-PI, APN-PS and APB activities were predominant in the semen from the uterus and throughout the year in the semen from the ductus deferens, suggesting their great relevance in the seminal physiology of C. d. terrificus. The levels of peptidase activities in the ductus deferens semen varied seasonally and were different from those of semen in the uterus, suggesting that their modulatory actions on susceptible peptides are integrated to the male reproductive cycle events and spermatozoa viability of this snake.

  19. The effects of Patent Blue dye on peripheral and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, T; Kotoda, M; Asano, N; Ikemoto, K; Mitsui, K; Sato, H; Matsukawa, T; Sessler, D I

    2015-04-01

    We measured the effect of Patent Blue dye on oxyhaemoglobin saturations after injection into breast tissue: 40 women had anaesthesia for breast surgery maintained with sevoflurane or propofol (20 randomly allocated to each). Saturations were recorded with a digital pulse oximeter, in arterial blood samples and with a cerebral tissue oximeter before dye injection and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min afterwards. Patent Blue did not decrease arterial blood oxyhaemoglobin saturation, but it did reduce mean (SD) digital and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations by 1.1 (1.1) % and 6.8 (7.0) %, p < 0.0001 for both. The falsely reduced oximeter readings persisted for at least 2 h. The mean (SD) intra-operative digital pulse oxyhaemoglobin readings were lower with sevoflurane than propofol, 97.8 (1.2) % and 98.8 (1.0) %, respectively, p < 0.0001.

  20. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  1. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Humanitarian Technologies and Licensing Through the Intellectual Property System'' published September 20, 2010... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark...

  2. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  3. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States... Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  4. Patent Office Hands Blackboard a Setback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In March the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a preliminary decision that could have significant ramifications for universities that use course-management software, as well as for the companies that make it. The "nonfinal" decision rejects all 44 claims Blackboard Inc. made for its controversial patent of an online-learning system.…

  5. Investigation of At-Risk Patent Filings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livne, O.

    2003-01-01

    The author presents an investigation of patent-application filings made without external financial support, or "at-risk", based on inventions disclosed to the University of California from fiscal years 1991 to 2000. The success of the at-risk patent applications filed on these invention disclosures is examined from the perspective of…

  6. Patents and access to essential drugs.

    PubMed

    Loff, Bebe

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of historical developments in patent law including its recent incorporation into world trade law. The impact of patents on access to essential drugs will be discussed. The relationship between intellectual property rights and the right to health will be considered.

  7. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied...

  8. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied...

  9. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied...

  10. Clearing a path through the patent thicket.

    PubMed

    Holman, Chris

    2006-05-19

    Patents do not always promote innovation, particularly when they restrict access to fundamental scientific discoveries and the tools of basic research. However, there are legal and policy approaches that may help to ameliorate problems associated with patenting these sorts of inventions.

  11. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... drug products, medical devices, food additives, and color additives are eligible for extension. The..., or a method of manufacturing the approved product. In addition, the application for patent term.... The term of a patent which claims a product, a method of using a product, or a method of...

  12. Recognizing chemicals in patents: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maryam; Wiegandt, David Luis; Schmedding, Florian; Leser, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, methods for Chemical Named Entity Recognition (NER) have gained substantial interest, driven by the need for automatically analyzing todays ever growing collections of biomedical text. Chemical NER for patents is particularly essential due to the high economic importance of pharmaceutical findings. However, NER on patents has essentially been neglected by the research community for long, mostly because of the lack of enough annotated corpora. A recent international competition specifically targeted this task, but evaluated tools only on gold standard patent abstracts instead of full patents; furthermore, results from such competitions are often difficult to extrapolate to real-life settings due to the relatively high homogeneity of training and test data. Here, we evaluate the two state-of-the-art chemical NER tools, tmChem and ChemSpot, on four different annotated patent corpora, two of which consist of full texts. We study the overall performance of the tools, compare their results at the instance level, report on high-recall and high-precision ensembles, and perform cross-corpus and intra-corpus evaluations. Our findings indicate that full patents are considerably harder to analyze than patent abstracts and clearly confirm the common wisdom that using the same text genre (patent vs. scientific) and text type (abstract vs. full text) for training and testing is a pre-requisite for achieving high quality text mining results.

  13. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employee may request rights in that country subject to the conditions stated in § 501.7(b) that may be... UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection. (a... States by or on behalf of the agency for such invention. A controversy over the respective rights of...

  14. Patent foramen ovale: clinical manifestations and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Gautam; Tobis, Jonathan; Lee, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    A persistent patent foramen ovale produces an intermittent intra-atrial right-to-left shunt and occurs in approximately 25% of the general population. Although the vast majority of people with patent foramen ovale are asymptomatic, a patent foramen ovale is believed to act as a pathway for chemicals or thrombus that can result in a variety of clinical manifestations, including stroke, migraine headache, decompression sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. The optimal management of patients with patent foramen ovale who experience cryptogenic stroke is unclear. Percutaneous closure appears to have a low risk profile and has been considered in high-risk patients who are not candidates for randomized clinical trials. Randomized clinical trials that are underway should help define the best management of patent foramen ovale, as well as the true safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure devices.

  15. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    PubMed

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-08

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  16. Brachioradial arteries with anastomotic arteries connecting to brachial arteries bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tong; Qiuhong, Dan; Haipeng, Cai

    2010-01-01

    We present a patient with a failed radial coronary angioplasty as a result of bilateral brachioradial arteries, the radial arteries anomalously originating from the axillary arteries. We review the literature concerning abnormal origins of the radial artery and propose the left ulnar artery as optimal access of choice in cases with a right brachioradial artery of relatively small size in its proximal part.

  17. Artery Buckling: New Phenotypes, Models, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hai-Chao; Chesnutt, Jennifer K. W.; Garcia, Justin R.; Liu, Qin; Wen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Arteries are under significant mechanical loads from blood pressure, flow, tissue tethering, and body movement. It is critical that arteries remain patent and stable under these loads. This review summarizes the common forms of buckling that occur in blood vessels including cross-sectional collapse, longitudinal twist buckling, and bent buckling. The phenomena, model analyses, experimental measurements, effects on blood flow, and clinical relevance are discussed. It is concluded that mechanical buckling is an important issue for vasculature, in addition to wall stiffness and strength, and requires further studies to address the challenges. Studies of vessel buckling not only enrich vascular biomechanics but also have important clinical applications. PMID:23192265

  18. Abnormal origin of the right subclavian artery from the right pulmonary artery in a patient with D-transposition of the great vessels and left juxtaposition of the right atrial appendage: an unusual anatomical variant.

    PubMed

    Mosieri, Jackmerry; Chintala, Kavitha; Delius, Ralph E; Walters, Henry L; Hakimi, Mehdi

    2004-01-01

    Isolation of the left subclavian artery (LSCA) or its anomalous origin from the pulmonary artery (PA) has been documented in several cases, especially in association with a right-sided aortic arch. Similar anomalies involving the right subclavian artery (RSCA) are less frequent. Anomalous origin of the RSCA from the PA in association with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) is exceedingly rare and only two cases have been reported so far. We present here, a case of aberrant origin of the RSCA from the right PA in a patient with D-TGA, in whom the diagnosis was rendered difficult due to the partial occlusion of the intervening ductus arteriosus (DA). We discuss the embryological basis of this anomaly and review its clinical and surgical implications.

  19. Pulmonary Interstitial Glycogenosis: A Reversible Underlying Condition Associated With D-Transposition of the Great Arteries and Severe Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-de-Toledo, Joan; González-Peris, Sebastià; Gran, Ferran; Gregoraci, Angela; Ferreres, Joan Carles; Ruiz, Cèsar W; Balcells, Joan; Abella, Raul F

    2015-07-01

    Transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum and persistent pulmonary hypertension (TGA-IVS PPHN) is a rare association with a poor prognosis. We report the case of a term newborn with TGA-IVS PPHN successfully managed with perioperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and aggressive pulmonary vasodilation therapy that underwent successful arterial switch procedure. A lung biopsy obtained during the surgical procedure showed pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, a reversible condition. Concerns over left ventricle deconditioning after ECMO could be minimized with appropriate management and monitoring of the ductus arteriosus and appropriate timing of surgery.

  20. FETAL VENTRICULAR INTERACTIONS AND WALL MECHANICS DURING DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS OCCLUSION IN A SHEEP MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Hashima, Jason N.; Rogers, Vanessa; Langley, Stephen M.; Ashraf, Muhammed; Sahn, David J.; Ohtonen, Pasi; Davis, Lowell E.; Hohimer, A. Roger; Rasanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fetal sheep ductus arteriosus occlusion (DO) on the distribution of cardiac output, and left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular function by tissue and pulsed Doppler at baseline, after 15 and 60 minutes of DO induced by a vascular occluder, and 15 minutes after DO was released. Ductal occlusion decreased fetal pO2. The mean LV output increased (p<0.001) from 725 to 1013 ml/min, and RV (1185 vs. 552 ml/min) and systemic (1757 vs. 1013 ml/min) cardiac outputs fell (p<0.001) after 15 minutes of DO, when compared to baseline. Pulmonary vascular impedance decreased and volume blood flow (QP) increased over 3-fold during DO, while foramen ovale volume blood flow (QFO) remained unchanged. LV systolic function was unaffected, while isovolumic relaxation velocity deceleration decreased. RV functional indices remained unchanged. We conclude that DO increased QP, not QFO. LV output increased, however not as much as RV output fell, resulting in decreased systemic cardiac output. During DO, LV exhibited diminished relaxation. PMID:25701524

  1. Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zielinsky, Paulo; Martignoni, Felipe V.; Vian, Izabele

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten percent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction. Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal DA patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal DA after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet. PMID:25566077

  2. Neonatal mortality in dogs: Prognostic value of Doppler ductus venosus waveform evaluation - Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Barella, Gabriele; Faverzani, Stefano; Faustini, Massimo; Groppetti, Debora; Pecile, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To define the prognostic value of Doppler ultrasonographic morphology of ductus venosus (DV) waveform on canine neonatal mortality. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four healthy pregnant bitches underwent fetal ultrasonographic assessment. The DV waveforms were classified as diphasic (dDVw) or triphasic (tDVw) and compared with neonatal mortality. Results: Ninety-three fetuses were evaluated. Twenty fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Seven fetuses belonged to litters without neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Fifty-eight fetuses belonged to litters without neonatal mortality, in which only dDVw was observed. Eight fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which only dDVw was observed. The correlation between tDVw and neonatal mortality was statistically significant (odds ratio [OR], 20.7; p<0.0001). Considering only pregnancies with one or two fetuses with the same DV waveform: Two fetuses with tDVw belonged to litters with neonatal mortality; 1 foetus with tDVw belonged to litter without neonatal mortality and 26 fetuses showed dDVw without neonatal mortality. The correlation between tDVw and neonatal mortality even in litters up to two pups was statistically significant (OR, 88.3; p=0.01). Conclusion: Echo-Doppler assessment of DV is feasible in canine fetuses, and the presence tDVw seems to be related to neonatal mortality. PMID:27182129

  3. Doppler velocimetry of ductus venous in preterm fetuses with brain sparing effect: neonatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cosmo, Ynesmara Coelho; Júnior, Edward Araujo; de Sá, Renato Augusto Moreira; de Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Nassar; Mattar, Rosiane; Lopes, Laudelino Marques; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; de Souza, Eduardo; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective to evaluate the relationship between ductus venous (DV) and Doppler velocimetry in neonatal outcome in severe compromised preterm fetuses. Methods the study was designed as an observational and cross-sectional study with 52 premature neonates with brain sparing effect. The criteria of neonatal severe morbidity were: severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grades 3 or 4), retinopathy of prematurity (grade 3 or 4), cystic periventricular leukomalatia, bronchopneumo dysplasia and neonatal mortality. The fetuses were divided in two groups: group 0 - all the fetuses with ventricular systole/atrial contraction (S/A) in DV ratio values less them 3.4; group 1 - fetuses with values of S/A ratio greater than 3.4. Results 42% of fetuses showed abnormal S/A ratio in DV and 48% showed birth weight below percentile 3 for gestational age. There was no statistical significance comparing the 02 groups according to bronchopneumo dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity (grade 3 or 4) and intraventricular hemorrhage (grade 3 or 4). Only one fetus presented cystic periventricular leukomalatia. We found statistically significant association between abnormal DV S/A ratio and neonatal mortality (CI 95%, 1.28 –38.22, p< 0.002). Conclusions our results suggest that abnormal DV blood flow detected by Doppler examination isn’t associated with severe neonatal morbidity but with neonatal mortality. PMID:23181172

  4. Arterial calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Schurgers, Leon J; Kroon, Abraham A; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Arterial calcifications as found with various imaging techniques, like plain X-ray, computed tomography or ultrasound are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The prevalence of arterial calcification increases with age and is stimulated by several common cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, the clinical importance of arterial calcification and the currently known proteins involved are discussed. Arterial calcification is the result of a complex interplay between stimulating (bone morphogenetic protein type 2 [BMP-2], RANKL) and inhibitory (matrix Gla protein, BMP-7, osteoprotegerin, fetuin-A, osteopontin) proteins. Vascular calcification is especially prevalent and related to adverse outcome in patients with renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. We address the special circumstances and mechanisms in these patient groups. Treatment and prevention of arterial calcification is possible by the use of specific drugs. However, it remains to be proven that reduction of vascular calcification in itself leads to a reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:20716128

  5. Patents, medicine, and the interests of patients: applying general principles to gene patenting.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    New technologies and the translation of research into clinical medicine are essential to patient care. Those who develop useful drugs, diagnostic and screening tests, and medical technologies have the right to expect a fair return for their efforts and risks. Current interpretations of patent law (particularly regarding gene patenting), however, have the potential to impede both medical advances and patient care. Patenting policies must balance the open exchange and use of information with making the pursuit of such knowledge financially rewarding. The Committee on Ethics and the Committee on Genetics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists maintain that patents on medical or surgical procedures are ethically unacceptable. Physicians may obtain patents on surgical and diagnostic instruments that they have developed, but such instruments should be made available to others at a fair and reasonable cost. Patents for genes as "compositions of matter" enable patent holders to control future applications of the genes and should not be granted. Patents should be granted only for specified uses or applications of genes or sequences. If composition-of-matter patents on genes continue to be enforceable, such patents on genes with clinical applications should be subject to federal regulation and oversight to ensure availability on reasonable terms for research and clinical use.

  6. Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called ‘gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing. PMID:21811306

  7. Summary of trends in photovoltaic patent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, L. C.

    1984-06-01

    Information on patent activity for inventions concerning photovoltaic cell technology is given. Such information can aid in the assessment of the status and direction of technological development. A total of 729 US patents that issued between mid-1962 and the end of 1982, were individually examined and classified into several technical categories. Computerized analysis of trends in patent activity among major technical categories was performed. The level of inventive activity increased dramatically in the mid-1970's. It appears to have peaked in 1978 and remained steady through 1980. The data indicates that, beginning in 1978, an increasing proportion of inventions were among approaches other than the conventional Cz type cells, specifically thin film and concentrator cells. Thin film and Cz type photovoltaic cells represent two thirds of the patents analyzed. Among thin film patents, silicon and cadmium containing cells represent about two thirds of the patents analyzed. Further insight into recent trends could be obtained by adding more recently issued patents to the data base.

  8. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Lawrence A.

    2005-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  9. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  10. A new model for gene patents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-02

    When the National Institutes of Health (NIH) filed for patents on thousands of gene fragments in 1991, it created a furor because it was attempting to assert broad rights to sequences whose functions were unknown. The cDNA fragments NIH researchers had discovered were simply short stretches of presumably expressed genes, yet the patent the agency was seeking would give it rights both to the full genes themselves and to all their possible future uses. If NIH prevailed, researchers argued, it would potentially discourage further work on those genes. Now the head of the genome project at the Department of Energy (DOE) - NIH's partner in the program - has proposed an alternative approach to gene patenting. At a meeting last week of a congressional Office of Technology Assessment panel that is preparing a report on this issue, DOE's David Galas revealed that University of Washington genome researcher Leroy Hood is preparing to file a patent application that could serve as a model for such patents in the future. Hood's team has been sequencing the genes encoding the beta chain of the human T cell receptor. Mutations in the T cell receptor genes may lead to any of a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. A broad patent on the genes could therefore conceivably cover not only techniques for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but also of therapies for the conditions, and indeed anything involving T cell activity. But Hood's patent application won't make such broad claims. Instead, Hood, with DOE's support, will not seek to patent the genes but will claim only the specific uses of developing the diagnostic and therapeutic tools for dealing with specific autoimmune diseases. By restricting patents just to known uses the problems of gene ownership are neatly avoided.

  11. Whither ink jet? Current patent trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Stephen F.; Karz, Robert S.

    1995-04-01

    The status and potential of ink jet technology is discernible in its major technical literature forum: worldwide patents. Most ink jet technical activity is focused in commercial research and development laboratories where proprietary considerations make patents the norm for publication. Currently there are about 2,000 ink jet disclosures issued annually with over 200 enterprises represented. Ink jet patent activity is increasing about 25% per year driven by a rapidly expanding base of products, applications, and revenue. An analysis of the ink jet patent literature reveals a few major themes (i.e. continuous ink jet, piezoelectric drop-on-demand, and thermal ink jet) and numerous minor ones (i.e. electrohydro-dynamic extraction, magnetic drop-on-demand, Hertz continuous, acoustic ink printing). Patents bear witness to transformations in the industry as dominant players of the 1970's have given way to new leaders in the 1990's. They also foretell important commercial developments in ink jet's near term future. When studied in aggregate, the patent record reveals patterns for the industry in general as well as for individual companies. It becomes possible to use the patent data base not only to identify technical approaches and problems for specific firms, but also to track progress and monitor changing strategies. In addition, international filing patterns can provide insights into industry priorities. This paper presents an overview of ink jet technology as revealed by the patent literature. It will include a 25 year perspective, a review of trends over the past five years, and a survey of today's most active companies and their technical approaches. With this analysis, it will be shown that the information inherent in the patent record is more than the sum of its individual disclosures. Indeed, by using it, we can outlook whither goes ink jet.

  12. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  13. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... the aorta, the main artery from the heart. Hardening of the arteries occurs when fat, cholesterol, and ...

  14. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    PubMed

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  15. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    PubMed

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

  16. Reconstruction of small diameter arteries using decellularized vascular scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kishida, Akio; Fujisato, Toshia; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2014-03-19

    Although artificial vessels are available for large diameter arteries, there are no artificial vessels for small diameter arteries of < 4 mm. We created a decellularized vascular scaffold (length, 10 mm; outer diameter, 1.5 mm; inner diameter, 1.3 mm) from rat abdominal arteries. We measured the biomechanical characteristics of the scaffolds, implanted them to defects made in rat carotid arteries, and evaluated their patency and the endothelial cell linings. Silastic grafts were implanted as controls. The decellularized scaffolds demonstrated similar mechanical characteristics to normal arteries. All of the control grafts were occluded. Fibroblast-like cells were discovered in the thrombus, and fibrous organization was apparent. In contrast, patency of the grafts in 10 of 12 animals was observed 4 weeks after implantation. The internal cavity of the patent scaffold was completely lined by endotheliallike cells. Thus, the possibility of small artery reconstruction using decellularized scaffolds was demonstrated.

  17. A preliminary retrospective study about the relationship between ductus venosus Doppler indices, nuchal translucency (NT) and biochemical markers in the first and second trimester screening tests.

    PubMed

    Demirturk, Fazli; Caliskan, Ahmet Cantug; Aytan, Hakan; Sahin, Semsettin

    2012-05-01

    In our study, we tried to assess the relation between ductus venosus Doppler indices [pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and S/D] and first-trimester screening markers (MoM of serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, pappalysin 1 (PAPP-A), MoM of serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG), and nuchal translucency (NT) and second trimester screening markers (MoM of serum α-fetoprotein, MoM of serum total β-hCG and MoM of serum estriol). We analyzed the data of 121 singleton pregnancies. Roche cobas e 601ECLIA (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay) was used to measure MoM of serum PAPP-A and Roche cobas e 602 ECLIA (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay) was used to measure MoM of serum free β-hCG in the first trimester. Beckman Coulter Access 2 Immunoassay was used to measure MoM of serum α-fetoprotein, MoM of serum total β-hCG and MoM of serum estriol in the second trimester. The first author performed all ultrasound screenings and ductus venosus Doppler studies. What we found new in our study is presented as following; MoM of serum α-fetoprotein had a negative correlation with RI of ductus venosus Doppler, MoM of serum estriol had a negative correlation with RI of ductus venosus Doppler and MoM of serum estriol had a negative correlation with S/D of ductus venosus doppler. The results of our study suggest that ductus venosus Doppler can be used to increase the effectiveness of the second trimester screening test.

  18. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  19. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  4. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  5. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  7. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... application is filed as provided in PCT Art. 49, Rule 90 and § 1.455 of this subchapter, or before...

  8. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... office with which the international application is filed as provided in PCT Art. 49, Rule 90 and §...

  9. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... office with which the international application is filed as provided in PCT Art. 49, Rule 90 and §...

  10. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... application is filed as provided in PCT Art. 49, Rule 90 and § 1.455 of this subchapter, or before...

  11. Report of the AD HOC Committee on Patent Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbach, Peter; And Others

    The Committee was established in September 1967 to study and make recommendations on Recommendation XXIX and XXX of the Report of the President's Commission on the Patent System. Based on interviews with Patent Office officials, patent examiners and classifiers and a review of Patent Office studies and documents, the Committee concluded that the…

  12. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  13. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and... for A Patent § 1.46 Assigned inventions and patents. In case the whole or a part interest in the invention or in the patent to be issued is assigned, the application must still be made or authorized to...

  14. 43 CFR 3864.1-1 - Application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for patent. 3864.1-1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Millsite Patents § 3864.1-1 Application for patent. (a) Land entered as a millsite must be shown to be...

  15. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.215 Patent application publication. (a) The publication of an application...

  16. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.215 Patent application publication. (a) The publication of an application...

  17. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.215 Patent application publication. (a) The publication of an application...

  18. 75 FR 30773 - United States Patent Applicant Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Patent and Trademark Office United States Patent Applicant Survey ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort... United States Patent Applicant Survey as part of the continuing effort to better predict the...

  19. 43 CFR 3862.8 - Patents for mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patents for mining claims. 3862.8 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8 Patents for mining claims....

  20. 43 CFR 3862.8 - Patents for mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents for mining claims. 3862.8 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8 Patents for mining claims....

  1. 43 CFR 3862.8 - Patents for mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patents for mining claims. 3862.8 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8 Patents for mining claims....

  2. 43 CFR 3862.8 - Patents for mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patents for mining claims. 3862.8 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8 Patents for mining claims....

  3. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  4. 77 FR 14686 - Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... history of each patent, if it is available to the claimant. Indicate whether the patent has been the... corresponding foreign patents and patent applications and full copies of the same. (11) Pertinent prior art known to the claimant not contained in the USPTO file, for example, publications and foreign prior...

  5. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1 Section 3862.8-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8-1 Land descriptions in patents. The land description in a patent...

  6. 78 FR 62367 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-21

    ...The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends the patent laws to implement the provisions of the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs (Hague Agreement) in title I, and the Patent Law Treaty (PLT) in title II. The PLT harmonizes and streamlines formal procedures pertaining to the filing and processing of patent applications. This final......

  7. ACTA Technology Presents EPA with Patent Copy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    US EPA SBIR awardee, ACTA Technology, presented James H. Johnson, Director of the US EPA National Center for Environmental Research, and April Richards, Program Manager of the US EPA's SBIR Program, with a copy of their Red Ribbon patent.

  8. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rights as are specified in § 501.6(a)(2), but this shall be without prejudice to acquiring the rights... filing of an application for patent, take the rights specified in that paragraph without prejudice to...

  9. Patenting genes: a fast and furious primer.

    PubMed

    Askland, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Patents have been issued in the United States for genes and gene sequences since 1980. Patent protection has provided incentives to aggressively probe the genome of humans and non-humans alike in search of profitable applications. Yet it is not clear that patent protection should have been afforded to genes and gene sequences and it is increasingly clear that patent protection, as currently formulated, is not an appropriate means to realize the full benefits of genetic research. As we stand on the threshold of a genetically enhanced future, in which we shall have the power to consciously steer our evolution as a species, we need to carefully consider how to shape the benefits of genetic research and how to recognize and contain its detriments.

  10. Genomic patenting and the utility requirement.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Jane

    2004-12-01

    This paper analyses the ways in which genomic knowledge is portrayed as useful knowledge in gene patenting in order to fulfil the 'utility'/'industrial applicability' requirement for patentability. It gives examples of utility claims in gene patents and asks whether genomics (as opposed to genetics) changes our ideas about what is useful and what can be patented. It puts forward a provisional classification of different types of utility and argues that merely identifying the physiological function of a gene diverges radically from our commonsense understanding of what it is for an invention to be useful. Furthermore, social, political and ethical issues inevitably arise when discussing the utility requirement, because an invention cannot be useful in isolation from a social context.

  11. Recent patents on electrophoretic displays and materials.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Marc; Phlips, Bernard F

    2010-11-01

    Electrophoretic displays (EPDs) have made their way into consumer products. EPDs enable displays that offer the look and form of a printed page, often called "electronic paper". We will review recent apparatus and method patents for EPD devices and their fabrication. A brief introduction into the basic display operation and history of EPDs is given, while pointing out the technological challenges and difficulties for inventors. Recently, the majority of scientific publications and patenting activity has been directed to micro-segmented EPDs. These devices exhibit high optical reflectance and contrast, wide viewing angle, and high image resolution. Micro-segmented EPDs can also be integrated with flexible transistors technologies into flexible displays. Typical particles size ranges from 200 nm to 2 micrometer. Currently one very active area of patenting is the development of full-color EPDs. We summarize the recent patenting activity for EPDs and provide comments on perceiving factors driving intellectual property protection for EPD technologies.

  12. Ethico-legal issues in biomedicine patenting: a patent professional viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Crespi, R Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the ethical implications of patents for biological materials and processes have been the subject of spirited public debate between the many individuals and groups on which the patent system impacts. Whereas copyright, trade marks, and other species of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are widely acceptable, the patent system evokes criticism from many quarters, especially in relation to the legal protection of inventions in the Life Sciences. Some of these criticisms expressed by prestigious public organisations are addressed here from the patent professional standpoint.

  13. Patents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Timely reporting of discoveries is critical, because patent protection may be lost if an invention is publicly disclosed prior to filing a patent application. A public disclosure may include Talks, presentations, posters; Publications, including titles and abstracts posted on websites; Internet postings; Graduate student theses, job interviews; andDiscussions with non-NIH personnel without a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) in place. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  14. Competition policy in patent cases and antitrust.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The article that follows examines the competition policy reflected in the decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in its patent cases. The court's views on this subject have been manifested most plainly in decisions that have transformed the law concerning infringement under the doctrine of equivalents and claim construction. In both categories, the court narrowed patent scope by reason of its desire to protect competitors. The article argues that the court's premise in prescribing narrower claim scope reflected an incomplete view of competition policy. The court's analysis overlooked the benefits to competition provided by patents, which stimulate inventions and their development. The article traces the development of antitrust jurisprudence and demonstrates how respect for the contribution of patents to competition and skepticism of free-riding has evolved, particularly beginning in the 1970s. The article draws a parallel between the Court's reasoning about competition policy, on the one hand, and the rejected views of Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas and abandoned patent-antitrust jurisprudence, on the other. The Federal Circuit's decision in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., Ltd., 234 F.3d 558 (Fed. Cir. 2000), on the subject of equivalents is considered in the paper. In that decision, the majority adopted a new rule that completely barred infringement under the doctrine of equivalents of any claim limitation where, in prosecution, there had been a narrowing amendment relating to patentability. In the past, prosecution estoppel foreclosing equivalents had been subject to a "flexible bar," which, in some circumstances, allowed for equivalence notwithstanding such an amendment. The article points out that because almost all patents are amended during prosecution, the effect would be to allow widespread copying of patented inventions by trivial modifications of any narrowed claim limitation. The incentive to innovate

  15. Patenting human genes and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Rendon, Enca; Blake, Derek J

    2007-01-01

    Cell lines and genetically modified single cell organisms have been considered patentable subjects for the last two decades. However, despite the technical patentability of genes and stem cell lines, social and legal controversy concerning their 'ownership' has surrounded stem cell research in recent years. Some granted patents on stem cells with extremely broad claims are casting a shadow over the commercialization of these cells as therapeutics. However, in spite of those early patents, the number of patent applications related to stem cells is growing exponentially. Both embryonic and adult stem cells have the ability to differentiate into several cell lineages in an organism as a result of specific genetic programs that direct their commitment and cell fate. Genes that control the pluripotency of stem cells have been recently identified and the genetic manipulation of these cells is becoming more efficient with the advance of new technologies. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents on pluripotency genes, gene transfer into stem cells and genetic reprogramming and takes the hematopoietic and embryonic stem cell as model systems.

  16. Genetic engineering and the patent office

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, J.G.; Anderson, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    Higher life forms created through genetic engineering are now recognized as potentially patentable. On 7 April 1987, the US Patent and Trademark Office announced that it now considers non-naturally occurring non-human multi-cellular living organisms, including animals, to be patentable subject matter. The response to this announcement has been an emotion controversy centering on the patent office. The announcement has become the lightning rod for all of the practical and moral questions surrounding the overwhelming potential of genetic engineering. Environmentalists claim that genetic engineering will ruin the ecology. The Humane Society of the US, headquartered in Washington, DC, claims that genetic engineering will cause undo suffering to animals produced through genetic experiments and may ultimately lead to the demise of overly engineered animal species. Religious fundamentalists claim that genetic engineering is wrongfully tinkering with the handiwork of the Almighty. While it may be good that such questions are being raised, the patent office is being wrongly singled out as the source of the problem. This paper discusses the legal problems that patents on new lifeforms have caused.

  17. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Lawrence A.

    2004-11-01

    MPEG LA, LLC recently announced terms of a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10: Information technology -- Coding of audio-visual objects -- Part 10: Advanced Video Coding | ITU-T Rec. H.264: Series H: Audiovisual and Multimedia Systems: Infrastructure of audiovisual services -- Coding of moving video: Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services). Like MPEG LA"s other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by Columbia Innovation Enterprises; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Télécom, société anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Sony Corporation; Toshiba Corporation; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. MPEG LA"s objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  18. Exercise after SCUBA diving increases the incidence of arterial gas embolism.

    PubMed

    Madden, Dennis; Lozo, Mislav; Dujic, Zeljko; Ljubkovic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Arterialization of gas bubbles after decompression from scuba diving has traditionally been associated with pulmonary barotraumas or cardiac defects, such as the patent foramen ovale. Recent studies have demonstrated the right-to-left passage of bubbles through intrapulmonary arterial-venous anastamoses (IPAVA) that allow blood to bypass the pulmonary microcirculation. These passages open up during exercise, and the aim of this study is to see if exercise in a postdiving period increases the incidence of arterialization. After completing a dive to 18 m for 47 min, patent foramen ovale-negative subjects were monitored via transthoracic echocardiography, within 10 min after surfacing, for bubble score at rest. Subjects then completed an incremental cycle ergometry test to exhaustion under continuous transthoracic echocardiography observation. Exercise was suspended if arterialization was observed and resumed when the arterialization cleared. If arterialization was observed a second time, exercise was terminated, and oxygen was administered. Out of 23 subjects, 3 arterialized at rest, 12 arterialized with exercise, and 8 did not arterialize at all even during maximal exercise. The time for arterialization to clear with oxygen was significantly shorter than without. Exercise after diving increased the incidence of arterialization from 13% at rest to 52%. This study shows that individuals are capable of arterializing through IPAVA, and that the intensity at which these open varies by individual. Basic activities associated with SCUBA diving, such as surface swimming or walking with heavy equipment, may be enough to allow the passage of venous gas emboli through IPAVA.

  19. [Superior mesenteric artery aneurysm treated with endovascular stentgraft implantation].

    PubMed

    Juszkat, Robert; Zarzecka, Anna; Winckiewicz, Marek; Majewski, Wacław

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysms of the superior mesenteric are very rare and comprises 5.5% of all visceral artery aneurysms. A 60-year-old male was admitted to the General and Vascular Surgery Department due to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysm, diagnosed in angio CT. Due to wide neck of the aneurysm and its localization in the mid-die segment of the SMA, a decision to implant a stentgraft was made. After surgical exposure of the right common femoral artery, a stentgraft Viabahn was implanted into the SMA. Control angiography revealed total aneurysm exclusion and patent SMA. Periprocedural course was uneventful. Follow-up CT scan 2 year after the procedure revealed no contrast filling of the aneurysm and patent SMA. A stentgraft implantation is a effective method of treatment of the wide-necked SMA aneurysms.

  20. Covered stent in the superior gluteal artery in a hybrid approach to treat internal iliac artery aneurysm: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Noël-Lamy, Maxime; Teng Tan, Kong; Lindsay, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    This brief report describes a hybrid endovascular and open procedure to treat internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysms and preserve pelvic blood flow. A covered stent was deployed before surgery in the superior gluteal artery, extending across the IIA aneurysm, with the proximal end in the common iliac artery lumen. During open aortoiliac aneurysm repair, the stent graft was anastomosed in an end-to-side manner to the surgical graft. Four aneurysms were treated in 3 patients. Technical success was achieved in all cases. There were no complications or repeat interventions. Stents were all patent at imaging follow-up (range, 6-25 mo). Patients were free from buttock claudication.

  1. 37 CFR 1.704 - Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjustment of patent term. 1.704 Section 1.704 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... of Patent Term Adjustment of Patent Term Due to Examination Delay § 1.704 Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term. (a) The period of adjustment of the term of a patent under §§ 1.703(a) through...

  2. Use of optical storage for patent image retrieval: the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office's automated patent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Stephen R.

    1990-08-01

    The Automated Patent System (APS) was designed, among other things, to assist the patent examiner in performing the patent search. It is a fully distributed system that uses custom-built high-resolution dual-display intelligent workstations, optical file servers, mainframes, and support computers networked together using Ethernet technology. The system is composed of two parts which are highly integrated: a full text search system and a patent image retrieval system. When fully deployed, APS will have an image data base of up to 30 terabytes being accessed from over 1000 workstations. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) has had problems with their optical drives, and although they are fairly stable today, we still experience a moderately high hardware failure rate. The optical drive problems include media instability, hardware design errors, vendor problems, and configuration control failures. We intend to purchase additional drives in the future, and are re-evaluating the exclusive use of optical storage in light of recent advances in magnetic storage technology.

  3. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  4. How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice?

    PubMed

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir

    2013-08-01

    The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision.

  5. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  6. Biological Diversity in the Patent System

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Forero, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual

  7. Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Bajkó, Zoltán; Bălaşa, Rodica; Moţăţăianu, Anca; Maier, Smaranda; Chebuţ, Octavia Claudia; Szatmári, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Subjects and Methods. We analysed 5000 cerebrovascular ultrasound records. A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Results. The mean age was 59.8 ± 14.2 years, and the male/female ratio was 2.33. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Right-sided and left-sided CCAO occurred in 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively, and bilateral occlusion was detected in one case (5%). Patent bifurcation was observed in 10 cases of CCAO in which the anterograde flow in the ICA was maintained from the external carotid artery with reversed flow. In two of the cases, the occluded CCA was hypoplastic. The aetiology of CCAO in the majority of cases was the atherosclerosis (15 cases). The male/female ratio was higher in the patients with occluded distal vessels, and the short-term outcome was poorer. Only two cases from this series underwent revascularisation surgery. Spontaneous recanalisation was observed in one case. Conclusions. The most frequent cause of CCAO was atherosclerosis. The outcome is improved in the cases with patent distal vessels, and spontaneous recanalisation is possible. Treatment methods have not been standardised. Surgical revascularisation is possible in cases of patent distal vessels, but the indications are debatable. PMID:24167740

  8. The Role of Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    ŞENADIM, Songül; BOZKURT, Dilek; ÇABALAR, Murat; BAJRAMI, Arsida; YAYLA, Vildan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Almost one-third of ischemic strokes has an unknown etiology and are classified as cryptogenic stroke. Paradoxical embolism because of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is detected in 40%–50% of these patients. Recently, PFO has been reported as a risk factor for patients of all age groups. Methods In this study, 1080 ischemic stroke patients admitted to our clinic (2011–2013) were retrospectively evaluated. Age, sex, risk factors, complete blood count, vasculitis, biochemical and hypercoagulability tests, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, transthoracic echocardiography, transeosophageal echocardiography (TEE) findings, and therapeutic approaches were evaluated. Results The age range of the participants (seven male and four female patients) was 20–60 years (mean=43.09±11.13 years). Hemiparesis (n=10), diplopia (n=2), hemianopsia (n=2), and dysarthria (n=2) were the main findings of the neurological examinations. Patient medical history revealed hypertension (n=3), asthma (n=1), deep venous thrombosis (n=1), and smoking (n=4). Diffusion-weighted imaging showed middle cerebral artery (n=8) and posterior cerebral artery (n=3) infarctions. In one case, symptomatic severe carotid stenosis was detected. In eight cases, TEE showed PFO without any other abnormalities, but PFO was associated with atrial septal aneurysm in two cases, and in one case it was associated with ventricular hypokinesia and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Antiplatelet therapy was applied to nine patients and percutaneous PFO closure operation to two patients. In a 2-year follow-up, no recurrent ischemic stroke was recorded. Conclusion PFO, especially in terms of the etiology of cryptogenic stroke in young patients, should not be underestimated. We want to emphasize the importance of TEE in identifying potential cardioembolic sources not only in young but also in all ischemic stroke patients with unknown etiology; we also discuss the controversial management

  9. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    SciTech Connect

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  10. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  11. Protecting new ideas and inventions in nanomedicine with patents.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Raj; Bawa, S R; Maebius, Stephen B; Flynn, Ted; Wei, Chiming

    2005-06-01

    New paradigms are shrinking our world. Tiny is in and patents are essential for success in nanomedicine. In fact, patents are already shaping this nascent and rapidly evolving field. For the past decade a swarm of patent applications pertaining to nanomedicine has been arriving at the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). As companies develop products and processes and begin to seek commercial applications for their inventions, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be vital to their long-term survival. As we enter the "golden era" of medicine, or nanomedicine, in the next decade with the field maturing and the promised breakthroughs accruing, patents will generate licensing revenue, provide leverage in deals and mergers, and reduce the likelihood of infringement. Because development of nanobiotechnology- and nanomedicine-related products is extremely research intensive, without the market exclusivity offered by a US patent, development of these products and their commercial viability in the marketplace will be significantly hampered. In this article, we highlight critical issues relating to patenting nanomedicine products. Effects of the "nanopatent land grab" that is underway in nanomedicine by "patent prospectors" are examined as startups and corporations compete to lock up broad patents in these critical early days. Because nanomedicine is multidisciplinary, patenting presents unique opportunities and poses numerous challenges. Although patents are being sought more actively and enforced more vigorously, the entire patent system is under greater scrutiny and strain, with the PTO continuing to struggle with evaluating nanomedicine-related patent applications.

  12. Recent survey on nanosuspension: a patent overview.

    PubMed

    Jethara, Sahilhusen I; Patel, Alpesh D; Patel, Mukesh R; Patel, Mukesh S; Patel, Kanu R

    2015-01-01

    The major goals of designing nanosuspension of nanosize materials are increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with the wide range of applications. Nanosuspension is a unique tool for improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspension drug delivery has wide range of application like oral, injectable, transdermal, inhalation, peroral, ocular, pulmonary and topical etc. by improviing the bioavailability, reducing the dose, gastric irritation, decreasing intra subject variability and increasing adhesivness with intestinal membrane. Recently, nanosuspension has been received much interest as a way to resolve solubility and stability problem because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compare to other liposome and colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions are engaged to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the site-specific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate, improve the bioavaibility of drug with poor solubility and dose regimen. Application and preparation method of nanosuspension has been reported by research articles and patented in different countries. Most of the marketed nanosuspensions are in preclinical and clinical based study for its application. More than 100 patents have been published on nanosuspensions by the recent days. This patent reviews covers different methods of pharmaceutical preparation and applications in drug delivery as well as the recent marketed published or granted patent surveys. This patent review is useful in enhance the knowledge of controlled drug delivery and applications.

  13. Metastasizing patent claims on BRCA1.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Thomas B; Crossman, Colin; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Many patents make claims on DNA sequences; some include claims on oligonucleotides related to the primary patented gene. We used bioinformatics to quantify the reach of one such claim from patent 4,747,282 on BRCA1. We find that human chromosome 1 (which does not contain BRCA1) contains over 300,000 oligonucleotides covered by this claim, and that 80% of cDNA and mRNA sequences contributed to GenBank before the patent application was filed also contain at least one claimed oligonucleotide. Any "isolated" DNA molecules that include such 15 bp nucleotide sequences would fall under the claim as granted by the US Patent and Trademark Office. Anyone making, using, selling, or importing such a molecule for any purpose within the United States would thus be infringing the claim. This claim and others like it turn out, on examination, to be surprisingly broad, and if enforced would have substantial implications for medical practice and scientific research.

  14. Gene patents, patenting life and the impact of court rulings on US stem cell patents and research.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L

    2014-03-01

    In June 2013, the US Supreme Court ruled that naturally occurring genes were unpatentable in the case Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics. Up until this decision, Myriad Genetics was the only company in the USA that could legally conduct diagnostic testing for BRCA1 and 2, genes that are linked to familial breast and ovarian cancer. The court case and rulings garnered discussion in public about patenting biological materials. This paper will describe the progression of the Myriad Genetics case, similar US rulings and biological intellectual property policies. In addition, it will discuss the impact of the case on biological patents - specifically those for human embryonic stem cells.

  15. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    PubMed Central

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  16. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  17. The impact of patent eligibility on biotech patents: A flow chart for determining patent eligibility and an immune therapy case study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2015-01-01

    US common law recites a natural law, natural phenomenon or abstract idea as exceptions to the 4 statutory patentable categories to guard against the wholesale preemption of fundamental principles. The very recent evolutions of patent exceptions in the US may increase the difficulty of patenting and may create uncertainty in determining patent eligibility. To solve the thorny problem of eligibility, this study presents a flow chart based on the courts’ decisions that can serve as a set of guidelines for determining patent eligibility. A case related to prostate cancer immune therapy is presented for discussion. PMID:25714661

  18. Patent information - towards simplicity or complexity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenton, Written By Kathleen; Norton, Peter; Onodera, Translated By Natsuo

    Since the advent of online services, the ability to search and find chemical patent information has improved immeasurably. Recently, integration of a multitude of files (through file merging as well as cross-file/simultaneous searches), 'intelligent' interfaces and optical technology for large amounts of data seem to achieve greater simplicity and convenience in the retrieval of patent information. In spite of these progresses, there is more essential problem which increases complexity. It is a tendency to expand indefinitely the range of claim for chemical substances by a ultra-generic description of structure (overuse of optional substituents, variable divalent groups, repeating groups, etc.) and long listing of prophetic examples. Not only does this tendency worry producers and searchers of patent databases but also prevents truly worthy inventions in future.

  19. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  20. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... for embolization (especially to the brain) is mitral stenosis . Endocarditis (infection of the inside of the heart) can also cause arterial emboli. A common source for an embolus is from areas of hardening (atherosclerosis) in the aorta and other large blood vessels. These clots can ...

  1. Biomedical patents and ethics: a Canadian solution.

    PubMed

    Gold, E R

    2000-05-01

    World Trade Organization member states are preparing for the upcoming renegotiation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. One of the important elements of that renegotiation is the ethical considerations regarding the patenting of higher life forms and their component parts (e.g. DNA and cell-lines). The interface between the genetic revolution, patentability, and ethical considerations is the subject of this article. The author identifies, explores, and critiques four possible positions Canada may adopt in respect of patentability of biomedical material. First, Canada could do nothing. This approach would mean keeping biomedical materials outside the patent system and outside the stream of commerce. Canada would simply wait for an international consensus to develop before adopting a position of its own. Second, Canada could go it alone. It could implement a policy that balances the incentive effects of patents with the need to incorporate ethical and social values into the decision-making process regarding the use of biomedical materials. In respect of this option, the author proposes a model whereby non-profit bodies would hold the exclusive rights to research, use, and exploit biomedical materials. Third, Canada could follow the United States, Europe, and Japan by providing for almost unrestricted patenting of biomedical materials. This would be the most industry-friendly alternative. The fourth and final option is to use the medicare system to promote discussion of ethical considerations involved in the use of biomedical materials. The power of provincial health agencies may be used as a lever to ensure the discussion of ethical considerations concerning the use of biomedical materials. The author concludes that the fourth and final option is the best alternative for Canada while waiting for an international consensus to emerge.

  2. Successful Endovascular Treatment of a Left Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm Following Failed Surgery of a Right Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Ucar, Ibrahim; Ozsoy, Fatma; Arat, Anil; Yorgancioglu, Cem; Boeke, Erkmen

    2005-04-15

    Aneurysm of the common carotid artery is a rare and serious disease requiring prompt treatment in order to avoid neurologic complications. A 39-year-old man presented with voice impairment and a pulsatile mass at the right side of his neck and was found by color Doppler examination to have bilateral common carotid artery aneurysms of unknown origin. The right-sided large aneurysm was treated with placement of an 8 mm interposition Gore-Tex graft between the right common and internal carotid arteries. The surgical graft thrombosed 7 days after the surgery but the left-sided aneurysm was successfully treated by a Jostent peripheral stent-graft. Color Doppler examination showed a patent stent and no filling of the aneurysm on his first and sixth-month follow-up. Bilateral common carotid artery aneurysm is an exceptionally unusual condition and endovascular treatment of carotid artery aneurysms with covered stents may become an effective treatment alternative for these lesions.

  3. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: chronic artery lumen patency and histology in porcine iliac artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Kunio, Mie; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Sakurada, Masami

    2012-02-01

    We proposed a short-duration heating balloon angioplasty. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to 60-70°C within 15-25 s with a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. The purpose of this study was to investigate chronic artery lumen patency as well as histological alteration of artery wall after the short-duration heating balloon dilatation with porcine healthy iliac artery. The short-term heating balloon dilated sites were angiographically patent in acute (1 hour) and in chronic phases (1 and 4 weeks). One week after the dilatation, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) density in the artery media measured from H&E-stained specimens was approx. 20% lower than that in the reference artery. One and four weeks after the dilatations, normal structure of artery adventitia was maintained without any incidence of thermal injury. Normal lamellar structure of the artery media was also maintained. We found that the localized heating restricted to artery media by the short-duration heating could maintain adventitial function and artery normal structure in chronic phase.

  4. Bio-patents, development and society: on the patentability of human genes.

    PubMed

    Myszczuk, Ana Paula; de Meirelles, Jussara Maria Leal

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the possibility of patenting inventions based on human genes and the need for an effective adaptation of the Patent Law system to enable the patenting of material derived from human genes. Furthermore, to allow for the inclusion of human gene-based inventions in the current patent system, many more amendments are required than those that have already become law during and since the twentieth century. It should be emphasized that one of the main characteristics of Patent Law is this changeability that requires the law to constantly respond to economic needs, advances in science and their resulting challenges in order to protect the product of human ingenuity. Therefore, new adaptations are required. In this context, the present paper adopts the understanding that human genes may serve as a basis for patentable inventions provided that the traditional requirements of novelty, inventiveness, utility and descriptive adequacy are adapted to the specific nature of living human matter. They should also be in line with the principles of legality and morality and not infringe human dignity, personality rights and should fulfill their social and environmental functions. Therefore, a bio-patent has a threefold function: economic, social and environmental. The economic function lies in the exclusive right to exploit an invention; the social function is implicit because there is no reason for the existence of a patent that solely benefits, its owner without society also enjoying its benefits and; the environmental function is that which guarantees that a bio-patent should preserve biodiversity and social diversity.

  5. Nanocellulose patents trends: a comprehensive review on patents on cellulose nanocrystals, microfibrillated and bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Charreau, Hernan; Foresti, Maria L; Vazquez, Analia

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose nanoparticles (i.e. cellulose elements having at least one dimension in the 1-100 nm range) have received increasing attention during the last decade. This is not only evident in academic articles, but it is also manifested by the increasing number of nanocellulose patents that are published every year. In the current review, nanocellulose patents are reviewed using specific software which provides valuable information on the annual number of patents that have been published throughout the years, main patent owners, most prolific inventors, and patents on the field that have received more citations. Patent statistics on rod-like cellulose nanoparticles extracted from plants by acid hydrolysis (nanocrystals), mechanical treatment leading to microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), and microbially produced nanofibrils (bacterial cellulose, BC) are analyzed in detail. The aim of the current review is to provide researchers with patent information which may help them in visualizing the evolution of nanocellulose technology, both as a whole and also divided among the different nanosized particles that are currently the subject of outstanding scientific attention. Then, patents are not only analyzed by their content, but also by global statistics which will reveal the moment at which different cellulose nanoparticles technologies achieved a breakthrough, the relative interest received by different nanocellulose particles throughout the years, the companies that have been most interested in this technology, the most prolific inventors, and the patents that have had more influence in further developments. It is expected that the results showing the explosion that nanocellulose technology is experiencing in current days will still bring more research on the topic and contribute to the expansion of nanocellulosics applications.

  6. India: Court upholds patent law denying patents for slightly modified versions of existing drugs.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Madhavi

    2007-12-01

    In August 2007, the Madras High Court struck down a petition by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Novartis to declare the anti-evergreening provision in Indian patent law invalid. Evergreening is the practice of effectively extending the patent on a drug by filing a new patent for a marginal modification to that drug, such as a change in its shape, dosing range or color. The Court's decision is critical for global access to essential medicines in the form of affordable generic drugs from India

  7. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 970.3102-05... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30 Patent costs....

  8. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent costs. 970.3102-05... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30 Patent costs....

  9. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  10. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  11. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  12. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  13. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term... by: (1) The fee set forth in § 1.18(f); and (2) A showing to the satisfaction of the Director...

  14. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term... by: (1) The fee set forth in § 1.18(f); and (2) A showing to the satisfaction of the Director...

  15. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term... showing to the satisfaction of the Director that, in spite of all due care, the applicant was unable...

  16. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term... showing to the satisfaction of the Director that, in spite of all due care, the applicant was unable...

  17. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  18. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  19. DNA Dilemma: A Perspective on Current U.S. Patent and Trademarh Office Philosophy Concerning Life Patents

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, K.; Faletra, P.

    2002-01-01

    The lack of a solid set of criteria for determining patentability of subject matter - particularly subject matter dealing with life - has recently been of increasing public concern in the United States. Alarm for patent practices related to life systems ranges from patents being granted on biochemical processes and the knowledge of these processes to the patenting of entire organisms. One of the most volatile concerns is the patenting of human genes or parts of genes since this genetic material is the basic informational molecule for all life. Current patent law, legislated in 1952, has been interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to allow broad patents of DNA, biochemical processes, and what are generally considered 'inventions' of life systems. Several issues are addressed in this paper regarding the unsound reasoning underlying both the interpretation and execution of patent law. Lapses in logic provide a gateway for businesses and individuals to take patenting to an illogical and unworkable extreme. Patent Office disorder of this magnitude is unnecessary and has great potential for harming the mission that the patent office was designed to serve. Recently disclosed patent-granting guidelines suggest the United States Patent and Trademark Office is not upholding its Constitutional responsibility of promoting the progress of science.

  20. Placement of Endovascular Stent across the Branching Arteries: Long-term Serial Evaluation of Stent-tissue Responses Overlying the Arterial Orifices in an Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Il; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Seo, Jeong Wook; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Whal

    2012-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to investigate the effects of stenting across the branching arteries on the patency and stent-tissue responses over the branching arterial orifices. Methods: Thirteen dogs were observed after placing aortic stents across the celiac arteries (CA), superior mesenteric arteries (SMA), and renal arteries (RA). The animals were grouped according to stent types: large-cell group (n = 6) and small-cell group (n = 7). Angiography was performed to evaluate the branching artery patency at 2, 6, and 12 months after stent insertion, and the stent-tissue responses covering the orifices were evaluated on histopathologic examination. Results: All branching arteries were patent on follow-up angiography; however, three patterns of stent-tissue responses over the orifices were observed: neointimal layering, bridging septa, and papillary hyperplasia. Although neointimal layering and bridging septa were evenly observed, severe papillary hyperplasia was more frequent at SMA and CA than RA. Four RA showed less than 50% ostial patency, and localized infarct was observed in six kidneys (24%). The ostial patency tended to decrease with small-cell stent during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Various stent-tissue responses over the branching artery orifices are induced by the aortic stent covering the branching arteries and may not be easily detected by conventional angiography. Subclinical renal infarct also may occur despite patent renal angiography.

  1. Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-06

    patent life with respect to an unrelated product has been termed a “ wild card ” term extension.87 Under this regime, a countermeasure innovator could...for an additional period of six months to two years. Supporters of a wild card patent term extension urge that patent-based incentives on profitable...particular illnesses or medical conditions.89 S. 975 appears to employ this “ wild card ” patent term extension concept. That bill stipulates that

  2. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... should be directed to the attention of Raul Tamayo, Senior Legal Advisor, Office of Patent Legal... them will be submitted. The recordkeeping costs associated with keeping a copy of the electronically... suggests, but does not require, that applicants keep copies of their electronically-filed applications....

  3. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an…

  4. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Prospective Intent to Award Exclusive License. SUMMARY: The United States Geological Survey...

  5. Patent and Copyright Policies at Selected Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Gathered are statements of copyright and patent policies in effect at 13 universities. In some cases policies concerning publication and sponsored research are included. The statements are reproduced exactly as received from the institutions, without interpretation. The universities participating are: Boston University (Massachusetts); California…

  6. Stem cell technologies: regulation, patents and problems.

    PubMed

    Then, Shih-Ning

    2004-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell research promises to deliver in the future a whole range of therapeutic treatments, but currently governments in different jurisdictions must try to regulate this burgeoning area. Part of the problem has been, and continues to be, polarised community opinion on the use of human embryonic stem cells for research. This article compares the approaches of the Australian, United Kingdom and United States governments in regulating human embryonic stem cell research. To date, these governments have approached the issue through implementing legislation or policy to control research. Similarly, the three jurisdictions have viewed the patentability of human embryonic stem cell technologies in their own ways with different policies being adopted by the three patent offices. This article examines these different approaches and discusses the inevitable concerns that have been raised due to the lack of a universal approach in relation to the regulation of research; the patenting of stem cell technologies; and the effects patents granted are having on further human embryonic stem cell research.

  7. Glidden's Patent Application for Barbed Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Emily; Schamel, Wynell

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of teaching activities to be used in conjunction with a reproduction of Joseph Glidden's patent for barbed wire fencing. These include document analysis, creative interpretation, and personal experience. Presents a brief history of the social and economic effects of the introduction of barbed wire to the West. (MJP)

  8. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  9. The Applicability of Patented Technologies to Sonobuoys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    to Navy suppliers. F. Contact: Darryl Mexic, Esquire Patent Counsel Sughrue, Mion, Zinn , Macpeak & Seas 2100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC...Bovernack Auoney, Agent. or Firm- Howard P. Terry; Seymour (75) Inventor: D d H. MeMa , Carlisle, Mass. Levine [73] Assignee: Sperry Corporatloin, New York

  10. Vehicle Technologies Program Awards and Patents

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-13

    Award-winning technologies and processes are hallmarks of the programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and industrial partners. Awards, patents, and other recognition validate the products of research undertaken as part of the Vehicle Technologies Program.

  11. 77 FR 4887 - DOE Patent Licensing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR..., Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its patent... for Technology Transfer and Procurement shall hear and decide appeals relating to licensing...

  12. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    PubMed

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  13. 75 FR 17380 - Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office... satisfaction level of the participants will be monitored. If a participant is not satisfied with the...

  14. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection...: Email: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Matters Related to Patent Appeals comment... protection to which he or she is entitled. Where the differences of opinion on such matters concern...

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are...

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are...

  17. Biotechnology Firms Gird for Clash over Patent Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, David

    1984-01-01

    Examines issues and trends related to biotechnology patents, providing data that show that foreign concerns have gained a large share of United States patents. Also lists the number of patents assigned to companies, foreign countries, and universities during 1983 and 1984. (JN)

  18. 77 FR 48755 - Office Patent Trial Practice Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) establishes several new trial proceedings to be conducted by the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (Board) including inter partes review, post-grant review, the transitional program for covered business method patents, and derivation proceedings. In separate rulemakings, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office or USPTO) is revising the rules......

  19. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, or publications developed through the use of funds collected under...

  20. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, or publications developed through the use of funds collected under...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications..., copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed... patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, ensure to the benefit of the Board. Upon termination...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications..., copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed... patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, ensure to the benefit of the Board. Upon termination...

  5. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, or publications developed through the use of funds collected under...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  8. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  10. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications..., copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed... patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, ensure to the benefit of the Board. Upon termination...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications..., copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed... patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, ensure to the benefit of the Board. Upon termination...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, or publications developed through the use of funds collected under...

  15. Invisible genomes: the genomics revolution and patenting practice.

    PubMed

    Bostanci, Adam; Calvert, Jane

    2008-03-01

    In the mid-1990s, the company Human Genome Sciences submitted three potentially revolutionary patent applications to the US Patent and Trademark Office, each of which claimed the entire genome sequence of a microorganism. The patent examiners, however, objected to these applications, and after negotiation they were eventually re-written to resemble more traditional gene patents. In this paper, which is based on a study of the patent examination files, we examine the reasons why these patent applications were unsuccessful in their original form. We show that with respect to utility and novelty, the patent attorney's case built on an understanding of the genome as a computer-related invention. The patent examiners did not object to the patenting of complete genome sequences as computer-related inventions on moral grounds or in terms of the distinction between a discovery and an invention. Instead, their objections were based on classification, rules and procedure. Rather than patent examiners having a notion of a genome that should not be patented, the notion of a 'genome', and the ways in which it may be different from a 'gene', played no role in these debates. We discuss the consequences of our findings for patenting in the biosciences.

  16. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2 Section 650.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National...

  17. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2 Section 650.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National...

  18. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  19. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications developed through the use of funds remitted to the Board under the provisions...

  20. 34 CFR 6.1 - Publication or patenting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publication or patenting of inventions. 6.1 Section 6.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.1 Publication or patenting of inventions. It is the general policy of the Department that the results...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, or publications developed through the use of funds collected under...

  2. 77 FR 71004 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and Inventions; Delegation of... administer and make decisions regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents in which CDC and the Department have an interest....

  3. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  4. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  5. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section 401... CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under project agreements entered into...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications..., copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed... patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, ensure to the benefit of the Board. Upon termination...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  8. Glidden's Patent Application for Barbed Wire. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Life in the western United States was reshaped by a series of patents for a simple tool that helped ranchers tame the land: barbed wire. Nine patents for improvements to wire fencing were granted by the U.S. Patent Office to U.S. inventors beginning with Michael Kelly in 1868 and ending with Joseph Glidden in 1874. Vast and undefined prairies and…

  9. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  10. 48 CFR 52.227-3 - Patent Indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent Indemnity. 52.227-3... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-3 Patent Indemnity. As prescribed in 27.201-2(c)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity (APR 1984) (a)...

  11. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  12. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  13. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  14. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  15. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  16. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  17. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  18. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  19. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  20. 48 CFR 52.227-3 - Patent Indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent Indemnity. 52.227-3... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-3 Patent Indemnity. As prescribed in 27.201-2(c)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity (APR 1984) (a)...

  1. Annotated Chemical Patent Corpus: A Gold Standard for Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Klenner, Alexander G.; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K.; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A. R. P.; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A.; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  2. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... notes of survey and the plat thereof for a more particular description and the patent shall expressly... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode...

  3. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... notes of survey and the plat thereof for a more particular description and the patent shall expressly... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode...

  4. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... notes of survey and the plat thereof for a more particular description and the patent shall expressly... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode...

  5. 76 FR 55364 - Rules for Patent Maintenance Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Rules for Patent Maintenance Fees ACTION: Proposed collection... Office (USPTO) charges fees for maintaining in force all utility patents based on applications filed on or after December 12, 1980. Payment of these maintenance fees is due at 3\\1/2\\, 7\\1/2\\, and...

  6. 43 CFR 3862.1-1 - Application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining...) Every application for patent, based on a mining claim located after August 1, 1946, shall state whether... materials in the lands covered by his application. (c) In applying for patent to a mining claim...

  7. 43 CFR 3862.1-1 - Application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining...) Every application for patent, based on a mining claim located after August 1, 1946, shall state whether... materials in the lands covered by his application. (c) In applying for patent to a mining claim...

  8. 78 FR 4211 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Sustainable Funding Model for Operations As explained in the Strategic Plan, the Office's objective of... Timeliness The Office developed the strategic goal of optimizing patent quality and timeliness in response to... sustainable funding model, reduce the current patent application backlog, decrease patent application...

  9. 14 CFR § 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patent rights. § 1274.911 Section § 1274.911 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.911 Patent rights. Patent Rights July 2002...

  10. 34 CFR 6.1 - Publication or patenting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Publication or patenting of inventions. 6.1 Section 6.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.1 Publication or patenting of inventions. It is the general policy of the Department that the results...

  11. Hidden Treasures for Science Teaching: United States Patents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Norman D.

    United States patents are a source of historical information with many implications for science teaching. Using patents as science teaching devices has been largely ignored by science educators. Some of these devices can be easily modified for use in today's classrooms; in addition, patents serve as great examples of how our knowledge of science…

  12. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2 Section 650.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National...

  13. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2 Section 650.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National...

  14. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2 Section 650.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National...

  15. Practical aspects of the preparation and filing of patent applications.

    PubMed

    Bessoth, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is intended to give a brief introduction into the most important patent basics. More importantly, it provides some practical advice to scientists on various considerations when contemplating and preparing the filing of a patent application, irrespective of whether this is assisted by a patent professional or not.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  17. Patent and Trademark Depository Libraries and the United States Patent and Trademark Office: A Model for Information Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenda, Claudine Arnold

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the network of Patent and Trademark Depository Libraries (PTDLs), a collaborative partnership with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) for disseminating patent and trademark information in every state plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Typical information sources and services provided at PTDLs are…

  18. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks..., RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Requirements for Recording § 3.24 Requirements for documents and cover..., the paper used should be flexible, strong white, non-shiny, and durable. The Office will not...

  19. [Ductus arteriosus apertus as the cause of recurrent nerve paralysis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Czerny, C; Baumgartner, H; Zehetgruber, M; Bigenzahn, W

    2001-05-01

    There are various reasons for paralysis of the vocal folds, which consequently imposes great demands on differential diagnostics. Angiocardiopathies are regarded as very rare cases of etiopathogenesis. In the present case, a persistent arterial duct could be identified as the reason for the paralysis of the left recurrent nerve of a 59-year-old female patient. The necessity of interdisciplinary diagnostics going beyond the field of otorhinolaryngology is emphasized, especially in cases of a paralysis of the recurrent nerve.

  20. Patenting genes and genetic research: good or bad for innovation?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Beth E; Ogielska-Zei, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Our goal with this article is to inform the debate over gene patenting, by providing an understanding of (a) the scope of patent claims that are actually being issued on genetic inventions in the United States, (b) the issues that impact their enforcement, and (c) the role that patents and patent licensing play in the commercialization of genetic technologies and products. We conclude by discussing whether the current legal regime effectively balances the beneficial role of patents in the development of new genetic technologies and products against negative impacts on genetic research or clinical genetic testing, or whether the current laws should be amended.

  1. Patenting human genes: when economic interests trump logic and ethics.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2003-06-01

    To date, over 5,000 applications have been filed with United States Patent Office for patents on human genes. More than 1,500 of these applications have been granted. Other jurisdictions are experiencing a similar rush to mine and protect genomic gold. This paper argues that although many jurisdictions allow the patenting of human genes, this is ethically indefensible and amounts to an unjustified appropriation of a general human heritage. Economic and legal arguments in favour of patenting are considered and rejected. Reference is made to the Wellcome Trust Consortium's initiative and the Merck Gene Index Project, which place patented genetic information into the public domain.

  2. THE OTHER PATENT AGENCY: CONGRESSIONAL REGULATION OF THE ITC

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    The United States International Trade Commission has recently experienced a dramatic increase in patent infringement investigations under § 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930. In fact, the number of patent enforcement actions submitted to the ITC has nearly doubled in the last five years. Patent holders are selecting this forum because of its speedy proceedings and its ability to award broad exclusion orders. This rise in ITC patent litigation, however, has revealed weaknesses in the structure of § 337. In broadening the provision to facilitate the enforcement of patent rights, Congress failed to consider the impact of this change on technological innovation and on the coherence of the patent system. In particular, Congress did not clarify the relationship between § 337 and the Patent Act, thereby jeopardizing the uniformity of the patent system. Nor did it consider the effect that patent-related exclusion orders would have on innovation and on strategic behavior. This Article recommends that Congress harmonize ITC patent law with the Patent Act and related federal precedent, or alternatively, abolish § 337. PMID:20671808

  3. Key points in biotechnological patents to be exploited.

    PubMed

    García, Alfredo Mateos; López-Moya, José Rafael; Ramos, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Patents in some biotechnological fields are controversial. Despite this fact, the number of patent applications increases every year. Total revenues in the global biotechnology market are expected to increase in the middle term. Nowadays, the bioeconomy is an important socio-economic area, which is reflected in the number of firms dedicated to or using biotechnology. The exploitation of biotechnological patents is an essential task in the management of intellectual capital. This paper explains the multiplicity of factors that influence the exploitation of biotechnological patents; specifically, the internal and external key points of patents exploitation. The external determining factors for patents are: (i) the market need for biotechnological products and services, (ii) the importance of the freedom to operate analysis before entering the market, and (iii) efficiency in prosecution by Patent Offices. This paper primarily focuses on the internal determining factors, more particularly, the characteristics that the patent's owner must take into consideration in order to have a strong, broad subject-matter in the granted patent. The experimentation needed to obtain an adequate scope of the subject- matter in the claims is a critical issue in the exploitation of a patent or patent application.

  4. THE OTHER PATENT AGENCY: CONGRESSIONAL REGULATION OF THE ITC.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sapna

    2009-07-01

    The United States International Trade Commission has recently experienced a dramatic increase in patent infringement investigations under section sign 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930. In fact, the number of patent enforcement actions submitted to the ITC has nearly doubled in the last five years. Patent holders are selecting this forum because of its speedy proceedings and its ability to award broad exclusion orders. This rise in ITC patent litigation, however, has revealed weaknesses in the structure of section sign 337. In broadening the provision to facilitate the enforcement of patent rights, Congress failed to consider the impact of this change on technological innovation and on the coherence of the patent system. In particular, Congress did not clarify the relationship between section sign 337 and the Patent Act, thereby jeopardizing the uniformity of the patent system. Nor did it consider the effect that patent-related exclusion orders would have on innovation and on strategic behavior. This Article recommends that Congress harmonize ITC patent law with the Patent Act and related federal precedent, or alternatively, abolish section sign 337.

  5. Patenting and the gender gap: should women be encouraged to patent more?

    PubMed

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2013-06-01

    The commercialization of academic science has come to be understood as economically desirable for institutions, individual researchers, and the public. Not surprisingly, commercial activity, particularly that which results from patenting, appears to be producing changes in the standards used to evaluate scientists' performance and contributions. In this context, concerns about a gender gap in patenting activity have arisen and some have argued for the need to encourage women to seek more patents. They believe that because academic advancement is mainly dependent on productivity (Stuart and Ding in American Journal of Sociology 112:97-144, 2006; Azoulay et al. in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 63:599-623, 2007), differences in research output have the power to negatively impact women's careers. Moreover, in the case of patenting activity, they claim that the gender gap also has the potential to negatively affect society. This is so because scientific and technological advancement and innovation play a crucial role in contemporary societies. Thus, women's more limited involvement in the commercialization of science and technology can also be detrimental to innovation itself. Nevertheless, calls to encourage women to patent on grounds that such activity is likely to play a significant role in the betterment of both women's careers and society seem to be based on two problematic assumptions: (1) that the methods to determine women's productivity in patenting activities are an appropriate way to measure their research efforts and the impact of their work, and (2) that patenting, particularly in academia, benefits society. The purpose of this paper is to call into question these two assumptions.

  6. Government patent policy: An analysis of the effects of three alternative patent policies on technology of goverment inventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matousek, M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of present and proposed Government patent policies on the process of technology transfer and the commercialization of inventions resulting from Government sponsored research are addressed. The function of the patent system in Government research and the value of patents resulting from government sponsored research are examined. Three alternative patent policies, title in the contractor, title in the Government, and the waiver policy, are examined in terms of their effect on the commercialization of inventions, industrial competitions, disclosure of inventions, participation of research contractors and administrative costs. Efforts to reform the present Government patent policy are also described.

  7. Giant Serpentine Aneurysm of the Middle Cerebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Joo; Kwun, Byung Duk; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    Giant serpentine aneurysms are rare and have distinct angiographic findings. The rarity, large size, complex anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of giant serpentine aneurysms make treatment difficult. We report a case of a giant serpentine aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) that presented as headache. Treatment involved a superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA bypass followed by aneurysm resection. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits, and early and late follow-up angiography disclosed successful removal of the aneurysm and a patent bypass graft. We conclude that STA-MCA bypass and aneurysm excision is a successful treatment method for a giant serpentine aneurysm. PMID:20856671

  8. Transdermal delivery: product and patent update.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himanshu; Babu, R J

    2013-12-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is an attractive alternative to the oral and parenteral drug delivery. Drugs which are prone to first-pass metabolism can be delivered easily in small doses with sustained blood levels through this method. An update to available products along with a review of clinical trials and patents are discussed in this study. In this review, we have compiled 16 drugs, i.e. Buprenorphine, Clonidine, Estradiol, Fentanyl, Granisetron, Lidocaine, Methylphenidate, Nicotine, Nitroglycerin, Oxybutynin, Rivastigmine, Rotigotine, Scopolamine, Selegiline, Testosterone, Influenza virus vaccine (Microneedle) and covering about 22 marketed products on the transdermal system. We present instrumental information on them along with the compilation of current clinical trials on transdermal systems. We summarize the contents of patents granted in last 5 years under different pharmacological categories. This article serves, accordingly as a source of available information focused on transdermal drug delivery research.

  9. Recent Patents, Formulation and Characterization of Nanoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Seema; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Nanoliposome has been introduced for nanoscale bilayer lipid vesicles. These are the nano version of liposomes, having cell-specific targeting, required to achieve a desired drug concentration at the target site for optimum therapeutic efficacy, possibly by minimizing the adverse effects on healthy cells and tissues. Nanoliposomes possess impending applications in the fields of nanotechnology, e.g. cancer therapy, cosmetics, diagnosis, gene delivery, agriculture and food technology. Nano liposomes can be formulated by Sonication technique, Extrusion method, Emulsification evaporation method and Lipid layer hydration method. Authors have performed detailed patent and literature survey on PubMed, PubMed Central, Spingerlink and Elsevier based reviews and research articles on nanoliposomes. An attempt has been made to highlight the various formulation methods including the patented technologies, applications and characterization of nanoliposomes.

  10. Drug patents and intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Raj, Gerard Marshall; Priyadarshini, Rekha; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi

    2015-04-01

    Inquisitive scientists are untiring and relentless in the hard work they perform day in and day out. In this pursuit, a researcher has to exercise their intellectual expertise in its entirety. Eventually, all credit of the invention is vested with the inventor who has the right of control over their intellectual creation. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies spend extravagantly in successfully introducing a novel drug from hundreds and thousands of lead compounds. Hence, it is a prerogative for every company to protect its innovative products from unauthorized duplication. Certainly, "patents" are the sole custodians of these products of medical intelligence - the drugs! This review focuses on the various intricacies of the drug patent system all over the world with special emphasis on India, Europe, and the United States. A note on other intellectual properties such as copyrights, trademarks, and designs is also added.

  11. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery.

  12. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets. For payers to adopt use of a new pharmaceutical, they would require objective third-party evaluation and pharmaceutical manufacturer accountability for projected outcomes efficacy of their treatments on population health. The pay for outcomes underpinning of this approach falls within the wider aspirations of health reform. PMID:26945298

  13. Are Pharmaceutical Patents Protected By Human Rights?

    PubMed Central

    Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405

  14. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  15. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  16. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Spontaneous coronary artery dissection — sometimes referred to as SCAD — is an ... the blood vessels in the heart. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can slow or block blood flow ...

  17. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... A coronary artery fistula is often congenital, meaning that it is present at birth. It generally occurs when one of the ...

  18. Indexing Flower Patent Images using Domain Knowledge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    approach is illustrated by using it to provide a solution to the problem of indexing images of flowers for searching a flower patents database by color...The flower region is isolated from the background by using an automatic iterative segmentation algorithm with domain knowledge driven feedback. The...color of the flower is defined by the color names present in the flower region and their relative proportions. The database can be queried by example

  19. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  20. The Applicability of Patented Technologies to Sonobuoys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    levels, with a high power pulse mode capability. D. Further Development Needed: None E. Availibility: Imediate F. Contact: Elliot I. Pollock , Esquire... Pollock , VandeSande & Priddy 1990 "M" Street, NW - Suite 800 Washington, DC 20036 (202) 331-7111 - 22- Patent No. Owner: Expires: 4,186,370 Raytheon...i-- 1. Hewlett-Packard 3-29 4,017,903 Valet Incomplete 2. Sec Def of UK 3-7 4,185,143 Pollock