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Sample records for artery disease longitudinal

  1. Prediction of Coronary Artery Disease Risk Based on Multiple Longitudinal Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Yu, Menggang; Gao, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, few topics in the area of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research have received as much attention as risk prediction. One of the well documented risk factors for CVD is high blood pressure (BP). Traditional CVD risk prediction models consider BP levels measured at a single time and such models form the basis for current clinical guidelines for CVD prevention. However, in clinical practice, BP levels are often observed and recorded in a longitudinal fashion. Information on BP trajectories can be powerful predictors for CVD events. We consider joint modeling of time to coronary artery disease and individual longitudinal measures of systolic and diastolic BPs in a primary care cohort with up to 20 years of follow-up. We applied novel prediction metrics to assess the predictive performance of joint models. Predictive performances of proposed joint models and other models were assessed via simulations and illustrated using the primary care cohort. PMID:26439685

  2. Management of outpatients in France with stable coronary artery disease. Findings from the prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease (CLARIFY) registry.

    PubMed

    Danchin, Nicolas; Ferrieres, Jean; Guenoun, Maxime; Cattan, Simon; Rushton-Smith, Sophie K; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ferrari, Roberto; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in the treatment of coronary artery disease mean that an increasing number of patients survive acute cardiovascular events and live as outpatients with or without anginal symptoms. To determine the characteristics and management of contemporary outpatients with stable coronary artery disease in Western Europe, and to compare France with the other Western European countries. CLARIFY (prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease) is an international, prospective, observational, longitudinal study. Between November 2009 and July 2010, 32,954 adult outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (defined as a history of documented myocardial infarction [of >3 months], prior coronary revascularization, chest pain with myocardial ischaemia, or coronary stenosis of>50% proven by angiography) were enrolled in 45 countries. The demographics and management of CLARIFY patients enrolled in France were compared with those enrolled in other Western European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and the UK). Of the 14,726 patients enrolled in Western Europe (mean age 66.2 [10.2] years; 79.6% male), 2432 (16.5%) were from France. The use of aspirin was lower in France than in other Western European countries (74.5% vs. 86.9%, respectively), whereas use of thienopyridines (48.5% vs. 21.7%), oral anticoagulants (12.3% vs. 9.0%) and lipid-lowering drugs (95.8% vs. 92.5%) was higher. Beta-blockers were used in 73% of both groups. Angina was less prevalent in France (6.3% vs. 15.5%) and French patients showed higher levels of physical activity than their counterparts in Western Europe. The management of patients with stable CAD in France appears favourable, with good adherence to guideline-based therapies, but there remains room for improvement in terms of symptom and risk factor control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  4. Brachial artery vasoreactivity is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal anatomical measures of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Hodis, Howard N.; Liu, Chao-Ran; Liu, Chi-Hua; Mack, Wendy J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The diagnostic and prognostic importance of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BFMD) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not certain and associations between BFMD and recognized measures of atherosclerosis have not been well established. Methods We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between repeated measures of BFMD and quantitative coronary artery angiographic (QCA) measurements of average percent diameter stenosis, number of lesions and minimum luminal diameter (MLD), and ultrasonographic measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) in an ethnically diverse cohort of postmenopausal women (n = 132) with coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects were participants in a 3-year randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, testing the efficacy of hormone therapy on atherosclerosis progression. Associations between BFMD and QCA measures, and between BFMD and CIMT were examined using measurements from the same study visit. Results BFMD was significantly inversely correlated with coronary artery stenosis at baseline (β = −1.21% [S.E.(β) = 0.38], p = 0.002). BFMD levels significantly predicted rate of change in CIMT over the trial period (β = −0.76 μm/year [S.E.(β) = 0.29], p = 0.008). Conclusions Physiological and anatomical measures of atherosclerosis are correlated among postmenopausal women with CAD, which provides some validation of BFMD as a measure of atherosclerosis in high-risk populations. PMID:17803999

  5. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  6. Association of genetic variants with coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke in a longitudinal population-based genetic epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshiji; Matsui, Kota; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Fujimaki, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    Our previous studies identified nine genes and chromosomal region 3q28 as susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or chronic kidney disease by genome-wide or candidate gene association studies. As coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke may share genetic architecture, certain genetic variants may confer susceptibility to the two diseases. The present study examined the association of 13 polymorphisms at these 10 loci with the prevalence of CAD or ischemic stroke in community-dwelling individuals, with the aim of identifying genetic variants that confer susceptibility to the two conditions. Study subjects (170 with CAD, 117 with ischemic stroke and 5,718 controls) were recruited to the Inabe Health and Longevity Study, a longitudinal genetic epidemiological study of atherosclerotic, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The subjects were recruited from individuals who visited for an annual health checkup and they were followed up each year (mean follow-up period, 5 years). Longitudinal analysis with a generalized estimating equation, and with adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and the serum concentration of creatinine, revealed that rs2074380 (G→A) and rs2074381 (A→G) of the α-kinase 1 (ALPK1) gene and rs8089 (T→G) of the thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) gene were significantly (P<2×10(-16)) associated with the prevalence of CAD, with the AA genotype of rs2074380 and GG genotypes of rs2074381 and rs8089 being protective against this condition. Similar analysis revealed that rs9846911 (A→G) at chromosome 3q28, rs2074381 of ALPK1, rs8089 of THBS2 and rs6046 (G→A) of the coagulation factor VII gene were significantly (P<2×10(-16)) associated with the prevalence of ischemic stroke, with the GG genotypes of rs9846911, rs2074381 and rs8089 and the AA genotype of rs6046 being protective against this condition. ALPK1 and THBS2 may thus be

  7. Association of genetic variants with coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke in a longitudinal population-based genetic epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    YAMADA, YOSHIJI; MATSUI, KOTA; TAKEUCHI, ICHIRO; FUJIMAKI, TETSUO

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies identified nine genes and chromosomal region 3q28 as susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or chronic kidney disease by genome-wide or candidate gene association studies. As coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke may share genetic architecture, certain genetic variants may confer susceptibility to the two diseases. The present study examined the association of 13 polymorphisms at these 10 loci with the prevalence of CAD or ischemic stroke in community-dwelling individuals, with the aim of identifying genetic variants that confer susceptibility to the two conditions. Study subjects (170 with CAD, 117 with ischemic stroke and 5,718 controls) were recruited to the Inabe Health and Longevity Study, a longitudinal genetic epidemiological study of atherosclerotic, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The subjects were recruited from individuals who visited for an annual health checkup and they were followed up each year (mean follow-up period, 5 years). Longitudinal analysis with a generalized estimating equation, and with adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and the serum concentration of creatinine, revealed that rs2074380 (G→A) and rs2074381 (A→G) of the α-kinase 1 (ALPK1) gene and rs8089 (T→G) of the thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) gene were significantly (P<2×10−16) associated with the prevalence of CAD, with the AA genotype of rs2074380 and GG genotypes of rs2074381 and rs8089 being protective against this condition. Similar analysis revealed that rs9846911 (A→G) at chromosome 3q28, rs2074381 of ALPK1, rs8089 of THBS2 and rs6046 (G→A) of the coagulation factor VII gene were significantly (P<2×10−16) associated with the prevalence of ischemic stroke, with the GG genotypes of rs9846911, rs2074381 and rs8089 and the AA genotype of rs6046 being protective against this condition. ALPK1 and THBS2 may thus be

  8. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... coronary artery disease: High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides in the blood. High blood pressure Diabetes Smoking Family history of coronary artery disease Obesity ...

  9. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to ...

  10. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... pale. When PAD becomes severe, you may have: Impotence Pain and cramps at night Pain or tingling ... emboli that block small arteries Coronary artery disease Impotence Open sores (ischemic ulcers on the lower legs) ...

  11. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease? Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) is ... that affects blood flow to the legs. Normal Artery and Artery With Plaque Buildup The illustration shows ...

  12. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  13. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  14. What Is Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  15. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 People with ... developing atherosclerosis, the most common cause of peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD have a ...

  16. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

  17. Carotid artery disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a stroke recover most or all of their functions. Others die of the stroke itself or from complications. About half of people ... patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary: ... American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association ...

  18. Hypertensive Target Organ Damage and Longitudinal Changes in Brain Structure and Function: The Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease-Magnetic Resonance Study.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Pieternella H; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Visseren, Frank L J; Nathoe, Hendrik M; Mali, Willem P T M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Muller, Majon

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension has been related to structural and functional brain changes. In high-risk populations, hypertensive target organ damage might better represent exposure to high blood pressure than the blood pressure measurement itself. We examined the association of hypertensive target organ damage with longitudinal changes in brain structure and function within the Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study. Renal function, albuminuria, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography were measured in 663 patients with manifest arterial disease (mean age, 57±9 years; 81% men). Automated brain segmentation was used to quantify progression of global brain atrophy (change in brain parenchymal fraction) and progression of cerebral small vessel disease on 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging, and memory and executive functioning were assessed at baseline and after on average 3.9 years of follow-up. Regression analyses showed that an increasing number of signs of target organ damage was associated with more progression of global brain atrophy and more rapid decline in memory performance. Compared with no target organ damage, mean differences in change in brain parenchymal fraction (95% confidence interval) for 1 and ≥2 signs of organ damage were -0.12 (-0.30; 0.06) and -0.41 (-0.77; -0.05) % intracranial volume, and mean (95% confidence interval) differences in change in memory performance (z score) were -0.15 (-0.29; -0.00) and -0.27 (-0.54; -0.01). Results were independent of blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, and other confounders. Hypertension target organ damage was not associated with progression of cerebral small vessel disease or change in executive functioning. Routinely assessed signs of hypertensive target organ damage, and in particular impaired renal function, could be used to identify patients at the highest risk of cognitive decline. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Diagnostic power of longitudinal strain at rest for the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Houjuan; Yan, Jiangtao; Zeng, Hesong; Li, Wenyu; Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Zhengxiang; Cui, Guanglin; Lv, Jiagao; Wang, Daowen; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured by 2-D speckle-tracking echocardiography (2-D STE) at rest has been recognized as a sensitive parameter in the detection of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the diagnostic power of 2-D STE in the detection of significant CAD in patients with diabetes mellitus is unknown. Two-dimensional STE features were studied in total of 143 consecutive patients who underwent echocardiography and coronary angiography. Left ventricular global and segmental peak systolic longitudinal strains (PSLSs) were quantified by speckle-tracking imaging. In the presence of obstructive CAD (defined as stenosis ≥75%), global PSLS was significantly lower in patients with diabetes mellitus than in patients without (16.65 ± 2.29% vs. 17.32 ± 2.27%, p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that global PSLS could effectively detect obstructive CAD in patients without diabetes mellitus (cutoff value: -18.35%, sensitivity: 78.8%, specificity: 77.5%). However, global PSLS could detect obstructive CAD in diabetic patients at a lower cutoff value with inadequate sensitivity and specificity (cutoff value: -17.15%; sensitivity: 61.1%, specificity: 52.9%). In addition, the results for segmental PSLS were similar to those for global PSLS. In conclusion, global and segmental PSLSs at rest were significantly lower in patients with both obstructive CAD and diabetes mellitus than in patients with obstructive CAD only; thus, PSLSs at rest might not be a useful parameter in the detection of obstructive CAD in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  20. How socioeconomic inequalities impact pathways of care for coronary artery disease among elderly patients: study protocol for a qualitative longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sara L; Fink, Astrid; Schumann, Nadine; Moor, Irene; Plehn, Alexander; Richter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have identified that socioeconomic inequalities in coronary artery disease (CAD) morbidity and mortality lead to a disadvantage in patients with low socioeconomic status (SES). International studies have shown that socioeconomic inequalities also exist in terms of access, utilisation and quality of cardiac care. The aim of this qualitative study is to provide information on the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on the pathway of care for CAD, and to establish which factors lead to socioeconomic inequality of care to form and expand existing scientific theories. Methods and analysis A longitudinal qualitative study with 48 patients with CAD, aged 60–80 years, is being conducted. Patients have been recruited consecutively at the University Hospital in Halle/Saale, Germany, and will be followed for a period of 6 months. Patients are interviewed two times face-to-face using semistructured interviews. Data are transcribed and analysed based on grounded theory. Ethics and dissemination Only participants who have been informed and who have signed a declaration of consent have been included in the study. The study complies rigorously with data protection legislation. Approval of the Ethical Review Committee at the Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany was obtained. The results of the study will be presented at several congresses, and will be published in high-quality peer-reviewed international journals. Trial registration number This study has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register and assigned DRKS00007839. PMID:26553827

  1. Peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010. Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review. We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 70 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents, bypass surgery, cilostazol, exercise, pentoxifylline, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), prostaglandins, smoking cessation, and statins. PMID:21477401

  2. Peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009. (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 59 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents; bypass surgery; cilostazol; exercise; pentoxifylline; percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); prostaglandins; smoking cessation; and statins. PMID:19454099

  3. Coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Michele A; Fareed, Mohammad Tariq; Argenio, Sandra L; Agunwamba, Akochi O; Hanson, Teresa R

    2013-03-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. There are several presenting clinical syndromes, including sudden cardiac death. Risk factor analysis can help the primary care provider identify patients who may need more extensive evaluation or treatment. Treatment may be medical or surgical and depends on the individual patient's comorbidities and preferences. In the future, growth of new blood vessels or cardiac cells may aid in the treatment of CAD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Longitudinal changes in brain volumes and cerebrovascular lesions on MRI in patients with manifest arterial disease: the SMART-MR study.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Pieternella H; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L; Witkamp, Theo D; Mali, Willem P T M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2014-02-15

    We estimated the progression of brain atrophy and cerebrovascular lesions on MRI in a prospective cohort of patients with various manifestations of arterial disease. Within the SMART-MR study, using brain MRI data from baseline and after on average 3.9 years of follow-up, intracranial volume (ICV), total brain, cortical gray matter, ventricular, white matter lesion volumes and visually rated infarcts were obtained from 663 patients (mean age 57 ± 9 years, 81% men). Global and cortical atrophy increased quadratically with age. Men showed more progression of global and cortical atrophy than women (mean difference in change (95% CI): -0.25 (-0.44; -0.06) and -0.94 (-1.35; -0.52)% ICV) and had an increased risk of new brain infarcts (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1). Compared with coronary artery disease patients, cerebrovascular disease patients showed more progression of cortical and subcortical atrophy and an increased risk of new brain infarcts, and peripheral arterial disease patients showed more progression of cortical atrophy. These results were independent of cerebrovascular lesions and cardiovascular risk factors. In patients with manifest arterial disease, brain atrophy tended to accelerate with older age and men had more progression of brain atrophy and cerebrovascular lesions than women. Additionally, patients with cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial disease showed the most prominent progression of atrophy and lesions.

  5. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  6. How socioeconomic inequalities impact pathways of care for coronary artery disease among elderly patients: study protocol for a qualitative longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sara L; Fink, Astrid; Schumann, Nadine; Moor, Irene; Plehn, Alexander; Richter, Matthias

    2015-11-09

    Several studies have identified that socioeconomic inequalities in coronary artery disease (CAD) morbidity and mortality lead to a disadvantage in patients with low socioeconomic status (SES). International studies have shown that socioeconomic inequalities also exist in terms of access, utilisation and quality of cardiac care. The aim of this qualitative study is to provide information on the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on the pathway of care for CAD, and to establish which factors lead to socioeconomic inequality of care to form and expand existing scientific theories. A longitudinal qualitative study with 48 patients with CAD, aged 60-80 years, is being conducted. Patients have been recruited consecutively at the University Hospital in Halle/Saale, Germany, and will be followed for a period of 6 months. Patients are interviewed two times face-to-face using semistructured interviews. Data are transcribed and analysed based on grounded theory. Only participants who have been informed and who have signed a declaration of consent have been included in the study. The study complies rigorously with data protection legislation. Approval of the Ethical Review Committee at the Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany was obtained. The results of the study will be presented at several congresses, and will be published in high-quality peer-reviewed international journals. This study has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register and assigned DRKS00007839. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  8. Epigenetics and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Biros, Erik; Bingley, John; Iyer, Vikram; Krishna, Smriti M

    2016-04-01

    The term epigenetics is usually used to describe inheritable changes in gene function which do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These typically include non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications. Smoking and older age are recognised risk factors for peripheral artery diseases, such as occlusive lower limb artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, and have been implicated in promoting epigenetic changes. This brief review describes studies that have associated epigenetic factors with peripheral artery diseases and investigations which have examined the effect of epigenetic modifications on the outcome of peripheral artery diseases in mouse models. Investigations have largely focused on microRNAs and have identified a number of circulating microRNAs associated with human peripheral artery diseases. Upregulating or antagonising a number of microRNAs has also been reported to limit aortic aneurysm development and hind limb ischemia in mouse models. The importance of DNA methylation and histone modifications in peripheral artery disease has been relatively little studied. Whether circulating microRNAs can be used to assist identification of patients with peripheral artery diseases and be modified in order to improve the outcome of peripheral artery disease will require further investigation.

  9. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed to restore blood flow: Angioplasty : In an angioplasty procedure, an interventional radiologist threads a catheter through a blood vessel to the affected artery and inflates a small balloon to reopen it. In some cases, the insertion ...

  10. Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease, Angina Basic Facts & Information What ... and oxygen supply; this is what causes a heart attack. If the damaged area is small, however, your ...

  11. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAD). Both PAD and CAD are caused by atherosclerosis that narrows and blocks arteries in various critical ... can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication . Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which ...

  12. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated? Treatments for carotid artery disease may ... plaque removed and normal blood flow restored. Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting Doctors use a procedure called ...

  13. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  14. Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease Past Issues / ... narrows or blocks these arteries—a condition called coronary artery disease (CAD) or coronary heart disease (CHD) occurs. A ...

  15. [Progestins and arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Rozenbaum, H

    1985-01-01

    The role of estrogens in the etiology of vascular accidents was identified soon after oral contraceptives (OCs) came into use over 2 decades ago, but the role of progestins was only identified on the basis of systematic study. Reduction in the estrogen dose of OCs was accompained by a steady decline in venous accidents, but the rate of arterial accidents changed little. It is important to remember that the actual occurrence of vascular accidents in OC users is rare. Available statistics indicate that age and smoking are important risk factors for vascular accidents. Among nonsmokers and smokers respectively, the annual risk of death due to vascular accidents is 1 in 77,000 and 1 in 10,000 for women under 35, 1 in 67,000 and 1 in 2000 for women 35-44, and 1 in 2500 and 1 in 500 for women 45 and over. Some isolated cases of arterial vascular accidents in users of progestin only OCs have been published. The death rate from vascular accidents is 3 times as high when the levonorgestrel dose increases from 150 to 250 mcg, and twice as high when the norethisterone acetate dose increases from 1 to 4 mg. It is not known precisely how synthetic progestins can induce an arterial accident, but the factors involved may include elevation of blood pressure by potentiation of the modifications in renin-angiotensin system caused by ethinyl estradiol, reducing the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, impairing glucose tolerance, altering the vascular walls directly, or modifying certain coagulation factors. Little data is available on progestin-caused modifications in coagulation factors, but a recent study reported that the effects of combined OCs on coagulation factors increased with the progestin dose. 2 groups of 19-norsteroids are currently used in contraception, the estranes including norethisterone and some prohormones that metabolize to norethisterone before becoming active, and the gonanes including norgestrel, levonorgestrel, and desogestrel. Early optimism

  16. Type D personality, mental distress, social support and health-related quality of life in coronary artery disease patients with heart failure: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Burkauskas, Julius; Kazukauskiene, Nijole; Mickuviene, Narseta; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2015-01-22

    The relationship between Type D personality and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in coronary artery disease patients is becoming more established, however, the factors that may explain this association remain unclear. The objective of the study was to examine the mediating effects of mental distress and social support on the relationship between the Type D personality and HRQoL in CAD patients with heart failure. A total of 855 CAD patients with heart failure were assessed on Type D personality, mental distress, perceived social support and HRQoL with the following self-administered questionnaires: the Type D personality scale - 14, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. The prevalence of Type D personality within the study population was 33.5%. Type D personality, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms and social support were all found to be determinants of decreased HRQoL (p's < 0.001), once age, gender, NYHA functional class and acute myocardial infarction were adjusted for. Anxiety, depressive symptoms and social support were found to mediate the relationship between Type D personality and HRQoL. Type D personality exerted a stable effect on HRQoL over 24 months follow-up period. Type D personality has an independent significant effect on the HRQoL in CAD patients with heart failure, and this relation is mediated by anxiety and depressive symptoms, social support.

  17. Peripheral arterial disease in women.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2009-12-20

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is chronic arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremities caused by atherosclerosis whose prevalence increases with age. Only one-half of women with PAD are symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women with PAD are at increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and mortality from coronary artery disease. Modifiable risk factors that predispose women to PAD include active cigarette smoking, passive smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increased plasma homocysteine levels and hypothyroidism. With regard to management, women who smoke should be encouraged to quit and referred to a smoking cessation program. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism require treatment. Statins reduce the incidence of intermittent claudication and improve exercise duration until the onset of intermittent claudication in women with PAD and hypercholesterolemia. Anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin or especially clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and statins should be given to all women with PAD. Beta blockers are recommended if coronary artery disease is present. Exercise rehabilitation programs and cilostazol increase exercise time until intermittent claudication develops. Chelation therapy should be avoided as it is ineffective. Indications for lower extremity percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or bypass surgery in women are (1) incapacitating claudication interfering with work or lifestyle; and (2) limb salvage in women with limb-threatening ischemia as manifested by rest pain, non-healing ulcers, and/or infection or gangrene. Future research includes investigation of mechanisms underlying why women have a higher risk of graft failure and major amputation.

  18. Wall tissue remodeling regulates longitudinal tension in arteries.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Zane S; Gotlieb, Avrum I; Langille, B Lowell

    2002-05-03

    Changes in blood pressure or flow induce arterial remodeling that normalizes mechanical loads that are imposed on arterial tissue. Arteries are also under substantial longitudinal stretch (axial strain) that may be altered by growth or atrophy of tissues to which they are attached. We therefore tested whether axial strain is also regulated in a negative feedback manner through arterial remodeling. Axial strain in rabbit carotid arteries was increased from 62+/-2% to 97+/-2% without altering other mechanical loads on wall tissues. Strain was reduced within 3 days and completely normalized by 7 days. Remodeling involved tissue elaboration, endothelial cell replication rates were increased by >50-fold and smooth muscle cell replication rates were increased by >15-fold, and substantially elevated DNA, elastin, and collagen contents were recorded. Also, increased rates of apoptosis were indicated by degradation of DNA into oligonucleosomes, and matrix remodeling was reflected in enlarged fenestrae in the internal elastic lamina and increased expression and activation of gelatinases, especially matrix metalloproteinase-2. Intriguingly, reduced axial strain was not normalized, presumably because remodeling processes, apart from cell contraction, are ineffective in decreasing strain, and arterial smooth muscle orientation precludes large effects of contraction on axial strain.

  19. Effect of comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk management on longitudinal changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness in a community-based prevention clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Henry G.; Patel, Birju S.; Martin, Seth S.; Blaha, Michael; Doneen, Amy; Bale, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to examine changes in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaque morphology in patients receiving multifactorial cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor management in a community-based prevention clinic. Quantitative changes in CIMT and qualitative changes in carotid plaque morphology may be measured non-invasively by ultrasound. Material and methods This is a retrospective study on a cohort of 324 patients who received multifactorial cardiovascular risk reduction treatment at a community prevention clinic. All patients received lipid-lowering medications (statin, niacin, and/or ezetimibe) and lifestyle modification. All patients underwent at least one follow-up CIMT measurement after starting their regimen. Annual biomarker, CIMT, and plaque measurements were analyzed for associations with CVD risk reduction treatment. Results Median time to last CIMT was 3.0 years. Compared to baseline, follow-up analysis of all treatment groups at 2 years showed a 52.7% decrease in max CIMT, a 3.0% decrease in mean CIMT, and an 87.0% decrease in the difference between max and mean CIMT (p < 0.001). Plaque composition changes occurred, including a decrease in lipid-rich plaques of 78.4% within the first 2 years (p < 0.001). After the first 2 years, CIMT and lipid-rich plaques continued to decline at reduced rates. Conclusion In a cohort of patients receiving comprehensive CVD risk reduction therapy, delipidation of subclinical carotid plaque and reductions in CIMT predominantly occurred within 2 years, and correlated with changes in traditional biomarkers. These observations, generated from existing clinical data, provide unique insight into the longitudinal on-treatment changes in carotid plaque. PMID:27478452

  20. Antihypertensive Drug Use and New-Onset Diabetes in Female Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Population-based Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Liou, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Hung-Yi; Tien, Lyun; Gu, Yi-Sian; Jong, Gwo-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Antihypertensives have been linked to new-onset diabetes (NOD) and different classes of antihypertensives may alter the risk for the development of NOD; however, the effect of different antihypertensives on the development of NOD in women with hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between usage of different antihypertensive drugs and the development of NOD in female patients with hypertension and CAD.Data in this retrospective cohort study were obtained from claim forms submitted to the Taiwan Bureau of National Health Insurance in central Taiwan during the period 2006-2011. We estimated the odds ratios (OR) to approximate the relative risk of NOD development associated with antihypertensive drug use.Of the 20,108 female patients with CAD at baseline, 2288 patients developed NOD during the 6-year follow-up. Subjects treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (OR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00), angiotensin receptor blockers (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99), and alpha-blockers (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.98) in the adjusted analyses had greater reductions of the risk than among nonusers. Patients who took diuretics (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20), beta-blockers (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.21), and calcium channel blockers (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18) were at high risk of developing NOD than nonusers. Vasodilators were not associated with risk of NOD.We conclude that women with hypertension who take ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and alpha-blockers are at lower risk of NOD and that use of diuretics, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing NOD during the 6-year follow-up.

  1. Evolution of complete arterial grafting. For coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, B F; Fuller, J A; Tatoulis, J

    1998-01-01

    Arterial grafting for the correction of coronary artery disease preceded the use of saphenous vein grafts, but the overwhelming popularity of the saphenous vein from 1970 to 1985 left the development of arterial grafting dormant. Excellent graft patency results from pedicled internal thoracic artery grafting and continued saphenous vein graft failure prompted our unit to explore complete arterial grafting with internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts. One thousand and fifty-three patients who received a combination of internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts were compared with 1,156 patients who received internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein grafts. All patients underwent primary coronary artery bypass surgery between 1995 and 1998. The early mortality and morbidity and the probability of survival at 2 years were similar in both groups of patients. Early graft patency studies of 35 radial artery grafts showed 33 (94%) were patent at a mean of 12 months. Complete arterial grafting using internal thoracic and radial arteries is safe and may provide a long-term benefit. Images PMID:9566058

  2. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Peripheral Artery Disease (P.A.D.) What is P.A.D.? Arteries Clogged With Plaque Peripheral arterial disease (P. ... button on your keyboard.) Why Is P.A.D. Dangerous? Click for more information Blocked blood flow ...

  3. Longitudinal trajectories of arterial stiffness and the role of blood pressure: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Morrell, Chris H; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-11-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ≥140 mm Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range.

  4. Peripheral Artery Disease and Aortic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Criqui, Michael H.; Aboyans, Victor; Allison, Matthew A.; Denenberg, Julie O.; Forbang, Nketi; McDermott, Mary M.; Wassel, Christina L.; Wong, Nathan D.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed published MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study articles concerning peripheral arterial disease, subclavian stenosis (SS), aortic artery calcium (AAC), and thoracic artery calcium (TAC). Important findings include, compared to non-Hispanic whites, lower ankle-brachial index (ABI) and more SS in African Americans, and higher ABI and less SS in Hispanic and Chinese Americans. Abnormal ABI and brachial pressure differences were associated with other subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) measures. Both very high and low ABI independently predicted increased CVD events. Looking at aortic measures, TAC and AAC were significantly associated with other subclinical CVD measures. Comparisons of AAC with coronary artery calcium (CAC) showed that both were less common in ethnic minority groups. However, although CAC was much more common in men than in women in multivariable analysis, this was not true of AAC. Also, when AAC and CAC were adjusted for each other in multivariable analysis, there was a stronger association for AAC than for CAC with CVD and total mortality. PMID:27741978

  5. Could Peripheral Arterial Disease Be Your Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise and yoga classes and has returned to teaching. Fast Facts Peripheral arterial disease (P.A.D.) occurs when a fatty material called plaque (pronounced plak) builds up on the inside walls of the arteries that carry blood from ...

  6. Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... the arteries to narrow or become blocked, which can reduce or block blood flow. P.A.D. ...

  7. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  8. Coronary artery ectasia in Egyptian patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Waly, H M; Elayda, M A; Lee, V V; el-Said, G; Reul, G J; Hall, R J

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 45 Egyptian patients with coronary artery ectasia who underwent coronary bypass grafting at our institution between 1980 and 1995. We examined the anatomic distribution and type of coronary ectasia and its association with coronary risk factors in these patients, and evaluated the severity of their coronary artery disease. We compared these findings with those from a group of 230 Egyptian patients who did not have coronary ectasia. These patients also underwent coronary artery bypass grafting between 1980 and 1995 at our institution. Obesity was present in 60% of the patients who had coronary artery ectasia, compared with 42% of patients who did not have ectasia (P < 0.01). Coronary artery ectasia was not related to any coronary risk factors other than obesity. However, patients who had ectasia did have a higher rate of triple-vessel coronary artery disease than did patients without ectasia (82% vs 67%, P < 0.05). Of the coronary vessels affected by ectasia, 43% were left anterior descending arteries. Diffuse disease was noted in 84% of all ectatic segments. We conclude that in this patient population, 2 conditions had a positive correlation with coronary ectasia: obesity and the severity of coronary artery disease. Images PMID:9456489

  9. Cryoplasty for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, James E; Andras, Alina; Stansby, Gerard

    2013-08-11

    Percutaneous balloon angioplasty is an endovascular technique for restoring blood flow through an artery that has become narrowed or blocked by atherosclerosis. Narrowing of the artery following angioplasty (restenosis) is the major cause of long-term failure. Cryoplasty offers a different approach to improving long-term angioplasty results. It combines the dilation force of balloon angioplasty with cooling of the vessel wall. This systematic review evaluated cryoplasty in peripheral arterial disease and provides focus for further research in the field. This is an update of a review first published in 2007. To assess the efficacy of, and complications associated with, cryoplasty for maintaining patency in the iliac, femoropopliteal and crural arteries in the short and medium term. For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched October 2012) and CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10). Trial databases were searched for ongoing or unpublished studies. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised controlled trials in which participants with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower limbs, or lower limb bypass graft stenoses, were randomised to cryoplasty with or without another procedure versus a procedure without cryoplasty were considered. This included trials where all participants received angioplasty and the randomisation was for cryoplasty versus no cryoplasty and trials where cryoplasty was used as an adjunct to conventional treatment (for example stenting) against a control. Two review authors independently reviewed, assessed and selected trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Seven trials (six primary cryoplasty and one adjunctive cryoplasty trial) with a combined total of 478 patients were included in this review. The trials reported patency and restenosis either by participant, lesion or vessel location. Follow-up ranged from 30 days to

  10. MRI in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Barkhausen, Jörg; Hunold, Peter; Waltering, Kai-Uwe

    2004-12-01

    Diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major challenge for medical imaging, because CAD is the leading cause of death in developed nations. Several non-invasive tests are used in clinical routine for the detection of CAD. However, due to limited sensitivity and specificity, the reliable diagnosis as well as the exclusion of CAD can only be established by catheter angiography. In patients with known CAD, therapeutic decisions require accurate information on myocardial function, ischemia and viability. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as a non-invasive cardiac imaging technique that provides information on cardiac morphology, cardiac function, myocardial viability, and coronary morphology. This review discusses technical aspects and the clinical impact of different MR techniques.

  11. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  12. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  13. Radiation-induced coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dunsmore, L.D.; LoPonte, M.A.; Dunsmore, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes three patients who developed myocardial infarction at an untimely age, 4 to 12 years after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. These cases lend credence to the cause and effect relation of such therapy to coronary artery disease.

  14. Noninvasive Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Ran; Nakazato, Ryo; Kalra, Dan; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive cardiac imaging is widely used to evaluate the presence of coronary artery disease. Recently, with improvements in imaging technology, noninvasive imaging has also been used for evaluation of the presence, severity, and prognosis of coronary artery disease. Coronary CT angiography and MRI of coronary arteries provide an anatomical assessment of coronary stenosis, whereas the hemodynamic significance of a coronary artery stenosis can be assessed by stress myocardial perfusion imaging, such as SPECT/PET and stress MRI. For appropriate use of multiple imaging modalities, the strengths and limitations of each modality are discussed in this review. PMID:25234083

  15. Diagnosis and therapy of coronary artery disease: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Nuclear cardiology; Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; Therapy of angina pectoris; Psychosocial aspects of coronary artery disease; Nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease; and The epidemiology of coronary artery disease.

  16. [Clinical applications of arterial spin labeling technique in brain diseases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zheng, Gang; Zhao, Tiezhu; Guo, Chao; Li, Lin; Lu, Guangming

    2013-02-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique is a kind of perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging method that is based on endogenous contrast, and it can measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. The ASL technique has advantages of noninvasiveness, simplicity and relatively lower costs so that it is more suitable for longitudinal studies compared with previous perfusion methods, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), CT and the contrast agent based magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. This paper mainly discusses the current clinical applications of ASL in brain diseases as cerebrovascular diseases, brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, etc.

  17. Ischaemic stroke and peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attiya Sabeen; Akhtar, Syed Wasim; Jamal, Qaiser; Sultana, Nuzhat; Siddiqui, Muhammad Asadullah; Hassan, Ziaul

    2017-08-01

    To determine the frequency of atherosclerosis by ankle brachial index in patients with an ischaemic stroke and to assess the association of carotid artery stenosis and ankle brachial index in ischaemic stroke. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi, from July 2011 to May 2014, and comprised patients with ischaemic stroke. The patients were classified according to the Asian stroke criteria for classification of brain infarction. Primary outcome measures included carotid artery stenosis and ankle brachial index. The other independent variables were age, gender, body mass index and waist circumference. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. A total of 327 patients were enrolled. The overall mean age was 57.6±12.8 years. Besides, 168(51.3%) participants were males. Peripheral artery disease was found in 60(18.3%) patients. Mild carotid artery stenosis was found in 182(55.6%) patients, moderate in 140(42.8%), severe in 3(0.9%) and complete occlusion in 2(0.6%) patients. In patients having mild carotid artery stenosis, 32(17.5%) had peripheral artery disease, whereas in patients with moderate carotid artery stenosis, 25(17.8%) had peripheral artery disease. Abnormally low ankle brachial index suggesting subclinical peripheral artery disease was 18%.

  18. A Mechanical Analysis of Conduit Arteries Accounting for Longitudinal Residual Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruoya; Gleason, Rudolph L.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of an appropriate stress-free reference configuration is critically important in providing a reasonable prediction of the intramural stress distribution when performing biomechanical analyses on arteries. The stress-free state is commonly approximated as a radially cut ring that typically opens into a nearly circular sector, relieving much of the circumferential residual strains that exist in the traction-free configuration. An opening angle is often used to characterize this sector. In this study, we first present experimental results showing significant residual deformations in the longitudinal direction of two commonly studied arteries in the pig: the common carotid artery and the left anterior descending coronary artery. We concluded that a radially cut ring cannot completely describe the stress-free state of the arteries. Instead, we propose the use of a longitudinal opening angle, in conjunction with the traditional circumferential opening angle, to experimentally quantify the stress-free state of an artery. Secondly, we propose a new kinematic model to account for the addition of longitudinal residual strains through employing the longitudinal opening angle and performed a stress analysis. We found that with the inclusion of longitudinal residual strains in the stress analysis, the predicted circumferential stress gradient was decreased by 3-fold and the predicted longitudinal stress gradient was increased by 5.7-fold. Thus, inclusion of longitudinal residual strains has a significant effect on the predicted stress distribution in arteries. PMID:20087772

  19. Computer measurement of arterial disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J.; Selzer, R. H.; Barndt, R.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S.

    1980-01-01

    Image processing technique quantifies human atherosclerosis by computer analysis of arterial angiograms. X-ray film images are scanned and digitized, arterial shadow is tracked, and several quantitative measures of lumen irregularity are computed. In other tests, excellent agreement was found between computer evaluation of femoral angiograms on living subjects and evaluation by teams of trained angiographers.

  20. Longitudinal Cracking with a Guidewire Tail for Extremely Calcified Lesions in Infrainguinal Arteries: PICKING Technique.

    PubMed

    Kawarada, Osami; Noguchi, Teruo; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2017-08-30

    To report a percutaneous intravascular cracking with a guidewire tail (PICKING) technique to longitudinally crack the underlying calcification and facilitate the balloon catheter passage for the treatment of severely calcified chronic occlusions in the infrainguinal artery. Three patients underwent PICKING technique between November 2014 and March 2017. The PICKING technique with the stiff tail of 0.018-inch guidewire in the straight configuration was considered in cases of failed passage of the smallest balloon catheter because of the underlying severely calcified occlusion following passage of 0.014-inch guidewire. All three patients were complicated by end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Treated vessels were superficial femoral artery in two cases and anterior tibial artery in one case. In all cases, successful passage and dilatation of the balloon catheter were achieved, and significant improvements in clinical symptoms were observed following subsequent optimal balloon angioplasty or stenting. The PICKING technique could increase the potential of endovascular solution for the treatment of severely calcified chronic occlusions in the infrainguinal artery.

  1. Patterns of disease distribution of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Shi, Yang; Wang, Yutang; Li, Xiaoying

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis that is associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial disease involves the arteries distal to the aortic bifurcation in a nonuniform manner. Studies have shown that symptoms and prognosis of patients with PAD vary according to the location and size of the affected artery. Several modalities have been used to identify the location of PAD, including noninvasive evaluations and invasive procedures. Peripheral arterial disease has a risk factor profile similar to that associated with coronary artery disease (ie, age, gender, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia). Many studies have shown that the distribution, extent, and progression of PAD are influenced by CV risk factors but the findings are not consistent. Management strategies for PAD are different for proximal and distal PAD. The objective of this review is to discuss the patterns of diseases distribution in patients with PAD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Coronary artery disease following mediastinal radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Annest, L.S.; Anderson, R.P.; Li, W.; Hafermann, M.D.

    1983-02-01

    Coronary artery disease occurred in four young men (mean age 41 years) who had received curative irradiation therapy for mediastinal malignancies 12 to 18 (mean 15) years previously. None was at high risk for developing coronary artery disease by Framingham criteria. Angiography demonstrated proximal coronary artery disease with normal distal vessels. Distribution of the lesions correlated with radiation dosimetry in that vessels exposed to higher radiation intensity were more frequently diseased. A total of 163 patients underwent mediastinal irradiation for lymphoma or thymoma between 1959 and 1980. Among the 29 who survived 10 or more years, five (18%) developed severe coronary artery disease, implicating thoracic radiotherapy as an important risk factor. Because of the importance of mantle irradiation in the treatment of lymphomas, the prevalence of these neoplasms, and the survival patterns following treatment, many long-term survivors may be at increased risk for the development of coronary artery disease. Recognition of the relationship between radiotherapy and coronary artery disease may lead to earlier diagnosis and more timely intervention.

  3. Coronary artery disease following mediastinal radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Annest, L.S.; Anderson, R.P.; Li, W.; Hafermann, M.D.

    1983-02-01

    Coronary artery disease occurred in four young men (mean age 41 years) who had received curative irradiation therapy for mediastinal malignancies 12 to 18 (mean 15) years previously. None was at high risk for developing coronary artery disease by Framingham criteria. Angiography demonstrated proximal coronary artery disease with normal distal vessels. Distribution of the lesions correlated with radiation dosimetry in that vessels exposed to higher radiation intensity were more frequently diseased. Three patients had coronary bypass grafting for intractable angina and are asymptomatic at 10 to 43 months. A total of 163 patients underwent mediastinal irradiation for lymphoma or thymoma between 1959 and 1980. Among the 29 who survived 10 or more years, five (18%) developed severe coronary artery disease, implicating thoracic radiotherapy as an important risk factor. Because of the importance of mantle irradiation in the treatment of lymphomas, the prevalence of these neoplasms, and the survival patterns following treatment, many long-term survivors may be at increased risk for the development of coronary artery disease. Recognition of the relationship between radiotherapy and coronary artery disease may lead to earlier diagnosis and more timely intervention. Standard surgical treatment may be particularly beneficial because of the relative youth of most of these patients and because the proximal distribution of typical lesions increases the likelihood of complete revascularization.

  4. Coronary Artery Disease: Angioplasty or Bypass Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease: Angioplasty or bypass surgery? I'm getting a cardiac catheterization. If blockages are found, ... angioplasty or bypass surgery? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M.D. During cardiac catheterization, your doctor will examine ...

  5. Effects of longitudinal stretch on VSM tone and distensibility of muscular conduit arteries.

    PubMed

    Zulliger, Martin A; Kwak, Naomi T M R; Tsapikouni, Theodora; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2002-12-01

    With progressing age, large arteries diminish their longitudinal stretch, which in extreme cases results in tortuosity. Increased age is also associated with loss of vessel distensibility. We measured pressure-diameter curves from muscular porcine carotid arteries ex vivo at different longitudinal stretch ratios (lambda(z) = 1.4 and 1.8) and under different vascular smooth muscle (VSM) conditions (fully relaxed, normal VSM tone, and maximally contracted). Distensibility was found to be halved by decreasing longitudinal stretch from lambda(z) = 1.8 to 1.4 at physiological pressures. This counterintuitive observation is possible because highly nonlinear elastic modulus of the artery and anisotropic properties. Furthermore, a significantly larger basal VSM contraction was observed at lambda(z) = 1.8 than 1.4, although this was clearly not related to a myogenic response during inflation. This dependence of VSM tone to longitudinal stretch may have possible implications on the functional characteristics of the arterial wall.

  6. [Reconstruction of foot arteries after injury in arterial occlusive disease].

    PubMed

    Flis, V; Tomazic, T

    1993-06-01

    At the Maribor Teaching Hospital two elderly with progressive atherosclerotic disease below the knee were treated between 1986-1992 for open fracture of ankle joint and pedal arterial trauma. The only patent atherosclerotic vessel (dorsal artery of the foot) that was disrupted was reconstructed in both cases by interposition of a part of the great and small saphenous vein in one case each. A termino-terminal anastomosis with a long, triangular patch was used, fixed with interrupted sutures. The fractures were stabilized with external fixators. Both extremities were saved.

  7. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease may not cause signs or symptoms until it severely narrows or blocks a carotid artery. Signs and symptoms may include a bruit, a ...

  8. [Peripheral artery disease and acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. When presented in the context of an acute coronary syndrome a differential diagnosis with aorta dissection should be made, because peripheral arterial disease may be asymptomatic despite the absence or asymmetry of femoral pulses. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Transfer Function Analysis of the Longitudinal Motion of the Common Carotid Artery Wall

    PubMed Central

    Yli-Ollila, Heikki; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Laitinen, Tomi P.; Laitinen, Tiina M.

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal motion of the carotid wall is a potential new measure of arterial stiffness. Despite the over decade long research on the subject, the driving force and the specific longitudinal kinetics of the carotid wall has remained unclear. In this study, a transfer function analysis with 20 healthy subjects is presented to derive how the energy from the blood pressure moves the innermost arterial wall longitudinally and how the kinetic energy is then transferred to the outermost arterial layer. The power spectrums display that the main kinetic energy of the longitudinal motion is on band 0–3 Hz with a peak on the 1.1 Hz frequency. There is a large variation among the individuals, how the energy from the blood pressure transfers into the longitudinal motion of the arterial wall since the main direction of the longitudinal motion varies individually and because early arterial stiffening potentially has an effect on the time characteristics of the energy transfer. The energy transfer from the innermost to the outermost wall layer is more straightforward: on average, a 17% of the longitudinal amplitude is lost and an 18.9 ms delay is visible on the 1.0 Hz frequency. PMID:28082917

  10. Bioabsorbable stenting in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Galyfos, George; Geropapas, Georgios; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Kerasidis, Stavros; Stamatatos, Ioannis; Kastrisios, Georgios; Giannakakis, Sotirios; Papacharalampous, Gerasimos; Maltezos, Chrisostomos

    2015-12-01

    Arterial stenting has been broadly utilized for the management of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The evolution of stent materials has led to the introduction of newer bioabsorbable scaffolds that have been extensively evaluated in the treatment of coronary artery disease. However, the utilization of bioabsorbable stents in the lower extremities remains challenging and has not been evaluated in the same degree. There are not many trials focusing on major outcomes of treatment with bioabsorbable stents or comparing them with other therapeutic choices such as surgery or angioplasty only. The aim of this review is to report current status on bioabsorbable stenting in peripheral artery disease treatment as well as to present the results of all major relevant trials. Moreover, future expectations and challenges with this type of stents are discussed as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Who Is at Risk for Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... risk factors for coronary heart disease (also called coronary artery disease) and peripheral artery disease. Diabetes . With this disease, ...

  12. Treatment of peripheral arterial disease via percutaneous brachial artery access.

    PubMed

    Franz, Randall W; Tanga, Christopher F; Herrmann, Joseph W

    2017-08-01

    This review was conducted to evaluate the types of endovascular procedures that can be performed via brachial artery access, evaluate the access success rate, and determine the incidence of technical complications. A retrospective 10-year record review at a tertiary facility from January 1, 2005, through June 30, 2015, was completed. Patients who underwent attempted brachial artery access were eligible for review. Outcomes intended to be evaluated included ability to access the vessel, reach an identified lesion, and perform an indicated procedure, while describing the incidence and type of complications that occurred to clarify the utility and safety of brachial artery access. The review included 265 access cases in 179 patients. The access success rate was 98.9%. Intervention was performed in 223 cases (84.2%). Angioplasty was the most common intervention (59%, [154 cases]), with stents, atherectomy, coiling, and percutaneous thrombectomy having also been performed. Complications included hematoma (2.3%) and pseudoaneurysm (1.5%). Complications requiring intervention occurred in 1.9% of procedures. Interventions were performed on all major vessels as distal as the dorsalis pedis. Sheath sizes ranged from 4F to 7F. Intervention was performed on bilateral lower extremities in 38 cases (14.5%). A femoral bypass graft was present in 141 patients (53%) as the main indication for brachial artery access. Brachial access is a reliable and effective option for treatment of peripheral vascular disease and should be considered when femoral access is difficult or contraindicated and when a bypass graft is present in the femoral region. In addition, bilateral lesions may be approached easily through one brachial artery access site, making this approach advantageous when bilateral lesions are expected. The complication rate is similar to femoral access and can be minimized with ultrasound-guided access distally over the humerus, micropuncture access, and a dedicated

  13. Computational fluid dynamics in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghua; Xu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a widely used method in mechanical engineering to solve complex problems by analysing fluid flow, heat transfer, and associated phenomena by using computer simulations. In recent years, CFD has been increasingly used in biomedical research of coronary artery disease because of its high performance hardware and software. CFD techniques have been applied to study cardiovascular haemodynamics through simulation tools to predict the behaviour of circulatory blood flow in the human body. CFD simulation based on 3D luminal reconstructions can be used to analyse the local flow fields and flow profiling due to changes of coronary artery geometry, thus, identifying risk factors for development and progression of coronary artery disease. This review aims to provide an overview of the CFD applications in coronary artery disease, including biomechanics of atherosclerotic plaques, plaque progression and rupture; regional haemodynamics relative to plaque location and composition. A critical appraisal is given to a more recently developed application, fractional flow reserve based on CFD computation with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the detection of haemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age and disease-related geometric and structural remodeling of the carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Kamenskiy, Alexey V; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Carson, Jeffrey S; MacTaggart, Jason N; Baxter, B Timothy

    2015-12-01

    Carotid artery geometry has been suggested as a risk factor for atherosclerotic carotid artery disease (ACD). Although normal aging and development of disease can both lead to geometric changes in the artery, whether geometric changes in a given artery actually predispose to disease or are just a consequence of remodeling during aging is unclear. We investigated carotid artery geometric changes with aging to identify geometric features associated with the presence of ACD. Carotid artery geometry was quantified by measuring carotid artery diameter, tortuosity, and bifurcation angle using three-dimensional reconstructions of thin-section computed tomography angiography scans in 15 healthy individuals (average age, 43 ± 18 years; range, 15-64 years). The same geometric features were measured in 17 patients (68 ± 10 years old) with unilateral ACD. Geometric features associated with presence of ACD were determined by using the nondiseased contralateral carotid artery as an intrinsic control. Elastin-stained carotid arteries were analyzed to assess age-related structural changes in 12 deceased individuals. Increases were noted in bulb diameter (0.64 mm), bifurcation angle (10°), and tortuosity of the common carotid (CCA; 0.03) and internal carotid arteries (ICA; 0.04) for every decade of life. Density and continuity of circumferential and longitudinal elastin in the CCA and ICA decreased with age. Compared with normal carotid arteries, those with ACD demonstrated larger bulb diameters (P = .001) but smaller bifurcation angles (P = .001). CCA tortuosity (P = .038) increased in ACD arteries compared with normal carotid arteries, but ICA tortuosity was decreased (P = .026). With increasing age, bulb diameter, tortuosity, and bifurcation angle increases in carotid arteries. These geometric changes may be related to degradation and fragmentation of intramural elastin. Arteries with atherosclerotic occlusive disease demonstrate decreased ICA tortuosity and smaller

  15. Living with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send ... D.), you’re more likely to also have coronary heart disease , heart attack , stroke , and transient ischemic attack ("mini- ...

  16. Cell Therapy of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Zankhana; Losordo, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    The age-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the US population was estimated to approach 12% in 1985, and as the population ages, the overall population having peripheral arterial disease is predicted to rise. The clinical consequences of occlusive peripheral arterial disease include intermittent claudication, that is, pain with walking, and critical limb ischemia (CLI), which includes pain at rest and loss of tissue integrity in the distal limbs, which may ultimately lead to amputation of a portion of the lower extremity. The risk factors for CLI are similar to those linked to coronary artery disease and include advanced age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The worldwide incidence of CLI was estimated to be 500 to 1000 cases per million people per year in 1991. The prognosis is poor for CLI subjects with advanced limb disease. One study of >400 such subjects in the United Kingdom found that 25% required amputation and 20% (including some subjects who had required amputation) died within 1 year. In the United States, ≈280 lower-limb amputations for ischemic disease are performed per million people each year. The first objective in treating CLI is to increase blood circulation to the affected limb. Theoretically, increased blood flow could be achieved by increasing the number of vessels that supply the ischemic tissue with blood. The use of pharmacological agents to induce new blood vessel growth for the treatment or prevention of pathological clinical conditions has been called therapeutic angiogenesis. Since the identification of the endothelial progenitor cell in 1997 by Asahara and Isner, the field of cell-based therapies for peripheral arterial disease has been in a state of continuous evolution. Here, we review the current state of that field. PMID:23620237

  17. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium has been associated with peripheral arterial disease in cross-sectional studies but prospective evidence is lacking. Our goal was to evaluate the association of urine cadmium concentrations with incident peripheral arterial disease in a large population-based cohort. Methods and Results A prospective cohort study was performed with 2,864 adult American Indians 45-74 years old from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989-91 and were followed through two follow-up examination visits in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999. Participants were free of peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, at baseline and had complete baseline information on urine cadmium, potential confounders and ankle brachial index determinations in the follow-up examinations. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and corrected for urinary dilution by normalization to urine creatinine.. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were computed using Cox-proportional hazards models for interval-censored data. A total of 470 cases of incident peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, were identified. After adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking status and pack-years, the hazard ratio comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations was 1.41 (1.05, 1.81). The hazard ratio comparing the highest to the lowest tertile was 1.96 (1.32, 2.81). The associations persisted after excluding participants with ankle brachial index > 1.4 only as well as in subgroups defined by sex and smoking status. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, was independently associated with incident peripheral arterial disease, providing further support for cadmium as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:24255048

  18. Passive biaxial mechanical properties and in vivo axial pre-stretch of the diseased human femoropopliteal and tibial arteries.

    PubMed

    Kamenskiy, Alexey V; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Dzenis, Yuris A; Lomneth, Carol S; Kazmi, Syed A Jaffar; Phillips, Nicholas Y; MacTaggart, Jason N

    2014-03-01

    Surgical and interventional therapies for atherosclerotic lesions of the infrainguinal arteries are notorious for high rates of failure. Frequently, this leads to expensive reinterventions, return of disabling symptoms or limb loss. Interaction between the artery and repair material likely plays an important role in reconstruction failure, but data describing the mechanical properties and functional characteristics of human femoropopliteal and tibial arteries are currently not available. Diseased superficial femoral (SFA, n = 10), popliteal (PA, n = 8) and tibial arteries (TA, n = 3) from 10 patients with critical limb ischemia were tested to determine passive mechanical properties using planar biaxial extension. All specimens exhibited large nonlinear deformations and anisotropy. Under equibiaxial loading, all arteries were stiffer in the circumferential direction than in the longitudinal direction. Anisotropy and longitudinal compliance decreased distally, but circumferential compliance increased, possibly to maintain a homeostatic multiaxial stress state. Constitutive parameters for a four-fiber family invariant-based model were determined for all tissues to calculate in vivo axial pre-stretch that allows the artery to function in the most energy efficient manner while also preventing buckling during extremity flexion. Calculated axial pre-stretch was found to decrease with age, disease severity and more distal arterial location. Histological analysis of the femoropopliteal artery demonstrated a distinct sub-adventitial layer of longitudinal elastin fibers that appeared thicker in healthier arteries. The femoropopliteal artery characteristics and properties determined in this study may assist in devising better diagnostic and treatment modalities for patients with peripheral arterial disease.

  19. PASSIVE BIAXIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND IN VIVO AXIAL PRE-STRETCH OF THE DISEASED HUMAN FEMOROPOPLITEAL AND TIBIAL ARTERIES

    PubMed Central

    Kamenskiy, Alexey V.; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Dzenis, Yuris A.; Lomneth, Carol S.; Jaffar Kazmi, Syed A.; Phillips, Nicholas Y.; MacTaggart, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Surgical and interventional therapies for atherosclerotic lesions of the infrainguinal arteries are notorious for high rates of failure. Frequently, this leads to expensive reinterventions, return of disabling symptoms, or limb loss. Interaction between the artery and repair material likely plays an important role in reconstruction failure, but data describing the mechanical properties and functional characteristics of human femoropopliteal and tibial arteries are currently not available. Diseased superficial femoral (SFA, n=10), popliteal (PA, n=8), and tibial arteries (TA, n=3) from 10 patients with critical limb ischemia were tested to determine passive mechanical properties using planar biaxial extension. All specimens exhibited large non-linear deformations and anisotropy. Under equibiaxial loading, all arteries were stiffer in the circumferential direction than in the longitudinal direction. Anisotropy and longitudinal compliance decreased distally, but circumferential compliance increased, possibly to maintain a homeostatic multiaxial stress state. Constitutive parameters for a 4-fiber family invariant-based model were determined for all tissues to calculate in vivo axial pre-stretch that allows the artery to function in the most energy efficient manner while also preventing buckling during extremity flexion. Calculated axial pre-stretch was found to decrease with age, disease severity, and more distal arterial location. Histological analysis of the femoropopliteal artery demonstrated a distinct sub-adventitial layer of longitudinal elastin fibers that appeared thicker in healthier arteries. The femoropopliteal artery characteristics and properties determined in this study may assist in devising better diagnostic and treatment modalities for patients with peripheral arterial disease. PMID:24370640

  20. Depression Treatment in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Trejo, Edgardo; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Depression has been linked to adverse coronary artery disease outcomes. Whether depression treatment improves or worsens coronary artery disease prognosis is unclear. This 25-year systematic review examines medical outcomes, and, secondarily, mood outcomes of depression treatment among patients with coronary artery disease. Data Sources: We systematically reviewed the past 25 years (January 1, 1986–December 31, 2011) of prospective trials reporting on the medical outcomes of depression treatment among patients with established coronary artery disease using keywords and MESH terms from OVID MEDLINE. Search 1 combined depression AND coronary artery disease AND antidepressants. Search 2 combined depression AND coronary artery disease AND psychotherapy. Search 3 combined depression AND revascularization AND antidepressants OR psychotherapy. Study Selection: English-language longitudinal randomized controlled trials, with at least 50 depressed coronary artery disease patients, reporting the impact of psychotherapy and/or antidepressants on cardiac and mood outcomes were included. Data Extraction: Data extracted included author name, year published, number of participants, enrollment criteria, depression definition/measures (standardized interviews, rating scales), power analyses, description of control arms and interventions (psychotherapy and/or medications), randomization, blinding, follow-up duration, follow-up loss, depression scores, and medical outcomes Results: The review yielded 10 trials. Antidepressant and/or psychotherapy did not significantly influence coronary artery disease outcomes in the overall population, but most studies were underpowered. There was a trend toward worse coronary artery disease outcomes after treatment with bupropion. Conclusions: After an acute coronary syndrome, depression often spontaneously remitted without treatment. Post–acute coronary syndrome persistence of depression predicted adverse coronary artery disease

  1. Coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Doron; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major determinant of the long-term prognosis among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is associated with a 2 to 4-fold increased mortality risk from heart disease. Furthermore, in patients with DM there is an increased mortality after MI, and worse overall prognosis with CAD. Near-normal glycemic control for a median of 3.5 to 5 years does not reduce cardiovascular events. Thus, the general goal of HbA1c <7% appears reasonable for the majority of patients. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia is the limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes, and is an independent cause of excess morbidity and mortality. Statins are effective in reducing major coronary events, stroke, and the need for coronary revascularization. Selection of the optimal myocardial revascularization strategy for patients with DM and multivessel coronary artery disease is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary team approach (‘heart team’). Large scale clinical trials have shown that for many patients with 1- or 2-vessel coronary artery disease, there is little prognostic benefit from any intervention over optimal medical therapy (OMT). PCI with drug-eluting or bare metal stents is appropriate for patients who remain symptomatic with OMT. Randomized trials comparing multivessel PCI to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have consistently demonstrated the superiority of CABG in reducing mortality, myocardial infarctions and need for repeat revascularizations. PMID:25091969

  2. Carotid Artery Disease and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... not a guaranteed way to detect for disease.  Doppler Ultrasound Imaging: A painless, noninvasive test in which ... intake. If lifestyle changes do not have an effect, blood thinning medications can be used to thin ...

  3. [Digital subtract arteriographic characteristics of carotid artery, vertebral artery, subclavian artery and renal artery in type 2 diabetic patients with lower extremities peripheral arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Chen, Da-Wei; Lu, Wu-Sheng; Wang, Chun; Jiao, He; Tian, Hao-Ming; Ran, Xing-Wu

    2012-09-01

    To investigate angiographical characteristics of carotid, vertebral, subclavian, and renal arteries in the type 2 diabetic patients with lower extremities peripheral arterial disease (LEPAD). There were 104 type 2 diabetic patients with LEPAD recruited in this study, who received digital subtract arteriography (DSA). Ankle-brachial index (ABI) assessment was also performed in 50 participants. Dependent upon the stenosis degree of vertebral artery, subclavian artery and renal artery measured by DSA, the patients were divided into normal group (stenosis < or = 50%) or pathological group(stenosis > 50% or blocked lesions). The angiographic features of carotid, vertebral, subclavian, and renal arteries were analyzed and the relationship between arterial stenosis and ABI was explored. DSA results of 104 patients showed that the most common lesion in the arteries was plaque. The stenosis degrees of 51%-74% and 75%-99% were most commonly observed in renal artery, with incidence of 22.1% and 5.8%, respectively. Arterial occlusion was most commonly observed in vertebral artery, with incidence of 27.9%. The patients with stenosis or occlusion of arteries had lower ABI (P = 0.000), and the patients with stenosis or occlusion of vertebral and renal arteries also had lower ABI (P = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively), compared with those without stenosis. ABI < 0.9 indicated higher risk of stenosis or occlusion of vertebral and renal arteries (P = 0.008 and 0.047 respectively). Between the patients with subclavian arterial stenosis and those without this artery stenosis, there was no statistical significant difference observed in ABI level. Type 2 diabetic patients with LEPAD can affect multiple arteries, showing plaque formation, multi-segmental stenosis and occlusion of arteries. The patients with ABI < 0.9 have higher risk of multiple arterial stenosis or occlusion lesions.

  4. Optimal management of infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Pennywell, David J; Tan, Tze-Woei; Zhang, Wayne W

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is becoming a major health problem in Western societies as the population continues to age. In addition to risk of limb loss, the complexity of the disease is magnified by its intimate association with medical comorbidity, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Risk factor modification and antiplatelet therapy are essential to improve long-term survival. Surgical intervention is indicated for intermittent claudication when a patient’s quality of life remains unacceptable after a trial of conservative therapy. Open reconstruction and endovascular revascularization are cornerstone for limb salvage in patients with critical limb ischemia. Recent advances in catheter-based technology have made endovascular intervention the preferred treatment approach for infrainguinal disease in many cases. Nevertheless, lower extremity bypass remains an important treatment strategy, especially for reasonable risk patients with a suitable bypass conduit. In this review, we present a summary of current knowledge about peripheral arterial disease followed by a review of current, evidence-based medical and surgical therapy for infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease. PMID:25368519

  5. Percutaneous Therapies for Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Shishehbor, Mehdi H; Jaff, Michael R

    2016-12-13

    Percutaneous therapies for peripheral artery disease continue to evolve with new techniques and devices. Although guidelines-recommended therapies have impacted cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, endovascular interventions have been shown to reduce limb pain, improve quality of life, and prolong walking distance for those with claudication and to reduce amputation rates among those with critical limb ischemia. Novel devices such as drug-eluting stents and drug-coated balloons have improved patency for moderate-length lesions, whereas others allow treatment of heavily calcified and tortuous segments. New adjunctive devices to cross lesions and reduce or modify associated plaque have also been developed, although level 1 data regarding their efficacy are sparse. There has also been a better mechanistic understanding of lower extremity endovascular treatment using tools such as intravascular ultrasound. This information has highlighted the need for better stent size selection for the femoropopliteal arterial segments and larger balloon diameters for the tibial arteries. Moreover, a wound perfusion approach with direct in-line flow, the so-called angiosome approach, and reconstruction of the pedal loop have been advocated for improved wound healing. Technical advances such as the tibiopedal access and reentry methods have allowed crossing of lesions that were considered no option for the endovascular approach in the past. Collectively, there has been increased awareness, interest, and commitment by various specialty societies and organizations to advance the treatment of peripheral artery disease and critical limb ischemia. This is also evident by the recent coalition of 7 professional societies and organizations that represented >150 000 allied health professionals and millions of patients with peripheral artery disease at the 2015 Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Analysis Committee meeting. The percutaneous

  6. Subclavian Artery Disease: Diagnosis and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tisa; Naqvi, Syed Yaseen; Ayah, Omar Abine; McCormick, Daniel; Goldberg, Sheldon

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of brachiocephalic disease is often overlooked. Symptoms include arm claudication and vertebrobasilar insufficiency. In patients who have had the use of the internal mammary artery for coronary bypass surgery, the development of symptoms of myocardial ischemia should alert the clinician to the possibility of subclavian artery stenosis. Also, in patients who have had axillofemoral bypass, lower-extremity claudication may occur. Recognition involves physical examination and accurate noninvasive testing. Endovascular therapy has proven to be effective in alleviating symptoms in properly selected patients.

  7. Coronary artery disease in women.

    PubMed

    Legato, M J

    1996-01-01

    Although most women cite breast and reproductive cancers as the diseases they most fear, in fact cardiovascular disease is much more likely to kill them: 500,000 American women die each year of diseases of the heart and blood vessels compared with 189,000 who die of all cancers combined. Women's focus on breast, uterine, and ovarian cancer is very much socially and culturally determined. It reflects an outmoded image of women as valuable principally by virtue of their ability to bear and raise children. While women died at about the age of 48 at the turn of the century, biomedical science was extended their life span to the point that a girl born today has an average life expectancy of 86 years. The focus of recent biomedical investigation reflects the changing experience and expectations of women, who will live a full third of their lives beyond the period of reproductive viability. Since 1988, a flood of new information established that the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, outcome and therapeutic choices physicians make for female patients with cardiovascular disease are significantly different from those of men. Regrettably, most of the new information we have acquired was almost exclusively harvested from data on Caucasian women: black women often are less than 10% of study populations. The information we do have, however, shows striking differences between women of different races in the severity and outcome of diseases of the heart and blood vessels: black women have significantly higher mortality rates from stroke and myocardial infarction than do white women. Intensive research has achieved gratifying corrections in the promptness with which physicians diagnose women with cardiovascular disease and in the aggressiveness of the therapy they offer to female patients. The result has been a reversal of the trend for women to have worse outcomes from revascularization procedures than men.

  8. Complexity of lower extremity peripheral artery disease reflects the complexity of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Hatem, Engin; Karabay, Can Yücel; Gül, İlker; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Kalaycıoğlu, Ezgi; Turan, Turhan; Kara, Faruk; Arslan, Ahmet Oğuz; Dursun, İhsan; Çetin, Mustafa; Güler, Ahmet

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between peripheral artery disease complexity and coronary artery disease complexity in patients with peripheral artery disease. A total of 449 patients were enrolled. SYNTAX score, a marker of coronary artery disease complexity, was assessed by dedicated computer software and complexity of peripheral artery disease was determined by Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II classification. The SYNTAX score of patients with minimal peripheral artery disease, Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus A, Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus B, Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus C and Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus D were 5 (11), 12.5 (13.25), 20 (14), 20.5 (19) and 27.5 (19), respectively (values in brackets represent the interquartile range). SYNTAX score and Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus class was moderately correlated (r = 0.495, p < 0.001). In multivariate regression analysis male sex (B = 0.169, p < 0.001, CI95% = 0.270-0.735), Log10 SYNTAX score (B = 0.282, p < 0.001, CI95% = 0.431-0.782), Log10 creatinine (B = 0.081, p = 0.036, CI95% = 0.043-1.239), low-density lipoprotein (B = 0.114, p = 0.003, CI95% = 0.001-0.006) and high-density lipoprotein (B = -0.360, p < 0.001, CI95% = -0.063 to -0.041) were the independent predictors of Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II class. We have shown that patients with complex peripheral artery disease had complex coronary artery disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Peripheral artery disease of the legs - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000577.htm Peripheral artery disease of the legs - self-care To use ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the blood ...

  10. Association between arterial stiffness and peripheral artery disease as measured by radial artery tonometry.

    PubMed

    Zahner, Greg J; Gruendl, Magdalena A; Spaulding, Kimberly A; Schaller, Melinda S; Hills, Nancy K; Gasper, Warren J; Grenon, S Marlene

    2017-07-26

    Arterial stiffness and peripheral artery disease (PAD) are both associated with an elevated risk of major adverse cardiac events; however, the association between arterial stiffness and PAD is less well characterized. The goal of this study was to examine the association between parameters of radial artery tonometry, a noninvasive measure of arterial stiffness, and PAD. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 134 vascular surgery outpatients (controls, 33; PAD, 101) using arterial applanation tonometry. Central augmentation index (AIX) normalized to 75 beats/min and peripheral AIX were measured using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Pulse wave velocity was recorded at the carotid and femoral arteries. PAD was defined as symptomatic claudication with an ankle-brachial index of <0.9 or a history of peripheral revascularization. Controls had no history of atherosclerotic vascular disease and an ankle-brachial index ≥0.9. Among the 126 participants with high-quality tonometry data, compared with controls (n = 33), patients with PAD (n = 93) were older, with higher rates of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and smoking (P < .05). Patients with PAD also had greater arterial stiffness as measured by central AIX, peripheral AIX, and pulse wave velocity (P < .05). In a multivariable model, a significantly increased odds of PAD was associated with each 10-unit increase in central AIX (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.9; P = .03) and peripheral AIX (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.2; P = .01). In addition, central and peripheral AIX were highly correlated (r120 = 0.76; P < .001). In a cross-sectional analysis, arterial stiffness as measured by the AIX is independently associated with PAD, even when adjusting for several atherosclerotic risk factors. Further prospective data are needed to establish whether radial artery tonometry could be a tool for risk stratification in the PAD population. Copyright © 2017 Society for

  11. [Noninvasive diagnostic of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Zuber, Michel; Zellweger, Michael; Bremerich, Jens; Auf der Mauer, Christoph; Buser, Peter T

    2009-04-01

    Noninvasive imaging of coronary artery disease has extensively evolved during the last decade. Today, at least four imaging techniques with excellent image quality such as echocardiography, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and PET, cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac CT are widely available in order to estimate the risk for future ischemic events, to corroborate the suspected diagnosis of coronary artery disease, to demonstrate the extent and localisation of myocardial ischemia, to diagnose myocardial infarction and measure it's size, to identify the myocardium at risk during acute ischemia, to differentiate between viable and nonviable myocardium and thereby provide the basis for indications of revascularisations, to follow revascularized patients over long time, to assess the risk for sudden cardiac death and the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction and to depict atheromatosis and atherosclerosis of the coronary artery tree. Echocardiography is the most widely used imaging method in cardiology. It provides excellent information on morphology and function of nearly all cardiac structures. Stress echocardiography has been proven to be a reliable tool for the demonstration of myocardial ischemia and for the acquisition of prognostic data. Newer ultrasound techniques may further improve investigator dependence and thereby reproducibility. The completeness of echocardiography will always depend on acoustic windows, which are given in a specific patient. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy provides the largest database especially on prognosis in coronary artery disease. It has been the for the depictions of ischemic and infarcted myocardium. Radiation exposure will always be an issue. Newer hybrid techniques combining nuclear methods with cardiac CT may add arguments, which will be needed for clinical decision-making. Cardiac magnetic resonance has evolved as an important tool in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. It is

  12. [The role of ultrasonography of the peripheral arteries in diagnosing coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Pasierski, Tomasz; Sosnowski, Cezary; Szulczyk, Anna; Leszczyński, Lech; Rewicki, Marek

    2004-01-01

    Atherosclerosis develops simultaneously in multiple arterial beds, that creates opportunity to diagnose of coronary artery disease. Aim of the study was the evaluation of association between atherosclerotic involvement of peripheral arteries assessed by ultrasound and significant coronary artery disease revealed by angiography. Study included 410 patients, (73% males), mean age 56.0 +/- 9.5 year scheduled for coronary angiography. During ultrasound examination of common carotid and common femoral arteries arterial wall intima-media (IMT) thickness and atherosclerotic plaques presence were assessed. Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was diagnosed with coronary angiography as diameter stenosis > 50%. Intimo-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid arteries did not differ between groups with and without significant coronary artery disease (right 6.6 vs 6.4 mm, p = ns, left 6.9 vs 6.6 mm, p = ns) but in common femoral arterial was greater in patients with coronary artery disease (right 8.2 vs 7.1 mm, p < 0.005, left 7.9 vs 7.1 mm, p = 0.03). Atherosclerotic plaques in carotid and femoral arteries was detected more often in CAD patients (90.1% vs 34.6%, p < 0.0001). Positive predictive value for CAD diagnosis with detection of plaque in carotid or femoral artery was 93% and negative prognostic value for exclusion CAD after plaque exclusion in all arteries was 61%. Search for atherosclerotic plaques in ultrasound examination of peripheral arteries may facilitate CAD diagnosis in selected patients groups.

  13. Links between arterial and venous disease.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, P

    2007-09-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between arterial and venous disease. According to the results of recent studies, atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism (VTE) share common risk factors, including age, obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis has the potential to promote the development of thrombotic disorders in the venous system. Another scenario assumes that the two clinical conditions are simultaneously triggered by biological stimuli responsible for activating coagulation and inflammatory pathways in both the arterial and the venous system. Several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with VTE of unknown origin are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerotic complications, than patients with secondary VTE and matched control individuals. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association, to assess its extent and to evaluate its implications for clinical practice.

  14. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cecile

    2009-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension complicates the course of many children and adults with congenital heart diseases (CHDs). The increase in pulmonary pressure associated with CHD is secondary to either increased pulmonary blood flow or increased postcapillary pressures. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is in the vast majority associated with congenital cardiac shunts. Despite major advances in the understanding of the regulation of the pulmonary vascular bed and the pulmonary endothelial lesions leading to pulmonary vascular disease, despite the advances in surgical repair and the discovery of potential therapies in the pre- and postoperative period, pulmonary hypertension still carries a significant mortality and morbidity in patients with CHD. The recent introduction of targeted therapies in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension has led to a renewed interest in pulmonary hypertension associated with CHD and this particularly for the most advanced form, the so-called Eisenmenger syndrome (ES). This review summarizes the current knowledge on pulmonary hypertension associated with CHD, focusing on the pathophysiology and treatment of ES.

  15. Stress echo applications beyond coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Picano, Eugenio; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2014-04-01

    Stress echocardiography is an established method for the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of coronary artery disease. In the last few years, the tremendous technological and conceptual versatility of this technique has been increasingly applied in challenging diagnostic fields. Today, in the echocardiography laboratory we can detect not only ischaemia from coronary artery stenosis, but can also recognize abnormalities of the coronary microvessels, myocardium, heart valves, pulmonary circulation, alveolar-capillary barrier, and right ventricle. Therefore, we evaluate coronary arteries as well as coronary microvascular disease (associated with diabetes and hypertension), suspected or overt dilated cardiomyopathy, systolic and diastolic heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, athletes' hearts, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, incipient or overt pulmonary hypertension, and heart transplant patients for early detection of chronic or acute rejection as well as potential donors for better selection of suitable donor hearts. From a stress echo era with a one-fits-all approach (wall motion by 2D-echo in the patient with known or suspected coronary artery disease) now we have moved on to an omnivorous, next-generation laboratory employing a variety of technologies (from M-Mode to 2D and pulsed, continuous and colour Doppler, to lung ultrasound and real-time 3D echo, 2D speckle tracking and myocardial contrast echo) on patients covering the entire spectrum of severity (from elite athletes to patients with end-stage heart failure) and ages (from children with congenital heart disease to the elderly with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis). For each patient, we can tailor a dedicated stress protocol with a specific method to address a particular diagnostic question. Provided that the acoustic window is acceptable and the necessary expertise available, stress echocardiography is useful and convenient in many situations, from valvular to congenital

  16. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension in connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Cordier, Jean-François

    2009-11-01

    Among connective tissue diseases, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is frequently associated with systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. PAH is less common in mixed connective tissue diseases and Sjögren's syndrome, and rare in rheumatoid arthritis. PAH in systemic sclerosis may be either isolated (prevalence about 8%) or associated with interstitial lung disease. Echocardiographic screening for PAH is worthwhile in patients with systemic sclerosis, especially as treatments for idiopathic PAH (endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, and prostanoids) are effective in this setting. The prevalence of PAH among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is poorly known; immunosuppressive treatment is sometimes effective by itself but most patients benefit from PAH treatment. PAH associated with connective tissue diseases has a worse prognosis than idiopathic PAH.

  17. Stent evolution for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Lejay, A; Thaveau, F; Girsowicz, E; Georg, Y; Heim, F; Durand, B; Chakfé, N

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular treatment and stent implantation for peripheral arterial disease have been proposed for over 20 years. However, the first experiments with stainless stents were relatively disappointing. The first improvement consisted in the introduction of nitinol self-expanding stents. This technology allowed an initial improvement of clinical performances, but the first generation of nitinol stents demonstrated a relatively high rate of fractures. Better knowledge of arterial biomechanics and advances in technology allowed to propose a second generation of nitinol stents with improved flexibility, which decreased the rates of fracture. In-stent restenosis related to neointimal hyperplasia has also led to the development of new concepts to improve patency rates after stenting: drug-eluting stents (coated-stents), biodegradable stents, and covered stents. These technologies will help to treat more complex lesions in the future, but we are still waiting for results of ongoing studies.

  18. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging.

  19. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher in peripheral artery disease than in coronary artery disease patients.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Guenther; Rein, Philipp; Saely, Christoph H; Engelberger, Rolf P; Willenberg, Torsten; Do, Dai-Do; Kucher, Nils; Baumgartner, Iris; Drexel, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes are risk factors for atherosclerosis and are highly prevalent in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in patients with peripheral artery disease is not as well elucidated. We aimed at comparing prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes, which were diagnosed according to the current American Diabetes Association criteria, among 364 patients with peripheral artery disease, 529 patients with coronary artery disease and 383 controls. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in peripheral artery disease patients was 49.7%. It was significantly higher in these patients than in coronary artery disease patients (34.4%; p < 0.001) and controls (21.4%; p < 0.001). Adjusted for sex, age and body mass index, odds ratios for type 2 diabetes mellitus were 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.5-2.6) comparing the peripheral artery disease group with the coronary artery disease group (p < 0.001) and 4.0 (2.8-5.8) comparing the peripheral artery disease group with controls (p < 0.001). The prevalence of pre-diabetes among non-diabetic subjects was high in all three study groups (64.5% in peripheral artery disease patients, 63.4% in coronary artery disease patients and 61.8% in controls), without significant between-group differences. In conclusion, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is even higher in peripheral artery disease patients than in coronary artery disease patients. This observation underlines the need to consider impaired glucose regulation in the management of peripheral artery disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Antithrombotic Therapy in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Bellmunt, Sergi; McGorrian, Catherine; Anand, Sonia S.; Guzman, Randolph; Criqui, Michael H.; Akl, Elie A.; Olav Vandvik, Per; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Guyatt, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This guideline focuses on antithrombotic drug therapies for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease as well as for the relief of lower-extremity symptoms and critical ischemia in persons with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: The most important of our 20 recommendations are as follows. In patients aged ≥ 50 years with asymptomatic PAD or asymptomatic carotid stenosis, we suggest aspirin (75-100 mg/d) over no therapy (Grade 2B) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. For secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with symptomatic PAD (including patients before and after peripheral arterial bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty), we recommend long-term aspirin (75-100 mg/d) or clopidogrel (75 mg/d) (Grade 1A). We recommend against the use of warfarin plus aspirin in patients with symptomatic PAD (Grade 1B). For patients undergoing peripheral artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting, we suggest single rather than dual antiplatelet therapy (Grade 2C). For patients with refractory claudication despite exercise therapy and smoking cessation, we suggest addition of cilostazol (100 mg bid) to aspirin (75-100 mg/d) or clopidogrel (75 mg/d) (Grade 2C). In patients with critical limb ischemia and rest pain unable to undergo revascularization, we suggest the use of prostanoids (Grade 2C). In patients with acute limb ischemia due to acute thrombosis or embolism, we recommend surgery over peripheral arterial thrombolysis (Grade 1B). Conclusions: Recommendations continue to favor single antiplatelet therapy for primary and secondary prevention of

  1. Peripheral Arteries May Be Reliable Indicators of Coronary Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoehmann, Christopher L; Futterman, Bennett; Beatty, Brian Lee

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a stronger predictor for ischemic cardiovascular events than traditional risk factors such as race, age, sex, history, and metabolic profile. Previous research had primarily used ultrasound; however, we performed a study using histopathology to more accurately grade atherosclerosis development using the American Heart Association's grading scale. We cross-sectioned 13 different arteries from 48 cadavers and placed them into three separate groups based on anatomic location: central arteries, peripheral arteries, and carotid arteries. The central artery group included arteries that are non-palpable and commonly lead to ischemic diseases when occluded. The peripheral artery group included arteries that are accessible to palpation. The carotid artery group included branches of the carotid artery. We investigated whether a centrally located atherosclerotic vessel was associated with atherosclerosis of a specific peripheral artery. We hypothesized a correlation between carotid, peripheral and central arteries that may point to specific arteries that are more effective to analyze clinically when assessing cardiovascular risk. We observed a correlation between pathology in the left coronary artery and bifurcation of the carotid artery (r = 0.37 P ≤ 0.016), two arteries known to be implicated in ischemic stroke and ischemic heart disease. Importantly, our study demonstrates that the radial artery, a peripheral vessel, exhibited a positive correlation between both the pathologic left coronary (r = 0.33 P ≤ 0.041) and bifurcation of the carotid arteries (r = 0.34 P ≤ 0.025). Therefore, we propose investigating the radial artery as a clinically accessible location to monitor with ultrasound when assessing a patient's risk for ischemic cardiovascular disease. Anat Rec, 300:1230-1239, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Management of peripheral vascular disease based on current guidelines. Peripheral artery occlusive disease of the iliac and femoral arteries and carotid artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Grebe, M T; Sternitzky, R

    2013-12-01

    The article summarizes the recommendations of current European and American guidelines concerning the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and carotid artery stenosis. In comparison to older recommendations, current guidelines concerning endovascular treatment and concomitant medical therapy have been changed in recent years. With the exception of very complex and long lesions, endovascular methods are seen as the therapy of choice for revascularization of the iliac and femoral arteries. For cardiovascular risk reduction, patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease and stenosis of the carotid arteries should receive antiplatelet as well as statin therapy and should not be treated different from patients with coronary artery disease.

  3. Bivalirudin in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Linden, Julie A; Chrysant, George S

    2010-10-01

    Bivalirudin, a DTI, has evolved from relative obscurity as an anticoagulation option in patients resistant to or allergic to either LMWH or UFH to a commonly used, safe alternative. Most of the early studies comparing bivalirudin to UFH with or without a GP IIb/IIIa agent had composite endpoints (death, MI, bleeding) whose statistical significance were driven exclusively by a significant reduction in bleeding. Newer studies now demonstrate reductions in mortality, which has led to a paradigm shift in anticoagulant choice both in elective and emergent coronary procedures. We present the major studies that have brought bivalirudin to the forefront of coronary artery disease, specifically coronary interventional procedures.

  4. Noninvasive Stress Testing for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Todd D; Askew, J Wells; Anavekar, Nandan S

    2016-01-01

    Stress testing remains the cornerstone for noninvasive assessment of patients with possible or known coronary artery disease (CAD). The most important application of stress testing is risk stratification. Most patients who present for evaluation of stable CAD are categorized as low risk by stress testing. These low-risk patients have favorable clinical outcomes and generally do not require coronary angiography. Standard exercise treadmill testing is the initial procedure of choice in patients with a normal or near-normal resting electrocardiogram who are capable of adequate exercise. Stress imaging is recommended for patients with prior revascularization, uninterpretable electrocardiograms, or inability to adequately exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Noninvasive stress testing for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Todd D; Askew, J Wells; Anavekar, Nandan S

    2014-08-01

    Stress testing remains the cornerstone for noninvasive assessment of patients with possible or known coronary artery disease (CAD). The most important application of stress testing is risk stratification. Most patients who present for evaluation of stable CAD are categorized as low risk by stress testing. These low-risk patients have favorable clinical outcomes and generally do not require coronary angiography. Standard exercise treadmill testing is the initial procedure of choice in patients with a normal or near-normal resting electrocardiogram who are capable of adequate exercise. Stress imaging is recommended for patients with prior revascularization, uninterpretable electrocardiograms, or inability to adequately exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [New antiplatelet drugs in coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Jover, Eva; Valdés, Mariano

    2014-12-09

    The dual antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel has been the mainstay of both acute and chronic phase coronary artery disease, reducing importantly the risk of adverse events. Despite a correct compliance, a non-negligible rate of adverse events still happens. New compounds, with improved properties, are now clinically available (such as prasugrel or ticagrelor) or under advanced development. The aim of the present review is the description of these new compounds, particularly prasugrel and ticagrelor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Haemostatic function in coronary artery disease (CAD).

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Sikka, M; Madan, N; Dwidedi, S; Rusia, U; Sharma, S

    1997-04-01

    Tests to evaluate haemostatic function bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT) partial thromboplastin time with kaolin (PTTK), thrombin time (TT), platelet count, platelet function tests (platelet adhesiveness and microthrombus index) and plasma fibrinogen levels were performed in 30 patients of coronary artery disease (14 myocardial infarction, 16 angina pectoris) and 20 age and sex matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference in platelet adhesiveness and mean microthrombus index in patients and controls. The BT, PT, PTTK and TT were normal in all patients and controls. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that plasma fibrinogen was an independent risk factor in the production of CAD.

  8. Longitudinal Evaluation of Segmental Arterial Mediolysis in Splanchnic Arteries: Case Series and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Min, Sang-Il; Han, Ahram; Choi, Chanjoong; Min, Seung-Kee; Ha, Jongwon

    2016-01-01

    Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory vascular disorder varying widely in clinical course. The purpose of this study is to analyze detailing clinical and imaging manifestations over time in patients with SAM through a literature review and to suggest an optimal management strategy. A retrospective review of eight consecutive patients diagnosed with SAM between January, 2000 and January, 2012 was conducted. All presented with acute-onset abdominal or flank pain. Clinical features, imaging studies, and laboratory findings served as grounds for diagnosis, having excluded more common conditions (ie, fibromuscular dysplasia, collagen vascular disorders, or arteritis). CT angiography was done initially and repeated periodically (Week 1, Month 3, then yearly). Treatment was conservative, utilizing endovascular intervention as warranted by CT diagnostics. In a related systematic review, all English literature from 1976 to 2015 was screened via the PubMed database, assessing patient demographics, affected arteries, clinical presentations, and treatment methods. Ultimately, 25 arterial lesions identified in eight patients (median age, 62.8 years; range, 40-84 years) were monitored for a median period of 26 months (range, 15-57 months). At baseline, celiac axis (3/8, 37.5%), superior mesenteric (4/8, 50%), and common hepatic (2/8, 25%) arteries were involved, in addition to isolated lesions of right renal, splenic, right colic, middle colic, gastroduodenal, left gastric, right gastroepiploic, proper hepatic, right hepatic, and left hepatic arteries. Compared with prior publications, celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery were more commonly affected in cohort. Arterial dissections (n = 8), aneurysms (n = 5), stenoses or occlusions (n = 4), and a single pseudoaneurysm were documented. Despite careful conservative management, new splanchnic arterial lesions (n = 4) arose during follow-up. Considering the few available reports of

  9. Longitudinal Evaluation of Segmental Arterial Mediolysis in Splanchnic Arteries: Case Series and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Min, Sang-il; Han, Ahram; Choi, Chanjoong; Min, Seung-Kee; Ha, Jongwon

    2016-01-01

    Background Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory vascular disorder varying widely in clinical course. The purpose of this study is to analyze detailing clinical and imaging manifestations over time in patients with SAM through a literature review and to suggest an optimal management strategy. Methods A retrospective review of eight consecutive patients diagnosed with SAM between January, 2000 and January, 2012 was conducted. All presented with acute-onset abdominal or flank pain. Clinical features, imaging studies, and laboratory findings served as grounds for diagnosis, having excluded more common conditions (ie, fibromuscular dysplasia, collagen vascular disorders, or arteritis). CT angiography was done initially and repeated periodically (Week 1, Month 3, then yearly). Treatment was conservative, utilizing endovascular intervention as warranted by CT diagnostics. In a related systematic review, all English literature from 1976 to 2015 was screened via the PubMed database, assessing patient demographics, affected arteries, clinical presentations, and treatment methods. Findings Ultimately, 25 arterial lesions identified in eight patients (median age, 62.8 years; range, 40–84 years) were monitored for a median period of 26 months (range, 15–57 months). At baseline, celiac axis (3/8, 37.5%), superior mesenteric (4/8, 50%), and common hepatic (2/8, 25%) arteries were involved, in addition to isolated lesions of right renal, splenic, right colic, middle colic, gastroduodenal, left gastric, right gastroepiploic, proper hepatic, right hepatic, and left hepatic arteries. Compared with prior publications, celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery were more commonly affected in cohort. Arterial dissections (n = 8), aneurysms (n = 5), stenoses or occlusions (n = 4), and a single pseudoaneurysm were documented. Despite careful conservative management, new splanchnic arterial lesions (n = 4) arose during follow

  10. Unusual Systemic Artery to Pulmonary Artery Malformation Without Evidence of Systemic Disease, Trauma or Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Geyik, Serdar; Yavuz, Kivilcim; Keller, Frederick S.

    2006-10-15

    Connections between the systemic and pulmonary arterial systems are rare conditions that can be due to either congenital or acquired diseases such as anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal lung, pulmonary sequestration, and systemic supply to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Herein, a unique case of systemic artery to pulmonary arterial malformation and its endovascular treatment in a patient with no history of the usual etiologies is reported.

  11. Enhanced external counterpulsation improves peripheral resistance artery blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Avery, Joseph C; Beck, Darren T; Casey, Darren P; Sardina, Paloma D; Braith, Randy W

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) increases coronary artery perfusion and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in peripheral muscular conduit arteries. It is unknown whether vasodilatory capacity is improved in the peripheral resistance vasculature. Here we provide novel evidence from the first randomized, sham-controlled study that EECP increases peak limb blood flow and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in both calf and forearm resistance arteries in patients with coronary artery disease.

  12. Clinical outcomes of fractional flow reserve by computed tomographic angiography-guided diagnostic strategies vs. usual care in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: the prospective longitudinal trial of FFRCT: outcome and resource impacts study

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Pontone, Gianluca; Hlatky, Mark A.; Patel, Manesh R.; Norgaard, Bjarne L.; Byrne, Robert A.; Curzen, Nick; Purcell, Ian; Gutberlet, Matthias; Rioufol, Gilles; Hink, Ulrich; Schuchlenz, Herwig Walter; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Gilard, Martine; Andreini, Daniele; Jensen, Jesper M.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Chiswell, Karen; Cyr, Derek; Wilk, Alan; Wang, Furong; Rogers, Campbell; De Bruyne, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Aims In symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), computed tomographic angiography (CTA) improves patient selection for invasive coronary angiography (ICA) compared with functional testing. The impact of measuring fractional flow reserve by CTA (FFRCT) is unknown. Methods and results At 11 sites, 584 patients with new onset chest pain were prospectively assigned to receive either usual testing (n = 287) or CTA/FFRCT (n = 297). Test interpretation and care decisions were made by the clinical care team. The primary endpoint was the percentage of those with planned ICA in whom no significant obstructive CAD (no stenosis ≥50% by core laboratory quantitative analysis or invasive FFR < 0.80) was found at ICA within 90 days. Secondary endpoints including death, myocardial infarction, and unplanned revascularization were independently and blindly adjudicated. Subjects averaged 61 ± 11 years of age, 40% were female, and the mean pre-test probability of obstructive CAD was 49 ± 17%. Among those with intended ICA (FFRCT-guided = 193; usual care = 187), no obstructive CAD was found at ICA in 24 (12%) in the CTA/FFRCT arm and 137 (73%) in the usual care arm (risk difference 61%, 95% confidence interval 53–69, P< 0.0001), with similar mean cumulative radiation exposure (9.9 vs. 9.4 mSv, P = 0.20). Invasive coronary angiography was cancelled in 61% after receiving CTA/FFRCT results. Among those with intended non-invasive testing, the rates of finding no obstructive CAD at ICA were 13% (CTA/FFRCT) and 6% (usual care; P = 0.95). Clinical event rates within 90 days were low in usual care and CTA/FFRCT arms. Conclusions Computed tomographic angiography/fractional flow reserve by CTA was a feasible and safe alternative to ICA and was associated with a significantly lower rate of invasive angiography showing no obstructive CAD. PMID:26330417

  13. Extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Chantal M; Loyer, Xavier; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amabile, Nicolas

    2017-02-02

    Membrane vesicles released in the extracellular space are composed of a lipid bilayer enclosing soluble cytosolic material and nuclear components. Extracellular vesicles include apoptotic bodies, exosomes, and microvesicles (also known previously as microparticles). Originating from different subcellular compartments, the role of extracellular vesicles as regulators of transfer of biological information, acting locally and remotely, is now acknowledged. Circulating vesicles released from platelets, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and endothelial cells contain potential valuable biological information for biomarker discovery in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Extracellular vesicles also accumulate in human atherosclerotic plaques, where they affect major biological pathways, including inflammation, proliferation, thrombosis, calcification, and vasoactive responses. Extracellular vesicles also recapitulate the beneficial effect of stem cells to treat cardiac consequences of acute myocardial infarction, and now emerge as an attractive alternative to cell therapy, opening new avenues to vectorize biological information to target tissues. Although interest in microvesicles in the cardiovascular field emerged about 2 decades ago, that for extracellular vesicles, in particular exosomes, started to unfold a decade ago, opening new research and therapeutic avenues. This Review summarizes current knowledge on the role of extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease, and their emerging potential as biomarkers and therapeutic agents.

  14. Cutaneous markers of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Shridhar; Jhamb, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is rapidly increasing in prevalence across the world and particularly in south Asians at a relatively younger age. As atherosclerosis starts in early childhood, the process of risk evaluation must start quite early. The present review addresses the issue of cutaneous markers associated with atherosclerosis, and the strengths and weaknesses of the markers in identifying early coronary atherosclerosis. A diligent search for such clinical markers, namely xanthelasma, xanthoma, arcus juvenilis, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, ear lobe crease, nicotine stains, premature graying in smokers, hyperpigmented hands in betel quid sellers, central obesity, and signs of peripheral vascular disease may prove to be a rewarding exercise in identifying asymptomatic CAD in high risk individuals. PMID:21160602

  15. WESTCOP: a disease management approach to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Scott, I; Harper, C; Clough, A; West, M

    2000-01-01

    Disease management is a systematic approach to improving care of populations of patients with specific clinical conditions. Critical to success are the formation of collaborative teams of health care stakeholders, development and promulgation of clinical practice guidelines, and performance measurement and feedback to providers as a process of continuous practice improvement. This article describes a disease management program for patients with coronary artery disease in a provincial health district with a population of 180,000. It discusses the rationale and methods behind the operationalisation of the main program elements, benefits achieved to date and challenges confronted.

  16. Relationship of the angiographic extent of peripheral arterial disease with coronary artery involvement.

    PubMed

    Satiroglu, Omer; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Karadag, Zakir; Temiz, Ahmet; Cetin, Mustafa; Canga, Aytun; Erdogan, Turan; Bostan, Mehmet; Cicek, Yuksel; Durakoglugil, Emre; Vural, Mutlu; Bozkurt, Engin

    2012-07-01

    To determine the co-incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients investigated for peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to establish the relationship between the risk factors in the two groups of patients. The prospective study, done from January 2005 and April 2009, at the Cardiology Clinic of Rize Education and Research Hospital, Rize and John F. Kennedy Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, had a cohort of 307 patients who had been diagnosed with peripheral artery disease either clinically or by ultrasonography for the arteries of the lower extremities and had undergone coronary angiography and peripheral angiography in the same or different sessions. The patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender and atherosclerotic risk factors. Relationship of the extent of peripheral arterial disease with coronary artery involvement was investigated. Of the 307 patients, 251 (81.8%) were male, and the mean age was 62.1 +/- 9.5 years. In the study population, 178 (58.0%) patients were diagnosed as hypertensive, 84 (27.4%) patients were diabetic, 18 (5.9%) patients had a family history of coronary artery disease, 111 (36.2%) were smokers, 149 (48.5%) were hypercholesterolemic, and 20 (6.5%) had cerebrovascular/carotid disease. In 92.3% of patients with peripheral arterial disease, various levels of coronary stenosis (P = 0.007) was noticed. Hypertension was a risk factor for both coronary and peripheral artery diseases (p = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). Univariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of peripheral artery disease was related to the coronary variety (Odds ratio [OR]: 6, 95% CI: 1.4-25.5, P = 0.016) and severe cases (diffused atherosclerotic stenosis and complete occlusion in all segments) significantly indicated the presence of some coronary pathology (OR: 8, 95% CI: 1.7-37.4, P = 0.008). This relationship maintained its significance after adjustment for age, gender, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, family

  17. Intravascular ultrasound for angiographically indeterminant left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Parashara, D K; Jacobs, L E; Ledley, G S; Yazdanfar, S; Oline, J; Kotler, M N

    1994-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of the presence of significant left main coronary artery disease has profound prognostic and therapeutic implications. Coronary cineangiography has shown to be imprecise and inaccurate to determine the percent stenosis of the left main coronary artery. We report a case with significant left main coronary artery disease in whom coronary cineangiography was in discordance with the clinical data and intravascular ultrasonography. Based on the intravascular ultrasound findings, the patient underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Therefore, the intravascular ultrasonography may be the procedure of choice for assessing indeterminant left main coronary artery lesions by coronary angiography.

  18. Progressive attenuation of the longitudinal kinetics in the common carotid artery: preliminary in vivo assessment.

    PubMed

    Zahnd, Guillaume; Balocco, Simone; Sérusclat, André; Moulin, Philippe; Orkisz, Maciej; Vray, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal kinetics (LOKI) of the arterial wall consists of the shearing motion of the intima-media complex over the adventitia layer in the direction parallel to the blood flow during the cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to investigate the local variability of LOKI amplitude along the length of the vessel. By use of a previously validated motion-estimation framework, 35 in vivo longitudinal B-mode ultrasound cine loops of healthy common carotid arteries were analyzed. Results indicated that LOKI amplitude is progressively attenuated along the length of the artery, as it is larger in regions located on the proximal side of the image (i.e., toward the heart) and smaller in regions located on the distal side of the image (i.e., toward the head), with an average attenuation coefficient of -2.5 ± 2.0%/mm. Reported for the first time in this study, this phenomenon is likely to be of great importance in improving understanding of atherosclerosis mechanisms, and has the potential to be a novel index of arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of significant carotid artery stenosis in Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Bavil, Abolhassan Shakeri; Ghabili, Kamyar; Daneshmand, Seyed Ebrahim; Nemati, Masoud; Bavil, Moslem Shakeri; Namdar, Hossein; Shaafi, Sheyda

    2011-01-01

    Generalized screening for carotid artery stenosis with carotid duplex ultrasonography in patients with peripheral arterial disease is controversial. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of significant internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis in a group of Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease. We prospectively screened 120 patients with a known diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease for carotid artery stenosis. Based on the angiographic assessment of abdominal aorta and arteries of the lower extremities, patients with stenosis greater than 70% in the lower extremity arteries were included. A group of healthy individuals aged ≥ 50 years was recruited as a control. Risk factors for atherosclerosis including smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease were recorded. Common carotid arteries (CCAs) and the origins of the internal and external arteries were scanned with B-mode ultrasonography. Significant ICA stenosis, > 70% ICA stenosis but less than near occlusion of the ICA, was diagnosed when the ICA/CCA peak systolic velocity ratio was ≥ 3.5. Ninety-five patients, with a mean age of 58.52 ± 11.04 years, were studied. Twenty-five patients had a history of smoking, six patients had a history of coronary artery disease, six patients had hypertension, and ten patients had diabetes mellitus. Significant ICA stenosis was present in four patients (4.2%) with peripheral arterial disease in one healthy individual (1%) of the control group (P > 0.05). In terms of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, no statistically significant relationship was found between individual atherosclerotic risk factors and significant ICA stenosis (P > 0.05). The prevalence of significant ICA stenosis in Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease is low. In addition, there is no relationship between individual atherosclerotic risk factors and significant ICA stenosis.

  20. Digital ischemia: angiographic differentiation of embolism from primary arterial disease

    SciTech Connect

    Maiman, M.H.; Bookstein, J.J.; Bernstein, E.F.

    1981-12-01

    Embolic disease is often overlooked as a cause of digital ischemia. Unilateral symptoms, in particular, should suggest the possibility of emboli arising from the subclavian or more distal upper extremity vessels. Emboli may originate in the subclavian artery as the result of atherosclerosis at its origin or arterial injury secondary to thoracic outlet compression. Arteriography can be useful in the identification of upper extremity emboli and their source, and should include studies of the aortic, arch, proximal subclavian artery, and digital arteries. Retrograde subclavian injections may be required to adequately demonstrate the origin of the subclavian artery. Magnification technique is often essential in differentiating small digital artery emboli from primary arterial diseases, such as Buerger disease or scleroderma.

  1. Longitudinal Association Between Serum Uric Acid and Arterial Stiffness: Results From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Canepa, Marco; Viazzi, Francesca; Strait, James B; Ameri, Pietro; Pontremoli, Roberto; Brunelli, Claudio; Studenski, Stephanie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G; AlGhatrif, Majd

    2017-02-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) has long been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, with arterial stiffness proposed as a mediator. However, evidence on the association between SUA and arterial stiffness is limited to contradicting cross-sectional studies. In this analysis, we examined the longitudinal relationship between SUA and pulse wave velocity, a measure of arterial stiffness, in a community-dwelling population. We studied 446 women and 427 men participating in the BLSA (Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging), with 1409 and 1434 observations, respectively, over an average period of 6 years. At baseline, mean ages of women and men were 65±13 and 68±13 years; mean SUA, 4.6±1.1 and 5.7±1.3 mg/dL; mean pulse wave velocity, 8.1±1.7 and 8.6±1.9 m/s, respectively (P<0.0001). In gender-stratified models accounting for age, blood pressure, renal function, metabolic measures, and medications, there was a significant interaction between SUA and follow-up time in men (β=0.69; P=0.0002) but not in women. Men, but not women, in the highest gender-specific SUA tertile at baseline (SUA≥6.2 mg/dL in men and SUA≥4.9 mg/dL in women) had a greater rate of pulse wave velocity increase over time than those in the lowest tertiles (β=0.997; P=0.012). This gender difference was lost when the distribution of SUA in men and women was made comparable by excluding hyperuricemic men (SUA≥6.2 mg/dL). In conclusion, higher SUA was associated with greater increase in pulse wave velocity in men but not women; this association was lost when men with SUA≥6.2 mg/dL were not included, suggesting a threshold for SUA association with arterial stiffness, which is more frequently reached in men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Longitudinal changes of the serum calcium levels and accelerated progression of arterial stiffness with age.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazutaka; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Chisa; Odaira, Mari; Shiina, Kazuki; Nagata, Mikio; Yamashina, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The progression of arterial stiffness is accelerated by aging, although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. This prospective observational study was conducted to clarify whether longitudinal changes in the serum calcium/phosphate levels are associated with the accelerated progression of arterial stiffness with age. In a cohort of employees at a construction company (1507 middle-aged Japanese men), the serum calcium/phosphate levels and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were measured at the start and at the end of a 3-year study period. A general linear model multivariate analysis revealed a significant interaction of the 2 factors {age and longitudinal changes of the serum calcium levels (delCa) during the follow-up period} on the longitudinal changes of the baPWV during the study period (delPWV). The delCa was significantly correlated with the delPWV even after adjustments for covariates in subjects aged ≥48 years. The delPWV in subjects aged ≥48 years with the delCa in the upper tertile (69 ± 137 cm/s) was significantly larger than that in the other groups even after adjustments for covariates (e.g., del PWV in subjects aged <48 years with the delCa in the lower tertile = 1 ± 94 cm/s) (p < 0.01). The association between the arterial stiffness and serum calcium levels differed with age. Pathophysiological abnormalities related to increased serum calcium levels appeared to be associated with accelerated progression of arterial stiffness with age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene Therapy Techniques for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Manninen, Hannu I.; Maekinen, Kimmo

    2002-03-15

    Somatic gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into selective somatic cells with resulting therapeutic benefits. Vascular wall and, subsequently, cardiovascular diseases have become an interesting target for gene therapy studies.Arteries are an attractive target for gene therapy since vascular interventions, both open surgical and endovascular, are well suited for minimally invasive, easily monitored gene delivery. Promising therapeutic effects have been obtained in animal models in preventing post-angioplasty restenosis and vein graft thickening, as well as increasing blood flow and collateral development in ischemic limbs.First clinical trials suggest a beneficial effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in achieving therapeutic angiogenesis in chronic limb ischemia and the efficacy of decoy oligonucleotides to prevent infrainguinal vein graft stenosis. However, further studies are mandatory to clarify the safety issues, to develop better gene delivery vectors and delivery catheters, to improve transgene expression, as well as to find the most effective and safe treatment genes.

  4. Coronary artery disease in Bangladesh: A review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, A.K.M. Monwarul; Majumder, A.A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an increasingly important medical and public health problem, and is the leading cause of mortality in Bangladesh. Like other South Asians, Bangladeshis are unduly prone to develop CAD, which is often premature in onset, follows a rapidly progressive course and angiographically more severe. The underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Genetic predisposition, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and conventional risk factors play important role. Lifestyle related factors, including poor dietary habits, excess saturated and trans fat, high salt intake, and low-level physical activity may be important as well. Some novel risk factors, including hypovitaminosis D, arsenic contamination in water and food-stuff, particulate matter air pollution may play unique role. At the advent of the new millennium, we know little about our real situation. Largescale epidemiological, genetic and clinical researches are needed to explore the different aspects of CAD in Bangladesh. PMID:23993003

  5. Association factor analysis between osteoporosis with cerebral artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, Bora; Im, Soo Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical association factors between osteoporosis and cerebral artery disease in Korean population. Two hundred nineteen postmenopausal women and men undergoing cerebral computed tomography angiography were enrolled in this study to evaluate the cerebral artery disease by cross-sectional study. Cerebral artery disease was diagnosed if there was narrowing of 50% higher diameter in one or more cerebral vessel artery or presence of vascular calcification. History of osteoporotic fracture was assessed using medical record, and radiographic data such as simple radiography, MRI, and bone scan. Bone mineral density was checked by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We reviewed clinical characteristics in all patients and also performed subgroup analysis for total or extracranial/ intracranial cerebral artery disease group retrospectively. We performed statistical analysis by means of chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test for continuous variables. We also used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with the prevalence of cerebral artery disease. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R (version 3.1.3; The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) and SPSS (version 14.0; SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Ill, USA). Of the 219 patients, 142 had cerebral artery disease. All vertebral fracture was observed in 29 (13.24%) patients. There was significant difference in hip fracture according to the presence or absence of cerebral artery disease. In logistic regression analysis, osteoporotic hip fracture was significantly associated with extracranial cerebral artery disease after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Females with osteoporotic hip fracture were associated with total calcified

  6. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Hakki, A H; Weinreich, D J; Iskandrian, A S

    1983-10-01

    This study determines whether a mathematical model can be used to assess noninvasively the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). The model was based on stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis of data obtained in 99 patients from clinical and nonhemodynamic exercise variables, or from radionuclide determination of left ventricular function at rest or during exercise, or both. The extent of CAD was assessed by a scoring system and by the number of diseased vessels. The variables selected by this method (Q-wave infarction, exercise LV ejection fraction, change in systolic blood pressure from rest to exercise, sex and diabetes mellitus) yielded a predictive accuracy of 82% for the identification of patients with extensive CAD (score greater than or equal to 35). Slightly better results were achieved by a subgroup of 77 patients who had adequate exercise end points (exercise heart rate greater than or equal to 120 beats/min, or angina or ST depression during exercise). In these patients, the predictive accuracy was 84%. The model also identified patients with "light" CAD (score less than or equal to 10) with a predictive accuracy of 82%. Thus, noninvasive assessment of the extent of CAD is possible with a stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis of clinical, electrocardiographic and left ventricular function assessed by radionuclide ventriculography at rest and during exercise. The scoring system was superior to the conventional method of classifying patients according to the number of diseased vessels.

  7. Psoriasis and ischemic coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mahiques-Santos, L; Soriano-Navarro, C J; Perez-Pastor, G; Tomas-Cabedo, G; Pitarch-Bort, G; Valcuende-Cavero, F

    2015-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with an increased risk of ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD) in some populations. We aimed to determine the association between these 2 diseases in our geographic area. We performed a cross-sectional study of patient records between 2005 and 2012 in the database (Abucacis, Datamart) that contains all medical case histories in the province of Castellón, Spain. Patients diagnosed with psoriasis were compared with a control group of patients diagnosed with melanocytic nevus. The prevalence of CAD and the presence or absence of the main cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in each group. A total of 9181 patients with psoriasis and 21925 with melanocytic nevus were studied. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that CAD was significantly associated with psoriasis, age (in years), sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity (P<.05). On adjustment for age, sex, and the other cardiovascular risk factors, multivariate regression analysis established that psoriasis was independently associated with CAD (P<.029). Our findings in a large sample of patients in a Mediterranean area support the hypothesis that patients in this population have an increased risk of ischemic CAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in coronary and brachial arteries in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Kajikawa, Masato; Nakashima, Ayumu; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Iwamoto, Akimichi; Oda, Nozomu; Kishimoto, Shinji; Matsui, Shogo; Higaki, Tadanao; Shimonaga, Takashi; Watanabe, Noriaki; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Goto, Chikara; Aibara, Yoshiki; Noma, Kensuke; Higashi, Yukihito

    2016-09-15

    Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation, an index of endothelium-independent vasodilation, is measured for the assessment of vascular smooth muscle cell function or alterations of vascular structure. Both coronary and brachial artery responses to nitroglycerine have been demonstrated to be independent prognostic markers of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in coronary and brachial arteries in the same patients. We measured nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in coronary and brachial arteries in 30 subjects with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent coronary angiography (19 men and 11 women; mean age, 69.0±8.8years; age range, 42-85years). The mean values of nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in the brachial artery, left anterior descending coronary artery, and left circumflex coronary artery were 12.6±5.2%, 11.6±10.3%, and 11.9±11.0%, respectively. Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in the brachial artery correlated significantly with that in the left anterior descending coronary artery (r=0.43, P=0.02) and that in the left circumflex coronary artery (r=0.49, P=0.006). There was also a significant correlation between nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in the left anterior descending coronary artery and that in the left circumflex coronary artery (r=0.72, P<0.001). These findings suggest that vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction is a systemic disorder and thus impairment of endothelium-independent vasodilation in peripheral arteries and that in coronary arteries are simultaneously present. Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in the brachial artery could be used as a surrogate for that in a coronary artery and as a prognostic marker for cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery with significant stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Praveen; Jindal, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery is a rare condition of unknown etiology which usually presents in middle-aged men. We present Doppler and computed tomography angiography findings in a case of cystic adventitial disease with significant obstruction of popliteal artery, with secondary narrowing of popliteal vein. PMID:24082480

  10. Predictors of coronary artery disease in middle-aged Taiwanese women at premenopause, postmenopause and after undergoing hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Ching; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Yang, Hung-Yu; Chan, Paul; Jeng, Chii

    2016-09-01

    To examine the predictors of coronary artery disease among middle-aged women at various menopausal statuses. Few studies have explored coronary artery disease predictors among middle-aged women at various menopausal statuses, particularly with the inclusion of women who underwent a hysterectomy. A cross-sectional design was adopted. Two hundred and twenty-five middle-aged women who were waiting for catheterisation examinations because of possible coronary artery disease were selected. These patients were divided into premenopausal (n = 41), postmenopausal (n = 143) and women who had undergone a hysterectomy groups (n = 41). The differences in the risk factors for coronary artery disease between patients with coronary artery disease (catheterisation results showing stenosis of >50% in at least one major coronary artery) and those without coronary artery disease in the three groups were compared. The participants were aged 56·8 ± 5·9 years. In the premenopausal group, the odds of coronary artery disease among ever or current smokers was 8·46 times the odds of coronary artery disease for the never smokers. In the postmenopausal group, the odds of coronary artery disease among diabetes patients was 2·89 times the odds of coronary artery disease for those without diabetes. Each additional point on the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory-II increased the risk of coronary artery disease by 5%. In the hysterectomy group, each additional increase in 1 mmHg in systolic blood pressure increased the risk of coronary artery disease by 4%. Smoking, diabetes, depression and systolic blood pressure are predictors of coronary artery disease in middle-aged women at premenopause, postmenopause and after undergoing hysterectomy respectively. These results are beneficial for middle-aged women at various menopausal stages to effectively implement prevention of coronary artery disease. These findings were among women being evaluated for possible coronary artery disease, we

  11. Hormones and arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Ozkan; Kircelli, Fatih; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian; Ok, Ercan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease constitutes the major cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Arterial stiffness is an important contributor to the occurrence and progression of cardiovascular disease. Various risk factors, including altered hormone levels, have been suggested to be associated with arterial stiffness. Based on the background that chronic kidney disease predisposes individuals to a wide range of hormonal changes, we herein review the available data on the association between arterial stiffness and hormones in patients with chronic kidney disease and summarize the data for the general population.

  12. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) C/T-108 association with longitudinal mean arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Vibha; Liu, Lin; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Richard, Erin; Brophy, Victoria H; Pandey, Braj; Lipkowitz, Michael S; O'Connor, Daniel T

    2012-11-01

    Blood pressure is a complex quantitative trait with a strong genetic component. In this study, we leveraged the Veterans Affairs electronic medical record system to explore the relationship between Paraoxonase 1 (PON1)-108 C/T (rs705379) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Outpatient blood pressure data over an approximate 8-year period was collected from the Veterans Affairs Hypertensive Cohort (N = 1,302). Association between genotype and longitudinal MAP was further explored using a random effects model controlling for age, ancestry, renal function, and other determinants of blood pressure. To control for population stratification, principal component groupings based on ancestry informative markers in this dataset were included as covariates (in addition to self-identified ancestry). Data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK, N = 857) was used to confirm significant findings in an independent cohort. There was a significant interaction between PON1-108 C/T genotype and follow-up age group. At a younger age (<50 years), there was an estimated 2.53 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 4.00) increase in MAP with each additional C-allele. At the older age groups, there were no significant associations between PON1-108 C/T genotype and MAP. Using data from the AASK trial, the C-allele at PON1-108 C/T was significantly associated with a higher MAP (P = 0.005) but only among younger participants (<54 years). The PON1-108 polymorphism may be associated with MAP in an age-dependent manner.

  13. Endovascular Intervention for Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thukkani, Arun K.; Kinlay, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Advances in endovascular therapies during the past decade have broadened the options for treating peripheral vascular disease percutaneously. Endovascular treatment offers a lower risk alternative to open surgery in many patients with multiple comorbidities. Noninvasive physiological tests and arterial imaging precede an endovascular intervention and help localize the disease and plan the procedure. The timing and need for revascularization are broadly related to the 3 main clinical presentations of claudication, critical limb ischemia, and acute limb ischemia. Many patients with claudication can be treated by exercise and medical therapy. Endovascular procedures are considered when these fail to improve quality of life and function. In contrast, critical limb ischemia and acute limb ischemia threaten the limb and require more urgent revascularization. In general, endovascular treatments have greater long-term durability for aortoiliac disease than femoral popliteal disease. Infrapopliteal revascularization is generally reserved for critical and acute limb ischemia. Balloon angioplasty and stenting are the mainstays of endovascular therapy. New well-tested innovations include drug-eluting stents and drug-coated balloons. Adjunctive devices for crossing chronic total occlusions or debulking plaque with atherectomy are less rigorously studied and have niche roles. Patients receiving endovascular procedures need a structured surveillance plan for follow-up care. This includes intensive treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke, which are the main causes of death. Limb surveillance aims to identify restenosis and new disease beyond the intervened segments, both of which may jeopardize patency and lead to recurrent symptoms, functional impairment, or a threatened limb. PMID:25908731

  14. Opiate Dependence as an Independent and Interactive Risk Factor for Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Ageing - A Longitudinal Study in Females

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite intriguing observational cross-sectional data there are no longitudinal studies of opiate related arterial disease. As opiates act via P16INK4A/CDKN2A, and vascular ageing has been thought to be a surrogate for organismal ageing, the subject has far-reaching implications. Methods Pulse Wave Analysis (PWA) by radial arterial tonometry (SphygmoCor) was performed on control and opiate dependent patients. Results A total of 37 controls were compared with 93 opiate dependents. They were studied on 117 and 275 occasions respectively up to 1,797 days. The mean (± S.E.M.) ages were 38.72 ± 2.64 and 33.78 ± 0.90 years (P = 0.0260), 91.4% and 10.8% smoked (P < 0.0001). Body mass index rose more in controls (P = 0.0185) and in interaction with time (P = 0.0025). When controlled for time and BMI, opiate dependency status was shown to be associated with vascular age and central arterial stiffness and pressure indices (all P < 0.05). When repeated measures multiple regression was performed on all traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the opiate dose-duration interaction was significant and appeared in 12 terms in the final model. It was also independently significant (P = 0.0153). Opiate dose or duration appeared in a further 15 terms. The model was shown to be significantly improved by the inclusion of terms for opiate dependency (A.I.C. 71.10 v 54.31, P < 0.0001). Conclusion These data confirm increased vascular stiffness and ageing in a longitudinal study, and thereby imply advanced organismal ageing. These multivariate studies are consistent with opiate dependency as an interactive and multivariate cardiovascular risk factor and emphasize the role of treatment duration. PMID:23976908

  15. Association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Uğur; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Balcioğlu, Serhat; Tavil, Yusuf; Karakan, Tarkan; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-09-01

    To demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). Ninety-two consecutive patients who planned to undergo coronary angiographies (CAG) without known CAD, other than findings of acute coronary syndrome, were enrolled in this study. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed before the CAG to detect NAFLD. CAD was defined as a stenosis of at least 50% in at least one major coronary artery. The extent of CAD was measured according to the number of major coronary artery/arteries affected by CAD. All the risk factors for CAD were included in a binary logistic regression model. Forward, backward, or step-wise selections were not used. P<0.05 was accepted as being significant. Sixty-five of the 92 patients (70.7%) were detected, by abdominal ultrasonography, to have fatty liver and 43 patients out of 92 (46.7%) were detected, by CAG, to have significant CAD. According to the results of logistic regression analysis, the presence of NAFLD independently increased the risk for CAD, as seen in CAG [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.73 (1.14-39.61); P=0.035]; this was despite factoring in the other risk factors for CAD and the components of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD was more commonly found in patients as the extent of CAD increased (P=0.001). The presence of NAFLD is independently associated with the presence and extent of CAD. Future studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this relationship.

  16. [Renal artery stenosis : atheromatous disease and fibromuscular dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Halimi, Jean-Michel

    2009-04-01

    Renal artery stenosis may be due to atheromatous disease or renal fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD). Management of both diseases requires treatment of hypertension usually observed in such patients; however, clinical presentation, mechanism and treatment of these 2 diseases are usually different. Renal FMD is now considered as a systemic disease, the cause of which may be genetic (although the exact cause is still elusive). Renal arteries are the most frequent localizations of FMD, but extra renal arteries may also be involved (usually carotid arteries). Risk factors of hypertension-induced renal FMD include estrogen treatment and smoking. Renal FMD are mostly found in young women and in children who present with recent severe and/or refractory symptomatic hypertension. Diagnosis is usually easy (Doppler, CT-scan), and treatment of renal FMD is angioplasty in most cases. Atheromatous renal artery stenosis is usually found in patients with other atheromatous disease (peripheral artery disease, carotid, coronary artery disease...). Clinical presentation include severe or refractory hypertension, recurrent flash pulmonary edema in a patient with hypertension, progressive renal dysfunction spontaneously or after medical treatment with converting-enzyme inhibition or angiotensin II blockade, hypertension in a patient (usually smoker or ex-smoker) with diffuse atheromatous vascular disease. Management of atheromatous renal artery disease is medical treatment in all patients (aggressive treatment of cardiovascular risk factors, control of arterial pressure); revascularization is required in some patients only since it rarely cures hypertension: the goal of revascularization is mostly renal function protection, which may be observed in selected patients. Revascularization must be decided by physicians or teams involved in the care of such patients. Patients with atheromatous renal artery disease are at very high renal and cardiovascular risk : aggressive management of

  17. Exercise training and peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Haas, Tara L; Lloyd, Pamela G; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L

    2012-10-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12 to 15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50% to 1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking approximately five times per week, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Preclinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a lifestyle pattern that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations is the most desirable and beneficial.

  18. Exercise Training and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Tara L.; Lloyd, Pamela G.; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12–15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50–1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking ~5 times/wk, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Pre-clinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including: improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a life style pattern, that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations, is the most desirable and beneficial. PMID:23720270

  19. Life Psychosocial Stresses and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Babak; Meshkini, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Kolsoum; Alikhani, Zahra; Haysom, Mal; Rasouli, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is hypothesized that the impacts of life events accumulate and can trigger and promote atherosclerosis in susceptible individuals. In the current study, the correlation of total life stressors during 1 year was investigated relative to coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: The study population consisted of 148 males and 152 females aged 35–76 years. The subjects were classified as CAD cases and controls according to the results of coronary angiography. The severity of CAD was scored on the basis of the number and the extent of lesions at coronary arteries. The stressful events of life were assessed using Holmes-Rahe Questionnaire and was presented as total psychological stress scores per year (TPSS). Results: The frequency of cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension was more prevalent in CAD cases than control subjects. The levels of TPSS were increased in patients with CAD compared to the controls (160.3 ± 71.3 vs. 139.8 ± 66.5, P = 0.020). TPSS was also associated positively with the levels of uric acid, erythrocytes counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, aspirin consumption, and negatively with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apo-AI. In logistic regression analysis, TPSS correlated with the occurrence of CAD by the odds ratio of 1.773 (1.073–2.930), P = 0.025, but the association was weakened after adjustment for classical risk factors, especially hypertension. TPSS exhibited significant association with the severity of CAD [F (3,274) = 2.6, P = 0.051]. Conclusions: The results suggest that TPSS are associated with the occurrence and severity of CAD significantly, but the association is not independent. PMID:27833720

  20. Developing self-management education in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Janey C; Link, Alissa R; Jobe, Jared B; Winston, Ginger J; Marina Klimasiewfski, E; Allegrante, John P

    2014-01-01

    We describe a three-step approach to develop and evaluate a novel coronary artery disease (CAD) self-management educational workbook. First, we conducted interviews using grounded theory methods with a diverse CAD cohort (n = 61) to identify needs and perceptions. Second, we developed the workbook, incorporating themes that emerged from the qualitative interviews. Finally, 225 people with CAD used the workbook in a longitudinal study and we evaluated their use of and experience with the workbook at 12 months. 12-month evaluation data revealed that the workbook: provided practical health information; enhanced behavior-specific self-efficacy; and reinforced that healthy behaviors decrease risk. Participants who read the workbook had greater within-patient increases in physical activity at 12-months compared with non-readers (p = 0.093) and among Black/Hispanic participants, workbook readers' increases were significant (592 vs. -645 kilocalories per week, p = 0.035). A self-management educational workbook developed using qualitative methods can provide relevant, disease-specific health information for patients with CAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of residual coronary artery disease on results of coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Iskandrian, A S; Hakki, A H; Nestico, P F; DePace, N L; Goel, I P; Kane, S

    1984-10-01

    To assess the effects of residual coronary artery disease (non-revascularized coronary vessels) after coronary artery bypass grafting on symptoms and exercise left ventricular function, we categorized 77 patients into 3 groups according to the extent of residual coronary artery disease: group I (n = 17) had no residual coronary artery disease (residual score = 0); group II (n = 30) had light residual coronary artery disease (score of 1 to 9, mean 4.7); and group III (n = 30) had moderate residual coronary artery disease (score greater than or equal to 10, mean 23). Sixty patients were asymptomatic after coronary artery bypass grafting (14 in group I, 24 in group II, and 22 in group III), but the remaining patients had occasional angina pectoris. The resting left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in group I than in the remaining 2 groups (56 +/- 18% in group I, 47 +/- 19% in group II, and 43 +/- 16% in group III, P less than 0.05). The exercise left ventricular ejection fraction was also significantly higher in group I (61 +/- 16% in group I, 51 +/- 18% in group II and 45 +/- 18% in group III, P less than 0.01). The ejection fraction response to exercise was abnormal in 5 patients in group I, 15 patients in group II, and 19 patients in group III. Thus, coronary artery bypass grafting results in symptomatic improvement, even in patients with residual coronary artery disease. The presence of residual coronary artery disease, however, may be a determinant of exercise left ventricular function in these patients.

  2. Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Elerding, S.C.; Fernandez, R.N.; Grotta, J.C.; Lindberg, R.D.; Causay, L.C.; McMurtrey, M.J.

    1981-11-01

    A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head and neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population over the expected incidence of 38 strokes for a matched population observed over the same period of time (p = 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonoangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult.

  3. Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Elerding, S.C.; Fernandez, R.N.; Grotta, J.C.; Lindberg, R.D.; Causay, L.C.; McMurtrey, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head an neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population observed over the same period of time (p . 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult.

  4. ABSORB: Postmarketing Surveillance Registry to Monitor the Everolimus-eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Heart Diseases; Coronary Stenosis; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  5. Risk of coronary artery involvement in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Ramos, María; Martínez-Del Val, Elena; Negreira Cepeda, Sagrario; González-Tomé, María I; Cedena Romero, Pilar; Fernández-Cooke, Elisa; Albert de la Torre, Leticia; Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Kawasaki disease refers to systemic vasculitis with risk of coronary artery disease. Our objective is to identify risk factors associated with coronary artery disease in patients with complete and incomplete Kawasaki disease. Descriptive, retrospective study conducted in patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease in a tertiary-care hospital between 2008 and 2014. The American Heart Association diagnostic criteria were used to define complete and incomplete Kawasaki disease. Thirty-one children were diagnosed with Kawasaki disease; 24 met the criteria for the complete form, and 7, for the incomplete form of this condition. Five had coronary artery disease. One of them had incomplete Kawasaki disease (1/7= 14.3%), and the remaining four had the complete form (4/24= 16.7%). No significant differences were found between both groups (p= 1.0). Patients with coronary artery involvement had a higher C-reactive protein level (median: 16.2 mg/dL versus 8.4 mg/dL, p= 0.047) and lower albuminemia (median: 3.2 mg/dL versus 3.99 mg/dL, p= 0.002). The risk of coronary artery involvement in incomplete Kawasaki disease is similar to that in complete Kawasaki disease; therefore, in patients with the incomplete form, immunoglobulin therapy should not be delayed. In our population, C-reactive protein and albumin levels were related to a higher risk of coronary artery involvement. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  6. Progressive Cortical Neuronal Damage and Chronic Hemodynamic Impairment in Atherosclerotic Major Cerebral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Shinya; Kishibe, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Masaaki; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that chronic hemodynamic impairment may cause selective cortical neuronal damage in patients with atherosclerotic internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusive disease. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine whether the progression of cortical neuronal damage, evaluated as a decrease in central benzodiazepine receptors (BZRs), is associated with hemodynamic impairment at baseline or hemodynamic deterioration during follow-up. We evaluated the distribution of BZRs twice using positron emission tomography and (11)C-flumazenil over time in 80 medically treated patients with atherosclerotic internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusive disease that had no ischemic episodes during follow-up. Using 3D stereotactic surface projections, we quantified abnormal decreases in the BZRs in the cerebral cortex within the middle cerebral artery distribution and correlated changes in the BZR index with the mean hemispheric values of hemodynamic parameters obtained from (15)O gas positron emission tomography. In the hemisphere affected by arterial disease, the BZR index in 40 patients (50%) was increased during follow-up (mean 26±20 months). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, increases in the BZR index were associated with the decreased cerebral blood flow at baseline and an increased oxygen extraction fraction during follow-up. Increases in the oxygen extraction fraction during follow-up were associated with a lack of statin use. In patients with atherosclerotic internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery disease, the progression of cortical neuronal damage was associated with hemodynamic impairment at baseline and hemodynamic deterioration during follow-up. Statin use may be beneficial against hemodynamic deterioration and therefore neuroprotective. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Hemodynamic response to treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pulmonary arterial hypertension: longitudinal insights from an implantable hemodynamic monitor

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite new therapeutic options, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a progressive disease associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. As such, additional strategies for monitoring and adjunctive management of this disease are important. A 59-year-old woman with scleroderma-associated PAH received an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) as part of a research protocol at our institution. Pulmonary artery pressures, heart rate, and cardiac output (sensor-based algorithm) were measured on a daily basis, and parameters of right ventricular (RV) performance and afterload were calculated. At the time of IHM implant, the patient had functional class III symptoms, was receiving triple-drug therapy, and had normal hemoglobin levels. Four months after implant, and with further optimization of prostacyclin therapy, she had improvement in her symptoms. However, shortly thereafter, while the patient was receiving stable drug therapy, her case regressed with worsening symptoms, and the patient received a new diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. Oral iron supplementation resulted in normalization of hemoglobin levels and improvement in the patient’s iron profile. A gradual and sustained reduction in pulmonary pressures was noted after initiation of oral iron accompanied by increased RV performance and favorable reduction in RV afterload. The patient had significant symptomatic improvement. Iron deficiency is an underappreciated yet easily treatable risk factor in PAH. Use of IHM in this case longitudinally illustrates the optimization of pulmonary hemodynamics and RV afterload in tandem with clinical improvement achieved by a simple therapy. PMID:28090307

  8. Hemodynamic response to treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pulmonary arterial hypertension: longitudinal insights from an implantable hemodynamic monitor.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Muddassir; Agarwal, Richa; Raina, Amresh; Correa-Jaque, Priscilla; Benza, Raymond L

    2016-12-01

    Despite new therapeutic options, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a progressive disease associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. As such, additional strategies for monitoring and adjunctive management of this disease are important. A 59-year-old woman with scleroderma-associated PAH received an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) as part of a research protocol at our institution. Pulmonary artery pressures, heart rate, and cardiac output (sensor-based algorithm) were measured on a daily basis, and parameters of right ventricular (RV) performance and afterload were calculated. At the time of IHM implant, the patient had functional class III symptoms, was receiving triple-drug therapy, and had normal hemoglobin levels. Four months after implant, and with further optimization of prostacyclin therapy, she had improvement in her symptoms. However, shortly thereafter, while the patient was receiving stable drug therapy, her case regressed with worsening symptoms, and the patient received a new diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. Oral iron supplementation resulted in normalization of hemoglobin levels and improvement in the patient's iron profile. A gradual and sustained reduction in pulmonary pressures was noted after initiation of oral iron accompanied by increased RV performance and favorable reduction in RV afterload. The patient had significant symptomatic improvement. Iron deficiency is an underappreciated yet easily treatable risk factor in PAH. Use of IHM in this case longitudinally illustrates the optimization of pulmonary hemodynamics and RV afterload in tandem with clinical improvement achieved by a simple therapy.

  9. Longitudinal incision in surgical release of De Quervain disease.

    PubMed

    Gundes, Hakan; Tosun, Bilgehan

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to contrast the use of a longitudinal incision in surgical decompression of De Quervain disease with a transverse incision. The advantages are ease in recognition of compartment variations and superficial branches of radial nerve and prevention of palmar tendon subluxation by permitting a more dorsal release of the compartment sheath. Since 2002, we have used a longitudinal skin incision instead of the classic transverse incision to release the first dorsal compartment.

  10. Longitudinal metabolite changes in Huntington's disease during disease onset.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Simon J A; Dumas, Eve M; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; Kan, Hermien E; Webb, Andrew; van Buchem, Mark A; Roos, Raymund A C; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in Huntington's disease (HD) have demonstrated differences in metabolite concentrations in several regions of interest, especially the putamen and caudate nucleus. To assess metabolite changes in both premanifest and early HD over a two year follow up period using MRS at 7 Tesla in several regions of interest. In 13 HD gene carriers (10 premanifest and 3 manifest HD) proton MRS was performed at baseline and after 24 months. At follow up, four of the premanifest HD gene carriers had progressed into manifest HD, as assessed by clinical measures. 7T MR proton spectroscopy was performed in three regions of interest; the caudate nucleus, putamen and prefrontal cortex. Six metabolites were quantified for each region at each time point. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Across all subjects, a longitudinal decrease in the caudate nucleus in creatine (p = 0.038) and myo-inositol (p = 0.015) concentrations was found. A significant decrease in the putamen was seen in the total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) (p = 0.028) and choline concentrations (p = 0.028). For premanifest HD converters, a non-significant high rate of tNAA decrease in the putamen was found compared to non-converting premanifest HD. Over a two year period we have demonstrated metabolite changes in the caudate nucleus and putamen of HD gene carriers around disease onset. This demonstrates the potential of MRS for providing a biomarker of disease progression and for evaluating future therapeutic interventions.

  11. Can Coronary Artery Involvement in Kawasaki Disease be Predicted?

    PubMed

    Ghelani, Sunil J; Kwatra, Neha S; Spurney, Christopher F

    2013-03-26

    Coronary artery involvement is seen in approximately 15-20% of children with Kawasaki disease. There is conflicting literature regarding the clinical and laboratory findings associated with coronary artery involvement. In this retrospective study, we attempt identification of predictive factors for coronary artery involvement at our institute and review the existing literature. A review of 203 patients (65% males) with Kawasaki disease was performed, of whom 33 (16.3%) had coronary artery involvement. High erythrocyte sedimentation rate, high platelet count, low hematocrit, low albumin levels, and refractory Kawasaki disease showed significant association with coronary artery involvement. High erythrocyte sedimentation rate and refractory Kawasaki disease were found to be independent predictors of coronary artery involvement. Review of literature suggested a wide range of coronary involvement (<5% to >60%), and highly conflicting clinical and laboratory associations. It remains difficult to accurately determine risk of coronary artery involvement, although some laboratory markers may provide information that is helpful for parental counseling and clinical follow up. Future identification of novel biomarkers and host predispositions may further our understanding of coronary artery risks and help personalize therapy for Kawasaki disease.

  12. [Aftermaths of lesions of coronary arteries in Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Vostokova, A A; Grunina, E A; Klemenov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease, also known as cutaneous-mucous-glandular mucocutaneous glandular syndrome, is acute systemic vasculitis of small-to-medium calibre arteries, frequently involving coronary arteries, affect almost exceptionally children, with reports concerning cases of Kawasaki syndrome in 20-to-30-year-old adults being extremely rare. The most serious manifestation of Kawasaki disease is coronaritis and formation of coronary artery aneurysms. The dynamics of the formed coronary aneurysms and, consequently, the fate of patients may be different. Thrombosis of an aneurysm in the early period of the disease and stenosing of the affected coronary artery later on present possible complications of Kawasaki disease and potential causes of myocardial infection in young adults. Increased risk of coronary artery thromboses in Kawasaki disease is conditioned by a decrease in velocity of blood flow and its turbulent pattern in the aneurysms, endothelial dysfunction due to currently existing or endured coronaritis and thrombocytosis typical of this pathology. Predisposing factors of coronary artery stenosing are unfavourable haemodynamic conditions appearing at the sites of the "entry" and "exit" of the aneurysm. Described herein are two case reports of myocardial infarction, one of which being a complication of an acute case of Kawasaki disease in a 29-year-old patient, with the second one being a consequence of coronary artery stenosing in a 25-year-old patient who had endured Kawasaki disease in his childhood.

  13. Echocardiographic evaluation of external iliac artery Doppler waveform in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, Grzegorz; Szmigielski, Cezary; Kaczynska, Anna; Kuch-Wocial, Agnieszka

    2014-04-01

    Visual interpretation of the Doppler waveform in the common femoral or distal external iliac artery (EIA) was reported to be useful in screening for proximal peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients with lower limb ischemia. Commonly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for echocardiography have coexistent arterial pathology. Therefore, we decided to study whether echocardiographic evaluation of the distal EIA flow can be useful for detection of PAOD in patients with CAD. We studied 150 consecutive patients (pts) with CAD referred for echocardiography. At the end of an echocardiographic examination, evaluation of the flow in the distal EIA with an echocardiographic probe was performed. The Doppler waveform was classified as normal-with early diastolic flow reversal or abnormal-without early diastolic flow reversal. Echocardiographic findings were compared in a blinded fashion with the results of the ankle brachial index measurements (ABI). Based on the ABI ≤ 0.9, peripheral artery disease was diagnosed in 54 pts (36%) and abnormal external iliac Doppler waveform was found in 27 pts (18%). Sensitivity of abnormal external iliac Doppler waveform in predicting PAOD was 48%, specificity 99%, positive predictive value (PPV) 96%, and negative predictive value 77%. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is common in patients with CAD referred for echocardiographic study. Echocardiographic assessment of distal EIA Doppler waveform has low sensitivity, but high specificity and high PPV in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

  14. [Is coronary artery disease different in women?].

    PubMed

    Schiele, François; Chopard, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the primary cause of death in women. Although acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is relatively infrequent in young women, failure to recognize ACS in this population can incur a major risk and registry data show that there is still plenty of room for improvement in this area. Women may suffer from "classical" CAD with development of atherosclerosis with a delay of about 10 years as compared to men, reflecting hormonal protection in women. Besides this classical presentation, angina in women often corresponds to impaired microcirculation, a syndrome known to associate typical angina, demonstrable myocardial ischemia, but no lesions on the coronary angiography. Finally, spasm, spontaneous dissection or coronary thrombosis through endothelial rupture are more frequent in women. The influence of risk factors on the development of CAD is comparable in both women and men. Recent registry studies show that in France, in particular, diabetes, obesity, and smoking are all risk factors that are on the rise in women. In addition, certain other risk factors are more specific to women, namely psycho-social stress. The methods to evaluate risk and detect CAD were mainly developed in male study populations, and these tools thus perform less well in female patients. In case of ACS, women benefit just as much from invasive management, but are at greater risk of iatrogenic complications, particularly with anti-thrombotic therapy or during revascularization procedures.

  15. Gut Microbiota and Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tomoya; Emoto, Takuo; Sasaki, Naoto; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2016-12-02

    Gut microbiota have been attracting increased attention in many fields of medicine recently. We can perform a comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota using next-generation sequencing techniques together with bioinformatics technology, which expands our knowledge of a large ecosystem consisting of a host and gut microbiota. We summarize some reports about the correlations between gut microbiota and metabolic disorders, particularly atherosclerosis, and discuss future directions for the diagnostic or therapeutic potential of gut microbiota. To take simple examples, we demonstrated that the order Lactobacillales was significantly increased; while the phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients compared with controls or healthy volunteers. The characteristics of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia have been reported. However, these studies have limitations, and the biological significance of gut microbiota and the causal relationships are still controversial. We hope the reports listed in this review article might lead to the development of a novel therapy to prevent CAD via modulating gut microbiota or their metabolites.

  16. Suppression of ischemia in arterial occlusive disease by JNK-promoted native collateral artery development

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Kasmir; Sugamura, Koichi; Craige, Siobhan; Keaney, John F; Davis, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18414.001 PMID:27504807

  17. Detection of coronary artery disease with MCG.

    PubMed

    Hailer, B; Van Leeuwen, P

    2004-11-30

    The diagnosis of cardiac ischemia related to coronary artery disease (CAD) is a clinical challenge. Despite many methods clinically available, the predictive value of each is still limited. Magnetocardiography (MCG) offers new insights in the electrogenesis of the disease. In the last decade a number of studies using biomagnetometers have dealt with the identification of CAD patients using coronary angiography as a gold standard. As the availability of these systems is limited, studies have focused either on exercise-induced ischemia or on chronic ischemia and the infarct scar at rest. Different parameters have been developed based on signal morphology, time intervals, source parameters or magnetic field map analysis. Concerning signal morphology, main work concentrates on ST-depression, ST-T signal amplitude as well as QRS and ST-T integrals. Dealing with time intervals, most studies focus on the QT interval. The evaluation of of QT dispersion spatially in the MCG, reflecting regional heterogeneity of repolarization, improved the identification of CAD patients. Besides the calculation of the equivalent current dipole during de- and repolarization, parameters of the magnetic field orientation were used to identify CAD patients and localize exercise-induced ischemic regions. Heart rate adjusted alteration in the magnetic field orientation allowed the quantification of ischemia-induced changes in MCG. The estimation of current density (CDV) further enabled to separate healthy subjects from CAD patients at rest. In the course of interventional therapy CDV maps returned toward that of healthy subjects.Thus, there is justification for routine clinical use of the MCG in the diagnosis of CAD.

  18. Leptospirosis and Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lee, Feng-You; Wang, Ying-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on the association between peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) and leptospirosis are limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study for determining whether leptospirosis is one of the possible risk factors for PAOD. Patients diagnosed with leptospirosis by using 2000 to 2010 data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with leptospirosis without a history of PAOD were selected. For each leptospirosis patient, 4 controls without a history of leptospirosis and PAOD were randomly selected and frequency-matched for sex, age, the year of the index date, and comorbidity diseases. The follow-up period was from the time of the initial diagnosis of leptospirosis to the diagnosis date of PAOD, or December 31, 2011. The Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for analyzing the risk of PAOD. During the follow-up period, the cumulative incidence of PAOD was higher among the patients from the leptospirosis cohort than among the nonleptospirosis cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.001). In total, 29 patients with PAOD from the leptospirosis cohort and 81 from the nonleptospirosis cohort were observed with the incidence rates of 2.1 and 1.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively, yielding a crude hazards ratio (HR) of 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44–1.81) and adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.75 (95% CI = 1.58–1.95). The risk of PAOD was 1.75-fold higher in the patients with leptospirosis than in the general population. PMID:26986166

  19. Exercise testing in suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sox, H C

    1985-12-01

    stenosis or three-vessel disease with poor ventricular function. The exercise ECG can identify groups of older men with a relatively high risk of having left main coronary artery stenosis. Physicians should be cautious when applying these recommendations to a primary care practice. The foregoing analysis is based on data obtained from patients who had been selected for coronary arteriography. There are two principal effects of biased selection of study patients: The pretest probability of CAD in clinical subgroups is probably lower than as shown here.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  20. Coronary Artery Disease Is Under-diagnosed and Under-treated in Advanced Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert M.; Eberlein, Michael; Girgis, Reda E.; Hashmi, Salman; Iacono, Aldo; Jones, Steven; Netzer, Giora; Scharf, Steven

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease is a potentially treatable comorbidity observed frequently in both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The prevalence of angiographically proven coronary artery disease in advanced lung disease is not well described. We sought to characterize the treatment patterns of coronary artery disease complicating advanced lung disease and to describe the frequency of occult coronary artery disease in this population. METHODS We performed a 2-center, retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial lung disease evaluated for lung transplantation. Medications and diagnoses before the transplant evaluation were recorded in conjunction with left heart catheterization results. RESULTS Of 473 subjects, 351 had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 122 had interstitial lung disease. In subjects diagnosed clinically with coronary artery disease, medical regimens included a statin in 78%, antiplatelet therapy in 62%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in 42%, and a beta-blocker in 37%. Ten percent were on no medication from these 4 classes. Fifty-seven percent of these subjects were on an antiplatelet agent as well as a statin, and 13% were on neither. Beta-blockers were less frequently prescribed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than interstitial lung disease (23% vs 58%, P = .007). Coronary angiography was available in 322 subjects. It demonstrated coronary artery disease in 60% of subjects, and severe coronary artery disease in 16%. Occult coronary artery disease and severe occult coronary artery disease were found in 53% and 9%, respectively. There were no significant differences in angiographic results between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease, despite imbalanced risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Coronary artery disease is common in patients with advanced lung disease

  1. Peripheral arterial disease and revascularization of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, R O; Brownrigg, J; Hinchliffe, R J

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes is a complex disease with many serious potential sequelae, including large vessel arterial disease and microvascular dysfunction. Peripheral arterial disease is a common large vessel complication of diabetes, implicated in the development of tissue loss in up to half of patients with diabetic foot ulceration. In addition to peripheral arterial disease, functional changes in the microcirculation also contribute to the development of a diabetic foot ulcer, along with other factors such as infection, oedema and abnormal biomechanical loading. Peripheral arterial disease typically affects the distal vessels, resulting in multi-level occlusions and diffuse disease, which often necessitates challenging distal revascularisation surgery or angioplasty in order to improve blood flow. However, technically successful revascularisation does not always result in wound healing. The confounding effects of microvascular dysfunction must be recognised--treatment of a patient with a diabetic foot ulcer and peripheral arterial disease should address this complex interplay of pathophysiological changes. In the case of non-revascularisable peripheral arterial disease or poor response to conventional treatment, alternative approaches such as cell-based treatment, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the use of vasodilators may appear attractive, however more robust evidence is required to justify these novel approaches.

  2. Skin autofluorescence is increased in patients with carotid artery stenosis and peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Marjon J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Loeffen, Erik A H; Saleem, Ben R; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L; Smit, Andries J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2012-02-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. We evaluated skin autofluorescence (SAF), a non-invasive measurement of tissue AGE accumulation, in patients with carotid artery stenosis with and without coexisting peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). SAF was measured using the AGE Reader™ in 56 patients with carotid artery stenosis and in 56 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without diabetes, renal dysfunction or known atherosclerotic disease. SAF was higher in patients with carotid artery stenosis compared to the control group: mean 2.81 versus 2.46 (P = 0.002), but especially in the younger age group of 50-60 years old: mean 2.82 versus 1.94 (P = 0.000). Patients with carotid artery stenosis and PAOD proved to have an even higher SAF than patients with carotid artery stenosis only: mean 3.28 versus 2.66 (P = 0.003). Backward linear regression analysis showed that age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal function and the presence of PAOD were the determinants of SAF, but carotid artery stenosis was not. SAF is increased in patients with carotid artery stenosis and PAOD. The univariate and multivariate associations of SAF with age, smoking, diabetes, renal insufficiency and PAOD suggest that increased SAF can be seen as an indicator of widespread atherosclerosis.

  3. Feasibility and Safety of Routine Transpedal Arterial Access for Treatment of Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tak W; Shah, Sooraj; Amoroso, Nicholas; Diwan, Ravi; Makker, Parth; Ratcliffe, Justin A; Lala, Moinakhtar; Huang, Yili; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Daggubati, Ramesh; Pancholy, Samir; Patel, Tejas

    2015-07-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of transpedal arterial access for lower-extremity angiography and intervention. Traditionally, the femoral artery is chosen for the initial access site in symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD), but this approach carries a substantial portion of the entire procedural complication risk. 80 patients were prospectively evaluated for the treatment of PAD between May and July 2014. All patients underwent peripheral angiography, and intervention if necessary. A pedal artery was the initial access site for all patients. Under ultrasound guidance, one of the pedal arteries was visualized and accessed, and a 4 Fr Glidesheath was inserted. Retrograde orbital atherectomy and balloon angioplasty were performed with a 4 Fr sheath or upsizing to a 6 Fr Glidesheath Slender (Terumo) for stenting as needed. Clinical and ultrasound assessment of the pedal arteries were performed before the procedure and at 1-month follow-up. Diagnostic transpedal peripheral angiography was performed in all 80 patients. 43 out of 51 patients (84%) who required intervention were successful using a pedal artery as the sole access site. No immediate or delayed access-site complications were detected. Clinical follow-up was achieved in 77 patients (96%) and access artery patency was demonstrated by ultrasound at 1 month in 100% of patients. The routine use of a transpedal approach for the treatment of PAD may be feasible and safe. Pedal artery access may also avoid many of the complications associated with the traditional femoral approach, but further study is needed.

  4. Functional impairment of precerebral arteries in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Jan; Cankar, Ksenija; Pretnar, Janja; Zaletel, Marjan; Kobal, Lucijan; Teran, Natasa; Melik, Ziva

    2017-01-15

    Cardiovascular pathology of Huntington disease (HD) appears to be complex; while microvascular dysfunction seems to appear early, deaths from cardiomyopathy and stroke might occur in the late phase of HD. Our study evaluated global risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), structure and function of precerebral arteries in 41 HD subjects and 41 matched controls. HD subjects were divided into groups by the United Huntington disease rating scale (presymptomatic-PHD, early-EHD, midstage-MHD and late-LHD). CHD risk factors assessment and Doppler examination of precerebral arteries were performed, including measurements of the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), and parameters indicating local carotid artery distensibility (stiffness index β, pulse wave velocity, pressure strain elasticity module and carotid artery compliance). In the HD and controls we identified a comparable number of non-obstructive plaques (<50% lumen narrowing). No obstructive plaques (>50% lumen narrowing) were found. There was significantly increased IMT in MHD. In PHD and EHD the parameters of arterial stiffness were significantly higher and the carotid artery compliance was significantly lower. Our results reveal functional vascular pathology in PHD, EHD, and MHD. Precerebral arteries dysfunction in HD therefore appears to be mostly functional and in agreement with recently described autonomic nervous system changes in HD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Peripheral Arterial Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease? Many people ... flow, so the symptoms will go away. Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms of P. ...

  6. Metals in urine and peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Sharrett, Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo

    2005-02-01

    Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants > or =40 years of age in NHANES 1999-2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 microg/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population.

  7. Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ≥40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 μg/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population. PMID:15687053

  8. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C.P.; Hamby, S.E.; Saleheen, D.; Hopewell, J.C.; Zeng, L.; Assimes, T.L.; Kanoni, S.; Willenborg, C.; Burgess, S.; Amouyel, P.; Anand, S.; Blankenberg, S.; Boehm, B.O.; Clarke, R.J.; Collins, R.; Dedoussis, G.; Farrall, M.; Franks, P.W.; Groop, L.; Hall, A.S.; Hamsten, A.; Hengstenberg, C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, E.; Kathiresan, S.; Kee, F.; König, I.R.; Kooner, J.; Lehtimäki, T.; März, W.; McPherson, R.; Metspalu, A.; Nieminen, M.S.; O’Donnell, C.J.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Peters, A.; Perola, M.; Reilly, M.P.; Ripatti, S.; Roberts, R.; Salomaa, V.; Shah, S.H.; Schreiber, S.; Siegbahn, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Veronesi, G.; Wareham, N.; Willer, C.J.; Zalloua, P.A.; Erdmann, J.; Deloukas, P.; Watkins, H.; Schunkert, H.; Danesh, J.; Thompson, J.R.; Samani, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested the association between a change in genetically determined height of 1 SD (6.5 cm) with the risk of CAD in 65,066 cases and 128,383 controls. Using individual-level genotype data from 18,249 persons, we also examined the risk of CAD associated with the presence of various numbers of height-associated alleles. To identify putative mechanisms, we analyzed whether genetically determined height was associated with known cardiovascular risk factors and performed a pathway analysis of the height-associated genes. RESULTS We observed a relative increase of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4 to 22.1; P<0.001) in the risk of CAD per 1-SD decrease in genetically determined height. There was a graded relationship between the presence of an increased number of height-raising variants and a reduced risk of CAD (odds ratio for height quartile 4 versus quartile 1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.84; P<0.001). Of the 12 risk factors that we studied, we observed significant associations only with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (accounting for approximately 30% of the association). We identified several overlapping pathways involving genes associated with both development and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS There is a primary association between a genetically determined shorter height and an increased risk of CAD, a link that is partly explained by the association between shorter height and an adverse lipid profile. Shared biologic processes that determine achieved height and the development of atherosclerosis may explain some of the association. PMID:25853659

  9. Rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Abou-Raya, S; Abou-Raya, A; Naim, A; Abuelkheir, H

    2008-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), periodontal disease (PD), and coronary artery disease (CAD) are common chronic inflammatory diseases. RA is associated with accelerated vascular risk resulting in an increased prevalence of CAD with attendant early mortality and excess morbidity. RA and PD have a common pathobiology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between RA, PD, and CAD and the influence of systemic inflammatory factors. A total of 100 active RA patients of which 50 had established CAD and 50 had no CAD were assessed for PD. All subjects underwent a clinical, cardiac, dental, laboratory, and radiological evaluation. Blood samples were obtained, and the level of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total white blood counts (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, total cholesterol (TC), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were assayed. The findings of this study demonstrated an association between RA, PD, and CAD. The RA patients with CAD had significantly more PD than RA patients without CAD. The inflammatory markers, hsCRP, ESR, WBC, fibrinogen, and TNF-alpha, were raised in all patients but were significantly higher in RA patients with CAD who also had PD. HDL levels were lower in RA patients with CAD when compared to RA patients without CAD. Evidence from this study shows an association between RA, PD, CAD, and systemic levels of the inflammatory mediators. The implication is that inflammation may be the central link between the chronic inflammatory, autoimmune disorders, and atherosclerosis.

  10. Determinants of arterial stiffness progression in a Han-Chinese population in Taiwan: a 4-year longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lien-Ying; Liao, Yi-Chu; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yu-Shan; Lin, Reuy-Tay; Hsu, Chung Y; Juo, Suh-Hang H

    2015-09-16

    Arterial stiffness predicts the future risk of macro- and micro-vascular diseases. Only a few studies have reported longitudinal changes. The present study aimed to investigate the progression rate of arterial stiffness and the factors influencing stiffness progression in a Han Chinese population residing in Taiwan. The pulse wave velocity (PWV), elasticity modulus (Ep) and arterial stiffness index (β) of the common carotid artery were measured in 577 stroke- and myocardial infarction-free subjects at baseline and after an average interval of 4.2 ± 0.8 years. Stepwise multivariate linear regression was conducted to elucidate the predictors of stiffness progression. For both baseline and follow-up data, men had significantly higher values of PWV, Ep and β in comparison to women. The progression rates of PWV, Ep and β were faster in men, but the difference was not statistically significant (ΔPWV = 0.20 ± 0.20 and 0.18 ± 0.20 m/s/yr; ΔEp = 8.17 ± 8.65 and 6.98 ± 8.26 kPa/yr; Δβ = 0.70 ± 0.64 and 0.67 ± 0.56 for men and women, respectively). In the multivariate regression analyses, age, baseline stiffness parameters, baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP), baseline body mass index (BMI) and changes in MAP (ΔMAP) were independent predictors of PWV and Ep progression. There was an inverse correlation between the stiffness parameters at baseline and their progression rate (correlation coefficient (r) = -0.12 to -0.33, p = 0.032-1.6 × 10(-16)). Changes in MAP (ΔMAP) rather than baseline MAP were more strongly associated with PWV progression (p = 8.5 × 10(-24) and 1.9 × 10(-5) for ΔMAP and baseline MAP, respectively). Sex-specific analyses disclosed that baseline BMI and changes in BMI (ΔBMI) were significantly associated with stiffness progression in men (p = 0.010-0.026), but not in women. Aging and elevated blood pressure at baseline and during follow-up were the major determinants

  11. Peripheral arterial disease in general and diabetic population.

    PubMed

    Rabia, K; Khoo, E M

    2007-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is stenosis or occlusion of peripheral arterial vessels by atherosclerotic plaque. It may present as intermittent claudication, rest pain and impotence. PAD of the lower limbs is the third most important site of atherosclerotic disease after coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Increasing age, family history, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and more decisively diabetes are significant risk factors. PAD is a clinical condition that has often been neglected, underdiagnosed, undertreated and has a serious outcome. It may lead to nonhealing wounds, gangrene and amputation of the lower limbs. Hence, early identification of patients at risk of PAD and timely referral to the vascular surgeon in severe cases is crucial.

  12. Developmental origin of age-related coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ke; Díaz-Trelles, Ramon; Liu, Qiaozhen; Diez-Cuñado, Marta; Scimia, Maria-Cecilia; Cai, Wenqing; Sawada, Junko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Boyle, Joseph J.; Zhou, Bin; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Mercola, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Aim Age and injury cause structural and functional changes in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) that influence the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Although paracrine signalling is widely believed to drive phenotypic changes in caSMCs, here we show that developmental origin within the fetal epicardium can have a profound effect as well. Methods and results Fluorescent dye and transgene pulse-labelling techniques in mice revealed that the majority of caSMCs are derived from Wt1+, Gata5-Cre+ cells that migrate before E12.5, whereas a minority of cells are derived from a later-emigrating, Wt1+, Gata5-Cre− population. We functionally evaluated the influence of early emigrating cells on coronary artery development and disease by Gata5-Cre excision of Rbpj, which prevents their contribution to coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Ablation of the Gata5-Cre+ population resulted in coronary arteries consisting solely of Gata5-Cre− caSMCs. These coronary arteries appeared normal into early adulthood; however, by 5–8 months of age, they became progressively fibrotic, lost the adventitial outer elastin layer, were dysfunctional and leaky, and animals showed early mortality. Conclusion Taken together, these data reveal heterogeneity in the fetal epicardium that is linked to coronary artery integrity, and that distortion of the coronaries epicardial origin predisposes to adult onset disease. PMID:26054850

  13. Bilateral pulmonary artery aneurysms, coronary artery aneurysm, and ventricular pseudoaneurysm in Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying-Rong; Hong, Jun-Mou; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Deng, Zhen-Sheng; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Cheng, Chao

    2014-04-01

    Massive hemoptysis in Behçet disease (BD) is rare but often fatal. This report presents a 28-year-old man with recurrent massive hemoptysis. He was diagnosed with bilateral multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms (PAAs), coronary artery aneurysm, and ventricular pseudoaneurysm from BD. The patient underwent emergency right lower lobectomy with no obvious complications. No hemoptysis recurred during an 18-month follow-up. This report also reviews the occurrence of PAAs in BD, with an emphasis on the treatment approaches.

  14. Lower extremity and carotid artery disease in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Linnhoff, Fabian; van Essen, Fabian; Pingel, Simon; Schaefer, Christian Alexander; Schahab, Nadjib; Fimmers, Rolf; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In view of their common chronic inflammatory process, we sought to determine the linkage between peripheral artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 107 COPD patients (mean±sd age 64.6±10.4 years, 52.2% male) and 22 control smokers without previously diagnosed peripheral artery disease underwent standardised angiological examination for lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) and carotid artery disease. LEAD was significantly more prevalent in COPD patients than in controls (80.4% versus 54.5%, p=0.002). Among COPD patients, 57.0%, 12.2%, 10.3% and 0.9% were found to be in Fontaine stages I, IIA, IIB and III, respectively. As with carotid artery disease, its frequency increased from 36.4% in controls to 58.9% in COPD patients (p=0.003). Carotid plaque burden, LEAD Fontaine degrees as well as pulse wave index and ankle–brachial index manifested significant impairment over percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 % pred) (p=0.02, p<0.001, p=0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease status was the strongest independent predictor for the presence of plaque in lower extremity arteries (odds ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.19–2.25, p=0.003) and carotids (odds ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.14–2.44, p=0.009). As compared with control smokers, peripheral artery disease is diagnosed in a sizeable proportion of COPD patients and exhibits significant distributive differences over FEV1 % pred that exceed the susceptibility conferred by common cardiovascular stressors. PMID:28053972

  15. Lower extremity and carotid artery disease in COPD.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Carmen; Linnhoff, Fabian; van Essen, Fabian; Pingel, Simon; Schaefer, Christian Alexander; Schahab, Nadjib; Fimmers, Rolf; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    In view of their common chronic inflammatory process, we sought to determine the linkage between peripheral artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 107 COPD patients (mean±sd age 64.6±10.4 years, 52.2% male) and 22 control smokers without previously diagnosed peripheral artery disease underwent standardised angiological examination for lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) and carotid artery disease. LEAD was significantly more prevalent in COPD patients than in controls (80.4% versus 54.5%, p=0.002). Among COPD patients, 57.0%, 12.2%, 10.3% and 0.9% were found to be in Fontaine stages I, IIA, IIB and III, respectively. As with carotid artery disease, its frequency increased from 36.4% in controls to 58.9% in COPD patients (p=0.003). Carotid plaque burden, LEAD Fontaine degrees as well as pulse wave index and ankle-brachial index manifested significant impairment over percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 % pred) (p=0.02, p<0.001, p=0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease status was the strongest independent predictor for the presence of plaque in lower extremity arteries (odds ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.19-2.25, p=0.003) and carotids (odds ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.44, p=0.009). As compared with control smokers, peripheral artery disease is diagnosed in a sizeable proportion of COPD patients and exhibits significant distributive differences over FEV1 % pred that exceed the susceptibility conferred by common cardiovascular stressors.

  16. Mechanisms of arterial remodeling: lessons from genetic diseases

    PubMed Central

    van Varik, Bernard J.; Rennenberg, Roger J. M. W.; Reutelingsperger, Chris P.; Kroon, Abraham A.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Schurgers, Leon J.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world, and the primary cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, and ischemia. The biology of vascular disease is complex and still poorly understood in terms of causes and consequences. Vascular function is determined by structural and functional properties of the arterial vascular wall. Arterial stiffness, that is a pathological alteration of the vascular wall, ultimately results in target-organ damage and increased mortality. Arterial remodeling is accelerated under conditions that adversely affect the balance between arterial function and structure such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory disease, lifestyle aspects (smoking), drugs (vitamin K antagonists), and genetic abnormalities [e.g., pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), Marfan's disease]. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the complex mechanisms and different factors that underlie arterial remodeling, learning from single gene defect diseases like PXE, and PXE-like, Marfan's disease and Keutel syndrome in vascular remodeling. PMID:23248645

  17. Left atrial myxoma associated with obstructive coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg Odebrecht Curi; Kaufman, Renato; Correa, Gabriel Angelo de Cata Preta; Nascimento, César; Weitzel, Luiz Henrique; Reis, José Oscar Brito; da Rocha, Antônio Sérgio Cordeiro; da Cunha, Ademir Batista

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of a 67 year-old patient with obstructive coronary artery disease that, in the preoperative survey for inguinal herniorraphy surgery, discovered, by a two-dimensional echocardiogram, a tumor in left atrium, mobile, non-obstructive. The patient underwent a cineangiocoronariography showing severe stenosis in the left anterior descending artery, moderate stenosis in the left circumflex artery, near the origin of the first marginal branch, and a non-obstructive plaque in the right coronary artery. There was also moderate left ventricular dysfunction. After that, the patient has gone coronary artery bypass surgery and resection of the left atrial tumor. The histological exam revealed that the tumor was, in fact, a myxoma.

  18. Acute Limb Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease in a Case of Kimura’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Woon; Jun, Hee Jae; Kang, Do Kyun; Min, Ho-Ki; Hwang, Youn-Ho; Kim, Ji Yong; Nam, Kyung Han

    2017-01-01

    Kimura disease (KD) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. KD has many complications associated with hypereosinophilia, including various forms of allergic reactions and eosinophilic lung disease. Additionally, hypereosinophilia is associated with hypercoagulability, which may lead to thromboembolic events. A 36-year-old man with KD presented with acute limb ischemia and coronary artery occlusion. He underwent thrombectomy, partial endarterectomy of both popliteal arteries, and coronary artery stent insertion. KD is a systemic disease that affects many organs and presents with thromboembolism and vasculitis. In a patient with KD, physicians should evaluate the vascular system, including the coronary arteries. PMID:28382271

  19. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat; Ipek, Emrah; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Gurler, Mehmet Yavuz; Gulbaran, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is an intimal disease which affects large and medium size arteries including aorta and carotid, coronary, cerebral and radial arteries. Calcium accumulated in the coronary arterial plaques have substantial contribution to the plaque volume. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and coronary arterial calcification, and to delineate the importance of CACS in coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods The current study is retrospective and 410 patients admitted to our clinic with atypical chest pain and without known CAD were included. These individuals were evaluated by 16 slice electron beam computed tomography with suspicion of CAD and their calcium scores were calculated. Detailed demographic and medical history were obtained from all of the patients. Results In our study, we employed five different analyses using different coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) thresold levels reported in previous studies. All of the analyses, performed according to the previously defined thresold levels, showed that risk factors had strong positive relationship with CACS as mentioned in previous studies. Conclusion Coronary arterial calcification is part of the athero-sclerotic process and although it can be detected in atherosclerotic vessel, it is absent in a normal vessel. It can be concluded that the clinical scores, even they are helpful, have some limitations in a significant part of the population for cardiovascular risk determination. It is important for an anastomosis region to be noncalcified in coronary bypass surgery. In a coronary artery, it will be helpness for showing of calcific field and anostomosis spot. PMID:26155507

  20. Internal carotid artery occlusion: association with atherosclerotic disease in other arterial beds and vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Liapis, Christos D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association between internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) and the presence of atherosclerotic disease and vascular risk factors. The clinical characteristics and risk factors of 120 patients presenting with ICAO were retrospectively reviewed. All patients (n = 120) had at least 1 of the 4 vascular risk factor (diabetes, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension); 2, 3, or all 4 risk factors were present in 14 to 82 of the patients (11.7% to 68.3%), 10 to 39 of the patients (8.3% to 32.5%), and 9 of the patients (7.5%), respectively. A total of 84 patients (70%) with ICAO had disease in at least 1 additional vascular bed (aorta, coronary or lower limb arteries). In addition to ICAO, vascular disease was present in 2 and all 3 of these arterial beds in 42 (35%) and 9 (7.5%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, stenosis or occlusion of the ipsilateral or contralateral vertebral arteries was recorded in 19 of 120 patients (15.8%). Regarding the contralateral carotid artery, 1 patient had bilateral ICAO. One patient had contralateral common carotid artery occlusion, and 1 patient was excluded from the analysis because of surgery to the contralateral carotid artery. Of the remaining 117 patients, 34 (29.0%) had less than 50% contralateral carotid artery stenosis. Thirty-two patients (27.4%) had 50% to 69%, and 51 (43.6%) had 70% to 99% stenosis. Ultrasonographic imaging of the carotid plaque of the contralateral carotid artery revealed that 52 of the 120 arteries (43.3%) were uniformly or predominantly echolucent (types I and II, respectively). Fifty-nine (49.2%) were predominantly or uniformly echogenic (types III and IV), and 9 (7.5%) could not be classified. A similar distribution of echomorphology was observed on the occluded side. ICAO is associated with widespread atherosclerotic disease and a high prevalence of vascular risk factors. Detection of ICAO should prompt the investigation of other arterial beds and

  1. Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease in hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Dieter, Robert S; Tomasson, Jon; Gudjonsson, Thorbjorn; Brown, Roger L; Vitcenda, Mark; Einerson, Jean; McBride, Patrick E

    2003-11-01

    The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has been well defined. However, the prevalence of PAD in hospitalized patients with CAD has not been defined. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive tool to screen for PAD. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of PAD in hospitalized patients with CAD by measuring the ABI. The study was conducted at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics inpatient Cardiovascular Medicine Service. Medically stable patients with CAD were invited to participate prior to hospital discharge. Data regarding cardiovascular risk factors, history of previous PAD, physical examination, and ABI were collected. An ABI less than or equal to 0.9 or a history of previous lower extremity vascular invention was considered to be indicative of significant PAD. A total of 100 patients (66 men and 34 women) were recruited. Forty patients were found to have PAD (mean ABI in non-revascularized patients with PAD = 0.67). By measuring the ABI, 37 (25 men) were positive for PAD and three had an ABI corrected with previous revascularization. Of these patients, 21 (52.5%) had previously documented PAD. Patients with PAD were older (p = 0.003), had a greater smoking history (p = 0.002), were more likely to have diabetes (p = 0.012), hypertension (p = 0.013) and a trend towards more dyslipidemia (p = 0.055). In conclusion, hospitalized patients with CAD are likely to have concomitant PAD. Risk factors for PAD in this patient population include advanced age, history of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and abnormal pulse examination. Identification of patients with PAD by measuring the ankle-brachial index is easily done.

  2. Carotid artery disease after head and neck radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer, Christoph; Husmann, Marc; Glanzmann, Christoph; Studer, Gabriela; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R

    2015-01-01

    Radiation induced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery is a clinically relevant late complication after head and neck radiotherapy. Improved long-term survival after multimodality therapy in neck malignancies result in an increased risk of carotid artery disease in patients after radiotherapy (RT). This review focuses on the current knowledge of occlusive carotid disease after head and neck radiotherapy and highlights the exceeding morphologic post-radiation vessel wall pathologies. More severe and extensive carotid artery atherosclerosis with plaque in all segments including the common carotid artery is a frequent finding after RT. Therefore, colour coded duplex ultrasound surveillance in patients after head and neck RT is recommended. Some histopathological studies indicate differences to “classical” atherosclerosis, and pathogenesis of chronic radiation vasculopathy is still under discussion.

  3. Diseased Region Detection of Longitudinal Knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Shan, Liang; Charles, H. Cecil; Wirth, Wolfgang; Niethammer, Marc; Zhu, Hongtu

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important imaging technique for quantifying the spatial location and magnitude/direction of longitudinal cartilage morphology changes in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Although several analytical methods, such as subregion-based analysis, have been developed to refine and improve quantitative cartilage analyses, they can be suboptimal due to two major issues: the lack of spatial correspondence across subjects and time and the spatial heterogeneity of cartilage progression across subjects. The aim of this paper is to present a statistical method for longitudinal cartilage quantification in OA patients, while addressing these two issues. The 3D knee image data is preprocessed to establish spatial correspondence across subjects and/or time. Then, a Gaussian hidden Markov model (GHMM) is proposed to deal with the spatial heterogeneity of cartilage progression across both time and OA subjects. To estimate unknown parameters in GHMM, we employ a pseudo-likelihood function and optimize it by using an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The proposed model can effectively detect diseased regions in each OA subject and present a localized analysis of longitudinal cartilage thickness within each latent subpopulation. Our GHMM integrates the strengths of two standard statistical methods including the local subregion-based analysis and the ordered value approach. We use simulation studies and the Pfizer longitudinal knee MRI dataset to evaluate the finite sample performance of GHMM in the quantification of longitudinal cartilage morphology changes. Our results indicate that GHMM significantly outperforms several standard analytical methods. PMID:25823031

  4. Incidence of coronary artery disease in patients with valvular heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, G W; Thomas, R D; Grimmer, S F; Silverton, P N; Smith, D R

    1980-01-01

    The case notes, cardiac catheterisation data, and coronary arteriograms of 239 patients investigated for valvular heart disease during a five year period were reviewed. Angina present in 13 of 95 patients with isolated mitral valve disease, 43 of 90 patients with isolated aortic valve disease, and 18 of 54 patients with combined mitral and aortic valve disease. Significant coronary artery disease was present in 85 per cent of patients with mitral valve disease and angina, but in only 33 per cent of patients with aortic valve disease and angina. Patients with no chest pain still had a high incidence of coronary artery disease, significant coronary obstruction being present in 22 per cent with mitral valve disease, 22 per cent with aortic valve disease, and 11 per cent with combine mitral and aortic valve disease. Several possible clinical markers of coronary artery disease were examined but none was found to be of practical help. There was, however, a significant inverse relation between severity of coronary artery disease and severity of valve disease in patients with aortic valve disease. Asymptomatic coronary artery disease is not uncommon in patients with valvular heart disease and if it is policy to perform coronary artery bypass grafting in such patients, routine coronary arteriography must be part of the preoperative investigation. PMID:7459146

  5. Endovascular Treatment of the Internal Iliac Artery in Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Huetink, K. Steijling, J.J.F.; Mali, W.P.T.M.

    2008-03-15

    In patients with peripheral arterial disease not much is known about the relationship between the localization of the pain and the localization of arterial occlusions in the iliac arteries. Occlusions high in the iliac arteries are assumed to be able to induce pain in the buttocks and upper leg as well as pain in the calves. Several case reports show that the symptoms of arteriosclerotic lesions in the internal iliac artery are often atypical and not easy to diagnose. In this report, 3 patients with internal iliac artery occlusions who were treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) are described. One patient had isolated pain in the buttock region. In the other 2 patients the initial pain was focused on the buttock region with extension to the calves during exercise. After PTA, 2 patients were free of symptoms, while in the other patient the symptoms improved but did not disappear. Future research should clarify the relation between certain arterial occlusions and the location of the pain.

  6. Pseudoaneurysm after transpedal arterial access for evaluation and treatment of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Apurva; Parikh, Roosha; Huang, Yili; Liou, Michael; Ratcliffe, Justin; Bertrand, Olivier F; Puma, Joseph; Kwan, Tak W

    2017-03-01

    There has been an increasing use of transpedal arterial access (TPA) for evaluation and treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) over a transfemoral approach (TFA). TPA, it is expected to be associated with better patient comfort, less recovery time and possibly less access site complications compared to standard TFA. Access site complications and pseudoaneurysm (PSA) associated with the TPA have not been previously reported. Here we report a series of pedal artery PSA related to access site complicating TPA catheterization. We studied 1460 patients with symptomatic PAD who underwent 2236 peripheral diagnostic and/or interventional procedures between 06/2014 and 01/2016 via TPA. Hemostasis was achieved using patent hemostasis technique by a radial artery compression device for 2h. PSA related to the access site were suspected clinically and confirmed with arterial duplex ultrasound. The incidence of PSA related to any access site was 0.002%. In this series all PSA occurred only in the posterior tibial artery, after an interventional procedure. All patients were treated successfully with thrombin injection with no residual complications. PSA associated with TPA is extremely rare and seems to occur exclusively after posterior tibial artery access. It is easily treatable by thrombin injection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracranial carotid artery aneurysm due to Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Albeyoglu, Sebnem; Cinar, Bayer; Eren, Tunc; Filizcan, Ugur; Bayserke, Olgar; Aslan, Cenk

    2010-12-01

    Behçet's disease is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder associated with recurrent oral and genital ulcers and iritis. Vascular lesions are encountered in 7%-29% of patients, gravely affecting the course of the disease. Extracranial carotid aneurysms due to Behçet's disease are extremely rare. We describe a surgically treated case of Behçet's disease in a 28-year-old man who presented with a rapidly enlarging left common carotid artery aneurysm.

  8. Pulmonary artery aneurysm in Behcet's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Akhan, Hulya; Cuhadaroglu, Caglar; Erkan, Feyza

    2004-05-01

    The pulmonary artery is the second most common site of arterial involvement in Behcet's disease. A 32-year-old man presented with bilateral ankle edema, abdominal discomfort, and hemoptysis. He had a history of recurrent oral and genital aphthous ulcerations for 1 year. The diagnosis of Behcet's disease was made on the basis of the criteria published by the International Study Group for Behcet's Disease. His chest X-ray revealed left hilar enlargement. A helical computed tomography (CT) scan showed a pulmonary aneurysm with intramural thrombosis in the left pulmonary artery and enlarged hepatic veins. Treatment with colchicine and cyclophosphamide was given for 24 months, and helical thoracic CT was performed again. Helical CT showed that the pulmonary aneurysm was reduced by treatment. Helical CT could be used in Behcet's disease for the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary involvement.

  9. Pulmonary artery aneurysms in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sema; Cimen, Kadriye Akar

    2010-08-01

    Behçet's disease is the most common cause of pulmonary artery aneurysms. Pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare, but they are life-threatening because of their high tendency to rupture. However, there is also a chance that the aneurysms may completely resolve with immunosuppressive therapy. A 30-year-old man was admitted with chest pain, painful oral and genital ulcers, skin rash, weakness, and intermittent hemoptysis. He had a history of Behçet's disease for 6 years. The chest radiography showed a round opacity superior part of hilus on right. The helical thoracic computed tomography (CT) angiography demonstrated pulmonary aneurysms associated with Behçet's disease. The patient was successfully treated with colchicine, corticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide. A discussion about pulmonary artery aneurysms associated with Behçet's disease is provided in this case.

  10. Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Lagrèze, H L; Hartmann, A; Ries, F; Wappenschmidt, J; Hanisch, E

    1987-01-01

    Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery is a rare cause of cerebral ischemia. The authors of the only review of this subject concluded that it is caused predominantly by factors other than atherosclerosis. We examined 6 patients with isolated supraclinoid occlusive lesions. Five of them had one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis. Thus, the isolated stenosis of that part of the internal carotid artery does not seem to represent a particular pathologic entity.

  11. Duplex ultrasound in the assessment of peripheral arterial disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Sayed A. A. F.

    Arteriography plays a central role in the assessment of peripheral arterial disease. Arteriography is associated with the risk of damage to the artery, peripheral embolisation, hazards of intra-arterial injection and exposure to ionising radiation. Arteriography provides an anatomical assessment of arterial stenosis but does not measure the functional results of the stenosis. Modern high resolution ultrasound imaging technology enables non-invasive assessment of vascular diseases and allows functional assessment of blood flow. This investigation is of proven value in studying carotid disease. The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of duplex ultrasonography (DUS) in assessment of lower limb arterial disease in comparison with arteriography (IA DSA). A technical comparison has been made between the description of arterial lesion as indicated by DUS and IA DSA. In addition, the sensitivity of DUS in assessing multisegmental arterial disease has been determined. The clinical decision has been investigated in a further study in which five surgeons were asked to determine patient management based on IA DSA and DUS data in the same patient group. Concordance between management strategies was assessed. DUS was used as the primary method of investigation in further series of patients. Criteria were established to determine which patients would require angiography. The computer-assisted image analysis was used to study the ultrasound images of arterial stenosis and a method of analysing such images objectively was established. Two studies have been included in this section. These assess the technical accuracy of ultrasound image analysis compared with histological examination of plaque. The reproducibility of the image analysis has also been tested. I have developed a classification for peripheral arterial disease to be used to facilitate the communication between vascular laboratory staff who perform the duplex ultrasonography and surgeons who use this

  12. Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study.

    PubMed

    Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Leiballi, Elisa; Capanna, Michele; Burelli, Claudio; Cassin, Matteo; Macor, Franco; Grandis, Umberto; Nicolosi, Gian Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Patients with aortic stenosis have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease, but there is little information about the association of coronary artery disease and carotid artery disease. The study includes 317 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis, who underwent carotid and coronary angiography during the same catheterization before aortic valve replacement. At univariate analysis, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was associated with (1) presence of carotid artery disease (P < .001); (2) angina pectoris as presentation symptom (P < .001); (3) age more than 65 years (P < .05); and (4) hypertension (P < .05). At multivariate analysis, only carotid artery disease, angina, and age emerged as independent predictors of coronary artery disease. The combination of 2 variables (carotid artery disease, angina) allowed the identification of 4 groups, with decreasing prevalence of coronary artery disease: (1) angina+/carotid artery disease+: 85%; (2) angina-/ carotid artery disease+: 50%; (3) angina+/carotid artery disease-: 41%; (4) angina-/carotid artery disease-: 21% (P < .001). In patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis, the presence of significant carotid artery disease is a strong marker of significant coronary artery disease.

  13. [Coronary artery disease in patient 80 years and older].

    PubMed

    Hanon, Olivier

    2008-09-30

    The prevalence of coronary artery disease increases with age. Its clinical presentation is even less typical and its prognosis even more severe that it occurs in frail subjects with several co-morbidities. These atypical symptoms are often associated with a delayed diagnosis and therapy. The presence of comorbidities requires a comprehensive geriatric assessment to detect the existence of "frailty". Evidence based medicine available for coronary artery disease is based on studies that involve very few subjects over 80 years and recommendations are extrapolated from data based on evidence obtained in younger populations. Basically the strategy of treatments of coronary artery disease in octogenarians remains identical to the youngest subject. However, epidemiological studies indicate an under-prescription of recommended drugs whereas this older population is likely to derive the greatest benefit because of its elevated cardiovascular risk. Cautions for use of cardio-vascular therapies are necessary in octogenarian people because of comorbidities and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes related to aging. Globally, the therapeutic strategy of coronary artery disease should be based not on the age but on an individual analysis that takes into account the severity of coronary artery disease, the existence of comorbidities, the iatrogenic risk, the expectancy and the quality of life of the patient.

  14. Subintimal Angioplasty for Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Met, Rosemarie Lienden, Krijn P. Van; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to summarize outcomes of subintimal angioplasty (SA) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase databases were searched to perform a systematic review of the literature from 1966 through May 2007 on outcomes of SA for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the infrainguinal vessels. The keywords 'percutaneous intentional extraluminal revascularization,' 'subintimal angioplasty,' 'peripheral arterial disease,' 'femoral artery,' 'popliteal artery,' and 'tibial artery' were used. Assessment of study quality was done using a form based on a checklist of the Dutch Cochrane Centre. The recorded outcomes were technical and clinical success, primary (assisted) patency, limb salvage, complications, and survival, in relation to the clinical grade of disease (intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia [CLI] or mixed) and location of lesion (femoropopliteal, crural, or mixed). Twenty-three cohort studies including a total of 1549 patients (range, 27 to 148) were included in this review. Methodological and reporting quality were moderate, e.g., there was selection bias and reporting was not done according to the reporting standards. These and significant clinical heterogeneity obstructed a meta-analysis. Reports about length of the lesion and TASC classification were too various to summarize or were not mentioned at all. The technical success rates varied between 80% and 90%, with lower rates for crural lesions compared with femoral lesions. Complication rates ranged between 8% and 17% and most complications were minor. After 1 year, clinical success was between 50% and 70%, primary patency was around 50% and limb salvage varied from 80% to 90%. In conclusion, taking into account the methodological shortcomings of the included studies, SA can play an important role in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, especially in the case of critical limb ischemia. Despite the moderate patency

  15. Longitudinal study of heart disease in a Jamaican rural population

    PubMed Central

    Miall, W. E.; Del Campo, E.; Fodor, J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Ruiz, L.; Standard, K. L.; Swan, A. V.

    1972-01-01

    A long-term epidemiological study of heart disease in a representative rural community in Jamaica was started in 1962-63 and the first follow-up survey was carried out in 1967-68. This report describes the prevalence of several cardiovascular characteristics at each survey, and their associations with other measurements. The nature of the electrocardiographic abnormalities and their relationship with symptoms of effort pain and prolonged chest pain suggests that much of the disease seen in this population is ultimately ischaemic in origin despite evidence that classical myocardial infarction and severe coronary atheroma are relatively infrequent. Nevertheless both the symptoms and the electrocardiographic abnormalities had features that were not completely typical of occlusive disease of extramural coronary arteries. These findings are discussed in terms of the four conditions—hypertension, conventional coronary heart disease, small artery disease, and cardiomyopathy—that are believed to account for most cases of heart disease in this community, and it is concluded that the overall pattern of disease cannot be explained by any single disorder of overriding importance. The evidence suggests that all may be important contributors. PMID:4538187

  16. Association between arterial stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Sloten, Thomas T; Protogerou, Athanase D; Henry, Ronald M A; Schram, Miranda T; Launer, Lenore J; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2015-06-01

    Arterial stiffness may be a cause of cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. For the associations between stiffness (i.e. carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), carotid stiffness and pulse pressure) on the one hand and cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment on the other, we identified 23 (n=15,666/20 cross-sectional; 1 longitudinal; 2 combined cross-sectional/longitudinal) and 41 studies (n=57,671/26 cross-sectional; 11 longitudinal; 4 combined cross-sectional/longitudinal), respectively. Pooled analyses of cross-sectional studies showed that greater stiffness was associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease with odds ratios, per +1 SD, of 1.29-1.32 (P<.001). Studies on cognitive impairment could not be pooled due to large heterogeneity. Some (but not all) studies showed an association between greater stiffness and cognitive impairment, and the strength of this association was relatively weak. The present study supports the hypothesis that greater arterial stiffness is a contributor to microvascular brain disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between arterial FDG uptake and biomarkers in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kelly S; Rudd, James H F; Hailman, Eric P; Bolognese, James A; Burke, Joanne; Pinto, Cathy Anne; Klimas, Michael; Hargreaves, Richard; Dansky, Hayes M; Fayad, Zahi A

    2012-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter (18)fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging study was performed to estimate the correlations among arterial FDG uptake and atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers in patients with peripheral artery disease. Inflammation within atherosclerotic plaques is associated with instability of the plaque and future cardiovascular events. Previous studies have shown that (18)F-FDG-PET/CT is able to quantify inflammation within carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques, but no studies to date have investigated this correlation in peripheral arteries with immunohistochemical confirmation. Thirty patients across 5 study sites underwent (18)F-FDG-PET/CT imaging before SilverHawk atherectomy (FoxHollow Technologies, Redwood City, California) for symptomatic common or superficial femoral arterial disease. Vascular FDG uptake (expressed as target-to-background ratio) was measured in the carotid arteries and aorta and femoral arteries, including the region of atherectomy. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the excised atherosclerotic plaque extracts, and cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) level as a measure of macrophage content was determined. Correlations between target-to-background ratio of excised lesions, as well as entire arterial regions, and CD68 levels were determined. Imaging was performed during the 2 weeks before surgery in all cases. Twenty-one patients had adequate-quality (18)F-FDG-PET/CT peripheral artery images, and 34 plaque specimens were obtained. No significant correlation between lesion target-to-background ratio and CD68 level was observed. There were no significant correlations between CD68 level (as a measure of macrophage content) and FDG uptake in the peripheral arteries in this multicenter study. Differences in lesion extraction technique, lesion size, the degree of inflammation, and imaging coregistration techniques may have been responsible for the failure to

  18. Selective arterial distribution of cerebral hyperperfusion in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, D F; Herscovitch, P; Schiffmann, R

    2001-07-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive deficiency of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A associated with an increased risk of early onset cerebrovascular disease. The disorder is reported to affect the posterior circulation predominantly. This hypothesis was investigated directly by the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography (PET). Resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 26 hemizygous patients with Fabry disease and 10 control participants was examined using H(2)15O and PET. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM(t), SPM99) and PET images of patients and controls were produced. Significantly increased SPM(t) clusters were then color coded and blended with a coregistered T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) template. Cerebral arterial territory maps were digitized and rescaled. Custom OpenGL and ImageVision Library C++ code was written to allow a first-order affine transformation of the blended SPM(t) and MRI template onto the arterial territory map. The affine transformation was constrained by choosing corresponding cerebral landmark "tie points" between the SPM(t) [symbol: see text] MRI template images and the cerebral arterial territory maps. The data demonstrated that the posterior circulation is the predominant arterial territory with a significantly increased rCBF in Fabry disease. No arterial distribution had a decreased rCBF.

  19. Drug-Coated Balloons for Infrainguinal Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjum S; Lee, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Revascularization of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease has traditionally been accomplished via percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. However, long-term results have been hampered by high rates of restenosis. Along with the advent of stents, paclitaxel-coated balloons are an emerging therapeutic option for the invasive management of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. Paclitaxel has been successful in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia, the main mechanism for in-stent restenosis. Technological advances have facilitated the development of paclitaxel-coated balloons, which show promise in early trials for femoropopliteal stenosis relative to uncoated balloons. For infrapopliteal stenoses, the data remain scant and conflicted. Therefore, large-scale randomized clinical trials with long-term follow-up evaluating safety and effectiveness between various strategies need to be performed to determine the optimal invasive management strategy for infrainguinal peripheral artery disease.

  20. Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Atherothrombotic Disease: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Su, Ho-Ming; Lee, Chee-Siong; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherothrombotic diseases including cerebrovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), contribute to the major causes of death in the world. Although several studies showed the association between polyvascular disease and poor cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in Asian population, there was no large-scale study to validate this relationship in this population. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort study included patients with a diagnosis of CVD, CAD, or PAD from the database contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau during 2001–2004. A total of 19954 patients were enrolled in this study. The atherothrombotic disease score was defined according to the number of atherothrombotic disease. The study endpoints included acute coronary syndrome (ACS), all strokes, vascular procedures, in hospital mortality, and so on. The event rate of ischemic stroke (18.2%) was higher than that of acute myocardial infarction (5.7%) in our patients (P = 0.0006). In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of each increment of atherothrombotic disease score in predicting ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were 1.41, 1.66, 1.30, and 1.14, respectively (P≦0.0169). Conclusions This large population-based longitudinal study in patients with atherothrombotic disease demonstrated the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke was higher than that of subsequent AMI. In addition, the subsequent adverse CV events including ACS, all stroke, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were progressively increased as the increase of atherothrombotic disease score. PMID:24647769

  1. Characteristics and Fate of Systemic Artery Aneurysm after Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Shinsuke; Tsuda, Etsuko; Yamada, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    To determine the long-term outcome of systemic artery aneurysms (SAAs) after Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated the characteristics and the fate of SAAs in 20 patients using medical records and angiograms. The age of onset of KD ranged from 1 month to 20 months. The interval from the onset of KD to the latest angiogram ranged from 16 months to 24 years. The regression rate of peripheral artery aneurysm and the frequency of stenotic lesions were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method in 11 patients who had undergone initial angiography within 4 months. The mean duration of fever was 24 ± 12 days. All 20 patients had at least 1 symmetric pair of aneurysms in bilateral peripheral arteries, and 16 patients had multiple SAAs. The distributions of SAAs was as follows: brachial artery, 30; common iliac artery, 20; internal iliac artery, 21; abdominal aortic aneurysm, 7; and others, 29. The frequencies of regression of SAA and of the occurrence of stenotic lesions at 20 years after the onset of KD were 51% and 25%, respectively (n = 42). The diameter of all SAAs in the acute phase leading to stenotic lesions in the late period was >10 mm. SAAs occurred symmetrically and were multiple in younger infants and those with severe acute vasculitis. The fate of SAAs resembles that of coronary artery aneurysms, and depends on the diameter during the acute phase. Larger SAAs can lead to stenotic lesions in the late period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fast segmentation of the femoral arteries from 3D MR images: A tool for rapid assessment of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weifu; Xu, Jianrong; Chiu, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    The peripheral arterial disease is a powerful indicator of coexistent generalized atherosclerosis. As plaques in femoral arteries are diffused and can span a length of 30 cm, a large coverage of the arteries is required to assess the full extent of atherosclerosis. Recent development of 3D black-blood magnetic resonance imaging sequences has allowed fast acquisition of images with an extended longitudinal coverage. Vessel wall volume quantification requires the segmentation of the lumen and outer wall boundaries, and conventional manual planimetry would be too time-consuming to be feasible for analyzing images with such a large coverage. To address this challenge in image analysis, this work introduces an efficient 3D algorithm to segment the lumen and outer wall boundaries for plaque and vessel wall quantification in the femoral artery. To generate the initial lumen surface, a user identified the location of the lumen centers manually on a set of transverse images with a user-specified interslice distance (ISD). A number of geometric operators were introduced to automatically adjust the initial lumen surface based on pixel intensity and gradient along the boundary and at the center of each transverse slice. The adjusted surface was optimized by a 3D deformable model driven by the local stiffness force and external force based on image gradient. The optimized lumen surface was expanded to obtain the initial outer wall surface, which was subsequently optimized by the 3D deformable model. The algorithm was executed with and without adjustment of the initial lumen surface and for three different selections of ISD: 10, 20, and 30 mm. The segmentation accuracy was improved in a statistically significant way with the introduction of initial lumen surface adjustment, but was insensitive to the ISD setting. When compared with the manual segmentation, the settings with adjustment have, on average, mean absolute differences (MADs) of 0.28 and 0.36 mm, respectively, for lumen

  3. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a ...

  4. Dynamic diffuse optical tomography imaging of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Michael A; Kim, Hyun K; Kim, In-Kyong; Flexman, Molly; Dayal, Rajeev; Shrikhande, Gautam; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-09-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the narrowing of arteries due to plaque accumulation in the vascular walls. This leads to insufficient blood supply to the extremities and can ultimately cause cell death. Currently available methods are ineffective in diagnosing PAD in patients with calcified arteries, such as those with diabetes. In this paper we investigate the potential of dynamic diffuse optical tomography (DDOT) as an alternative way to assess PAD in the lower extremities. DDOT is a non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging modality that uses near-infrared light to create spatio-temporal maps of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin in tissue. We present three case studies in which we used DDOT to visualize vascular perfusion of a healthy volunteer, a PAD patient and a diabetic PAD patient with calcified arteries. These preliminary results show significant differences in DDOT time-traces and images between all three cases, underscoring the potential of DDOT as a new diagnostic tool.

  5. The natural history of aneurysmal coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Demopoulos, V. P.; Olympios, C. D.; Fakiolas, C. N.; Pissimissis, E. G.; Economides, N. M.; Adamopoulou, E.; Foussas, S. G.; Cokkinos, D. V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of coronary artery ectasia, either isolated or in association with obstructive coronary artery disease, to morbidity and mortality from ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN: A retrospective study of patients undergoing coronary arteriography at a tertiary cardiac centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The epidemiological, clinical, arteriographic, and follow up characteristics of three groups of patients were examined: group A, 172 patients with coronary artery ectasia and coexisting significant coronary artery disease; group B, 31 patients with coronary artery ectasia only; group C, 165 patients with significant coronary artery disease but without ectasia, matched for sex and age with group A. RESULTS: Group A patients had a similar incidence of a previous myocardial infarction to group C patients (61.6% v 64.2%), exercise performance, severity of obstructive lesions (CASS score 2.19 v 2.14), and similar distribution of diseased vessels. At follow up of approximately two years they experienced a similar incidence of unstable angina (7.5% v 4.4%) and myocardial infarction plus cardiac death (4.9% v 6.1%). They underwent bypass surgery with similar frequency (39% v 42%) but there was a lower frequency of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (5.8% v 17%, P < 0.01). Patients with pure coronary ectasia (group B) had a lower incidence of a previous myocardial infarction (38.7%, 12/31, P < 0.05) than the two other groups. The infarct in all cases was related to an ectatic artery. Their exercise performance and ejection fraction (9 (SD 3) minutes and 56.5(9)%) were higher (P < 0.01) than group A (5 (2) minutes, 48.3(10)%) and group C (5.3 (2) minutes, 49.3(10)%). Group B had no myocardial infarctions, cardiac death, surgery, or intervention at follow up; 4.4% (5/115) developed unstable angina. The incidence of angina at study entry was similar in all three groups (38.7-49.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery ectasia does not confer added

  6. Current status of thrombolysis for peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Ouriel, Kenneth

    2002-11-01

    Acute peripheral arterial occlusion occurs as a result of thrombosis or embolism. A reduction in the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease accounts for a shift in the frequency of embolic to thrombotic occlusions. Also, a dramatic increase in the number of lower extremity arterial bypass graft procedures explains the predominance of graft occlusions in most recent series of patients with acute limb ischemia. While open surgical procedures remain the gold standard in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusion, thrombolytic agents have been employed as an alternative to primary surgical revascularization in patients with acute limb ischemia. Systemic administration of thrombolytic agents, while effective for small coronary artery clots, fails to achieve dissolution of the large peripheral arterial thrombi. Catheter-directed administration of the agents directly into the occlusive thrombus is the only means of effecting early recanalization. Prior to 1999, urokinase was the sole agent used in North America for peripheral arterial indications, but the loss of the agent from the marketplace forced clinicians to turn to alternate agents, specifically alteplase and reteplase. Interest in the use of platelet glycoprotein inhibitors and mechanical thrombectomy devices also rose, coincident with the loss of urokinase from the marketplace. Most clinicians welcome the predicted return of urokinase to the marketplace. New investigative trials should be organized and executed to answer some of the remaining questions related to thrombolytic treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Foremost in this regard remains the question of which patients are best treated with percutaneous thrombolytic techniques and which are best treated with primary operative intervention. Ultimately, however, the thrombolytic agents are but one tool in the armamentarium of the vascular practitioner. This review is directed at providing the practicing clinician with the basic fund of knowledge

  7. Hypertension and stable coronary artery disease: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pedrinelli, Roberto; Ballo, Piercarlo; Fiorentini, Cesare; Galderisi, Maurizio; Ganau, Antonello; Germanò, Giuseppe; Innelli, Pasquale; Paini, Anna; Perlini, Stefano; Salvetti, Massimo; Zacà, Valerio

    2013-08-01

    Systemic hypertension is highly prevalent in stable coronary artery disease, a pervasive comorbidity complicating the diagnostic performance and interpretation of non-invasive provocative tests in chest pain patients because of the ischaemic signals generated, despite normal or near normal coronary arteries, by hearts structurally readapted by long-term exposure to raised systemic blood pressure. Additional and unresolved problems posed by arterial hypertension in patients with stable coronary artery disease regard the benefits of antihypertensive treatment due to reports of irrelevant, if not detrimental, effect of blood pressure (BP) lowering in averting coronary relapses as well as the lack of association between BP levels and incident coronary events in survivors from acute myocardial infarction. Uncertainties extend to BP-independent cardioprotective effects of antihypertensive drugs, although the efficacy of renin-angiotensin system blockers in the long-term prevention of cardiovascular events in stable coronary artery disease patients has been shown by several studies, particularly when combined with amlodipine, a dihydropiridine calcium channel blocker. In contrast, the long-term effect of beta-blockers, the antihypertensive class most used in that clinical category, is not supported by strong evidence except that generated in patients with systolic dysfunction and early postmyocardial infarction recovery periods.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of coronary artery disease in adults with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Paudel, Rajiv; Chatterjee, Saurav; Ahmad, Hasan; Snyder, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in patients with Kawasaki disease, in conjunction with coronary artery aneurysm and stenosis that characterise this disease, are potential risk factors for developing coronary artery disease in young adults. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of coronary artery disease in adult patients with Kawasaki disease. All patients aged 18-55 years of age diagnosed with Kawasaki disease were sampled from Nationwide Inpatient Sample database using International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD 9 code 446.1) from 2009 to 2010. Demographics, prevalence of coronary artery disease, and other traditional risk factors in adult patients with Kawasaki disease were analysed using ICD 9 codes. The prevalence of Kawasaki disease among adults was 0.0005% (n=215) of all in-hospital admissions in United States. The mean age was 27.3 years with women (27.6 years) older than men (27.1 years). Traditional risk factors were hypertension (21%), hyperlipidaemia (15.6%), diabetes (11.5%), tobacco use (8.8%), and obesity (8.8%), with no significant difference between men and women. Coronary artery disease (32.4%), however, was more prevalent in men (44.7%) than in women (12.1%; p=0.03). In multivariate regression analysis, after adjusting for demographics and traditional risk factors, hypertension (OR=13.2, p=0.03) was an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease. There was increased preponderance of coronary artery disease in men with Kawasaki disease. On multivariate analysis, hypertension was found to be the only independent predictor of coronary artery disease in this population after adjusting for other risk factors.

  9. [Longitudinal studies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Balaguer Vintró, Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of well defined cohorts have contributed to the identification of risk factors of coronary heart disease and other clinical complications of atherosclerosis. After commenting on the conclusions of experimental atherosclerosis and risk factors suggested by the study of a series of myocardial infarction in young adults and their matched controls, we discuss the methodology, management and results of longitudinal studies carried out in the United States since 1949: Twin Cities, Framingham, Pooling Project, Western Collaborative, Puerto Rico Evans County, NI-IION-SAN, San Francisco, Harvard, Bogalusa and CARDIA. Special attention is given to the hypothesis proposed at the beginning of the Framingham Study and the obstacles and changes to continue the project after the first twenty-four years. We also expose the Seven Countries Study, designed and managed by Ancel Keys, as the first study performed with centralized methodology in various countries, and the studies in various European countries: Whitehall, Manresa, Paris, British Regional, Northwick Park, Caerphilly, Speedwell and PROCAM. We analyse the role of the longitudinal studies in the methodology of later studies: sons and daughters of the Framingham participants, longitudinal studies based on questionnaires, studies of the other risk factors, prevalence of risk factors in retrospective studies, trials of primary prevention (MRFIT, WHO European Collaborative Trial and Gotenburg Study) and the participation of the trained teams in the MONICA Project. We present the issues still under debate in connection with the methodology and results of the longitudinal studies: problems in the periodic examination of the participants in the epidemiologic studies, changes in definition of the new cases of acute cardiovascular events, use and selection of risk functions based on coronary charts to calculate the individual risk and cardiovascular risk factors as yet unknown.

  10. Giant aneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery in a pediatric patient with Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amanda L; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; Williams, Derek A; Hines, Michael H

    2010-07-01

    Behcet's disease is a rare autoimmune vasculitis characterized by oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and ocular and cutaneous lesions. Vascular involvement usually affects the veins more commonly than the arteries, and coronary arterial involvement is extremely rare. We report an adolescent with Behcet's disease who developed a large pseudoaneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery requiring a coronary arterial bypass graft.

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of paraoxonases and chemokines in arteries of patients with peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Sepúlveda, Julio; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Guirro, Maria; García-Heredia, Anabel; Cabré, Noemí; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi

    2015-05-18

    Oxidative damage to lipids and lipoproteins is implicated in the development of atherosclerotic vascular diseases, including peripheral artery disease (PAD). The paraoxonases (PON) are a group of antioxidant enzymes, termed PON1, PON2, and PON3 that protect lipoproteins and cells from peroxidation and, as such, may be involved in protection against the atherosclerosis process. PON1 inhibits the production of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in endothelial cells incubated with oxidized lipoproteins. PON1 and CCL2 are ubiquitously distributed in tissues, and this suggests a joint localization and combined systemic effect. The aim of the present study has been to analyze the quantitative immunohistochemical localization of PON1, PON3, CCL2 and CCL2 receptors in a series of patients with severe PAD. Portions of femoral and/or popliteal arteries from 66 patients with PAD were obtained during surgical procedures for infra-inguinal limb revascularization. We used eight normal arteries from donors as controls. PON1 and PON3, CCL2 and the chemokine-binding protein 2, and Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor, were increased in PAD patients. There were no significant changes in C-C chemokine receptor type 2. Our findings suggest that paraoxonases and chemokines play an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in peripheral artery disease.

  12. Submaximal exercise coronary artery flow increases in postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease after estrogen and atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Puntawangkoon, Chirapa; Morgan, Tim M; Herrington, David M; Hamilton, Craig A; Hundley, W Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of statins and hormone therapy on submaximal exercise-induced coronary artery blood flow in postmenopausal women without a history of coronary artery disease. Hormone therapy or statin therapy in early postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease has been shown to enhance arterial endothelial function; we hypothesized that these agents would improve submaximal exercise-induced coronary artery blood flow. Sixty-four postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 65 years without documented coronary artery disease, were randomized in a double-blind, crossover fashion to receive 8 weeks of hormone therapy versus placebo, with or without 80 mg/day of atorvastatin. Before receipt of any therapy and after each treatment period, each woman underwent measures of coronary artery blood flow at rest and stress. The combination of hormone therapy and atorvastatin increased submaximal exercise-induced coronary artery blood flow (P = 0.04). In the subgroups of women compliant with treatment, resting coronary artery blood flow increased in those receiving hormone therapy (P = 0.03) or statin therapy (P = 0.02). In postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years without documented coronary artery disease, resting and submaximal exercise-induced coronary artery blood flow improves after receipt of high-dose atorvastatin and conjugated estrogens therapy.

  13. Arterial blood gas anomaly in canine hepatobiliary disease.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yasuyuki; Torisu, Shidow; Kobayashi, Takumi; Mizutani, Shinya; Tsuzuki, Nao; Sonoda, Hiroko; Ikeda, Masahiro; Naganobu, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    Arterial blood gas analysis is an important diagnostic and monitoring tool for respiratory abnormalities. In human medicine, lung complications often occur as a result of liver disease. Although pulmonary complications of liver disease have not been reported in dogs, we have frequently encountered hypoxemia in dogs with liver disorders, especially extrahepatic biliary obstruction. In addition, respiratory disorders account for 20% of perioperative fatalities in dogs. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the respiratory status in dogs with hepatobiliary disease by arterial blood gas analysis. PaO2 and PaCO2 were measured. Alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (AaDO2), the indicator of gas exchange efficiency, was calculated. Compared to healthy dogs (control group), hepatobiliary disease dogs had significantly lower PaO2 and higher AaDO2. Hypoxemia (PaO2 of ≤80 mmHg) was observed in 28/71 dogs with hepatobiliary disease. AaDO2 was higher (≥30 mmHg) than the control group range (11.6 to 26.4 mmHg) in 32/71 hepatobiliary disease dogs. By classifying type of hepatobiliary disease, dogs with extrahepatic biliary obstruction and chronic hepatitis showed significantly lower PaO2 and higher AaDO2 than in a control group. Dogs with chronic hepatitis also had significantly lower PaCO2. The present study shows that dogs with hepatobiliary disease have respiratory abnormalities more than healthy dogs. Preanesthetic or routine arterial blood gas analysis is likely beneficial to detect the respiratory abnormalities in dogs with hepatobiliary disease, especially extrahepatic biliary obstruction and chronic hepatitis.

  14. Longitudinal changes in fetal biometry and cerebroplacental hemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Cruz-Lemini, M; Masoller, N; Sanz-Cortés, M; Ferrer, Q; Ribera, I; Martínez, J M; Crispi, F; Arévalo, S; Gómez, O; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Carreras, E; Gratacós, E; Llurba, E

    2017-03-01

    To determine the longitudinal behavior of fetal biometric measures and cerebroplacental hemodynamics throughout gestation in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD). Fetal biometry and Doppler hemodynamics (uterine artery (UtA), umbilical artery (UA) and fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA)) were measured serially in a cohort of consecutive fetuses diagnosed with CHD. Evaluations were made at various time points, from diagnosis (20-25 weeks) to delivery, with at least two measurements per fetus that were at least 2 weeks apart. Fetuses were classified into three groups according to the pattern of blood supply to the brain (placental vs systemic) that would be expected on the basis of the type of CHD. All parameters were transformed into Z-scores. A linear mixed model to analyze repeated measurements was constructed for each parameter to assess its behavior throughout gestation. Four hundred and forty-four ultrasound examinations were performed in 119 CHD fetuses, with a median of two measurements per fetus. The fetuses presented a small head at diagnosis (biparietal diameter (BPD) Z-score, -1.32 ± 0.99; head circumference (HC) Z-score, -0.79 ± 1.02), which remained small throughout gestation. UtA and UA pulsatility indices (PI) showed a significant increase towards the end of pregnancy, whereas no significant changes were observed in MCA-PI or cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) with gestational age. Both MCA and CPR presented significant differences in longitudinal behavior between CHD groups, while BPD and HC did not. CHD fetuses have a relatively small head from the second trimester of pregnancy, regardless of the type of CHD anomaly, and increasing resistance in the UtA and UA as pregnancy progresses, suggestive of increasing degree of placental impairment. Our findings indicate the early onset of mechanisms that could lead to poorer neurodevelopment later in life. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by

  15. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  16. Learning Style Preferences of Elderly Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.

    1992-01-01

    The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…

  17. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  18. Learning Style Preferences of Elderly Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.

    1992-01-01

    The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…

  19. Childhood Antecedents to Adult Coronary Artery Diseases. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…

  20. Estrogens and Coronary Artery Disease: New Clinical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M R; Barton, M

    2016-01-01

    In premenopausal women, endogenous estrogens are associated with reduced prevalence of arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Clinical trials conducted in the 1990s such as HERS, WHI, and WISDOM have shown that postmenopausal treatment with horse hormone mixtures (so-called conjugated equine estrogens) and synthetic progestins adversely affects female cardiovascular health. Our understanding of rapid (nongenomic) and chronic (genomic) estrogen signaling has since advanced considerably, including identification of a new G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), which like the "classical" receptors ERα and ERβ is highly abundant in the cardiovascular system. Here, we discuss the role of estrogen receptors in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and review natural and synthetic ligands of estrogen receptors as well as their effects in physiology, on cardiovascular risk factors, and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Data from preclinical and clinical studies using nonselective compounds activating GPER, which include selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen or raloxifene, selective estrogen receptor downregulators such as Faslodex™ (fulvestrant/ICI 182,780), vitamin B3 (niacin), green tea catechins, and soy flavonoids such as genistein or resveratrol, strongly suggest that activation of GPER may afford therapeutic benefit for primary and secondary prevention in patients with or at risk for coronary artery disease. Evidence from preclinical studies suggest similar efficacy profiles for selective small molecule GPER agonists such as G-1 which are devoid of uterotrophic activity. Further clinical research in this area is warranted to provide opportunities for future cardiovascular drug development.

  1. Genetic contribution of the leukotriene pathway to coronary artery disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the genetic contribution of the leukotriene (LT) pathway to risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in 4,512 Caucasian and African American subjects ascertained through elective cardiac evaluation. Of the three previously associated variants, the shorter "3" and "4" alleles of a promoter ...

  2. Coronary artery bypass is superior to drug-eluting stents in multivessel coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Robert A

    2006-06-01

    Percutaneous intervention for the treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease continues to displace coronary artery bypass graft surgery. But controlled trials of percutaneous intervention versus coronary bypass, in meta-analysis, have shown a significant survival advantage for coronary bypass. Studies of bare metal stents have not presented any data to prompt reversal of this conclusion for all but the small portion of patients most suited for stenting. Drug-eluting stents have no survival advantage compared with bare metal stents. Data from real-world registries have shown that the current therapy of multivessel disease patients has resulted in a relative excess mortality of as much as 46% in patients with initial stenting compared with patients with initial coronary bypass. Ethical considerations demand that patients with multivessel disease be informed of the documented mortality benefit of coronary bypass graft surgery.

  3. How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ...

  4. Uterine artery Doppler longitudinal changes in pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Contro, Elena; Cha, Dong Hyun; De Maggio, Irene; Ismail, Sara Yasmin; Falcone, Veronica; Gabrielli, Sandro; Farina, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the longitudinal changes in uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index (UtA-PI) in pregnancies complicated with early onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Case-control study comparing UtA-PI from 20 to 34 weeks gestation in pregnancies affected by IUGR at 20 to 28 weeks and confirmed at delivery (cases), matched with 1000 controls. Multivariable analyses were used to estimate the UtA-PI as a function of both gestational age and IUGR severity. Finally, bootstrapping technique was used to internally validate the models. We retrospectively retrieved 53 cases and 1000 controls. Regression line having log10 UtA-PI as dependent variable was a function of both gestational age and IUGR. UtA-PI decreased with gestational age in both groups. In IUGR group, UtA-PI was higher from 20 weeks onward and the difference with controls increased with gestational age. In fact, at 20 weeks, the UtA-PI ratio between cases and controls was 1.84, but at 30 weeks it rose to 2.05. Finally, the weight at delivery in the IUGR group was also inversely correlated with the UtA-PI values. We presented a reliable multivariable statistical model to evaluate the temporal changes of UtA-PI values as a function of both gestational age and IUGR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Detection of high risk coronary artery disease by thallium imaging.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, M J; Lahiri, A; Whittington, J R; Crawley, J C; Raftery, E B

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and three patients who underwent coronary arteriography were studied by thallium imaging and the results analysed by Bayesian principles to assess the usefulness of semiquantitative stress thallium imaging for predicting the presence or absence of multivessel coronary disease. Significant disease was found in 80 patients, of whom 77 had abnormal thallium scans (sensitivity 96%). Thallium images were normal in 15 of 23 patients with no significant disease (specificity 65%). Multiple thallium segmental defects were found to be 90% sensitive and 65% specific for multivessel coronary artery disease and were present in 80% of patients with left main stem disease and in 93% of patients with triple vessel disease. A single thallium defect or normal scan excluded multivessel, left main, and triple vessel disease with 81%, 94%, and 91% predictive accuracy respectively. By Bayesian analysis the predictive accuracy for excluding multivessel disease was greater than 90% in patients with a pretest probability of multivessel disease of less than or equal to 40%. Coronary arteriography to exclude multivessel disease is therefore unnecessary in a high proportion of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:4005084

  6. Ultrasound speckle tracking for radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain estimation of the carotid artery--an in vitro validation via sonomicrometry using clinical and high-frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Matilda; Heyde, Brecht; Kremer, Florence; Brodin, Lars-Åke; D'hooge, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasound speckle tracking for carotid strain assessment has in the past decade gained interest in studies of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to validate and directly contrast carotid strain assessment by speckle tracking applied on clinical and high-frequency ultrasound images in vitro. Four polyvinyl alcohol phantoms mimicking the carotid artery were constructed with different mechanical properties and connected to a pump generating carotid flow profiles. Gray-scale ultrasound long- and short-axis images of the phantoms were obtained using a standard clinical ultrasound system, Vivid 7 (GE Healthcare, Horten, Norway) and a high-frequency ultrasound system, Vevo 2100 (FUJIFILM, VisualSonics, Toronto, Canada) with linear-array transducers (12L/MS250). Radial, longitudinal and circumferential strains were estimated using an in-house speckle tracking algorithm and compared with reference strain acquired by sonomicrometry. Overall, the estimated strain corresponded well with the reference strain. The correlation between estimated peak strain in clinical ultrasound images and reference strain was 0.91 (p<0.001) for radial strain, 0.73 (p<0.001) for longitudinal strain and 0.90 (p<0.001) for circumferential strain and for high-frequency ultrasound images 0.95 (p<0.001) for radial strain, 0.93 (p<0.001) for longitudinal strain and 0.90 (p<0.001) for circumferential strain. A significant larger bias and root mean square error was found for circumferential strain estimation on clinical ultrasound images compared to high frequency ultrasound images, but no significant difference in bias and root mean square error was found for radial and longitudinal strain when comparing estimation on clinical and high-frequency ultrasound images. The agreement between sonomicrometry and speckle tracking demonstrates that carotid strain assessment by ultrasound speckle tracking is feasible.

  7. Revascularization therapy for coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Ferguson, J J

    1995-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery relieves the symptoms of myocardial ischemia and prolongs survival of patients with more severe coronary artery disease. Randomized trials of surgical therapy have consistently shown that the benefits of surgical revascularization are proportional to the amount of myocardium affected by, or at risk for, ischemic injury. This risk is inferred from angiographically delineated coronary anatomy, estimates of left ventricular function, and physiologic testing. The population that may see a survival benefit from surgical revascularization has probably been expanded beyond that reported in the VA, CASS, and ECSS trials, due to improved perioperative care, longer graft survival, and the use of internal mammary artery grafts. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty revascularizes myocardium by dilating a stenotic segment of coronary artery. While successful in relieving the symptoms of myocardial ischemia, PTCA is hindered by the occurrence of abrupt vessel closure and the frequent development of restenosis. Furthermore, firm proof of a survival benefit, outside of emergency therapy for acute myocardial infarction, is not yet available. However, because the risk of procedure-related death or serious complication is lower than that seen with bypass surgery, PTCA provides a useful alternative revascularization method for patients with less extensive disease, in whom the risk of surgery may equal or exceed any beneficial effect. New technology and growing experience are widening the scope of percutaneous revascularization by extending the hope of symptomatic relief and survival benefit even to patients with extensive, severe coronary artery disease. Comparisons between surgical therapy and PTCA in select populations with single- and multivessel coronary artery disease have shown that PTCA is not as effective as surgery for long-term symptomatic control, and that it often requires repeat PTCA or cross-over to bypass surgery; however, long

  8. Multimodality Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease: Focus on Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Donghee; Danad, Ibrahim; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Lin, Fay Y.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and various cardiovascular imaging modalities have been introduced for the purpose of diagnosing and determining the severity of CAD. More recently, advances in computed tomography (CT) technology have contributed to the widespread clinical application of cardiac CT for accurate and noninvasive evaluation of CAD. In this review, we focus on imaging assessment of CAD based upon CT, which includes coronary artery calcium screening, coronary CT angiography, myocardial CT perfusion, and fractional flow reserve CT. Further, we provide a discussion regarding the potential implications, benefits and limitations, as well as the possible future directions according to each modality. PMID:27081438

  9. Relation between coronary artery disease, risk factors and intima-media thickness of carotid artery, arterial distensibility, and stiffness index.

    PubMed

    Alan, Sait; Ulgen, Mehmet S; Ozturk, Onder; Alan, Bircan; Ozdemir, Levent; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a diffuse process that involves vessel structures. In recent years, the relation of noninvasive parameters such as intima-media thickening (IMT), arterial distensibility (AD), and stiffness index (SI) to cardiovascular diseases has been researched. However, we have not found any study that has included all these parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its risk factors to AD, SI, and IMT, which are the noninvasive predictors of atherosclerotic process in the carotid artery. Included in the study were 180 patients who were diagnosed as having CAD by coronary angiography (those with at least > or = 30% stenosis in the coronary arteries) and, as a control group, 53 persons who had normal appearing coronary angiographies. IMT, AD, and SI values of all the patients in the study were measured by echo-Doppler imaging (AD formula = 2 x (AoS - AoD)/PP x AoD, SI formula = (SBP/DBP)/([AoS - AoD]/AoD). Significantly increased IMT (0.82 +/- 0.1, 0.57 +/- 0.1, p<0.05), decreased AD (0.25 +/- 0.9, 0.37 +/- 0.1, p<0.05), and increased SI (13 +/- 4, 8 +/- 3, p<0.05) values were detected in the CAD group compared to the control group. A significant correlation was found between IMT and presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and presence of plaque in carotids, and age. In the coronary artery disease group there was a significant correlation between AD and age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol levels, while there was no significant correlation with plaque development. A significant correlation was also found between stiffness index and systolic blood pressure and age; however, there was no relation between number of involved vessels and IMT, AD, and SI. We found sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values for CAD diagnosis to be 70%, 75%, 77%, and 66%, respectively. In CAD cases, according to data in

  10. Vascular Function and Intima-media Thickness of a Leg Artery in Peripheral Artery Disease: A Comparison of Buerger Disease and Atherosclerotic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Akimichi; Kajikawa, Masato; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Oda, Nozomu; Kishimoto, Shinji; Matsui, Shogo; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Goto, Chikara; Noma, Kensuke; Aibara, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Ayumu; Higashi, Yukihito

    2016-11-01

    Both vascular function and structure are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vascular function and structure of a leg artery in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We measured flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation (NID) as indices of vascular function and intima-media thickness (IMT) as an index of vascular structure of the popliteal artery in 100 subjects, including 20 patients with Buerger disease and 30 patients with atherosclerotic PAD, 20 age- and sex-matched subjects without Buerger disease (control group) and 30 age- and sex-matched patients without atherosclerotic PAD (control group). IMT was significantly larger in the Buerger group than in the control group (Buerger, 0.63± 0.20 mm; control, 0.50±0.07 mm; P=0.01), whereas there were no significant differences in FMD and NID between the two groups. IMT was significantly larger in the atherosclerotic PAD group than in the control group (atherosclerotic PAD, 0.80±0.22 mm; control, 0.65±0.14 mm; P<0.01), and FMD and NID were significantly smaller in the atherosclerotic PAD group than in the control group (FMD: atherosclerotic PAD, 3.9%±1.1%; control, 5.0%±1.8%; P<0.01; and NID: atherosclerotic PAD, 6.1%±2.0%; control, 8.4%±2.1%; P<0.01). These findings suggest that vascular function is preserved in patients with Buerger disease and that both vascular function and vascular structure are impaired in patients with atherosclerotic PAD.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency and coronary artery disease: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Kunadian, Vijay; Ford, Gary A; Bawamia, Bilal; Qiu, Weiliang; Manson, JoAnn E

    2014-03-01

    Coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in developed countries despite significant progress in primary prevention and treatment strategies. Older patients are at particularly high risk of poor outcomes following acute coronary syndrome and impaired nutrition, including low vitamin D levels, may play a role. The extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, in particular, its role in maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system are receiving increased attention. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D levels have been linked to inflammation, higher coronary artery calcium scores, impaired endothelial function and increased vascular stiffness. However, so far, few randomized controlled trials have investigated the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in preventing cardiovascular events, and most available trials have tested low doses of supplementation in relatively low-risk populations. Whether vitamin D supplementation will be beneficial among patients with coronary artery disease, including high risk older patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, is unknown and warrants further investigation.

  12. Outcome in one-vessel coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Califf, R M; Tomabechi, Y; Lee, K L; Phillips, H; Pryor, D B; Harrell, F E; Harris, P J; Peter, R H; Behar, V S; Kong, Y; Rosati, R A

    1983-02-01

    We analyzed the clinical outcomes in 688 patients with isolated stenosis of one major coronary artery. The survival rate among patients with disease of the right coronary artery (RCA) was higher than that among patients with left anterior descending (LAD) or left circumflex coronary artery (LCA) disease. The survival rate among patients in all three anatomic subgroups exceeded 90% at 5 years. The presence of a lesion proximal to the first septal perforator of the LAD was associated with decreased survival compared with the presence of a more distal lesion. For the entire group of one-vessel disease patients, total ischemic events (death and nonfatal infarction) occurred at similar rates regardless of the anatomic location of the lesion. Left ventricular ejection fraction was the baseline descriptor most strongly associated with survival, and the characteristics of the angina had the strongest relationship with nonfatal myocardial infarction. No differences in survival or total cardiac event rates were found with surgical or nonsurgical therapy. The relief of angina was superior with surgical therapy, although the majority of nonsurgically treated patients had significant relief of angina. The survival rate of patients with one-vessel coronary disease is excellent, and the risk of nonfatal infarction is low. Clinical strategies for the care of these patients must consider the long-term clinical course of one-vessel coronary disease.

  13. Sudden cardiac death from the perspective of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sara, Jaskanwal D; Eleid, Mackram F; Gulati, Rajiv; Holmes, David R

    2014-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death accounts for approximately 50% of all deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease in the United States. It is most commonly associated with coronary artery disease and can be its initial manifestation or may occur in the period after an acute myocardial infarction. Decreasing the rate of sudden cardiac death requires the identification and treatment of at-risk patients through evidence-based pharmacotherapy and interventional strategies aimed at primary and secondary prevention. For this review, we searched PubMed for potentially relevant articles published from January 1, 1970, through March 1, 2014, using the following key search terms: sudden cardiac death, ischemic heart disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest. Searches were enhanced by scanning bibliographies of identified articles, and those deemed relevant were selected for full-text review. This review outlines various mechanisms for sudden cardiac death in the setting of coronary artery disease, describes risk factors for sudden cardiac death, explores the management of cardiac arrest, and outlines optimal practice for the monitoring and treatment of patients after an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction to decrease the risk of sudden death. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Consultations on patients with venous or arterial diseases.

    PubMed

    Alving, Barbara M; Francis, Charles W; Hiatt, William R; Jackson, Mark R

    2003-01-01

    Advances in vascular biology and drug development, as well as improved interventional techniques, are yielding multiple new treatments for patients with venous and/or arterial thrombosis. Hematologists who are providing consultations for these patients often participate in a multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal care. New anticoagulants, simplified and validated tests for detecting vascular disease, and improved interventional procedures can all reduce the morbidity and mortality that result from venous and arterial thrombosis. In this chapter, different aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders are addressed by a hematologist, an expert in vascular medicine, and a vascular surgeon. The key to the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombosis is anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy. In Section I, Dr. Charles Francis, a hematologist with expertise in thrombosis and hemostasis, describes the clinical trials that have resulted in the approval of newer anticoagulants such as fondaparinux and the thrombin- specific inhibitors. He also reviews the clinical trials that have shown the efficacy of the new oral anticoagulant ximelagatran. Although currently under study primarily for the prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis, these anticoagulants are likely to undergo evaluation for use in arterial thrombosis. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which affects as many as 12% of individuals over the age of 65 years, provides a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians across multiple subspecialties. Dr. William Hiatt, a specialist in vascular medicine, discusses in Section II the epidemiology and manifestations of PAD, the best ways in which to diagnose this disorder and determine its severity, and the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment. In Section III, Dr. Mark Jackson, a vascular surgeon, describes interventional procedures that have been developed or are under development to treat arterial thrombosis. He also

  15. Longitudinal changes in kidney parenchymal volume associated with renal artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Modrall, J Gregory; Timaran, Carlos H; Rosero, Eric B; Chung, Jayer; Plummer, Mitchell; Valentine, R James; Trimmer, Clayton

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the longitudinal changes in renal volume after renal artery stenting (RAS) to determine if renal mass is preserved by stenting. The study cohort consisted of 38 patients with longitudinal imaging available for renal volume quantification before and after RAS. Renal volume was estimated as (kidney length) × (width) × (depth/2) based on preoperative renal imaging. For each patient, the clinical response of blood pressure (BP) and renal function to RAS was categorized according to modified American Heart Association guidelines. Changes in renal volume were assessed using paired nonparametric analyses. The cohort was a median age of 69 years (interquartile range [IQR], 60-74 years). A favorable BP response was observed in 11 of 38 patients (28.9%). At a median interval between imaging studies of 21 months (IQR, 13-32 months), ipsilateral renal volume was significantly increased from baseline (146.8 vs 133.8 cm(3);P = .02). This represents a 6.9% relative increase in ipsilateral kidney volume from baseline. A significant negative correlation between preoperative renal volume and the relative change in renal volume postoperatively (r = -0.42; P = .0055) suggests that smaller kidneys experienced the greatest gains in renal volume after stenting. It is noteworthy that the 25 patients with no change in BP or renal function-clinical failures using traditional definitions-experienced a 12% relative increase in ipsilateral renal volume after RAS. Multivariate analysis determined that stable or improved renal volume after stenting was an independent predictor of stable or improved long-term renal function (odds ratio, 0.008; 95% confidence interval, 0.000-0.206; P = .004). These data lend credence to the belief that RAS preserves renal mass in some patients. This benefit of RAS even extends to those patients who would be considered treatment failures by traditional definitions. Patients with stable or increased renal volume after RAS had more stable renal

  16. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: an autopsied sudden death case with severe atherosclerotic disease of the left coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Mukai, T; Takahashi, S; Takada, A; Saito, K; Harada, K; Mori, S; Abe, N

    2014-03-01

    Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare anomaly. It may contribute to myocardial ischemia or sudden death, although the lesion is usually asymptomatic. We report a sudden death case of a 58-year-old man with ARCAPA coexisting with severe atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. He had been healthy until he complained of chest pain, several days before death, despite the discovery of heart murmur in childhood and suspicion of valvular heart disease. The autopsy revealed not only typical findings of the right coronary anomaly with well-developed collateral circulations but also severe atherosclerotic lesions of the left coronary artery, and ischemic change of the myocardium in the left and right coronary arterial perfusion territory. In addition to the "coronary steal" phenomenon primarily caused by ARCAPA, the reduced flow of both coronary arteries and further increase of "coronary steal" due to atherosclerotic obstructive coronary disease might have contributed to the patient's death.

  17. Plasma viscosity increase with progression of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Poredos, P; Zizek, B

    1996-03-01

    Increased blood and plasma viscosity has been described in patients with coronary and peripheral arterial disease. However, the relation of viscosity to the extent of arterial wall deterioration--the most important determinant of clinical manifestation and prognosis of the disease--is not well known. Therefore, the authors studied plasma viscosity as one of the major determinants of blood viscosity in patients with different stages of arterial disease of lower limbs (according to Fontaine) and its relation to the presence of some risk factors of atherosclerosis. The study encompassed four groups of subjects: 19 healthy volunteers (group A), 18 patients with intermittent claudication up to 200 m (stage II; group B), 15 patients with critical ischemia of lower limbs (stage III and IV; group C), and 16 patients with recanalization procedures on peripheral arteries. Venous blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein without stasis for the determination of plasma viscosity (with a rotational capillary microviscometer, PAAR), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and glucose concentrations. In patients with recanalization procedure local plasma viscosity was also determined from blood samples taken from a vein on the dorsum of the foot. Plasma viscosity was most significantly elevated in the patients with critical ischemia (1.78 mPa.sec) and was significantly higher than in the claudicants (1.68 mPa.sec), and the claudicants also had significantly higher viscosity than the controls (1.58 mPa.sec). In patients in whom a recanalization procedure was performed, no differences in systemic and local plasma viscosity were detected, neither before nor after recanalization of the diseased artery. In all groups plasma viscosity was correlated with fibrinogen concentration (r=0.70, P < 0.01) and total cholesterol concentration (r=0.24, P < 0.05), but in group C (critical ischemia) plasma viscosity was most closely linked to the concentration of alpha-2

  18. Coronary artery disease and lunar catecholamine cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Rowe, William J

    2017-03-15

    Show how lunar catecholamine cardiomyopathy alone, exemplified by Neil Armstrong's single space walk, prior to exposure to inhalation of fine particulate matter, can trigger " Neil Armstrong Syndrome" or by Irwin with coronary, possibly hypertensive heart disease, and catecholamine cardiomyopathy. With space flight, invariably magnesium ion deficits, catecholamine elevations, vicious cycles. Design Use lunar heart rates while configuring rover to show severe tachycardia component of the syndrome. Use Irwin's stress test-" cyanotic fingernails" to support Apollo 15 Space Syndrome. Use Irwin's autobiography to compensate for often incomplete data. Results Paper shows that both Irwin as well as Armstrong meet criteria of my 2nd. Space Syndrome: severe thirst, severe shortness of breath, severe tachycardia, the latter, corrected by replenishing plasma volume. Conclusions Irwin, with a history of hypertension prior to the Apollo 15 mission and classical angina during Earth reentry, may have had coronary as well as hypertensive heart disease whereas there was no evidence that Armstrong had these conditions prior or during his mission. However both, on return to Earth, had abnormal stress tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathophysiology of carotid artery disease and related clinical syndromes.

    PubMed

    De Reuck, J L

    2004-02-01

    The severity of internal carotid artery lesion per se is a poor indicator of the cerebral haemodynamic status of the brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) of the brain allows to study the different pathophysiological changes related to carotid artery disease. Several stages of impairment of cerebral blood flow and metabolism can be shown such as the compensatory phases by the haemodynamic and the metabolic reserve, the transition to reversible (penumbra) and irreversible ischaemia and the phase of luxury perfusion. Distinct PET patterns correlate with certain clinical outcomes. PET studies found evidence for an embolic origin rather than for a low-flow status as most frequent cause of stroke in severe carotid artery disease. Except for deep borderzone infarcts in the centrum semi-ovale, most cortical borderzone infarcts are not due to chronic misery perfusion. Recent silent and recurrent infarcts can be demonstrated with Cobalt-55 PET, which is of importance for the therapeutical decision. The PET studies argue that carotid endarterectomy is successful probably by removing the source of emboli rather than by restoring the cerebral perfusion in severe carotid artery stenosis.

  20. Arterial gene transfer for therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Isner, J M; Walsh, K; Symes, J; Pieczek, A; Takeshita, S; Lowry, J; Rosenfield, K; Weir, L; Brogi, E; Jurayj, D

    1996-05-20

    The age-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the U.S. population has been estimated to approach 12%. The clinical consequences of occlusive peripheral arterial disease (PAD) include pain on walking (claudication), pain at rest, and loss of tissue integrity in the distal limbs; the latter may ultimately lead to amputation of a portion of the lower extremity. Surgical bypass techniques and percutaneous catheter-based interventions may be used to successfully revascularize the limbs of certain patients with PAD. In many patients, however, the anatomic extent and distribution of arterial occlusion is too severe to permit relief of pain and/or healing of ischemic ulcers. No effective medical therapy is available for the treatment of such patients. The purpose of this clinical protocol is to document the safety of therapeutic angiogenesis achieved in this case by percutaneous catheter-based delivery of the gene encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with PAD; and, as secondary objectives, investigate the bioactivity of this strategy to relieve rest pain and heal ischemic ulcers of the lower extremities. The rationale for this human protocol is based upon preclinical studies performed in a rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia. These studies are described in detail below and in the manuscripts enclosed in the Appendix to this proposal. In brief, a single intra-arterial bolus of VEGF recombinant human protein, delivered percutaneously to the ischemic limb via an intravascular catheter, resulted in angiographic, hemodynamic, physiologic, and histologic evidence of augmented collateral artery development. Subsequently, similar results were achieved using an angioplasty catheter with a hydrogel-coated balloon to deliver 400 micrograms of a plasmid containing the cDNA for VEGF to the internal iliac artery in the same animal model. Accordingly, we propose to administer arterial gene (VEGF) therapy to patients with rest pain and

  1. Incremental value of resting three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, You-Jing; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Rui-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Yan; Yang, Chen-Guang; Cai, Jie; Zang, Wei-Er; Li, Ming-Zhou; Qi, Xin; Li, Jing

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the incremental value of resting three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) in the detection of early-stage left ventricular dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 110 patients suspected of having CAD were recruited. All patients underwent 3D-STE and coronary artery angiography (CAG). They were divided to a CAD group and a normal group according to the results of CAG. Using 3D-STE software, the peak values of longitudinal strain (LS), circumferential strain (CS), radial strain (RS) and area strain (AS) and the time to peak value of these strains (T-LS, T-CS, T-RS and T-AS) were measured. A receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was used to analyze the sensitivity of these strains for the diagnosis of CAD. ROC analysis indicated that T-LS and composite indices combining the peak strain value and time to peak of LS, CS and AS have diagnostic value for the early detection of CAD; the area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.667, 0.692, 0.621 and 0.672 respectively (P<0.005). The composite index of longitudinal strain demonstrated the highest diagnostic value for CAD with 62% sensitivity and 76% specificity. These results indicate that 3D-STE has incremental value for the diagnosis of CAD in patients at rest.

  2. Simultaneous bilateral magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral arteries in peripheral arterial disease patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan; Karmonik, Christof; Brunner, Gerd; Lumsden, Alan; Ballantyne, Christie; Johnson, Shawna; Wang, Yi; Morrisett, Joel

    2011-07-01

    To image the femoral arteries in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients using a bilateral receive coil. An eight-channel surface coil array for bilateral MRI of the femoral arteries at 3T was constructed and evaluated. The bilateral array enabled imaging of a 25-cm segment of the superficial femoral arteries (SFA) from the profunda to the popliteal. The array provided improved the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the periphery and similar SNR in the middle of a phantom compared to three other commercially available coils (4-channel torso, quadrature head, whole body). Multicontrast bilateral images of the in vivo SFA with 1 mm in-plane resolution made it possible to directly compare lesions in the index SFA to the corresponding anatomical site in the contralateral vessel without repositioning the patient or coil. A set of bilateral time-of-flight, T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted images was acquired in a clinically acceptable exam time of ≈45 minutes. The developed bilateral coil is well suited for monitoring dimensional changes in atherosclerotic lesions of the SFA. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carolina; Miname, Marcio; Makdisse, Marcia; Kalil, Roberto; Santos, Raul D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Objective This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. Methods The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. Results The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Conclusion Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients. PMID:25029472

  4. Widowhood and severity of coronary artery disease: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Daoulah, Amin; Alama, Mohamed N; Elkhateeb, Osama E; Al-Murayeh, Mushabab; Al-Kaabi, Salem; Al-Faifi, Salem M; Alosaimi, Hind M; Lotfi, Amir; Asiri, Khalid S; Elimam, Ahmed M; Abougalambo, Ayman S; Murad, Waheed; Haddara, Mamdouh M; Dixon, Ciaran M; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association of widowhood with the severity and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD), and whether it is modified by sex or socioeconomic status. A total of 1068 patients undergoing coronary angiography at five centers in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates were included in the study. CAD was defined as more than 70% lumen stenosis in a major epicardial vessel or more than 50% in the left main coronary artery. Multivessel disease was defined as more than one diseased vessel. Of 1068 patients, 65 (6%) were widowed. Widowed patients were older (65±15 vs. 59±12), more likely to be female (75 vs. 25%), less likely to be smokers (18 vs. 47%), of lower economic and education status, and more likely to have undergone coronary angiography for urgent/emergent indications (75 vs. 61%) (P<0.05 for all). There was a significant association between widowhood and the number of coronary arteries with more than 70% lumen stenosis. Consequently, such a high degree of lumen stenosis in those who were widowed was more likely to require coronary artery bypass graft surgery (38 vs. 16%; P<0.01). After adjusting for baseline differences, widowhood was associated with a significantly higher odds of CAD [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-10.5] and multivessel disease (adjusted OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.2-9.6), but not left main disease (adjusted OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.5-3.1). All associations were consistent in men and women and not modified by age, community setting (urban vs. rural), employment, income, or educational levels (Pinteraction>0.1 for all). Widowhood is associated with the severity and extent of CAD. The association is not modified by sex or socioeconomic status.

  5. Statistical Approaches to Longitudinal Data Analysis in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Huntington's Disease as a Model.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Tanya P; Marder, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the overall progression of neurodegenerative diseases is critical to the timing of therapeutic interventions and design of effective clinical trials. Disease progression can be assessed with longitudinal study designs in which outcomes are measured repeatedly over time and are assessed with respect to risk factors, either measured repeatedly or at baseline. Longitudinal data allows researchers to assess temporal disease aspects, but the analysis is complicated by complex correlation structures, irregularly spaced visits, missing data, and mixtures of time-varying and static covariate effects. We review modern statistical methods designed for these challenges. Among all methods, the mixed effect model most flexibly accommodates the challenges and is preferred by the FDA for observational and clinical studies. Examples from Huntington's disease studies are used for clarification, but the methods apply to neurodegenerative diseases in general, particularly as the identification of prodromal forms of neurodegenerative disease through sensitive biomarkers is increasing.

  6. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Tarbell, John M; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.

  7. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tarbell, John M.; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow–induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs. PMID:25360054

  8. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, John M.; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid mechanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.

  9. Longitudinal evaluation of bronchopulmonary disease in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Philip M; Li, Zhanhai; Kosorok, Michael R; Laxova, Anita; Green, Christopher G; Collins, Jannette; Lai, Hui-Chuan; Makholm, Linda M; Rock, Michael J; Splaingard, Mark L

    2003-09-01

    Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) develop bronchopulmonary disease at variable ages. Determining the epidemiology of chronic lung disease and quantifying its severity, however, have been difficult in infants and young children. As part of the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project, we were presented with an ideal opportunity to assess longitudinally the evolution of symptoms, signs, and quantitative measures of CF respiratory disease. After newborn screening test results led to early recognition, 64 patients diagnosed at a median age of 6.71 weeks were enrolled and studied systematically at a median age of 11.3 years to obtain clinical information, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests. Our observations revealed that a frequent cough by history is evident by 10.5 months of age in half the patients. Quantitative chest radiology (CXR scoring) demonstrated that potentially irreversible abnormalities are present in half the children by 2 years. The severity of Wisconsin and Brasfield CXR scores increased in association with respiratory infections. Longitudinal progression of Wisconsin CXR scores was related to age (P < 0.001), pancreatic insufficiency (P = 0.005), and respiratory secretion cultures positive for Staphylococus aureas (P = 0.039). In contrast, serial spirometry showed limited sensitivity, as did lung volume determinations; neither was satisfactory as repeated measures with acceptable quality control until after 7 years of age. Time to event analyses revealed that half the patients had % predicted FEF(25-75) and FEV(1)/FVC values greater than 80% until 10.7 and 9.9 years, respectively. We conclude that of the methods evaluated, quantitative chest radiology is currently the best procedure for frequent assessment of bronchopulmonary disease in CF, and that radiographic progression is evident in approximately 85% of patients by 5 years of age. Our results also suggest that bronchiectasis and other radiographic evidence of chronic infection are

  10. Detection of coronary artery disease by thallium scintigraphy in patients with valvar heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Huikuri, H V; Korhonen, U R; Heikkilä, J; Takkunen, J T

    1986-01-01

    In patients with valvar heart disease detection of coronary artery disease by conventional non-invasive methods may be difficult. The usefulness of thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy for detecting coronary artery disease was evaluated in 16 patients with aortic stenosis, 17 with aortic regurgitation, nine with mitral stenosis, and six with mitral regurgitation who were investigated by coronary angiography. Only two of 21 patients with greater than or equal to 50% coronary artery obstruction had normal thallium images. Three patients without angiographic evidence of coronary artery stenoses had perfusion defects demonstrated by thallium scintigraphy. Only one patient with greater than or equal to 75% coronary stenosis had a normal thallium scan. Angina pectoris or ST segment depression evoked by exercise test were not useful in distinguishing patients with coronary artery disease from those with normal coronary vessels. These data suggest that thallium exercise scintigraphy may be a useful non-invasive test for detecting coronary artery disease in patients with valvar heart disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3730215

  11. Hypertriglyceridaemia and risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Željko

    2017-03-16

    An elevated serum level of LDL cholesterol is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of elevated triglyceride levels is debated. Controversies regarding hypertriglyceridaemia as an independent risk factor for CVD have occurred partly because elevated triglyceride levels are often a component of atherogenic dyslipidaemia - they are associated with decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and increased levels of small dense LDL particles, which are highly atherogenic. Findings from several large studies indicate that elevated levels of triglycerides (either fasting or nonfasting) or, more specifically, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, are independently associated with increased risk of CVD. Possible mechanisms for this association include excessive free fatty acid release, production of proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation factors, and impairment of fibrinolysis. Therapeutic targeting of hypertriglyceridaemia could, therefore, reduce CVD and cardiovascular events, beyond the reduction achieved by LDL-cholesterol lowering. Elevated triglyceride levels are reduced with lifestyle interventions and fibrates, which can be combined with omega-3 fatty acids. Some new drugs are on the horizon, such as volanesorsen (which targets apolipoprotein C-III), pemafibrate, and others. However, CVD outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have produced inconsistent results, meaning that no convincing evidence is available that lowering triglycerides by any approach can reduce mortality.

  12. Stenting for Peripheral Artery Disease of the Lower Extremities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Objective In January 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat received an application from University Health Network to provide an evidentiary platform on stenting as a treatment management for peripheral artery disease. The purpose of this health technology assessment is to examine the effectiveness of primary stenting as a treatment management for peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a progressive disease occurring as a result of plaque accumulation (atherosclerosis) in the arterial system that carries blood to the extremities (arms and legs) as well as vital organs. The vessels that are most affected by PAD are the arteries of the lower extremities, the aorta, the visceral arterial branches, the carotid arteries and the arteries of the upper limbs. In the lower extremities, PAD affects three major arterial segments i) aortic-iliac, ii) femoro-popliteal (FP) and iii) infra-popliteal (primarily tibial) arteries. The disease is commonly classified clinically as asymptomatic claudication, rest pain and critical ischemia. Although the prevalence of PAD in Canada is not known, it is estimated that 800,000 Canadians have PAD. The 2007 Trans Atlantic Intersociety Consensus (TASC) II Working Group for the Management of Peripheral Disease estimated that the prevalence of PAD in Europe and North America to be 27 million, of whom 88,000 are hospitalizations involving lower extremities. A higher prevalence of PAD among elderly individuals has been reported to range from 12% to 29%. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimated that the prevalence of PAD is 14.5% among individuals 70 years of age and over. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with PAD include advanced age, male gender, family history, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. PAD is a strong predictor of myocardial infarction (MI

  13. Coronary Artery Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Ukrainian (Українська) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Arabic) (CAD) تصلب ...

  14. Deaths from occlusive arterial disease in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Ibels, L S; Stewart, J H; Mahony, J F; Sheil, A G

    1974-08-31

    In a series of 325 recipients of cadaveric renal transplants sudden occlusive arterial disease was found to be responsible for 12% of deaths. Acute myocardial infarction (9%) occurred 25 times more than expected in the normal population and cerebral thrombosis (3%) 300 times more. The greatest loss was in the initial three-month period after transplantation. Patients with renal failure due to essential hypertension were especially at risk, accounting for six of the 12 deaths.

  15. [Sulodexide in conservative treatment of peripheral arterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, M R; Kosykh, I V; Yu, Tolstikhin V; Kuznetsova, V F; Magnitsky, I A

    2015-01-01

    Presented in the article is a review of the literature, analysing principles of conservative therapy of patients with obliterating diseases of lower limb arteries and most commonly used drugs to treat them, followed by discussing the mechanisms of action and efficacy of such pharmacological agents as pentoxyphyllin, cilostazol, naphthidrofuryl, aktovegin, sulodexide. Described in details are subtle mechanisms of action of sulodexide as an endothelioprotector, its clinical efficacy in intermittent claudication.

  16. Is carotid artery disease responsible for perioperative strokes after coronary artery bypass surgery?

    PubMed

    Li, Yuebing; Castaldo, John; Van der Heyden, Jan; Plokker, Herbert W M

    2010-12-01

    The coronary and extracranial carotid vascular beds are often simultaneously affected by significant atherosclerotic disease, and stroke is one of the potential major complications of coronary artery surgery. As a result, there is no shortage of reports in the vascular surgery literature describing simultaneous coronary and carotid artery revascularizations. Generally, these reports have found this combination of operations safe, but have stopped short of proving that it is necessary. Intuitively, simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass surgery could be justified if most perioperative strokes were the result of a significant carotid stenosis, either directly or indirectly. At first glance this appears to be a fairly straightforward issue; however, much of the evidence on both sides of the argument is circumstantial. One significant problem in analyzing outcome by choice of treatment in patients presenting with both coronary and carotid disease is the multiple potential causes of stroke in coronary bypass patients, which include hemorrhage and atheroemboli from aortic atheromas during clamping. But this controversial subject is now open to discussion, and our debaters have been given the challenge to clarify the evidence to justify their claims. Copyright © 2010 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relation of Iliac Artery Calcium With Adiposity Measures and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jane J; Pedley, Alison; Weinberg, Ido; Britton, Kathryn A; Massaro, Joseph M; Hoffmann, Udo; Manders, Emily; Fox, Caroline S; Murabito, Joanne M

    2017-04-15

    Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To improve the understanding of the pathogenesis involved with iliac artery calcium (IAC), we sought to examine the associations between the burden of IAC with adiposity measures and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants (n = 1,236, 52% women, mean age 60 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort who underwent multidetector computed tomography. The extent of IAC was quantified based on calcified atherosclerotic plaques detected in the iliac arteries. High IAC was defined based on gender-specific 90th percentile cut-off points from a healthy referent subsample. PAD is defined as an ankle-brachial index < 0.9, intermittent claudication, and/or history of lower extremity revascularization. The association between PAD and IAC was assessed using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. The burden of high IAC was 20.5% in women and 25.5% in men. High IAC was not associated with generalized (body mass index) or area-specific (waist circumference, and volumes of thoracic periaortic, abdominal subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue) adiposity measures (all p ≥0.22). High IAC was associated with increased odds of PAD (odds ratio 10.36, 95% confidence interval 4.28 to 25.09). This association persisted even after additionally adjusting for coronary artery calcium (odds ratio 11.25, 95% confidence interval 4.29 to 29.53). Burden of IAC was associated with an increased risk of PAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The arterial and cardiac epicardium in development, disease and repair.

    PubMed

    Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Winter, Elizabeth M; Bartelings, Margot M; Goumans, Marie Jose; DeRuiter, Marco C; Poelmann, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    The importance of the epicardium covering the heart and the intrapericardial part of the great arteries has reached a new summit. It has evolved as a major cellular component with impact both in development, disease and more recently also repair potential. The role of the epicardium in development, its differentiation from a proepicardial organ at the venous pole (vPEO) and the differentiation capacities of the vPEO initiating cardiac epicardium (cEP) into epicardium derived cells (EPDCs) have been extensively described in recent reviews on growth and transcription factor pathways. In short, the epicardium is the source of the interstitial, the annulus fibrosus and the adventitial fibroblasts, and differentiates into the coronary arterial smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, EPDCs induce growth of the compact myocardium and differentiation of the Purkinje fibers. This review includes an arterial pole located PEO (aPEO) that provides the epicardium covering the intrapericardial great vessels. In avian and mouse models disturbance of epicardial outgrowth and maturation leads to a broad spectrum of cardiac anomalies with main focus on non-compaction of the myocardium, deficient annulus fibrosis, valve malformations and coronary artery abnormalities. The discovery that in disease both arterial and cardiac epicardium can again differentiate into EPDCs and thus reactivate its embryonic program and potential has highly broadened the scope of research interest. This reactivation is seen after myocardial infarction and also in aneurysm formation of the ascending aorta. Use of EPDCs for cell therapy show their positive function in paracrine mediated repair processes which can be additive when combined with the cardiac progenitor stem cells that probably share the same embryonic origin with EPDCs. Research into the many cell-autonomous and cell-cell-based capacities of the adult epicardium will open up new realistic therapeutic avenues. Copyright © 2012 International Society of

  19. Longitudinal assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Amara, Amy W; Chahine, Lama M; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea; Long, Jeffrey D; Coffey, Christopher; Högl, Birgit; Videnovic, Aleksandar; Iranzo, Alex; Mayer, Geert; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Postuma, Ron; Oertel, Wolfgang; Lasch, Shirley; Marek, Ken; Simuni, Tanya

    2017-08-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common and disabling in Parkinson's disease (PD). Predictors of EDS are unclear, and data on biological correlates of EDS in PD are limited. We investigated clinical, imaging and biological variables associated with longitudinal changes in sleepiness in early PD. The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative is a prospective cohort study evaluating progression markers in participants with PD who are unmedicated at baseline (n=423) and healthy controls (HC; n=196). EDS was measured with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Clinical, biological and imaging variables were assessed for associations with EDS for up to 3 years. A machine learning approach (random survival forests) was used to investigate baseline predictors of incident EDS. ESS increased in PD from baseline to year 3 (mean±SD 5.8±3.5 to 7.55±4.6, p<0.0001), with no change in HC. Longitudinally, EDS in PD was associated with non-tremor dominant phenotype, autonomic dysfunction, depression, anxiety and probable behaviour disorder, but not cognitive dysfunction or motor severity. Dopaminergic therapy was associated with EDS at years 2 and 3, as dose increased. EDS was also associated with presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction, whereas biofluid markers at year 1 showed no significant associations with EDS. A predictive index for EDS was generated, which included seven baseline characteristics, including non-motor symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated-tau/total-tau ratio. In early PD, EDS increases significantly over time and is associated with several clinical variables. The influence of dopaminergic therapy on EDS is dose dependent. Further longitudinal analyses will better characterise associations with imaging and biomarkers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Arterial stiffness and arterial function in adult cyanotic patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Trojnarska, Olga; Szczepaniak-Chicheł, Ludwina; Gabriel, Marcin; Bartczak-Rutkowska, Agnieszka; Rupa-Matysek, Joanna; Tykarski, Andrzej; Grajek, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Mortality in cyanotic patients with congenital heart diseases (CHD) is high, mainly due to cardiovascular complications. It is known that endothelial dysfunction, increased arterial stiffness, and impaired vascular function have negative influence on cardiovascular prognosis. The aim of the study was to assess parameters of arterial stiffness and vascular dysfunction in cyanotic patients with CHD as well as their potential relation to impaired blood oxygen saturation and polycythemia parameters typical for cyanosis. A total of 36 CHD cyanotic patients (17 males) (42.3±16.3 years) and 35 healthy individuals (16 males) (39.6±10.4 years) were enrolled. Assessed parameters were intima media thickness and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Assessed parameters using applanation tonometry methods were aortic systolic pressure, aortic pulse pressure (AoPP), augmentation pressure (AP), augmentation index (AI), pulse pressure amplification (PPampl), and pulse wave velocity (PWV). AoPP (37.3±11.1mmHg vs. 29±6.5mmHg; p=0.002), AP (10.1±7.3mmHg vs. 1.1±3.9mmHg; p=0.00001), AI (24.7±13.5% vs. 3.0±13.6%; p=0.00001), and PWV (7.4±2.1m/s vs. 6.3±0.7m/s; p=0.003) were higher, and PPampl was lower (135.3±16.1% vs. 160.4±12.8%; p=0.00001) in the studied group compared to controls and proved the presence of the increased stiffness of arteries. Impairment of FMD was observed (9.0±5.6 vs. 10.9±4.7; p=0.04). No significant correlations were found between analyzed arterial parameters and biochemical ones characterizing cyanotic patients depicting rheological properties of blood. Cyanotic patients with CHD are characterized by increased arterial stiffness estimated with pulse wave analysis parameters and by deteriorated arterial function expressed with worse vasodilatative response in comparison with healthy population. It may confirm relevance of those mechanisms in development of increased rate of cardiovascular events in this population. Association between oxygen saturation

  1. Longitudinal Study of Gray Matter Changes in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Jia, X; Liang, P; Li, Y; Shi, L; Wang, D; Li, K

    2015-12-01

    The pathology of Parkinson disease leads to morphological brain volume changes. So far, the progressive gray matter volume change across time specific to patients with Parkinson disease compared controls remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson disease and to explore the progressive gray matter volume change specific to patients with Parkinson disease with disease progression by using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Longitudinal cognitive assessment and structural MR imaging of 89 patients with Parkinson disease (62 men) and 55 healthy controls (33 men) were from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative data base, including the initial baseline and 12-month follow-up data. Two-way analysis of covariance was performed with covariates of age, sex, years of education, imaging data from multiple centers, and total intracranial volume by using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tool from SPM8 software. Gray matter volume changes for patients with Parkinson disease were detected with decreased gray matter volume in the frontotemporoparietal areas and the bilateral caudate, with increased gray matter volume in the bilateral limbic/paralimbic areas, medial globus pallidus/putamen, and the right occipital cortex compared with healthy controls. Progressive gray matter volume decrease in the bilateral caudate was found for both patients with Parkinson disease and healthy controls, and this caudate volume was positively associated with cognitive ability for both groups. The progressive gray matter volume increase specific to the patients with Parkinson disease was identified close to the left ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, and a positive relationship was found between the thalamic volume and the tremor scores in a subgroup with tremor-dominant patients with Parkinson disease. The observed progressive changes in gray matter volume in Parkinson disease may provide

  2. Value of coronary artery calcium score to predict severity or complexity of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Kalaycıoğlu, Ezgi; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Boyacı, Faruk; Turan, Turhan; Gül, İlker; Çavuşoğlu, Gökhan; Dursun, İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of severity or complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) is valuable owing to increased risk for cardiovascular events. Although the association between total coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and severity of CAD, Gensini score was not used, it has been previously demonstrated. There is no information about the association between total CAC score and complexity of CAD. Objectives To investigate the association between severity or complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) assessed by Gensini score and SYNTAX score (SS), respectively, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, which is a noninvasive method for CAD evaluation in symptomatic patients with accompanying significant CAD. Methods Two-hundred-fourteen patients were enrolled. Total CAC score was obtained before angiography. Severity and complexity of CAD was assessed by Gensini score and SS, respectively. Associations between clinical and angiographic parameters and total CAC score were analyzed. Results Median total CAC score was 192 (23.0-729.8), and this was positively correlated with both Gensini score (r: 0.299, p<0.001) and SS (r: 0.577, p<0.001). At multivariate analysis, it was independently associated with age (ß: 0.154, p: 0.027), male gender (ß: 0.126, p: 0.035) and SS (ß: 0.481, p< 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed a cut-off value > 809 for SS >32 (high SS tertile). Conclusion In symptomatic patients with accompanying significant CAD, total CAC score was independently associated with SS and patients with SS >32 may be detected through high Agatston score. PMID:24676367

  3. Coronary artery disease in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Rokey, R.; Rolak, L.A.; Harati, Y.; Kutka, N.; Verani, M.S.

    1984-07-01

    Coronary artery disease is the cause of death in most patients who have transient ischemic attacks or stroke. Evaluation for this condition is not routinely performed in such patients, and no prospective studies have been reported. We prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with transient ischemic attacks or mild stroke to determine the prevalence and importance of coronary artery disease. All patients were examined by a cardiologist and underwent both exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Sixteen patients were suspected to have coronary artery disease on the basis of clinical evaluation. In 15 of these the was confirmed by the nuclear scans. The remaining 34 patients had no clinical evidence of heart disease, yet 14 had abnormal cardiac scans. Twenty of 22 patients with abnormal scans who underwent cardiac catheterization had significant coronary artery disease or a cardiomyopathy. The discovery of heart disease altered clinical management in 13 patients. Overall, 29 of 50 patients had significant coronary artery disease, compared with a 7% prevalence of the condition in other patients of similar age at the same institution.

  4. The role of coronary artery disease in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lala, Anuradha; Desai, Akshay S

    2014-04-01

    Enhanced survival following acute myocardial infarction and the declining prevalence of hypertension and valvular heart disease as contributors to incident heart failure (HF) have fueled the emergence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as the primary risk factor for HF development. Despite the acknowledged role of CAD in the development of HF, the role of coronary revascularization in reducing HF-associated morbidity and mortality remains controversial. The authors review key features of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CAD in patients with HF as well as the emerging data from recent clinical trials that inform the modern approach to management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does kidney transplantation to iliac artery deteriorate ischemia in the ipsilateral lower extremity with peripheral arterial disease?

    PubMed

    Northcutt, Ashley; Zibari, Gazi; Tan, Tze-Woei; Coulter, Amy H; Zhang, Wayne W

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the progression of lower extremity ischemia following kidney transplantation to iliac artery in patients with peripheral arterial disease. A retrospective chart review of all renal transplant patients completed at a university teaching medical center from January 2006 to December of 2011 was performed. A total of 219 patients underwent successful kidney transplantation to the common, external, or internal iliac artery. Pre- and post-transplantation ischemic changes in the ipsilateral lower extremity were reviewed and analyzed. Thirty-eight of the 219 patients had ipsilateral peripheral arterial disease and seven of them were symptomatic. Six of the seven symptomatic patients remained stable and one patient's rest pain improved, postoperatively. Eight patients developed new symptoms of ischemia 12 months later, including four with claudication, two with ischemic ulcers, and two with gangrene toes. The ulcers were healed following superficial femoral artery stenting and wound care. Toe amputation was performed in two patients with gangrene. No major amputation was required up to 48 months of follow-up. Transplanted kidney to iliac artery does not significantly deteriorate ischemia in adults with ipsilateral lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Late developed ischemic complications may be due to the progression of underlying arterial disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Apolipoprotein (a) concentrations and susceptibility to coronary artery disease in patients with peripheral vascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Groves, P; Rees, A; Bishop, A; Morgan, R; Ruttley, M; Lewis, N; Lane, I; Hall, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between apolipoprotein(a) concentrations and angiographically defined coronary artery disease in patients with atheromatous peripheral vascular disease. DESIGN--40 consecutive patients were recruited at the time of admission for peripheral vascular surgery. All underwent clinical assessment and coronary arteriography. Apolipoprotein(a) concentrations were measured by an immunoradiometric assay. SETTING--Tertiary referral centre. SUBJECTS--Patients requiring surgical intervention for large vessel peripheral vascular disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Presence or absence and severity and distribution of angiographically defined coronary artery disease. Measurement of circulating contractions of apolipoprotein(a) and other lipid indices. RESULTS--Coronary artery disease was absent in 11 patients (group 1), mild to moderate in 12 (group 2), and severe in 17 (group 3). The distribution of peripheral vascular disease and of standard lipid indices was similar in these three groups of patients. There was a significant difference in apolipoprotein(a) concentrations between the three groups, with concentrations progressively increasing with the severity of coronary artery disease (mean (95% confidence interval): group 1, 112 U/1 (52 to 242); group 2, 214 U/1 (129 to 355); group 3, 537 U/1 (271 to 1064) (analysis of variance p < 0.005). The prevalence of coronary artery disease was increased 7.4 fold in patients with apolipoprotein(a) concentrations that were greater than the cohort median (206 U/1) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS--The results show an association between apolipoprotein(a) concentrations and angiographically defined coronary artery disease in patients with large vessel peripheral vascular disease. The findings imply differences in the pathogenesis of coronary and peripheral atheroma and suggest that the measurement of apolipoprotein(a) may prove a useful additional tool in the risk factor assessment of patients undergoing peripheral

  7. Imaging popliteal artery disease in young adults with claudication: self-assessment module.

    PubMed

    Chew, Felix S; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T

    2007-09-01

    The educational objectives of this self-assessment module on imaging popliteal artery disease in young adults with intermittent claudication are for the participant to exercise, self-assess, and improve his or her knowledge of the imaging and clinical features of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, cystic adventitial disease,and masses associated with popliteal artery obstruction.

  8. Detection of coronary artery disease by analysis of ventricular filling

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.R.; Fountos, A.; Biello, D.R.; Ludbrook, P.A.

    1987-05-01

    Rapid left-ventricular (LV) diastolic filling assessed by radionuclide ventriculography is reevaluated in patients with coronary artery disease and normal LV systolic function considering the effects of age and heart rate. Thirty normal subjects were studied along with 44 patients with coronary artery disease and normal LV ejection fractions. The peak filling rate was not quite significantly different between the controls and patients (2.67 +/- 0.95 EDV/sec versus 2.25 +/- 0.65 EDV/sec, p = 0.08), and the time to peak filling rate was not different. When an inappropriate young control group was compared with coronary disease patients aged 40-65 yr, large differences in peak filling rate were seen. Sensitivity for detection of disease was very low (0%-9%) except when the inappropriate young control group was used. Thus, analysis of rapid diastolic filling cannot detect individual patients with coronary disease who have normal LV ejection fractions. Previous reports to the contrary may have suffered from failure to include the effects of age and heart rate.

  9. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia.

  10. Coronary heart disease index based on longitudinal electrocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    A coronary heart disease index was developed from longitudinal ECG (LCG) tracings to serve as a cardiac health measure in studies of working and, essentially, asymptomatic populations, such as pilots and executives. For a given subject, the index consisted of a composite score based on the presence of LCG aberrations and weighted values previously assigned to them. The index was validated by correlating it with the known presence or absence of CHD as determined by a complete physical examination, including treadmill, resting ECG, and risk factor information. The validating sample consisted of 111 subjects drawn by a stratified-random procedure from 5000 available case histories. The CHD index was found to be significantly more valid as a sole indicator of CHD than the LCG without the use of the index. The index consistently produced higher validity coefficients in identifying CHD than did treadmill testing, resting ECG, or risk factor analysis.

  11. Coronary heart disease index based on longitudinal electrocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    A coronary heart disease index was developed from longitudinal ECG (LCG) tracings to serve as a cardiac health measure in studies of working and, essentially, asymptomatic populations, such as pilots and executives. For a given subject, the index consisted of a composite score based on the presence of LCG aberrations and weighted values previously assigned to them. The index was validated by correlating it with the known presence or absence of CHD as determined by a complete physical examination, including treadmill, resting ECG, and risk factor information. The validating sample consisted of 111 subjects drawn by a stratified-random procedure from 5000 available case histories. The CHD index was found to be significantly more valid as a sole indicator of CHD than the LCG without the use of the index. The index consistently produced higher validity coefficients in identifying CHD than did treadmill testing, resting ECG, or risk factor analysis.

  12. The longitudinal impact of depression on disability in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Pontone, Gregory M; Bakker, Catherine C; Chen, Shaojie; Mari, Zoltan; Marsh, Laura; Rabins, Peter V; Williams, James R; Bassett, Susan S

    2016-05-01

    Depression in Parkinson disease (PD) is a common problem that worsens quality of life and causes disability. However, little is known about the longitudinal impact of depression on disability in PD. This study examined the association between disability and DSM-IV-TR depression status across six years. Longitudinal cohort study with assessments at study entry, year two, four, and six conducted in the Morris K. Udall Parkinson Disease Research Center. Recruitment totaled 137 adult men and women with idiopathic PD in which up to six years of data on demographic, motor, and non-motor variables was collected. Movement disorder specialists used the structured interview for DSM-IV-TR depressive disorders and the Northwestern Disability Scale to assess depression and disability. A generalized linear mixed model was fitted with Northwestern Disability Scale score as the dependent variable to determine the effect of baseline depression status on disability. A total of 43 participants were depressed at baseline compared to 94 without depression. Depressed participants were more likely to be female, were less educated, were less likely to take dopamine agonists, and more likely to have motor fluctuations. Controlling for these variables, symptomatic depression predicted greater disability compared to both never depressed (p = 0.0133) and remitted depression (p = 0.0009). Disability associated with symptomatic depression at baseline was greater over the entire six-year period compared to participants with remitted depressive episodes or who were never depressed. Persisting depression is associated with a long-term adverse impact on daily functioning in PD. Adequate treatment or spontaneous remission of depression improves ADL function. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Coronary artery calcification in chronic kidney disease: An update

    PubMed Central

    Stompór, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Arterial calcification is a well-recognized complication of advanced atherosclerosis. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by significantly more pronounced, disseminated and fast-progressing calcification of the vascular system, including the coronary arteries. New computed tomography-based imaging techniques allow for the noninvasive assessment and monitoring of calcification in different vascular sites. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) develops early in the course of CKD and is tightly associated with mineral and bone disorders, which include but are not limited to secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this review, recent data on the pathogenesis of CAC development and progression are discussed, with a special emphasis on fibroblast growth factor 23 and its co-receptor, klotho. The prevalence, progression and prognostic significance of CAC are reviewed separately for patients with end-stage renal disease treated with dialysis, kidney transplant recipients and patients with earlier stages of CKD. In the last section, therapeutic considerations are discussed, with special attention paid to the importance of treatment that addresses mineral and bone disorders of CKD. PMID:24772252

  14. Relationship of Inflammatory Biomarkers with Severity of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The pentraxin family, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid P (SAP), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3), has been identified as playing a key role in inflammatory reactions such as in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined the relationship between peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and serum levels of pentraxins. Methods. This study was undertaken via a retrospective review of PAD patients with surgical intervention for lesions of the common femoral artery. We evaluated the preoperative patient conditions, hemodynamic status, such as ankle brachial index (ABI), and clinical ischemic conditions according to Rutherford classification. Preoperatively, we collected blood samples for determining the serum levels of hs-CRP, SAP, and PTX3. Results. Twelve PAD patients with common femoral arterial lesions were treated and examined. The hemodynamic severity of PAD was not negatively correlated with hs-CRP, SAP, or PTX3. The clinical severity evaluated by Rutherford classification was significantly positively correlated with the serum level of PTX3 (p = 0.019). Conclusion. We demonstrated that PTX3 might be a better marker of PAD than hs-CRP and SAP. Furthermore, PTX3 might be a prognostic marker to evaluate the severity of PAD. PMID:27559483

  15. Transcatheter Arterial Infusion of Autologous CD133+ Cells for Diabetic Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lian, Weishuai; Lou, Wensheng; Han, Shilong; Lu, Chenhui; Zuo, Keqiang; Su, Haobo; Xu, Jichong; Cao, Chuanwu; Tang, Tao; Jia, Zhongzhi; Jin, Tao; Uzan, Georges; Gu, Jianping; Li, Maoquan

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular lesion in diabetic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) still cannot be resolved by current surgical and interventional technique. Endothelial cells have the therapeutic potential to cure microvascular lesion. To evaluate the efficacy and immune-regulatory impact of intra-arterial infusion of autologous CD133+ cells, we recruited 53 patients with diabetic PAD (27 of CD133+ group and 26 of control group). CD133+ cells enriched from patients' PB-MNCs were reinfused intra-arterially. The ulcer healing followed up till 18 months was 100% (3/3) in CD133+ group and 60% (3/5) in control group. The amputation rate was 0 (0/27) in CD133+ group and 11.54% (3/26) in control group. Compared with the control group, TcPO2 and ABI showed obvious improvement at 18 months and significant increasing VEGF and decreasing IL-6 level in the CD133+ group within 4 weeks. A reducing trend of proangiogenesis and anti-inflammatory regulation function at 4 weeks after the cells infusion was also found. These results indicated that autologous CD133+ cell treatment can effectively improve the perfusion of morbid limb and exert proangiogenesis and anti-inflammatory immune-regulatory impacts by paracrine on tissue microenvironment. The CD133+ progenitor cell therapy may be repeated at a fixed interval according to cell life span and immune-regulatory function. PMID:26981134

  16. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial imaging in left main coronary artery disease: sensitive but not specific

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, T.; Griffith, L.S.; Achuff, S.C.; Bailey, I.K.; Bulkley, B.H.; Burow, R.; Pitt, B.; Becker, L.C.

    1981-08-01

    To determine the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy for identifying left main coronary artery disease, the results of scintigraphy at rest and during exercise were compared in 24 patients with 50 percent or greater narrowing of the left main coronary artery and 80 patients with 50 percent or greater narrowing of one or more of the major coronary arteries but without left main coronary involvement. By segmental analysis of the scintigrams, perfusion defects were assigned to the left anterior descending, left circumflex or right coronary artery, singly or in combination, and the pattern of simultaneous left anterior descending and circumflex arterial defects was used to identify left main coronary artery disease. Of the 24 patients with left main coronary artery disease, 22 (92 percent) had abnormal exercise scintigrams. Despite this high sensitivity, the pattern of perfusion defects was not specific; the ''left main pattern'' was found in 3 patients (13 percent) with left main coronary artery disease but also in 3 (33 percent) of 9 patients with combined left anterior descending and left circumflex arterial disease, 4 (19 percent) of 21 patients with three vessel disease and 3 (6 percent) of 50 patients with one or two vessel disease but excluding the group with left anterior descending plus left circumflex arterial disease. The pattern of perfusion defects in the patients with left main coronary artery disease was determined by the location and severity of narrowings in the coronary arteries downstream from the left main arterial lesion. Concomitant lesions in other arteries were found in all patients with left main coronary disease (one vessel in 1 patient, two vessels in 7 patients and three vessels in 16). For this reason, it is unlikely that even with improvements in radiopharmaceutical agents and imaging techniques, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy will be sufficiently specific for definitive identification of left main coronary artery disease.

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of economic and physical impact of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schenkman, M; Wei Zhu, C; Cutson, T M; Whetten-Goldstein, K

    2001-09-01

    The cost of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely unknown although clinical experience suggests that the impact of this disease is substantial. Longitudinal data is presented for health status, disease symptoms, functional status, and financial costs for 70 participants with PD or parkinsonism. The sample was dichotomized into those rating their health as excellent, good, or very good ('good health') and those rating their health as fair or poor ('poor health'). The 'poor health' group were significantly more disabled at baseline. Symptoms increased between year 1 and 3 with greatest increases in fatigue, pain, and depression for the 'good health' group. At year 1, total direct cost/capita was about dollars 5000/year for both groups; indirect costs were dollars 5000 for the 'good health' group and dollars 15,000/year for the 'poor health' group. By year 3, total expenditures increased over 25% for the 'good health' group and nearly doubled for the 'poor health' group, while percent costs that were compensated declined for groups. Out of pocket, expenses were as high as dollars 3000/year for the 'poor health' group by year 3. Through analysis of the broad impact of PD, including non-neurological symptoms and economic ramifications, it is possible to better appreciate the impact of this chronic condition on overall quality of life.

  18. Current options for treatment of chronic coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Prapas, Sotirios N.; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Sakkas, Antonios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The primary issues must be discussed regarding the decision making of treating a patient with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), are the appropriateness of revascularization and the method which will be applied. The criteria will be the symptoms, the evidence of ischemia and the anatomical complexity of the coronary bed. Main indications are persistence of symptoms, despite oral medical treatment and the prognosis of any intervention. The prognosis is based on left ventricular function, on the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis and the ischemic burden. For patients with symptoms and no evidence of ischemia, there is no benefit from revascularization. If ischemia is proven, revascularization is beneficial. If revascularization is decided, the next important issue must be taken under consideration is the choice of the appropriate method to be applied, surgical or interventional approach. Current treatment options will be presented. PMID:24672695

  19. Advances in nanotechnology for the management of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Rhee, June-Wha; Wu, Joseph C

    2013-02-01

    Nanotechnology holds tremendous potential to advance the current treatment of coronary artery disease. Nanotechnology may assist medical therapies by providing a safe and efficacious delivery platform for a variety of drugs aimed at modulating lipid disorders, decreasing inflammation and angiogenesis within atherosclerotic plaques, and preventing plaque thrombosis. Nanotechnology may improve coronary stent applications by promoting endothelial recovery on a stent surface utilizing bio-mimetic nanofibrous scaffolds, and also by preventing in-stent restenosis using nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs that are decoupled from stents. Additionally, nanotechnology may enhance tissue-engineered graft materials for application in coronary artery bypass grafting by facilitating cellular infiltration and remodeling of a graft matrix. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Advances in Nanotechnology for the Management of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, June-Wha; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds tremendous potential to advance the current treatment of coronary artery disease. Nanotechnology may assist medical therapies by providing a safe and efficacious delivery platform for a variety of drugs aimed at modulating lipid disorders, decreasing inflammation and angiogenesis within atherosclerotic plaques, and preventing plaque thrombosis. Nanotechnology may improve coronary stent applications by promoting endothelial recovery on a stent surface utilizing bio-mimetic nanofibrous scaffolds, and also by preventing in-stent restenosis using nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs that are decoupled from stents. Additionally, nanotechnology may enhance tissue-engineered graft materials for application in coronary artery bypass grafting by facilitating cellular infiltration and remodeling of a graft matrix. PMID:23245913

  1. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension in adult patients with congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Serino, G; Giacomazzi, F

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is definited by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPm) >25 mmHg at rest. The Dana Point 2008 Revised Classification System represents the most recent classification system update with respect of various etiologies of PH. About 10 % of adolescents or adults with uncorrected congenital heart disease (CHD) with left-to-right shunt and high pulmonary blood flow develop Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) . Progressive vascular remodeling and increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) may ultimately lead to reversal of the shunt (pulmonary to systemic) causing cyanosis and determining the so-called Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES). Recent advances in the early diagnosis and medical targeted treatment of adult patients with CHD-PAH and ES can improve PAP, PVR and exercise tolerance, together with NYHA Class and survival, and may potentially reverse the vascular remodeling process in selected patients.

  2. Do breast arterial calcifications on mammography predict elevated risk of coronary artery disease?

    PubMed

    Chadashvili, Tamuna; Litmanovich, Diana; Hall, Ferris; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether breast arterial calcifications (BAC) seen on mammography correlates with coronary artery calcium score on coronary CT as it may serve as a potential marker for increased risk of developing symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Retrospective review of the imaging database at our institution identified 145 female patients who underwent coronary CT within a year of screening or diagnostic mammography. The coronary calcium score on CT was calculated by multiplying area of calcification by weighted value assigned to its highest Hounsfield unit and summed for all lesions and expressed as Agaston score. Calculated scores were risk stratified for developing CAD as follows: 0-no risk; 1-10-minimal; 11-100-mild; 101-400-moderate; >400-high risk. Percentile distribution of calcium score adjusted by age, gender and race was calculated based on results of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), which excluded patient with diabetes and chronic renal disease. The mammograms were reviewed by MQSA-certified breast radiologists who were blinded to patients' coronary calcium scores. Mammograms were interpreted for presence or absence of BAC. The calcium scores and corresponding percentiles were correlated with BAC on mammography. Cardiac risk factors such as, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, family history of CAD and smoking, were recorded for each patient. BAC correlated with coronary calcium score of >11 (p=0.0001), corresponding to mild or greater risk of developing CAD. Specifically, coronary calcium score of >11 was seen in 68% (25/37) of patients with BAC and 31% (34/108) of patients without BAC. Accounting for race, gender and age, presence of BAC showed statistically significant correlation with percentile scores of >25. Namely, 70.4% (19/27) of patients with BAC vs. 44.6% (41/92) of patient without BAC showed percentile score of >25 for developing CAD. Statistically significant association was observed of BAC with diabetes (p=0

  3. Coronary artery calcium scanning: the key to the primary prevention of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Harvey S

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery calcium scanning (CAC) is the most powerful prognosticator of cardiac risk in the asymptomatic primary prevention population, far exceeding the role of risk factor-based paradigms. The primary utility of risk factors is to identify treatable targets for risk reduction after risk has been determined by CAC. Serial calcium scanning to evaluate progression of calcified plaque is useful for determining the response to treatment. The 2013 cholesterol treatment guidelines understate the value of CAC scanning for atherosclerotic disease risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Peripheral Arterial Response to Mental Stress in Men versus Women with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mustafa; Li, Qin; Brumback, Babette; Lucey, Dorian G.; Bestland, Melinda; Eubanks, Gina; Fillingim, Roger B.; Sheps, David S.

    2008-01-01

    There are profound gender-related differences in the incidence, presentations and outcomes of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). These differences are not entirely explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Non-traditional risk factors such as psychological traits have increasingly been recognized as important contributors to the genesis and outcomes of CAD. Mental stress induces significant peripheral arterial vasoconstriction with consequent increases in heart rate, and blood pressure. These changes are thought to underlie the development of myocardial ischemia and other mental stress-induced adverse cardiac events in patients with CAD. In this study we examined for gender-related differences in the peripheral arterial response to mental stress in a cohort of CAD patients using a novel peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) technique. Participants were 211 patients [77 (37%) females] with documented history of CAD and a mean age of 64±9 years. Patients were enrolled between August 18th 2004 and February 21st 2007. Mental stress was induced using a public speaking task. Hemodynamic and PAT measurements were recorded during rest and mental stress. The PAT response was calculated as a ratio of stress to resting pulse wave amplitude. PAT responses were compared between males and females. We found that the PAT ratio (stress to rest) was significantly higher in females compared to males. The mean PAT ratio was 0.80±0.72 in females compared to 0.59±0.48 in males (p=0.032). This finding remained significant after controlling for possible confounding factors (p=0.037). In conclusion, peripheral vasoconstrictive response to mental stress was more pronounced in males compared to females. This finding may suggest that males have higher susceptibility to mental stress-related adverse effects. Further studies are needed to determine the significance of this finding. PMID:18929695

  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease Assessment Wall, Perfusion, and Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by lower limb arterial obstruction due to atherosclerosis and is increasingly common. Presently used methods for diagnosis and follow-up as well as for assessment of novel therapies are limited. Materials and Methods Three distinct magnetic resonance examinations were developed. The first was high-resolution black-blood atherosclerotic plaque imaging of the superficial femoral artery using a surface coil and flow saturation. Second, first-pass contrast-enhanced dual-contrast perfusion imaging of the calf muscle was performed at peak exercise using a magnetic resonance (MR)–compatible pedal ergometer. Lastly, 31P MR spectroscopy was also performed at peak exercise to measure phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery kinetics. Results Seventeen patients (age, 63 ± 10 yrs) with mild to moderate PAD were studied with black-blood atherosclerotic plaque imaging. Mean atherosclerotic plaque volume measured was 7.27 ± 3.73 cm3. Eleven patients (age, 61 ± 11 yrs) with mild to moderate symptomatic PAD and 22 normal control subjects were studied with first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging. Perfusion index was stepwise increased from patients to normal subjects with matched workload to normal subjects at maximal exercise. For PCr recovery kinetics, 20 patients with mild to moderate PAD and 14 controls were studied. The median recovery time constant of PCr was 34.7 seconds in the controls and 91.0 seconds in the PAD patients (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Three distinct MR examinations of different aspects of peripheral arterial disease have been developed and tested and shown to differentiate patients with mild to moderate PAD from normal controls. Taken together, these tests are potential quantitative end points for clinical trials of novel therapies in PAD. PMID:18025990

  6. Retinal Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Young Patient with Cat Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Batsos, Georgios; Kabanarou, Stamatina A.; Fotiou, Pantelis; Rouvas, Alexandros; Xirou, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. Methods A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonella henselae. Results Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Conclusions Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease. PMID:24019792

  7. Retinal arterial occlusive disease in a young patient with cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Batsos, Georgios; Kabanarou, Stamatina A; Fotiou, Pantelis; Rouvas, Alexandros; Xirou, Tina

    2013-01-01

    To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonella henselae. Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease.

  8. Impact of chronic kidney disease on use of evidence-based therapy in stable coronary artery disease: a prospective analysis of 22,272 patients.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Paul R; García-Moll, Xavier; Zamorano, José; Kalra, Philip A; Fox, Kim M; Ford, Ian; Ferrari, Roberto; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Greenlaw, Nicola; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    To assess the frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD), define the associated demographics, and evaluate its association with use of evidence-based drug therapy in a contemporary global study of patients with stable coronary artery disease. 22,272 patients from the ProspeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease (CLARIFY) were included. Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated (CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration formula) and patients categorised according to CKD stage: >89, 60-89, 45-59 and <45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Mean (SD) age was 63.9±10.4 years, 77.3% were male, 61.8% had a history of myocardial infarction, 71.9% hypertension, 30.4% diabetes and 75.4% dyslipidaemia. Chronic kidney disease (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was seen in 22.1% of the cohort (6.9% with eGFR<45 mL/min/1.73 m2); lower eGFR was associated with increasing age, female sex, cardiovascular risk factors, overt vascular disease, other comorbidities and higher systolic but lower diastolic blood pressure. High use of secondary prevention was seen across all CKD stages (overall 93.4% lipid-lowering drugs, 95.3% antiplatelets, 75.9% beta-blockers). The proportion of patients taking statins was lower in patients with CKD. Antiplatelet use was significantly lower in patients with CKD whereas oral anticoagulant use was higher. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use was lower (52.0% overall) and inversely related to declining eGFR, whereas angiotensin-receptor blockers were more frequently prescribed in patients with reduced eGFR. Chronic kidney disease is common in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with comorbidities. Whilst use of individual evidence-based medications for secondary prevention was high across all CKD categories, there remains an opportunity to improve the proportion who take all three classes of preventive therapies. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were used less frequently in

  9. Relationship Between Brachial Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation, Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Coronary Flow Reserve in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Fahrettin; Elitok, Ali; Bilge, Ahmet Kaya; Mercanoglu, Fehmi; Oflaz, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Fifty patients with coronary artery disease, except left anterior descending artery (LAD), who showed no cardiac symptoms and 45 control subjects underwent assessment of brachial artery FMD, carotid artery intima-media thickness by high-resolution ultrasound. In addition, transthoracic second harmonic Doppler echocardiography was used to measure CFR. Results All of the parameters were found to be correlated with each other. CFR correlated with brachial artery FMD (r = 0.232, P < 0.05) and with carotid IMT (r = -0.403, P < 0.001). Carotid IMT correlated with brachial artery FMD (r = -0.211, P < 0.05). Conclusion Transthoracic CFR correlated with well-established noninvasive predictors of atherosclerosis and we suggest that it can be used as a surrogate for coronary atherosclerosis.

  10. Predicting Stroke Risk in Hypertensive Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Coca, Antonio; Messerli, Franz H.; Benetos, Athanase; Zhou, Qian; Champion, Annette; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Pepine, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Our understanding of factors influencing stroke risk among patients with coronary artery disease is incomplete. Accordingly, factors predicting stroke risk in hypertensive, clinically stable coronary artery disease patients were determined with data from the INternational VErapamil SR-trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Methods The effect of baseline characteristics and on-treatment blood pressure (BP) were analyzed to determine the risk of stroke (fatal or nonfatal) among the 22 576 patients enrolled. Cox proportional-hazards models (unadjusted, adjusted, and time dependent) were used to identify predictors of stroke among subgroups with these characteristics present at entry and on-treatment BP. Results Excellent BP control (at 24 months, >70% <140/90 mm Hg) was achieved during 61 835 patient-years of follow-up, as 377 patients had a stroke (6.1 strokes/1000 patient-years) and 28% of those patients had a fatal stroke. Increased age, black race, US residency, and history of prior myocardial infarction, smoking, stroke/transient ischemic attack, arrhythmia, diabetes, and coronary bypass surgery were associated with an increased risk of stroke. Achieving a systolic BP <140 mm Hg and a diastolic BP <90 mm Hg was associated with a decreased risk of stroke. There was no statistically significant difference in stroke risk comparing the verapamil SR–based with the atenolol-based treatment strategy (adjusted hazard ratio=0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.06; P=0.17). Conclusions Among hypertensive patients with chronic coronary artery disease, stroke was an important complication associated with significant mortality. Black race, US residency, and conditions associated with increased vascular disease severity and arrhythmia predicted increased stroke risk, whereas achieving a BP <140/90 mm Hg on treatment predicted a reduced stroke risk. PMID:18162623

  11. Stent-Graft Placement for Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Patient with Idiopathic Multiple Arterial Aneurysmal Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Bon Kwon; Choi, Donghoon; Kwon, Kihwan; Jang, Yangsoo; Shim, Won-Heum; Cho, Seung-Yun; Lee, Do Yun

    2002-12-15

    A 34-year-old man presenting with a left inguinal mass was diagnosed as having idiopathic multiple aneurysmal disease and pseudoaneurysm of a left superficial femoral artery. A stent-graft was successfully deployed percutaneously at the left superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysm. Less invasive treatment should be used to avoid vascular complications in patients with idiopathic multiple aneurysmal disease, especially in those who have a progressive course or a history of prior complications after surgical repair.

  12. Longitudinal Analysis Casts Doubt on the Presence of Genetic Anticipation in Heritable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Emma K.; Austin, Eric D.; Hemnes, Anna R.; Wheeler, Lisa; Robbins, Ivan M.; West, James D.; Phillips, John A.; Hamid, Rizwan; Loyd, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Analysis of the age of onset in heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) has led to the hypothesis that genetic anticipation causes younger age of onset and death in subsequent generations. With accrual of pedigree data over multiple decades, we retested this hypothesis using analyses that eliminate the truncation of data that exists with shorter duration of follow-up. Objectives: To analyze the pedigrees of families with mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2), afflicted in two or more generations with HPAH, eliminating time truncation bias by including families for whom we have at least 57 years of data. Methods: We analyzed 355 individuals with BMPR2 mutations from 53 families in the Vanderbilt Pulmonary Hypertension Registry. We compared age at diagnosis or death in affected individuals (n = 249) by generation within families with multigenerational disease. We performed linear mixed effects models and we limited time-truncation bias by restricting date of birth to before 1955. This allowed for 57 years of follow-up (1955–2012) for mutation carriers to develop disease. We also conducted Kaplan-Meier analysis to include currently unaffected mutation carriers (n = 106). Measurements and Main Results: Differences in age at diagnosis by generation were found in a biased analysis that included all birth years to the present, but this finding was eliminated when the 57-year observation limit was imposed. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, inclusion of currently unaffected mutation carriers strengthens the observation that bias of ascertainment exists when recent generations are included. Conclusions: Genetic anticipation is likely an artifact of incomplete time of observation of kindreds with HPAH due to BMPR2 mutations. PMID:22923661

  13. Association between arterial stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Sloten, Thomas T; Protogerou, Athanase D; Henry, Ronald MA; Schram, Miranda T; Launer, Lenore J; Stehouwer, Coen DA

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be a cause of cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. For the associations between stiffness (i.e. carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), carotid stiffness and pulse pressure) on the one hand and cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment on the other, we identified 23 (n=15,666/22 cross-sectional/3 longitudinal) and 41 studies (n=57,671/30 cross-sectional/15 longitudinal), respectively. Pooled analyses of cross-sectional studies showed that greater stiffness was associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease with odds ratios, per +1 SD, of 1.29 to 1.32 (P<.001). Studies on cognitive impairment could not be pooled due to large heterogeneity. Some (but not all) studies showed an association between greater stiffness and cognitive impairment, and the strength of this association was relatively weak. The present study supports the hypothesis that greater arterial stiffness is a contributor to microvascular brain disease. PMID:25827412

  14. Relationship between inter-arm blood pressure differences and future cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Tokitsu, Takanori; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Fujisue, Koichiro; Sugamura, Koichi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kaikita, Koichi; Hokimoto, Seiji; Sugiyama, Seigo; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that inter-arm blood pressure differences (IAD) may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, none have addressed them in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We measured blood pressure bilaterally with the ankle brachial index (ABI) in 657 patients with suspected CAD and assessed the presence of CAD by coronary angiography, and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis with the Gensini score. Mean IADs were significantly greater in risk factor matched patients with CAD than in those without it (P = 0.01), whereas Gensini scores were significantly greater in those with high IAD (≥10  mmHg) than in those with low-IAD (P = 0.01) according to cross-sectional analysis. Patients with high IAD had a significantly greater probability of cardiovascular events than those in whom it was low (log-rank test, P < 0.01, mean follow-up range; 827.3 ± 268.1 days). The presence of hypertension, ABI, usage of calcium channel blocker and high IAD were independent predictors of cardiovascular events according to longitudinal analysis (IAD; hazard ratio: 2.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.41-5.94, P < 0.01) in these patients. Patients with high IAD and peripheral artery disease had the highest Gensini scores according to cross-sectional analysis (P < 0.01) and highest probability of cardiovascular events according to longitudinal analysis (log-rank test, P < 0.001). IADs were increased in CAD patients and correlated with its severity. Greater than 10  mmHg of IAD was independently associated with future cardiovascular events. Assessing IAD by ABI measurement may facilitate risk stratification in CAD patients.

  15. Review of aspirin and clopidogrel resistance in peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Guirgis, Mina; Thompson, Peter; Jansen, Shirley

    2017-09-08

    Aspirin resistance (AR) and clopidogrel resistance (CR) are terms used to describe a reduction in the medication's efficacy in inhibiting platelet aggregation despite regular dosing. This review gives context to the clinical role and implications of antiplatelet resistance in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A review of English-language literature on AR and CR in PAD involving human subjects using PubMed and MEDLINE databases was performed in April 2017. A total of 2075 patients in 22 relevant studies were identified. To give this issue context, a review of the larger, more established literature on antiplatelet resistance in coronary disease was undertaken, identifying significant research associating resistance to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Studies in the coronary arterial disease literature have strongly associated antiplatelet resistance with increased MACE. Prevalence of AR or CR in coronary disease appears to be >55% for each in some studies. Meta-analyses of >50 studies revealed that AR and CR are significantly associated with MACE (relative risk of 2.09 and 2.8, respectively). This adds further weight to the literature reporting antiplatelet resistance as an independent predictor of and a threefold risk factor for major adverse cardiovascular events. The prevalence of resistance in PAD in this review was comparable to that in the coronary disease literature, with AR and CR prevalence up to 60% and 65%, respectively. There is evidence that the adverse effects of antiplatelet resistance are significant in PAD. In fact, research directly studying stent thrombosis populations with either coronary arterial disease or PAD revealed more significantly impaired platelet responsiveness to clopidogrel and aspirin in PAD compared with similar individuals with coronary disease. AR in PAD was found in studies to be a significant risk factor for iliofemoral stent reocclusion (P = .0093) and stroke in patients with symptomatic carotid disease (P

  16. Longitudinal change in regional brain volumes in prodromal Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Nopoulos, Peggy C.; Ross, Christopher A.; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Pierson, Ronald K.; Mills, James A.; Johnson, Hans J.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective As therapeutics are being developed to target the underlying neuropathology of Huntington disease (HD), interest is increasing in methodologies for conducting clinical trials in the prodromal phase. This study was designed to examine the potential utility of structural MRI measures as outcome measures for such trials. Methods Data are presented from 211 prodromal individuals and 60 controls, scanned both at baseline and two-year follow-up. Prodromal participants were divided into groups based on proximity to estimated onset of diagnosable clinical disease: Far (>15 years from estimated onset); Mid (9–15 years); and Near (<9 years). Volumetric measurements of caudate, putamen, total striatum, globus pallidus, thalamus, total gray and white matter, and CSF were performed. Results All prodromal groups showed a faster rate of atrophy than Controls in striatum, total brain, and cerebral white matter (especially in the frontal lobe). Neither prodromal participants nor Controls showed significant longitudinal change in cortex (either total cortical gray or within individual lobes). When normal age-related atrophy (i.e., change observed in the Control group) was taken into account, there was more statistically significant disease-related atrophy in white matter than in striatum. Conclusion Measures of volume change in striatum and white matter volume, particularly in the frontal lobe, may serve as excellent outcome measures for future clinical trials in prodromal HD. Clinical trials using white matter or striatal volume change as an outcome measure will be most efficient if the sample is restricted to individuals who are within 15 years of estimated onset of diagnosable disease. PMID:20884680

  17. Overview of Classification Systems in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Rulon L.; Jazaeri, Omid; Yi, J.; Smith, M.; Gupta, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD), secondary to atherosclerotic disease, is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. While PAD is common, it is estimated that the majority of patients with PAD are undiagnosed and undertreated. The challenge to the treatment of PAD is to accurately diagnose the symptoms and determine treatment for each patient. The varied presentations of peripheral vascular disease have led to numerous classification schemes throughout the literature. Consistent grading of patients leads to both objective criteria for treating patients and a baseline for clinical follow-up. Reproducible classification systems are also important in clinical trials and when comparing medical, surgical, and endovascular treatment paradigms. This article reviews the various classification systems for PAD and advantages to each system. PMID:25435665

  18. Aortic augmentation index in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Antoniazzi, Valeria; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Aortic augmentation index (AIx) is used to investigate arterial stiffness. The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) demonstrate a higher AIx and also evaluated several related factors. In 97 patients with PAD, identified by ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI ≤ 0.9), and 97 controls (ABPI ≥ 0.91< 1.4), AIx (%) was determined using tonometry of the radial artery. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in characteristics of age, sex, height, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, and heart rate. AIx was higher in patients with PAD (32 ± 9 vs 28 ± 9; P = .001). In multivariate regression analysis, AIx was independently associated with heart rate (β = -0.40, P = .0005). This study showed that AIx increased in patients with PAD and that heart rate is a determinant of AIx. Further studies are necessary to assess the pathophysiological and clinical importance of AIx in patients with PAD. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Medical management of patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Poredoš, P; Jezovnik, M; Kalodiki, E; Andreozzi, G; Antignani, P-L; Clement, D; Comerota, A; Fareed, J; Fletcher, J; Fras, Z; Griffin, M; Markel, A; Martini, R; Mignano, A; Nicolaides, A; Novo, G; Novo, S; Roztočil, K; Visona, A

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the most frequent manifestations of atherosclerosis and is associated with atherosclerosis in the coronary and carotid arteries, leading to a highly increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Major risk factors of PAD are similar to those that lead to atherosclerosis in other vascular beds. However, there are differences in the power of individual risk factors in the different vascular territories. Cigarette smoking and diabetes mellitus represent the greatest risks of PAD. For prevention of the progression of PAD and accompanying cardiovascular events similar preventative measures are used as in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, recent data indicate that there are some differences in the efficacy of drugs used in the prevention of atherothrombotic events in PAD. Antiplatelet treatment is indicated in virtually all patients with PAD. In spite of the absence of hard evidence- based data on the long term efficacy of aspirin, it is still considered as a first line treatment and clopidogrel as an effective alternative. The new antiplatelet drugs ticagrelol and prasugrel also represent promising options for treatment of PAD. Statin therapy is indicated to achieve the target low density lipoprotein cholesterol level of ≤2.5 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and there is emerging evidence that lower levels are more effective. Statins may also improve walking capacity. Antihypertensive treatment is indicated to achieve the goal blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg). All classes of antihypertensive drugs including beta-blockers are acceptable for treatment of hypertension in patients with PAD. Diabetic patients with PAD should reduce their glycosylated haemoglobin to ≤7%. As PAD patients represent the group with the highest risk of atherothrombotic events, these patients need the most intensive treatment and elimination of risk factors of atherosclerosis. These measures should be as comprehensive as those in patients with established

  20. Autoimmune disease mouse model exhibits pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Koichi; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Sato, Akihiko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Machida, Takeshi; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Sekine, Hideharu; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is often associated with connective tissue disease. Although there are some animal models of pulmonary hypertension, an autoimmune disease-based model has not yet been reported. MRL/lpr mice, which have hypergammaglobulinemia, produce various autoimmune antibodies, and develop vasculitis and nephritis spontaneously. However, little is known about pulmonary circulation in these mice. In the present study, we examined the pulmonary arterial pressure in MRL/lpr mice. We used female MRL/lpr mice aged between 12 and 14 weeks. Fluorescent immunostaining showed that there was no deposition of immunoglobulin or C3 in the lung tissue of the MRL/lpr mice. Elevation of interferon-γ and interleukin-6 was recognized in the lung tissue of the MRL/lpr mice. Right ventricular systolic pressure, Fulton index and the ratio of right ventricular weight to body weight in the MRL/lpr mice were significantly higher than those in wild type mice with same background (C57BL/6). The medial smooth muscle area and the proportion of muscularized vessels in the lung tissue of the MRL/lpr mice were larger than those of the C57BL/6 mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated markedly elevated levels of prepro-endothelin-1 and survivin as well as decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation in the lung tissue of the MRL/lpr mice. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay showed the resistance against apoptosis of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in the MRL/lpr mice. We showed that MRL/lpr mice were complicated with pulmonary hypertension. MRL/lpr mice appeared to be a useful model for studying the mechanism of pulmonary hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases.

  1. Promoting smoking cessation during hospitalization for coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Robert D; Pipe, Andrew L; Quinlan, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Quitting smoking is the most effective intervention to reduce mortality in patients with coronary artery disease who smoke. Guidelines for the treatment of tobacco dependency recommend that health care institutions develop plans to support the consistent and effective identification and treatment of tobacco users. The University of Ottawa Heart Institute (Ottawa, Ontario) has implemented an institutional program to identify and treat all smokers admitted to the Institute. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the present paper are to describe core elements of this program and present data concerning its reach and effectiveness. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The goal of the program is to increase the number of smokers who are abstinent from smoking six months after a coronary artery disease-related hospitalization. Core elements of the program include: documentation of smoking status at hospital admission; inclusion of cessation intervention on patient care maps; individualized, bedside counselling by a nurse counsellor; the appropriate and timely use of nicotine replacement therapy; automated telephone follow-up; referral to outpatient cessation resources; and training of medical residents and nursing staff. Program reach and effectiveness were measured over a one-year period. RESULTS Between April 2003 and March 2004, almost 1300 smokers were identified at admission, and 91% received intervention to help them quit smoking. At six-month follow-up, 44% were smoke-free. CONCLUSIONS Hospitalization for coronary artery disease provides an important opportunity to intervene with smokers when their motivation to quit is high. An institutional approach reinforces the importance of smoking cessation in this patient population and increases the rate of smoking cessation. Posthospitalization quit rates should be a benchmark of cardiac program performance. PMID:16835672

  2. [Screening and management of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Kraiem, Sondos; Abassi, Chedly; Annabi, Nizar; Smaali, Ibtissem; Issaa, Inès; Wali, Mouin; Malou, Monia; Hannachi, Sofiane; Longo, Selma; Battikh, Kaies; Slimane, Mohamed Lotfi

    2006-10-01

    Diabetes represents as independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and the prognosis in term of survival rates is worse for diabetic patients who have CAD with report to those with CAD but no diabetes. The coronary artery disease in diabetes has specificities and, in particular, more extensive atherosclerosis. Diabetic patients are also more frequently asymptomatic. Due to the extreme complexity of ischemic vascular disease in patients with diabetes, an optimal therapeutic strategy is based on the correction of elevated blood glucose and lipid levels, of blood pressure, of platelet and coagulation abnormalities. Diabetic patients benefit from secondary prevention by drug therapy(aspirin, lipid lowering with statines, beta blocker and ACE inhibitors) to the same extent as, or more than, non-diabetic patients. Both percutaneous and surgical myocardial revascularization have been proved equally effective for CAD treatment in diabetes. A recent randomized trial has shown a significantly improved outcome after surgical revascularization. But, the effects of drug-eluting stents, which dramatically decrease the incidence of re-stenosis, seem promising.

  3. Arterial disease and vascular access in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Baktiroglu, Selcuk; Yanar, Fatih; Ozata, Ibrahim H; Oner, Gizem; Ercan, Damla

    2016-03-01

    There are conflicting reports on the effects of diabetes on the outcomes of hemodialysis access procedures. While some found no negative effects, others reported deleterious effects of diabetes on vascular access outcomes. Why is there concern about diabetes and related vascular problems on vascular access procedures? What are the differences of diabetic patients and their vasculature from that of nondiabetics? Do they have an effect on hemodialysis vascular access outcomes? We will try to find answers to these questions in light of the available evidence. Recent literature on arterial disease in diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and the effects on vascular access outcomes were searched in order to find answers to above questions. There are conflicting and controversial reports on the effects of preexisting vascular problems due to diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the outcomes of hemodialysis access procedures. Diabetic vasculature, especially in patients with ESRD, has some specific problems, the most important of which seem to be the calcification and stiffening of the arteries. Although some authors report inferior outcomes of vascular access procedures in diabetic patients, there is evidence that most of the problems encountered can be dealt with by careful patient selection, surgical skill, and experience.

  4. Peripheral artery disease and CKD: a focus on peripheral artery disease as a critical component of CKD care.

    PubMed

    Garimella, Pranav S; Hart, Peter D; O'Hare, Ann; DeLoach, Stephanie; Herzog, Charles A; Hirsch, Alan T

    2012-10-01

    The incidence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) is higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) than in the general population. PAD is a strong independent risk factor for increased cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity, including limb amputation, in persons with CKD. Diagnosis of PAD in patients with CKD may be challenging in the absence of classic intermittent claudication or the presence of atypical leg symptoms. In addition, pedal artery incompressibility may decrease the accuracy of ankle-brachial index measurement, the most common PAD diagnostic tool. Alternative methods such as toe-brachial index should be used if clinical suspicion persists despite a normal ankle-brachial index value. Aggressive risk-factor modification, including treatment of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension and smoking cessation, should be mandatory in all patients. Treatment of all individuals with PAD should include antiplatelet medications and prescribed supervised exercise programs and/or cilostazol for individuals with claudication symptoms. Preventive foot care measures and a multidisciplinary approach involving podiatrists and vascular and wound care specialists should be used to reduce amputations. Revascularization for critical limb ischemia is associated with poor outcomes in patients with CKD with PAD. Future investigation is recommended to evaluate the benefit of earlier treatment strategies in this high cardiovascular disease risk population with CKD. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaque in patients with peripheral arterial disease using near-infrared spectroscopy intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Amr E; Zacharias, Sibin K; Goldstein, James A; Hanson, Ivan D; Safian, Robert D

    2017-09-01

    We describe the characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using near-infrared spectroscopy-intravascular ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) BACKGROUND: Imaging and autopsy studies have described atherosclerotic plaque in different vascular beds, including varying degrees of lipid, fibrosis, and calcification. Recently, NIRS has been validated as an accurate method for detecting lipid-core plaque (LCP) in the coronary circulation. Invasive evaluation of plaque composition using NIRS-IVUS has not been reported in different peripheral arterial circulations. We performed invasive angiography and NIRS-IVUS in consecutive PAD patients prior to percutaneous revascularization. Imaging evaluation included parameters from angiography, IVUS, and NIRS. NIRS-IVUS findings were compared among different vascular beds with regard to the presence and extent of calcification and LCP. One hundred and forty-nine lesions in 126 PAD patients were enrolled, including the internal carotid (n = 10), subclavian/axillary (n = 9), renal (n = 14), iliac (n = 35), femoropopliteal (n = 69), and infrapopliteal (n = 12) arteries. Plaque morphology was calcified in 132 lesions (89%) and fibrous in 17 lesions (11%). Calcification varied from 100% of renal artery stenoses to 55% of subclavian/axillary artery stenoses. LCP was present in 48 lesions (32%) and prevalence varied from 60% in carotid artery stenoses to 0% in renal artery stenoses (P < 0.005). LCP was only observed in fibrocalcific plaque, and was longitudinally and circumferentially surrounded by a more extensive degree of calcium. NIRS-IVUS in stable PAD patients demonstrates a high frequency of calcific plaque and statistically significant differences in the frequency of LCP in different arterial beds. LCP, when present in the peripheral circulation, is always associated with calcified plaque. The strong co-localization of calcified plaque and LCP in severe PAD lesions

  6. Learning style preferences of coronary artery disease patients.

    PubMed

    Merritt, S L

    1991-01-01

    Using the Patient Learning Style Questionnaire, the author examined differences in perceived learning styles of 125 subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) for conditions and modes of learning commonly found in patient education. The relation of these preferences to selected personal demographic characteristics was also determined. The results indicate that these subjects most preferred organized, detailed instruction using oral and pictorial-graphic modes of presentation. Independent modes of instruction were less preferred. Additional research on the preferred learning style of CAD patients is needed to enable health professionals involved in CAD patient education to design teaching activities.

  7. Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel in Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, William R; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Heizer, Gretchen; Berger, Jeffrey S; Baumgartner, Iris; Held, Peter; Katona, Brian G; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Norgren, Lars; Jones, W Schuyler; Blomster, Juuso; Millegård, Marcus; Reist, Craig; Patel, Manesh R

    2017-01-05

    Peripheral artery disease is considered to be a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis with associated adverse cardiovascular and limb events. Data from previous trials have suggested that patients receiving clopidogrel monotherapy had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those receiving aspirin. We wanted to compare clopidogrel with ticagrelor, a potent antiplatelet agent, in patients with peripheral artery disease. In this double-blind, event-driven trial, we randomly assigned 13,885 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease to receive monotherapy with ticagrelor (90 mg twice daily) or clopidogrel (75 mg once daily). Patients were eligible if they had an ankle-brachial index (ABI) of 0.80 or less or had undergone previous revascularization of the lower limbs. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of adjudicated cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. The primary safety end point was major bleeding. The median follow-up was 30 months. The median age of the patients was 66 years, and 72% were men; 43% were enrolled on the basis of the ABI and 57% on the basis of previous revascularization. The mean baseline ABI in all patients was 0.71, 76.6% of the patients had claudication, and 4.6% had critical limb ischemia. The primary efficacy end point occurred in 751 of 6930 patients (10.8%) receiving ticagrelor and in 740 of 6955 (10.6%) receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.13; P=0.65). In each group, acute limb ischemia occurred in 1.7% of the patients (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.33; P=0.85) and major bleeding in 1.6% (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.43; P=0.49). In patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease, ticagrelor was not shown to be superior to clopidogrel for the reduction of cardiovascular events. Major bleeding occurred at similar rates among the patients in the two trial groups. (Funded by AstraZeneca; EUCLID ClinicalTrials.gov number

  8. Ear lobe crease: a marker of coronary artery disease?

    PubMed Central

    Agouridis, Aris P.; Elisaf, Moses S.; Nair, Devaki R.

    2015-01-01

    The ear lobe crease (ELC) has been defined as a deep wrinkle that extends backwards from the tragus to the auricle. It has been proposed that ELC is a predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this review, we consider the possible association between ELC and CAD. Our aim is to systematically address all the relevant evidence in this field. There are many studies that support an association between ELC and CAD. However, other studies did not find such an association. A recent meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that ELC could be a marker of CAD. However, several limitations raise doubts as to whether we should accept this link. PMID:26788075

  9. Relationship between body mass index and mean arterial pressure in normotensive and chronic hypertensive pregnant women: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Guedes-Martins, Luís; Carvalho, Mariana; Silva, Catarina; Cunha, Ana; Saraiva, Joaquim; Macedo, Filipe; Almeida, Henrique; Gaio, A Rita

    2015-10-30

    Being overweight is associated with both higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) during pregnancy and increased risk of gestational hypertensive disorders. The objective of this study was to determine and quantify the effect of body mass index (BMI) on mean arterial pressure (MAP) at several time points throughout pregnancy in normotensive (NT) and chronic hypertensive pregnant (HT) women. A prospective longitudinal study was carried out in 461 singleton pregnancies (429 low-risk and 32 with chronic arterial hypertension), with measurements taken at the 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) trimesters and at delivery. Linear mixed-effects regression models were used to evaluate the time-progression of BMI, SBP, DBP and MAP during pregnancy (NT vs. HT). The longitudinal effect of BMI on MAP, adjusted for the hypertensive status, was investigated by the same methodology. BMI consistently increased with time in both NT and HT women. In contrast, MAP decreased during the first half of pregnancy, after which it increased until the moment of delivery in both groups. A 5-unit increase in BMI was predicted to produce an increase of approximately 1 mmHg in population MAP values. This effect is independent from the time period and from hypertensive status. In both NT and HT pregnant women, MAP is strongly (and significantly) influenced by increases in BMI.

  10. Longitudinal Changes in LV Structure and Diastolic Function in Relation to Arterial Properties in General Population.

    PubMed

    Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Knez, Judita; D'hooge, Jan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Yang, Wen-Yi; Wei, Fang-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Staessen, Jan A; Kuznetsova, Tatiana

    2017-03-10

    We assessed to what extent arterial properties measured at baseline and follow-up predict longitudinal alterations in echocardiographic indexes reflecting left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Serial imaging studies are needed to clarify the relation of changes in LV structure and function to arterial stiffness. In 607 participants (50.7% women; mean age 50.7 years), using echocardiography and Doppler imaging, we measured LV dimensions, transmitral blood flow, and mitral annular tissue velocities at baseline and after 4.7 years. Using applanation tonometry, we assessed central pulse pressure (cPP) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) at baseline. We regressed longitudinal changes in LV indexes on the arterial stiffness parameters and reported standardized effect sizes as a fraction of SD of LV change. After full adjustment, longitudinal increase in LV septal (standardized effect size: +14.4%; p = 0.0018) and posterior wall (+12.6%; p = 0.0027) thickness was associated with higher baseline PWV, whereas LV internal diameter (-12.4%; p = 0.012) decreased during follow-up with PWV. Consequently, greater increase in relative wall thickness was associated with higher baseline PWV (+17.2%; p <0.0001). Participants with higher baseline PWV had a greater risk to develop or retain LV concentric remodeling during follow-up (odds ratio 1.35; p = 0.028). In addition, in women, baseline cPP predicted a greater increase in LV mass (+22.8%; p = 0.0009) and E/e' ratio (+36.1%; p <0.0001). Progression to LV concentric remodeling pattern was associated with higher baseline PWV. In women, cPP predicted worsening of LV diastolic function. Our study highlights the importance of arterial properties as mediator of LV concentric remodeling in men and women, and diastolic dysfunction in women. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Usefulness of coronary artery calcium for detecting significant coronary artery disease in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Descalzo, M; Vidal-Pérez, R; Leta, R; Alomar, X; Pons-Lladó, G; Carreras, F

    2014-01-01

    To confirm the value of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score as an indicator of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in the asymptomatic Spanish population, using noninvasive coronary angiography by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). This was a retrospective study of 232 asymptomatic individuals, referred for a cardiovascular health checkup that included CAC and MDCT. Participants' mean age was 54.6 years (SD ± 12.8); 73.3% of them were men. The mean CAC value was 117.8 (SD ± 277). The individuals with arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and 3 or more risk factors had significantly greater CAC scores. Some 16.4% of the participants were in the ≥75 percentile population for CAC. The MDCT identified 148 individuals (63.8%) with CAD; the coronary lesions were not significant in 116 individuals (50%) and were significant (>50% stenosis) in 32 (13.8%). The participants with diabetes, smoking and ≥3 risk vascular factors had a greater prevalence of significant stenosis. The individuals with >50% stenosis had higher CAC values (352.5 vs. 1; P<.0001), and those in the ≥75 percentile had a high percentage of significant lesions (57.9% vs. 5.2%; P<.0001). The predictors of significant CAD were a CAC score >300 (OR=10.9; 95% CI 3.35-35.8; P=.0001), belonging to the ≥75 percentile (OR=5.65; 95% CI 1.78-17.93; P=.03) and having 3 or more vascular risk factors (OR=4.19; 95% CI 1.44-12.14; P=.008). CAC quantification is an effective method for determining the extent and magnitude of CAD and delimiting the predictive capacity of traditional risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents in Stable Outpatients with Coronary Artery Disease and Atrial Fibrillation. International CLARIFY Registry.

    PubMed

    Fauchier, Laurent; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ferrari, Roberto; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available regarding the use of antithrombotic strategies in coronary artery disease patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in everyday practice. We sought to describe the prevalence of AF and its antithrombotic management in a contemporary population of patients with stable coronary artery disease. CLARIFY is an international, prospective, longitudinal registry of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease, defined as prior (≥12 months) myocardial infarction, revascularization procedure, coronary stenosis >50%, or chest pain associated with evidence of myocardial ischemia. Overall, 33,428 patients were screened, of whom 32,954 had data available for analysis at baseline; of these 2,229 (6.7%) had a history of AF. Median (interquartile range) CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4 (3, 5). Oral anticoagulation alone was used in 25.7%, antiplatelet therapy alone in 52.8% (single 41.8%, dual 11.0%), and both in 21.5%. OAC use was independently associated with permanent AF (p<0.001), CHA2DS2-VASc score (p=0.006), pacemaker (p<0.001), stroke (p=0.04), absence of angina (p=0.004), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001), increased waist circumference (p=0.005), and longer history of coronary artery disease (p=0.008). History of percutaneous coronary intervention (p=0.004) and no/partial reimbursement for cardiovascular medication (p=0.01, p<0.001, respectively) were associated with reduced oral anticoagulant use. In this contemporary cohort of patients with stable coronary artery disease and AF, most of whom are theoretical candidates for anticoagulation, oral anticoagulants were used in only 47.2%. Half of the patients received antiplatelet therapy alone and one-fifth received both antiplatelets and oral anticoagulants. Efforts are needed to improve adherence to guidelines in these patients. ISRCTN registry of clinical trials: ISRCTN43070564.

  13. Use of Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents in Stable Outpatients with Coronary Artery Disease and Atrial Fibrillation. International CLARIFY Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fauchier, Laurent; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ferrari, Roberto; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Steg, Ph. Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background Few data are available regarding the use of antithrombotic strategies in coronary artery disease patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in everyday practice. We sought to describe the prevalence of AF and its antithrombotic management in a contemporary population of patients with stable coronary artery disease. Methods and Findings CLARIFY is an international, prospective, longitudinal registry of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease, defined as prior (≥12 months) myocardial infarction, revascularization procedure, coronary stenosis >50%, or chest pain associated with evidence of myocardial ischemia. Overall, 33,428 patients were screened, of whom 32,954 had data available for analysis at baseline; of these 2,229 (6.7%) had a history of AF. Median (interquartile range) CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4 (3, 5). Oral anticoagulation alone was used in 25.7%, antiplatelet therapy alone in 52.8% (single 41.8%, dual 11.0%), and both in 21.5%. OAC use was independently associated with permanent AF (p<0.001), CHA2DS2-VASc score (p=0.006), pacemaker (p<0.001), stroke (p=0.04), absence of angina (p=0.004), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001), increased waist circumference (p=0.005), and longer history of coronary artery disease (p=0.008). History of percutaneous coronary intervention (p=0.004) and no/partial reimbursement for cardiovascular medication (p=0.01, p<0.001, respectively) were associated with reduced oral anticoagulant use. Conclusions In this contemporary cohort of patients with stable coronary artery disease and AF, most of whom are theoretical candidates for anticoagulation, oral anticoagulants were used in only 47.2%. Half of the patients received antiplatelet therapy alone and one-fifth received both antiplatelets and oral anticoagulants. Efforts are needed to improve adherence to guidelines in these patients. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry of clinical trials: ISRCTN43070564. PMID:25915904

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency Accelerates Coronary Artery Disease Progression in Swine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcang; Swier, Vicki J; Boosani, Chandra S; Radwan, Mohamed M; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-08-01

    The role of vitamin D deficiency in coronary artery disease (CAD) progression is uncertain. Chronic inflammation in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vitamin D deficiency-enhanced inflammation in the EAT of diseased coronary arteries remains unknown. We examined a mechanistic link between 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-mediated suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transporter, karyopherin α4 (KPNA4) expression and NF-κB activation in preadipocytes. Furthermore, we determined whether vitamin D deficiency accelerates CAD progression by increasing KPNA4 and nuclear NF-κB levels in EAT. Nuclear protein levels were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Exogenous KPNA4 was transported into cells by a transfection approach and constituted lentiviral vector. Swine were administered vitamin D-deficient or vitamin D-sufficient hypercholesterolemic diet. After 1 year, the histopathology of coronary arteries and nuclear protein expression of EAT were assessed. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D inhibited NF-κB activation and reduced KPNA4 levels through increased vitamin D receptor expression. Exogenous KPNA4 rescued 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-dependent suppression of NF-κB nuclear translocation and activation. Vitamin D deficiency caused extensive CAD progression and advanced atherosclerotic plaques, which are linked to increased KPNA4 and nuclear NF-κB levels in the EAT. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D attenuates NF-κB activation by targeting KPNA4. Vitamin D deficiency accelerates CAD progression at least, in part, through enhanced chronic inflammation of EAT by upregulation of KPNA4, which enhances NF-κB activation. These novel findings provide mechanistic evidence that vitamin D supplementation could be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of CAD. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Arterial stiffness & Sri Lankan chronic kidney disease of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Fiona; Kimmitt, Robert; Herath, Chula; Webb, David J; Melville, Vanessa; Siribaddana, Sisira; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffness contributes to CVD risk in CKD. In many developing countries a considerable proportion of CKD remains unexplained, termed CKDu. We assessed arterial stiffness in subjects with Sri Lankan CKDu, in matched controls without CKD and in those with defined CKD. Aortic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were assessed in 130 subjects (50 with CKDu, 45 with CKD and 35 without CKD) using the validated TensioMed™ Arteriograph monitor. Brachial and aortic BP was lower in controls than in CKDu and CKD subjects but no different between CKDu and CKD. Controls had a lower PWV compared to subjects with CKDu and CKD. Despite equivalent BP and renal dysfunction, CKDu subjects had a lower PWV than those with CKD (8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 9.9 ± 2.2 m/s, p < 0.01). Excluding diabetes accentuated the differences in PWV seen between groups (controls vs. CKDu vs. CKD: 6.7 ± 0.9 vs. 8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 10.4 ± 1.5 m/s, p < 0.001 for all). Sri Lankan CKDu is associated with less arterial stiffening than defined causes of CKD. Whether this translates to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality long term is unclear and should be the focus of future studies. PMID:27586642

  16. Arterial stiffness &Sri Lankan chronic kidney disease of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Fiona; Kimmitt, Robert; Herath, Chula; Webb, David J; Melville, Vanessa; Siribaddana, Sisira; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-09-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffness contributes to CVD risk in CKD. In many developing countries a considerable proportion of CKD remains unexplained, termed CKDu. We assessed arterial stiffness in subjects with Sri Lankan CKDu, in matched controls without CKD and in those with defined CKD. Aortic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were assessed in 130 subjects (50 with CKDu, 45 with CKD and 35 without CKD) using the validated TensioMed™ Arteriograph monitor. Brachial and aortic BP was lower in controls than in CKDu and CKD subjects but no different between CKDu and CKD. Controls had a lower PWV compared to subjects with CKDu and CKD. Despite equivalent BP and renal dysfunction, CKDu subjects had a lower PWV than those with CKD (8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 9.9 ± 2.2 m/s, p < 0.01). Excluding diabetes accentuated the differences in PWV seen between groups (controls vs. CKDu vs. CKD: 6.7 ± 0.9 vs. 8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 10.4 ± 1.5 m/s, p < 0.001 for all). Sri Lankan CKDu is associated with less arterial stiffening than defined causes of CKD. Whether this translates to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality long term is unclear and should be the focus of future studies.

  17. Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... control. Photo: Kathleen Cravedi Our nation's number one killer. And high cholesterol is a major cause. At ... most common heart disease and the number one killer of men and women in the United States. ...

  18. Arterial spin labelling reveals prolonged arterial arrival time in idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bachari, Sarah; Parkes, Laura M.; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Hanby, Martha F.; Tharaken, Vivek; Leroi, Iracema; Emsley, Hedley C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, yet effective disease modifying treatments are still lacking. Neurodegeneration involves multiple interacting pathological pathways. The extent to which neurovascular mechanisms are involved is not well defined in IPD. We aimed to determine whether novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including arterial spin labelling (ASL) quantification of cerebral perfusion, can reveal altered neurovascular status (NVS) in IPD. Fourteen participants with IPD (mean ± SD age 65.1 ± 5.9 years) and 14 age and cardiovascular risk factor matched control participants (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 4.2 years) underwent a 3T MRI scan protocol. ASL images were collected before, during and after a 6 minute hypercapnic challenge. FLAIR images were used to determine white matter lesion score. Quantitative images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) were calculated from the ASL data both at rest and during hypercapnia. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) images were calculated, depicting the change in CBF and AAT relative to the change in end-tidal CO2. A significant (p = 0.005) increase in whole brain averaged baseline AAT was observed in IPD participants (mean ± SD age 1532 ± 138 ms) compared to controls (mean ± SD age 1335 ± 165 ms). Voxel-wise analysis revealed this to be widespread across the brain. However, there were no statistically significant differences in white matter lesion score, CBF, or CVR between patients and controls. Regional CBF, but not AAT, in the IPD group was found to correlate positively with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores. These findings provide further evidence of alterations in NVS in IPD. PMID:25379411

  19. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Peripheral Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun Young; Cho, Sung-Il; Lee, Seung Wook

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The objective of this study was to analyze and compare risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects and Methods The sample included 7936 Korean patients aged ≥20 years who were hospitalized from 1994 to 2004. Of the 7936 subjects, PAD (n=415), CAD (n=3686), and normal controls (Control) (n=3835) were examined at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center. Results The mean age (years) of PAD subjects was 64.4 (±9.3), while CAD subjects was 61.2 (±9.9), and Control subjects was 59.9 (±9.1) (p<0.01). The proportion of males was 90.6% for PAD, 71.4% for CAD, and 75.5% for Control subjects (p<0.01). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease were significantly higher in subjects with PAD or CAD compared to those in Control. However, the ORs for high density lipoprotein, being overweight, and being obese were significantly lower in PAD subjects compared to those in Control. Conclusion We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD. PMID:23755078

  20. Elasticity imaging of arterial wall with transcutaneous ultrasound both in longitudinal-axis and short-axis planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Hideyuki

    2001-05-01

    A method for measuring regional elasticity of tissue surrounding atherosclerotic plaque is described. An ultrasonic beam was scanned with a conventional linear-type probe, and multiple layers were preset from luminal surface to adventitia of the common carotid artery (CCA) with intervals of 375 μm. By applying the method [IEEE Trans. UFFC 46, 1229-1241 (1999)], a minute decrease of several tenths of a micrometer in thickness of each layer resulting from arrival of the pressure wave was determined. By assuming that the arterial wall is incompressible and that the blood pressure is applied normal to each layer, the elastic modulus in the circumferential direction of each layer was estimated at intervals of 75 μm in the radial direction and 150-300 μm in longitudinal direction. On the other hand, by designing the directions of ultrasonic beams so that each beam always passes through the center of the artery, the cross-sectional elasticity image in the short-axis plane was also obtained. Based on the elasticity library determined by comparing the elasticity distribution and their pathological images, each point was statistically categorized as lipid, a mixture of smooth muscle and collagen fiber, or other. By applying the method to the CCAs, soft inclusion of lipid was found for plaques.

  1. Lack of MEF2A mutations in coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Li; Kavaslar, Nihan; Ustaszewska, Anna; Doelle, Heather; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hebert, Sybil; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2004-12-01

    Mutations in MEF2A have been implicated in an autosomal dominant form of coronary artery disease (adCAD1). In this study we sought to determine whether severe mutations in MEF2A might also explain sporadic cases of coronary artery disease (CAD). To do this, we resequenced the coding sequence and splice sites of MEF2A in {approx}300 patients with premature CAD and failed to find causative mutations in the CAD cohort. However, we did identify the 21 base pair (bp) MEF2A coding sequence deletion originally implicated in adCAD1 in one of 300 elderly control subjects without CAD. Further screening of an additional {approx}1,500 non-CAD patients revealed two more subjects with the MEF2A 21 bp deletion. Genotyping of 19 family members of the three probands with the 21 bp deletion in MEF2A revealed that the mutation did not co-segregate with early CAD. These studies demonstrate that MEF2A mutations are not a common cause of CAD and cast serious doubt on the role of the MEF2A 21 bp deletion in adCAD1.

  2. Patterns of recurrent disease after recanalization of femoropopliteal artery occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Tielbeek, Alexander V.; Buth, Jaap; Vos, Louwerens D.; Bosch, Harrie C. M. van den

    1997-07-15

    Purpose. In this prospective study we investigated the site, occurrence, and development of stenoses and occlusions following recanalization of superficial femoral artery occlusions. Methods. Recanalization of an occluded femoropopliteal artery was attempted in 62 patients. Follow-up examinations included clinical examination and color-flow duplex scanning at regular intervals. Arteriography was used to determine the localization of the recurrent disease relative to the initially occluded segment. Results. During a mean follow-up of 23 months (range 0-69 months) 14 high-grade restenoses, indicated by a peak systolic velocity ratio {>=}3.0, were detected by color-flow duplex scanning. Occlusion of the treated segment occurred in 11 patients. The cumulative 3-year primary patency rate for high-grade restenoses and occlusions combined was 44% (SE 9%). By arteriographic examination the site of restenosis was localized in the distal half of the treated vessel segment in 16 of 21 cases. Conclusion. Most restenoses and occlusions occurred during the first year and most disease developed at the previous intervention site. The site of restenosis is more frequently in the distal part of the initially treated segment, a finding that may have therapeutic implications.

  3. Nanotechnology in diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mahdi; Zare, Hossein; Bakhshian Nik, Amirala; Yazdani, Narges; Hamrang, Mohammad; Mohamed, Elmira; Sahandi Zangabad, Parham; Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud; Bakhtiari, Leila; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology could provide a new complementary approach to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) which is now one of the biggest killers in the Western world. The course of events, which leads to atherosclerosis and CAD, involves many biological factors and cellular disease processes which may be mitigated by therapeutic methods enhanced by nanotechnology. Nanoparticles can provide a variety of delivery systems for cargoes such as drugs and genes that can address many problems within the arteries. In order to improve the performance of current stents, nanotechnology provides different nanomaterial coatings, in addition to controlled-release nanocarriers, to prevent in-stent restenosis. Nanotechnology can increase the efficiency of drugs, improve local and systematic delivery to atherosclerotic plaques and reduce the inflammatory or angiogenic response after intravascular intervention. Nanocarriers have potential for delivery of imaging and diagnostic agents to precisely targeted destinations. This review paper will cover the current applications and future outlook of nanotechnology, as well as the main diagnostic methods, in the treatment of CAD.

  4. Lack of MEF2A mutations in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Weng, Li; Kavaslar, Nihan; Ustaszewska, Anna; Doelle, Heather; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hébert, Sybil; Cohen, Jonathan C; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A

    2005-04-01

    Mutations in MEF2A have been implicated in an autosomal dominant form of coronary artery disease (adCAD1). In this study we sought to determine whether severe mutations in MEF2A might also explain sporadic cases of coronary artery disease (CAD). To do this, we resequenced the coding sequence and splice sites of MEF2A in approximately 300 patients with premature CAD and failed to find causative mutations in the CAD cohort. However, we did identify the 21-bp MEF2A coding sequence deletion originally implicated in adCAD1 in 1 of 300 elderly control subjects without CAD. Further screening of approximately 1,500 additional individuals without CAD revealed 2 more subjects with the MEF2A 21-bp deletion. Genotyping of 19 family members of the 3 probands with the 21-bp deletion in MEF2A revealed that the mutation did not cosegregate with early CAD. These studies support that MEF2A mutations are not a common cause of CAD in white people and argue strongly against a role for the MEF2A 21-bp deletion in autosomal dominant CAD.

  5. Nanotechnology in diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mahdi; Zare, Hossein; Bakhshian Nik, Amirala; Yazdani, Narges; Hamrang, Mohammad; Mohamed, Elmira; Sahandi Zangabad, Parham; Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud; Bakhtiari, Leila; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology could provide a new complementary approach to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) which is now one of the biggest killers in the Western world. The course of events, which leads to atherosclerosis and CAD, involves many biological factors and cellular disease processes which may be mitigated by therapeutic methods enhanced by nanotechnology. Nanoparticles can provide a variety of delivery systems for cargoes such as drugs and genes that can address many problems within the arteries. In order to improve the performance of current stents, nanotechnology provides different nanomaterial coatings, in addition to controlled-release nanocarriers, to prevent in-stent restenosis. Nanotechnology can increase the efficiency of drugs, improve local and systematic delivery to atherosclerotic plaques and reduce the inflammatory or angiogenic response after intravascular intervention. Nanocarriers have potential for delivery of imaging and diagnostic agents to precisely targeted destinations. This review paper will cover the current applications and future outlook of nanotechnology, as well as the main diagnostic methods, in the treatment of CAD. PMID:26906471

  6. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Young Adults with Family History of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Sadasivam, Kanimozhi; Nagarajan, Poornima; Durai, Indira; Sundari, Meenakshi; Ayyavoo, Saravanan; Ramamoorthy, Thilagavathi

    2015-09-01

    It is well established that accelerated athero-sclerosis occurs in middle-aged and elderly adults with family history of coronary artery disease (CAD). However similar data on younger population with genetic predisposition is lacking. As identifying and treating this target group at an early stage will help in postponing the disease progression and delay the onset of clinical events later in life. We undertook the present study to investigate whether structural vascular changes related to atherosclerosis are detectable in healthy young adults with family history of CAD by non-invasive high resolution scan of the carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT). Fifty healthy young adults of both sexes, aged 18-25 years with family history of CAD were taken as cases and fifty age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure matched subjects without family history of CAD served as control. All participants completed a standardized cardiovascular disease risk assessment questionnaire and resting blood pressure, pulse rate and BMI were recorded. None of the subjects were smoker or alcoholic. Both cases and controls were subjected to high resolution B-mode ultrasonographic evaluation of CIMT. Fasting blood samples were drawn for baseline investigations and lipid profile estimation. Compared to control subjects, cases had increased CIMT (mean of combined sites 0.57 ± 0.08 mm vs 0.46 ± 0.05 mm in controls, p<0.001). Offspring with family history of CAD exhibited an unfavourable lipid profile. We observed a direct association between carotid intima media thickness and triglyceride concentration (Correlation coefficient=0.32). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed family history of CAD to be independent risk factor for CIMT (Odds ratio=5.36, confidence interval 1.84 - 10.53, p=0.003). Arterial wall abnormalities are present at an early age in offspring with family history of CAD. Identifying such high risk individuals is feasible with an easy, non-invasive and

  7. In vivo measurement of the longitudinal relaxation time of arterial blood (T1a) in the mouse using a pulsed arterial spin labeling approach.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David L; Lythgoe, Mark F; Gadian, David G; Ordidge, Roger J

    2006-04-01

    A novel method for measuring the longitudinal relaxation time of arterial blood (T1a) is presented. Knowledge of T1a is essential for accurately quantifying cerebral perfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques. The method is based on the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) pulsed ASL (PASL) approach. We modified the standard FAIR acquisition scheme by incorporating a global saturation pulse at the beginning of the recovery period. With this approach the FAIR tissue signal difference has a simple monoexponential dependence on the recovery time, with T1a as the time constant. Therefore, FAIR measurements performed over a range of recovery times can be fitted to a monoexponential recovery curve and T1a can be calculated directly. This eliminates many of the difficulties associated with the measurement of T1a. Experiments performed in vivo in the mouse at 2.35T produced a mean value of 1.51 s for T1a, consistent with previously published values. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Longitudinal decline in speech production in Parkinson's disease spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ash, Sharon; Jester, Charles; York, Collin; Kofman, Olga L; Langey, Rachel; Halpin, Amy; Firn, Kim; Dominguez Perez, Sophia; Chahine, Lama; Spindler, Meredith; Dahodwala, Nabila; Irwin, David J; McMillan, Corey; Weintraub, Daniel; Grossman, Murray

    2017-08-01

    We examined narrative speech production longitudinally in non-demented (n=15) and mildly demented (n=8) patients with Parkinson's disease spectrum disorder (PDSD), and we related increasing impairment to structural brain changes in specific language and motor regions. Patients provided semi-structured speech samples, describing a standardized picture at two time points (mean±SD interval=38±24months). The recorded speech samples were analyzed for fluency, grammar, and informativeness. PDSD patients with dementia exhibited significant decline in their speech, unrelated to changes in overall cognitive or motor functioning. Regression analysis in a subset of patients with MRI scans (n=11) revealed that impaired language performance at Time 2 was associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume at Time 1 in regions of interest important for language functioning but not with reduced GM volume in motor brain areas. These results dissociate language and motor systems and highlight the importance of non-motor brain regions for declining language in PDSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress Echocardiography for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2009, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding different cardiac imaging modalities to ensure that appropriate technologies are accessed by patients suspected of having CAD. This project came about when the Health Services Branch at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care asked MAS to provide an evidentiary platform on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities. After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, MAS identified five key non-invasive cardiac imaging technologies for the diagnosis of CAD. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these five imaging modalities: cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, 64-slice computed tomographic angiography, stress echocardiography, and stress echocardiography with contrast. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed (where appropriate). A summary decision analytic model was then developed to encapsulate the data from each of these reports (available on the OHTAC and MAS website). The Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: www.health.gov.on.ca/mas"> www.health.gov.on.ca/mas or at www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Evidence-Based Analysis Stress Echocardiography for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Evidence-Based Analysis Stress Echocardiography with Contrast for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Evidence-Based Analysis 64-Slice Computed Tomographic Angiography for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Evidence

  10. The exercise pressor reflex and peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-03-01

    The exercise pressor reflex contributes to increases in cardiovascular and ventilatory function during exercise. These reflexive increases are caused by both mechanical stimulation and metabolic stimulation of group III and IV afferents with endings in contracting skeletal muscle. Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have an augmented exercise pressor reflex. Recently, an animal model of PAD was established which allows further investigation of possible mechanisms involved in this augmented reflex. Earlier studies have identified ASIC3 channels, bradykinin receptors, P2X receptors, endoperoxide receptors, and thromboxane receptors as playing a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in healthy rats. This review focuses on recent studies using a rat model of PAD in order to determine possible mechanisms contributing to the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex seen in patients with this disease.

  11. Tissue Doppler Imaging in Coronary Artery Diseases and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Correale, Michele; Totaro, Antonio; Ieva, Riccardo; Ferraretti, Armando; Musaico, Francesco; Biase, Matteo Di

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have explored the prognostic role of TDI-derived parameters in major cardiac diseases, such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). In these conditions, myocardial mitral annular systolic (S’) and early diastolic (E’) velocities have been shown to predict mortality or cardiovascular events. In heart failure non invasive assessment of LV diastolic pressure by transmitral to mitral annular early diastolic velocity ratio (E/E’) is a strong prognosticator, especially when E/E’ is > or =15. Moreover, other parameters derived by TDI, as cardiac time intervals and Myocardial Performance Index, might play a role in the prognostic stratification in CAD and HF. Recently, a three-dimensional (3-D) TDI imaging modality, triplane TDI, has become available, and this allows calculation of 3-Dvolumes and LV ejection fraction. We present a brief update of TDI. PMID:22845815

  12. [Vascular rehabilitation in patients with peripheral arterial disease].

    PubMed

    de Holanda, Ana; Aubourg, Marion; Dubus-Bausière, Valérie; Eveno, Dominique; Abraham, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Lower limb peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent debilitating disease associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. The benefit of rehabilitation in PAD patients has been largely demonstrated, both for patients that undergo amputation, and for patients with claudication. In these latter patients, rehabilitation programs rely on a variety of additional techniques or tools, among which: stretching, specific muscle proprioception, walking and a variety of other physical activities, exercise or situations adapted to community life, lower limb and respiratory physiotherapy, patient's education, support for smoking cessation and healthy nutrition, social support, etc. Whether rehabilitation is performed in specialised integrated structures or performed on a home-based basis, various clinicians are involved. Despite evidence-based proof of efficacy, rehabilitation of PAD patients with claudication is still under-used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk stratification for coronary artery disease using pharmacological stress tests.

    PubMed

    El-Hajj, Stephanie; Hage, Fadi G

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac stress testing is frequently used for diagnosis of coronary artery disease and for risk stratification which can facilitate decision making and help in the overall management of patients with known or suspected coronary disease. Exercise remains the preferred stress modality and should be performed when feasible but it is often contraindicated, impractical or unable to provide the needed information. In these circumstances pharmacologic stress tests can provide a wealth of prognostic data and should be performed instead of non-diagnostic or suboptimal exercise stress tests. Here we will review the use of pharmacologic stress tests including the indications for ordering them and the different stress agents and imaging modalities that can be utilized with emphasis on practical information that the primary care physician and general practitioner need on a daily basis in their practice.

  14. Heart transplant coronary artery disease: Multimodality approach in percutaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Leite, Luís; Matos, Vítor; Gonçalves, Lino; Silva Marques, João; Jorge, Elisabete; Calisto, João; Antunes, Manuel; Pego, Mariano

    2016-06-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most important cause of late morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation. It is usually an immunologic phenomenon termed cardiac allograft vasculopathy, but can also be the result of donor-transmitted atherosclerosis. Routine surveillance by coronary angiography should be complemented by intracoronary imaging, in order to determine the nature of the coronary lesions, and also by assessment of their functional significance to guide the decision whether to perform percutaneous coronary intervention. We report a case of coronary angiography at five-year follow-up after transplantation, using optical coherence tomography and fractional flow reserve to assess and optimize treatment of coronary disease in this challenging population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Longitudinal quantitation of middle cerebral artery blood flow in normal human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Hanson, R; Tatum, K

    1993-12-01

    We attempted to quantify noninvasively blood flow of the middle cerebral artery in human fetuses during five distinct periods. Twenty normal fetuses had color pulsed Doppler ultrasonography of the middle cerebral artery. A total of 68 studies were successfully done and are reported. The Doppler sample was placed as parallel to the direction of the vessel flow as possible. All waveforms were recorded on a strip chart at a preset speed of 100 mm/sec. Six Doppler waveforms were digitized for the time velocity integral (area under the curve is equal to time velocity integral) and averaged. Middle cerebral blood flow was obtained by multiplying the time velocity integral of the Doppler curve by the cross-sectional area of the vessel. The combined cardiac output was obtained by adding the right and left ventricular outputs, which were obtained by multiplying the time velocity integrals by the area of the corresponding annuli. Analysis of variance for repeated measurements was used to determine significance. The diameter of the middle cerebral artery, the time velocity integral, and the peak flow velocity of the Doppler waveform increased significantly with advancing gestational age. Blood flow to the middle cerebral artery ranged from 23 ml/min at 19 weeks to 133 ml/min at term. Resistivity index values were not correlated with advancing gestational age. The percent of the cardiac output to one of the two middle cerebral arteries remained constant throughout gestation with a range between 3% and 7%. (1) Time velocity integral, peak flow velocity, diameter, and blood flow of the middle cerebral artery increased significantly with gestational age; (2) the percent of the total cardiac output to the middle cerebral artery does not significantly change with gestational age.

  16. Statin use in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sheena K; Roos, Matt G; Landry, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    Statins are recommended for use in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality. However, much of the data regarding benefits of statins stem from the cardiovascular literature. Here, we review the literature regarding statin use specifically in patients with PAD regarding its effects on cardiovascular events and mortality, limb-related outcomes, statin use after endovascular interventions, statin dosing, and concerns about statins. We performed a literature review using PubMed for literature after the year 2000. Search terms included "statins," "peripheral arterial disease," "peripheral vascular disease," "lipid-lowering medication," and "cardiovascular disease." There is good evidence of statins lowering cardiovascular events and cardiovascular-related mortality in patients with PAD. Though revascularization rates were reduced with statins, amputation rates and amputation-free survival did not improve. Small randomized controlled trials show that patients taking statins can slightly improve pain-free walking distance or pain-free walking time, although the extent of the effect on quality of life is unclear. Statin use for patients undergoing endovascular interventions is recommended because of the reduction of postoperative cardiovascular events. Not enough data exist to support local effects of systemic statin therapy, such as prevention of restenosis. For statin dosing, there is little increased benefit to intense therapy compared with the adverse effects, whereas moderate-dose therapy has significant benefits with very few adverse effects. Adverse effects of moderate-dose statin therapy are rare and mild and are greatly outweighed by the cardiovascular benefits. There is strong evidence to support use of statins in patients with PAD to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality. Use in patients undergoing open and endovascular interventions is also recommended. Statin use may reduce the need for

  17. Multisite artery disease: a common and challenging clinical condition calling for specific management.

    PubMed

    Di Noi, Paola; Brancati, Marta Francesca; Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    'Multisite' artery disease is defined as the simultaneous presence of clinically significant atherosclerotic lesions in at least two major vascular territories. The management of patients with multisite artery disease represents a common challenge in clinical practice, since they are at increased risk for both vascular and coronary surgery. Preliminary experiences suggest that percutaneous treatment may represent a promising strategy for patients with multisite artery disease. In this review, the prevalence and management of multisite artery disease are discussed with particular attention to coronary and peripheral revascularization related issues.

  18. Coronary artery disease: Are men and women created equal?

    PubMed

    Blum, Arnon; Blum, Nava

    2009-09-01

    Ischemic heart disease in women is a difficult issue in cardiovascular medicine, mainly because of our lack of understanding of the early-stage mechanisms and symptoms. A better and earlier understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women will enable us to detect ischemic heart disease earlier and prevent adverse clinical outcomes. The aims of this article were to describe the phenomenon of ischemic heart disease in women, increase awareness of the difference between men and women in relation to ischemic heart disease, improve our understanding of the mechanisms that cause this difference, and identify new approaches for better and earlier detection and treatment of CAD in women. We conducted a search of the PubMed database for double-blind studies on the mechanistic pathways of CAD in women published in English within the past 10 years and epidemiologic studies published since 1970. Search terms included women and coronary artery disease and ischemic heart disease in women. The literature search revealed 30 peer-reviewed articles pertaining to this issue. The incidence of CAD was markedly lower in women <60 years of age than in older women. After 60 years of age, the rate of CAD increased and reached the rate seen among men by the 8th decade of life. The gender difference in atherosclerosis in the coronary tree was particularly large in patients <55 years of age and remained large at older ages. The gender difference in the coronary bed was strikingly larger than in other vascular beds. Intensive risk-factor modification had a similar effect on plaque progression in both men and women. Coronary endothelial dysfunction appeared to be related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women as well as in men, and because endothelial dysfunction could be modified, it appeared that the prognosis could be improved by appropriate management. A strong association was found between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic status, but only the

  19. Illness perception patterns in patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Kunschitz, E; Friedrich, O; Schöppl, Ch; Maitz, J; Sipötz, J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify patterns of illness perception in patients with angiografically verified Coronary Artery Disease. A total of 166 patients (age: 64.4 ± 12.1, 80.7% male) were recruited after angiography. Cluster analysis on the items of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was used to identify patterns of illness perception. The resulting groups were characterized with regard to Quality of Life (MacNew), anxiety and depression (GAD-7 and PHQ-9) and resilience (RS-13). The analysis revealed 4 distinct groups differing with regard to the items covering the perception of the physical and emotional impact of disease. Stronger perceptions in these domains were associated with lower Health Related Quality of Life and higher levels of emotional distress. Group 1 (33.1%) reported the strongest perceptions of the physical and emotional impact of disease and expressed low treatment control, high chronic timeline and significantly higher levels of depression than the other groups. Group 2 (27.7%) was characterized by more moderate perceptions of the emotional and physical impact of disease together with low scores on illness coherence and chronic timeline. Groups 3 (25.3%) and 4 (13.9%) reported smaller physical and emotional impact of illness but differed in chronic timeline. Our results correspond largely to recent findings in patients with other chronic diseases. Further research is needed to explore if stratification of patients according patterns of illness perception can help to inform patient-physician communication strategies.

  20. Treating patients with peripheral arterial disease and claudication.

    PubMed

    Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Walsh, M Eileen

    2003-03-01

    The vascular nurse plays an important role in the treatment of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a prevalent atherosclerotic occlusive disease that affects approximately 8 to 12 million people in the United States. Approximately 4 to 5 million individuals with PAD experience claudication, the exercise-induced ischemic pain in the lower extremities that is relieved upon rest. Both PAD and claudication are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, limitations in functional capacity, and a decreased quality of life. Despite its prevalence, PAD is often undiagnosed and, therefore, increases the risk for cardiovascular ischemic events, disease progression, functional disability, amputation, and death. Risk factors for PAD and claudication are similar to those for other atherosclerotic diseases, including age, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Effective treatment to normalize these risk factors can reduce disease progression and the incidence of cardiovascular ischemic events. Claudication symptoms can be improved most effectively through exercise training, which may be used in conjunction with medications specifically indicated to improve these symptoms. Vascular nurses, practicing in a multitude of inpatient and outpatient settings, can assist patients with risk-factor modifications and behavioral changes to help them stop smoking, maintain glycemic control, normalize high blood pressure and lipid levels, and ensure initiation of lifelong antiplatelet therapy and participation in exercise rehabilitation programs, thus, promoting positive outcomes for patients with claudication.

  1. Huge Left Atrial Myxoma and Concomitant Silent Coronary Artery Disease in a Young Man.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Marco; Rubino, Mara; Andreini, Daniele; Polvani, Gianluca; Agrifoglio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Severe but silent coronary artery disease may rarely exist in young patients with a low-risk profile but with a family history of coronary artery disease. We describe the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian male with progressive shortness of breath caused by a huge left atrial myxoma who was diagnosed to have significant coronary artery disease in the preoperative assessment. After investigations, the patient underwent resection of the left atrial tumor and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a successful outcome. Even in the case of a young male, it may be prudent to investigate silent coronary artery disease in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and family history of coronary artery disease. The learning objective of this case is to debate about the usefulness of a preoperative coronary study even in the young population with cardiac nonischemic pathologies (ie, valve pathology, cardiac tumors, etc.).

  2. Huge Left Atrial Myxoma and Concomitant Silent Coronary Artery Disease in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, Marco; Rubino, Mara; Andreini, Daniele; Polvani, Gianluca; Agrifoglio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Severe but silent coronary artery disease may rarely exist in young patients with a low-risk profile but with a family history of coronary artery disease. We describe the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian male with progressive shortness of breath caused by a huge left atrial myxoma who was diagnosed to have significant coronary artery disease in the preoperative assessment. After investigations, the patient underwent resection of the left atrial tumor and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a successful outcome. Even in the case of a young male, it may be prudent to investigate silent coronary artery disease in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and family history of coronary artery disease. The learning objective of this case is to debate about the usefulness of a preoperative coronary study even in the young population with cardiac nonischemic pathologies (ie, valve pathology, cardiac tumors, etc.). PMID:28096692

  3. Advances in Percutaneous Therapies for Peripheral Artery Disease: Drug-Coated Balloons.

    PubMed

    Al-Bawardy, Rasha F; Waldo, Stephen W; Rosenfield, Kenneth

    2017-08-24

    This review paper provides a summary on the use of drug-coated balloons in peripheral artery disease. It covers the main drug-coated balloon (DCB) trials. It is divided into categories of lesions: superficial femoral artery and popliteal lesions, infra-popliteal lesions and in-stent restenosis. It also includes an overview of the future of DCBs, highlighting the main ongoing trials. The latest research on DCB focuses on newer types of DCBs, mainly paclitaxel-coated but with lower doses. Another area of latest DCB research is its use in superficial femoral artery and popliteal artery in-stent restenosis, with superior outcomes. Drug-coated balloons produce better outcomes than percutaneous transluminal angioplasty alone in de novo and in-stent restenosis lesions of superficial femoral artery and popliteal arteries. More data are needed to demonstrate efficacy and safety of DCBs in infrapopliteal disease. Newer DCBs and adjunctive therapy may provide improved outcomes for peripheral artery disease interventions.

  4. Radiologic evaluation of coronary artery disease in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, David M; Ordovas, Karen G

    2016-01-01

    Improved surgical and medical therapy have prolonged survival in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) such that general medical conditions like coronary artery disease (CAD) are now the main determinants of mortality. A summary of the association of CAD with CHD, as well as a discussion of the radiologic evaluation of the coronary arteries in adults with CHD is described herein. Cross sectional imaging to evaluate CAD in adults with CHD should follow the same appropriateness criteria as gender and aged matched patients without CHD. Coronary CT imaging may be particularly valuable in evaluating the coronary arteries in this patient population as invasive coronary angiography may prove challenging secondary to complicated or unconventional anatomy of the coronary arteries. Further, typical methods for evaluating CAD such as stress or echocardiography may be impractical in adults with CHD. Finally, delineating the anatomic relationship of the coronary arteries and their relationship with the sternum, chest wall, conduits, grafts, and valves is highly recommended in patients with CHD prior to reintervention to avoid iatrogenic complications.

  5. Myocardial mechanical and QTc dispersion for the detection of significant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Ivan; Putnikovic, Biljana; Janicijevic, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milica; Cvjetan, Radosava; Pavlovic, Sinisa; Kalezic-Radmili, Tijana; Panic, Milos; Milicevic, Predrag; Ilic, Ivan; Cvorovic, Vojkan; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic but viable myocardium may exhibit prolongation of contraction and QT interval duration, but it is largely unknown whether non-invasive assessment of regional heterogeneities of myocardial deformation and QT interval duration could identify patients with significant coronary artery disease (CAD). We retrospectively studied 205 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary angiography. QTc dispersion was assessed from a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) as the difference between the longest and shortest QTc intervals. Contraction duration was assessed as time from the ECG R-(Q-)wave to peak longitudinal strain in each of 18 left ventricular segments. Mechanical dispersion was defined as either the standard deviation of 18 time intervals (dispersionSD18) or as the difference between the longest and shortest time intervals (dispersiondelta). Longitudinal strain was measured by speckle tracking echocardiography. Mean contraction duration was longer in patients with significant CAD compared with control subjects (428 ± 51 vs. 410 ± 40 ms; P = 0.032), and it was correlated to QTc interval duration (r = 0.47; P < 0.001). In contrast to QTc interval duration and dispersion, both parameters of mechanical dispersion were independently associated with CAD (P < 0.001) and had incremental value over traditional risk factors, wall motion abnormalities, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) for the detection of significant CAD. The QTc interval and myocardial contraction duration are related to the presence of significant CAD in patients without a history of previous myocardial infarction. Myocardial mechanical dispersion has an incremental value to GLS for identifying patients with significant CAD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ivabradine in stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kim; Ford, Ian; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Ferrari, Roberto

    2014-09-18

    An elevated heart rate is an established marker of cardiovascular risk. Previous analyses have suggested that ivabradine, a heart-rate-reducing agent, may improve outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, and a heart rate of 70 beats per minute or more. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ivabradine, added to standard background therapy, in 19,102 patients who had both stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure and a heart rate of 70 beats per minute or more (including 12,049 patients with activity-limiting angina [class ≥II on the Canadian Cardiovascular Society scale, which ranges from I to IV, with higher classes indicating greater limitations on physical activity owing to angina]). We randomly assigned patients to placebo or ivabradine, at a dose of up to 10 mg twice daily, with the dose adjusted to achieve a target heart rate of 55 to 60 beats per minute. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes or nonfatal myocardial infarction. At 3 months, the mean (±SD) heart rate of the patients was 60.7±9.0 beats per minute in the ivabradine group versus 70.6±10.1 beats per minute in the placebo group. After a median follow-up of 27.8 months, there was no significant difference between the ivabradine group and the placebo group in the incidence of the primary end point (6.8% and 6.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.20; P=0.20), nor were there significant differences in the incidences of death from cardiovascular causes and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Ivabradine was associated with an increase in the incidence of the primary end point among patients with activity-limiting angina but not among those without activity-limiting angina (P=0.02 for interaction). The incidence of bradycardia was higher with ivabradine than with placebo (18.0% vs. 2.3%, P<0.001). Among patients who had stable coronary

  7. Association of Vitamin D Deficiency with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Yash Paul; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Sachdeva, Naresh; Sahu, Kamal Kant

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a major global health problem. Recent studies demonstrated that lower vitamin D level (<30ng/ml) is associated with higher blood pressure and directly or indirectly with CAD, due to vascular endothelial damage. However the results are inconsistent. Aim To find the association of vitamin D deficiency with CAD Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional observational study, serum vitamin D level was measured in 315 patients who underwent coronary angiography. Result The mean (±SD) vitamin D was 13.40ng/ml (±10.40). However, the patients with normal coronary artery had much lower mean vitamin D (11.30ng/ml±9.50) as compared to the patients with CAD (14.10ng/ml±10.70). The mean (±SD) vitamin D levels were 19.00ng/ml (±16.50), 14.10ng/ml (±11.10) and 13.20ng/ml (±8.80) in patients with CAD with 50%-70%, >70%-90% and >90% stenosis respectively (p= 0.46) and 15.20ng/ml (±13.00), 15.50ng/ml (±11.30) and 11.80ng/ml (±7.00) in patients with CAD with single, double and triple vessels disease respectively (p= 0.14). The frequency of vitamin D deficiency were 66.70%, 83.20 % and 83.10% in patients with CAD with 50% -70%, >70%-90% and >90% stenosis respectively and 81.40%, 80.00% and 83.50% in patients with single, double and triple vessel disease respectively, as compared to 89.30% in patients with normal coronary artery (p= 0.41 and 0.075). So, all the study groups of CAD had low serum vitamin D level and high frequency of vitamin D deficiency, which was statistically insignificant. Conclusion Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is very high in CAD, but it does not correlate with the angiographic severity of CAD. PMID:27790488

  8. Role of digital artery adrenoceptors in Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed

    Cooke, J P; Creager, S J; Scales, K M; Ren, C; Tsapatsaris, N P; Beetham, W P; Creager, M A

    1997-01-01

    Raynaud's disease is characterized by excessive cutaneous vasoconstriction in response to ambient cold. A functional disturbance in the local regulation of digital vasomotion has been proposed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an alteration in the postjunctional adrenergic receptors in the digital circulation of patients with Raynaud's disease. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether this abnormality was responsible for the excessive cold-induced vasoconstriction in these patients. Finger blood flow was measured by strain-gauge venous occlusion plethysmography in 10 patients with Raynaud's disease and in 10 normal volunteers in a 22 degrees C room. Measurements of finger blood flow and mean systemic arterial pressure were made during intra-arterial infusions of the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist, prazosin, or the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, yohimbine, at room temperature and during local cooling of the hand. Basal finger blood flow in normal subjects was significantly greater than that of patients (8.6 +/- 2.7 vs 1.7 +/- 0.5 ml/100 ml per min; normal vs Raynaud's subjects; p < 0.05). In normal subjects, either prazosin or yohimbine induced dose-dependent increases in finger blood flow. The maximal increase in finger blood flow induced by prazosin was significantly greater than that in response to yohimbine (29.2 +/- 10.1 vs 2.8 +/- 2.1 ml/100 ml per min; prazosin vs yohimbine; p < 0.05). By contrast, in the Raynaud's patients, prazosin or yohimbine induced maximal increases in finger blood flow that were not significant (7.1 +/- 1.8 vs 5.0 +/- 2.2 ml/100 ml per min; prazosin vs yohimbine; p = NS). The response to prazosin in Raynaud's patients was significantly less than that of the normal volunteers (p < 0.05). In normal subjects, during intra-arterial infusion of vehicle alone, cooling induced a 52.6 +/- 5.8% reduction in finger blood flow. This cold-induced vasoconstriction was blunted, but not qualitatively altered, by either

  9. Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in the Metabolic Myopathy Accompanying Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G.; Nunez Lopez, Omar; Fankhauser, Grant T.; Cheema, Zulfiqar F.; Rasmussen, Blake B.; Porter, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a serious but relatively underdiagnosed and undertreated clinical condition associated with a marked reduction in functional capacity and a heightened risk of morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of lower extremity PAD is complex, and extends beyond the atherosclerotic arterial occlusion and subsequent mismatch between oxygen demand and delivery to skeletal muscle mitochondria. In this review, we evaluate and summarize the available evidence implicating mitochondria in the metabolic myopathy that accompanies PAD. Following a short discussion of the available in vivo and in vitro methodologies to quantitate indices of muscle mitochondrial function, we review the current evidence implicating skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of PAD myopathy, while attempting to highlight questions that remain unanswered. Given the rising prevalence of PAD, the detriment in quality of life for patients, and the associated significant healthcare resource utilization, new alternate therapies that ameliorate lower limb symptoms and the functional impairment associated with PAD are needed. A clear understanding of the role of mitochondria in the pathophysiology of PAD may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:28348531

  10. Use of intravascular imaging in managing coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Jegere, Sanda; Narbute, Inga; Erglis, Andrejs

    2014-01-01

    For many years, coronary angiography has been considered “the gold standard” for evaluating patients with coronary artery disease. However, angiography only provides a planar two-dimensional silhouette of the lumen and is unsuitable for the precise assessment of atherosclerosis. With the introduction of intravascular imaging, direct visualization of the arterial wall is now feasible. Intravascular imaging modalities extend diagnostic information, thereby enabling more precise evaluation of plaque burden and vessel remodeling. Of all technologies, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is the most mature and widely used intravascular imaging technique. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an evolving technology that has the highest spatial resolution of existing imaging methods, and it is becoming increasingly widespread. These methods are useful tools for planning interventional strategies and optimizing stent deployment, particularly when stenting complex lesions. We strongly support the mandatory use of IVUS for left main percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In addition, it can be used to evaluate vascular responses, including neointimal growth and strut apposition, during follow-ups. Adequately powered randomized trials are needed to support IVUS or OCT use in routine clinical practice and to answer whether OCT is superior to IVUS in reducing adverse events when used to guide PCI. The current perception and adoption of innovative interventional devices, such as bioabsorbable scaffolds, will increase the need for intravascular imaging in the future. PMID:24976911

  11. Immunoglobulins against Tyrosine Nitrated Epitopes in Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Leonor; Tenopoulou, Margarita; Lightfoot, Richard; Tsika, Epida; Parastatidis, Ioannis; Martinez, Marissa; Greco, Todd M.; Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas; Wu, Yuping; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L.; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence support a pathophysiological role of immunity in atherosclerosis. Tyrosine nitrated proteins, a footprint of oxygen and nitrogen derived oxidants generated by cells of the immune system, are enriched in atheromatous lesions and in circulation of coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects. However, the consequences of possible immune reactions triggered by the presence of nitrated proteins in subjects with clinically documented atherosclerosis have not been explored. Methods and Results Specific immunoglobulins that recognize 3-nitrotyrosine epitopes were identified in human lesions, as well as in circulation of CAD subjects. The levels of circulating immunoglobulins against 3-nitrotyrosine epitopes were quantified in CAD patients (n=374) and subjects without CAD (non CAD controls, n=313). A ten-fold increase in the mean level of circulating immunoglobulins against protein-bound 3-nitrotyrosine was documented in the CAD subjects (3.75 ± 1.8 μg antibody Eq/mL plasma vs. 0.36 ± 0.8 μg antibody Eq/mL plasma), and was strongly associated with angiographic evidence of significant CAD. Conclusions The results of this cross sectional study suggest that post-translational modification of proteins via nitration within atherosclerotic plaque-laden arteries and in circulation serve as neoepitopes for elaboration of immunoglobulins, thereby providing an association between oxidant production and the activation of the immune system in CAD. PMID:23081989

  12. Localization of coronary artery disease with exercise electrocardiography: correlation with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, R.F.; Freedman, B.; Bailey, I.K.; Uren, R.F.; Kelly, D.T.

    1981-11-01

    In 61 patients with single vessel coronary artery disease (70 percent or greater obstruction of luminal diameter in only one vessel) and no previous myocardial infarction, the sites of ischemic changes on 12 lead exercise electrocardiography and on thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning were related to the obstructed coronary artery. The site of exercise-induced S-T segment depression did not identify which coronary artery was obstructed. In the 37 patients with left anterior descending coronary artery disease S-T depression was most often seen in the inferior leads and leads V4 to V6, and in the 18 patients with right coronary artery disease and in the 6 patients with left circumflex artery disease S-T depression was most often seen in leads V5 and V6. Although S-T segment elevation was uncommon in most leads, it occurred in lead V1 or a VL, or both, in 51 percent of the patients with left anterior descending coronary artery disease. A reversible anterior defect on exercise thallium scanning correlated with left anterior descending coronary artery disease (probability (p) less than 0.0001) and a reversible inferior thallium defect correlated with right coronary or left circumflex artery disease (p less than 0.0001). In patients with single vessel disease, the site of S-T segment depression does not identify the obstructed coronary artery; S-T segment elevation in lead V1 or aVL, or both, identifies left anterior descending coronary artery disease; and the site of reversible perfusion defect on thallium scanning identifies the site of myocardial ischemia and the obstructed coronary artery.

  13. Budd-chiari syndrome and renal arterial neurysms due to behcet disease: a rare association

    PubMed Central

    Batur, Abdussamet; Dorum, Meltem; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Koc, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystemic vasculitis of unknown etiology with a chronic relapsing course. Vasculitis in Behcet's disease with predominant vascular involvement is the only vasculitis that affects both arteries and veins of any size. Involvement of the renal artery and inferior vena cava is rare among the arteries and veins, respectively. When disease affect the veins, it is in the form of thrombosis. Arterial complications include aneurysms, stenosis and occlusions. Both rupture of arterial aneurysm and occlusion of suprahepatic veins, causing Budd-Chiari syndrome, are associated with a high mortality rate. Vascular involvement is more common in male patients than in female patients. Men and patients with a younger age of onset present with a more severe prognosis. In this case report, we describe a very rare cause of intrarenal arterial aneurysm's rupture with previous Budd-Chiari syndrome due to Behcet's disease and successful angiographic embolization of actively bleeding aneurysm. PMID:26491527

  14. Budd-chiari syndrome and renal arterial neurysms due to Behcet disease: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Batur, Abdussamet; Dorum, Meltem; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Koc, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystemic vasculitis of unknown etiology with a chronic relapsing course. Vasculitis in Behcet's disease with predominant vascular involvement is the only vasculitis that affects both arteries and veins of any size. Involvement of the renal artery and inferior vena cava is rare among the arteries and veins, respectively. When disease affect the veins, it is in the form of thrombosis. Arterial complications include aneurysms, stenosis and occlusions. Both rupture of arterial aneurysm and occlusion of suprahepatic veins, causing Budd-Chiari syndrome, are associated with a high mortality rate. Vascular involvement is more common in male patients than in female patients. Men and patients with a younger age of onset present with a more severe prognosis. In this case report, we describe a very rare cause of intrarenal arterial aneurysm's rupture with previous Budd-Chiari syndrome due to Behcet's disease and successful angiographic embolization of actively bleeding aneurysm.

  15. External Iliac Artery Dissection During Kidney Transplant for Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Caveat for Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Karusseit, Victor O L O L

    2017-08-11

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a common cause of end-stage renal failure and an indication for transplant. The genetic mutation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease also causes vascular abnormalities, mainly aneurysms but also medial dissection. Here, a case of dissection of the recipient artery during a kidney transplant procedure in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is described. Dissection caused occlusion of both the external iliac artery and the donor renal artery. Occlusion was recognized intraoperatively, and the kidney was salvaged by in situ reperfusion of the kidney with cold preservation solution, excision of the affected recipient arterial segment, and reanastomosis of the donor artery to the internal iliac artery. The external iliac artery defect was replaced with a saphenous vein interposition graft. The transplanted kidney achieved good function. This is the first description of a case of recognition of recipient arterial dissection during a kidney transplant procedure for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Surgeons should be aware of the phenomenon of arterial dissection in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and should be vigilant while anastomosing the artery during kidney transplant in these patients.

  16. Electrical and mechanical activity of the longitudinal muscle of the anterior mesenteric artery of the domestic fowl

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, T. B.

    1968-01-01

    1. The electrical activity and changes in tension of the longitudinal muscle of the anterior mesenteric artery (LMAMA) of the domestic fowl were recorded simultaneously using the sucrose-gap method. 2. Spontaneous activity consisted of recurring contractions each accompanied by a burst of action potentials. 3. In quiescent preparations, brief electrical stimuli, acetylcholine, or barium chloride produced contractions with the appearance of action potentials. Larger concentrations of barium chloride or acetylcholine produced depolarization and action potentials ceased although contraction was maintained. Whenever depolarization without action potentials occurred, it was associated with a smooth contraction, whereas action potentials were always accompanied by small rapid contractions super-imposed upon the main contraction. 4. When the tone was raised with barium chloride (and in the presence of hyoscine) continuous action potentials occurred; under these circumstances brief electrical stimuli or noradrenaline produced relaxation, cessation of action potentials, and hyperpolarization. PMID:5652877

  17. Risk for coronary artery disease and morbid preeclampsia: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Hubel, Carl A

    2005-10-01

    A predisposition to coronary artery disease (CAD) may put women at risk for preeclampsia. Morbid preeclampsia (early, severe, recurrent, and with neonatal morbidity) represents the subset of preeclampsia of greatest public health concern. We review here the published links between preeclampsia and CAD. Many risk factors are common to both CAD and preeclampsia. These include obesity; elevated blood pressure; dyslipidemia; insulin resistance; and hyperglycemia, together termed "Syndrome X"; as well as endothelial dysfunction; hyperuricemia; hyperhomocysteinemia; and abnormalities of inflammation, thrombosis, and angiogenesis. After pregnancy, women with preeclampsia are more likely to experience later life CAD. Both the association between CAD risk factors and preeclampsia and the association between preeclampsia and later CAD appears to be more pronounced among the subset of women with morbid preeclampsia. Thus, women at elevated risk for CAD may be at particularly high risk for morbid preeclampsia and women with morbid preeclampsia may be those at highest risk for later life CAD.

  18. Pathophysiology of peripheral arterial disease in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Ling; Zhu, Lv-Yun; Han, Rui; Sun, Lei-Lei; Li, Jun-Xia; Dou, Jing-Tao

    2017-02-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) increases the risk of lower extremity amputation. It is also an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemic events, affecting both the quality and expectancy of life. Many studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of PAD in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is higher than in non-diabetic patients. In diabetic patients, PAD occurs early with rapid progression, and is frequently asymptomatic. Multiple metabolic aberrations in DM, such as advanced glycation end-products, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and abnormal oxidative stress, have been shown to worsen PAD. However, the role of DM in PAD is not completely understood. The purpose of the present article is to review and discuss the pathophysiology of PAD in DM. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. DIETARY INTAKE OF SUBJECTS WITH PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE AND CLAUDICATION

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Bright, Brianna C.; Ort, Kelly A.; Montgomery, Polly S.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the dietary intakes of subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and claudication with diet recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and dietary reference intake values recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences. Forty-six subjects consumed a mean macronutrient composition of 17% protein, 51% carbohydrate, and 30% fat. Compared to the NCEP and IOM recommendations, few subjects met the recommended daily intakes for sodium (0%), vitamin E (0%), folate (13%), saturated fat (20%), fiber (26%), and cholesterol (39%). Subjects with PAD and claudication have poor nutrition, with diets particularly high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol, and low in fiber, vitamin E and folate intakes. Subjects should be encouraged to reduce consumption of dietary fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium, and to increase fiber and vitamin intakes to meet recommendations of the NCEP and IOM. PMID:21406424

  20. Endovascular treatment strategies for supra-aortic arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Peeters, P; Verbist, J; Deloose, K; Bosiers, M

    2005-06-01

    Because of the focal nature of stenoses or occlusions in the supra-aortic vasculature, the high blood-pressures in this area and the very low morbidity rates related to percutaneous therapy have largely replaced surgical revascularization as the initial treatment of choice for patients with supra-aortic arterial occlusive disease. The initial technical success and durability of percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) and stenting in these lesions is excellent. Nevertheless several factors can make PTA and stenting a complex procedure that requires advanced endovascular skills for a successful outcome. Profound knowledge of surgical reconstruction techniques or extra-anatomic bypasses remains mandatory, as it is occasionally required for failure of endovascular techniques or if contraindications exist.

  1. Conditions Presenting with Symptoms of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aditya M.; Norton, Patrick T.; Zhu, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is estimated to affect more than 20% of people older than 65 years. The vast majority of patients with symptoms suggestive of PAD have atherosclerosis often associated with conventional vascular risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and inflammation. A minority of people presenting with symptoms suggesting PAD have an alternative etiology. These groups of disorders are often underdiagnosed, and if diagnosed correctly the diagnosis may be delayed. Understanding these pathologies well is important, as they can be very debilitating and optimal treatment may vary significantly. Inappropriate treatment of these disorders can lead to worsening morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the underlying causes of nonatherosclerotic PAD, including the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. PMID:25435652

  2. Endovascular surgery for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, S S; Eton, D; Moore, W S

    1992-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is a new multidisciplinary field that applies the recently innovated techniques of angioscopy, intraluminal ultrasound, balloon angioplasty, laser, mechanical atherectomy, and stents. This field can be defined as a diagnostic and therapeutic discipline that uses catheter-based systems to treat vascular disease. As such, it integrates the subspecialties of vascular surgery, interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, and biomedical engineering for the common purpose of improving arterial hemodynamics. Endovascular surgery offers many potential benefits: long incisions are replaced with a puncture wound, the need for postoperative intensive care is significantly reduced, major cardiac and pulmonary complications from general anesthesia are side stepped, and the dollar savings could be dramatic as the need for intensive care unit and in-hospital stay diminishes. Despite these technological advancements, endovascular surgery is still in its infancy and currently has limited applications. This review provides an updated summary of endovascular surgery today and addresses some of the obstacles still preventing its widespread use. PMID:1385944

  3. Ivabradine, coronary artery disease, and heart failure: beyond rhythm control

    PubMed Central

    Scicchitano, Pietro; Cortese, Francesca; Ricci, Gabriella; Carbonara, Santa; Moncelli, Michele; Iacoviello, Massimo; Cecere, Annagrazia; Gesualdo, Michele; Zito, Annapaola; Caldarola, Pasquale; Scrutinio, Domenico; Lagioia, Rocco; Riccioni, Graziano; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Elevated heart rate could negatively influence cardiovascular risk in the general population. It can induce and promote the atherosclerotic process by means of several mechanisms involving endothelial shear stress and biochemical activities. Furthermore, elevated heart rate can directly increase heart ischemic conditions because of its skill in unbalancing demand/supply of oxygen and decreasing the diastolic period. Thus, many pharmacological treatments have been proposed in order to reduce heart rate and ameliorate the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals, especially those suffering from coronary artery diseases (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). Ivabradine is the first pure heart rate reductive drug approved and currently used in humans, created in order to selectively reduce sinus node function and to overcome the many side effects of similar pharmacological tools (ie, β-blockers or calcium channel antagonists). The aim of our review is to evaluate the role and the safety of this molecule on CAD and CHF therapeutic strategies. PMID:24940047

  4. Use of adenosine echocardiography for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, W.A. )

    1991-07-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography combined with exercise is sensitive and specific in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) by demonstrating transient abnormalities in wall motion. Frequently, however, patients cannot achieve maximal exercise because of various factors. Pharmacologic stress testing with intravenous adenosine was evaluated as a means of detecting CAD in a noninvasive manner. Patients with suspected CAD underwent echocardiographic imaging and simultaneous thallium 201 single-photon emission computed tomography during the intravenous administration of 140 micrograms/kg/min of adenosine. An increase in heart rate, decrease in blood pressure, and increase in double product were observed during adenosine administration. Initial observations revealed that wall motion abnormalities were induced by adenosine in areas of perfusion defects. The adenosine infusion was well tolerated, and symptoms disappeared within 1 to 2 minutes after termination of the infusion. Therefore preliminary observations suggest that adenosine echocardiography appears to be useful in the assessment of CAD.

  5. Bilirubin in coronary artery disease: Cytotoxic or protective?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nancy; Singh, Tavankit; Chaudhary, Rahul; Garg, Sushil K; Sandhu, Gurprataap Singh; Mittal, Varun; Gupta, Rahul; Bodin, Roxana; Sule, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin has traditionally been considered a cytotoxic waste product. However, recent studies have shown bilirubin to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative functions. These properties potentially confer bilirubin a new role of protection especially in coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a low grade inflammatory process exacerbated by oxidative stress. In fact, recent literature reports an inverse relationship between serum concentration of bilirubin and the presence of CAD. In this article, we review the current literature exploring the association between levels of bilirubin and risk of CAD. We conclude that current evidence is inconclusive regarding the protective effect of bilirubin on CAD. A causal relationship between low serum bilirubin level and increased risk of CAD is not currently established. PMID:27867680

  6. Life-style modification in peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Cleanthis, M; Smout, J; Flather, M; Stansby, G

    2005-01-01

    To review the published evidence supporting the use of life-style modification in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A systematic search of the medical literature was performed for relevant studies. The publications obtained were then searched for randomised clinical trials which reported end-points of mortality or major cardiovascular event rates with various life-style modifications. Only one randomised controlled trial was found reporting relevant end-points. Other trials were of other end-points such as walking distance or biochemical markers. There is a lack of randomised controlled data proving the benefit of life-style modification in improving mortality and reducing cardiovascular events in patients with PAD. Despite this there is sufficient evidence to recommend some life-style modification as part of the overall approach to risk reduction in these patients. There is compelling evidence to support smoking cessation, increased exercise and improved diet.

  7. Surgical revascularization for premature coronary artery disease in second and third decade of life.

    PubMed

    Reddy, SriKrishna Modugula; Byrapaneni, Ramesh Babu; Rangappa, ChandraMohan; Gouni, Uday Kumar; Vakati, Chakravarthy; Suryavanshi, Satish; Kola, Prabhakar Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery may be needed in children and young adults for significant premature coronary artery occlusive disease. We report a case series of seven patients who underwent surgical revascularization in their second and third decade of life for significant multivessel coronary artery occlusive disease due to unusual causes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. Association factor analysis between osteoporosis with cerebral artery disease: The STROBE study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, Bora; Im, Soo Bin

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical association factors between osteoporosis and cerebral artery disease in Korean population. Two hundred nineteen postmenopausal women and men undergoing cerebral computed tomography angiography were enrolled in this study to evaluate the cerebral artery disease by cross-sectional study. Cerebral artery disease was diagnosed if there was narrowing of 50% higher diameter in one or more cerebral vessel artery or presence of vascular calcification. History of osteoporotic fracture was assessed using medical record, and radiographic data such as simple radiography, MRI, and bone scan. Bone mineral density was checked by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We reviewed clinical characteristics in all patients and also performed subgroup analysis for total or extracranial/ intracranial cerebral artery disease group retrospectively. We performed statistical analysis by means of chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test for continuous variables. We also used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with the prevalence of cerebral artery disease. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R (version 3.1.3; The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) and SPSS (version 14.0; SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Ill, USA). Of the 219 patients, 142 had cerebral artery disease. All vertebral fracture was observed in 29 (13.24%) patients. There was significant difference in hip fracture according to the presence or absence of cerebral artery disease. In logistic regression analysis, osteoporotic hip fracture was significantly associated with extracranial cerebral artery disease after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Females with osteoporotic hip fracture were associated with total calcified cerebral artery

  9. [Exrercise tolerance in patients with coronary artery disease after coronary artery stenting].

    PubMed

    Tseluyko, V; Kreyndel, K; Vashakidze, Z

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research is to investigate the impact of coronary stenting on exercise tolerance after 4-8 week and after 12-15 months. The study involved total 90 patients with coronary artery disease, who underwent coronary stenting. All patients underwent clinical examination, including an assessment of their condition, the frequency of angina attacks, echocardioscopy, resting ECG was recorded in all the patients in the standard 12 -lead veloergometry. Statistical processing was performed using Statistica 6.0 for Windows, the method of Wald - Wolfowitz . Data are presented as arithmetic means and error average M ± m. We used a statistical method of calculation - the median ranks (with the median calculated by the usual rules of statistics - the arithmetic mean of the central members of the ordered series). Significant differences were assessed by t-test . The level of significance was considered significant when p <0,05. According to the monitoring data of patients have a significant increase in exercise tolerance: threshold power increased by 63% and in 12-15 months by 58 % compared with the original. The duration of the test conducted after stenting increased by almost 2 -fold. In addition, significantly reduced the proportion of patients whose test results were evaluated as positive. Stenting of the coronary arteries after 4-8 weeks promotes the significant increase in exercise tolerance that persists after 12-15 months. The factors of associated with insufficient increase in exercise tolerance after stenting according veloergometry are: female gender, diabetes, smoking cessation further contributes to the increase in the threshold of physical activity.

  10. Femoral artery plaque characteristics, lower extremity collaterals, and mobility loss in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Carroll, Timothy; Carr, James; Yuan, Chun; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Kibbe, Melina; Criqui, Michael H; Tian, Lu; Polonsky, Tamar; Zhao, Lihui; Gao, Ying; Hippe, Daniel S; Xu, Dongxiang; McCarthy, Walter; Kramer, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the prognostic significance of specific characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured plaque in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Associations of MRI-measured plaque quantity, lumen area, and plaque composition in the SFA with subsequent mobility loss were studied in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 1.00 were identified from Chicago medical centers and underwent direct visualization of atherosclerotic plaque in the SFA using MRI. Participants were followed annually for up to 4 years. Mobility loss was defined as becoming unable to walk up and down a flight of stairs or walk one-quarter of a mile without assistance among participants without mobility impairment at baseline. Analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, comorbidities, ABI, physical activity, and other confounders. Of 308 PAD participants without baseline mobility impairment, 100 (32.5%) developed mobility loss during follow-up. Compared to the lowest mean plaque area tertile at baseline, participants in the highest (worst) plaque area tertile had a higher rate of mobility loss (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.79, p = 0.018). Compared to the highest mean lumen area tertile, the smallest (worst) mean lumen area tertile was associated with greater mobility loss (HR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.20-3.96, p = 0.011). Neither lipid rich necrotic core nor calcium in the SFA were associated with mobility loss. In conclusion, greater plaque quantity and smaller lumen area in the proximal SFA, but not lipid rich necrotic core or calcium, were associated with higher mobility loss in people with PAD.

  11. Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, Carolin Jochum, Susanne; Sadick, Maliha; Huck, Kurt; Ziegler, Peter; Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Diehl, Steffen J.

    2009-07-15

    We sought to study the accuracy of dual-energy computed tomographic angiography (DE-CTA) for the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity by using the dual-energy bone removal technique compared with a commercially available conventional bone removal tool. Twenty patients underwent selective digital subtraction angiography and DE-CTA of the pelvis and lower extremities. CTA data were postprocessed with two different applications: conventional bone removal and dual-energy bone removal. All data were reconstructed and evaluated as 3D maximum-intensity projections. Time requirements for reconstruction were documented. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and concordance of DE-CTA regarding degree of stenosis and vessel wall calcification were calculated. A total of 359 vascular segments were analyzed. Compared with digital subtraction angiography, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, of CTA was 97.2%, 94.1%, and 94.7% by the dual-energy bone removal technique. The conventional bone removal tool delivered a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 70.7%, and an accuracy of 72.0%. Best results for both postprocessing methods were achieved in the vascular segments of the upper leg. In severely calcified segments, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy stayed above 90% by the dual-energy bone removal technique, whereas the conventional bone removal technique showed a substantial decrease of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. DE-CTA is a feasible and accurate diagnostic method in the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Results obtained by DE-CTA are superior to the conventional bone removal technique and less dependent on vessel wall calcifications.

  12. Risk factor reduction in progression of angiographic coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hoang M.; Mercando, Anthony D.; Kalen, Phoenix; Desai, Harit V.; Gandhi, Kaushang; Sharma, Mala; Amin, Harshad; Lai, Trung M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To investigate differences between outpatients with progressive and nonprogressive coronary artery disease (CAD) measured by coronary angiography. Material and methods Chart reviews were performed in patients in an outpatient cardiology practice having ≥ 2 coronary angiographies ≥ 1 year apart. Progressive CAD was defined as 1) new non-obstructive or obstructive CAD in a previously disease-free vessel; or 2) new obstruction in a previously non-obstructive vessel. Coronary risk factors, comorbidities, cardiovascular events, medication use, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood pressure were used for analysis. Results The study included 183 patients, mean age 71 years. Mean follow-up duration was 11 years. Mean follow-up between coronary angiographies was 58 months. Of 183 patients, 108 (59%) had progressive CAD, and 75 (41%) had nonprogressive CAD. The use of statins, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and aspirin was not significantly different in patient with progressive CAD or nonprogressive CAD Mean arterial pressure was higher in patients with progressive CAD than in patients with nonprogressive CAD (97±13 mm Hg vs. 92±12 mm Hg) (p<0.05). Serum LDL-C was insignificantly higher in patients with progressive CAD (94±40 mg/dl) than in patients with nonprogressive CAD (81±34 mg/dl) (p=0.09). Conclusions Our data suggest that in addition to using appropriate medical therapy, control of blood pressure and serum LDL-C level may reduce progression of CAD. PMID:22851998

  13. The effects of direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease: optimal pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Kusano, Eiji

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of progression of arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies suggested that a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, may be effective for blood pressure lowering, renoprotection and cardiovascular protection. This review focuses on the effects of aliskiren for arterial hypertension, CKD and CVD.

  14. Fifteen new risk loci for coronary artery disease highlight arterial-wall-specific mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Howson, Joanna M M; Zhao, Wei; Barnes, Daniel R; Ho, Weang-Kee; Young, Robin; Paul, Dirk S; Waite, Lindsay L; Freitag, Daniel F; Fauman, Eric B; Salfati, Elias L; Sun, Benjamin B; Eicher, John D; Johnson, Andrew D; Sheu, Wayne H H; Nielsen, Sune F; Lin, Wei-Yu; Surendran, Praveen; Malarstig, Anders; Wilk, Jemma B; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Rasmussen, Katrine L; Kamstrup, Pia R; Deloukas, Panos; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kathiresan, Sekar; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Watkins, Hugh; Do, Ron; Rader, Daniel J; Johnson, Julie A; Hazen, Stanley L; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Spertus, John A; Pepine, Carl J; Franceschini, Nora; Justice, Anne; Reiner, Alex P; Buyske, Steven; Hindorff, Lucia A; Carty, Cara L; North, Kari E; Kooperberg, Charles; Boerwinkle, Eric; Young, Kristin; Graff, Mariaelisa; Peters, Ulrike; Absher, Devin; Hsiung, Chao A; Lee, Wen-Jane; Taylor, Kent D; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lee, I-Te; Guo, Xiuqing; Chung, Ren-Hua; Hung, Yi-Jen; Rotter, Jerome I; Juang, Jyh-Ming J; Quertermous, Thomas; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Rasheed, Asif; Frossard, Philippe; Alam, Dewan S; Majumder, Abdulla Al Shafi; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Assimes, Themistocles L; Danesh, John; Butterworth, Adam S; Saleheen, Danish

    2017-07-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although 58 genomic regions have been associated with CAD thus far, most of the heritability is unexplained, indicating that additional susceptibility loci await identification. An efficient discovery strategy may be larger-scale evaluation of promising associations suggested by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hence, we genotyped 56,309 participants using a targeted gene array derived from earlier GWAS results and performed meta-analysis of results with 194,427 participants previously genotyped, totaling 88,192 CAD cases and 162,544 controls. We identified 25 new SNP-CAD associations (P < 5 × 10(-8), in fixed-effects meta-analysis) from 15 genomic regions, including SNPs in or near genes involved in cellular adhesion, leukocyte migration and atherosclerosis (PECAM1, rs1867624), coagulation and inflammation (PROCR, rs867186 (p.Ser219Gly)) and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation (LMOD1, rs2820315). Correlation of these regions with cell-type-specific gene expression and plasma protein levels sheds light on potential disease mechanisms.

  15. Kawasaki disease and the emerging coronary artery disease epidemic in India: is there a correlation?

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Aulakh, Roosy; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2014-04-01

    Although Kawasaki disease (KD) is now being increasingly reported from India, the vast majority of children with KD are still not being diagnosed and treated. A recent study from Chandigarh has shown that the incidence of KD is at least 4.54/100,000 children below 15 y of age. Extrapolations of this figure suggest that a minimum of 17,417 new cases of KD would be occurring every year in our country. A significant proportion of these children may develop coronary artery abnormalities. These children would then be at risk of developing myocardial ischemia as young adults. It is authors' contention that (undiagnosed) KD in childhood may be contributing to the growing pool of coronary artery disease (CAD) in India. Similarly, a missed diagnosis of KD in childhood should be considered as a possibility while evaluating adults with CAD, especially when there are no overt risk factors and no family history of the disease.

  16. Arterial endothelial function in a porcine model of early stage atherosclerotic vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Turk, James R; Henderson, Kyle K; Vanvickle, Gregory D; Watkins, Justin; Laughlin, M Harold

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and is projected to become the leading cause of mortality in the world. Atherosclerosis is the most important single factor contributing to this disease burden. In this study, we characterize relationships between endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease in an animal model of diet-induced, early-stage atherosclerotic vascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that hypercholesterolaemia induces vascular disease and impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in conduit arteries of adult male Yucatan pigs. Pigs were fed a normal fat (NF) or high fat cholesterol (HFC) diet for 20–24 weeks. Results indicate that, while the HFC diet did not alter EDR in femoral or brachial arteries, EDR was significantly decreased in both carotid and coronary arteries. Sudanophilic fatty streaks were significantly present in the abdominal aorta and common carotid artery. Histopathology revealed increased intima-media thickness (IMT) and foam cell accumulation in Stary Stage I–III lesions in the abdominal aorta, common carotid artery and femoral arteries. In the coronary arteries, the accumulation of foam cells in Stary Stage I and II lesions resulted in a trend for increased IMT. There was no evidence of vascular disease in the brachial arteries. These results indicate that early stages of CVD (Stary Stage I–III) precede decreases in EDR induced by HFC diet, because femoral arteries exhibited foam cell accumulation and an increased IMT but no change in endothelial function. PMID:16191105

  17. Posterior Cerebral Artery Insufficiency in Pediatric Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kim, Seung-Ki; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The majority of clinical studies on moyamoya disease (MMD) have focused on anterior circulation. The disease involvement of posterior circulation in MMD, mainly in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), has been mentioned since the early 1980s, and it has been repeatedly emphasized as one of the most important factors related to poor prognosis in MMD. However, its clinical features and outcome have only been elucidated during the last few years. In this review, the angiographic definition of PCA stenosis is summarized. The clinical features are elucidated as being either early-onset or delayed-onset, according to the time of PCA stenosis diagnosis in reference to the anterior circulation revascularization surgeries. The surgical strategy and hypothesis on the mechanism of PCA stenosis is also briefly mentioned. It appears that some MMD patients may show PCA stenosis during the early or late course of the disease and that the presenting symptoms may vary. Because the hemodynamic compromise caused by PCA stenosis may respond well to surgical treatment, clinicians should be aware of the condition, especially during follow-up of MMD patients. PMID:26180612

  18. ADAM12: a genetic modifier of preclinical peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingdan; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Farber, Charles R.; Hazarika, Surovi; Jones, W. Schuyler; Craig, Damian; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Lye, R. John; Shah, Svati H.; Annex, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    In prior studies from multiple groups, outcomes following experimental peripheral arterial disease (PAD) differed considerably across inbred mouse strains. Similarly, in humans with PAD, disease outcomes differ, even when there are similarities in risk factors, disease anatomy, arteriosclerotic burden, and hemodynamic measures. Previously, we identified a locus on mouse chromosome 7, limb salvage-associated quantitative trait locus 1 (LSq-1), which was sufficient to modify outcomes following experimental PAD. We compared expression of genes within LSq-1 in Balb/c mice, which normally show poor outcomes following experimental PAD, with that in C57Bl/6 mice, which normally show favorable outcomes, and found that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase gene 12 (ADAM12) had the most differential expression. Augmentation of ADAM12 expression in vivo improved outcomes following experimental PAD in Balb/c mice, whereas knockdown of ADAM12 made outcomes worse in C57Bl/6 mice. In vitro, ADAM12 expression modulates endothelial cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis in ischemia, and this appeared to be dependent on tyrosine kinase with Ig-like and EGF-like domain 2 (Tie2) activation. ADAM12 is sufficient to modify PAD severity in mice, and this likely occurs through regulation of Tie2. PMID:26163448

  19. Evaluation of ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rocco, T.P.; Dilsizian, V.; Fischman, A.J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-07-01

    The recent expansion of interventional cardiovascular technologies has stimulated a concomitant expansion of noninvasive cardiac studies, both to assist in diagnosis and to evaluate treatment outcomes. Radionuclide ventricular function studies provide a reliable, reproducible means to quantify global left ventricular systolic performance, a critical determinant of prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. In addition, the ability to evaluate regional left ventricular wall motion and to assess ventricular performance during exercise have secured a fundamental role for such studies in the screening and treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Radionuclide techniques have been extended to the evaluation of left ventricular relaxation/filling events, left ventricular systolic/diastolic function in the ambulatory setting, and with appropriate technical modifications, to the assessment of right ventricular performance at rest and with exercise. As a complement to radionuclide perfusion studies, cardiac blood-pool imaging allows for thorough noninvasive description of cardiac physiology and function in both normal subjects and in patients with a broad range of cardiovascular diseases. 122 references.

  20. Caries risk and periodontitis in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Hani T; Al-Kindy, Khalid A; Mosalli, Mohammed; Heijl, Lars; Birkhed, Dowen

    2011-09-01

    There is considerable variation in studies on the oral health of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aims of this investigation are to study the caries risk profile using the Cariogram computer program and the periodontal disease severity in patients with CAD. A total of 127 participants (54 test and 73 control) were included. Participants were asked about their general health and daily habits. Clinical examinations, radiographs, and salivary sampling were performed. Cariologic data were entered into the computer program for risk-profile illustration. The onset of CAD conditions was also documented. Compared with controls, participants with CAD consumed less sugar, used fluoride toothpaste less frequently, and had significantly less favorable periodontal parameters (P <0.005). Generally, differences in cariologic parameters between the two groups were not significant. Significantly more participants with CAD exhibited low salivary-secretion rates than controls. The actual chance (percentage) of avoiding new cavities according to the Cariogram was low in the test and control groups (31% and 40%, respectively; P <0.05). Only gingival recession was correlated with the onset of CAD. Test and control groups had a relatively high caries risk. More severe periodontal disease was observed in participants with CAD.

  1. Advances in the Genetic Basis of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing

    2006-01-01

    Exciting advances have been made recently in genetic studies of coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemic stroke. One disease-causing gene for CAD and MI has been identified as MEF2A, which is located on chromosome 15q26.3 and encodes a transcriptional factor with a high level of expression in coronary endothelium. Approximately 1% to 2% of CAD patients may carry an MEF2A mutation. Four new susceptibility genes have been identified using genome-wide association studies or genome-wide linkage studies: LTA (encoding cytokine lymphotoxin-α) on 6p21.3 for MI; LGALS2 (encoding galectin-2, an LTA-interacting protein) on 22q12-q13 for MI; ALOX5AP (encoding 5-lipoxygenase activating protein involved in synthesizing potent proinflammatory leukotrienes) on 13q12-13 for MI and stroke; and PDE4D (encoding phosphodiesterase 4D) on 5q12 for ischemic stroke. These studies identify a new mechanism, the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) signaling pathway of vascular endothelium, for the pathogenesis of CAD, and also confirm the role of inflammation in the disease process. PMID:15811259

  2. The genetic basis for survivorship in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Dungan, Jennifer R.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Qin, Xuejun; Kraus, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Survivorship is a trait characterized by endurance and virility in the face of hardship. It is largely considered a psychosocial attribute developed during fatal conditions, rather than a biological trait for robustness in the context of complex, age-dependent diseases like coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this paper is to present the novel phenotype, survivorship in CAD as an observed survival advantage concurrent with clinically significant CAD. We present a model for characterizing survivorship in CAD and its relationships with overlapping time- and clinically-related phenotypes. We offer an optimal measurement interval for investigating survivorship in CAD. We hypothesize genetic contributions to this construct and review the literature for evidence of genetic contribution to overlapping phenotypes in support of our hypothesis. We also present preliminary evidence of genetic effects on survival in people with clinically significant CAD from a primary case-control study of symptomatic coronary disease. Identifying gene variants that confer improved survival in the context of clinically appreciable CAD may improve our understanding of cardioprotective mechanisms acting at the gene level and potentially impact patients clinically in the future. Further, characterizing other survival-variant genetic effects may improve signal-to-noise ratio in detecting gene associations for CAD. PMID:24143143

  3. ADAM12: a genetic modifier of preclinical peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Dokun, Ayotunde O; Chen, Lingdan; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Farber, Charles R; Hazarika, Surovi; Jones, W Schuyler; Craig, Damian; Marchuk, Douglas A; Lye, R John; Shah, Svati H; Annex, Brian H

    2015-09-01

    In prior studies from multiple groups, outcomes following experimental peripheral arterial disease (PAD) differed considerably across inbred mouse strains. Similarly, in humans with PAD, disease outcomes differ, even when there are similarities in risk factors, disease anatomy, arteriosclerotic burden, and hemodynamic measures. Previously, we identified a locus on mouse chromosome 7, limb salvage-associated quantitative trait locus 1 (LSq-1), which was sufficient to modify outcomes following experimental PAD. We compared expression of genes within LSq-1 in Balb/c mice, which normally show poor outcomes following experimental PAD, with that in C57Bl/6 mice, which normally show favorable outcomes, and found that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase gene 12 (ADAM12) had the most differential expression. Augmentation of ADAM12 expression in vivo improved outcomes following experimental PAD in Balb/c mice, whereas knockdown of ADAM12 made outcomes worse in C57Bl/6 mice. In vitro, ADAM12 expression modulates endothelial cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis in ischemia, and this appeared to be dependent on tyrosine kinase with Ig-like and EGF-like domain 2 (Tie2) activation. ADAM12 is sufficient to modify PAD severity in mice, and this likely occurs through regulation of Tie2.

  4. Arterial Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts.

  5. Doppler assessment of pulmonary artery pressure in neonates at risk of chronic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Su, B.; Watanabe, T.; Shimizu, M.; Yanagisawa, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) change in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants at risk of chronic lung disease (CLD).
METHODS—The time to peak velocity:right ventricular ejection time (TPV:RVET) ratio calculated from the pulmonary artery Doppler waveform, which is inversely related to PAP, was used. The TPV:RVET ratio was corrected for different heart rate (TPV:RVET(c)). Seventy three VLBW infants studied on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were enrolled for the analysis.
RESULTS—Twenty two infants developed CLD with a characteristic chest radiograph at day 28. Fifty one did not, of whom 17 were oxygen dependent on account of apnoea rather than respiratory disease, and 34 were non-oxygen dependent. The TPV:RVET(c) ratio rose progressively in all three groups over the first three days of life, suggesting a fall in PAP. In the oxygen and non-oxygen dependent groups, the mean (SD) ratio rose to 0.53 (0.09) and 0.57 (0.09), respectively, on day 7, then remained relatively constant thereafter. The CLD group rose more slowly after day 3 and had a significantly lower mean ratio from day 7 onwards compared with the other two groups (day 7: P<0.001, days 14-28: P<0.0001), and fell significantly from 0.47 (0.11) on day 7 to 0.41 (0.07) on day 28 (P=0.01), suggesting a progressive rise in PAP. The mean (SD) ratios at day 28 of all infants were: CLD group 0.41 (0.07); oxygen dependent group 0.66 (0.15); and the non-oxygen group 0.67 (0.11). The CLD group had a significantly lower ratio than the oxygen dependent group and the non-oxygen group (P<0.0001). Using the TPV:RVET(c) ratio of <0.46, infants at risk of developing CLD could be predicted on day 7 (predictive value 82.8%, sensitivity 54.5%, specificity 94.1%).
CONCLUSION—The non-invasive assessment of PAP using the TPV:RVET(c) ratio may be useful in the longitudinal monitoring of PAP change in VLBW infants, and for prediction of chronic lung disease.

 Keywords

  6. Association of Skin Autofluorescence Levels With Kidney Function Decline in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Elise; de Vos, Lisanne C; Lutgers, Helen L; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Vart, Priya; Zeebregts, Clark J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Lefrandt, Joop D

    2016-08-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF), a measure of advanced glycation end product accumulation, is associated with kidney function. We investigated the association of SAF with rate of kidney function decline in a cohort of patients with peripheral artery disease. We performed a post hoc analysis of an observational longitudinal cohort study. We included 471 patients with peripheral artery disease, and SAF was measured at baseline. Primary end point was rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline. Secondary end points were incidence of eGFR <60 and <45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and rapid eGFR decline, defined as a decrease in eGFR of >5 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/y. During a median follow-up of 3 years, the mean change in eGFR per year was -1.8±4.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/y. No significant difference in rate of eGFR decline was observed per 1 arbitrary unit increase in SAF (-0.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/y; 95% confidence interval, -0.7 to 0.5; P=0.8). Analyses of the secondary end points showed that there was an association of SAF with incidence of eGFR <60 and <45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.10; P=0.006 and hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.59; P=0.004, respectively), but after adjustment for age and sex, significance was lost. There was no association of SAF with rapid eGFR decline. In conclusion, in this cohort of patients with peripheral artery disease, elevated SAF was associated with lower baseline eGFR. Although SAF has previously been established as a predictor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, it did not predict the rate of kidney function decline during follow-up in this study. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Radiotherapy-induced concomitant coronary artery stenosis and mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Akboga, Mehmet Kadri; Akyel, Ahmet; Sahinarslan, Asife; Cengel, Atiye

    2014-04-01

    Radiotherapy is extensively used in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease. One of its untoward effects is on heart. Coronary arteries and heart valves can be adversely affected from radiotherapy. However, co-existence of both conditions is very rare. In this report, we present a patient with Hodgkin's disease who developed both coronary artery stenosis and severe mitral valve regurgitation after radiotherapy.

  8. [Hemoptysis caused by pulmonary arterial aneurysm, disclosing Behçet disease. Apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Kooli, C; Salem, M; Hamzaoui, A; Fredj, M; Kaouache, Z; Khalfallah, N; Chabbou, A; Haddad, A

    1997-01-01

    Behçet's disease, frequent in our region, can have many clinical presentations. Arterial lesions generally lead to poor prognosis. We report two cases of pulmonary artery aneurysm in two young adults whose Behçet's disease was revealed by hemoptysia.

  9. [2011 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases].

    PubMed

    Brogneaux, C; Sprynger, M; Magnée, M; Lancellotti, P

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we present the 2011 guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases. The document covers the diagnostic modalities and therapeutic strategies for the atherosclerotic disease of the extra-cranial carotid, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries indicating the class and level of evidence of the recommendations.

  10. Arterial ischemic stroke in children with cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Asakai, Hiroko; Cardamone, Michael; Hutchinson, Darren; Stojanovski, Belinda; Galati, John C.; Cheung, Michael M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the spectrum of cardiac disorders, timing in relation to interventional procedures, and outcome in children with cardiac disease and arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods: Children younger than 18 years with cardiac disease and radiologically confirmed AIS admitted to the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne between 1993 and 2010 were retrospectively identified using ICD-9 and ICD-10 searches. Results: Seventy-six children with cardiac disease and radiologically confirmed AIS were identified with the median age at diagnosis of 5 months (interquartile range 0–58). Cardiac lesions included cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) in 42 (55%), acyanotic heart disease in 24 (29%), cardiomyopathies/myocarditis in 6 (8%), infective endocarditis in 3 (4%), and primary arrhythmias in 3 (4%). Stroke occurred following cardiac procedures in 52 patients (68%): 41 post cardiac surgery (4.6 strokes per 1,000 surgical procedures) and 11 post cardiac catheterization (1.7 strokes per 1,000 catheterizations). The median time from procedure to diagnosis of stroke was 3 days (interquartile range 2–7), with 68% (95% confidence interval 58%–79%) of strokes estimated to occur within the periprocedural period. Prevalence of periprocedural stroke varied by diagnostic category, but was most common in patients with cyanotic CHD undergoing palliative surgery (22/2,256, 1%) (p < 0.005). There were 3 AIS-related deaths, and 54 survivors (84%) had persisting neurologic deficits. Conclusions: Infants with cyanotic CHD were most frequently affected by AIS during the periprocedural period. Prospective cohort studies are required to determine effective primary and secondary prevention strategies. PMID:26408496

  11. Prognostic Value of Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Determination of Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Maryam; Nouri, Shadi; Nourozi, Ali; Golbidi, Danial

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background There are controversies regarding the usefulness of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) for predicting coronary artery stenosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of CACS for determining the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with sign and symptoms of the disease. Material/Methods In this cross-sectional study, 748 consecutive patients with suspected CAD, referred for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), were enrolled. The mean CACS was compared between patients with different severities of coronary artery stenosis. The association between CACS and different CAD risk factors was determined as well. Different cutoff points of CACS for discriminating between different levels of coronary artery stenosis was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The mean CACS was significantly different between different levels of coronary artery stenosis (P<0.001) and there was a significant positive association between the severity of CAD and CACS (P<0.001,r=0.781). ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal cutoff point for discriminating between CAD (presence of stenosis) and the non-stenosis condition was 5.35 with 88.6% sensitivity and 86.2% specificity. Area under the curve for different levels of coronary artery stenosis did not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between different levels of CAD severity (<70%). Conclusions The study demonstrated that there is a significant association between CACS and the presence as well as the severity of CAD. CACS could have an appropriate prognostic value for the determination of coronary artery stenosis but not for discriminating between different severities of stenoses.

  12. Early results of coronary endarterectomy combined with coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with diffused coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Chi, Li-Qun; Zhang, Jian-Qun; Kong, Qing-Yu; Xiao, Wei; Liang, Lin; Chen, Xin-Liang

    2015-06-05

    It is still a challenge for the cardiac surgeons to achieve adequate revascularization for diffused coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary endarterectomy (CE) offers an alternative choice of coronary artery reconstruction and revascularization. In this study, short-term result of CE combined with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was discussed in the treatment for the diffused CAD. From January 2012 to April 2014, 221 cases of CABG were performed by the same surgeon in our unit. Among these cases, 38 cases of CE + CABG were performed, which was about 17.2% (38/221) of the cohort. All these patients were divided into two groups: CE + CABG group (Group A) and CABG alone group (Group B). All clinical data were compared between the two groups, and postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. The categorical and continuous variables were analyzed by Chi-square test and Student's t-test respectively. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and peripheral vascular disease were more common in group A. In this cohort, a total of 50 vessels were endarterectomized. Among them, CE was performed on left anterior descending artery in 11 cases, on right coronary artery in 29 cases, on diagonal artery in 3 cases, on intermediate artery in 2 cases, on obtuse marginal artery in 5 cases. There was no hospital mortality in both groups. The intro-aortic balloon pump was required in 3 cases in Group A (3/38), which was more often than that in Group B (3/183). At the time of follow-up, coronary computed tomography angiogram showed all the grafts with CE were patent (50/50). There is no cardio-related mortality in both groups. All these patients were free from coronary re-intervention. Coronary endarterectomy + CABG can offer satisfactory result for patients with diffused CAD in a short-term after the operation.

  13. Early Results of Coronary Endarterectomy Combined with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Diffused Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Li-Qun; Zhang, Jian-Qun; Kong, Qing-Yu; Xiao, Wei; Liang, Lin; Chen, Xin-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is still a challenge for the cardiac surgeons to achieve adequate revascularization for diffused coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary endarterectomy (CE) offers an alternative choice of coronary artery reconstruction and revascularization. In this study, short-term result of CE combined with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was discussed in the treatment for the diffused CAD. Methods: From January 2012 to April 2014, 221 cases of CABG were performed by the same surgeon in our unit. Among these cases, 38 cases of CE + CABG were performed, which was about 17.2% (38/221) of the cohort. All these patients were divided into two groups: CE + CABG group (Group A) and CABG alone group (Group B). All clinical data were compared between the two groups, and postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. The categorical and continuous variables were analyzed by Chi-square test and Student's t-test respectively. Results: Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and peripheral vascular disease were more common in group A. In this cohort, a total of 50 vessels were endarterectomized. Among them, CE was performed on left anterior descending artery in 11 cases, on right coronary artery in 29 cases, on diagonal artery in 3 cases, on intermediate artery in 2 cases, on obtuse marginal artery in 5 cases. There was no hospital mortality in both groups. The intro-aortic balloon pump was required in 3 cases in Group A (3/38), which was more often than that in Group B (3/183). At the time of follow-up, coronary computed tomography angiogram showed all the grafts with CE were patent (50/50). There is no cardio-related mortality in both groups. All these patients were free from coronary re-intervention. Conclusions: Coronary endarterectomy + CABG can offer satisfactory result for patients with diffused CAD in a short-term after the operation. PMID:26021501

  14. Coronary artery bypass for isolated disease of the left anterior descending artery. Late survival of 648 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Killen, D A; Wathanacharoen, S; Reed, W A; Piehler, J M; Borkon, A M; Gorton, M E; Meuhlebach, G F

    1998-01-01

    We studied a series of 648 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting for isolated primary disease of the anterior descending coronary artery. We evaluated the patients periodically during a long-term follow-up period of up to 17 years. We studied factors such as survival, survival without acute event (i.e., acute myocardial infarction, repeat coronary artery bypass, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty), and asymptomatic survival (i.e., survival without acute event or angina). We further analyzed these factors as they occurred in patients who received only saphenous vein grafts versus their occurrence in patients who received internal mammary artery grafts. There was 1 death in the early postoperative period (defined as 30 days or earlier after the operation). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates were 94.8%, 86.6%, and 72.2%, respectively. These survival rates are slightly better than those of an age- and sex-matched United States census population. In our series, the rates of survival, event-free survival, and asymptomatic survival were better, although not significantly so, in the group of 108 patients in whom the internal mammary artery was used as the bypass conduit. We conclude that patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting for isolated disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery enjoy normal survival rates, in comparison with the survival rates of an age- and sex-matched United States census population, through at least the 1st 16 postoperative years. Additionally, patients who receive an internal mammary artery bypass graft have slightly better rates of survival, event-free survival, and asymptomatic survival than do those who receive only saphenous vein grafts. PMID:9782557

  15. Coronary artery compliance and adaptive vessel remodelling in patients with stable and unstable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeremias, A; Spies, C; Herity, N; Pomerantsev, E; Yock, P; Fitzgerald, P; Yeung, A

    2000-01-01

    .001). Negative remodelling occurred only in two patients with unstable symptoms (9%) but in 17 (74%) with stable symptoms. At the proximal reference segment, the difference in LA between systole and diastole was 0.99 (0.66) mm2 in the unstable group and 0.39 (0.3) mm2 in the stable group (p < 0.001), and the calculated coronary artery distensibility was 3.09 (2.69) and 0.94 (0.83) per mm Hg in unstable and stable patients, respectively (p < 0.001). The stiffness index β was lower in patients with unstable angina (1.95 (0.94) v 3.1 (0.96), p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—Compensatory vessel enlargement occurs to a greater degree in patients with unstable than with stable coronary syndromes, and is associated with increased coronary artery distensibility.


Keywords: coronary artery disease; remodelling; compliance; angina pectoris PMID:10956298

  16. Arterial aging and arterial disease: interplay between central hemodynamics, cardiac work, and organ flow—implications for CKD and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    London, Gerard; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Wiecek, Andrzej; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ortiz, Alberto; Massy, Ziad; Lindholm, Bengt; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Fliser, Danilo; Agarwal, Rajiv; Jager, Kitty J; Dekker, Friedo W; Blankestijn, Peter J; Zoccali, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All epidemiological studies have clearly shown that accelerated arterial and cardiac aging is characteristic of these populations. Arterial premature aging is heterogeneous. It principally involves the aorta and central capacitive arteries, and is characterized by preferential aortic stiffening and disappearance of stiffness/impedance gradients between the central and peripheral arteries. These changes have a double impact: on the heart, upstream, with left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased coronary perfusion; and, downstream, on renal and brain microcirculation (decrease in glomerular filtration and cognitive functions). Multifactorial at origin, the pathophysiology of aortic ‘progeria' and microvascular disorders in CKD/ESRD is not well understood and should be the focus of interest in future studies. PMID:25018896

  17. Computerized analysis of coronary artery disease: Performance evaluation of segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries in CT angiograms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chuan Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in analysis of coronary artery disease in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). This study evaluated the accuracy of the authors’ coronary artery segmentation and tracking method which are the essential steps to define the search space for the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: The heart region in cCTA is segmented and the vascular structures are enhanced using the authors’ multiscale coronary artery response (MSCAR) method that performed 3D multiscale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. Starting from seed points at the origins of the left and right coronary arteries, a 3D rolling balloon region growing (RBG) method that adapts to the local vessel size segmented and tracked each of the coronary arteries and identifies the branches along the tracked vessels. The branches are queued and subsequently tracked until the queue is exhausted. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 cCTA were collected retrospectively from the authors’ patient files. Three experienced cardiothoracic radiologists manually tracked and marked center points of the coronary arteries as reference standard following the 17-segment model that includes clinically significant coronary arteries. Two radiologists visually examined the computer-segmented vessels and marked the mistakenly tracked veins and noisy structures as false positives (FPs). For the 62 cases, the radiologists marked a total of 10191 center points on 865 visible coronary artery segments. Results: The computer-segmented vessels overlapped with 83.6% (8520/10191) of the center points. Relative to the 865 radiologist-marked segments, the sensitivity reached 91.9% (795/865) if a true positive is defined as a computer-segmented vessel that overlapped with at least 10% of the reference center points marked on the segment. When the overlap threshold is increased to 50% and 100%, the sensitivities were 86

  18. Genetic variants associated with celiac disease and the risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Henning; Willenborg, Christina; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Ferrario, Paola G; König, Inke R; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Lieb, Wolfgang; Schunkert, Heribert

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with celiac disease are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Genetic-epidemiological analyses identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with celiac disease. If there is a causal relation between celiac disease and CAD, one might expect that risk alleles primarily associated with celiac disease also increase the risk of CAD. In this study we identified from literature 41 SNPs that have been previously described to be genome-wide associated with celiac disease (p < 5 × 10(-08)). These SNPs were evaluated for their association with CAD in the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAM) dataset, a meta-analysis comprising genome-wide SNP association data from 22,233 CAD cases and 64,762 controls. 24 out of 41 (58.5 %) risk alleles for celiac disease displayed a positive association with CAD (CAD-OR range 1.001-1.081). The remaining risk alleles for celiac disease (n = 16) revealed CAD-ORs of ≤1.0 (range 0.951-1.0). The proportion of CAD associated alleles was greater but did not differ significantly from the proportion of 50 % expected by chance (p = 0.069). One SNP (rs653178 at the SH2B3/ATXN2 locus) displayed study-wise statistically significant association with CAD with directionality consistent effects on celiac disease and CAD. However, the effect of this locus is most likely driven by pleiotropic effects on multiple other diseases. In conclusion, this genetically based approach provided no convincing evidence that SNPs associated with celiac disease contribute to the risk of CAD. Hence, common non-genetic factors may play a more important role explaining the coincidence of these two complex disease conditions.

  19. New technologies for the treatment of obstructive arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Fischell, T A; Stadius, M L

    1991-03-01

    The well-known limitations of balloon angioplasty include unpredictable abrupt closure, chronic total occlusion, diffuse disease, and restenosis, among other factors. These limitations have prompted the development of new technologic approaches to angioplasty including laser applications for plaque ablation, mechanical device applications for plaque removal/debridement, and stent devices for structural maintenance of vascular lumen patency. Devices which directly apply laser energy for ablation of plaque material include a balloon-centered laser angioplasty system, excimer laser ablation catheter systems, and a fluorescence-guided spectral feedback laser system. Experience with these devices indicates that plaque can be successfully ablated by using laser energy. Vessel perforation and dissection are complications reported with these devices and the effects of laser angioplasty on restenosis remain unclear. Indirect application of laser energy has been tested by using a "hot tip" catheter and a laser balloon angioplasty system. Although the hot tip device has received FDA approval for use in peripheral arteries, it appears to have very limited applications in the coronary arteries. Laser balloon angioplasty appears to be beneficial in the setting of threatened acute closure; the device continues to be evaluated for potential beneficial impact on restenosis. Mechanical atherectomy catheters are designed to remove atherosclerotic plaque from the arterial system and include the AtheroCath, the Transluminal Extraction Catheter (TEC), and the Pullback Atherectomy Catheter (PAC). The Rotablator is an atheroablation device which debrides the obstructing plaque material with distal embolization of the particulate debris. Successful removal/debridement of atherosclerotic plaque has been demonstrated with the AtheroCath, Rotablator, and the TEC device. Pre-clinical studies demonstrate successful removal of plaque material with the PAC device. Despite the theoretic advantage

  20. Relevance and mechanism of oxysterol stereospecifity in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Rimner, Andreas; Al Makdessi, Samar; Sweidan, Hicham; Wischhusen, Jörg; Rabenstein, Björn; Shatat, Khaula; Mayer, Petra; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim

    2005-02-15

    Cholesterol oxidation products (oxysterols) are markers for in vitro LDL oxidation. They are potent inducers of programmed cell death and are also found in high concentrations inside atherosclerotic lesions. Among physiologically occurring oxysterols, 7beta-OH-cholesterol suggests an increase of lipid peroxidation in vivo. In the underlying study, we quantified free plasma oxysterols by means of gas chromatography in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Total free plasma oxysterols were elevated more than 2-fold in patients with stable CAD (233 +/- 49 vs 108 +/- 19 ng/ml, n = 22, P < 0.05) compared to a control group (n = 20) with similar atherogenic risk profile and angiographically normal coronary arteries. We found that 7-ketocholesterol, as well as the beta-isomers of epoxide (25.7 +/- 10.0 vs 7.3 +/- 1.4 ng/ml, P = 0.07) and 7beta-OH-cholesterol (65.1 +/- 15.7 vs 19.4 +/- 8.9 ng/ml, P < 0.01), was mainly responsible for this increase. To elucidate a potential relevance of oxysterol stereospecificity in regard to endothelial damage, we further conducted in vitro experiments using human arterial endothelial cells (HAECs). Surprisingly, beta-isomers exerted an up to 10-fold higher amount of cell death in equivalent doses when compared to alpha-isomers. The greater cytotoxic potential of beta-isomers was due to increased apoptosis, preceded by mitochondrial release of cytochrome c with subsequent caspase-3 activation. Stereospecific release of cytochrome c depended on the presence of an intact cytoplasmic membrane, hinting at the existence of a putative oxysterol receptor or a direct stereospecific effect on membrane biology. Finally, both isoforms of oxysterols directly released cytochrome c only in conjunction with protein containing cytosol and endoplasmatic reticulum. Free plasma oxysterol levels, particularly 7-ketocholesterol, beta-epoxide and 7beta-OH-cholesterol, are elevated in patients with stable CAD, independent of their LDL cholesterol

  1. Mammography as a screening tool for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Dale, Paul S; Mascarhenas, Christopher; Richards, Michael; Mackie, Gavin

    2008-07-01

    The leading cause of death in women over 40 y old is coronary artery disease (CAD) followed by cancer. This large retrospective study investigates the relationship between mammographic benign arterial calcifications (BAC) and a history of CAD to determine if mammography is a suitable screening tool for CAD. To determine the incidence of BAC in our general screening population, we prospectively studied 1000 consecutive women undergoing screening mammography. We retrospectively identified a population of women with known CAD who had undergone screening mammography as our study group. These groups were compared according to age and the significance of BAC in each group was statistically evaluated using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and Cochran-Armitage test for trend. We prospectively evaluated the mammograms of 819 women with no history of diabetes or CAD. Eighty-six women had mammographic BAC for a baseline BAC incidence of 10.5%. We identified 395 women with CAD and 193 (49%) of these women had BAC. Vascular calcifications significantly increased with age (P < 0.0001) in both groups. Stratifying by age, women with CAD had a significant increase in BAC compared with women undergoing routine screening (P < 0.0001). The odds ratio of having CAD when BAC are present on screening mammography compared with having CAD when BAC are not present is 6.2 (95% confidence interval estimate 4.3-8.8). This preliminary study indicates that across age groups, the odds of having CAC are approximately 6.2 times greater if BAC are present compared with women without BAC indicating that mammography may be a useful screening tool for CAD.

  2. Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease by Cardiac Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kochar, Minisha

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. To date, diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected CAD has relied upon the use of physiologic non-invasive testing by stress electrocardiography, echocardiography, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and magnetic resonance imaging. Indeed, the importance of physiologic evaluation of CAD has been highlighted by large-scale randomized trials that demonstrate the propitious benefit of an integrated anatomic-physiologic evaluation method by performing lesion-specific ischemia assessment by fractional flow reserve (FFR)-widely considered the "gold" standard for ischemia assessment-at the time of invasive angiography. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has emerged as an attractive non-invasive test for anatomic illustration of the coronary arteries and atherosclerotic plaque. In a series of prospective multicenter trials, CCTA has been proven as having high diagnostic performance for stenosis detection as compared to invasive angiography. Nevertheless, CCTA evaluation of obstructive stenoses is prone to overestimation of severity and further, detection of stenoses by CCTA does not reliably determine the hemodynamic significance of the visualized lesions. Recently, a series of technological innovations have advanced the possibility of CCTA to enable physiologic evaluation of CAD, thereby creating the potential of this test to provide an integrated anatomic-physiologic assessment of CAD. These advances include rest-stress MPI by CCTA as well as the use of computational fluid dynamics to non-invasively calculate FFR from a typically acquired CCTA. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent data addressing these 2 physiologic methods of CAD evaluation by CCTA. PMID:23964289

  3. Shockwave therapy in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Notarnicola, Angela; Scicchitano, Pietro; Sassara, Marco; Carbonara, Santa; Maiorano, Mariagrazia; Moretti, Biagio

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies support the fact that extracorporeal shockwave (SW) induces angiogenesis and improves symptoms in patients affected by limb ischemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SW therapy in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Twenty-two patients were enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned into two groups: SW treatment (12 patients, 67 ± 9 years) and control (10 patients, 68 ± 12 years). The inclusion criteria were the following: age over 40 years, PAD diagnosis, optimal medical therapy, and ankle-brachial index less than 0.9. SW therapy was administered using the Minilith® SL1 litotriptor with an ultrasound guide able to detect the target area using a B-mode technique and a 7.5 MHz convex probe emitting 2,000 impulses with an energy flux density of 0.03 mJ/mm(2). The variation in the degree of stenosis before and after treatment was statistically significant between the groups (-9% ± -10% vs. 0% ± 0%; P = 0.001). In addition, a significantly higher number of treated patients than controls showed a reduction in the Fontaine stage (12 [63%] vs. 0 [0%]; P < 0.001). This result was confirmed by analyzing the difference in patients' pain-free walking distance before and after SW therapy (76 ± 46 m vs. 0 ± 0 m for treated patients vs. controls; P < 0.001) and the difference in pain severity (measured on a pain scale; -1.4 ± 0.5 in the treated patients vs. -0.2 ± 0.4 in the controls; P < 0.001). On the basis of these results the authors hypothesized a direct effect of SW on the ultrastructural composition of the vessel walls, inducing a reduction in artery stenosis. These data support the application of SW therapy as a new medical tool to improve the natural clinical course of PAD.

  4. Value of left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise in predicting the extent of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Iskandrian, A S; Hakki, A H; Kane, S A; Segal, B L

    1983-04-01

    To determine the relation between left ventricular performance during exercise and the extent of coronary artery disease, the results of exercise radionuclide ventriculography were analyzed in 65 patients who also underwent cardiac catheterization. A scoring system was used to quantitate the extent of coronary artery disease. This system takes into account the number and site of stenoses of the major coronary vessels and their secondary branches. The conventional method of interpreting the coronary angiograms indicated that 26 patients had significant coronary artery disease (defined as 70% or more narrowing of luminal diameter) of one vessel, 21 had multivessel disease and 18 had no significant coronary artery disease. Although the exercise left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in patients with no coronary artery disease than in patients with one or multivessel disease (probability [p] less than 0.001), there was considerable overlap among the three groups. With the scoring system, a good correlation was found between the coronary artery disease score and the exercise left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.70; p less than 0.001). If the exercise heart rate was 130 beats/min or greater or the age of the patient was 50 years or less, an even better correlation was found (r = -0.73 and r = -0.82, respectively). The exercise ejection fraction (but not the change in ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume from rest to exercise) correlated with the extent of coronary artery disease. The exercise ejection fraction is the most important exercise variable that correlates with the extent of coronary artery disease when the latter is assessed quantitatively by a scoring system rather than the conventional method of reporting coronary angiograms. Young age and greater exercise heart rate strengthened the correlation. The change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise is useful in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

  5. Cold pressor /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M.; Dubiel, J.P.; Haibach, H.

    1982-12-01

    /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy was performed during cold pressor stimulation in 36 patients aged 36 to 69 years. Thirty-one patients had coronary artery disease and 5 patients did not, as confirmed by coronary cineangiography. /sup 201/Tl (1.5 to 2 mCi) was injected at 30 seconds of the cold pressor stimulation. The product of systolic pressure X heart rate increased from a baseline of 77.4 +/- 16 (standard deviation (SD)) to 103.6 +/- 17 at 30 seconds of the cold pressor test (p less than 0.0005). Transient perfusion deficits developed in 24 of 31 patients with coronary artery disease (sensitivity 77%), and all 5 patients without coronary artery disease had normal scintigrams. The sensitivity in detecting coronary artery disease was 40% in patients with 1 vessel disease, 91% in patients with 2 vessel disease, and 100% in patients with 3 vessel disease. Exercise electrocardiograms (available in 29 of 36 patients) were positive for ischemia in 18 of 24 patients with coronary artery disease and in 1 of 5 patients without coronary artery disease (sensitivity 75% and specificity less than 80%). Exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigrams, obtained in 16 patients, were positive in 11 patients with coronary artery disease and positive cold pressor /sup 201/Tl scintigrams. Five patients without coronary artery disease and with normal cold pressor /sup 201/Tl scintigrams had normal exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigrams. Coronary cineangiography performed during cold pressor stimulation in 6 patients who had positive cold pressor and exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigrams did not show coronary spasm. Our data indicate that cold pressor thallium-201 scintigraphy offers promise as a noninvasive test in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may be used in patients in whom exercise testing is not feasible.

  6. Prognostic impact of stress testing in coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Severi, S.; Michelassi, C. )

    1991-05-01

    Observational data prospectively collected permit the examination of a complex set of decisions, including the decision not to perform any stress testing. Patients with or without previous myocardial infarction admitted for coronary evaluation and not submitted to any stress testing because of clinical reasons are at a higher risk for subsequent death. For prognostication, no test has been better validated than exercise electrocardiography: it can identify patients at low and high risk for future cardiac events among those without symptoms, with typical chest pain, and with previous myocardial infarction. In patients with triple-vessel disease, the results of exercise also allow those at low and high risk to be recognized. Both exercise radionuclide angiography and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy (the latter in larger patient populations) have also demonstrated significant prognostic value on patients with or without previous myocardial infarction. Neither one has shown superiority to the other in prognostication. So far, they have been considered the only viable alternatives to exercise electrocardiography stress testing for diagnosis and prognostication. However, their costs limit their extensive application. Preliminary data suggest that intravenous dipyridamole echocardiography can be used for both diagnosis and prognostication of coronary artery disease; moreover, the prognostic information derived from dipyridamole echocardiography testing seems independent of and additive to that provided by exercise electrocardiography. Further prospective studies on larger patient populations are needed to better define the prognostic value of dipyridamole echocardiography testing.47 references.

  7. Antioxidants and coronary artery disease: from pathophysiology to preventive therapy.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Jane A

    2015-03-01

    Oxidant stress in the cardiovascular system may occur when antioxidant capacity is insufficient to reduce reactive oxygen species and other free radicals. Oxidant stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and incident coronary artery disease. As a result of this connection, early observational studies focused on dietary antioxidants, such as β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid, and demonstrated an inverse relationship between intake of these antioxidants and major adverse cardiovascular events. These findings supported a number of randomized trials on the use of selected antioxidants as primary or secondary prevention strategies to decrease cardiac risk; however, many of these studies reported disappointing results with little or no observed risk reduction in antioxidant-treated patients. Several plausible explanations for these findings have been suggested, including incorrect antioxidant choice or dose, synthetic versus dietary antioxidants as the intervention, and patient selection, all of which will be important to consider when designing future clinical trials. This review will focus on the contemporary evidence that is the basis for our current understanding of the role of antioxidants in cardiovascular disease prevention.

  8. Challenges associated with peripheral arterial disease in women

    PubMed Central

    Barochiner, Jessica; Aparicio, Lucas S; Waisman, Gabriel D

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an increasingly recognized disorder that is associated with functional impairment, quality-of-life deterioration, increased risk of cardiovascular ischemic events, and increased risk of total and cardiovascular mortality. Although earlier studies suggested that PAD was more common in men, recent reports based on more sensitive tests have shown that the prevalence of PAD in women is at least the same as in men, if not higher. PAD tends to present itself asymptomatically or with atypical symptoms more frequently in women than in men, and is associated with comorbidities or situations particularly or exclusively found in the female sex, such as osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, the use of oral contraceptives, and a history of complications during pregnancy. Fat-distribution patterns and differential vascular characteristics in women may influence the interpretation of diagnostic methods, whereas sex-related vulnerability to drugs typically used in subjects with PAD, differences in risk-factor distribution among sexes, and distinct responses to revascularization procedures in men and women must be taken into account for proper disease management. All these issues pose important challenges associated with PAD in women. Of note, this group has classically been underrepresented in research studies. As a consequence, several sex-related challenges regarding diagnosis and management issues should be acknowledged, and research gaps should be addressed in order to successfully deal with this major health issue. PMID:24648743

  9. Newer perspectives of coronary artery disease in young

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Amitesh; Srivastava, Saurabh; Velmurugan, M

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurring in less than 45 years of age is termed as young CAD. Recent studies show a prevalence of 1.2% of CAD cases in this age group. Ethnic wise south Asians especially Indians are more vulnerable to have CAD in young age group with a prevalence of 5% to 10%. Conventional risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and family history seems to be as important as in older CAD subjects. But the prevalence of these risk factors seems to vary in younger subjects. By far the most commonly associated risk factor is smoking in young CAD. Several genes associated with lipoprotein metabolism are now found to be associated with young CAD like cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) gene, hepatic lipase gene, lipoprotein lipase gene, apo A1 gene, apo E gene and apo B. Biomarkers such as lipoprotein (a), fibrinogen, D-dimer, serum Wnt, gamma glutamyl transferase, vitamin D2 and osteocalcin are seems to be associated with premature CAD in some newer studies. In general CAD in young has better prognosis than older subjects. In terms of prognosis two risk factors obesity and current smoking are associated with poorer outcomes. Angiographic studies shows predominance of single vessel disease in young CAD patients. Like CAD in older person primary and secondary prevention plays an important role in prevention of new and further coronary events. PMID:28070240

  10. Clinical assessment of patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Marc A; Griffin, Kathryn J; Scott, D Julian A

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) describes the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis affecting the circulation in the legs. The severity of PAD is classified according to symptom severity, time course, and anatomical distribution. The signs and symptoms of PAD reflect the degree of circulatory compromise and whether there has been a gradual reduction in the circulation or an abrupt, uncompensated decrease. Accurate clinical assessment underpins decisions on management strategy and should objectively assess the severity of the ischemia and need for revascularization. Clinical history should discriminate symptoms of PAD from other conditions presenting with leg pain, elucidate cardiovascular risk factors and the effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. Clinical examination includes signs of general cardiovascular disease and associated conditions before assessing the circulation and viability of the limb. Palpation of peripheral pulses must be augmented by determination of the ankle brachial pressure index using hand held Doppler. A whole patient approach to management is required and must include modification of cardiovascular risk status as well as dealing with the local circulatory manifestation of PAD.

  11. Clinical Assessment of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Marc A.; Griffin, Kathryn J.; Scott, D. Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) describes the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis affecting the circulation in the legs. The severity of PAD is classified according to symptom severity, time course, and anatomical distribution. The signs and symptoms of PAD reflect the degree of circulatory compromise and whether there has been a gradual reduction in the circulation or an abrupt, uncompensated decrease. Accurate clinical assessment underpins decisions on management strategy and should objectively assess the severity of the ischemia and need for revascularization. Clinical history should discriminate symptoms of PAD from other conditions presenting with leg pain, elucidate cardiovascular risk factors and the effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. Clinical examination includes signs of general cardiovascular disease and associated conditions before assessing the circulation and viability of the limb. Palpation of peripheral pulses must be augmented by determination of the ankle brachial pressure index using hand held Doppler. A whole patient approach to management is required and must include modification of cardiovascular risk status as well as dealing with the local circulatory manifestation of PAD. PMID:25435653

  12. Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Carabello, Blaise; Mehta, Satish; Schlegel, Todd; Pellis, Neal; Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies on normal human lymphocytes have shown a five-fold increase (p less than 0.001) in angiogenic inducers such as Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in physiologically stressful environments such as modeled microgravity, a space analog. This suggests de-regulation of cardiovascular signalling pathways indicated by upregulation of PIGf. In the current study, we measured PIGf in the plasma of 33 patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) to investigate whether such disease is associated with increased levels of PIGf. A control consisting of 31 sex matched apparently healthy subjects was also included in the study. We observed that the levels of PIGf in CAD patients were significantly increased compared to those in healthy control subjects (p less than 0.001) and usually increased beyond the clinical threshold level (greater than 27ng/L). The mechanisms leading to up-regulation of angiogenic factors and the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments such as isolation, high altitude, hypoxia, ischemia, microgravity, increased radiation, etc are presently unknown and require further investigation in spaceflight and these other physiologically stressed environments.

  13. Antioxidants and Coronary Artery Disease: From Pathophysiology to Preventive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidant stress in the cardiovascular system may occur when antioxidant capacity is insufficient to reduce reactive oxygen species and other free radicals. Oxidant stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and incident coronary artery disease. As a result of this connection, early observational studies focused on dietary antioxidants, such as β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid, and demonstrated an inverse relationship between intake of these antioxidants and major adverse cardiovascular events. These findings supported a number of randomized trials of selected antioxidants as primary and secondary prevention to decrease cardiac risk; however, many of these studies reported disappointing results with little or no observed risk reduction in antioxidant treated patients. Several plausible explanations for these findings have been suggested, including incorrect antioxidant choice or dose, synthetic versus dietary antioxidant as the intervention, and patient selection, all of which will be important to consider when designing future clinical trials. This review will focus on the contemporary evidence that is the basis for our current understanding of the role of antioxidants in cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:25369999

  14. Principles of conservative treatment of occlusive arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Coffman, J D

    1983-01-01

    Conservative medical treatment is indicated for patients who have stable symptoms of intermittent claudication without rest symptoms or signs, rapidly progressive disease, or disability interfering with gainful employment (see Fig. 1). Valuable general measures include meticulous care of the limbs, avoidance of trauma and infections, and maintenance of normal body weight. Cessation of tobacco smoking is extremely important, and a regimented exercise program is therapeutically beneficial (see Table 1). The high risk factors of diabetes mellitus and hypertension should be controlled. Hyperlipoproteinemia should be treated if present, but it is currently not known if treatment of elevated cholesterol or triglyceride levels prevents progression of or reverses the disease process. If a recent arterial occlusion is suspected, fibrinolytic therapy can be expected to benefit approximately one third of the patients. Anticoagulants and vasodilator drugs have not been shown to be of value. In patients with rest symptoms or signs, who are not candidates for surgical revascularization of the limb, bed rest with dependency of the limb in a warm environment, good foot care, and analgesics are most important. Ulcers should be treated with wet dressings to preserve granulation tissue, and parenteral antibiotics are used if infection is present. When rest symptoms or trophic lesions have disappeared or improved, the patient may be gradually ambulated but should continue to sleep with the head of the bed elevated and should maintain meticulous foot care.

  15. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Arzt, Michael; Hetzenecker, Andrea; Steiner, Stephan; Buchner, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most frequent diseases in industrial nations. Despite significant advances in diagnosis and therapy, CAD and its long-term consequences are important contributors to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, in addition to management of traditional CAD risk factors, there are continued efforts to evaluate other factors and comorbidities that might contribute to the development and progression of CAD. One such factor is sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which is characterized by repetitive apneas, arousals from sleep, and intermittent hypoxia. There is increasing evidence that SDB is a risk factor for CAD. In the early phase after myocardial infarction (MI) the heart might be in a vulnerable state sensitive to the negative consequences of SDB, including increased cardiac workload and endothelial dysfunction, which might ultimately lead to a mismatch between oxygen demand and supply. Despite successful percutaneous coronary intervention, patients with acute MI and SDB have prolonged myocardial ischemia, less salvaged myocardium, and impaired left and right ventricular remodelling compared with those without SDB, all of which predispose to heart failure. Suppression of SDB with positive airway pressure therapy in the early phase after MI is feasible. However, whether treatment of SDB with positive airway pressure will be an effective nonpharmacological treatment approach that will prevent the development of heart failure after MI remains to be determined and is the subject of current investigations.

  16. Antioxidant beverages: green tea intake and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Reiko; Kondo, Kazuo; Momiyama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is recognized as an inflammatory disease. In the present study, we investigated the effect of green tea consumption on plasma inflammatory markers and the association between green tea consumption and CAD. In 22 healthy volunteers, green tea consumption (7 cups/day) significantly decreased serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) concentrations, whereas green tea consumption tended to decrease plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations. In 725 patients undergoing coronary angiography, the percentage of patients drinking <1 cup/day of green tea was higher in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) than in CAD patients without MI and patients without CAD (29% vs. 15% and 18%, P < 0.01). Green tea consumption was found to be inversely associated with MI in Japanese patients. The protective effect of green tea against atherosclerosis is more likely to be because of the inhibitory effect of LDL oxidation than because of anti-inflammatory effect.

  17. Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Carabello, Blaise; Mehta, Satish; Schlegel, Todd; Pellis, Neal; Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies on normal human lymphocytes have shown a five-fold increase (p less than 0.001) in angiogenic inducers such as Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in physiologically stressful environments such as modeled microgravity, a space analog. This suggests de-regulation of cardiovascular signalling pathways indicated by upregulation of PIGf. In the current study, we measured PIGf in the plasma of 33 patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) to investigate whether such disease is associated with increased levels of PIGf. A control consisting of 31 sex matched apparently healthy subjects was also included in the study. We observed that the levels of PIGf in CAD patients were significantly increased compared to those in healthy control subjects (p less than 0.001) and usually increased beyond the clinical threshold level (greater than 27ng/L). The mechanisms leading to up-regulation of angiogenic factors and the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments such as isolation, high altitude, hypoxia, ischemia, microgravity, increased radiation, etc are presently unknown and require further investigation in spaceflight and these other physiologically stressed environments.

  18. Spa adjuvant therapy improves diabetic lower extremity arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yongbin; Zhu, Yi; Jia, Wei; Chen, Songhua; Meng, Qingzhou

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of spa adjuvant therapy on diabetic lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD). 128 patients with type II diabetes were separated into three groups according to the degree of lower extremity vascular stenosis. Patients within each group were then randomly divided to receive no treatment (control) or spa adjuvant therapy (treatment). Clinical symptoms, blood pressure and hemodynamic analyses were compared between control and treatment groups by Chi square or t-test. After adjuvant therapy with spa, patients' pain, numbness, and cold sensation were significantly improved compared with control groups (P<0.05). Spa adjuvant therapy also significantly increased the dorsalis pedis pulse and systolic peak velocity ratio of patients with mild lower extremity vascular stenosis compared with control groups (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences between the two groups for patients with moderate and severe stenosis (P>0.05). Both in the spa and control groups, there were no significant differences before and after medication for fasting, 2-h postprandial blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) analyses (P>0.05). Spa adjuvant therapy can significantly alleviate lower extremity pain, numbness, and cold sensory symptoms in diabetic LEAD patients with stenosis. Moreover, in LEAD patients with mild stenosis, spa adjuvant therapy also improves the dorsalis pedis pulse and systolic peak velocity ratio, suggesting a potential role for spa therapy as an early intervention strategy to treat the initial stages of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic Potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trebeschi, Stefano; Riederer, Isabelle; Preibisch, Christine; Bohn, Karl P.; Förster, Stefan; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S.; Valentinitsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Although the underlying pathology is still not completely understood, several diagnostic methods are available. Frequently, the most accurate methods are also the most invasive. The present work investigates the diagnostic potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling (PASL) for AD: a non-invasive, MRI-based technique for the quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In particular, we propose a pilot computer aided diagnostic (CAD) procedure able to discriminate between healthy and diseased subjects, and at the same time, providing visual informative results. This method encompasses the creation of a healthy model, the computation of a voxel-wise likelihood function as comparison between the healthy model and the subject under examination, and the correction of the likelihood function via prior distributions. The discriminant analysis is carried out to maximize the accuracy of the classification. The algorithm has been trained on a dataset of 81 subjects and achieved a sensitivity of 0.750 and a specificity of 0.875. Moreover, in accordance with the current pathological knowledge, the parietal lobe, and limbic system are shown to be the main discriminant factors. PMID:27147946

  20. Coronary Artery Disease: Why We should Consider the Y Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Molina, Elsa; Clarence, Elyse Michele; Ahmady, Farah; Chew, Guat Siew; Charchar, Fadi Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. In the last few years our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms that promote CAD in individuals has increased with the advent of the genome era. This complex inflammatory disease has well-defined environmental risk factors. However, in the last 10 years, studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have clearly demonstrated a genetic influence on CAD. Recently, studies on the human Y chromosome have also demonstrated that genetic variation within the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) could play a part in determining cardiovascular risk in men, confirming the notion that the increased risk for CAD in men cannot be fully explained through common CAD risk factors. Here, we review the literature about the pathophysiology of CAD, its potential causes and environmental risk factors known so far. Furthermore, we review the genetics of CAD, especially the latest discoveries regarding the implication of the Y chromosome, the most underexplored portion of the human genome to date, highlighting methods and difficulties arising in this research field, and discussing the importance of considering the Y chromosome in CAD research.

  1. Longitudinal muscle of the esophagus: its role in esophageal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2013-07-01

    The muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. The function of the longitudinal muscle and its role in bolus propulsion are not clear. The goal of this review is to summarize what is known of the role of the longitudinal muscle in health, as well as in sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging reveal that, during peristalsis, the two muscle layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the contrary, during transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, longitudinal muscle contracts independent of the circular muscle. Recent studies have provided novel insights into the role of the longitudinal muscle in LES relaxation and descending relaxation of the esophagus. In certain diseases (e.g. some motility disorders of the esophagus), there is discoordination between the two muscle layers, which likely plays an important role in the genesis of dysphagia and delayed esophageal emptying. There is close temporal correlation between prolonged contractions of the longitudinal muscles of the esophagus and esophageal 'angina-like' pain. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are reviewed. Longitudinal muscles of the esophagus play a key role in the physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Neuro-pharmacologic controls of circular and longitudinal muscle are different, which provides an opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies in the treatment of esophageal sensory and motor disorders.

  2. Association of lower extremity arterial calcification with amputation and mortality in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Lun; Wu, I-Hui; Wu, Yen-Wen; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Wen-Jone; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2014-01-01

    The clinical implication of the coronary artery calcium score (CS) is well demonstrated. However, little is known about the association between lower extremity arterial calcification and clinical outcomes. Eighty-two patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (age 61.0±12.4 years) were followed for 21±11 months. CSs, ranging from the common iliac artery bifurcation to the ankle area, were analyzed through noncontrast multidetector computed tomography images retrospectively. The primary endpoints of this study were amputation and mortality. Old age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and end-stage renal disease were associated with higher CSs. Patients with more advanced Fontaine stages also tended to have significantly higher CSs (p = 0.03). During the follow-up period (21±11 months), 29 (35%) patients underwent amputation, and 24 (29%) patients died. Among the patients who underwent amputation, there were no significant differences in CSs between the amputated legs and the non-amputated legs. In the Cox proportional hazard model with CS divided into quartiles, patients with CS in the highest quartile had a 2.88-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-12.72, p = 0.03) and a 5.16-fold (95% CI 1.13-21.61, p = 0.04) higher risk for amputation and all-cause mortality, respectively, than those with CS in the lowest quartile. These predictive effects remained after conventional risk factor adjustment. Lower extremity arterial CSs are associated with disease severity and outcomes, including amputation and all-cause mortality, in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease. However, the independent predictive value needs further investigation in large scale, prospective studies.

  3. A histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study of superficial temporal arteries and middle meningeal arteries in moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Wang, C C; Zhao, Z Z; Hu, Y; Aihara, K; Ghazizadeh, M; Sasaki, Y; Yang, S Y; Pan, J

    1991-07-01

    Pathologic changes in superficial temporal arteries (STA) and middle meningeal arteries (MMA) biopsied from 15 patients with moyamoya disease (MD) who had undergone cerebro-temporal arterio-synangiosis were studied histologically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically. The main pathologic features were: proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and thickening of the intima, degeneration and destruction of SMCs in the media and intima, and the presence of condensed organelles in necrosed SMCs or the interstitium among SMCs, or both outside and within the elastica interna (EI). The EI had become thin, porous, fragmented and was even absent in some segments. These changes are different from those of other forms of angiopathy, but identical with those at the ends of internal carotid arteries (ICA) reported by us previously, being pathognomonic for MD. These changes in the STA and MMA reveal that MD involves not only the ICA but also the intra- and extracranial branches of external carotid arteries. The medial necrosis of SMCs seems to be the primary injury of the arterial wall in MD. STA tissue blocks from two cases of MD were stained immunohistochemically. By electron microscopy, IgG-, IgM-, and C3-positive granules were observed on the ER of endothelial and intimal cells. Further studies on more cases are needed to determine whether an immunoreaction has occurred in these arteries.

  4. Myocardial performance and perfusion during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease caused by Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Paridon, S.M.; Ross, R.D.; Kuhns, L.R.; Pinsky, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    For a study of the natural history of coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease and their effect on myocardial blood flow reserve with exercise, five such patients underwent exercise testing on a bicycle. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, and electrocardiograms were monitored continuously. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed for all patients. One patient stopped exercise before exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve but had no evidence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Four patients terminated exercise because of exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve; one had normal cardiovascular reserve and thallium scintiscans, but the remaining patients had diminished cardiovascular reserve. Thallium scintigrams showed myocardial ischemia in two and infarction in one. No patient had exercise-induced electrocardiographic changes. These results indicate that patients with residual coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease frequently have reduced cardiovascular reserve during exercise. The addition of thallium scintigraphy and metabolic measurements to exercise testing improved the detection of exercise-induced abnormalities of myocardial perfusion.

  5. Co-existence of vascular disease in different arterial beds: Peripheral artery disease and carotid artery stenosis--Data from Life Line Screening(®).

    PubMed

    Razzouk, Louai; Rockman, Caron B; Patel, Manesh R; Guo, Yu; Adelman, Mark A; Riles, Thomas S; Berger, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic vascular disorder, involving multiple arterial territories. This project sought to investigate the relationship between lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) and carotid artery stenosis (CAS) in a large self-referred population. Data from the ankle brachial index (ABI) and carotid duplex ultrasound were analyzed from 3.67 million US subjects in the Life Line Screening program between 2004 and 2008. PAD was defined by ABI<0.9 and CAS was defined by greater than 50% stenosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds of CAS by PAD status and severity. Mean age of the population was 63.7 ± 10.6 years and 64% were women. The prevalence of PAD and CAS was 4.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Subjects with PAD had a higher prevalence of CAS than those without PAD (18.8% vs. 3.3%, P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, PAD was associated with greater odds of CAS (OR 3.28, 95% CI 3.22-3.34). Both symptomatic (OR 3.66, 95% CI 3.58-3.75) and asymptomatic PAD (OR 2.91, 95% CI 2.84-2.98) was associated with CAS. Increasing severity of PAD was associated with greater odds of CAS (OR 2.32, 3.61, 4.19, 5.14, and 7.59 for ABI categories 0.81-0.90, 0.71-0.80, 0.61-0.70, 0.41-0.60, ≤0.40, respectively). Presence and severity of PAD was associated with prevalence of CAS in the large self-referred and self-paying Life Line cohort, regardless of lower extremity symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for greater burden of peripheral arterial disease in lower extremity arteries of spinal cord-injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jeffrey W; Chen, David; Bahls, Martin; Newcomer, Sean C

    2011-09-01

    Spinal cord injury leads to increased risk for cardiovascular disease and results in greater risk of death. Subclinical markers of atherosclerosis have been reported in carotid arteries of spinal cord-injured individuals (SCI), but the development of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has not been investigated in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spinal cord injury on ankle-brachial index (ABI) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of upper-body and lower-extremity arteries. We hypothesized that the aforementioned measures of lower-extremity PAD would be worsened in SCI compared with controls and that regular participation in endurance exercise would improve these in both groups. To test these hypotheses, ABI and IMT were determined in 105 SCI and compared with 156 able-bodied controls with groups further subdivided into physically active and sedentary. ABIs were significantly lower in SCI versus controls (0.96 ± 0.12 vs. 1.06 ± 0.07, P < 0.001), indicating a greater burden of lower-extremity PAD. Upper-body IMTs were similar for brachial and carotid arteries in controls versus SCI. Lower extremity IMTs revealed similar thicknesses for both superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, but when normalized for artery diameter, individuals with SCI had greater IMT than controls in the superficial femoral (0.094 ± 0.03 vs. 0.073 ± 0.02 mm/mm lumen diameter, P < 0.01) and popliteal (0.117 ± 0.04 vs. 0.091 ± 0.02 mm/mm lumen diameter, P < 0.01) arteries. The ABI and normalized IMT of SCI compared with controls indicate that subclinical measures of lower-extremity PAD are worsened in individuals with SCI. These findings should prompt physicians to consider using the ABI as a screening method to detect lower-extremity PAD in SCI.

  7. Evidence for greater burden of peripheral arterial disease in lower extremity arteries of spinal cord-injured individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jeffrey W.; Chen, David; Bahls, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury leads to increased risk for cardiovascular disease and results in greater risk of death. Subclinical markers of atherosclerosis have been reported in carotid arteries of spinal cord-injured individuals (SCI), but the development of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has not been investigated in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spinal cord injury on ankle-brachial index (ABI) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of upper-body and lower-extremity arteries. We hypothesized that the aforementioned measures of lower-extremity PAD would be worsened in SCI compared with controls and that regular participation in endurance exercise would improve these in both groups. To test these hypotheses, ABI and IMT were determined in 105 SCI and compared with 156 able-bodied controls with groups further subdivided into physically active and sedentary. ABIs were significantly lower in SCI versus controls (0.96 ± 0.12 vs. 1.06 ± 0.07, P < 0.001), indicating a greater burden of lower-extremity PAD. Upper-body IMTs were similar for brachial and carotid arteries in controls versus SCI. Lower extremity IMTs revealed similar thicknesses for both superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, but when normalized for artery diameter, individuals with SCI had greater IMT than controls in the superficial femoral (0.094 ± 0.03 vs. 0.073 ± 0.02 mm/mm lumen diameter, P < 0.01) and popliteal (0.117 ± 0.04 vs. 0.091 ± 0.02 mm/mm lumen diameter, P < 0.01) arteries. The ABI and normalized IMT of SCI compared with controls indicate that subclinical measures of lower-extremity PAD are worsened in individuals with SCI. These findings should prompt physicians to consider using the ABI as a screening method to detect lower-extremity PAD in SCI. PMID:21742999

  8. Horner's syndrome and headache due to carotid artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    West, T E; Davies, R J; Kelly, R E

    1976-01-01

    Horner's syndrome was accompanied by ipsilateral pain in the head, face, or neck in eight patients. In all cases angiography showed narrowing of the internal carotid artery in a pattern compatible with dissection within the arterial wall. In one patient in whom this diagnosis was substantiated by surgical exploration biopsy of the arterial wall showed changes typical of cystic medial necrosis. It is suggested that this clinical presentation constitutes a distinct syndrome. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:1260349

  9. Microparticles and their role in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Sudheer; Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A; Kotecha, Tushar; Hong, Ying; Rakhit, Roby D

    2017-03-01

    Despite significant advances in prevention, medical and interventional management, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although the number of people being diagnosed with CAD has plateaued in the western world, it is projected to increase significantly in the developing world reaching epidemic proportions, particularly in South Asia. To better stratify the risk of developing and suffering a cardiovascular event due to CAD, not only plasma biomarkers relating to disease burden but also disease activity in CAD are needed; this will allow targeting of appropriate management to high-risk patients for acute events. Over the last twenty years, data have emerged showing the role of sub-micron vesicles called microparticles (MPs) in the pathogenesis of formation and evolution of atherosclerotic plaques causing either stable angina (SA) or acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Herein we provide an overview of our current knowledge of MP formation, composition and possible mechanisms through which they could be contributing to CAD. We also reviewed currently available methods and their limitations in quantifying MPs and in determining their functional aspects. Role of various treatments ranging from dietary substitutes to oral medicines and intravenous medications to mechanistic procedures such as hemofiltration are elaborated. Although evidence implicating the role of MPs in CAD are mounting large scale prospective studies are still lacking and are the need of the hour prior to establishing the use of MPs as biomarkers for the early detection of CAD and its progression. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic syndrome and peripheral artery disease: Two related conditions.

    PubMed

    Oriol Torón, Pilar Ángeles; Badía Farré, Teresa; Romaguera Lliso, Amparo; Roda Diestro, Jovita

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) at the Martorell primary care (PC) center. To analyze the differences in comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors between patients with PAD with and without MS. A cross-sectional, descriptive study on patients diagnosed with PAD according to computerized clinical records of the Martorell PC center. Variables collected included age, sex, high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidemia (DLP), diabetes (DM), smoking, obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), erectile dysfunction (ED), renal failure (RF), and oligoalbuminuria. An analysis comparing patients with and without MS was performed. There were 131 patients diagnosed with PAD, 104 (79%) of whom were male. Sixty-three (48.1%) also had MS. Patients with both PAD and MS had, as compared to those with PAD only, a higher prevalence of HBP (87.3 vs. 60.3%, P: 0.001), DLP (77.8 vs. 60.3%, P: 0.03), DM (69.8 vs. 30.9%, P<.001), obesity (25.4 vs. 10.3%, P: 0.03), CVD (42.9 vs. 19.1%); P: 0.004), ED (81.3 vs. 54.3%, P: 0.02), and RF (40.3 vs. 17.9%, P: 0.006). Patients with both PAD and MS had a higher prevalence of HBP, DLP, DM, and obesity. They also had more cardiovascular events and were significantly associated with pathological conditions highly relevant for cardiovascular prognosis such as erectile dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic syndrome in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Estirado, E; Lahoz, C; Laguna, F; García-Iglesias, F; González-Alegre, M T; Mostaza, J M

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and coronary or cerebrovascular disease is increasing, but it is not known whether this association also exists in patients with isolated PAD. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of MS in patients with PAD who had no coronary or cerebrovascular disease, the prescription rate of evidence-based cardiovascular therapies and the attainment of therapeutic goals in patients with PAD and with and without MS. Multicenter, cross-sectional study of 3.934 patients aged ≥ 45 years with isolated PAD who were treated in primary care and specialized outpatient clinics during 2009. A diagnosis of PAD was reached for ankle brachial indices <0.9, a previous history of amputation or revascularization. In the overall population, the mean age was 67.6 years, 73.8% were males and 63% had MS (95% CI 61.5-64.3%). Patients with MS had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities, more severe PAD and higher prescription rate of evidence-based cardiovascular therapies. After adjusting for risk factors and comorbidity, there was a more frequent use of renin-angiotensin system blockers, beta-blockers, diuretics and statins among the patients with MS. A lower percentage of patients with MS achieved the therapeutic goals for blood pressure (22% vs. 41.5%, p<0.001). Similarly, a lower percentage of patients with diabetes achieved the glycated hemoglobin goals (44% vs. 53.1%, p<0.001), with no differences in LDL-cholesterol levels (29.8% vs. 39.1%, p=0.265). Patients with PAD have a high prevalence of MS. Patients with MS do not attain therapeutic goals as frequently as those without, despite taking more cardiovascular drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Scaffolds for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Stephen G; Kereiakes, Dean J; Metzger, D Christopher; Caputo, Ronald P; Rizik, David G; Teirstein, Paul S; Litt, Marc R; Kini, Annapoorna; Kabour, Ameer; Marx, Steven O; Popma, Jeffrey J; McGreevy, Robert; Zhang, Zhen; Simonton, Charles; Stone, Gregg W

    2015-11-12

    In patients with coronary artery disease who receive metallic drug-eluting coronary stents, adverse events such as late target-lesion failure may be related in part to the persistent presence of the metallic stent frame in the coronary-vessel wall. Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds have been developed to attempt to improve long-term outcomes. In this large, multicenter, randomized trial, 2008 patients with stable or unstable angina were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular (Absorb) scaffold (1322 patients) or an everolimus-eluting cobalt-chromium (Xience) stent (686 patients). The primary end point, which was tested for both noninferiority (margin, 4.5 percentage points for the risk difference) and superiority, was target-lesion failure (cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization) at 1 year. Target-lesion failure at 1 year occurred in 7.8% of patients in the Absorb group and in 6.1% of patients in the Xience group (difference, 1.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -0.5 to 3.9; P=0.007 for noninferiority and P=0.16 for superiority). There was no significant difference between the Absorb group and the Xience group in rates of cardiac death (0.6% and 0.1%, respectively; P=0.29), target-vessel myocardial infarction (6.0% and 4.6%, respectively; P=0.18), or ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization (3.0% and 2.5%, respectively; P=0.50). Device thrombosis within 1 year occurred in 1.5% of patients in the Absorb group and in 0.7% of patients in the Xience group (P=0.13). In this large-scale, randomized trial, treatment of noncomplex obstructive coronary artery disease with an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold, as compared with an everolimus-eluting cobalt-chromium stent, was within the prespecified margin for noninferiority with respect to target-lesion failure at 1 year. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; ABSORB III Clinical

  13. Relation Between Family History of Premature Coronary Artery Disease and the Risk of Death in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Ali, Ahmed; Shaheen, AbdelAziz; Southern, Danielle; Zhang, Mei; Knudtson, Merril; White, James; Graham, Michelle; James, Mathew T; Wilton, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Family history (FHx) of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a risk factor for development of incident cardiovascular disease. However the association between FHx and outcomes in patients with established CAD is unclear. We followed 84,373 patients with angiographic CAD enrolled in the inclusive Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease registry between April 2002 and March 2013. Overall, 25,566 (30%) self-reported an FHx of CAD, defined as a first-degree relative with premature CAD (men, age <55 years; women, age <65 years). We tested the association between FHx and all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. After adjusting for baseline differences in clinical characteristics, indication, and extent of CAD, FHx was associated with reduced all-cause mortality over a median 5.6 years in follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 0.77 [95% CI 0.73 to 0.80]). The magnitude of this protective association was weaker in those with versus without a previous myocardial infarction (HR 0.87 [95% CI 0.81 to 0.93] versus 0.72 [0.69 to 0.76], interaction p <0.0001) and slightly stronger in those presenting with versus without an acute coronary syndrome (HR 0.74 [0.70 to 0.79] versus 0.80 [0.75 to 0.85], interaction p = 0.08). There was attenuation of association with increasing age, but FHx remained protective even in those aged older than 80 years (HR 0.86 [0.77 to 0.95]). In conclusion, in patients with angiographic CAD, self-reported FHx of premature CAD is associated with improved long-term survival rate, independent of clinical characteristics, mode of presentation, and extent of disease. Further investigation of potential patient- and system-level mediators of this seemingly paradoxical relation is required.

  14. Stress scintigraphy using single-photon emission computed tomography in the evaluation of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nohara, R.; Kambara, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Tamaki, S.; Kadota, K.; Kawai, C.; Tamaki, N.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-05-01

    Twenty-seven patients with angina pectoris, 24 with postmyocardial infarction angina and 7 with normal coronary arteries were examined by exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography (SPECT) and planar scintigraphy. Exercise SPECT was compared with the reperfusion imaging obtained approximately 2 to 3 hours after exercise. The sensitivity and specificity of demonstrating involved coronary arteries by identifying the locations of myocardial perfusion defects were 96 and 87% for right coronary artery, 88 and 89% for left anterior descending artery (LAD) and 78 and 100% for left circumflex artery (LC). These figures are higher than those for planar scintigraphy (85 and 87% for right coronary artery, 73 and 89% for LAD and 39 and 100% for LC arteries). In patients with 3-vessel disease, sensitivity of SPECT (100, 88 and 75% for right coronary artery, LAD and LC, respectively) was higher than planar imaging (88, 63 and 31%, respectively), with a significant difference for LC (p less than 0.05). In 1, 2 and 0-vessel disease the sensitivity and specificity of the 2 techniques were comparable. Multivessel disease was more easily identified as multiple coronary involvement than planar imaging with a significant difference in 3-vessel disease (p less than 0.05). In conclusion, stress SPECT provides useful information for the identification of LC lesions in coronary heart disease, including 3-vessel involvement.

  15. Recurrent cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: successful treatment with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Maged, Ismaeel M; Kron, Irving L; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2009-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare vascular condition that most commonly affects the popliteal artery. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is generally not considered a valid therapeutic option due to high recurrence rate. We report a case of CAD of the popliteal artery that recurred after surgical cyst enucleation that was successfully treated with PTA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of successful PTA for the treatment of recurrent CAD of the popliteal artery.

  16. Multiple Intrahepatic Artery Aneurysms in a Patient with Behcet's Disease: Use of Transcatheter Embolization for Rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Irfan; Fotiadis, Nikolas I. Dilks, Phil; Kocher, Hemant M.; Fotheringham, Tim; Matson, Matthew

    2010-04-15

    Intrahepatic artery aneuryms are a rare and potentially life-threatening condition. We present the first case in the English literature of multiple intrahepatic artery aneuryms in a patient with Behcet's disease who presented acutely with rupture. The ruptured aneurysm was treated successfully with transcatheter arterial coil embolization-CT and clinical follow-up confirming a good result. We discuss the management dilemma with regard to prophylactic embolization of the numerous other small asymptomatic intrahepatic aneurysms in this same patient.

  17. Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Seok; Lee, Si-Hoon; Oh, Yoon-Sang; Park, Jeong-Wook; An, Jae-Young; Choi, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity is a marker of arterial stiffness and a surrogate marker of vascular damage. Autonomic abnormalities associated with blood pressure are relatively commonly observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to compare arterial stiffness between patients with PD and controls and investigate the associations between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and pulse wave velocity in PD. One hundred twenty-five PD patients without diabetes mellitus were enrolled into this study, along with 22 age-matched controls. Orthostatic vital signs and ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring values were recorded. Pulse wave velocity was used to evaluate arterial stiffness. In PD, greater arterial stiffness was associated with orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, nocturnal hypertension, and nondipping. Dopaminergic treatment did not influence cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction or arterial stiffness. Although pulse wave velocity was mildly increased in patients with PD compared to controls, the arterial stiffness in PD patients without autonomic failure was similar to that in normal controls. Stiffer arteries were found only in patients with PD and autonomic failure. These findings suggest that cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is associated with arterial stiffness in PD. PD itself does not affect arterial stiffness, whereas autonomic blood pressure disturbances influence alterations in arterial stiffness and architectural changes in the arteries of PD patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Haemodynamic responses to exercise stress test in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Sangeeta; Walia, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death and disability in women. The incidence of coronary artery disease increases sharply after menopause. Coronary artery disease results from imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and oxygen demand of the heart. Myocardial oxygen consumption is a helpful indicator of the response of the coronary circulation to the myocardial oxygen demand. Myocardial oxygen consumption is calculated by indirect methods like Stroke's work, Fick's principle, tension time index and rate pressure product. Rate pressure product is a major determinant of cardiac oxygen consumption. It is the product of heart rate with systolic blood pressure. It indicates that adequate stress was achieved and is an important indicator of ventricular function. It increases progressively with exercise. Peak rate pressure product is the rate pressure product at peak of exercise. Peak rate pressure product gives an accurate reflection of the myocardial oxygen demand and myocardial workload. The higher the peak rate pressure product, more will be the myocardial oxygen consumption. The ability to reach higher peak rate pressure product is associated with more adequate coronary perfusion. Thus the low value of peak rate pressure product suggests significant compromise of coronary perfusion and decreased left ventricular function. In the present study effect of exercise on haemodynamic parameters of postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease and postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease were compared. The percentage increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly more in postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease. The peak rate pressure product was significantly more in postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease (28.04 +/- 0.8293 mm of Hg beats / minute x 10(3)) as compared to postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease (25.14+/- 0.8993 mm of Hg beats/ minute x 10(3)) indicating more compromised coronary

  19. Pulmonary Artery Dilation and Right Ventricular Function in Acute Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Numano, Fujito; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Dyar, Dan; Burns, Jane C; Printz, Beth F

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery inflammation and aneurysm formation are the most common complications of Kawasaki disease (KD). Valvulitis and myocarditis are also well described and may lead to valvar regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction. However, functional changes in the right heart have rarely been reported. We noted several acute KD patients with dilated pulmonary arteries (PA) and thus sought to systematically characterize PA size and right-heart function in an unselected cohort of KD patients cared for at a single clinical center. Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data from 143 acute KD subjects were analyzed. PA dilation was documented in 23 subjects (16.1 %); these subjects had higher median right ventricle myocardial performance index (RV MPI), higher ratio of early tricuspid inflow velocity to tricuspid annular early diastolic velocity (TV E/e'), and lower median TV e' velocity compared to the non-PA dilation group (0.50 vs 0.38 p < 0.01, 4.2 vs 3.6 p < 0.05, and 13.5 vs 15.2 cm/s p < 0.01, respectively). Almost all subjects with PA dilation had improved PA Z-score, RV MPI, and TV E/e' in the subacute phase (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in indices of left ventricle function between PA dilation group and non-PA dilation group. In summary, PA dilation was documented in 16 % of acute KD subjects. These subjects were more likely to have echocardiographic indices consistent with isolated RV dysfunction that improved in the subacute phase. The long-term consequence of these findings will require longitudinal studies of this patient population.

  20. Peripheral arterial disease - diagnosis and management in general practice.

    PubMed

    Au, Thuy Bich; Golledge, Jonathan; Walker, Philip J; Haigh, Kate; Nelson, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. It affects 10-15% of the general population, and is often asymptomatic; leading to under-diagnosis and under-treatment. Atherosclerotic risk factors are often not intensively managed in PAD patients. To summarise the information around the diagnosis and management of PAD in the general practice setting. Careful history, clinical examination, and measurement of ankle-brachial index remain the initial means of diagnosing PAD. More detailed anatomic information from duplex imaging, computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography, is usually unnecessary unless endovascular or surgical intervention is being considered, or if abdominal aortic aneurysm or popliteal aneurysm need to be excluded. Management is focused on lifestyle modification, including smoking cessation and exercise; medical management of atherosclerotic risk factors, including antiplatelet agents, statins, antihypertensive therapy; and agents to improve walking distance, such as cilostazol and ramipril. Endovascular or surgical interventions are usually considered for lifestyle limiting intermittent claudication not responding to conservative therapies, and for critical limb ischaemia.

  1. Anxiety and adverse coronary artery disease outcomes in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaofeng; Cui, Jianguo; Wang, Yanping; Deng, Biyong; Liang, Xiaofang; Bai, Jianling; Guo, Suwan; Yang, Zhijian; Huang, Lin; Li, Chunjian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of anxiety on the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients of Chinese Han ethnicity and to explore the correlation between anxiety and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Between June 2007 and May 2009, 1007 hospitalized patients with CAD diagnosed by coronary angiography were recruited. The anxiety symptoms were investigated within 2 days after coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention, using the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using the modified Gensini score. One and a half years after discharge, the participants were evaluated at the outpatient clinic or by telephone. The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 917 (91.1%) patients were evaluated during a mean follow-up period of 17 months. Thirty-five deaths (26 of cardiovascular and 9 of other causes) and 5 nonfatal MIs occurred. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score assessed during hospitalization was significantly and independently associated with the Gensini score (β = 1.35, p < .001). Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models showed that anxiety symptoms predicted all-cause death and nonfatal MI (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-4.75, p = .009). Anxiety was independently associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis and predicted worse outcome in patients with CAD of Chinese Han ethnicity.

  2. Genetics of Lipid Traits and Relationship to Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Tanya E.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the critical importance of plasma lipoproteins in the development of atherosclerosis, varying degrees of evidence surround the causal associations of lipoproteins with coronary artery disease (CAD). These causal contributions can be assessed by employing genetic variants as unbiased proxies for lipid levels. A relatively large number of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) variants strongly associate with CAD, confirming the causal impact of this lipoprotein on atherosclerosis. Although not as firmly established, genetic evidence supporting a causal role of triglycerides (TG) in CAD is growing. Conversely, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) variants not associated with LDL-C or TG have not yet been shown to be convincingly associated with CAD, raising questions about the causality of HDL-C in atherosclerosis. Finally, genetic variants at the LPA locus associated with lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are decisively linked to CAD, indicating a causal role for Lp(a). Translational investigation of CAD-associated lipid variants may identify novel regulatory pathways with therapeutic potential to alter CAD risk. PMID:23881580

  3. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Bolouri, Ahmad; Mahmoudi Mozaffar, Milad; Karajibani, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a worldwide health problem, which is growing in Iranian adults. MetS is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MetS and its individual components in CAD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 CAD patients who had undergone elective coronary angiography at the cardiology department. Anthropometric indices including waist circumference (WC) and body mass index were measured. Blood samples were obtained to determine glucose and lipid profile. MetS components were defined according to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Results The prevalence of MetS among patients was 49.5% (women: 55.9%; men: 40.2%; P < 0.05). The prevalence increased with age. The low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (low HDL-C) (84.8%), high fasting blood glucose (high FBG) (77.8%) and high WC (75.8%) were the most prevalent risk factors in CAD patients with MetS. Conclusions Recent data indicate that the dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity are crucial predictors of MetS in CAD patients. Further prospective studies are recommended for more clarification. PMID:28197293

  4. Waterpipe smoking and risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad Musbah; Walsh, Jason Leo; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2016-09-01

    Smoking tobacco using a water pipe is becoming more prevalent globally, particularly amongst younger populations. In addition to its growing popularity, more evidence is emerging regarding associated harm, and several misconceptions exist concerning the likely adverse health effects of waterpipe smoking (WPS). It is timely, therefore, to examine the body of evidence linking WPS to coronary artery disease (CAD). Here, we review the direct evidence linking WPS to CAD and examine additional, indirect evidence of associated harm. We discuss the clinical and public health implications of the current evidence and provide suggestions for further research. A multicentre case-control study in Lebanon has recently demonstrated an association between WPS and CAD. There are few prior studies making this direct link. However, a large body of evidence has emerged showing close similarities between WPS and cigarette smoking with regard to the toxicity of smoke and acute inflammatory and haemodynamic effects following exposure to it. There are consistent similarities between WPS and cigarette smoking in regard to association with CAD, the nature of the smoke produced, and the acute haemodynamic effects and inflammatory responses that follow exposure. These findings justify both public health and clinical interventions to reduce WPS. Further studies are warranted to confirm a causal association between WPS and CAD.

  5. The patient's experience of amputation due to peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Torbjörnsson, Eva; Ottosson, Carin; Blomgren, Lena; Boström, Lennart; Fagerdahl, Ann-Mari

    2017-06-01

    It is not uncommon that patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) need to undergo a lower limb amputation, with or without previous revascularization attempts. Despite that, the patient's experience of the amputation has been scarcely studied. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the patient's experience of amputation due to PAD. Thirteen interviews were conducted with vascular patients who had undergone a lower limb amputation at tibia, knee, or femoral level. Data were analyzed with content analysis. Our findings of the patient's experiences during the amputation process resulted in three themes with additional time sequences: the decision phase "From irreversible problem to amputation decision", the surgical phase "A feeling of being in a vacuum," and the rehabilitation phase "Adaptation to the new life". One main finding was that the patients felt abandoned during the surgical period. Despite that, most of the participants were satisfied with the decision, some of them even regretted that they had not undergone an amputation earlier in the process. It is important for the patient's well-being to develop a partnership with the surgeon to increase a feeling of being participating in the care. Vascular patients need better information on lower limb amputation, and its consequences so as to be better prepared for the whole process. To increase the patient's quality of life and reduce unnecessary suffering, amputation may be presented earlier in the process as a valuable treatment option. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. “Obesity paradox” in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Ibrahim; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity used to be among the more neglected public health problems, but has unfolded as a growing medical and socioeconomic burden of epidemic proportions. Morbid obesity is linked to traditional cardiovascular risk factors like, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, and suspected to incur increased morbidity and mortality in the Western and even third world populations. This patient cohort is also at greater risk to develop coronary artery disease. Recent population-based registries revealed that 43% and 24% of all cases of coronary revascularization were carried out in overweight and obese patients, respectively. However, despite evidence of a positive correlation between obesity and increased cardiovascular morbidity, some authors have described a better clinical outcome in overweight and obese patients, a phenomenon they coined “obesity paradoxon”. Thus, there is an ongoing debate in light of conflicting data and the possibility of confounding bias causing misconception and challenging the “obesity paradox”. In this review article we present the current evidence and throughly discuss the validity of the “obesity paradoxon” in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:26516414

  7. Evaluation of a postdischarge coronary artery disease management program.

    PubMed

    Housholder-Hughes, Susan D; Ranella, Michael J; Dele-Michael, Abiola; Bumpus, Sherry; Krishnan, Sangeetha M; Rubenfire, Melvyn

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a demonstration project to assess the value of a nurse practitioner (NP) based coronary artery disease management (CAD-DM) program for patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were recruited to attend three 1-h monthly visits. The intervention included assessment of clinical symptoms and guideline-based treatments; education regarding CAD/ACS; review of nutrition, exercise, and appropriate referrals; and recognition of significant symptoms and emergency response. Two hundred thirteen (84.5%) completed the program. Physician approval for patient participation was 99%. Average age was 63 ± 11 years, 70% were male, and 89% white. At baseline, 61% (n = 133) had one or more cardiopulmonary symptoms, which declined to 30% at 12 weeks, p < .001. Sixty-nine percent attended cardiac rehabilitation or an exercise consult. Compared to the initial assessment, an additional 20% were at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 70 mg/dL (p = .04), an additional 35% met exercise goals (p < .0001), and there was an improvement in the mental (baseline 49.7 vs. 12 weeks 53, p = .0015) and physical components (44 vs. 48, p = .002) of the SF-12 health survey. This NP-based CAD-DM program was well received and participants demonstrated improvement in physical and mental health, and increased compliance with recommended lifestyle changes. © 2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Management of coronary artery disease in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wal, Pranay; Wal, Ankita; Nair, Vandana R; Rai, A K; Pandey, Umeshwar

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to study the prescribing patterns of drugs used in the coronary artery disease (CAD) and to identify, which drug is mostly prescribed at that hospital. This was a prospective observational survey including case series analysis of patients with CAD who met the inclusion criteria. It was conducted in the cardiology unit of multidisciplinary Tertiary Care Hospital in Kanpur. Data of patients who met the inclusion criteria was collected in specially designed case record forms. It was designed to include the patient data such as, demographics, risk factors, clinical and biochemical characteristics, procedures and investigations performed during the hospital stay, in-hospital and discharge drug therapy. Descriptive statistics were performed for baseline characteristics, risk factors and medication use. All the analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0. Subjects of age groups 65-74 (33.34%) were found to be more susceptible to CAD. In this study, we see that Aspirin, Clopidogrel and Statins were mostly prescribed in this hospital. In this study, Aspirin and Clopidogrel were mostly prescribed. According to 2009 focused updates of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction. So in this hospital prescription for CAD were according to the guideline.

  9. Future strategies in the management of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Schwitter, Jürg

    2006-09-01

    New diagnostic techniques have now become available that will enable us to obtain information on coronary artery disease (CAD), which was not previously possible. This is urgently needed, since changes in CAD management are highly desirable considering that up to 60% of patients die due to an insufficient diagnostic strategy (reactive strategy). In this article, the pathophysiology of CAD and the evidence of current concepts on coronary atherosclerosis are critically reviewed. Consequently, a shift from a 'reactive strategy' of CAD management to an active strategy is proposed in order to detect and treat patients before acute myocardial infarcts occur. Reliability, repeatability, cost-effectiveness and comfort are important features of an optimal test for this active strategy. This perspective gives an overview of current and future tests with respect to these features. The novel tomographic techniques are particularly promising with respect to standardization and reproducibility, which will set the basis for the determination of test performance and, consequently, cost-effectiveness. Assessment of cost-effectiveness is increasingly important, since prevalence of CAD is high and will most likely increase, while resources will remain restricted in most countries. Considering these economic restrictions, this article also proposes new mathematical tools using data from prospective trials and large international registries as an objective means to select the best tests for CAD diagnosis and management, and to identify those patient subsets which benefit most from an active strategy.

  10. Coronary artery disease in critical patients of Iran.

    PubMed

    Zahra, Pishkar Mofrad; Azizollah, Arbabi Sarjou; Masoud, Roudbari; Hamed, Sarani; Mehrdad, Hashemazahi; Ebrahim, Ebrahimtabass

    2012-12-01

    To identify the risk factors for Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD), such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, smoking, age, obesity, immobility and diabetes mellitus, in critical patients of Sistan-Baluchistan (SB), Iran. This cross-sectional research was performed in 2006. The sampling method was convenience, and involved 616 hospitalised patients in the CCUs of hospitals of Sistan-Baluchistan province. Data was collected by structured interview and a checklist which included personal characteristics and risk factors like lifestyles as well as biochemical and physiological factors for CAD. SPSS software, Chi-square and exact fisher tests were used for analysis. Frequency of risk factors among patients with CAD was found to be high in the study area. Also, the results showed that the prevalence of some risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus 198 (32.5%), hypertension 266 (43.7%) and obesity 131 (22.9%), was significantly higher in women than men. Besides, there was a significant relationship between smoking, 317(52.3%) and low mobility 503 (83.3%), with gender (p = 0.001). Clinical and para-clinical data indicated that the adult population has a high level of CAD risk factors in the Sistan-Baluchistan province which may require urgent steps to address national control measures regarding CAD. Implementation of a prevention programme is necessary in order to reduce the risk factors. Also, health education is necessary, specially for women.

  11. An overview of risk assessment in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mark, D B

    1994-03-10

    Risk assessment is a central activity in virtually all aspects of the examination and treatment of patients. Methods to standardize this process and improve its accuracy can only improve the quality of medical care. Since health care is undergoing reform in this country, it seems likely that physicians will increasingly need objective justification for their decision making. Risk assessment models offer a potentially useful tool. The Duke Treadmill Score is well-validated and clinically useful for risk assessment in patients with either established or suspected coronary artery disease for whom the desirability of additional invasive testing must be determined. One of the major goals of risk assessment is to identify the low-risk patients for whom no additional testing is required. Whereas multiple valid strategies for accomplishing this exist, there is no consensus on the optimal approach. Cost-containment pressures may indicate the use of exercise testing as the preferred initial strategy in patients who are able to exercise and have an interpretable electrocardiogram. Exercise nuclear testing could thus be reserved for patients in the intermediate-risk group for whom the additional accuracy of these latter tests would provide a more precise risk-stratification estimate. For patients unable to exercise, a pharmacologic stress test (such as echocardiography with dobutamine or an adenosine isonitrile study) would be an acceptable alternative.

  12. Dye-Staining Angioscopy for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasumi; Uchida, Yasuto

    Novel imaging techniques using biomarkers have clarified the mechanisms of hitherto unanswered or misunderstood phenomena of coronary artery disease and enabled evaluation of myocardial blood and tissue fluid flows in vivo. Dye-staining coronary angioscopy using Evans blue (EB) as the biomarker can visualize fibrin and damaged endothelial cells, revealing that the so-called platelet thrombus is frequently a fibrin-rich thrombus; occlusive transparent fibrin thrombus, but not platelet thrombus, is not infrequently a cause of acute coronary syndrome; "fluffy" coronary luminal surface is caused by fibrin threads arising from damaged endothelial cells and is a residue of an occlusive thrombus after autolysis in patients with acute coronary syndrome without angiographically demonstrable coronary stenosis; and web or membrane-like fibrin thrombus is a cause of stent edge restenosis. Fluorescent angioscopy using visual or near-infrared light wavelengths is now used clinically for molecular imaging of the substances such as lipoproteins and cholesterol that constitute coronary plaques. Dye-staining cardioscopy using EB or fluorescein enables direct and real-time visualization of subendocardial microcirculation.

  13. Coronary artery disease in South Asians: an emerging risk group.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Updesh Singh; Singh, Sarabjeet; Syed, Asmir; Aryafar, Hamed; Arora, Rohit

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and was responsible for 7.2 million deaths in 2003. Various studies have pointed out that South Asians have a higher prevalence of CAD as compared with other ethnicities. South Asians may have a genetic predisposition to CAD; however, environmental, nutritional, and lifestyle factors may also be responsible. South Asians have a much higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, insulin resistance (and resultant hyperinsulinemia), central obesity, dyslipidemias (lower high-density lipoprotein, increased lipoprotein[a], higher triglyceride levels), increased thrombotic tendency (increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and decreased tissue plasminogen activator levels), decreased levels of physical activity, and low birth weights ("fetal origins hypothesis"). In addition, the dietary indiscretions and sedentary lifestyle practiced by most South Asians puts them at a higher risk. A multidisciplinary approach involving the population at risk, healthcare personnel, and the government is required to diminish the incidence. Educational programs regarding the genetic predisposition as well as risk factors for CAD, physical activity, and dietary modifications need to be encouraged. There is a need for implementation of newer guidelines as well as a lower threshold for initiating therapeutic interventions in this population. Mass media should be involved to bring about behavioral changes, and these changes should be reinforced at the physician's level.

  14. Epidemiology of stroke and coronary artery disease in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hata, Jun; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) are major causes of death throughout the world. As half of the world's population lives in Asian countries, prevention of stroke and CAD in Asia is crucial. According to the vital statistics, East Asian countries have a lower mortality rate for CAD than for stroke. In contrast, CAD is a more common cause of death than stroke in other Asian countries and Western countries. Hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking are major risk factors for stroke and CAD in Asia as well as in Western countries. In an observational study in Japan, the stroke incidence decreased as a result of improvements in blood pressure control and reduction in the smoking rate over the past half century, whereas the CAD incidence did not show a clear secular change, probably because the benefits of blood pressure control and smoking cessation were negated by increasing prevalence of both glucose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia. Although Asian populations have lower serum cholesterol levels than Western populations, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia has increased during the past half century in Asia. In addition, the smoking rate among Asian men is higher than for Western men. These results underscore that, in addition to blood pressure control, smoking cessation and the management of metabolic risk factors are very important for prevention of stroke and CAD in Asia.

  15. Mediastinal mass and brachial plexopathy caused by subclavian arterial aneurysm in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Yoo, W H; Kim, H K; Park, J H; Park, T S; Baek, H S

    2000-01-01

    Vascular involvement in Behçet's disease is divided into venous and arterial thrombosis and arterial aneurysmal formation. Subclavian arterial aneurysm rarely occurs in Behçet's disease; however, when it does occur, it causes serious aneurysmal rupture and local complications such as nerve compression and arterial ischemia. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male who presented with neurologic symptoms and signs of brachial plexopathy and mediastinal mass caused by Behçet's subclavian arterial aneurysm. This case shows that the occurrence of brachial plexopathy should be considered a manifestation of Behçet's disease, and that Behçet's aneurysm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of upper mediastinal mass.

  16. An electrophysiological study of excitatory purinergic neuromuscular transmission in longitudinal smooth muscle of chicken anterior mesenteric artery

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Maisa; El-Mahmoudy, AbuBakr; Shiina, Takahiko; Shimizu, Yasutake; Nikami, Hideki; El-Sayed, Mossad; Kobayashi, Haruo; Takewaki, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    The object of the present study was to clarify the neurotransmitters controlling membrane responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle cells of the chicken anterior mesenteric artery. EFS (5 pulses at 20 Hz) evoked a depolarization of amplitude 19.7±2.1 mV, total duration 29.6±3.1 s and latency 413.0±67.8 ms. This depolarization was tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and its amplitude was partially decreased by atropine (0.5 μM); however, its duration was shortened by further addition of prazosin (10 μM). Atropine/prazosin-resistant component was blocked by the nonspecific purinergic antagonist, suramin, in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that this component is mediated by the neurotransmitter adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). Neither desensitization nor blocking of P2X receptor with its putative receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-MeATP, 1 μM) and its antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic (PPADS, up to 50 μM), had significant effect on the purinergic depolarization. In contrast, either desensitization or blocking of P2Y receptor with its putative agonist 2-methylthioATP (2-MeSATP, 1 μM) and its antagonist Cibacron blue F3GA (CBF3GA, 10 μM) abolished the purinergic depolarization, indicating that this response is mediated through P2Y but not P2X receptor. The purinergic depolarization was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX, 600 ng ml−1). Furthermore, it was significantly inhibited by a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, U-73122 (10 μM), indicating that the receptors involved in mediating the purinergic depolarization are linked to a PTX-sensitive G-protein, which is involved in a PLC-mediated signaling pathway. Data of the present study suggest that the EFS-induced excitatory membrane response occurring in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the chicken anterior mesenteric artery is mainly purinergic in nature and is mediated via P2Y purinoceptors. PMID:15685211

  17. Coronary artery endothelial dysfunction is present in HIV-positive individuals without significant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Iantorno, Micaela; Schär, Michael; Soleimanifard, Sahar; Brown, Todd T; Moore, Richard; Barditch-Crovo, Patricia; Stuber, Matthias; Lai, Shenghan; Gerstenblith, Gary; Weiss, Robert G; Hays, Allison G

    2017-06-01

    HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals experience an increased burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) not adequately accounted for by traditional CAD risk factors. Coronary endothelial function (CEF), a barometer of vascular health, is depressed early in atherosclerosis and predict future events but has not been studied in HIV+ individuals. We tested whether CEF is impaired in HIV+ patients without CAD as compared with an HIV-negative (HIV-) population matched for cardiac risk factors. In this observational study, CEF was measured noninvasively by quantifying isometric handgrip exercise-induced changes in coronary vasoreactivity with MRI in 18 participants with HIV but no CAD (HIV+CAD-, based on prior imaging), 36 age-matched and cardiac risk factor-matched healthy participants with neither HIV nor CAD (HIV-CAD-), 41 patients with no HIV but with known CAD (HIV-CAD+), and 17 patients with both HIV and CAD (HIV+CAD+). CEF was significantly depressed in HIV+CAD- patients as compared with that of risk-factor-matched HIV-CAD- patients (P < 0.0001) and was depressed to the level of that in HIV- participants with established CAD. Mean IL-6 levels were higher in HIV+ participants (P < 0.0001) and inversely related to CEF in the HIV+ patients (P = 0.007). Marked coronary endothelial dysfunction is present in HIV+ patients without significant CAD and is as severe as that in clinical CAD patients. Furthermore, endothelial dysfunction appears inversely related to the degree of inflammation in HIV+ patients as measured by IL-6. CEF testing in HIV+ patients may be useful for assessing cardiovascular risk and testing new CAD treatment strategies, including those targeting inflammation.

  18. Aging syndrome genes and premature coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Low, Adrian F; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Everett, Brendan; Chae, Claudia U; Shaw, Stanley Y; Ellinor, Patrick T; MacRae, Calum A

    2005-01-01

    Background Vascular disease is a feature of aging, and coronary vascular events are a major source of morbidity and mortality in rare premature aging syndromes. One such syndrome is caused by mutations in the lamin A/C (LMNA) gene, which also has been implicated in familial insulin resistance. A second gene related to premature aging in man and in murine models is the KLOTHO gene, a hypomorphic variant of which (KL-VS) is significantly more common in the first-degree relatives of patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated whether common variants at the LMNA or KLOTHO genes are associated with rigorously defined premature CAD. Methods We identified 295 patients presenting with premature acute coronary syndromes confirmed by angiography. A control group of 145 patients with no evidence of CAD was recruited from outpatient referral clinics. Comprehensive haplotyping of the entire LMNA gene, including the promoter and untranslated regions, was performed using a combination of TaqMan® probes and direct sequencing of 14 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The KL-VS variant of the KLOTHO gene was typed using restriction digest of a PCR amplicon. Results Two SNPs that were not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium were excluded from analysis. We observed no significant differences in allele, genotype or haplotype frequencies at the LMNA or KLOTHO loci between the two groups. In addition, there was no evidence of excess homozygosity at the LMNA locus. Conclusion Our data do not support the hypothesis that premature CAD is associated with common variants in the progeroid syndrome genes LMNA and KLOTHO. PMID:16262891

  19. Is pseudoexfoliation syndrome associated with coronary artery disease?

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Mehmet Yunus; Coskun, Erol; Karapinar, Hekim; Capkın, Musa; Kaya, Zekeriya; Kaya, Hasan; Akcakoyun, Mustafa; Kargin, Ramazan; Simsek, Zeki; Acar, Göksel; Aung, Soe Moe; Pala, Selcuk; Özdemir, Burak; Esen, Ali Metin; Kırma, Cevat

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is recognised by chronic deposition of abnormal pseudoexfoliation material on anterior segment structures of the eye, especially the anterior lens capsule. In recent years, several studies have shown the presence of vascular, cardiac and other organ pseudoexfoliative material in patients with ocular pseudoexfoliation. Aims: The purpose of this study is to determine whether an association exists between ocular pseudoexfoliation and coronary artery disease, aortic aneurysms and peripheric vascular disease. Patients and Methods: 490 patients who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) at Kosuyolu Cardiovascula Research and Training Hospital were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for conventional risk factors such as age, sex, family history, hypertension, diabetes, dislipidemia and smoking. Detailed eye examinations including evaluation of lens were done in all patients. The presence of PEX material in the anterior segment was best appreciated by slit lamp after pupillary dilation. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of PEX, and compared for the presence of CAD and other risk factors. Results: CAD was present in 387 patients. 103 patients had normal coronary angiography. 20 (5.2 %) of CAD patients and 4 (3.9%) of normal CAG patients were found to have PEX (p>0.05). There was no significant relationship between CAD and the presence of PEX (p>0.05). When patients were grouped according to the presence of PEX, only age was significantly different between the two groups (r: 0.25, p<0.001). Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the presence of PEX and CAD. Further studies in larger scales with elderly population may be more valuable. PMID:22558552

  20. Applying the payoff time framework to carotid artery disease management.

    PubMed

    Yuo, Theodore H; Roberts, Mark S; Braithwaite, R Scott; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Kraemer, Kevin L

    2013-11-01

    and Asymptomatic stenosis of the carotid arteries is associated with stroke. Carotid revascularization can reduce the future risk of stroke but can also trigger an immediate stroke. The objective was to model the generic relationship between immediate risk, long-term benefit, and life expectancy for any one-time prophylactic treatment and then apply the model to the use of revascularization