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  1. Isolation of Endothelial Cells and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Internal Mammary Artery Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Stephanie C.; Bates, Michael; Parrino, Patrick E.; Woods, T. Cooper

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell function through tissue culture techniques are often employed to investigate the underlying mechanisms regulating cardiovascular disease. As diseases such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease increase a patient's risk of cardiovascular disease, the development of methods for examining the effects of these diseases on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells is needed. Commercial sources of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells generally provide minimal donor information and are in limited supply. This study was designed to determine if vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells could be isolated from human internal mammary arteries obtained from donors undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. As coronary artery bypass graft surgery is a commonly performed procedure, this method would provide a new source for these cells that when combined with the donor's medical history will greatly enhance our studies of the effects of complicating diseases on vascular biology. Internal mammary artery tissue was obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Through a simple method employing two separate tissue digestions, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were isolated and characterized. The isolated vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells exhibited the expected morphology and were able to be passaged for further analysis. The vascular smooth muscle cells exhibited positive staining for α-smooth muscle actin and the endothelial cells exhibited positive staining for CD31. The overall purity of the isolations was > 95%. This method allows for the isolation of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells from internal mammary arteries, providing a new tool for investigations into the interplay of vascular diseases and complicating diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease. PMID:21603530

  2. 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tong; Chen, Huan; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The 3D geometry of individual vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are essential for understanding the mechanical function of blood vessels, are currently not available. This paper introduces a new 3D segmentation algorithm to determine VSMC morphology and orientation. Methods and Results A total of 112 VSMCs from six porcine coronary arteries were used in the analysis. A 3D semi-automatic segmentation method was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs from cell clumps as well as to extract the 3D geometry of VSMCs. A new edge blocking model was introduced to recognize cell boundary while an edge growing was developed for optimal interpolation and edge verification. The proposed methods were designed based on Region of Interest (ROI) selected by user and interactive responses of limited key edges. Enhanced cell boundary features were used to construct the cell’s initial boundary for further edge growing. A unified framework of morphological parameters (dimensions and orientations) was proposed for the 3D volume data. Virtual phantom was designed to validate the tilt angle measurements, while other parameters extracted from 3D segmentations were compared with manual measurements to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. The length, width and thickness of VSMCs were 62.9±14.9μm, 4.6±0.6μm and 6.2±1.8μm (mean±SD). In longitudinal-circumferential plane of blood vessel, VSMCs align off the circumferential direction with two mean angles of -19.4±9.3° and 10.9±4.7°, while an out-of-plane angle (i.e., radial tilt angle) was found to be 8±7.6° with median as 5.7°. Conclusions A 3D segmentation algorithm was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs of blood vessel walls based on optical image stacks. The results were validated by a virtual phantom and manual measurement. The obtained 3D geometries can be utilized in mathematical models and leads a better understanding of vascular mechanical properties and function. PMID:26882342

  3. [Vascular smooth muscle cells from human umbilical artery undergo osteoblast differentiation and calcification in vitro].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong Ping; Sun, Ming Shu; Qian, Jia Qi; Ni, Zhao Hui

    2008-04-01

    To research if the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from human umbilical artery undergo osteoblast differentiation spontaneously in vitro. The growth curve of vascular smooth muscle cells from human umbilical artery was obtained by MTT method. The course of multicell nodule formation spontaneously by VSMCs was observed morphologically. The apoptosis of VSMCs in the nodules was detected by Hoechst 33258 and TUNEL methods respectively. The expression of alkaline phosphotase in the nodules was detected by immunohistochemical method. And the calcification was studied with transmission electron microscope and by alizarin red S respectively. We found that the umbilical artery smooth muscle cells confluenced after 7 days of passage and exhibited typical "hill and valley" pattern under light microscope. The cells grew into aggregation and formed nodules at the "hill" region with culture-time prolongation. After 4-5 weeks culture, these nodules built up and calcified spontaneously. We also found alkaline phosphotase expression and apoptosis of VSMCs in these nodules at the same time. We conclude that the vascular smooth muscle cells from human umbilical artery just like from aortic artery can undergo osteoblast differentiation spontaneously in vitro, and apoptosis participate this procedure probably.

  4. Arterial wall mechanics as a function of heart rate: role of vascular smooth muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, Fernando Pablo; Schiavone, Jonathan; Craiem, Damian; Barra, Juan Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Vascular wall viscoelasticity can be evaluated using a first-order lumped model. This model consists of a spring with elastic constant E and a dashpot with viscous constant η. More importantly, this viscoelastic model can be fitted in-vivo measuring arterial pressure and diameter. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of heart rate over E and η. In two anesthetized sheep, diameter in thoracic aorta and intravascular pressure has been registered. The right atrium was connected to a programmable stimulator through a pair of pace-maker wires to produce changes in stimulation heart rate (HR) from 80 to 160 bpm. Additionally, local activation of vascular smooth muscle was induced with phenylephrine. After converting pressure and diameter signals into stress and strain respectively, E y η were calculated in control state and during muscle activation. The elastic modulus E did not present significant changes with heart rate. The viscous modulus η decreased 49% with a two-fold acceleration in heart rate from 80 to 160 bpm. However, the product η HR remained stable. The viscous modulus η increased 39% with smooth muscle activation. No significant pressure changes were registered during the experiment. The contractile action of vascular smooth muscle could contribute to increasing arterial wall viscosity. The decrease of η when HR increased might be related to smooth muscle relaxation mediated by endothelium activity, which was stimulated by flow increase. We conclude that HR can modulate arterial wall viscoelasticity through endothelium-dependent mechanisms.

  5. Vascular smooth cell proliferation in perfusion culture of porcine carotid arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Dan; Lin, Peter H.; Yao Qizhi; Chen Changyi

    2008-08-08

    Objective of this study was to develop a novel in vitro artery culture system to study vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation of porcine carotid arteries in response to injury, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), and FGF2 conjugated with cytotoxin saporin (SAP). Perfusion-cultured porcine carotid arteries remained contractile in response to norepinephrine and relaxant to acetylcholine for up to 96 h. SMC proliferation of cultured arteries was detected by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in both non-injured and balloon-injured arteries. In the inner layer of the vessel wall near the lumen, SMC proliferation were less than 10% in uninjured vessels, 66% in injured vessels, 80% in injured vessels with FGF2 treatment, and 5% in injured vessels with treatment of FGF2-SAP. Thus, the cultured porcine carotid arteries were viable; and the injury stimulated SMC proliferation, which was significantly enhanced by FGF2 and inhibited by FGF2-SAP.

  6. A constitutive formulation of arterial mechanics including vascular smooth muscle tone.

    PubMed

    Zulliger, Martin A; Rachev, Alexander; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2004-09-01

    A pseudo-strain energy function (pseudo-SEF) describing the biomechanical properties of large conduit arteries under the influence of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) tone is proposed. In contrast to previous models that include the effects of smooth muscle contraction through generation of an active stress, in this study we consider the vascular muscle as a structural element whose contribution to load bearing is modulated by the contraction. This novel pseudo-SEF models not only arterial mechanics at maximal VSM contraction but also the myogenic contraction of the VSM in response to local increases in stretch. The proposed pseudo-SEF was verified with experimentally obtained pressure-radius curves and zero-stress state configurations from rat carotid arteries displaying distinct differences in VSM tone: arteries from normotensive rats displaying minimal VSM tone and arteries from hypertensive rats exhibiting significant VSM tone. The pressure-radius curves were measured in three different VSM states: fully relaxed, maximally contracted, and normal VSM tone. The model fitted the experimental data very well (r2 > 0.99) in both the normo- and hypertensive groups for all three states of VSM activation. The pseudo-SEF was used to illustrate the localized reduction of circumferential stress in the arterial wall due to normal VSM tone, suggesting that the proposed pseudo-SEF can be of general utility for describing stress distribution not only under passive VSM conditions, as most SEFs proposed so far, but also under physiological and pathological conditions with varying levels of VSM tone.

  7. Cullin-3 mutation causes arterial stiffness and hypertension through a vascular smooth muscle mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Agbor, Larry N.; Ibeawuchi, Stella-Rita C.; Hu, Chunyan; Davis, Deborah R.; Keen, Henry L.; Quelle, Frederick W.; Sigmund, Curt D.

    2016-01-01

    Cullin-3 (CUL3) mutations (CUL3Δ9) were previously identified in hypertensive patients with pseudohypoaldosteronism type-II (PHAII), but the mechanism causing hypertension and whether this is driven by renal tubular or extratubular mechanisms remains unknown. We report that selective expression of CUL3Δ9 in smooth muscle acts by interfering with expression and function of endogenous CUL3, resulting in impaired turnover of the CUL3 substrate RhoA, increased RhoA activity, and augmented RhoA/Rho kinase signaling. This caused vascular dysfunction and increased arterial pressure under baseline conditions and a marked increase in arterial pressure, collagen deposition, and vascular stiffness in response to a subpressor dose of angiotensin II, which did not cause hypertension in control mice. Inhibition of total cullin activity increased the level of CUL3 substrates cyclin E and RhoA, and expression of CUL3Δ9 decreased the level of the active form of endogenous CUL3 in human aortic smooth muscle cells. These data indicate that selective expression of the Cul3Δ9 mutation in vascular smooth muscle phenocopies the hypertension observed in Cul3Δ9 human subjects and suggest that mutations in CUL3 cause human hypertension in part through a mechanism involving smooth muscle dysfunction initiated by a loss of CUL3-mediated degradation of RhoA. PMID:27882355

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in arterial smooth muscle cells: A novel regulator of vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Furmanik, Malgorzata; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2016-10-13

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types. Here we summarize what is known about how ER stress signalling regulates phenotypic switching, trans/dedifferentiation and apoptosis of ASMCs and contributes to atherosclerosis, hypertension, aneurysms and vascular calcification.

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells: A Novel Regulator of Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Furmanik, Malgorzata; Shanahan, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types. Here we summarise what is known about how ER stress signalling regulates phenotypic switching, trans/dedifferentiation and apoptosis of ASMCs and contributes to atherosclerosis, hypertension, aneurysms and vascular calcification.

  10. Vascular smooth muscle desensitization in rabbit epigastric and mesenteric arteries during hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Ratz, P H; Miner, A S; Huang, Y; Smith, C A; Barbee, R W

    2016-07-01

    The decompensatory phase of hemorrhage (shock) is caused by a poorly defined phenomenon termed vascular hyporeactivity (VHR). VHR may reflect an acute in vivo imbalance in levels of contractile and relaxant stimuli favoring net vascular smooth muscle (VSM) relaxation. Alternatively, VHR may be caused by intrinsic VSM desensitization of contraction resulting from prior exposure to high levels of stimuli that temporarily adjusts cell signaling systems. Net relaxation, but not desensitization, would be expected to resolve rapidly in an artery segment removed from the in vivo shock environment and examined in vitro in a fresh solution. Our aim was to 1) induce shock in rabbits and apply an in vitro mechanical analysis on muscular arteries isolated pre- and postshock to determine whether VHR involves intrinsic VSM desensitization, and 2) identify whether net VSM relaxation induced by nitric oxide and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase activation in vitro can be sustained for some time after relaxant stimulus washout. The potencies of phenylephrine- and histamine-induced contractions in in vitro epigastric artery removed from rabbits posthemorrhage were decreased by ∼0.3 log units compared with the control contralateral epigastric artery removed prehemorrhage. Moreover, a decrease in KCl-induced tonic, relative to phasic, tension of in vitro mesenteric artery correlated with the degree of shock severity as assessed by rates of lactate and K(+) accumulation. VSM desensitization was also caused by tyramine in vivo and PE in vitro, but not by relaxant agents in vitro. Together, these results support the hypothesis that VHR during hemorrhagic decompensation involves contractile stimulus-induced long-lasting, intrinsic VSM desensitization. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Effects of phenol on vascular smooth muscle in rabbit mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Akata, T; Kodama, K; Takahashi, S

    1996-03-01

    Although phenol has long been used clinically as a neurolytic agent or as a preservative for injections, little information is available regarding its direct vascular action. We therefore studied the effects of phenol (0.1 μM-2mM) on isolated rabbit small mesenteric arteries, using isometric tension recording methods. All experiments were performed on endothelium-denuded strips. Phenol (≥10 μM) generated transsient contractions in a concentration-dependent manner in both normal Krebs and Ca(2+)-free solutions with EC50 values (concentrations that produced 50% of the maximal response) of 39.8 μM and 99.7 μM, respectively. Depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores by A23187 or ryanodine completely elimited the phenol-induced contractions. When caffeine (10 mM) and noradrenaline (NA, 10μM) were consecutively applied in Ca(2+)-free solution with an interval of 7 min (sufficient to prevent caffeine-induced inhibition of Ca(2+) sensitivity), caffeine eliminated the contractions induced by subsequent application of NA. In similar experiments where phenol (1 mM) and NA (10 μM) were consecutively applied in Ca(2+)-free solution, phenol significantly inhibited contractions induced by subsequent application of NA. Phenol (0.1 mM, ∼EC65), applied in the presence of either 128 mM K(+) or NA (10 μM), produced transient vasoconstrictions superimposed on both high K(+)-and NA-induced contractions, but had a lesser effect on maintenance of these contractions. The vascular responses to high K(+), NA, and caffeine after washout of phenol were not significantly different from those before application of phenol (up to 2 mM). The results suggest that phenol stimulates Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, which are sensitive to both caffine and NA in this resistance artery. The effect does not appear to reflect a toxic effect on vascular smooth muscle. It seems unlikely that phenol causes adverse hemodynamic changes because of the observed direct vascular action.

  12. Proteomic analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells in physiological condition and in pulmonary arterial hypertension: Toward contractile versus synthetic phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Régent, Alexis; Ly, Kim Heang; Lofek, Sébastien; Clary, Guilhem; Tamby, Mathieu; Tamas, Nicolas; Federici, Christian; Broussard, Cédric; Chafey, Philippe; Liaudet-Coopman, Emmanuelle; Humbert, Marc; Perros, Frédéric; Mouthon, Luc

    2016-10-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are highly specialized cells that regulate vascular tone and participate in vessel remodeling in physiological and pathological conditions. It is unclear why certain vascular pathologies involve one type of vessel and spare others. Our objective was to compare the proteomes of normal human VSMC from aorta (human aortic smooth muscle cells, HAoSMC), umbilical artery (human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells, HUASMC), pulmonary artery (HPASMC), or pulmonary artery VSMC from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH-SMC). Proteomes of VSMC were compared by 2D DIGE and MS. Only 19 proteins were differentially expressed between HAoSMC and HPASMC while 132 and 124 were differentially expressed between HUASMC and HAoSMC or HPASMC, respectively (fold change 1.5≤ or -1.5≥, p < 0.05). As much as 336 proteins were differentially expressed between HPASMC and PAH-SMC (fold change 1.5≤ or -1.5≥, p < 0.05). HUASMC expressed increased amount of α-smooth muscle actin compared to either HPASMC or HAoSMC (although not statistically significant). In addition, PAH-SMC expressed decreased amount of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and proliferation rate was increased compared to HPASMC thus supporting that PAH-SMC have a more synthetic phenotype. Analysis with Ingenuity identified paxillin and (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, drosophila) like 1 (ELAVL1) as molecules linked with a lot of proteins differentially expressed between HPASMC and PAH-SMC. There was a trend toward reduced proliferation of PAH-SMC with paxillin-si-RNA and increased proliferation with ELAVL1-siRNA. Thus, VSMCs have very diverse protein content depending on their origin and this is in link with phenotypic differentiation. Paxillin targeting may be a promising treatment of PAH. ELAVL1 also participate in the regulation of PAH-SMC proliferation.

  13. Visualization of Synthetic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerotic Carotid Rat Arteries by F-18 FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Pahk, Kisoo; Joung, Chanmin; Jung, Se-Mi; Young Song, Hwa; Yong Park, Ji; Woo Byun, Jung; Lee, Yun-Sang; Chul Paeng, Jin; Kim, Chunsook; Kim, Sungeun; Kim, Won-Ki

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play important roles in atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, and transplant vasculopathy. We investigated the synthetic activity of VSMCs in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Atherosclerosis was induced in rats by partial ligation of the right carotid artery coupled with an atherogenic diet and vitamin D injections (2 consecutive days, 600,000 IU/day). One month later, rats were imaged by F-18 FDG PET. The atherosclerotic right carotid arteries showed prominent luminal narrowing with neointimal hyperplasia. The regions with neointimal hyperplasia were composed of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells with decreased expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. Surrogate markers of synthetic VSMCs such as collagen type III, cyclophilin A, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 were increased in neointima region. However, neither macrophages nor neutrophils were observed in regions with neointimal hyperplasia. F-18 FDG PET imaging and autoradiography showed elevated FDG uptake into the atherosclerotic carotid artery. The inner vessel layer showed higher tracer uptake than the outer layer. Consistently, the expression of glucose transporter 1 was highly increased in neointima. The present results indicate that F-18 FDG PET may be a useful tool for evaluating synthetic activities of VSMCs in vascular remodeling disorders.

  14. Bepridil blockade of Ca2+-dependent action potentials in vascular smooth muscle of dog coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Harder, D R; Sperelakis, N

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the new vasodilatory and antianginal compound, bepridil (CERM-1978), was examined on the electrical activity of the vascular smooth muscle of isolated dog coronary arteries. Tetraethylammonium (10 mM) was used to induce excitability in the muscle in the form of Ca2+-dependent overshooting action potentials, whose inward current is carried almost exclusively by Ca2+ ion through voltage-dependent slow channels. Bepridil (5 X 10(-7)--1 X 10(--5) M) produced a dose-dependent depression of the rate of rise and amplitude of these Ca2+ spikes. Complete blockade of the action potentials occurred at 1 X 10(-5) M bepridil. These effects of bepridil were antagonized by elevation of external Ca2+ concentration ([CA]o). The effects of bepridil were substantially reversed by washout after about 30 min. Bepridil (10(-5) M) also produced a small but significant (p less than 0.05) increase in resting membrane resistance (input resistance increased from a mean of 10.1 to 12.4 m omega), accompanied by a small but significant (p less than 0.05) depolarization of 6 mV (from a mean of --51 to --45 mV). These latter effects are consistent with a diminution of the resting K+ conductance (gK) by bepridil. It is concluded that the vasodilatory and antianginal properties of bepridil may be explained by the action of this drug in depressing and blocking the Ca2+ influx into the cells, presumably by acting directly on the voltage-dependent slow channels in the cell membrane, and thereby lowering [Ca]i and thus the degree of contraction. Bepridil has Ca2+-antagonistic (or Ca2+ entry blocking or slow channel blocking) properties much like verapamil, but it is somewhat less potent than verapamil in this action (i.e., complete blockade occurred at 10(-5) M bepridil vs. 2 X 10(-6) M verapamil).

  15. Assays for in vitro monitoring of proliferation of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Lim, Poay; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Eszterhas, Andrew; Panettieri, Reynold A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Vascular and airway remodeling, which are characterized by airway smooth muscle (ASM) and pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation, contribute to the pathology of asthma, pulmonary hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. To evaluate the proliferation of VSM and ASM cells in response to mitogens, we perform a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. The proliferation protocol takes approximately 48 h and includes stimulating cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with agonists, labeling cells with [3H]thymidine and examining levels of [3H]thymidine incorporation by scintillation counting. Although using radiolabeled [3H]thymidine incorporation is a limitation, the greatest benefit of the assay is providing reliable and statistically significant data.

  16. Theoretical study of the effects of vascular smooth muscle contraction on strain and stress distributions in arteries.

    PubMed

    Rachev, A; Hayashi, K

    1999-01-01

    To study the effects of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation on the strain and stress distribution in the vascular wall, a mathematical model was proposed. The artery was assumed to be a thick-walled orthotropic tube made of nonlinear, incompressible elastic material. Considering that the contraction of smooth muscle generates an active circumferential stress in the wall, a numerical study was performed using data available in the literature. The results obtained showed that smooth muscle contraction affects the residual strains which exist in a ring segment cut out from the artery and exposed to no external load. When the ring specimen is cut radially, it springs open with an opening angle. The predicted monotonic increase of the opening angle with increasing muscular tone was in agreement with recent experimental results reported in the literature. It was shown that basal muscular tone, which exists under physiological conditions, reduces the strain gradient in the arterial wall and yields a near uniform stress distribution. During temporary changes in blood pressure, the increase in muscular tone induced by elevated pressure tends to restore the distribution of circumferential strain in the arterial wall, and to maintain the flow-induced wall shear stress to normal level.

  17. Pathophysiological role of vascular smooth muscle alkaline phosphatase in medial artery calcification†

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Campbell R.; Kuss, Pia; Narisawa, Sonoko; Yadav, Manisha C.; Nigro, Jessica; Wang, Wei; Chhea, T. Nicole; Sergienko, Eduard A.; Kapoor, Kapil; Jackson, Michael R.; Hoylaerts, Marc. F.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; O'Neill, W. Charles; Millán, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Medial vascular calcification (MVC) is a pathological phenomenon common to a variety of conditions, including aging, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, and a variety of rare genetic diseases, that causes vascular stiffening and can lead to heart failure. These conditions share the common feature of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) upregulation in the vasculature. To evaluate the role of TNAP in MVC, we developed a mouse model that overexpresses human TNAP in vascular smooth muscle cells in an X-linked manner. Hemizygous overexpressor male mice (Tagln-Cre+/-; HprtALPL/Y, or TNAP-OE) show extensive vascular calcification, high blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy and have a median age of death of 44 days, whereas the cardiovascular phenotype is much less pronounced and life expectancy is longer in heterozygous (Tagln-Cre+/-; HprtALPL/-) female TNAP-OE mice. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of osteoblast and chondrocyte markers and decreased expression of vascular smooth muscle markers in the aortas of TNAP-OE mice. Through medicinal chemistry efforts, we developed inhibitors of TNAP with drug-like pharmacokinetic characteristics. TNAP-OE mice were treated with the prototypical TNAP inhibitor SBI-425 or vehicle to evaluate the feasibility of TNAP inhibition in vivo. Treatment with this inhibitor significantly reduced aortic calcification and cardiac hypertrophy, and extended lifespan over vehicle-treated controls, in the absence of secondary effects on the skeleton. This study shows that TNAP in the vasculature contributes to the pathology of MVC and that it is a druggable target. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved PMID:25428889

  18. Endothelin-1 promotes vascular smooth muscle cell migration across the artery wall: a mechanism contributing to vascular remodelling and intimal hyperplasia in giant-cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Planas-Rigol, Ester; Terrades-Garcia, Nekane; Corbera-Bellalta, Marc; Lozano, Ester; Alba, Marco A; Segarra, Marta; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Preciado, Sara; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Cid, Maria C

    2017-09-01

    Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammatory disease of large/medium-sized arteries, frequently involving the temporal arteries (TA). Inflammation-induced vascular remodelling leads to vaso-occlusive events. Circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) is increased in patients with GCA with ischaemic complications suggesting a role for ET-1 in vascular occlusion beyond its vasoactive function. To investigate whether ET-1 induces a migratory myofibroblastic phenotype in human TA-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) leading to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA. Immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy showed increased ET-1 expression in GCA lesions compared with control arteries. In inflamed arteries, ET-1 was predominantly expressed by infiltrating mononuclear cells whereas ET receptors, particularly ET-1 receptor B (ETBR), were expressed by both mononuclear cells and VSMC. ET-1 increased TA-derived VSMC migration in vitro and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression and migration from the media to the intima in cultured TA explants. ET-1 promoted VSMC motility by increasing activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a crucial molecule in the turnover of focal adhesions during cell migration. FAK activation resulted in Y397 autophosphorylation creating binding sites for Src kinases and the p85 subunit of PI3kinases which, upon ET-1 exposure, colocalised with FAK at the focal adhesions of migrating VSMC. Accordingly, FAK or PI3K inhibition abrogated ET-1-induced migration in vitro. Consistently, ET-1 receptor A and ETBR antagonists reduced αSMA expression and delayed VSMC outgrowth from cultured GCA-involved artery explants. ET-1 is upregulated in GCA lesions and, by promoting VSMC migration towards the intimal layer, may contribute to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  19. A method for three-dimensional quantification of vascular smooth muscle orientation: application in viable murine carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Spronck, Bart; Megens, Remco T A; Reesink, Koen D; Delhaas, Tammo

    2016-04-01

    When studying in vivo arterial mechanical behaviour using constitutive models, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) should be considered, while they play an important role in regulating arterial vessel tone. Current constitutive models assume a strictly circumferential SMC orientation, without any dispersion. We hypothesised that SMC orientation would show considerable dispersion in three dimensions and that helical dispersion would be greater than transversal dispersion. To test these hypotheses, we developed a method to quantify the 3D orientation of arterial SMCs. Fluorescently labelled SMC nuclei of left and right carotid arteries of ten mice were imaged using two-photon laser scanning microscopy. Arteries were imaged at a range of luminal pressures. 3D image processing was used to identify individual nuclei and their orientations. SMCs showed to be arranged in two distinct layers. Orientations were quantified by fitting a Bingham distribution to the observed orientations. As hypothesised, orientation dispersion was much larger helically than transversally. With increasing luminal pressure, transversal dispersion decreased significantly, whereas helical dispersion remained unaltered. Additionally, SMC orientations showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) mean right-handed helix angle in both left and right arteries and in both layers, which is a relevant finding from a developmental biology perspective. In conclusion, vascular SMC orientation (1) can be quantified in 3D; (2) shows considerable dispersion, predominantly in the helical direction; and (3) has a distinct right-handed helical component in both left and right carotid arteries. The obtained quantitative distribution data are instrumental for constitutive modelling of the artery wall and illustrate the merit of our method.

  20. Prolonged vasoconstriction of resistance arteries involves vascular smooth muscle actin polymerization leading to inward remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Staiculescu, Marius C.; Galiñanes, Edgar L.; Zhao, Guiling; Ulloa, Uri; Jin, Minshan; Beig, Mirza I.; Meininger, Gerald A.; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Inward remodelling of the resistance vasculature is predictive of hypertension and life-threatening cardiovascular events. We hypothesize that the contractile mechanisms responsible for maintaining a reduced diameter over time in response to prolonged stimulation with vasoconstrictor agonists are in part responsible for the initial stages of the remodelling process. Here we investigated the role of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) actin polymerization on agonist-induced vasoconstriction and development of inward remodelling. Methods and results Experiments were conducted in Sprague–Dawley rat resistance vessels isolated from the cremaster and mesentery. Within blood vessels, actin dynamics of VSM were monitored by confocal microscopy after introduction of fluorescent actin monomers through electroporation and by differential centrifugation to probe globular (G) and filamentous (F) actin content. Results indicated that 4 h of agonist-dependent vasoconstriction induced inward remodelling and caused significant actin polymerization, elevating the F-/total-actin ratio. Inhibition of actin polymerization prevented vessels from maintaining prolonged vasoconstriction and developing inward remodelling. Activation of the small GTPases Rho/Rac/Cdc42 also increased the F-/total-actin ratio and induced inward remodelling, while inhibition of Rho kinase or Rac-1 prevented inward remodelling. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton reversed the inward remodelling caused by prolonged vasoconstriction, but did not affect the passive diameter of freshly isolated vessels. Conclusion These results indicate that vasoconstriction-induced inward remodelling is in part caused by the polymerization of actin within VSM cells through activation of small GTPases. PMID:23417038

  1. Prolonged vasoconstriction of resistance arteries involves vascular smooth muscle actin polymerization leading to inward remodelling.

    PubMed

    Staiculescu, Marius C; Galiñanes, Edgar L; Zhao, Guiling; Ulloa, Uri; Jin, Minshan; Beig, Mirza I; Meininger, Gerald A; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A

    2013-06-01

    Inward remodelling of the resistance vasculature is predictive of hypertension and life-threatening cardiovascular events. We hypothesize that the contractile mechanisms responsible for maintaining a reduced diameter over time in response to prolonged stimulation with vasoconstrictor agonists are in part responsible for the initial stages of the remodelling process. Here we investigated the role of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) actin polymerization on agonist-induced vasoconstriction and development of inward remodelling. Experiments were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rat resistance vessels isolated from the cremaster and mesentery. Within blood vessels, actin dynamics of VSM were monitored by confocal microscopy after introduction of fluorescent actin monomers through electroporation and by differential centrifugation to probe globular (G) and filamentous (F) actin content. Results indicated that 4 h of agonist-dependent vasoconstriction induced inward remodelling and caused significant actin polymerization, elevating the F-/total-actin ratio. Inhibition of actin polymerization prevented vessels from maintaining prolonged vasoconstriction and developing inward remodelling. Activation of the small GTPases Rho/Rac/Cdc42 also increased the F-/total-actin ratio and induced inward remodelling, while inhibition of Rho kinase or Rac-1 prevented inward remodelling. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton reversed the inward remodelling caused by prolonged vasoconstriction, but did not affect the passive diameter of freshly isolated vessels. These results indicate that vasoconstriction-induced inward remodelling is in part caused by the polymerization of actin within VSM cells through activation of small GTPases.

  2. Assays for in vitro monitoring of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell migration.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Migration of human pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells contributes to vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidence also indicates that, in part, migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells may contribute to airway remodeling associated with asthma. Here we describe migration of VSM and ASM cells in vitro using Transwell or Boyden chamber assays. Because dissecting signaling mechanisms regulating cell migration requires molecular approaches, our protocol also describes how to assess migration of transfected VSM and ASM cells. Transwell or Boyden chamber assays can be completed in approximately 8 h and include plating of serum-deprived VSM or ASM cell suspension on membrane precoated with collagen, migration of cells toward chemotactic gradient and visual (Transwell) or digital (Boyden chamber) analysis of membrane. Although the Transwell assay is easy, the Boyden chamber assay requires hands-on experience; however, both assays are reliable cell-based approaches providing valuable information on how chemotactic and inflammatory factors modulate VSM and ASM migration.

  3. A novel inhibitory effect of oxazol-5-one compounds on ROCKII signaling in human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghabkari, Abdulhameed; Deng, Jing-Ti; McDonald, Paul C; Dedhar, Shoukat; Alshehri, Mana; Walsh, Michael P; MacDonald, Justin A

    2016-08-30

    The selectivity of (4Z)-2-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)-4-(pyridin-3-ylmethylidene)-1,3-oxazol-5-one (DI) for zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was previously described by in silico computational modeling, screening a large panel of kinases, and determining the inhibition efficacy. Our assessment of DI revealed another target, the Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCKII). In vitro studies showed DI to be a competitive inhibitor of ROCKII (Ki, 132 nM with respect to ATP). This finding was supported by in silico molecular surface docking of DI with the ROCKII ATP-binding pocket. Time course analysis of myosin regulatory light chain (LC20) phosphorylation catalyzed by ROCKII in vitro revealed a significant decrease upon treatment with DI. ROCKII signaling was investigated in situ in human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). ROCKII down-regulation using siRNA revealed several potential substrates involved in smooth muscle contraction (e.g., LC20, Par-4, MYPT1) and actin cytoskeletal dynamics (cofilin). The application of DI to CASMCs attenuated LC20, Par-4, LIMK, and cofilin phosphorylations. Notably, cofilin phosphorylation was not significantly decreased with a novel ZIPK selective inhibitor (HS-38). In addition, CASMCs treated with DI underwent cytoskeletal changes that were associated with diminution of cofilin phosphorylation. We conclude that DI is not selective for ZIPK and is a potent inhibitor of ROCKII.

  4. A novel inhibitory effect of oxazol-5-one compounds on ROCKII signaling in human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghabkari, Abdulhameed; Deng, Jing-Ti; McDonald, Paul C.; Dedhar, Shoukat; Alshehri, Mana; Walsh, Michael P.; MacDonald, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity of (4Z)-2-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)-4-(pyridin-3-ylmethylidene)-1,3-oxazol-5-one (DI) for zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was previously described by in silico computational modeling, screening a large panel of kinases, and determining the inhibition efficacy. Our assessment of DI revealed another target, the Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCKII). In vitro studies showed DI to be a competitive inhibitor of ROCKII (Ki, 132 nM with respect to ATP). This finding was supported by in silico molecular surface docking of DI with the ROCKII ATP-binding pocket. Time course analysis of myosin regulatory light chain (LC20) phosphorylation catalyzed by ROCKII in vitro revealed a significant decrease upon treatment with DI. ROCKII signaling was investigated in situ in human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). ROCKII down-regulation using siRNA revealed several potential substrates involved in smooth muscle contraction (e.g., LC20, Par-4, MYPT1) and actin cytoskeletal dynamics (cofilin). The application of DI to CASMCs attenuated LC20, Par-4, LIMK, and cofilin phosphorylations. Notably, cofilin phosphorylation was not significantly decreased with a novel ZIPK selective inhibitor (HS-38). In addition, CASMCs treated with DI underwent cytoskeletal changes that were associated with diminution of cofilin phosphorylation. We conclude that DI is not selective for ZIPK and is a potent inhibitor of ROCKII. PMID:27573465

  5. Differential expression of the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and KGF receptor genes in human vascular smooth muscle cells and arteries.

    PubMed

    Winkles, J A; Alberts, G F; Chedid, M; Taylor, W G; DeMartino, S; Rubin, J S

    1997-12-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a secreted member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of heparin-binding proteins. Studies reported to date indicate that it functions primarily as an important paracrine mediator of epithelial cell growth and differentiation. KGF appears to act via binding to a specific FGF receptor-2 isoform generated by an alternative splicing mechanism. To determine whether KGF may play a role in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) biology, we investigated KGF and KGF receptor gene expression in human SMC cultured in vitro as well as in several human nonatherosclerotic artery and atheroma specimens. KGF mRNA but not KGF receptor mRNA was expressed by SMCs, as determined by Northern blot hybridization analysis or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays, respectively. Additional experiments demonstrated that 1) human SMCs produce and secrete mitogenically active KGF and that 2) the cytokine interleukin-1 increases KGF mRNA and protein levels in human SMCs. We also found that KGF transcripts but not KGF receptor transcripts were expressed in control and atherosclerotic human arteries. Taken together, these results indicate that KGF is unlikely to be involved in SMC growth regulation unless it can function intracellularly or interact with a presently unidentified KGF receptor.

  6. MicroRNA-32 promotes calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells: Implications as a novel marker for coronary artery calcification

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yingying; Chen, Ling; Xu, Canxin; Zhao, Heng; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qinghai; Zhong, Jing; Tang, Zhenwang; Liu, Changhui; Zhao, Qiang; Zheng, Yi; Cao, Renxian; Zu, Xuyu

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is one of the most severe outcomes associated with cardiovascular disease and often results in significant morbidity and mortality. Previous reports indicated that epigenomic regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) might play important roles in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Here, we identified potential key miRNAs involved in vascular calcification in vivo and investigated the role of miR-32-5p (miR-32). According to microarray analysis, we observed increased expression of miR-125b, miR-30a, and miR-32 and decreased expression of miR-29a, miR-210, and miR-320 during the progression of vascularcalcification. Additionally, gain- and loss-of-function studies of miR-32 confirmed promotion of VSMC calcification in mice through the enhanced expression of bonemorphogenetic protein-2, runt-related transcription factor-2(RUNX2), osteopontin, and the bone-specific phosphoprotein matrix GLA protein in vitro. Moreover, miR-32 modulated vascularcalcification progression by activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)signaling and increasing RUNX2 expression and phosphorylation by targeting the 3′-untranslated region of phosphatase and tensin homolog Mrna (PTEN) in mouse VSMCs. Furthermore, we detected higher miR-32 levels in plasmafrom patients with coronary artery disease with coronary artery calcification (CAC) as compared with levels observed in non-CAC patients (P = 0.016), further confirming miR-32 as a critical modulator and potential diagnostic marker for CAC. PMID:28319142

  7. 12S-lipoxygenase protein associates with {alpha}-actin fibers in human umbilical artery vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weisinger, Gary . E-mail: gary_w@tasmc.health.gov.il; Limor, Rona; Marcus-Perlman, Yonit; Knoll, Esther; Kohen, Fortune; Schinder, Vera; Firer, Michael; Stern, Naftali

    2007-05-11

    The current study sets out to characterize the intracellular localization of the platelet-type 12S-lipoxygenase (12-LO), an enzyme involved in angiotensin-II induced signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Immunohistochemical analysis of VSMC in vitro or human umbilical arteries in vivo showed a clear cytoplasmic localization. On immunogold electron microscopy, 12-LO was found primarily associated with cytoplasmic VSMC muscle fibrils. Upon angiotensin-II treatment of cultured VSMC, immunoprecipitated 12-LO was found bound to {alpha}-actin, a component of the cytoplasmic myofilaments. 12-LO/{alpha}-actin binding was blocked by VSMC pretreatment with the 12-LO inhibitors, baicalien or esculetine and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Moreover, the binding of 12-LO to {alpha}-actin was not associated with 12-LO serine or tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations suggest a previously unrecognized angiotensin-II dependent protein interaction in VSMC through which 12-LO protein may be trafficked, for yet undiscovered purposes towards the much more abundantly expressed cytoskeletal protein {alpha}-actin.

  8. Oxygen-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Vascular Smooth Muscle and Their Possible Role in Hypoxic Arterial Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Obregon, A.; Urena, J.; Lopez-Barneo, J.

    1995-05-01

    We have investigated the modifications of cytosolic [Ca2+] and the activity of Ca2+ channels in freshly dispersed arterial myocytes to test whether lowering O_2 tension (PO_2) directly influences Ca2+ homeostasis in these cells. Unclamped cells loaded with fura-2 AM exhibit oscillations of cytosolic Ca2+ whose frequency depends on extracellular Ca2+ influx. Switching from a PO_2 of 150 to 20 mmHg leads to a reversible attenuation of the Ca2+ oscillations. In voltage-clamped cells, hypoxia reversibly reduces the influx of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent channels, which can account for the inhibition of the Ca2+ oscillations. Low PO_2 selectively inhibits L-type Ca2+ channel activity, whereas the current mediated by T-type channels is unaltered by hypoxia. The effect of low PO_2 on the L-type channels is markedly voltage dependent, being more apparent with moderate depolarizations. These findings demonstrate the existence of O_2-sensitive, voltage-dependent, Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle that may critically contribute to the local regulation of circulation.

  9. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Aorta Immunity and Protect against Atherosclerosis via Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lymphotoxin β Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Desheng; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Yin, Changjun; Peng, Li; Ma, Zhe; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Grassia, Gianluca; MacRitchie, Neil; Dever, Gary; Gordon, Peter; Burton, Francis L.; Ialenti, Armando; Sabir, Suleman R.; McInnes, Iain B.; Brewer, James M.; Garside, Paul; Weber, Christian; Lehmann, Thomas; Teupser, Daniel; Habenicht, Livia; Beer, Michael; Grabner, Rolf; Maffia, Pasquale; Weih, Falk; Habenicht, Andreas J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) emerge during nonresolving peripheral inflammation, but their impact on disease progression remains unknown. We have found in aged Apoe−/− mice that artery TLOs (ATLOs) controlled highly territorialized aorta T cell responses. ATLOs promoted T cell recruitment, primed CD4+ T cells, generated CD4+, CD8+, T regulatory (Treg) effector and central memory cells, converted naive CD4+ T cells into induced Treg cells, and presented antigen by an unusual set of dendritic cells and B cells. Meanwhile, vascular smooth muscle cell lymphotoxin β receptors (VSMC-LTβRs) protected against atherosclerosis by maintaining structure, cellularity, and size of ATLOs though VSMC-LTβRs did not affect secondary lymphoid organs: Atherosclerosis was markedly exacerbated in Apoe−/−Ltbr−/− and to a similar extent in aged Apoe−/−Ltbrfl/flTagln-cre mice. These data support the conclusion that the immune system employs ATLOs to organize aorta T cell homeostasis during aging and that VSMC-LTβRs participate in atherosclerosis protection via ATLOs. PMID:26084025

  10. Oxygen-sensitive calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle and their possible role in hypoxic arterial relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Obregón, A; Ureña, J; López-Barneo, J

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the modifications of cytosolic [Ca2+] and the activity of Ca2+ channels in freshly dispersed arterial myocytes to test whether lowering O2 tension (PO2) directly influences Ca2+ homeostasis in these cells. Unclamped cells loaded with fura-2 AM exhibit oscillations of cytosolic Ca2+ whose frequency depends on extracellular Ca2+ influx. Switching from a PO2 of 150 to 20 mmHg leads to a reversible attenuation of the Ca2+ oscillations. In voltage-clamped cells, hypoxia reversibly reduces the influx of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent channels, which can account for the inhibition of the Ca2+ oscillations. Low PO2 selectively inhibits L-type Ca2+ channel activity, whereas the current mediated by T-type channels is unaltered by hypoxia. The effect of low PO2 on the L-type channels is markedly voltage dependent, being more apparent with moderate depolarizations. These findings demonstrate the existence of O2-sensitive, voltage-dependent, Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle that may critically contribute to the local regulation of circulation. PMID:7753871

  11. Prothrombotic gene expression profile in vascular smooth muscle cells of human saphenous vein, but not internal mammary artery.

    PubMed

    Payeli, S K; Latini, R; Gebhard, C; Patrignani, A; Wagner, U; Lüscher, T F; Tanner, F C

    2008-04-01

    The resistance of internal mammary artery (IMA) toward thrombotic occlusion and accelerated atherosclerosis is not well understood. This study analyzed gene expression profiles of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from IMA versus saphenous vein (SV). 54'675 probe sets were examined by Affymetrix microarrays. Thirty-one genes belonged to the coagulation system; 2 were differentially expressed, namely tissue factor (TF) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). TF was 3.1-fold lower in IMA than SV (P=0.006), whereas tPA was 9.0-fold higher (P<0.001). TF mRNA expression was lower in IMA than SV (P<0.05); tPA was higher (P<0.001). TF protein expression was 4.2+/-0.5-fold lower in IMA than SV (P<0.001); tPA was 2.6+/-0.4-fold higher (P<0.01). In IMA VSMC supernatant, TF protein and activity was lower (P<0.05), TFPI and tPA protein higher (P<0.05 and P<0.005), and clotting time of human plasma prolonged (P<0.05) as compared to SV. Migration to TF/FVIIa (10(-9) mol/L) was 3-fold lower in IMA than SV (P=0.01); PAR-2 protein expression was similar (P=NS), PAR-2 blockade without effect (P=NS). Among the genes of the coagulation system, TF and tPA are differentially expressed in VSMCs from IMA versus SV. This is consistent with protection of IMA from thrombus formation and vascular remodeling.

  12. Phenotypic modifications of vascular smooth muscle cells could be responsible for vascular hyporeactivity to contracting agent in mechanically injured rat carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Popolo, A; Marzocco, S; Nasti, C; Lippolis, L; di Villa Bianca, R d'Emmanuele; Sorrentino, R; Autore, G; Pinto, A

    2005-12-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that accumulate in neointima after angioplastic injury show different phenotypic characteristics from those of medial layer and an impaired reactivity to contracting agents. The aim of the study was to correlate the vascular hyporesponsiveness to the changes in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](i) and the expression of proteins necessary for its utilization in mechanically injured rat carotid arteries (IC) at 14 and 28 days after angioplastic balloon. IC showed a significant reduction (P<0.01) to PE- or KCl-induced contraction as compared to uninjured carotid (UC). Fura-2AM-loaded VSMCs isolated from IC revealed that this hyporeactivity to PE or KCl was accompanied by the impairment of the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by contracting agents in both Ca(2+)-free or -containing medium. Similar results were observed following the ryanodine challenge in VSMC. Western blot analysis showed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in myosin heavy chain (MHC) and IP(3)-type III receptor expression in IC isolated at 14 days from injury compared to UC, while an improvement of these proteins expression was observed at 28 days after damage. On the other hand, in IC tissue, SERCA2 and alpha-actin expression, compared to UC was significantly higher at 14 days than at 28 days. These data indicate that vascular hyporeactivity induced by mechanical injury may be due to alterations of either [Ca(2+)](i) or contractile proteins. These modifications could be related to the changes of VSMC phenotypic characteristics, as supported by the observed modifications in MHC, SERCA2 and alpha-actin expression, proteins considered as biological markers of cellular differentiation.

  13. Rhythmicity in arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Rebecca E; Hill, Caryl E

    2005-01-01

    Many arteries and arterioles exhibit rhythmical contractions which are synchronous over considerable distances. This vasomotion is likely to assist in tissue perfusion especially during periods of altered metabolism or perfusion pressure. While the mechanism underlying vascular rhythmicity has been investigated for many years, it has only been recently, with the advent of imaging techniques for visualizing intracellular calcium release, that significant advances have been made. These methods, when combined with mechanical and electrophysiological recordings, have demonstrated that the rhythm depends critically on calcium released from intracellular stores within the smooth muscle cells and on cell coupling via gap junctions to synchronize oscillations in calcium release amongst adjacent cells. While these factors are common to all vessels studied to date, the contribution of voltage-dependent channels and the endothelium varies amongst different vessels. The basic mechanism for rhythmical activity in arteries thus differs from its counterpart in non-vascular smooth muscle, where specific networks of pacemaker cells generate electrical potentials which drive activity within the otherwise quiescent muscle cells. PMID:15905215

  14. Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Baeten, J T; Lilly, B

    2017-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries. Like most signaling pathways, the Notch signaling axis is influenced by complex interactions with mediators of other signaling pathways. This complexity is also compounded by different members of the Notch family having both overlapping and unique functions. Thus, it is vital to fully understand the roles and interactions of each Notch family member in order to effectively and specifically target their exact contributions to vascular disease. In this chapter, we will review the Notch signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells as it relates to vascular development and human disease.

  15. Intracellular renin increases the inward calcium current in smooth muscle cells of mesenteric artery of SHR. Implications for hypertension and vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    De Mello, Walmor

    2016-10-01

    The influence of intracellular renin on the inward calcium current in isolated smooth muscle cells from SHR mesenteric arteries was investigated. Measurements of calcium current were performed using the whole cell configuration of pCLAMP. The results indicated that: 1) renin (100nM) dialyzed into smooth muscle cells, increased the inward calcium current; 2) verapamil (10-9M) administered to the bath inhibited the effect of renin on the inward calcium current; 3) concurrently with the increase of calcium current a depolarization of 6.8+/-2.1mV (n=16)(P<0.05) was found in cells dialyzed with renin; 4) intracellular dialysis of renin (100nM) into smooth muscle cells isolated from mesenteric arteries of normal Wystar Kyoto rats showed no significant change on calcium current; 5) aliskiren (10-9M) dialyzed into the cell together with renin (100nM) abolished the effect of the enzyme on the calcium current in SHR; 6) Ang II (100nM) dialyzed into the smooth muscle cell from mesenteric artery of SHR in absence of renin, decreased the calcium current-an effect greatly reduced by valsartan (10-9M) added to the cytosol; 7) administration of renin (100nM) plus angiotensinogen (100nM) into the cytosol of muscles cells from SHR rats reduced the inward calcium current; 8) extracellular administration of Ang II (100nM) increased the inward calcium current in mesenteric arteries of SHR. intracellular renin in vascular resistance vessels from SHR due to internalization or expression, contributes to the regulation of vascular tone and control of peripheral resistance-an effect independently of Ang II. Implications for hypertension and vascular remodeling are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of platelets in smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration after vascular injury in rat carotid artery.

    PubMed Central

    Fingerle, J; Johnson, R; Clowes, A W; Majesky, M W; Reidy, M A

    1989-01-01

    Intimal lesion formation was investigated in rats made thrombocytopenic by a single i.p. injection of a polyclonal antibody made against rat platelets that reduced circulating platelet counts to less than 1% of normal. The carotid artery was then denuded of endothelium with a 2 French balloon catheter, after which no platelets were found adhering to the exposed subendothelium. In control animals, platelets adhered instantly to the denuded artery. Six hours after denudation mRNA for ornithine decarboxylase, a marker for early G1 events, was found to be elevated in both thrombocytopenic and control arteries. Two days after injury the smooth muscle cell replication rate in thrombocytopenic rats was found to be significantly elevated as compared with that in uninjured carotids (13.7% +/- 8.4% vs. 0.65% +/- 0.23%) but was similar to the replication rate observed in denuded carotid arteries from animals treated with nonimmune IgG. One important difference between these animals was that no intimal thickening was observed in thrombocytopenic animals at day 4, and by day 7 the intimas were still significantly smaller than those from control rats. In a separate group of animals which were thrombocytopenic for the entire experiment, no intimal lesions were observed 7 days after injury by balloon catheter. From these results, we conclude that platelets do not play a role in the initiation of smooth muscle cell proliferation after injury by balloon catheter but may regulate their movement into the intima. Images PMID:2813399

  17. Stat3-dependent acute Rantes production in vascular smooth muscle cells modulates inflammation following arterial injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kovacic, Jason C.; Gupta, Rohit; Lee, Angela C.; Ma, Mingchao; Fang, Fang; Tolbert, Claire N.; Walts, Avram D.; Beltran, Leilani E.; San, Hong; Chen, Guibin; St. Hilaire, Cynthia; Boehm, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation is a key component of arterial injury, with VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation serving as the final outcomes of this process. However, the acute events transpiring immediately after arterial injury that establish the blueprint for this inflammatory program are largely unknown. We therefore studied these events in mice and found that immediately following arterial injury, medial VSMCs upregulated Rantes in an acute manner dependent on Stat3 and NF-κB (p65 subunit). This led to early T cell and macrophage recruitment, processes also under the regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1. Unique to VSMCs, Rantes production was initiated by Tnf-α, but not by Il-6/gp130. This Rantes production was dependent on the binding of a p65/Stat3 complex to NF-κB–binding sites within the Rantes promoter, with shRNA knockdown of either Stat3 or p65 markedly attenuating Rantes production. In vivo, acute NF-κB and Stat3 activation in medial VSMCs was identified, with acute Rantes production after injury substantially reduced in Tnfa–/– mice compared with controls. Finally, we generated mice with SMC-specific conditional Stat3 deficiency and confirmed the Stat3 dependence of acute Rantes production by VSMCs. Together, these observations unify inflammatory events after vascular injury, demonstrating that VSMCs orchestrate the arterial inflammatory response program via acute Rantes production and subsequent inflammatory cell recruitment. PMID:20038813

  18. Feline immunodeficiency virus and retrovirus-mediated adventitial ex vivo gene transfer to rabbit carotid artery using autologous vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kankkonen, Hanna M; Turunen, Mikko P; Hiltunen, Mikko O; Lehtolainen, Pauliina; Koponen, Jonna; Leppänen, Pia; Turunen, Anna-Mari; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2004-03-01

    We have developed an ex vivo gene transfer technique to rabbit arterial wall using autologous smooth muscle cells (SMCs). SMCs were harvested from rabbit ear artery, transduced in vitro with vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein pseudotyped retrovirus or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and returned to the adventitial surface of the carotid artery using a periadventitial silicone collar or collagen sheet placed around the artery. Beta-galactosidase (lacZ) and human apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) cDNAs were used as transgenes. After retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of lacZ the selected cells implanted with high efficiency and expressed lacZ marker gene at a very high level 7 and 14 days after the operation. The level of lacZ expression decreased thereafter but was still detectable 12 weeks after the gene transfer, and was exclusively localized to the site of cell implantation inside the collar. Utilizing FIV vector expressing apoE3, low levels of apoE were measured from serum collected from a low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits 1 month after the gene transfer. The physiological effect of apoE expression was detected as transiently elevated serum cholesterol levels. The results indicate that the model can be used for high efficiency local gene transfer in arteries, e.g. during vascular surgery. The model is also valuable for studying expression, stability and safety of new gene transfer vectors and their expression products in vivo.

  19. Sympathetic innervation promotes vascular smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Damon, Deborah H

    2005-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is an important modulator of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) growth and function. Several lines of evidence suggest that the SNS also promotes VSM differentiation. The present study tests this hypothesis. Expression of smooth muscle myosin (SM2) and alpha-actin were assessed by Western analysis as indexes of VSM differentiation. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in adult innervated rat femoral and tail arteries was 479 +/- 115% of that in noninnervated carotid arteries. Expression of alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH or total protein) in 30-day-innervated rat femoral arteries was greater than in corresponding noninnervated femoral arteries from guanethidine-sympathectomized rats. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in neonatal femoral arteries grown in vitro for 7 days in the presence of sympathetic ganglia was greater than SM2 expression in corresponding arteries grown in the absence of sympathetic ganglia. In VSM-endothelial cell cultures grown in the presence of dissociated sympathetic neurons, alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH) was 300 +/- 66% of that in corresponding cultures grown in the absence of neurons. This effect was inhibited by an antibody that neutralized the activity of transforming growth factor-beta2. All of these data indicate that sympathetic innervation increased VSM contractile protein expression and thereby suggest that the SNS promotes and/or maintains VSM differentiation.

  20. Nobiletin Inhibits PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration and attenuates neointimal hyperplasia in a rat carotid artery injury model.

    PubMed

    Guan, Siyu; Tang, Qizhu; Liu, Wenwei; Zhu, Rui; Li, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Preclinical Research The abnormal migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a pivotal role in the development of neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Nobiletin, a citrus bioflavonoid, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. The present study evalutaed whether nobiletin could inhibit platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB- stimulated VSMC proliferation and migration and decrease neointimal hyperplasia in a rat carotid artery injury model. Cultured VSMCs from rat thoracic aortas were treated with nobiletin before being stimulated with 20 ng/ml PDGF-BB, and rats were subjected to carotid artery injury. Nobiletin inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration, attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the expression of nuclear NF-κB p65 in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Nobiletin decreased the intima area and the ratio of neointima to media in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in nobiletin-treated rats were decreased. These results indicated that nobiletin could be a potential protective agent for the prevention and treatment of restenosis after angioplasty.

  1. Interference of IP-10 expression inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in carotid artery: a new insight in the prevention of restenosis.

    PubMed

    Zuojun, Hu; Lingyu, Hu; Wei, He; Henghui, Yin; Chonggang, Zhang; Jingsong, Wang; Mian, Wang; Yong, Liu; Shenming, Wang

    2012-01-01

    After vascular angioplasty, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation causes atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia leading to restenosis. Interferon-γ-inducible protein (IP)-10 plays a role in atherogenesis, but the mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated the role of IP-10 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis. IP-10 expression was determined in arterial specimens from 20 arteriosclerotic obliteration patients and 6 healthy individuals. VSMCs were stimulated in vitro with IFN-γ and transfected with IP-10 siRNA. Silencing was verified with RT-PCR/Western blot; cell proliferation rate was detected by methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium. The carotid artery model of atherosclerosis injury was established with IP-10 siRNA. IP-10 expression was detected at 1 and 4 weeks using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Artery morphology was assessed with hematoxylin-and-eosin staining, and intimal hyperplasia was evaluated by electron microscopy. IP-10 was overexpressed in arteriosclerotic obliteration group compared with control group (P < 0.05). IP-10 expression in transfected group was significantly lower than in untransfected group. The intima-to-media ratio of transfected group at 4 weeks was lower than that of untransfected group (P < 0.01). The transfected group exhibited more regular intimal structure and less hyperplasia under electron microscopy. We, therefore, concluded that IP-10 played an important role in intimal hyperplasia as siRNA-mediated IP-10 silencing inhibited aberrant VSMCs hyperplasia and reduced restenosis.

  2. Statin therapy exacerbates alcohol-induced constriction of cerebral arteries via modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Simakova, Maria N; Bisen, Shivantika; Dopico, Alex M; Bukiya, Anna N

    2017-09-01

    Statins constitute the most commonly prescribed drugs to decrease cholesterol (CLR). CLR is an important modulator of alcohol-induced cerebral artery constriction (AICAC). Using rats on a high CLR diet (2% CLR) we set to determine whether atorvastatin administration (10mg/kg daily for 18-23weeks) modified AICAC. Middle cerebral arteries were pressurized in vitro at 60mmHg and AICAC was evoked by 50mM ethanol, that is within the range of blood alcohol detected in humans following moderate-to-heavy drinking. AICAC was evident in high CLR+atorvastatin group but not in high CLR diet+placebo. Statin exacerbation of AICAC persisted in de-endothelialized arteries, and was blunted by CLR enrichment in vitro. Fluorescence imaging of filipin-stained arteries showed that atorvastatin decreased vascular smooth muscle (VSM) CLR when compared to placebo, this difference being reduced by CLR enrichment in vitro. Voltage- and calcium-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK) are known VSM targets of ethanol, with their beta1 subunit being necessary for ethanol-induced channel inhibition and resulting AICAC. Ethanol-induced BK inhibition in excised membrane patches from freshly isolated myocytes was exacerbated in the high CLR diet+atorvastatin group when compared to high CLR diet+placebo. Unexpectedly, atorvastatin decreased the amount and function of BK beta1 subunit as documented by immunofluorescence imaging and functional patch-clamp studies. Atorvastatin exacerbation of ethanol-induced BK inhibition disappeared upon artery CLR enrichment in vitro. Our study demonstrates for the first time statin's ability to exacerbate the vascular effect of a widely consumed drug of abuse, this exacerbation being driven by statin modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in the VSM via CLR-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity of mitochondria-dependent dilator mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle of cerebral arteries from normal and insulin-resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Angellica O.; Sure, Venkata N. L. R.; Rutkai, I.; Busija, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial depolarization following ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channel activation has been shown to induce cerebral vasodilation by generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), which sequentially promotes frequency of calcium sparks and activation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We previously demonstrated that cerebrovascular insulin resistance accompanies aging and obesity. It is unclear whether mitochondrial depolarization without the ROS generation enhances calcium sparks and vasodilation in phenotypically normal [Sprague Dawley (SD); Zucker lean (ZL)] and insulin-resistant [Zucker obese (ZO)] rats. We compared the mechanisms underlying the vasodilation to ROS-dependent (diazoxide) and ROS-independent [BMS-191095 (BMS)] mitoKATP channel activators in normal and ZO rats. Arterial diameter studies from SD, ZL, and ZO rats showed that BMS as well as diazoxide induced vasodilation in endothelium-denuded cerebral arteries. In normal rats, BMS-induced vasodilation was mediated by mitochondrial depolarization and calcium sparks generation in VSM and was reduced by inhibition of BKCa channels. However, unlike diazoxide-induced vasodilation, scavenging of ROS had no effect on BMS-induced vasodilation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy confirmed that diazoxide but not BMS promoted vascular ROS generation. BMS- as well as diazoxide-induced vasodilation, mitochondrial depolarization, and calcium spark generation were diminished in cerebral arteries from ZO rats. Thus pharmacological depolarization of VSM mitochondria by BMS promotes ROS-independent vasodilation via generation of calcium sparks and activation of BKCa channels. Diminished generation of calcium sparks and reduced vasodilation in ZO arteries in response to BMS and diazoxide provide new insights into mechanisms of cerebrovascular dysfunction in insulin resistance. PMID:24929852

  4. Vascular Protective Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Camellia japonica Fruit: Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Coronary Artery and Reduction of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Hee; Shim, Bong-Sup; Yoon, Jun-Seong; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Hye-Won; Yoo, Seok-Bong; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Dong-Wok; Oak, Min-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica is a popular garden plant in Asia and widely used as cosmetic sources and traditional medicine. However, the possibility that C. japonica affects cardiovascular system remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vascular effects of an extract of C. japonica. Vascular reactivity was assessed in organ baths using porcine coronary arteries and inhibition of proliferation and migration were assessed using human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). All four different parts, leaf, stem, flower, and fruits, caused concentration-dependent relaxations and C. japonica fruit (CJF) extract showed the strongest vasorelaxation and its effect was endothelium dependent. Relaxations to CJF were markedly reduced by inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inhibitor of PI3-kinase, but not affected by inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated response. CJF induced activated a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells. Altogether, these studies have demonstrated that CJF is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator and this effect was involved in, at least in part, PI3K-eNOS-NO pathway. Moreover, CJF attenuated TNF-α induced proliferation and PDGF-BB induced migration of VSMCs. The present findings indicate that CJF could be a valuable candidate of herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

  5. Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine receptor coupled to cyclic AMP formation expressed by rat mesenteric artery vascular smooth muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A. S.; Bryson, S. E.; Vaughan, P. F.; Ball, S. G.; Balmforth, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. Mesenteric artery vascular smooth muscle cells derived from male Wistar rats and grown in culture were prelabelled with [3H]-adenine and exposed to a range of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists. Resultant [3H]-cyclic AMP formation was determined and concentration-effect curves constructed, in the presence of propranolol (10-6) M) and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX (5 x 10(-4) M). 2. Ka apparent values for D1/DA1 dopamine receptor agonists SKF 38393, fenoldopam, 6,7-ADTN, and dopamine were 0.06, 0.59, 4.06 and 5.77 x 10(-6) M respectively. Although fenoldopam and SKF 38393 were more potent than dopamine, they were partial agonists with efficacies, relative to dopamine of approximately 48% and 24% respectively. 6,7-ADTN, in contrast, behaved as a full agonist. 3. Dopamine-stimulated cyclic AMP formation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the D1/DA1 dopamine receptor selective antagonists, SCH 23390 and cis-flupenthixol (Ki values 0.53 and 36.1 x 10(-1) M respectively). In contrast, the D2/DA2 dopamine receptor selective antagonists, domperidone and (-)-sulpiride, were less potent (Ki values 2.06 and 5.82 x 10(-6) M respectively). Furthermore, the stereoisomers of SCH 23390 and cis-flupenthixol, SCH 23388 and trans-flupenthixol, were at least two orders of magnitude less potent (Ki values 0.14 and 13.2 x 10(-6) M respectively) indicating the stereoselective nature of this receptor. 4. Our results indicate that rat mesenteric artery vascular smooth muscle cells in culture express a dopamine receptor coupled to cyclic AMP formation, which has the pharmacological profile, characteristic of the D1 dopamine receptor subfamily. PMID:7902178

  6. Elastin Degradation and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype Change Precede Cell Loss and Arterial Medial Calcification in a Uremic Mouse Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Ashwini; Leaf, Elizabeth M.; El-Abbadi, Mohga; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2011-01-01

    Arterial medial calcification (AMC), a hallmark of vascular disease in uremic patients, is highly correlated with serum phosphate levels and cardiovascular mortality. To determine the mechanisms of AMC, mice were made uremic by partial right-side renal ablation (week 0), followed by left-side nephrectomy at week 2. At 3 weeks, mice were switched to a high-phosphate diet, and various parameters of disease progression were examined over time. Serum phosphate, calcium, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) were up-regulated as early as week 4. Whereas serum phosphate and calcium levels declined to normal by 10 weeks, FGF-23 levels remained elevated through 16 weeks, consistent with an increased phosphate load. Elastin turnover and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype change were early events, detected by week 4 and before AMC. Both AMC and VSMC loss were significantly elevated by week 8. Matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and cathepsin S were present at baseline and were significantly elevated at weeks 8 and 12. In contrast, MMP-9 was not up-regulated until week 12. These findings over time suggest that VSMC phenotype change and VSMC loss (early phosphate-dependent events) may be necessary and sufficient to promote AMC in uremic mice fed a high-phosphate diet, whereas elastin degradation might be necessary but is not sufficient to induce AMC (because elastin degradation occurred also in uremic mice on a normal-phosphate diet, but they did not develop AMC). PMID:21281809

  7. Mechanics of Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Paul H

    2015-12-15

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM; see Table 1 for a list of abbreviations) is a heterogeneous biomaterial comprised of cells and extracellular matrix. By surrounding tubes of endothelial cells, VSM forms a regulated network, the vasculature, through which oxygenated blood supplies specialized organs, permitting the development of large multicellular organisms. VSM cells, the engine of the vasculature, house a set of regulated nanomotors that permit rapid stress-development, sustained stress-maintenance and vessel constriction. Viscoelastic materials within, surrounding and attached to VSM cells, comprised largely of polymeric proteins with complex mechanical characteristics, assist the engine with countering loads imposed by the heart pump, and with control of relengthening after constriction. The complexity of this smart material can be reduced by classical mechanical studies combined with circuit modeling using spring and dashpot elements. Evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of VSM requires a more complete understanding of the mechanics and regulation of its biochemical parts, and ultimately, an understanding of how these parts work together to form the machinery of the vascular tree. Current molecular studies provide detailed mechanical data about single polymeric molecules, revealing viscoelasticity and plasticity at the protein domain level, the unique biological slip-catch bond, and a regulated two-step actomyosin power stroke. At the tissue level, new insight into acutely dynamic stress-strain behavior reveals smooth muscle to exhibit adaptive plasticity. At its core, physiology aims to describe the complex interactions of molecular systems, clarifying structure-function relationships and regulation of biological machines. The intent of this review is to provide a comprehensive presentation of one biomachine, VSM.

  8. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors, calcium mobilization and (/sup 3/H), 4-dihydropyridine binding in vascular smooth muscle of rat tail artery

    SciTech Connect

    Su, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pharmacologic characterization of post-synaptic ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptors in rat tail artery was examined by using selective agonists and antagonists. In this tissue, the ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor agonists employed all produced concentration-dependent mechanical responses with rank order of potency, clonidine > norepinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > UK > 14304 > B-HT 920. This order of agonists activities not consistent with a simple classification into ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors in the rat tail artery. Antagonism by prazosin and yohimbine of phenylephrine, norepinephrine and clonidine responses did not reveal the anticipated discrimination between ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors. Potassium depolarization-induced responses were very sensitive to antagonism by the Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists nifedipine and D 600. The sensitivity sequence of ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor agonist induced responses to nifedipine and D 600 is H-HT 920 (> clonidine) > phenylephrine > norepinephrine. This disagrees with the thesis that ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor mediated responses in vascular smooth muscle are more sensitive than are ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoceptor mediated responses to Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists. Radioligand binding studies of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine and (/sup 3/H)Bay K 8644 to microsomal preparations of tail artery membrane a single set of high affinity binding sites and there is a good correlation between the pharmacological potencies and binding affinities of these agents. In addition, study of the displacement of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine by Bay K 8644 revealed IC/sub 50/ and K/sub l/ values which are in approximate accord with those determined for pharmacologic experiments.

  9. Thrombin activates MAPKAP2 kinase in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Brophy, C M; Woodrum, D; Dickinson, M; Beall, A

    1998-05-01

    Thrombin mediates hemostasis by promoting thrombus development and vasospasm, which reduces the size of the arterial injury. Thrombin stimulation of vascular smooth muscle is associated with activation of mitogen-associated protein kinase. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the subsequent cellular signaling events in thrombin-stimulated vascular smooth muscle contraction. Contractile responses of bovine carotid artery smooth muscle were determined in a muscle bath and compared with phosphorylation events with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The activity of a novel kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein-2 kinase (MAPKAP2 kinase), was determined by immunoprecipitation and a phosphotransferase assay. A small heat shock protein, HSP27, was identified with immunoblotting. Thrombin induces contraction of vascular smooth muscle and is associated with increased activity of MAPKAP2 kinase and increased phosphorylation of HSP27. Multiple isoforms of HSP27 are the predominant phosphoproteins in vascular smooth muscle, and peptide mapping suggests that the isoforms of HSP27 are structurally related and phosphorylated within similar peptide sequences. Activation of the MAPKAP2 kinase pathway and phosphorylation of HSP27 are associated with thrombin-induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle.

  10. Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts. PMID:20736412

  11. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine inhibits macrophage adhesion to vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wirrig, Christiane; McKean, Jenny S; Wilson, Heather M; Nixon, Graeme F

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation in de-endothelialised arteries contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The process that initiates this inflammatory response is the adhesion of monocytes/macrophages to exposed vascular smooth muscle cells, typically stimulated by cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the sphingolipid sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) on the interaction of monocytes/macrophages with vascular smooth muscle cells. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells and rat bone marrow-derived macrophages were co-cultured using an in vitro assay following incubation with sphingolipids to assess inter-cellular adhesion. We reveal that SPC inhibits the TNF-induced adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This anti-adhesive effect was the result of SPC-induced changes to the smooth muscle cells (but not the macrophages) and was mediated, at least partly, via the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 2. Lipid raft domains were also required. Although SPC did not alter expression or membrane distribution of the adhesion proteins intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion protein-1 in smooth muscle cells, SPC preincubation inhibited the TNF-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) resulting in a subsequent decrease in nitric oxide production. Inhibiting NOS2 activation in smooth muscle cells led to a decrease in the adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This study has therefore delineated a novel pathway which can inhibit the interaction between macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells via SPC-induced repression of NOS2 expression. This mechanism could represent a potential drug target in vascular disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Airway epithelial-derived factor relaxes pulmonary vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Farah, Omar R; Li, Dongge; McIntyre, Brendan A S; Pan, Jingyi; Belik, Jaques

    2009-01-01

    The factors controlling the pulmonary vascular resistance under physiological conditions are poorly understood. We have previously reported on an apparent cross talk between the airway and adjacent pulmonary arterial bed where a factor likely derived from the bronchial epithelial cells reduced the magnitude of agonist-stimulated force in the vascular smooth muscle. The main purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether bronchial epithelial cells release a pulmonary arterial smooth muscle relaxant factor. Conditioned media from SPOC-1 or BEAS-2B, a rat- and a human-derived bronchial epithelial cell line, respectively, were utilized. This media significantly relaxed precontracted adult but not fetal pulmonary arterial muscle in an oxygen tension-dependent manner. This response was mediated via soluble guanylate cyclase, involving AKT/PI3-kinase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Airway epithelial cell-conditioned media increased AKT phosphorylation in pulmonary smooth muscle cells (SMC) and reduced intracellular calcium change following ATP stimulation to a significantly greater extent than observed for bronchial SMC. The present data strongly support the evidence for bronchial epithelial cells releasing a stable and soluble factor capable of inducing pulmonary arterial SMC relaxation. We speculate that under physiological conditions, the maintenance of a low pulmonary vascular resistance, postnatally, is in part modulated by the airway epithelium.

  13. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  14. Smooth muscle-selective CPI-17 expression increases vascular smooth muscle contraction and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen; Xie, Zhongwen; Liu, Shu; Calderon, Lindsay E.; Guo, Zhenheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent data revealed that protein kinase C-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17), a myosin phosphatase inhibitory protein preferentially expressed in smooth muscle, is upregulated/activated in several diseases but whether this CPI-17 increase plays a causal role in pathologically enhanced vascular smooth muscle contractility and blood pressure remains unclear. To address this possibility, we generated a smooth muscle-specific CPI-17 transgenic mouse model (CPI-17-Tg) and demonstrated that the CPI-17 transgene was selectively expressed in smooth muscle-enriched tissues, including mesenteric arteries. The isometric contractions in the isolated second-order branch of mesenteric artery helical strips from CPI-17-Tg mice were significantly enhanced compared with controls in response to phenylephrine, U-46619, serotonin, ANG II, high potassium, and calcium. The perfusion pressure increases in isolated perfused mesenteric vascular beds in response to norepinephrine were also enhanced in CPI-17-Tg mice. The hypercontractility was associated with increased phosphorylation of CPI-17 and 20-kDa myosin light chain under basal and stimulated conditions. Surprisingly, the protein levels of rho kinase 2 and protein kinase Cα/δ were significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mouse mesenteric arteries. Radiotelemetry measurements demonstrated that blood pressure was significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mice. However, no vascular remodeling was detected by morphometric analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that increased CPI-17 expression in smooth muscle promotes vascular smooth muscle contractility and increases blood pressure, implicating a pathological significant role of CPI-17 upregulation. PMID:23604714

  15. Vascular Calcification: Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification is highly prevalent and, when present, is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. Vascular smooth muscle cells play an integral role in mediating vessel calcification by undergoing differentiation to osteoblast-like cells and generating matrix vesicles that serve as a nidus for calcium-phosphate deposition in the vessel wall. Once believed to be a passive process, it is now recognized that vascular calcification is a complex and highly regulated process that involves activation of cellular signaling pathways, circulating inhibitors of calcification, genetic factors, and hormones. This review will examine several of the key mechanisms linking vascular smooth muscle cells to vessel calcification that may be targeted to reduce vessel wall mineralization and, thereby, reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:25435520

  16. Pyk2 inhibition promotes contractile differentiation in arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Mario; Bhattachariya, Anirban; Nordström, Ina; Turczyńska, Karolina M; Svensson, Daniel; Albinsson, Sebastian; Nilsson, Bengt-Olof; Hellstrand, Per

    2017-11-01

    Modulation from contractile to synthetic phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells is a central process in disorders involving compromised integrity of the vascular wall. Phenotype modulation has been shown to include transition from voltage-dependent toward voltage-independent regulation of the intracellular calcium level, and inhibition of non-voltage dependent calcium influx contributes to maintenance of the contractile phenotype. One possible mediator of calcium-dependent signaling is the FAK-family non-receptor protein kinase Pyk2, which is activated by a number of stimuli in a calcium-dependent manner. We used the Pyk2 inhibitor PF-4594755 and Pyk2 siRNA to investigate the role of Pyk2 in phenotype modulation in rat carotid artery smooth muscle cells and in cultured intact arteries. Pyk2 inhibition promoted the expression of smooth muscle markers at the mRNA and protein levels under stimulation by FBS or PDGF-BB and counteracted phenotype shift in cultured intact carotid arteries and balloon injury ex vivo. During long-term (24-96 hr) treatment with PF-4594755, smooth muscle markers increased before cell proliferation was inhibited, correlating with decreased KLF4 expression and differing from effects of MEK inhibition. The Pyk2 inhibitor reduced Orai1 and preserved SERCA2a expression in carotid artery segments in organ culture, and eliminated the inhibitory effect of PDGF stimulation on L-type calcium channel and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel expression in carotid cells. Basal intracellular calcium level, calcium wave activity, and store-operated calcium influx were reduced after Pyk2 inhibition of growth-stimulated cells. Pyk2 inhibition may provide an interesting approach for preserving vascular smooth muscle differentiation under pathophysiological conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    WAGENSEIL, JESSICA E.; MECHAM, ROBERT P.

    2009-01-01

    An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments. PMID:19584318

  18. Arteriolar vascular smooth muscle cells: mechanotransducers in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Michael A; Meininger, Gerald A

    2012-09-01

    Contraction of small artery (diameters typically less than 250 μm) vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a critical role in local control of blood flow and arterial pressure through its affect on vascular caliber. Specifically, contraction of small arteries in response to increased intraluminal pressure is referred to as the myogenic response and represents an important role for mechanotransduction. Critical questions remain as to how changes in pressure are sensed by VSMCs and transduced across the cell membrane to tune the contractile state of the cell. Recent studies suggest a pivotal role for interactions between VSMCs and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Thus, pressure-induced deformation of ECM proteins and their cell surface receptors (for example, integrins) may initiate contraction and cytoskeletal remodeling through modulation of ion channels, membrane depolarization, increased intracellular Ca(2+) and actomyosin crossbridge cycling. Importantly, it is argued that the contractile properties of small artery VSMCs reflect an intimate and integrated interaction with their extracellular environment and the three-dimensional structure of the vessel wall. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vascular Aging and Arterial Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mikael, Luana de Rezende; Paiva, Anelise Machado Gomes de; Gomes, Marco Mota; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira; Euzébio, Maicon Borges; Sousa, Wátila de Moura; Barroso, Weimar Kunz Sebba

    2017-06-29

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) account annually for almost one third of all deaths worldwide. Among the CVD, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is related to more than half of those outcomes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for SAH because it causes functional and structural damage to the arterial wall, leading to stiffness. Several studies have related oxidative stress, production of free radicals, and neuroendocrine and genetic changes to the physiopathogenesis of vascular aging. Indirect ways to analyze that aging process have been widely studied, pulse wave velocity (PWV) being considered gold standard to assess arterial stiffness, because there is large epidemiological evidence of its predictive value for cardiovascular events, and it requires little technical knowledge to be performed. A pulse wave is generated during each cardiac contraction and travels along the arterial bed until finding peripheral resistance or any bifurcation point, determining the appearance of a reflected wave. In young individuals, arteries tend to be more elastic, therefore, the reflected wave occurs later in the cardiac cycle, reaching the heart during diastole. In older individuals, however, the reflected wave occurs earlier, reaching the heart during systole. Because PWV is an important biomarker of vascular damage, highly valuable in determining the patient's global cardiovascular risk, we chose to review the articles on vascular aging in the context of cardiovascular risk factors and the tools available to the early identification of that damage. Resumo As doenças cardiovasculares são anualmente responsáveis por quase um terço do total de mortes no mundo. Dentre elas, a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) está relacionada com mais da metade desses desfechos. O diabetes mellitus tipo 2 é visto com um fator de risco independente para HAS por causar lesões funcionais e estruturais na parede arterial, ocasionando-lhe enrijecimento. Diversos estudos

  20. Vascular smooth muscle function: defining the diabetic vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2013-10-01

    In this issue of Diabetologia, a meta-analysis performed by Montero and co-authors (Diabetologia doi 10.1007/s00125-013-2974-1 ) demonstrates a significant impairment of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) function in type 2 diabetic patients. Endothelial function and VSM function between type 2 diabetic and healthy individuals were associated, especially in the microcirculation, confirming the hypothesis that unresponsiveness of VSM cells to NO may amplify the consequences of reduced NO availability. This study suggests a novel interpretation for endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients, indicating VSM cells as key players. Causative mechanisms of VSM dysfunction, which seems to be a feature of the vascular phenotype of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are largely unexplored in humans. Future studies should also address the crucial issue of the prognostic significance of VSM dysfunction in diabetic patients, and possibly in other conditions characterised by high cardiovascular risk.

  1. Involvement of Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 3 (RAMP3) in the Vascular Actions of Adrenomedullin in Rat Mesenteric Artery Smooth Muscle Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Madhu; Yallampalli, Uma; Banadakappa, Manu; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    CALCB, ADM, and ADM2 are potent vasodilators that share a seven-transmembrane GPCR, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL), whose ligand specificity is dictated by the presence of one of the three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). We assessed the relative pharmacologic potency of these peptides in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the specific RAMP that mediates the effect of ADM in VSMCs. VSMCs, with or without RAMP knockdown, were treated with CALCB, ADM, or ADM2 in the presence or absence of their antagonists, CALCB8-37, ADM22-52, and ADM217-47, respectively, to assess the relative effect of peptides on cAMP production and their pharmacologic potency. Proximity ligation assay was used to assess the specific RAMP that associates with CALCRL to mediate the actions of ADM in VSMCs. All three peptides induced cAMP generation in VSMCs and the order of their potency is CALCB > ADM > ADM2. Effects of CALCB were blocked by CALCB8-37, ADM effects were blocked by CALCB8-37 and ADM217-47 but not ADM22-52, and ADM2 effects were blocked by all three antagonists. Knockdown of RAMP2 was ineffective, whereas knockdown of RAMP3 inhibited ADM-induced cAMP production in VSMCs, suggesting involvement of RAMP3 with CALCRL to mediate ADM effects. Absence of both RAMP2 and RAMP3 further increased CALCB-induced cAMP synthesis compared to control (P < 0.05). ADM increased CALCRL and RAMP3 association and RAMP3 knockdown inhibited the interaction of ADM with CALCRL. PMID:26423127

  2. Insulin attenuates vascular smooth muscle calcification but increases vascular smooth muscle cell phosphate transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cecilia C Low; Sorribas, Victor; Sharma, Girish; Levi, Moshe; Draznin, Boris

    2007-11-01

    Medial artery vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes. However, the influence of insulin on VSMC calcification is unclear. We explored the effects of insulin on rat VSMC calcification in vitro and found that in a dose-dependent fashion, insulin attenuates VSMC calcification induced by high phosphate conditions as quantified by the o-cresolphthalein calcium (OCPC) method. In an in vitro model of insulin resistance in which cells are exposed to elevated insulin concentrations and the PI 3-kinase pathway is selectively inhibited, increased VSMC calcification was observed, suggesting that the PI 3-kinase pathway is involved in this attenuating effect of insulin. We postulated that insulin may also have an effect on phosphate or calcium transport in VSMC. We found that insulin increases phosphate transport at 3 and 24 h. This effect was mediated by increased Vmax for phosphate transport but not Km. Because type III sodium-phosphate co-transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 are found in VSMC, we examined their expression by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR. Insulin stimulates Pit-1 mRNA modestly (*p<0.01 versus control), an effect inhibited by PD98059 but not by wortmannin. Pit-1 protein expression is induced by insulin, an effect also inhibited by PD98059 (*p<0.001 versus insulin alone). Our results suggest a role for insulin in attenuating VSMC calcification which may be disrupted in selective insulin signaling impairment seen in insulin resistance. This effect of insulin contrasts with its effect to induce phosphate transport in VSMC.

  3. Cobalt contraction of vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Dominiczak, A.; Clyde, E.; Bohr, D. )

    1991-03-11

    Although it has been reported that cobalt causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, the mechanism responsible for this contraction has not been defined. The authors studied these contractions in rat aortic rings. Concentration-response studies indicated that the threshold for contraction was 10{sup {minus}8}M, maximum contraction occurred at 3 {times} 10{sup 7}M and relaxation began at 10{sup {minus}6}M. No contraction occurred in a calcium-free physiological salt solution and the contraction was not inhibited by H-7, a protein kinase C inhibitor. The authors conclude the cobalt in low concentrations causes contraction by activating calcium channels and that in high concentrations it causes relaxation by inactivating these same channels.

  4. Vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the lung is extremely rare. The entity is not described in WHO blue book. Less than 100 cases of leiomyoma of the lung have been reported in the literature. However, vascular leiomyoma has not been reported in the literature, to the author's best knowledge. Herein reported is the first case of vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from smooth muscles of the pulmonary artery. A 62-year-old woman (non-smoker) was found to have a small tumor in the upper lobe in the right lung in routine check. Imaging modalities including CT demonstrated no metastatic lesions. Although clinical cytology and biopsy revealed no malignant cell, right upper lobectomy was performed under the clinical diagnosis of lung carcinoma. Grossly, a white tumor of 1 x 0.8 cm was recognized in the lung. Microscopically, the tumor was connected to the pulmonary arteries. The tumor was composed of mature smooth muscles. Small pulmonary arteries are embedded in the tumor. No lymphatics were seen. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were poisitive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and Ki-67 (labeling 2%). However, they were negative for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, desmin, S100 protein, p53, CD34, KIT, HMB45, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and myoglobin. A pathological diagnosis of primary vascular leiomyoma arising from the smooth muscle of pulmonary artery was made. The patient is now free from tumor, and is now alive 10 year after the operation.

  5. Biophysical Induction of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Podosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Young; Kohn, Julie C.; Huynh, John; Carey, Shawn P.; Mason, Brooke N.; Vouyouka, Ageliki G.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and matrix degradation occurs with intimal hyperplasia associated with atherosclerosis, vascular injury, and restenosis. One proposed mechanism by which VSMCs degrade matrix is through the use of podosomes, transient actin-based structures that are thought to play a role in extracellular matrix degradation by creating localized sites of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion. To date, podosomes in VSMCs have largely been studied by stimulating cells with phorbol esters, such as phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), however little is known about the physiological cues that drive podosome formation. We present the first evidence that physiological, physical stimuli mimicking cues present within the microenvironment of diseased arteries can induce podosome formation in VSMCs. Both microtopographical cues and imposed pressure mimicking stage II hypertension induce podosome formation in A7R5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Moreover, wounding using a scratch assay induces podosomes at the leading edge of VSMCs. Notably the effect of each of these biophysical stimuli on podosome stimulation can be inhibited using a Src inhibitor. Together, these data indicate that physical cues can induce podosome formation in VSMCs. PMID:25785437

  6. Adult Vascular Wall Resident Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells, Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Arterial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Bruno; Compagna, Rita; Amato, Maurizio; Grande, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; Rossi, Alessio; Naso, Agostino; Ruggiero, Michele; de Franciscis, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Evidences have shown the presence of multipotent stem cells (SCs) at sites of arterial aneurysms: they can differentiate into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and are activated after residing in a quiescent state in the vascular wall. Recent studies have implicated the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of arterial aneurysms: in fact the increased synthesis of MMPs by arterial SMCs is thought to be a pivotal mechanism in aneurysm formation. The factors and signaling pathways involved in regulating wall resident SC recruitment, survival, proliferation, growth factor production, and differentiation may be also related to selective expression of different MMPs. This review explores the relationship between adult vascular wall resident multipotent vascular SCs, MMPs, and arterial aneurysms. PMID:25866513

  7. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Ion Channels in Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Ayako; Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2017-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a low resistance and low pressure system. Sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and excessive vascular remodeling often occur under pathophysiological conditions such as in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary vasoconstriction is a consequence of smooth muscle contraction. Many factors released from the endothelium contribute to regulating pulmonary vascular tone, while the extracellular matrix in the adventitia is the major determinant of vascular wall compliance. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is characterized by adventitial and medial hypertrophy due to fibroblast and smooth muscle cell proliferation, neointimal proliferation, intimal, and plexiform lesions that obliterate the lumen, muscularization of precapillary arterioles, and in situ thrombosis. A rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction, while increased release of mitogenic factors, upregulation (or downregulation) of ion channels and transporters, and abnormalities in intracellular signaling cascades are key to the remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Changes in the expression, function, and regulation of ion channels in PASMC and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells play an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and development of vascular remodeling. This article will focus on describing the ion channels and transporters that are involved in the regulation of pulmonary vascular function and structure and illustrating the potential pathogenic role of ion channels and transporters in the development of pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23733654

  8. Cyclosporin A Inhibits Smooth Muscle Proliferation in the Vascular Response to Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonasson, Lena; Holm, Jan; Hansson, Goran K.

    1988-04-01

    The arterial response to injury is dominated by proliferation of smooth muscle cells and infiltration of blood-borne cells in the vascular intima. Arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation is under growth factor control, but how this regulation operates in vivo is unclear. We studied the effect on arterial response to mechanical injury of cyclosporin A, a drug that inhibits T-lymphocyte activation. Cyclosporin A treatment at surgery caused a persistent inhibition of the intimal proliferative lesion. Cyclosporin A also inhibited expression of Ia antigens on smooth muscle cells in situ but had no direct effects on smooth muscle cell proliferation in culture. Therefore, the inhibition of intimal cell proliferation appears to be mediated via the immune system.

  9. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  10. [Effects of Rapamycin and Rapamycin-loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic)Acid Nanoparticles on Apoptosis and Expression of bcl-2 and p27(kip1) Proteins of Human Umbilical Arterial Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell].

    PubMed

    Miao, Li-fu; Cui, Yong-liang; Yin, Yan-ping; Chen, Lian-feng; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Pei-mao; Zhu, Wen-ling; Song, Cun-Xian; Yang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    To investgate the effects of rapamycin(RPM)and RPM-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid(PLGA)nanoparticles(NPs)on the apoptosis of human umbilical arterial vascular smooth muscle cells(HUASMCs)in vitro and expression of bcl-2 and p27(kip1) protein. HUASMCs were cultured in vitro and divided to RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs groups treated at 3 different concentration by 12 and 24 hours,with M231-smooth muscle growth supplements medium and null-PLGA-NPs treated groups as controlled. The apoptosis of HUASMCs was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling staining and flow cytometry. The expressions of bcl-2 and p27(kip1) were detected by streptacidin/peroxidase immunohistochemical method. The effect on cellular proliferation was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidecolorimetry. The proliferation of HUASMCs was inhibited by RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs in a dose-dependent manner. DNA electrophoresis showed DNA ladder in RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs groups and classical scalar strips in control groups. The apoptotic indexes of RPM 100 ng/ml group and RPM-PLGA-NPs 500 ng/ml group detected by flow cytometry were(45.45<2.36)% and(35.04<5.64)%,respectively,which were significantly higher than that of M231-smooth muscle growth supplements control group [(2.60<0.95)%,all P<0.01]. The apoptotic indexes of groups incubated with RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs for 24 hours were significantly higher than those of groups which incubated for 12 hours(P<0.05,P<0.01). The positive expression indexes(PEI)of p27(kip1) and bcl-2 protein were higher in RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs groups than that of control groups. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test showed that there was no significant correlation between the PEI of p27(kip1) and the apoptotic indexes in the RPM group and RPM-PLGA-NPs group(P>0.05). Rapamycin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles and rapamycin have similar effects in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis

  11. Arterial Myogenic Activation through Smooth Muscle Filamin A.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Kevin; Arhatte, Malika; Demolombe, Sophie; Peyronnet, Rémi; Baudrie, Véronique; Jodar, Martine; Bourreau, Jennifer; Henrion, Daniel; Offermanns, Stefan; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Feng, Yuanyi; Patel, Amanda; Duprat, Fabrice; Honoré, Eric

    2016-03-08

    Mutations in the filamin A (FlnA) gene are frequently associated with severe arterial abnormalities, although the physiological role for this cytoskeletal element remains poorly understood in vascular cells. We used a conditional mouse model to selectively delete FlnA in smooth muscle (sm) cells at the adult stage, thus avoiding the developmental effects of the knockout. Basal blood pressure was significantly reduced in conscious smFlnA knockout mice. Remarkably, pressure-dependent tone of the resistance caudal artery was lost, whereas reactivity to vasoconstrictors was preserved. Impairment of the myogenic behavior was correlated with a lack of calcium influx in arterial myocytes upon an increase in intraluminal pressure. Notably, the stretch activation of CaV1.2 was blunted in the absence of smFlnA. In conclusion, FlnA is a critical upstream element of the signaling cascade underlying the myogenic tone. These findings allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of arterial autoregulation and associated disease states.

  12. Arterial ageing: from endothelial dysfunction to vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Tesauro, M; Mauriello, A; Rovella, V; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M; Cardillo, C; Melino, G; Di Daniele, N

    2017-05-01

    Complex structural and functional changes occur in the arterial system with advancing age. The aged artery is characterized by changes in microRNA expression patterns, autophagy, smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and arterial calcification with progressively increased mechanical vessel rigidity and stiffness. With age the vascular smooth muscle cells modify their phenotype from contractile to 'synthetic' determining the development of intimal thickening as early as the second decade of life as an adaptive response to forces acting on the arterial wall. The increased permeability observed in intimal thickening could represent the substrate on which low-level atherosclerotic stimuli can promote the development of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In elderly patients the atherosclerotic plaques tend to be larger with increased vascular stenosis. In these plaques there is a progressive accumulation of both lipids and collagen and a decrease of inflammation. Similarly the plaques from elderly patients show more calcification as compared with those from younger patients. The coronary artery calcium score is a well-established marker of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The presence of diffuse calcification in a severely stenotic segment probably induces changes in mechanical properties and shear stress of the arterial wall favouring the rupture of a vulnerable lesion in a less stenotic adjacent segment. Oxidative stress and inflammation appear to be the two primary pathological mechanisms of ageing-related endothelial dysfunction even in the absence of clinical disease. Arterial ageing is no longer considered an inexorable process. Only a better understanding of the link between ageing and vascular dysfunction can lead to significant advances in both preventative and therapeutic treatments with the aim that in the future vascular ageing may be halted or even reversed. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina K.; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N.; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:27683612

  14. Long-term expression of human adenosine deaminase in vascular smooth muscle cells of rats: A model for gene therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, C.M.; Miller, A.D. ); Clowes, M.M.; Osborne, W.R.A.; Clowes, A.W. )

    1992-02-01

    Gene transfer into vascular smooth muscle cells in animals was examined by using recombinant retroviral vectors containing an Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase gene or a human adenosine deaminase gene. Direct gene transfer by infusion of virus into rat carotid arteries was not observed. However, gene transfer by infection of smooth muscle cells in culture and seeding of the transduced cells onto arteries that had been denuded of endothelial cells was successful. Potentially therapeutic levels of human adenosine deaminase activity were detected over 6 months of observation, indicating the utility of vascular smooth muscle cells for gene therapy in humans.

  15. Smooth Muscle Cell Contraction Increases the Critical Buckling Pressure of Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Danika M.; Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Qin; Xiao, Yangming; Han, Hai-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Recent in vitro experiments demonstrated that arteries under increased internal pressure or decreased axial stretch may buckle into the tortuous pattern that is commonly observed in aging or diseased arteries in vivo. It suggests that buckling is a possible mechanism for the development of artery tortuosity. Vascular tone has significant effects on arterial mechanical properties but its effect on artery buckling is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of smooth muscle cell contraction on the critical buckling pressure of arteries. Porcine common carotid arteries were perfused in an ex vivo organ culture system overnight under physiological flow and pressure. The perfusion pressure was adjusted to determine the critical buckling pressure of these arteries at in vivo and reduced axial stretch ratios (1.5 and 1.3) at baseline and after smooth muscle contraction and relaxation stimulated by norepinephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the critical buckling pressure was significantly higher when the smooth muscle was contracted compared with relaxed condition (97.3mmHg versus 72.9mmHg at axial stretch ratio of 1.3 and 93.7mmHg vs 58.6mmHg at 1.5, p<0.05). These results indicate that arterial smooth muscle cell contraction increased artery stability. PMID:23261241

  16. Smooth muscle cell contraction increases the critical buckling pressure of arteries.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Danika M; Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Qin; Xiao, Yangming; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-02-22

    Recent in vitro experiments demonstrated that arteries under increased internal pressure or decreased axial stretch may buckle into the tortuous pattern that is commonly observed in aging or diseased arteries in vivo. It suggests that buckling is a possible mechanism for the development of artery tortuosity. Vascular tone has significant effects on arterial mechanical properties but its effect on artery buckling is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of smooth muscle cell contraction on the critical buckling pressure of arteries. Porcine common carotid arteries were perfused in an ex vivo organ culture system overnight under physiological flow and pressure. The perfusion pressure was adjusted to determine the critical buckling pressure of these arteries at in vivo and reduced axial stretch ratios (1.5 and 1.3) at baseline and after smooth muscle contraction and relaxation stimulated by norepinephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the critical buckling pressure was significantly higher when the smooth muscle was contracted compared with relaxed condition (97.3mmHg vs 72.9mmHg at axial stretch ratio of 1.3 and 93.7mmHg vs 58.6mmHg at 1.5, p<0.05). These results indicate that arterial smooth muscle cell contraction increased artery stability.

  17. Smooth Muscle Endothelin B Receptors Regulate Blood Pressure but Not Vascular Function or Neointimal Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eileen; Czopek, Alicja; Duthie, Karolina M.; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; van de Putte, Elisabeth E. Fransen; Christen, Sibylle; Kimmitt, Robert A.; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Castellan, Raphael F.P.; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V.; Kuc, Rhoda E.; Davenport, Anthony P.; Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The role of smooth muscle endothelinB (ETB) receptors in regulating vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and neointimal remodeling has not been established. Selective knockout mice were generated to address the hypothesis that loss of smooth muscle ETB receptors would reduce BP, alter vascular contractility, and inhibit neointimal remodeling. ETB receptors were selectively deleted from smooth muscle by crossing floxed ETB mice with those expressing cre-recombinase controlled by the transgelin promoter. Functional consequences of ETB deletion were assessed using myography. BP was measured by telemetry, and neointimal lesion formation induced by femoral artery injury. Lesion size and composition (day 28) were analyzed using optical projection tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Selective deletion of ETB was confirmed by genotyping, autoradiography, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. ETB-mediated contraction was reduced in trachea, but abolished from mesenteric veins, of knockout mice. Induction of ETB-mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries was also abolished in these mice. Femoral artery function was unaltered, and baseline BP modestly elevated in smooth muscle ETB knockout compared with controls (+4.2±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.0001), but salt-induced and ETB blockade–mediated hypertension were unaltered. Circulating endothelin-1 was not altered in knockout mice. ETB-mediated contraction was not induced in femoral arteries by incubation in culture medium or lesion formation, and lesion size was not altered in smooth muscle ETB knockout mice. In the absence of other pathology, ETB receptors in vascular smooth muscle make a small but significant contribution to ETB-dependent regulation of BP. These ETB receptors have no effect on vascular contraction or neointimal remodeling. PMID:28028193

  18. Smooth Muscle Endothelin B Receptors Regulate Blood Pressure but Not Vascular Function or Neointimal Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eileen; Czopek, Alicja; Duthie, Karolina M; Kirkby, Nicholas S; van de Putte, Elisabeth E Fransen; Christen, Sibylle; Kimmitt, Robert A; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Castellan, Raphael F P; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Kuc, Rhoda E; Davenport, Anthony P; Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J; Hadoke, Patrick W F

    2017-02-01

    The role of smooth muscle endothelinB (ETB) receptors in regulating vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and neointimal remodeling has not been established. Selective knockout mice were generated to address the hypothesis that loss of smooth muscle ETB receptors would reduce BP, alter vascular contractility, and inhibit neointimal remodeling. ETB receptors were selectively deleted from smooth muscle by crossing floxed ETB mice with those expressing cre-recombinase controlled by the transgelin promoter. Functional consequences of ETB deletion were assessed using myography. BP was measured by telemetry, and neointimal lesion formation induced by femoral artery injury. Lesion size and composition (day 28) were analyzed using optical projection tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Selective deletion of ETB was confirmed by genotyping, autoradiography, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. ETB-mediated contraction was reduced in trachea, but abolished from mesenteric veins, of knockout mice. Induction of ETB-mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries was also abolished in these mice. Femoral artery function was unaltered, and baseline BP modestly elevated in smooth muscle ETB knockout compared with controls (+4.2±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.0001), but salt-induced and ETB blockade-mediated hypertension were unaltered. Circulating endothelin-1 was not altered in knockout mice. ETB-mediated contraction was not induced in femoral arteries by incubation in culture medium or lesion formation, and lesion size was not altered in smooth muscle ETB knockout mice. In the absence of other pathology, ETB receptors in vascular smooth muscle make a small but significant contribution to ETB-dependent regulation of BP. These ETB receptors have no effect on vascular contraction or neointimal remodeling. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Functional preservation of vascular smooth muscle tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. C.; Hutchins, P. M.; Kimzey, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic and cellular feedback relationships operating to effect the vascular decompensatory modifications were examined to reveal procedures for implementing protective measures guarding against vascular collapse when returning from a weightless environment to that of the earth's gravity. The surgical procedures for preparing the rat cremaster, and the fixation methods are described. Abstracts of publications resulting from this research are included.

  20. Smooth muscle cell-extrinsic vascular spasm arises from cardiomyocyte degeneration in sarcoglycan-deficient cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Matthew T; Allikian, Michael J; Heydemann, Ahlke; Hadhazy, Michele; Zarnegar, Sara; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2004-03-01

    Vascular spasm is a poorly understood but critical biomedical process because it can acutely reduce blood supply and tissue oxygenation. Cardiomyopathy in mice lacking gamma-sarcoglycan or delta-sarcoglycan is characterized by focal damage. In the heart, sarcoglycan gene mutations produce regional defects in membrane permeability and focal degeneration, and it was hypothesized that vascular spasm was responsible for this focal necrosis. Supporting this notion, vascular spasm was noted in coronary arteries, and disruption of the sarcoglycan complex was observed in vascular smooth muscle providing a molecular mechanism for spasm. Using a transgene rescue strategy in the background of sarcoglycan-null mice, we replaced cardiomyocyte sarcoglycan expression. Cardiomyocyte-specific sarcoglycan expression was sufficient to correct cardiac focal degeneration. Intriguingly, successful restoration of the cardiomyocyte sarcoglycan complex also eliminated coronary artery vascular spasm, while restoration of smooth muscle sarcoglycan in the background of sarcoglycan-null alleles did not. This mechanism, whereby tissue damage leads to vascular spasm, can be partially corrected by NO synthase inhibitors. Therefore, we propose that cytokine release from damaged cardiomyocytes can feed back to produce vascular spasm. Moreover, vascular spasm feeds forward to produce additional cardiac damage.

  1. Protein Kinase C as Regulator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Function and Potential Target in Vascular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ringvold, H C; Khalil, R A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in maintaining vascular tone. In addition to Ca(2+)-dependent myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC) is a major regulator of VSM function. PKC is a family of conventional Ca(2+)-dependent α, β, and γ, novel Ca(2+)-independent δ, ɛ, θ, and η, and atypical ξ, and ι/λ isoforms. Inactive PKC is mainly cytosolic, and upon activation it undergoes phosphorylation, maturation, and translocation to the surface membrane, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and other cell organelles; a process facilitated by scaffold proteins such as RACKs. Activated PKC phosphorylates different substrates including ion channels, pumps, and nuclear proteins. PKC also phosphorylates CPI-17 leading to inhibition of MLC phosphatase, increased MLC phosphorylation, and enhanced VSM contraction. PKC could also initiate a cascade of protein kinases leading to phosphorylation of the actin-binding proteins calponin and caldesmon, increased actin-myosin interaction, and VSM contraction. Increased PKC activity has been associated with vascular disorders including ischemia-reperfusion injury, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy. PKC inhibitors could test the role of PKC in different systems and could reduce PKC hyperactivity in vascular disorders. First-generation PKC inhibitors such as staurosporine and chelerythrine are not very specific. Isoform-specific PKC inhibitors such as ruboxistaurin have been tested in clinical trials. Target delivery of PKC pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptides and PKC siRNA may be useful in localized vascular disease. Further studies of PKC and its role in VSM should help design isoform-specific PKC modulators that are experimentally potent and clinically safe to target PKC in vascular disease. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells: building and repairing blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Majesky, Mark W; Dong, Xiu Rong; Regan, Jenna N; Hoglund, Virginia J

    2011-02-04

    Molecular pathways that control the specification, migration, and number of available smooth muscle progenitor cells play key roles in determining blood vessel size and structure, capacity for tissue repair, and progression of age-related disorders. Defects in these pathways produce malformations of developing blood vessels, depletion of smooth muscle progenitor cell pools for vessel wall maintenance and repair, and aberrant activation of alternative differentiation pathways in vascular disease. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that uniquely specify and maintain vascular smooth muscle cell precursors is essential if we are to use advances in stem and progenitor cell biology and somatic cell reprogramming for applications directed to the vessel wall.

  3. Vascular Balloon Injury and Intraluminal Administration in Rat Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Trebak, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The carotid artery balloon injury model in rats has been well established for over two decades. It remains an important method to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in vascular smooth muscle dedifferentiation, neointima formation and vascular remodeling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are the most frequently employed animals for this model. Female rats are not preferred as female hormones are protective against vascular diseases and thus introduce a variation into this procedure. The left carotid is typically injured with the right carotid serving as a negative control. Left carotid injury is caused by the inflated balloon that denudes the endothelium and distends the vessel wall. Following injury, potential therapeutic strategies such as the use of pharmacological compounds and either gene or shRNA transfer can be evaluated. Typically for gene or shRNA transfer, the injured section of the vessel lumen is locally transduced for 30 min with viral particles encoding either a protein or shRNA for delivery and expression in the injured vessel wall. Neointimal thickening representing proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells usually peaks at 2 weeks after injury. Vessels are mostly harvested at this time point for cellular and molecular analysis of cell signaling pathways as well as gene and protein expression. Vessels can also be harvested at earlier time points to determine the onset of expression and/or activation of a specific protein or pathway, depending on the experimental aims intended. Vessels can be characterized and evaluated using histological staining, immunohistochemistry, protein/mRNA assays, and activity assays. The intact right carotid artery from the same animal is an ideal internal control. Injury-induced changes in molecular and cellular parameters can be evaluated by comparing the injured artery to the internal right control artery. Likewise, therapeutic modalities can be evaluated by comparing the injured and treated artery to the

  4. Neurotrophin and Neurotrophin Receptors in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Michael J.; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Kraemer, Rosemary; McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Tessarollo, Lino; Mahadeo, Debbie; Sharif, Setareh; Kaplan, David R.; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Parada, Luis; Toran-Allerand, C. Dominique; Hajjar, David P.; Hempstead, Barbara L.

    1995-01-01

    The neurotrophins, a family of related polypeptide growth factors including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3 and NT-4/5 promote the survival and differentiation of distinctive sets of embryonic neurons. Here we define a new functional role for neurotrophins, as autocrine or local paracrine mediators of vascular smooth muscle cell migration. We have identified neurotrophins, and their cognate receptors, the trk tyrosine kinases, in human and rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo. In vitro, cultured human smooth muscle cells express BDNF; NT-3; and trk A, B, and C Similarly, rat smooth muscle cells expressed all three trk receptors as well as all four neurotrophins. Moreover, NGF induces cultured human smooth muscle cell migration at subnanomolar concentrations. In the rat aortic balloon deendothelialization model of vascular injury, the expression of NGF, BDNF, and their receptors trk A and trk B increased dramatically in the area of injury within 3 days and persisted during the formation of the neointima. In human coronary atherosclerotic lesions, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4/5, and the trk B and trk C receptors could be demonstrated in smooth muscle cells. These findings suggest that neurotrophins play an important role in regulating the response of vascular smooth muscle cells to injury. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:7639328

  5. A Robust Method to Generate Mechanically Anisotropic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Sheets for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Backman, Daniel E; LeSavage, Bauer L; Shah, Shivem B; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-06-01

    In arterial tissue engineering, mimicking native structure and mechanical properties is essential because compliance mismatch can lead to graft failure and further disease. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve the necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. This study develops a thermoresponsive cell culture platform for growing aligned vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) sheets by photografting N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) onto micropatterned poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS). The grafting process is experimentally and computationally optimized to produce PNIPAAm-PDMS substrates optimal for VSMC attachment. To allow long-term VSMC sheet culture and increase the rate of VSMC sheet formation, PNIPAAm-PDMS surfaces were further modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane yielding a robust, thermoresponsive cell culture platform for culturing VSMC sheets. VSMC cell sheets cultured on patterned thermoresponsive substrates exhibit cellular and collagen alignment in the direction of the micropattern. Mechanical characterization of patterned, single-layer VSMC sheets reveals increased stiffness in the aligned direction compared to the perpendicular direction whereas nonpatterned cell sheets exhibit no directional dependence. Structural and mechanical anisotropy of aligned, single-layer VSMC sheets makes this platform an attractive microstructural building block for engineering a vascular graft to match the in vivo mechanical properties of native arterial tissue. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Vinpocetine Suppresses Pathological Vascular Remodeling by Inhibiting Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yujun; Knight, Walter E.; Guo, Shujie; Li, Jian-Dong; Knight, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation is associated with various vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, vein graft disease, and transplantation-associated vasculopathy. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. However, its role in pathological vascular remodeling remains unexplored. Herein, we show that systemic administration of vinpocetine significantly reduced neointimal formation in carotid arteries after ligation injury. Vinpocetine also markedly decreased spontaneous remodeling of human saphenous vein explants in ex vivo culture. In cultured SMCs, vinpocetine dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and caused G1-phase cell cycle arrest, which is associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 and an increase in p27Kip1 levels. In addition, vinpocetine dose-dependently inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated SMC migration as determined by the two-dimensional migration assays and three-dimensional aortic medial explant invasive assay. Moreover, vinpocetine significantly reduced PDGF-induced type I collagen and fibronectin expression. It is noteworthy that PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not protein kinase B, was specifically inhibited by vinpocetine. Vinpocetine powerfully attenuated intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, which largely mediates the inhibitory effects of vinpocetine on ERK1/2 activation and SMC growth. Taken together, our results reveal a novel function of vinpocetine in attenuating neointimal hyperplasia and pathological vascular remodeling, at least partially through suppressing ROS production and ERK1/2 activation in SMCs. Given the safety profile of vinpocetine, this study provides insight into the therapeutic potential of vinpocetine in proliferative vascular disorders. PMID:22915768

  7. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents flow-induced vascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fu; Chambon, Pierre; Tellides, George; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Wei

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • TGF-β signaling in SMC contributes to the flow-induced vascular remodeling. • Disruption of TGF-β signaling in SMC can prevent this process. • Targeting SM-specific Tgfbr2 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular remodeling. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been prominently implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, especially the initiation and progression of flow-induced vascular remodeling. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the principal resident cells in arterial wall and are critical for arterial remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in SMC for flow-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the effect of TGF-β pathway in SMC for vascular remodeling, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) deletion mice model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup f/f}) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup WT/WT}) underwent partial ligation of left common carotid artery for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Then the carotid arteries were harvested and indicated that the disruption of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided prominent inhibition of vascular remodeling. And the thickening of carotid media, proliferation of SMC, infiltration of macrophage, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were all significantly attenuated in Tgfbr2 disruption mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-β signaling in SMC plays an essential role in flow-induced vascular remodeling and disruption can prevent this process.

  8. Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and the Basis for Pharmacologic Treatment of Smooth Muscle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223

  9. Glucocorticoids and atrial natriuretic factor receptors on vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Murakawa, K; Yokokawa, K; Takeda, T

    1990-11-01

    The effect of glucocorticoids on the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)-mediated formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by intact vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was studied in rats. Cultured VSMC were obtained from the renal arteries of 14-week-old Wistar rats by the explant method. Micromolar concentrations of dexamethasone, given as pretreatment for 48 hours, suppressed the ANF-mediated response. The dexamethasone-induced suppression was detectable at 6 hours and reached a maximum 24 hours after administration in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of protein synthesis blocked this effect of the glucocorticoid. The basal activity of guanylate cyclase in the dexamethasone-treated cells was lower than in the control cells. Other steroids having glucocorticoid action mimicked this suppression of the ANF-mediated response. This suppression was blocked by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. The results suggest that glucocorticoids suppress ANF-mediated cGMP formation by VSMC through glucocorticoid type II receptors and the induction of protein synthesis. Suppression of the ANF-mediated response may play a role in glucocorticoid-induced hypertension.

  10. Glucocorticoids and dopamine-1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Balmforth, A; Murakawa, K; Yokokawa, K; Kurihara, N; Takeda, T

    1989-06-01

    The effect of glucocorticoids on the dopamine (DA)-mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by intact vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was studied in rats. Cultured VSMC were obtained from renal arteries of 14-week-old Wistar-Kyoto rats by explant method. Micromolar concentrations of dexamethasone (DEX) pretreatment for 48 hours potentiated DA-mediated response without any change of affinity constant. However, micromolar concentrations of aldosterone pretreatment for 48 hours had almost no effect on DA-mediated response. The DEX-induced facilitation began at 6 hours and reached maximum at 24 hours after DEX administration in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis blocked this glucocorticoid effect. The basal activity of adenylate cyclase in DEX-treated cells was twofold higher than that in control cells. Treatment of VSMC with DEX increased cholera toxin-stimulated and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. However, pertussis toxin treatment did not augment or reduce the effect of DEX treatment. These results suggest that glucocorticoids increase DA-mediated cAMP formation by VSMC through glucocorticoid type II receptors and the induction of protein synthesis and that the activation of the catalytic unit may play some role in this facilitation.

  11. Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Imaging of Aortic Calcification and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Burke, Megan F.; Martyn, Trejeeve; Thayer, Timothy E.; Shakartzi, Hannah R.; Buswell, Mary D.; Tainsh, Robert E.; Yu, Binglan; Bagchi, Aranya; Rhee, David K.; Wu, Connie; Derwall, Matthias; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Yu, Paul B.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Aikawa, Elena; Bloch, Donald B.; Malhotra, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Atherosclerotic plaques, consisting of lipid-laden macrophages and calcification, develop in the coronary arteries, aortic valve, aorta, and peripheral conduit arteries and are the hallmark of cardiovascular disease. In humans, imaging with computed tomography allows for the quantification of vascular calcification; the presence of vascular calcification is a strong predictor of future cardiovascular events. Development of novel therapies in cardiovascular disease relies critically on improving our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Advancing our knowledge of atherosclerotic mechanisms relies on murine and cell-based models. Here, a method for imaging aortic calcification and macrophage infiltration using two spectrally distinct near-infrared fluorescent imaging probes is detailed. Near-infrared fluorescent imaging allows for the ex vivo quantification of calcification and macrophage accumulation in the entire aorta and can be used to further our understanding of the mechanistic relationship between inflammation and calcification in atherosclerosis. Additionally, a method for isolating and culturing animal aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and a protocol for inducing calcification in cultured smooth muscle cells from either murine aortas or from human coronary arteries is described. This in vitro method of modeling vascular calcification can be used to identify and characterize the signaling pathways likely important for the development of vascular disease, in the hopes of discovering novel targets for therapy. PMID:27284788

  12. Atorvastatin inhibits myocardin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Jiang, Jixin; Yin, Hao; Wang, Lifeng; Tian, Ruijuan; Li, Haijie; Wang, Zengyong; Li, Dong; Wang, Yuebing; Gui, Yu; Walsh, Michael P; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2012-07-01

    Atorvastatin (ATV), an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, is widely prescribed as a lipid-lowering drug. It also inhibits the RhoA-Rho-associated kinase pathway in vascular smooth muscle (SM) cells and critically inhibits SM function. Myocardin is a coactivator of serum response factor, which upregulates SM contractile proteins. The RhoA-Rho-associated kinase pathway, which directly triggers SM contraction, also increases myocardin gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether ATV inhibits myocardin gene expression in SM cells. In mice injected with ATV (IP 20 μg/g per day) for 5 days, myocardin gene expression was significantly downregulated in aortic and carotid arterial tissues with decreased expression of myocardin target genes SM α-actin and SM22. Correspondingly, the contractility of aortic rings in mice treated with ATV or the Rho-associated kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was reduced in response to treatment with either KCl or phenylephrine. In cultured mouse and human aortic SM cells, KCl treatment stimulated the expression of myocardin, SM α-actin, and SM22. These stimulatory effects were prevented by ATV treatment. ATV-induced inhibition of myocardin expression was prevented by pretreatment with either mevalonate or geranylgeranylpyrophosphate but not farnesylpyrophosphate. Treatment with Y-27632 mimicked ATV effects on the gene expression of myocardin, SM α-actin, and SM22, further suggesting a role for the RhoA-Rho-associated kinase pathway in ATV effects. Furthermore, ATV treatment inhibited RhoA membrane translocation and activation; these effects were prevented by pretreatment with mevalonate. We conclude that ATV inhibits myocardin gene expression in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a novel mechanism for ATV inhibition of vascular contraction.

  13. Troglitazone inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell growth and intimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Law, R E; Meehan, W P; Xi, X P; Graf, K; Wuthrich, D A; Coats, W; Faxon, D; Hsueh, W A

    1996-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration are responses to arterial injury that are highly important to the processes of restenosis and atherosclerosis. In the arterial balloon injury model in the rat, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are induced in the vessel wall and regulate these VSMC activities. Novel insulin sensitizing agents, thiazolidinediones, have been demonstrated to inhibit insulin and epidermal growth factor-induced growth of VSMCs. We hypothesized that these agents might also inhibit the effect of PDGF and bFGF on cultured VSMCs and intimal hyperplasia in vivo. Troglitazone (1 microM), a member of the thiazolidinedione class, produced a near complete inhibition of both bFGF-induced DNA synthesis as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation (6.5+/-3.9 vs. 17.6+/-4.3% cells labeled, P < 0.05) and c-fos induction. This effect was associated with an inhibition (by 73+/-4%, P < 0.01) by troglitazone of the transactivation of the serum response element, which regulates c-fos expression. Inhibition of c-fos induction by troglitazone appeared to occur via a blockade of the MAP kinase pathway at a point downstream of MAP kinase activation by MAP kinase kinase. At this dose, troglitazone also inhibited PDGF-BB-directed migration of VSMC (by 70+/-6%, P < 0.01). These in vitro effects were operative in vivo. Quantitative image analysis revealed that troglitazone-treated rats had 62% (P < 0.001) less neointima/media area ratio 14 d after balloon injury of the aorta compared with injured rats that received no troglitazone. These results suggest troglitazone is a potent inhibitor of VSMC proliferation and migration and, thus, may be a useful agent to prevent restenosis and possibly atherosclerosis. PMID:8878442

  14. Dietary potassium regulates vascular calcification and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Byon, Chang Hyun; Yang, Youfeng; Bradley, Wayne E; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Sanders, Paul W; Agarwal, Anupam; Wu, Hui; Chen, Yabing

    2017-10-05

    Vascular calcification is a risk factor that predicts adverse cardiovascular complications of several diseases including atherosclerosis. Reduced dietary potassium intake has been linked to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and incidental stroke, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using the ApoE-deficient mouse model, we demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge that reduced dietary potassium (0.3%) promoted atherosclerotic vascular calcification and increased aortic stiffness, compared with normal (0.7%) potassium-fed mice. In contrast, increased dietary potassium (2.1%) attenuated vascular calcification and aortic stiffness. Mechanistically, reduction in the potassium concentration to the lower limit of the physiological range increased intracellular calcium, which activated a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signal that subsequently enhanced autophagy and promoted vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Inhibition of calcium signals and knockdown of either CREB or ATG7, an autophagy regulator, attenuated VSMC calcification induced by low potassium. Consistently, elevated autophagy and CREB signaling were demonstrated in the calcified arteries from low potassium diet-fed mice as well as aortic arteries exposed to low potassium ex vivo. These studies established a potentially novel causative role of dietary potassium intake in regulating atherosclerotic vascular calcification and stiffness, and uncovered mechanisms that offer opportunities to develop therapeutic strategies to control vascular disease.

  15. Mitochondrial Fission of Smooth Muscle Cells Is Involved in Artery Constriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Yu; Jin, Jing; Li, Shan-Liang; Yan, Jie; Zhen, Chang-Lin; Gao, Jin-Lai; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Qiu; Shen, Xin; Zhang, Liang-Shuan; Wei, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Chen-Guang; Bai, Yun-Long; Dong, De-Li

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles and continuously undergo fission and fusion processes. Mitochondrial fission is involved in multiple physiological or pathological processes, but the role of mitochondrial fission of smooth muscle cells in artery constriction is unknown. The role of mitochondrial fission of smooth muscle cells in arterial function was investigated by measuring the tension of rat mesenteric arteries and thoracic aorta and by evaluating mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and cytosolic [Ca(2+)]i in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Mitochondrial fission inhibitors mdivi-1 and dynasore antagonized phenylephrine- and high K(+)-induced constriction of rat mesenteric arteries. Mdivi-1 relaxed phenylephrine-induced constriction, and mdivi-1 pretreatment prevented phenylephrine-induced constriction in mice, rat aorta, and human mesenteric arteries. Phenylephrine- and high K(+)-induced increase of mitochondrial fission in smooth muscle cells of rat aorta and the increase was inhibited by mdivi-1. Mdivi-1 inhibited high K(+)-induced increases of mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and cytosolic [Ca(2+)]i in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Prechelation of cytosolic Ca(2+) prevented high K(+)-induced cytosolic [Ca(2+)]i increase, mitochondrial fission, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mito-TEMPO antagonized phenylephrine- and high K(+)-induced constriction of rat mesenteric arteries. Nitroglycerin and ROCK (Rho-associated protein kinase) inhibitor Y27632, the 2 vasodilators with different vasorelaxant mechanisms, relaxed high K(+)-induced vasoconstriction and inhibited high K(+)-induced mitochondrial fission. In conclusion, the mitochondrial fission of smooth muscle cells is involved in artery constriction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Cinematographic analysis of vascular smooth muscle cell interactions with extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Absher, M; Baldor, L

    1991-01-01

    The interactions of vascular smooth muscle cells with growth modulators and extracellular matrix molecules may play a role in the proliferation and migration of these cells after vascular injury and during the development of atherosclerosis. Time-lapse cinematographic techniques have been used to study cell division and migration of bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells in response to matrix molecules consisting of solubilized basement membrane (Matrigel) and type I collagen. When cells were grown adjacent to Matrigel, both migration and cell proliferation were increased and interdivision time was shortened. Cells grown in Matrigel or in type I collagen had markedly reduced migration rates but interdivision time was not altered. Further, diffusible components of the Matrigel were found to stimulate proliferation of the smooth muscle cells.

  17. Cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor inhibition decreases vascular smooth muscle migration and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, Mohanraj; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Hasko, Gyoergy; Pacher, Pal

    2008-12-26

    Vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration triggered by inflammatory stimuli and chemoattractants such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Cannabinoids may modulate cell proliferation and migration in various cell types through cannabinoid receptors. Here we investigated the effects of CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A), which has recently been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic effects both in mice and humans, on PDGF-induced proliferation, migration, and signal transduction of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). PDGF induced Ras and ERK 1/2 activation, while increasing proliferation and migration of HCASMCs, which were dose dependently attenuated by CB{sub 1} antagonist, rimonabant. These findings suggest that in addition to improving plasma lipid alterations and decreasing inflammatory cell migration and inflammatory response, CB{sub 1} antagonists may exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis and restenosis by decreasing vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration.

  18. ULTRASOUND-MEDIATED DELIVERY OF ECHOGENIC IMMUNOLIPOSOMES TO PORCINE VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Susan T.; Kim, Hyunggun; Kopechek, Jonathan A.; Parikh, Devang; Huang, Shaoling; Klegerman, Melvin E.; Holland, Christy K.; McPherson, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are important targets in the treatment of atherosclerosis. However, the arterial media, where majority of VSMCs reside, has proven to be a difficult target for drug/gene delivery. We have demonstrated that ultrasound enhances drug/gene delivery to VSMCs in vitro using echogenic immunoliposomes (ELIP) as vector. This study aimed to evaluate whether ultrasound can similarly enhance delivery of an agent to VSMCs, particularly within the arterial media, in vivo, using ELIP. Anti-smooth muscle cell actin-conjugated calcein-loaded ELIP were injected into the peripheral arteries of Yucatan miniswine (n=8 arterial pairs). The right-sided porcine arteries were treated with 1-MHz continuous wave ultrasound at a peak-to-peak pressure amplitude of 0.23 ± 0.05 MPa for two minutes. The contralateral arteries served as controls. Arteries were harvested after 30 minutes and imaged with fluorescence microscopy. Image data were converted to gray scale, and analyzed using computer-assisted videodensitometry. There was significant improvement in calcein uptake in all three arterial layers in the arteries exposed to ultrasound (p < 0.05 vs. no ultrasound), with a more marked increase in uptake in the arterial media (> 300%). This enhanced uptake was site specific and appeared limited to the ultrasound-treated arterial segment. We have demonstrated enhanced delivery of a small molecule to VSMCs in all arterial wall layers particularly the arterial media, using ultrasound and targeted ELIP. The combined effect of ultrasound exposure and ELIP as a contrast agent and a drug/gene-bearing vector has the potential for site-specific therapy directed at VSMC function. PMID:19842795

  19. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Results Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. Conclusion One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats. PMID:26107814

  20. Niacin Suppresses Progression of Atherosclerosis by Inhibiting Vascular Inflammation and Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Gang; Sun, Guangli; Liu, Hai; Shu, Liliang; Zhang, Jingchao; Guo, Longhui; Huang, Chen; Xu, Jing

    2015-12-29

    BACKGROUND Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for the clinical therapy of atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms by which niacin ameliorates atherosclerosis are not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS The effect of niacin on atherosclerosis was assessed by detection of atherosclerotic lesion area. Adhesion molecules in arterial endothelial cells were determined by using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in ApoE-/- mice were detected by using ELISA. We detected the expression levels of phosphorylated nuclear factors-kB (NF-κB) p65 in aortic endothelial cells of mice using Western blot analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the anti-inflammation effect and endothelium-protecting function of niacin and their regulatory mechanisms in vitro. RESULTS Niacin inhibited the progress of atherosclerosis and decreased the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in ApoE-/- mice. Niacin suppressed the activity of NF-κB and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Furthermore, niacin induced phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and FAK inhibitor PF-573228 reduced the level of Bcl-2 and elevated the level of cleaved caspase-3 in VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS Niacin inhibits vascular inflammation and apoptosis of VSMCs via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling and the FAK signaling pathway, respectively, thus protecting ApoE-/- mice against atherosclerosis.

  1. Niacin Suppresses Progression of Atherosclerosis by Inhibiting Vascular Inflammation and Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Gang; Sun, Guangli; Liu, Hai; Shu, Liliang; Zhang, Jingchao; Guo, Longhui; Huang, Chen; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for the clinical therapy of atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms by which niacin ameliorates atherosclerosis are not clear. Material/Methods The effect of niacin on atherosclerosis was assessed by detection of atherosclerotic lesion area. Adhesion molecules in arterial endothelial cells were determined by using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in ApoE−/− mice were detected by using ELISA. We detected the expression levels of phosphorylated nuclear factors-κB (NF-κB) p65 in aortic endothelial cells of mice using Western blot analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the anti-inflammation effect and endothelium-protecting function of niacin and their regulatory mechanisms in vitro. Results Niacin inhibited the progress of atherosclerosis and decreased the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in ApoE−/− mice. Niacin suppressed the activity of NF-κB and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Furthermore, niacin induced phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and FAK inhibitor PF-573228 reduced the level of Bcl-2 and elevated the level of cleaved caspase-3 in VSMCs. Conclusions Niacin inhibits vascular inflammation and apoptosis of VSMCs via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling and the FAK signaling pathway, respectively, thus protecting ApoE−/− mice against atherosclerosis. PMID:26712802

  2. Functional and molecular expression of volume-regulated chloride channels in canine vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Jun; Duan, Dayue; Janiak, Robert; Kuenzli, Karri; Horowitz, Burton; Hume, Joseph R

    1998-01-01

    We examined the possibility of functional and molecular expression of volume-regulated Cl− channels in vascular smooth muscle using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on cells from canine pulmonary and renal arteries. Decreasing external osmolarity induced cell swelling, which was accompanied by activation of Cl−-dependent outward-rectifying membrane currents with an anion permeability sequence of SCN− > I− > Br− > Cl− > aspartate−. These currents were sensitive to block by DIDS, extracellular ATP and the antioestrogen compound tamoxifen. Experiments were performed to determine whether the molecular form of the volume-regulated chloride channel (ClC-3) is expressed in pulmonary and renal arteries. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed expression of ClC-3 in both types of smooth muscle. ClC-3 expression was 76.4% of β-actin in renal artery and 48.0% of β-actin in pulmonary artery. We conclude that volume-regulated Cl− channels are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and exhibit functional properties similar to those found in other types of cells, presumably contributing to the regulation of cell volume, electrical activity and, possibly, myogenic tone. PMID:9508834

  3. Maintenance of GLUT4 expression in smooth muscle prevents hypertension-induced changes in vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Kevin B; Seki, Yoshinori; Saha, Jharna; Eichinger, Felix; Charron, Maureen J; Brosius, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that expression of GLUT4 is decreased in arterial smooth muscle of hypertensive rats and mice and that total body overexpression of GLUT4 in mice prevents enhanced arterial reactivity in hypertension. To demonstrate that the effect of GLUT4 overexpression on vascular responses is dependent on vascular smooth muscle GLUT4 rather than on some systemic effect we developed and tested smooth-muscle-specific GLUT4 transgenic mice (SMG4). When made hypertensive with angiotensin II, both wild-type and SMG4 mice exhibited similarly increased systolic blood pressure. Responsiveness to phenylephrine, serotonin, and prostaglandin F2α was significantly increased in endothelium-intact aortic rings from hypertensive wild-type mice but not in aortae of SMG4 mice. Inhibition of Rho-kinase equally reduced serotonin-stimulated contractility in aortae of hypertensive wild-type and SMG4-mice. In addition, acetylcholine-stimulated relaxation was significantly decreased in aortic rings of hypertensive wild-type mice, but not in rings of SMG4 mice. Inhibition of either prostacylin receptors or cyclooxygenase-2 reduced relaxation in rings of hypertensive SMG4 mice. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 had no effect on relaxation in rings of hypertensive wild-type mice. Cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression was decreased in hypertensive wild-type aortae but not in hypertensive SMG4 aortae compared to nonhypertensive controls. Our results demonstrate that smooth muscle expression of GLUT4 exerts a major effect on smooth muscle contractile responses and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and that normal expression of GLUT4 in vascular smooth muscle is required for appropriate smooth muscle and endothelial responses. PMID:25677552

  4. Maintenance of GLUT4 expression in smooth muscle prevents hypertension-induced changes in vascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Kevin B; Seki, Yoshinori; Saha, Jharna; Eichinger, Felix; Charron, Maureen J; Brosius, Frank C

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that expression of GLUT4 is decreased in arterial smooth muscle of hypertensive rats and mice and that total body overexpression of GLUT4 in mice prevents enhanced arterial reactivity in hypertension. To demonstrate that the effect of GLUT4 overexpression on vascular responses is dependent on vascular smooth muscle GLUT4 rather than on some systemic effect we developed and tested smooth-muscle-specific GLUT4 transgenic mice (SMG4). When made hypertensive with angiotensin II, both wild-type and SMG4 mice exhibited similarly increased systolic blood pressure. Responsiveness to phenylephrine, serotonin, and prostaglandin F2α was significantly increased in endothelium-intact aortic rings from hypertensive wild-type mice but not in aortae of SMG4 mice. Inhibition of Rho-kinase equally reduced serotonin-stimulated contractility in aortae of hypertensive wild-type and SMG4-mice. In addition, acetylcholine-stimulated relaxation was significantly decreased in aortic rings of hypertensive wild-type mice, but not in rings of SMG4 mice. Inhibition of either prostacylin receptors or cyclooxygenase-2 reduced relaxation in rings of hypertensive SMG4 mice. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 had no effect on relaxation in rings of hypertensive wild-type mice. Cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression was decreased in hypertensive wild-type aortae but not in hypertensive SMG4 aortae compared to nonhypertensive controls. Our results demonstrate that smooth muscle expression of GLUT4 exerts a major effect on smooth muscle contractile responses and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and that normal expression of GLUT4 in vascular smooth muscle is required for appropriate smooth muscle and endothelial responses.

  5. Molecular Pathways of Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Joshua; Gridley, Thomas; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system is important during embryonic development, vascular repair of injury, and vascular pathology in humans. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expresses multiple Notch receptors throughout its life cycle, and responds to Notch ligands as a regulatory mechanism of differentiation, recruitment to growing vessels, and maturation. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular basis for Notch regulation of VSMC phenotype. Further, we will explore Notch interaction with other signaling pathways important in VSMC. PMID:22509166

  6. Mig-6 Gene Knockout Induces Neointimal Hyperplasia in the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Choung, Sorim; Kim, Ji Min; Lee, Jung Uee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Ku, Bon Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Although advances in vascular interventions can reduce the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, neointimal hyperplasia remains a clinically significant obstacle limiting the success of current interventions. Identification of signaling pathways involved in migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is an important approach for the development of modalities to combat this disease. Herein we investigate the role of an immediate early response gene, mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6), in the development of neointimal hyperplasia using vascular smooth muscle specific Mig-6 knockout mice. We induced endoluminal injury to one side of femoral artery by balloon dilatation in both Mig-6 knockout and control mice. Four weeks following injury, the artery of Mig-6 knockout mice demonstrated a 5.3-fold increase in the neointima/media ratio compared with control mice (P = 0.04). In addition, Mig-6 knockout vascular SMCs displayed an increase in both cell migration and proliferation compared with wild-type SMCs. Taken together, our data suggest that Mig-6 plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. This finding provides new insight into the development of more effective ways to treat and prevent neointimal hyperplasia, particularly in-stent restenosis after percutaneous vascular intervention. PMID:25574067

  7. Mig-6 gene knockout induces neointimal hyperplasia in the vascular smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hee; Choung, Sorim; Kim, Ji Min; Lee, Jung Uee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Ku, Bon Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Although advances in vascular interventions can reduce the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, neointimal hyperplasia remains a clinically significant obstacle limiting the success of current interventions. Identification of signaling pathways involved in migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is an important approach for the development of modalities to combat this disease. Herein we investigate the role of an immediate early response gene, mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6), in the development of neointimal hyperplasia using vascular smooth muscle specific Mig-6 knockout mice. We induced endoluminal injury to one side of femoral artery by balloon dilatation in both Mig-6 knockout and control mice. Four weeks following injury, the artery of Mig-6 knockout mice demonstrated a 5.3-fold increase in the neointima/media ratio compared with control mice (P = 0.04). In addition, Mig-6 knockout vascular SMCs displayed an increase in both cell migration and proliferation compared with wild-type SMCs. Taken together, our data suggest that Mig-6 plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. This finding provides new insight into the development of more effective ways to treat and prevent neointimal hyperplasia, particularly in-stent restenosis after percutaneous vascular intervention.

  8. Notch signal reception is required in vascular smooth muscle cells for ductus arteriosus closure

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Luke T.; Norton, Christine R.; Gridley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. PMID:26742650

  9. Notch signal reception is required in vascular smooth muscle cells for ductus arteriosus closure.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Luke T; Norton, Christine R; Gridley, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Heparin inhibits human coronary artery smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Yasunari, K; Minami, M; Kano, H; Mandal, A K; Yoshikawa, J

    1998-09-01

    Heparin, an anticoagulant, has been shown to reduce neointimal proliferation and restenosis following vascular injury in experimental studies, but the clinical trials of heparin in coronary balloon angioplasty have been negative. The current study, therefore, examined the effect of heparin on basal or stimulated migration by serum and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by Boyden's chamber method. In addition, the reversibility of the heparin effect on human coronary artery SMC migration was examined. Fetal calf serum (FCS) and PDGF-BB stimulated SMC migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Heparin in moderate to high concentration (10 to 100 U/mL) exhibited concentration-related inhibition of FCS- and PDGF-BB-stimulated SMC migration; however, a low concentration (1 U/mL) of heparin had no inhibitory effects. Heparin also had weak inhibitory effects on nonstimulated SMC migration. The SMCs that were exposed to a high concentration (100 U/mL) of heparin for 6 hours were capable of migrating after a short lag period of removal of heparin from the culture medium. These SMCs also showed recovery of responses to FCS and PDGF-BB by migrating significantly greater than the nonstimulated level. Furthermore, heparin-containing medium did not contain detached cells. These results indicate that heparin inhibits human coronary artery SMC migration, especially when stimulated by FCS or PDGF-BB, and that this inhibitory effect of heparin is reversible and not simply a function of killing cells.

  11. Perfusion of veins at arterial pressure increases the expression of KLF5 and cell cycle genes in smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amirak, Emre; Zakkar, Mustafa; Evans, Paul C.; Kemp, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation remains a major cause of veno-arterial graft failure. We hypothesised that exposure of venous SMCs to arterial pressure would increase KLF5 expression and that of cell cycle genes. Porcine jugular veins were perfused at arterial or venous pressure in the absence of growth factors. The KLF5, c-myc, cyclin-D and cyclin-E expression were elevated within 24 h of perfusion at arterial pressure but not at venous pressure. Arterial pressure also reduced the decline in SM-myosin heavy chain expression. These data suggest a role for KLF5 in initiating venous SMCs proliferation in response to arterial pressure.

  12. Tobacco constituents are mitogenic for arterial smooth-muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.G.; Hajjar, D.P.; Hefton, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    Tobacco glycoprotein (TGP) purified from flue-cured tobacco leaves, tar-derived material (TAR), the water soluble, nondialyzable, delipidized extract of cigarette smoke condensate, rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, but not adventitial fibroblasts. The mitogenicity appears to depend on polyphenol epitopes on carrier molecules. Ellagic acid, another plant polyphenol, inhibited arterial smooth-muscle proliferation. These results suggest that a number of ubiquitous, plant-derived substances may influence smooth-muscle cell proliferation in the arterial wall.

  13. Caveolin-1 regulates contractility in differentiated vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Je, Hyun-Dong; Gallant, Cynthia; Leavis, Paul C; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2004-01-01

    Caveolin is a principal component of caveolar membranes. In the present study, we utilized a decoy peptide approach to define the degree of involvement of caveolin in PKC-dependent regulation of contractility of differentiated vascular smooth muscle. The primary isoform of caveolin in ferret aorta vascular smooth muscle is caveolin-1. Chemical loading of contractile vascular smooth muscle tissue with a synthetic caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide inhibited PKC-dependent increases in contractility induced by a phorbol ester or an alpha agonist. Peptide loading also resulted in a significant inhibition of phorbol ester-induced adducin Ser662 phosphorylation, an intracellular monitor of PKC kinase activity, ERK1/2 activation, and Ser789 phosphorylation of the actin binding protein caldesmon. alpha-Agonist-induced ERK1-1/2 activation was also inhibited by the caveolin-1 peptide. Scrambled peptide-loaded tissues or sham-loaded tissues were unaffected with respect to both contractility and signaling. Depolarization-induced activation of contraction was not affected by caveolin peptide loading. Similar results with respect to contractility and ERK1/2 activation during exposure to the phorbol ester or the alpha-agonist were obtained with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. These results are consistent with a role for caveolin-1 in the coordination of signaling leading to the regulation of contractility of smooth muscle.

  14. Piezo1 in Smooth Muscle Cells Is Involved in Hypertension-Dependent Arterial Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Kevin; Duprat, Fabrice; Arhatte, Malika; Ranade, Sanjeev Sumant; Peyronnet, Rémi; Martins, Joana Raquel; Jodar, Martine; Moro, Céline; Offermanns, Stefan; Feng, Yuanyi; Demolombe, Sophie; Patel, Amanda; Honoré, Eric

    2015-11-10

    The mechanically activated non-selective cation channel Piezo1 is a determinant of vascular architecture during early development. Piezo1-deficient embryos die at midgestation with disorganized blood vessels. However, the role of stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) in arterial smooth muscle cells in the adult remains unknown. Here, we show that Piezo1 is highly expressed in myocytes of small-diameter arteries and that smooth-muscle-specific Piezo1 deletion fully impairs SAC activity. While Piezo1 is dispensable for the arterial myogenic tone, it is involved in the structural remodeling of small arteries. Increased Piezo1 opening has a trophic effect on resistance arteries, influencing both diameter and wall thickness in hypertension. Piezo1 mediates a rise in cytosolic calcium and stimulates activity of transglutaminases, cross-linking enzymes required for the remodeling of small arteries. In conclusion, we have established the connection between an early mechanosensitive process, involving Piezo1 in smooth muscle cells, and a clinically relevant arterial remodeling.

  15. Smooth muscle BK channel activity influences blood pressure independent of vascular tone in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Gregor; Faulhaber, Jörg; Seniuk, Anika; Ehmke, Heimo; Pongs, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel is an important determinant of vascular tone and contributes to blood pressure regulation. Both activities depend on the ancillary BKβ1 subunit. To determine the significance of smooth muscle BK channel activity for blood pressure regulation, we investigated the potential link between changes in arterial tone and altered blood pressure in BKβ1 knockout (BKβ1−/−) mice from three different genetically defined strains. While vascular tone was consistently increased in all BKβ1−/− mice independent of genetic background, BKβ1−/− strains exhibited increased (strain A), unaltered (strain B) or decreased (strain C) mean arterial blood pressures compared to their corresponding BKβ1+/+ controls. In agreement with previous data on aldosterone regulation by renal/adrenal BK channel function, BKβ1−/− strain A mice have increased plasma aldosterone and increased blood pressure. Consistently, blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors by spironolactone treatment reversibly restored the elevated blood pressure to the BKβ1+/+ strain A level. In contrast, loss of BKβ1 did not affect plasma aldosterone in strain C mice. Smooth muscle-restricted restoration of BKβ1 expression increased blood pressure in BKβ1−/− strain C mice, implying that impaired smooth muscle BK channel activity lowers blood pressure in these animals. We conclude that BK channel activity directly affects vascular tone but influences blood pressure independent of this effect via different pathways. PMID:24687584

  16. Nuclear reprogramming and its role in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zaina, Silvio; del Pilar Valencia-Morales, Maria; Tristán-Flores, Fabiola E; Lund, Gertrud

    2013-09-01

    In general terms, "nuclear reprogramming" refers to a change in gene expression profile that results in a significant switch in cellular phenotype. Nuclear reprogramming was first addressed by pioneering studies of cell differentiation during embryonic development. In recent years, nuclear reprogramming has been studied in great detail in the context of experimentally controlled dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation of mammalian cells for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we present a perspective on nuclear reprogramming in the context of spontaneous, pathophysiological phenotypic switch of vascular cells occurring in the atherosclerotic lesion. In particular, we focus on the current knowledge of epigenetic mechanisms participating in the extraordinary flexibility of the gene expression profile of vascular smooth muscle cells and other cell types participating in atherogenesis. Understanding how epigenetic changes participate in vascular cell plasticity may lead to effective therapies based on the remodelling of the vascular architecture.

  17. [Mechanism of losartan suppressing vascular calcification in rat aortic artery].

    PubMed

    Shao, Juan; Wu, Panfeng; Wu, Jiliang; Li, Mincai

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R) blocker losartan on vascular calcification in rat aortic artery and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods SD rats were divided randomly into control group, vascular calcification model group and treatment group. Vascular calcification models were made by subcutaneous injection of warfarin plus vitamin K1 for two weeks. Rats in the treatment group were subcutaneously injected with losartan (10 mg/kg) at the end of the first week and consecutively for one week. We observed the morphological changes by HE staining and the calcium deposition by Alizarin red staining in the artery vascular wall. The mRNA expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR. The BMP2 and RUNX2 protein expressions were determined by Western blotting. The apoptosis of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were detected by TUNEL. The AT1R expression was tested by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Results The aortic vascular calcification was induced by warfarin and vitamin K1. Compared with the vascular calcification model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of BMP2 and RUNX2 were significantly downregulated in the aorta in the losartan treatment group. Furthermore, the apoptosis of SMCs and the AT1R expression obviously decreased. Conclusion AT1R blocker losartan inhibits the apoptosis of SMCs and reduces AT1R expression; it downregulates the BMP2 and RUNX2 expressions in the vascular calcification process.

  18. Inhibition of Smooth Muscle β-Catenin Hinders Neointima Formation After Vascular Injury.

    PubMed

    Riascos-Bernal, Dario F; Chinnasamy, Prameladevi; Gross, Jordana N; Almonte, Vanessa; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Parikh, Dippal; Jayakumar, Smitha; Guo, Liang; Sibinga, Nicholas E S

    2017-05-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contribute to neointima formation after vascular injury. Although β-catenin expression is induced after injury, whether its function is essential in SMCs for neointimal growth is unknown. Moreover, although inhibitors of β-catenin have been developed, their effects on SMC growth have not been tested. We assessed the requirement for SMC β-catenin in short-term vascular homeostasis and in response to arterial injury and investigated the effects of β-catenin inhibitors on vascular SMC growth. We used an inducible, conditional genetic deletion of β-catenin in SMCs of adult mice. Uninjured arteries from adult mice lacking SMC β-catenin were indistinguishable from controls in terms of structure and SMC marker gene expression. After carotid artery ligation, however, vessels from mice lacking SMC β-catenin developed smaller neointimas, with lower neointimal cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. SMCs lacking β-catenin showed decreased mRNA expression of Mmp2, Mmp9, Sphk1, and S1pr1 (genes that promote neointima formation), higher levels of Jag1 and Gja1 (genes that inhibit neointima formation), decreased Mmp2 protein expression and secretion, and reduced cell invasion in vitro. Moreover, β-catenin inhibitors PKF118-310 and ICG-001 limited growth of mouse and human vascular SMCs in a dose-dependent manner. SMC β-catenin is dispensable for maintenance of the structure and state of differentiation of uninjured adult arteries, but is required for neointima formation after vascular injury. Pharmacological β-catenin inhibitors hinder growth of human vascular SMCs. Thus, inhibiting β-catenin has potential as a therapy to limit SMC accumulation and vascular obstruction. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. miR-125b regulates calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Goettsch, Claudia; Rauner, Martina; Pacyna, Nicole; Hempel, Ute; Bornstein, Stefan R; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2011-10-01

    Vascular calcification is a prominent feature of atherosclerosis and is closely linked to osteoporosis. Cellular differentiation is regulated by various microRNAs (miRs), including miR-125b, which is known to be involved in osteoblast differentiation. However, no specific miR has been defined that modulates vascular calcification. Herein, we assessed the impact of miR-125b in osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Osteogenic transdifferentiation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was induced by osteogenic medium and enhanced the formation of mineralized matrix, resulting in a significantly higher mineral deposition after 21 days. Increased expression of miR-125b was time-dependent in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and diminished during osteogenic transdifferentiation. At day 21, miR-125b was significantly reduced (-42%) compared with that in the untreated control. The expression of miR-processing enzymes, RNase III endonucleases DICER1 and DROSHA, was also decreased. Furthermore, inhibition of endogenous miR-125b promoted osteogenic transdifferentiation, as measured by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization. Expression analysis revealed the osteoblast transcription factor SP7 (osterix) as a target of miR-125b. In vivo, miR-125b was decreased in calcified aortas of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-125b is involved in vascular calcification in vitro and in vivo, at least partially by targeting SP7. Evaluating the role of miRs in arterial calcification in vivo may have important therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vascular mechanics of the coronary artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veress, A. I.; Vince, D. G.; Anderson, P. M.; Cornhill, J. F.; Herderick, E. E.; Klingensmith, J. D.; Kuban, B. D.; Greenberg, N. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes our research into the vascular mechanics of the coronary artery and plaque. The three sections describe the determination of arterial mechanical properties using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), a constitutive relation for the arterial wall, and finite element method (FEM) models of the arterial wall and atheroma. METHODS: Inflation testing of porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries was conducted. The changes in the vessel geometry were monitored using IVUS, and intracoronary pressure was recorded using a pressure transducer. The creep and quasistatic stress/strain responses were determined. A Standard Linear Solid (SLS) was modified to reproduce the non-linear elastic behavior of the arterial wall. This Standard Non-linear Solid (SNS) was implemented into an axisymetric thick-walled cylinder numerical model. Finite element analysis models were created for five age groups and four levels of stenosis using the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis Youth (PDAY) database. RESULTS: The arteries exhibited non-linear elastic behavior. The total tissue creep strain was epsilon creep = 0.082 +/- 0.018 mm/mm. The numerical model could reproduce both the non-linearity of the porcine data and time dependent behavior of the arterial wall found in the literature with a correlation coefficient of 0.985. Increasing age had a strong positive correlation with the shoulder stress level, (r = 0.95). The 30% stenosis had the highest shoulder stress due to the combination of a fully formed lipid pool and a thin cap. CONCLUSIONS: Studying the solid mechanics of the arterial wall and the atheroma provide important insights into the mechanisms involved in plaque rupture.

  1. Vascular mechanics of the coronary artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veress, A. I.; Vince, D. G.; Anderson, P. M.; Cornhill, J. F.; Herderick, E. E.; Klingensmith, J. D.; Kuban, B. D.; Greenberg, N. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes our research into the vascular mechanics of the coronary artery and plaque. The three sections describe the determination of arterial mechanical properties using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), a constitutive relation for the arterial wall, and finite element method (FEM) models of the arterial wall and atheroma. METHODS: Inflation testing of porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries was conducted. The changes in the vessel geometry were monitored using IVUS, and intracoronary pressure was recorded using a pressure transducer. The creep and quasistatic stress/strain responses were determined. A Standard Linear Solid (SLS) was modified to reproduce the non-linear elastic behavior of the arterial wall. This Standard Non-linear Solid (SNS) was implemented into an axisymetric thick-walled cylinder numerical model. Finite element analysis models were created for five age groups and four levels of stenosis using the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis Youth (PDAY) database. RESULTS: The arteries exhibited non-linear elastic behavior. The total tissue creep strain was epsilon creep = 0.082 +/- 0.018 mm/mm. The numerical model could reproduce both the non-linearity of the porcine data and time dependent behavior of the arterial wall found in the literature with a correlation coefficient of 0.985. Increasing age had a strong positive correlation with the shoulder stress level, (r = 0.95). The 30% stenosis had the highest shoulder stress due to the combination of a fully formed lipid pool and a thin cap. CONCLUSIONS: Studying the solid mechanics of the arterial wall and the atheroma provide important insights into the mechanisms involved in plaque rupture.

  2. Smoking and Female Sex: Independent Predictors of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stiffening

    PubMed Central

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Santos, Hadassa Campos; Vaquero, André Ramos; Martelini, André Ricardo; Dallan, Luis Alberto Oliveira; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Krieger, José Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2015-01-01

    Aims Recent evidence shows the rigidity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) contributes to vascular mechanics. Arterial rigidity is an independent cardiovascular risk factor whose associated modifications in VSMC viscoelasticity have never been investigated. This study’s objective was to evaluate if the arterial rigidity risk factors aging, African ancestry, female sex, smoking and diabetes mellitus are associated with VMSC stiffening in an experimental model using a human derived vascular smooth muscle primary cell line repository. Methods Eighty patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery were enrolled. VSMCs were extracted from internal thoracic artery fragments and mechanically evaluated using Optical Magnetic Twisting Cytometry assay. The obtained mechanical variables were correlated with the clinical variables: age, gender, African ancestry, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results The mechanical variables Gr, G’r and G”r had a normal distribution, demonstrating an inter-individual variability of VSMC viscoelasticity, which has never been reported before. Female sex and smoking were independently associated with VSMC stiffening: Gr (apparent cell stiffness) p = 0.022 and p = 0.018, R2 0.164; G’r (elastic modulus) p = 0.019 and p = 0.009, R2 0.184 and G”r (dissipative modulus) p = 0.011 and p = 0.66, R2 0.141. Conclusion Female sex and smoking are independent predictors of VSMC stiffening. This pro-rigidity effect represents an important element for understanding the vascular rigidity observed in post-menopausal females and smokers, as well as a potential therapeutic target to be explored in the future. There is a significant inter-individual variation of VSMC viscoelasticity, which is slightly modulated by clinical variables and probably relies on molecular factors. PMID:26661469

  3. SGLT inhibitors attenuate NO-dependent vascular relaxation in the pulmonary artery but not in the coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Cho, Young-Eun; Ayon, Ramon; Guo, Rui; Youssef, Katia D.; Pan, Minglin; Dai, Anzhi; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT)2 are a new class of oral drugs for type 2 diabetic patients that reduce plasma glucose levels by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption. There is increasing evidence showing the beneficial effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on glucose control; however, less information is available regarding the impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes. The present study was designed to determine whether SGLT inhibitors regulate vascular relaxation in mouse pulmonary and coronary arteries. Phlorizin (a nonspecific SGLT inhibitor) and canagliflozin (a SGLT2-specific inhibitor) relaxed pulmonary arteries in a dose-dependent manner, but they had little or no effect on coronary arteries. Pretreatment with phlorizin or canagliflozin significantly inhibited sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a nitric oxide donor)-induced vascular relaxation in pulmonary arteries but not in coronary arteries. Phlorizin had no effect on cGMP-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries. SNP induced membrane hyperpolarization in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, and pretreatment of cells with phlorizin and canagliflozin attenuated SNP-induced membrane hyperpolarization by decreasing K+ activities induced by SNP. Contrary to the result observed in ex vivo experiments with SGLT inhibitors, SNP-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries was not altered by chronic administration of canagliflozin. On the other hand, canagliflozin administration significantly enhanced SNP-dependent relaxation in coronary arteries in diabetic mice. These data suggest that SGLT inhibitors differentially regulate vascular relaxation depending on the type of arteries, duration of the treatment, and health condition, such as diabetes. PMID:26361875

  4. Interleukin-18 Enhances Vascular Calcification and Osteogenic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Through TRPM7 Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yinyin; Feng, Weijing; Chen, Renhua; Chen, Jie; Touyz, Rhian M; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is an important predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a key mechanism of VC. Recent studies show that IL-18 (interleukin-18) favors VC while TRPM7 (transient receptor potential melastatin 7) channel upregulation inhibits VC. However, the relationship between IL-18 and TRPM7 is unclear. We questioned whether IL-18 enhances VC and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs through TRPM7 channel activation. Coronary artery calcification and serum IL-18 were measured in patients by computed tomographic scanning and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Primary rat VSMCs calcification were induced by high inorganic phosphate and exposed to IL-18. VSMCs were also treated with TRPM7 antagonist 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate or TRPM7 small interfering RNA to block TRPM7 channel activity and expression. TRPM7 currents were recorded by patch-clamp. Human studies showed that serum IL-18 levels were positively associated with coronary artery calcium scores (r=0.91; P<0.001). In VSMCs, IL-18 significantly decreased expression of contractile markers α-smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle 22 α, and increased calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity, and expression of osteogenic differentiation markers bone morphogenetic protein-2, Runx2 (runt-related transcription factor 2), and osteocalcin (P<0.05). IL-18 increased TRPM7 expression through ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) signaling activation, and TRPM7 currents were augmented by IL-18 treatment. Inhibition of TRPM7 channel by 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate or TRPM7 small interfering RNA prevented IL-18-enhanced osteogenic differentiation and VSMCs calcification. These findings suggest that coronary artery calcification is associated with increased IL-18 levels. IL-18 enhances VSMCs osteogenic differentiation and subsequent VC induced by β-glycerophosphate via TRPM7 channel activation

  5. Role of blood and vascular smooth muscle in the vasoactivity of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J; Barcelo, Lisa; Bragg, Shannon L; Terry, Michael H; Wilson, Sean M; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence from humans and rats indicates that nitrite is a vasodilator under hypoxic conditions by reacting with metal-containing proteins to produce nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that near-physiological concentrations of nitrite would produce vasodilation in a hypoxia- and concentration-dependent manner in the hind limb of sheep. Anesthetized sheep were instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and femoral blood flows continuously in both hind limbs. Nitrite was infused into one femoral artery to raise the nitrite concentration in the femoral vein by 10 to 15-fold while the sheep breathed 50%, 14% or 12% oxygen in inspired air. In contrast to reports in humans and rats, the nitrite infusion had no measurable effect on mean femoral blood flows or vascular conductances, regardless of inspired O2 levels. In vitro experiments showed no significant difference in the release of NO from nitrite in sheep and human red blood cells. Further experiments demonstrated nitrite is converted to NO in rat artery homogenates faster than sheep arteries, and that this source of NO production is attenuated in the presence of a heme oxidizer. Finally, western blots indicate that concentrations of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin, but not myoglobin, are markedly lower in sheep arteries compared with rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that nitrite is not a physiological vasodilator in sheep. This is likely due to a lack of conversion of nitrite to NO within the vascular smooth muscle, perhaps due to deficient amounts of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin.

  6. Vascular smooth muscle cells from injured rat aortas display elevated matrix production associated with transforming growth factor-beta activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, L. M.; Wolf, Y. G.; Ruoslahti, E.

    1995-01-01

    The arterial response to injury is characterized by a short period of increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, followed by an extended period of extracellular matrix accumulation in the intima. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated as a causative factor in the formation of extracellular matrix in this process, which leads to progressive thickening of the intima, known as intimal hyperplasia. In vitro analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells harvested from normal rat aortas and from aortas injured 14 days earlier showed that both types of cells attached equally well to culture dishes but that the initial spreading of the cells was increased in cells derived from injured vessels. Cells from the injured arteries produced more fibronectin and proteoglycans into the culture medium than the cells from normal arteries and contained more TGF-beta 1 mRNA. TGF-beta 1 increased proteoglycan synthesis by normal smooth muscle cells, and the presence of a neutralizing anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody reduced proteoglycan synthesis by the cells from injured arteries in culture. Fibronectin synthesis was not altered by these treatments. These results indicate that the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in neointimal lesions is at least partially caused by autocrine TGF-beta activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7573349

  7. ASIC1 contributes to pulmonary vascular smooth muscle store-operated Ca(2+) entry.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Nikki L; Paffett, Michael L; Walker, Benjimen R; Resta, Thomas C

    2009-08-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) are voltage-insensitive, cationic channels that have recently been identified in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). It is possible that ASIC contribute to vascular reactivity via Na(+) and Ca(2+) conductance; however, their function in VSM is largely unknown. In pulmonary VSM, store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) plays a significant role in vasoregulatory mechanisms such as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and receptor-mediated arterial constriction. Therefore, we hypothesized that ASIC contribute to SOCE in pulmonary VSM. We examined SOCE resulting from depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores with cyclopiazonic acid in isolated small pulmonary arteries and primary cultured pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells by measuring 1) changes in VSM [Ca(2+)](i) using fura-2 indicator dye, 2) Mn(2+) quenching of fura-2 fluorescence, and 3) store-operated Ca(2+) and Na(+) currents using conventional whole cell patch-clamp configuration in voltage-clamp mode. The role of ASIC was assessed by the use of the ASIC inhibitors, amiloride, benzamil, and psalmotoxin 1, or siRNA directed towards ASIC1, ASIC2, or ASIC3 isoforms. We found that store-operated VSM [Ca(2+)](i) responses, Mn(2+) influx, and inward cationic currents were attenuated by either pharmacological ASIC inhibition or treatment with ASIC1 siRNA. These data establish a unique role for ASIC1 in mediating SOCE in pulmonary VSM and provide new insight into mechanisms of VSM Ca(2+) entry and pulmonary vasoregulation.

  8. The Smooth Muscle of the Artery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    yesterday I showed you the picture where after SM urea-0.1 M mercapto-ethantol extrac - tion the elastic lamellae are no more "translucent" but do stain with...serum. A mediu’i sized artery shows green fluorescence of its concentric oriented muscle cells and white I luoretcent internal elastic membrane as well...elatic lamellae separate bundles of green fluorescent .Ttooth muscle colls in tthe outef half of the media. x 700 170 CHAPTER?’ DR. A. P. SOMLYO: Perhaps

  9. Smooth Muscle Cell Mineralocorticoid Receptors Are Mandatory for Aldosterone–Salt to Induce Vascular Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Galmiche, Guillaume; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Ouvrard-Pascaud, Antoine; Berger, Stefan; Challande, Pascal; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Labat, Carlos; Lacolley, Patrick; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is recognized as a risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. Aldosterone via its binding to and activation of the mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) is a main regulator of blood pressure by controlling renal sodium reabsorption. Although both clinical and experimental data indicate that MR activation by aldosterone is involved in arterial stiffening, the molecular mechanism is not known. In addition to the kidney, MR is expressed in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the specific contribution of the VSMC MR to aldosterone-induced vascular stiffness remains to be explored. To address this question, we generated a mouse model with conditional inactivation of the MR in VSMC (MRSMKO). MRSMKO mice show no alteration in renal sodium handling or vascular structure, but they have decreased blood pressure when compared with control littermate mice. In vivo at baseline, large vessels of mutant mice presented with normal elastic properties, whereas carotids displayed a smaller diameter when compared with those of the control group. As expected after aldosterone/salt challenge, the arterial stiffness increased in control mice; however, it remained unchanged in MRSMKO mice, without significant modification in vascular collagen/elastin ratio. Instead, we found that the fibronectin/α5-subunit integrin ratio is profoundly altered in MRSMKO mice because the induction of α5 expression by aldosterone/salt challenge is prevented in mice lacking VSMC MR. Altogether, our data reveal in the aldosterone/salt hypertension model that MR activation specifically in VSMC leads to the arterial stiffening by modulation of cell-matrix attachment proteins independent of major vascular structural changes. PMID:24296280

  10. Signal Mechanisms of Vascular Remodeling in the Development of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-xing; Jiang, De-qi; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qing-zhuang; Ma, Yan-jiao; Yu, Shan-shan; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by persistent elevation of pulmonary arterial vascular pressure. The disease severely limits the function of the right ventricle, causing organ failure and finally leading to death. Despite significant advances in pharmacological treatments, PAH remains an incurable disease with high morbidity and mortality. The histopathological change of PAH is featured by remodeling of the pulmonary vascular. Abnormal proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in peripheral vascular is 1 major pathological finding of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Current therapeutics available for PAH primarily aim at inhibiting the pulmonary vasoconstriction and resisting pulmonary vascular remodeling. To date, only some inhibitors targeting proliferative signaling pathways have been used to suppress the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and reverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. However, because of serious side effects, their clinical use is limited, and more validation is needed before the inhibitors can be transferred into clinical use. This review will focus on signal mechanisms of vascular remodeling in the development of PAH and give an overview of recent advances in research on inhibitors targeting proliferative pathways.

  11. [Arterial vascular injuries in fractures and dislocations].

    PubMed

    Piatek, S; Bürger, T; Halloul, Z; Westphal, T; Holmenschlager, F; Winckler, S

    2001-05-01

    We analyzed reasons, numbers and results of arterial lesions accompanying fractures (n = 21) and luxations (n = 6) in a 6-year-period (1993-1998) retrospectively. Traffic accidents were in nearly 50% responsible for the injuries. 8 patients had suffered multiple injuries. In 17 patients the lower, and in 10 patients the upper extremities were affected. The vascular wall was completely disrupted or severed in 74%. In 7 cases (26%), patients had suffered blunt or indirect arterial trauma with intima- and media-lacerations due to subcapital fracture of the humerus (n = 2), fractured femoral bone (n = 1), luxation of the knee joint (n = 3) or the elbow (n = 1). The mean preoperative time period was 6 hours and 20 minutes (2 to 16 hours) in patients with complete ischaemia. Vascular reconstruction was performed by interposition of an autologous vein graft or an autologous venous bypass (n = 20), by direct reconstruction and primary suturing (n = 2), by use of a venous patch plasty (n = 2) and, in a single case, by autologous bypass procedure. In one case, a crural artery was ligated, in another case with a Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) of 7 points a primary amputation of the lower leg was necessary. In 5 patients (19%) secondary amputations were performed. No patient died. The final outcome is mostly influenced by the preoperative period of ischaemia.

  12. Smooth muscle cell proliferation in the occluded rat carotid artery: lack of requirement for luminal platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship of intimal smooth muscle cell proliferation in the permanently occluded rat carotid artery to the presence or absence of luminal platelets was examined. Blood was rinsed from the arterial lumen immediately after occlusion and was replaced by autologous, citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP, 6 to 20 X 10(5) platelets/microliter) or filtered platelet-poor plasma (PPP, less than 100 platelets/microliter). Occluded arteries were studied after 1 to 28 days by light and electron microscopy. Events occurring within the first 2 days included fibrin clot formation, endothelial degeneration and denudation, transmural migration of polymorphonucelar leukocytes and monocytes, and, in PRP-filled arteries, degranulation and disappearance of platelets. By 7 days a neointima was formed by macrophages and undifferentiated cells. The latter cells had some features of vascular smooth muscle cells and were apparently derived from medial cells which traversed the internal elastic lamina. After 14 days, identifiable smooth muscle cells emerged as the predominant cell type in a rapidly growing intimal plaque. No differences could be discerned between arteries originally filled with PRP or PPP. This experimental model is similar to atherosclerosis in dimensions of avascular area and in coexistence of degenerative, inflammatory, and proliferative processes. Cell proliferation deep within an atherosclerotic plaque could be initiated by factors other than platelets, perhaps by products of inflammatory cells. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 5 PMID:426040

  13. IP3 receptors regulate vascular smooth muscle contractility and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qingsong; Zhao, Guiling; Fang, Xi; Peng, Xiaohong; Tang, Huayuan; Wang, Hong; Jing, Ran; Liu, Jie; Ouyang, Kunfu

    2016-01-01

    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor–mediated (IP3R-mediated) calcium (Ca2+) release has been proposed to play an important role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction for decades. However, whether and how IP3R regulates blood pressure in vivo remains unclear. To address these questions, we have generated a smooth muscle–specific IP3R triple-knockout (smTKO) mouse model using a tamoxifen-inducible system. In this study, the role of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in adult VSMCs on aortic vascular contractility and blood pressure was assessed following tamoxifen induction. We demonstrated that deletion of IP3Rs significantly reduced aortic contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, including phenylephrine, U46619, serotonin, and endothelin 1. Deletion of IP3Rs also dramatically reduced the phosphorylation of MLC20 and MYPT1 induced by U46619. Furthermore, although the basal blood pressure of smTKO mice remained similar to that of wild-type controls, the increase in systolic blood pressure upon chronic infusion of angiotensin II was significantly attenuated in smTKO mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate an important role for IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in VSMCs in regulating vascular contractility and hypertension. PMID:27777977

  14. PDGF-mediated autophagy regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype and resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Salabei, Joshua K; Cummins, Timothy D; Singh, Mahavir; Jones, Steven P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Hill, Bradford G

    2013-05-01

    Vascular injury and chronic arterial diseases result in exposure of VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) to increased concentrations of growth factors. The mechanisms by which growth factors trigger VSMC phenotype transitions remain unclear. Because cellular reprogramming initiated by growth factors requires not only the induction of genes involved in cell proliferation, but also the removal of contractile proteins, we hypothesized that autophagy is an essential modulator of VSMC phenotype. Treatment of VSMCs with PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)-BB resulted in decreased expression of the contractile phenotype markers calponin and α-smooth muscle actin and up-regulation of the synthetic phenotype markers osteopontin and vimentin. Autophagy, as assessed by LC3 (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 α; also known as MAP1LC3A)-II abundance, LC3 puncta formation and electron microscopy, was activated by PDGF exposure. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine, spautin-1 or bafilomycin stabilized the contractile phenotype. In particular, spautin-1 stabilized α-smooth muscle cell actin and calponin in PDGF-treated cells and prevented actin filament disorganization, diminished production of extracellular matrix, and abrogated VSMC hyperproliferation and migration. Treatment of cells with PDGF prevented protein damage and cell death caused by exposure to the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal. The results of the present study demonstrate a distinct form of autophagy induced by PDGF that is essential for attaining the synthetic phenotype and for survival under the conditions of high oxidative stress found to occur in vascular lesions.

  15. An optimization principle for vascular radius including the effects of smooth muscle tone.

    PubMed Central

    Taber, L A

    1998-01-01

    An optimization principle is proposed for the regulation of vascular morphology. This principle, which extends Murray's law, is based on the hypothesis that blood vessel diameter is controlled by a mechanism that minimizes the total energy required to drive the blood flow, to maintain the blood supply, and to support smooth muscle tone. A theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed principle predicts that the optimum shear stress on the vessel wall due to blood flow increases with blood pressure. This result agrees qualitatively with published findings that the fluid shear stress in veins is significantly smaller than it is in arteries. PMID:9449315

  16. Statistical modeling of the arterial vascular tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Thomas; Godenschwager, Christian; Bauer, Miriam; Bernhardt, Dominik; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2011-03-01

    Automatic examination of medical images becomes increasingly important due to the rising amount of data. Therefore automated methods are required which combine anatomical knowledge and robust segmentation to examine the structure of interest. We propose a statistical model of the vascular tree based on vascular landmarks and unbranched vessel sections. An undirected graph provides anatomical topology, semantics, existing landmarks and attached vessel sections. The atlas was built using semi-automatically generated geometric models of various body regions ranging from carotid arteries to the lower legs. Geometric models contain vessel centerlines as well as orthogonal cross-sections in equidistant intervals with the vessel contour having the form of a polygon path. The geometric vascular model is supplemented by anatomical landmarks which are not necessarily related to the vascular system. These anatomical landmarks define point correspondences which are used for registration with a Thin-Plate-Spline interpolation. After the registration process, the models were merged to form the statistical model which can be mapped to unseen images based on a subset of anatomical landmarks. This approach provides probability distributions for the location of landmarks, vessel-specific geometric properties including shape, expected radii and branching points and vascular topology. The applications of this statistical model include model-based extraction of the vascular tree which greatly benefits from vessel-specific geometry description and variation ranges. Furthermore, the statistical model can be applied as a basis for computer aided diagnosis systems as indicator for pathologically deformed vessels and the interaction with the geometric model is significantly more user friendly for physicians through anatomical names.

  17. Interaction of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Under Low Shear Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    The blood vessel wall consists of three cellular layers, an outer adventitial, a middle medial and an inner intimal layer. When the blood vessel forms in the embryo it begins as a tube composed of a single cell type called endothelial cells. Over time, other cells are recruited from the surrounding tissue to form additional layers on the outer surface of the endothelial tube. The cells that are recruited are called mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal cells are responsible for the production of connective tissue that holds the blood vessel together and for developing into vascular smooth muscle cells that are responsible for regulating the diameter of the vessel (1) and therefore, blood flow. In a fully developed blood vessel, the endothelial cells make- up the majority of cells in the intimal layer while the mesenchymal cells make-up the majority of cells in the medial and adventitial layers. Within the medial layer of a mature vessel, cells are organized into multiple circular layers of alternating bands of connective tissue and cells. The cell layer is composed of a mixture of mesenchymal cells that have not developed into smooth muscle cells and fully developed smooth muscle cells (2). The assembly and organization of complex tissues is directed in part by a signaling system composed of proteins on the cell surface called adhesion molecules. Adhesion molecules enable cells to recognize each other as well as the composition of the connective tissue in which they reside (3). It was hypothesized that the different cell types that compose the vascular wall possess different adhesion molecules that enable them to recognize each other and through this recognition system, form the complex layered organization of the vascular wall. In other words, the layered organization is an intrinsic property of the cells. If this hypothesis is correct then the different cells that make up the vessel wall, when mixed together, should organize themselves into a layered structure

  18. Janus Kinase 3, a Novel Regulator for Smooth Muscle Proliferation and Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Chun; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Chen, Shi-You

    2017-07-01

    Vascular remodeling because of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a common process occurring in several vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm, post-transplant vasculopathy, restenosis after angioplasty, etc. The molecular mechanism underlying SMC proliferation, however, is not completely understood. The objective of this study is to determine the role and mechanism of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) in vascular remodeling and SMC proliferation. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, an SMC mitogen, induces JAK3 expression and phosphorylation while stimulating SMC proliferation. Janex-1, a specific inhibitor of JAK3, or knockdown of JAK3 by short hairpin RNA, inhibits the SMC proliferation. Conversely, ectopic expression of JAK3 promotes SMC proliferation. Mechanistically, JAK3 promotes the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in SMC, 2 signaling pathways known to be critical for SMC proliferation and vascular remodeling. Blockade of these 2 signaling pathways by their inhibitors impeded the JAK3-mediated SMC proliferation. In vivo, knockdown of JAK3 attenuates injury-induced neointima formation with attenuated neointimal SMC proliferation. Knockdown of JAK3 also induces neointimal SMC apoptosis in rat carotid artery balloon injury model. Our results demonstrate that JAK3 mediates SMC proliferation and survival during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provides a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Oncostatin M Promotes Osteoblastic Differentiation of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Through JAK3-STAT3 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kakutani, Yoshinori; Shioi, Atsushi; Shoji, Tetsuo; Okazaki, Hirokazu; Koyama, Hidenori; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki

    2015-07-01

    Vascular calcification is a clinically significant component of atherosclerosis and arises from chronic vascular inflammation. Oncostatin M (OSM) derived from plaque macrophages may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic calcification. Here, we investigated the stimulatory effects of OSM on osteoblastic differentiation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMC) derived from various arteries including umbilical artery, aorta, and coronary artery and its signaling pathway. Osteoblastic differentiation was induced by exposure of HVSMC to osteogenic differentiation medium (ODM) (10% fetal bovine serum, 0.1 μM dexamethasone, 10 mM β-glycerophosphate and 50 μg/ml ascorbic acid 2-phosphate in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium [DMEM]). OSM significantly increased alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and matrix mineralization in HVSMC from all sources. Osteoblast marker genes such as ALP and Runx2 were also up-regulated by OSM in these cells. OSM treatment induced activation of STAT3 in HVSMC from umbilical artery as evidenced by immunoblot. Moreover, not only a JAK3 inhibitor, WHI-P154, but also knockdown of JAK3 by siRNA prevented the OSM-induced ALP activity and matrix mineralization in umbilical artery HVSMC. On the other hand, silencing of STAT3 almost completely suppressed OSM-induced ALP expression and matrix mineralization in HVSMC from all sources. These data suggest that OSM promotes osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells through JAK3/STAT3 pathway and may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic calcification.

  20. Adult vascular smooth muscle cells in culture express neural stem cell markers typical of resident multipotent vascular stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eimear; Mooney, Ciaran J; Hakimjavadi, Roya; Fitzpatrick, Emma; Guha, Shaunta; Collins, Laura E; Loscher, Christine E; Morrow, David; Redmond, Eileen M; Cahill, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    Differentiation of resident multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) or de-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) might be responsible for the SMC phenotype that plays a major role in vascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis and restenosis. We examined vSMCs from three different species (rat, murine and bovine) to establish whether they exhibit neural stem cell characteristics typical of MVSCs. We determined their SMC differentiation, neural stem cell marker expression and multipotency following induction in vitro by using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MVSCs isolated from rat aortic explants, enzymatically dispersed rat SMCs and rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells served as controls. Murine carotid artery lysates and primary rat aortic vSMCs were both myosin-heavy-chain-positive but weakly expressed the neural crest stem cell marker, Sox10. Each vSMC line examined expressed SMC differentiation markers (smooth muscle α-actin, myosin heavy chain and calponin), neural crest stem cell markers (Sox10(+), Sox17(+)) and a glia marker (S100β(+)). Serum deprivation significantly increased calponin and myosin heavy chain expression and decreased stem cell marker expression, when compared with serum-rich conditions. vSMCs did not differentiate to adipocytes or osteoblasts following adipogenic or osteogenic inductive stimulation, respectively, or respond to transforming growth factor-β1 or Notch following γ-secretase inhibition. Thus, vascular SMCs in culture express neural stem cell markers typical of MVSCs, concomitant with SMC differentiation markers, but do not retain their multipotency. The ultimate origin of these cells might have important implications for their use in investigations of vascular proliferative disease in vitro.

  1. Slug Is Increased in Vascular Remodeling and Induces a Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferative Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Peinado, Victor I.; Pisano, María V.; Párrizas, Marcelina; Blanco, Isabel; Evers, Maurits; Engelmann, Julia C.; García-Lucio, Jessica; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Meister, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have confirmed Slug as a key player in regulating phenotypic changes in several cell models, however, its role in smooth muscle cells (SMC) has never been assessed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of Slug during the phenotypic switch of SMC in vitro and throughout the development of vascular remodeling. Methods and Results Slug expression was decreased during both cell-to-cell contact and TGFβ1 induced SMC differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a known inductor of a proliferative/dedifferentiated SMC phenotype, induces the expression of Slug in SMC. Slug knockdown blocked TNFα-induced SMC phenotypic change and significantly reduced both SMC proliferation and migration, while its overexpression blocked the TGFβ1-induced SMC differentiation and induced proliferation and migration. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis showed that in SMC, Slug knockdown induced changes mainly in genes related to proliferation and migration, indicating that Slug controls these processes in SMC. Notably, Slug expression was significantly up-regulated in lungs of mice using a model of pulmonary hypertension-related vascular remodeling. Highly remodeled human pulmonary arteries also showed an increase of Slug expression compared to less remodeled arteries. Conclusions Slug emerges as a key transcription factor driving SMC towards a proliferative phenotype. The increased Slug expression observed in vivo in highly remodeled arteries of mice and human suggests a role of Slug in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:27441378

  2. Vascular smooth muscle cell culture in microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Y. C.; Chen, F.; Zhang, T.; Chen, D. Y.; Jia, X.; Wang, J. B.; Guo, W.; Chen, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device enabling culture of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) where extracellular matrix coating, VSMC seeding, culture, and immunostaining are demonstrated in a tubing-free manner. By optimizing droplet volume differences between inlets and outlets of micro channels, VSMCs were evenly seeded into microfluidic devices. Furthermore, the effects of extracellular matrix (e.g., collagen, poly-l-Lysine (PLL), and fibronectin) on VSMC proliferation and phenotype expression were explored. As a platform technology, this microfluidic device may function as a new VSMC culture model enabling VSMC studies. PMID:25379109

  3. Upregulation of decorin by FXR in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    He Fengtian; Zhang Qiuhong; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Gao Xiang; Li Jiang; Li Yong; Gong Wei; Jiang, Yu; Xie Wen; Li Song

    2008-08-08

    Decorin is a member of the family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans that are present in blood vessels and synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Decorin plays complex roles in both normal vascular physiology and the pathogenesis of various types of vascular disorders. However, the mechanisms of regulation of decorin expression in vasculature are not clearly understood. Particularly little information is available about a role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of decorin expression. In the present study, we report that activation of vascular FXR by a specific ligand resulted in upregulation of decorin at the levels of both mRNA and protein. FXR appears to induce decorin expression at a transcriptional level because (1) upregulation of decorin mRNA expression was abolished by the treatment of a transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D; and (2) decorin promoter activity was significantly increased by activation of FXR. Functional analysis of human decorin promoter identified an imperfect inverted repeat DNA motif, IR8 (-2313TGGTCAtagtgtcaTGACCT-2294), as a likely FXR-responsive element that is involved in decorin regulation.

  4. Upregulation of Decorin by FXR in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Fengtian; Zhang, Qiuhong; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Gao, Xiang; Li, Jiang; Li, Yong; Gong, Wei; Jiang, Yu; Xie, Wen; Li, Song

    2008-01-01

    Decorin is a member of the family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans that are present in blood vessels and synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Decorin plays complex roles in both normal vascular physiology and the pathogenesis of various types of vascular disorders. However, the mechanisms of regulation of decorin expression in vasculature are not clearly understood. Particularly little information is available about a role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of decorin expression. In the present study, we report that activation of vascular FXR by a specific ligand resulted in upregulation of decorin at the levels of both mRNA and protein. FXR appears to induce decorin expression at a transcriptional level because (1) upregulation of decorin mRNA expression was abolished by the treatment of a transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D; and (2) decorin promoter activity was significantly increased by activation of FXR. Functional analysis of human decorin promoter identified an imperfect inverted repeat DNA motif, IR8 (−2313TGGTCAtagtgtcaTGACCT−2294), as a likely FXR-responsive element that is involved in decorin regulation. PMID:18514055

  5. Implications of autophagy for vascular smooth muscle cell function and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Salabei, Joshua K; Hill, Bradford G

    2013-12-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are fundamental in regulating blood pressure and distributing oxygen and nutrients to peripheral tissues. They also possess remarkable plasticity, with the capacity to switch to synthetic, macrophage-like, or osteochondrogenic phenotypes when cued by external stimuli. In arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis, this plasticity seems to be critical and, depending on the disease context, can be deleterious or beneficial. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms regulating VSMC phenotype and survival is essential for developing new therapies for vascular disease as well as understanding how secondary complications due to surgical interventions develop. In this regard, the cellular process of autophagy is increasingly being recognized as a major player in vascular biology and a critical determinant of VSMC phenotype and survival. Although autophagy was identified in lesional VSMCs in the 1960s, our understanding of the implications of autophagy in arterial diseases and the stimuli promoting its activation in VSMCs is only now being elucidated. In this review, we highlight the evidence for autophagy occurring in VSMCs in vivo, elaborate on the stimuli and processes regulating autophagy, and discuss the current understanding of the role of autophagy in vascular disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Synergistic role of protein phosphatase inhibitor 1 and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase in the acquisition of the contractile phenotype of arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lipskaia, Larissa; Bobe, Regis; Chen, Jiqiu; Turnbull, Irene C; Lopez, Jose J; Merlet, Elise; Jeong, Dongtaq; Karakikes, Ioannis; Ross, Alexandra S; Liang, Lifan; Mougenot, Nathalie; Atassi, Fabrice; Lompré, Anne-Marie; Tarzami, Sima T; Kovacic, Jason C; Kranias, Evangelia; Hajjar, Roger J; Hadri, Lahouaria

    2014-02-18

    Phenotypic modulation or switching of vascular smooth muscle cells from a contractile/quiescent to a proliferative/synthetic phenotype plays a key role in vascular proliferative disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Although several calcium handling proteins that control differentiation of smooth muscle cells have been identified, the role of protein phosphatase inhibitor 1 (I-1) in the acquisition or maintenance of the contractile phenotype modulation remains unknown. In human coronary arteries, I-1 and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase expression is specific to contractile vascular smooth muscle cells. In synthetic cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, protein phosphatase inhibitor 1 (I-1 target) is highly expressed, leading to a decrease in phospholamban phosphorylation, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase, and cAMP-responsive element binding activity. I-1 knockout mice lack phospholamban phosphorylation and exhibit vascular smooth muscle cell arrest in the synthetic state with excessive neointimal proliferation after carotid injury, as well as significant modifications of contractile properties and relaxant response to acetylcholine of femoral artery in vivo. Constitutively active I-1 gene transfer decreased neointimal formation in an angioplasty rat model by preventing vascular smooth muscle cell contractile to synthetic phenotype change. I-1 and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase synergistically induce the vascular smooth muscle cell contractile phenotype. Gene transfer of constitutively active I-1 is a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing vascular proliferative disorders.

  7. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from inbred swine induced pluripotent stem cells for vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiesi; Qin, Lingfeng; Kural, Mehmet H; Schwan, Jonas; Li, Xia; Bartulos, Oscar; Cong, Xiao-Qiang; Ren, Yongming; Gui, Liqiong; Li, Guangxin; Ellis, Matthew W; Li, Peining; Kotton, Darrell N; Dardik, Alan; Pober, Jordan S; Tellides, George; Rolle, Marsha; Campbell, Stuart; Hawley, Robert J; Sachs, David H; Niklason, Laura E; Qyang, Yibing

    2017-12-01

    Development of autologous tissue-engineered vascular constructs using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds great potential in treating patients with vascular disease. However, preclinical, large animal iPSC-based cellular and tissue models are required to evaluate safety and efficacy prior to clinical application. Herein, swine iPSC (siPSC) lines were established by introducing doxycycline-inducible reprogramming factors into fetal fibroblasts from a line of inbred Massachusetts General Hospital miniature swine that accept tissue and organ transplants without immunosuppression within the line. Highly enriched, functional VSMCs were derived from siPSCs based on addition of ascorbic acid and inactivation of reprogramming factor via doxycycline withdrawal. Moreover, siPSC-VSMCs seeded onto biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds readily formed vascular tissues, which were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice and showed further maturation revealed by expression of the mature VSMC marker, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. Finally, using a robust cellular self-assembly approach, we developed 3D scaffold-free tissue rings from siPSC-VSMCs that showed comparable mechanical properties and contractile function to those developed from swine primary VSMCs. These engineered vascular constructs, prepared from doxycycline-inducible inbred siPSCs, offer new opportunities for preclinical investigation of autologous human iPSC-based vascular tissues for patient treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of changes in endothelial and smooth muscle Ca²⁺ in pressurized arteries.

    PubMed

    Dora, Kim A; Hill, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The use of single- and dual-wavelength Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dyes to monitor changes in endothelial and/or smooth muscle intracellular Ca(2+) levels has provided information linking Ca(2+) events to changes in arterial function. Here we describe the in vitro techniques used to selectively load Ca(2+) indicators into either the endothelium or the smooth muscle of cannulated rat cremaster arteries. These vessels normally develop spontaneous myogenic tone that is largely unaffected by the loading of Ca2+ indicators or the subsequent imaging procedures. This suggests that there is minimal Ca2+ buffering or damage, and that the fluorescent indicator-loaded vessels behave similarly to unloaded preparations. Importantly, these approaches are applicable to both isobaric and isometric preparations and have been also used for the study of a number of vascular beds including cerebral, mesenteric, coronary, and skeletal muscle vasculatures.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor I stimulates elastin synthesis by bovine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Badesch, D B; Lee, P D; Parks, W C; Stenmark, K R

    1989-04-14

    Insulin-like growth factor I stimulates mitogenesis in smooth muscle cells, and upregulates elastin synthesis in embryonic aortic tissue. Increased smooth muscle elastin synthesis may play an important role in vascular remodeling in chronic pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, we studied the effect of IGF-I on elastin and total protein synthesis by pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in vitro. Tropoelastin synthesis was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and total protein synthesis was measured by [3H]-leucine incorporation. In addition, the steady-state levels of tropoelastin mRNA were determined by slot blot hybridization. Incubation of confluent cultures with various concentrations of IGF-I resulted in a dose-dependent stimulation of elastin synthesis, with a 2.4-fold increase over control levels at 1000 ng/ml of IGF. The increase in elastin synthesis was reflected by a stimulation of the steady-state levels of tropoelastin mRNA. We conclude that IGF-I has potent elastogenic effects on vascular smooth muscle cells, and speculate that it may contribute to vascular wall remodeling in chronic hypertension.

  10. Ablation of the androgen receptor from vascular smooth muscle cells demonstrates a role for testosterone in vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dongxing; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.; Wu, Junxi; Vesey, Alex T.; Lerman, Daniel. A.; Dweck, Marc R.; Newby, David E.; Smith, Lee B.; MacRae, Vicky E.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification powerfully predicts mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease. Men have a greater risk of cardiovascular disease, compared to women of a similar age. These gender disparities suggest an influence of sex hormones. Testosterone is the primary and most well-recognised androgen in men. Therefore, we addressed the hypothesis that exogenous androgen treatment induces vascular calcification. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of androgen receptor (AR) in the calcified media of human femoral artery tissue and calcified human valves. Furthermore, in vitro studies revealed increased phosphate (Pi)-induced mouse vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification following either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment for 9 days. Testosterone and DHT treatment increased tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (Alpl) mRNA expression. Testosterone-induced calcification was blunted in VSMC-specific AR-ablated (SM-ARKO) VSMCs compared to WT. Consistent with these data, SM-ARKO VSMCs showed a reduction in Osterix mRNA expression. However, intriguingly, a counter-intuitive increase in Alpl was observed. These novel data demonstrate that androgens play a role in inducing vascular calcification through the AR. Androgen signalling may represent a novel potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention. PMID:27095121

  11. Vascular smooth muscle-specific deletion of the leptin receptor attenuates leptin-induced alterations in vascular relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michael J; Coleman, T Taylor; Sasser, Jennifer M; Pittman, Katarina M; Hankins, Michael W; Stec, David E

    2016-05-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased plasma levels of the adipose-derived hormone leptin. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) express leptin receptors (LepR); however, their physiological role is unclear. We hypothesized that leptin, at levels to mimic morbid obesity, impairs vascular relaxation. To test this, we used control and VSM-LepR knockout mice (VSM-LepR KO) created with a tamoxifen-inducible specific Cre recombinase to delete the LepR gene in VSMC. Control (10-12 wk old) and VSM-LepR KO (10-12 wk old) mice were fed a diet containing tamoxifen (50 mg/kg) for 6 wk, after which vascular reactivity was studied in isolated carotid arteries using an organ chamber bath. Vessels were incubated with leptin (100 ng/ml) or vehicle (0.1 mM Tris·HCl) for 30 min. Leptin treatment resulted in significant impairment of vessel relaxation to the endothelial-specific agonist acetylcholine (ACh). When these experiments were repeated in the presence of the superoxide scavenger tempol, relaxation responses to ACh were restored. VSM-LepR deletion resulted in a significant attenuation of leptin-mediated impaired ACh-induced relaxation. These data show that leptin directly impairs vascular relaxation via a VSM-LepR-mediated mechanism, suggesting a potential pathogenic role for leptin to increase cardiovascular risk during obesity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Vascular smooth muscle-specific deletion of the leptin receptor attenuates leptin-induced alterations in vascular relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael J.; Coleman, T. Taylor; Sasser, Jennifer M.; Pittman, Katarina M.; Hankins, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased plasma levels of the adipose-derived hormone leptin. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) express leptin receptors (LepR); however, their physiological role is unclear. We hypothesized that leptin, at levels to mimic morbid obesity, impairs vascular relaxation. To test this, we used control and VSM-LepR knockout mice (VSM-LepR KO) created with a tamoxifen-inducible specific Cre recombinase to delete the LepR gene in VSMC. Control (10–12 wk old) and VSM-LepR KO (10–12 wk old) mice were fed a diet containing tamoxifen (50 mg/kg) for 6 wk, after which vascular reactivity was studied in isolated carotid arteries using an organ chamber bath. Vessels were incubated with leptin (100 ng/ml) or vehicle (0.1 mM Tris·HCl) for 30 min. Leptin treatment resulted in significant impairment of vessel relaxation to the endothelial-specific agonist acetylcholine (ACh). When these experiments were repeated in the presence of the superoxide scavenger tempol, relaxation responses to ACh were restored. VSM-LepR deletion resulted in a significant attenuation of leptin-mediated impaired ACh-induced relaxation. These data show that leptin directly impairs vascular relaxation via a VSM-LepR-mediated mechanism, suggesting a potential pathogenic role for leptin to increase cardiovascular risk during obesity. PMID:26936780

  13. Loss of smooth muscle cell hypoxia inducible factor-1α underlies increased vascular contractility in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Elizabeth A; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Sedan, Oshra; Cornfield, David N

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an often fatal disease with limited treatment options. Whereas current data support the notion that, in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), expression of transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is increased, the role of HIF-1α in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) remains controversial. This study investigates the hypothesis that, in PASMCs from patients with PAH, decreases in HIF-1α expression and activity underlie augmented pulmonary vascular contractility. PASMCs and tissues were isolated from nonhypertensive control patients and patients with PAH. Compared with controls, HIF-1α and Kv1.5 protein expression were decreased in PAH smooth muscle cells (primary culture). Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and MLC kinase (MLCK) activity-major determinants of vascular tone-were increased in patients with PAH. Cofactors involved in prolyl hydroxylase domain activity were increased in PAH smooth muscle cells. Functionally, PASMC contractility was inversely correlated with HIF-1α activity. In PASMCs derived from patients with PAH, HIF-1α expression is decreased, and MLCK activity, MLC phosphorylation, and cell contraction are increased. We conclude that compromised PASMC HIF-1α expression may contribute to the increased tone that characterizes pulmonary hypertension.-Barnes, E. A., Chen, C.-H., Sedan, O., Cornfield, D. N. Loss of smooth muscle cell hypoxia inducible factor-1α underlies increased vascular contractility in pulmonary hypertension.

  14. Effects of (-)-desmethoxyverapamil on heart and vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrath, H.; Raschack, M.

    1987-09-01

    (-)-Desmethoxyverapamil (also known as (-)-devapamil or (-)-D888) has been developed as a verapamil type radioligand for the study of calcium channels. In the present investigation, the effects of (-)-desmethoxyverapamil on action potential (AP) and force of contraction in heart muscle preparations and on tension and /sup 45/Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle are described. In part, the effects were compared with the (+)-isomer of desmethoxyverapamil and the isomers of both verapamil and methoxyverapamil. In atrial and/or ventricular heart muscle preparations from guinea pigs, cats and man, (-)-desmethoxyverapamil decreased the force of contraction and shortened the AP duration. Slow response APs were depressed, whereas dV/dtmax of phase 0 of the AP remained unchanged. The rank order of potency of the (-)-isomers was as follows: desmethoxyverapamil greater than methoxyverapamil greater than verapamil. Potassium-induced contractures and /sup 45/Ca influx were depressed by the (-)-isomers of desmethoxyverapamil, methoxyverapamil and verapamil in the same potency rank order as observed in heart muscle. The (+)-isomers exerted qualitatively similar effects at about 10 to 200 times higher concentrations. Correspondingly, the increase in potency of the racemic mixtures of the drugs was accompanied by increases in stereoselectivity. It is concluded that (-)-desmethoxyverapamil is the most potent stereoselective calcium antagonist of the verapamil type with respect to its effects on heart and vascular smooth muscle.

  15. Growth inhibitory activity of indapamide on vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ganado, P; Ruiz, E; Del Rio, M; Larcher, F; Sanz, M; Steinert, J R; Tejerina, T

    2001-09-28

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Indapamide is an oral diuretic antihypertensive drug effective for patients with mild or moderate essential hypertension. We now investigated the effects of indapamide on the growth of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (A10 cell line). Indapamide inhibited cell proliferation as measured by the tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3'-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) test. The increase in cell number was significantly reduced in the presence of indapamide 10(-6) and 5 x 10(-4) M (P < 0.05 n = 3 and P < 0.01, n = 3, respectively). Serum-induced DNA synthesis, determined as the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), was concentration-dependently inhibited by indapamide. BrdU incorporation was 47.2+/-1.6% (10% foetal calf serum). Indapamide treatment markedly prevented BrdU incorporation (37.2+/-2.1%, 29.2+/-4.8%, 15.0+/-1.8%, 8.7+/-2.1%) indapamide 10(-6), 10(-5), 5 x 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-4) M, respectively. Cell-cycle progression was also evaluated. Flow cytometry analysis of DNA content in synchronised cells revealed blocking of the serum-inducible cell-cycle progression by indapamide. This inhibition was abolished when the drug was added 2 h after serum repletion, indicating that indapamide must act at the early events of a cell cycle to be fully effective against DNA synthesis. In addition, serum-induced intracellular Ca2+ movements and also p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation were studied in the presence or absence of indapamide. Indapamide 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-5) M decreased significantly cytosolic free calcium, and the p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation (5 x 10(-5) M) stimulated by 10% foetal calf serum. In accordance with this finding, indapamide (5 x 10(-4) M) caused a 95% to 99% decrease in the early elevation of c-fos expression as

  16. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein prevents vascular aging and vascular smooth muscle cells senescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meili; Fu, Yi; Gao, Cheng; Jia, Yiting; Huang, Yaqian; Liu, Limei; Wang, Xian; Wang, Wengong; Kong, Wei

    2016-09-16

    Aging-related vascular dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a vascular extracellular matrix protein, has been described as a negative regulatory factor for the vascular aging-related processes including atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. However, whether COMP is implicated in the process of vascular aging remains unclear. Here, we identified a novel function of COMP in preventing vascular aging and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) senescence. Firstly, vascular COMP expression was decreased in three different senescence-accelerated mouse models and was also declining with age. COMP(-/-) mice displayed elevated senescence-associated markers expression, including p53, p21 and p16, in the aortas compared with their wild type (WT) littermates. In accordance, COMP deficiency induced aging-related vascular dysfunction as evidenced by the significantly reduced phenylephrine-induced contraction and increased vascular stiffness as evaluated by pulse wave velocity. The aortic wall of COMP(-/-) mice was susceptible to senescence by displaying senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity induced by periadventitial application of CaCl2 to the abdominal aorta. In vitro, COMP knockdown by small interfering (si) RNA led to the elevation of p53, p21 and p16 as well as SA β-gal activity in VSMCs after H2O2 stimulation. VSMCs isolated from COMP(-/-) mice showed elevated senescence-associated markers expression and supplement of COMP adenovirus to COMP-deficient VSMCs greatly rescued cellular senescence. Taken together, these findings revealed the essential role of COMP in retarding the development of vascular aging and VSMC senescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in the development of ascites syndrome in broilers induced by low ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Qiao, J; Zhao, L H; Li, K; Wang, H; Xu, T; Tian, Y; Gao, M; Wang, X

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary vascular remodelling, mainly characterized by arterial medial thickening, is an important pathological feature of broiler ascites syndrome (AS). Since vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) form the major cellular component of arterial medial layer, we speculate that VSMC proliferation is one of the causes of pulmonary arterial medial thickening in ascitic broilers. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the role of VSMC proliferation in pulmonary vascular remodelling in development of AS induced by low ambient temperature. Broilers in control group (22 +/- 1.5 degrees C) and low temperature group (11 +/- 2 degrees C) were sampled every week at 15-50 days of age. Proliferative indexes of VSMC in pulmonary arteries were assessed with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and the relative medial thickness (RMT) and relative wall area (RWA), as indexes of pulmonary vascular remodelling, were examined by computer-image analysing system. The results showed that the high incidence (18.75%) of AS was induced by low temperature, and a significantly increased VSMC proliferation was observed in pulmonary arteries in the low temperature group at 22-50 days of age (P < 0.05). In addition, RMT and RWA in pulmonary arteries were significantly elevated in the low temperature group from 36 days of age (P < 0.05), indicating that pulmonary vascular remodelling occurred following VSMC proliferation in AS. Our data suggest that proliferation of VSMC may facilitate pulmonary vascular remodelling and have a pivotal role in AS induced by low ambient temperature.

  18. Vascular smooth muscle cell signaling in cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bomzon, A; Huang, Y T

    2001-03-01

    Abnormal vascular responsiveness to ligands has been frequently observed in cirrhosis and portal hypertension, but its existence is not proven. The signaling pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have been studied only in animal models of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Emerging evidence suggests that active relaxation, expressed as augmented content or activity of effectors within the cyclic AMP signaling pathway and suppressed content or activity of effectors in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate/1,2-diacylglycerol signaling pathway, may be occurring in VSMCs of the splanchnic circulation in portal hypertension. The evidence supporting the existence of this phenomenon in the VSMCs of extrasplanchnic circulations in portal hypertension, as well as in the splanchnic circulation when chronic cellular damage is present, is very limited. The status of the other signaling pathways associated with contractile functions of the VSMCs, viz., cyclic GMP and tyrosine kinase-linked pathways, is unknown. The status of all the signaling pathways in non-contractile functions of VSMCs, such as growth and remodeling, has not been studied. As our overall understanding on the signaling pathways in VSMCs is only emerging, it is premature to implicate altered activity of the signaling pathways as the underlying basis of vascular hyporesponsiveness in cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and to extrapolate these limited observations to the human condition.

  19. Calmodulin kinase II is required for angiotensin II-mediated vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Li, Weiwei; Gupta, Arun K.; Mohler, Peter J.; Anderson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite our understanding that medial smooth muscle hypertrophy is a central feature of vascular remodeling, the molecular pathways underlying this pathology are still not well understood. Work over the past decade has illustrated a potential role for the multifunctional calmodulin-dependent kinase CaMKII in smooth muscle cell contraction, growth, and migration. Here we demonstrate that CaMKII is enriched in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and that CaMKII inhibition blocks ANG II-dependent VSM cell hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, systemic CaMKII inhibition with KN-93 prevented ANG II-mediated hypertension and medial hypertrophy in vivo. Adenoviral transduction with the CaMKII peptide inhibitor CaMKIIN abrogated ANG II-induced VSM hypertrophy in vitro, which was augmented by overexpression of CaMKII-δ2. Finally, we identify the downstream signaling components critical for ANG II- and CaMKII-mediated VSM hypertrophy. Specifically, we demonstrate that CaMKII induces VSM hypertrophy by regulating histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) activity, thereby stimulating activity of the hypertrophic transcription factor MEF2. MEF2 transcription is activated by ANG II in vivo and abrogated by the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93. Together, our studies identify a complete pathway for ANG II-triggered arterial VSM hypertrophy and identify new potential therapeutic targets for chronic human hypertension. PMID:20023119

  20. Calmodulin kinase II is required for angiotensin II-mediated vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Weiwei; Gupta, Arun K; Mohler, Peter J; Anderson, Mark E; Grumbach, Isabella M

    2010-02-01

    Despite our understanding that medial smooth muscle hypertrophy is a central feature of vascular remodeling, the molecular pathways underlying this pathology are still not well understood. Work over the past decade has illustrated a potential role for the multifunctional calmodulin-dependent kinase CaMKII in smooth muscle cell contraction, growth, and migration. Here we demonstrate that CaMKII is enriched in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and that CaMKII inhibition blocks ANG II-dependent VSM cell hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, systemic CaMKII inhibition with KN-93 prevented ANG II-mediated hypertension and medial hypertrophy in vivo. Adenoviral transduction with the CaMKII peptide inhibitor CaMKIIN abrogated ANG II-induced VSM hypertrophy in vitro, which was augmented by overexpression of CaMKII-delta2. Finally, we identify the downstream signaling components critical for ANG II- and CaMKII-mediated VSM hypertrophy. Specifically, we demonstrate that CaMKII induces VSM hypertrophy by regulating histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) activity, thereby stimulating activity of the hypertrophic transcription factor MEF2. MEF2 transcription is activated by ANG II in vivo and abrogated by the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93. Together, our studies identify a complete pathway for ANG II-triggered arterial VSM hypertrophy and identify new potential therapeutic targets for chronic human hypertension.

  1. Arterial relaxation is coupled to inhibition of mitochondrial fission in arterial smooth muscle cells: comparison of vasorelaxant effects of verapamil and phentolamine.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Shen, Xin; Tai, Yu; Li, Shanliang; Liu, Mingyu; Zhen, Changlin; Xuan, Xiuchen; Zhang, Xiyue; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Xinzi; Dong, Deli

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic organelles which undergo fission and fusion processes. Our previous study found that arterial constriction was always accompanied by increased mitochondrial fission in smooth muscle cells, whereas inhibition of mitochondrial fission in smooth muscle cells was associated with arterial relaxation. Here, we used the typical vasorelaxants, verapamil and phentolamine, to further confirm the coupling between arterial constriction and mitochondrial fission in rat aorta. Results showed that phentolamine but not verapamil induced vasorelaxation in phenylephrine (PE)-induced rat thoracic aorta constriction. Verapamil, but not phentolamine, induced vasorelaxation in high K(+) (KPSS)-induced rat thoracic aorta constriction. Pre-treatment with phentolamine prevented PE- but not KPSS-induced aorta constriction and pre-treatment with verapamil prevented both PE- and KPSS-induced aorta constriction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that verapamil but not phentolamine inhibited KPSS-induced excessive mitochondrial fission in aortic smooth muscle cells, and verapamil prevented both PE- and KPSS-induced excessive mitochondrial fission in aortic smooth muscle cells. Verapamil inhibited KPSS-induced excessive mitochondrial fission in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (A10). These results further demonstrate that arterial relaxation is coupled to inhibition of mitochondrial fission in arterial smooth muscle cells.

  2. Diffuse and uncontrolled vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in rapidly progressing pediatric moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Reid, Amy J; Bhattacharjee, Meenakshi B; Regalado, Ellen S; Milewicz, Allen L; El-Hakam, Lisa M; Dauser, Robert C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2010-09-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare stroke syndrome of unknown etiology resulting from stenosis or occlusion of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) in association with an abnormal vascular network in the basal ganglia. Although the highest incidence of moyamoya disease is in pediatric patients, pathology reports have been primarily limited to adult samples and describe occlusive fibrocellular lesions in the intimae of affected arteries. We describe the case of a young girl with primary moyamoya disease who presented at 18 months of age with right hemiparesis following an ischemic stroke. Angiography showed stenosis of the distal left ICA, left middle cerebral artery, and right ICA. An emergent left-sided dural inversion was performed. Recurrent strokes and alternating hemiplegia necessitated a right dural inversion 6 months later. Nonetheless, her aggressive disease proved uniquely refractory to surgical revascularization, and she succumbed to recurrent strokes and neurological deterioration at 2.5 years of age. Pathological specimens revealed a striking bilateral occlusion of the anterior carotid circulation resulting from intimal proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Most strikingly, the ascending aorta and the superior mesenteric artery demonstrated similar intimal proliferation, along with SMC proliferation in the media. The systemic pathology involving multiple arteries in this extremely young child, the first case of its kind available for autopsy, suggests that globally uncontrolled SMC proliferation, in the absence of environmental risk factors and likely resulting from an underlying genetic alteration, may be a primary etiologic event leading to moyamoya disease.

  3. Dopamine DA1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells are regulated by glucocorticoid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Horio, T; Takeda, T

    1994-09-01

    The modulation of dopamine DA1 receptors of cultured rat renal arterial smooth muscle cells by glucocorticoid and sodium chloride was studied. At a concentration of 10 nM, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone increased maximum receptor binding but had no effect on the dissociation constant. However, the maximum binding of [3H]Sch-23390 in cells treated with 100 mM sodium chloride did not change. However, the dissociation constant for DA1 receptor was increased by adding sodium chloride. The glucocorticoid effect on DA1 of arterial smooth muscle cells became apparent after hours of incubation in the presence of the steroid and was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide (10 micrograms/ml) or by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-38486, indicating that the effect required protein synthesis through glucocorticoid receptors. Treatment of cells with 1 microM dexamethasone for 24 h increased basal and DA1-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Basal adenylate cyclase was decreased by sodium chloride in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest differential control of DA1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by glucocorticoid or sodium chloride.

  4. Loss of Notch3 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Promotes Severe Heart Failure Upon Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ragot, Hélène; Monfort, Astrid; Baudet, Mathilde; Azibani, Fériel; Fazal, Loubina; Merval, Régine; Polidano, Evelyne; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Vodovar, Nicolas; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension, which is a risk factor of heart failure, provokes adaptive changes at the vasculature and cardiac levels. Notch3 signaling plays an important role in resistance arteries by controlling the maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Notch3 deletion is protective in pulmonary hypertension while deleterious in arterial hypertension. Although this latter phenotype was attributed to renal and cardiac alterations, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. To investigate the role of Notch3 signaling in the cardiac adaptation to hypertension, we used mice with either constitutive Notch3 or smooth muscle cell-specific conditional RBPJκ knockout. At baseline, both genotypes exhibited a cardiac arteriolar rarefaction associated with oxidative stress. In response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, the heart of Notch3 knockout and SM-RBPJκ knockout mice did not adapt to pressure overload and developed heart failure, which could lead to an early and fatal acute decompensation of heart failure. This cardiac maladaptation was characterized by an absence of media hypertrophy of the media arteries, the transition of smooth muscle cells toward a synthetic phenotype, and an alteration of angiogenic pathways. A subset of mice exhibited an early fatal acute decompensated heart failure, in which the same alterations were observed, although in a more rapid timeframe. Altogether, these observations indicate that Notch3 plays a major role in coronary adaptation to pressure overload. These data also show that the hypertrophy of coronary arterial media on pressure overload is mandatory to initially maintain a normal cardiac function and is regulated by the Notch3/RBPJκ pathway. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Pericytes are progenitors for coronary artery smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Katharina S; Jacobs, Andrew H; Chen, Heidi I; Poduri, Aruna; McKay, Andrew S; Riordan, Daniel P; Kofler, Natalie; Kitajewski, Jan; Weissman, Irving; Red-Horse, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial cells on the heart’s surface give rise to coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) located deep in the myocardium. However, the differentiation steps between epicardial cells and caSMCs are unknown as are the final maturation signals at coronary arteries. Here, we use clonal analysis and lineage tracing to show that caSMCs derive from pericytes, mural cells associated with microvessels, and that these cells are present in adults. During development following the onset of blood flow, pericytes at arterial remodeling sites upregulate Notch3 while endothelial cells express Jagged-1. Deletion of Notch3 disrupts caSMC differentiation. Our data support a model wherein epicardial-derived pericytes populate the entire coronary microvasculature, but differentiate into caSMCs at arterial remodeling zones in response to Notch signaling. Our data are the first demonstration that pericytes are progenitors for smooth muscle, and their presence in adult hearts reveals a new potential cell type for targeting during cardiovascular disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10036.001 PMID:26479710

  6. Simulated Hypergravity Alters Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Shameka; Bettis, Barika; Harris-Hooker, Sandra; Sanford, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    The cellular effects of gravity are poorly understood due to its constancy and nonavailability of altered gravitational models. Such an understanding is crucial for prolonged space flights. In these studies, we assessed the influence of centrifugation at 6G (HGrav) on vascular smooth muscle (SMC) mobility and proliferation. Cells were: (a) plated at low density and subjected to HGrav for 24-72 hr for proliferation studies, or (b) grown to confluency, subjected to HGrav, mechanically denuded and monitored for cell movement into the denuded area. Controls were maintained under normogravity. SMC showed a 50% inhibition of growth under HGrav and 10% serum; HGrav and low serum resulted in greater growth inhibition. The rate of movement of SMC into the denuded area was 2-3-fold higher under HGrav in low serum compared to controls, but similar in 10% serum. These studies show that HGrav has significant effects on SMC growth and mobility, which are dependent on serum levels.

  7. Simulated Hypergravity Alters Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Shameka; Bettis, Barika; Harris-Hooker, Sandra; Sanford, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    The cellular effects of gravity are poorly understood due to its constancy and nonavailability of altered gravitational models. Such an understanding is crucial for prolonged space flights. In these studies, we assessed the influence of centrifugation at 6G (HGrav) on vascular smooth muscle (SMC) mobility and proliferation. Cells were: (a) plated at low density and subjected to HGrav for 24-72 hr for proliferation studies, or (b) grown to confluency, subjected to HGrav, mechanically denuded and monitored for cell movement into the denuded area. Controls were maintained under normogravity. SMC showed a 50% inhibition of growth under HGrav and 10% serum; HGrav and low serum resulted in greater growth inhibition. The rate of movement of SMC into the denuded area was 2-3-fold higher under HGrav in low serum compared to controls, but similar in 10% serum. These studies show that HGrav has significant effects on SMC growth and mobility, which are dependent on serum levels.

  8. Vascular smooth muscle cell response on thin films of collagen.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John T; Woodward, John T; Langenbach, Kurt J; Tona, Alex; Jones, Peter L; Plant, Anne L

    2005-10-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) cultured on gels of fibrillar type I collagen or denatured collagen (gelatin) comprise a model system that has been widely used for studying the role of the extracellular matrix in vascular diseases such as hypertension, restenosis and athrosclerosis. Despite the wide use of this model system, there are several disadvantages to using collagen gels for cellular studies. These include poor optical characteristics for microscopy, difficulty in verifying that the properties of the preparations are identical from experiment to experiment, heterogeneity within the gels, and difficulty in handling the gels because they are fragile. Previously, we developed an alternative collagen matrix by forming thin films of native fibrillar collagen or denatured collagen on self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols [Elliott, J.T., Tona, A., Woodward, J., Jones,P., Plant, A., 2003a. Thin films of collagen affect smooth muscle cell morphology. Langmuir 19, 1506-1514.]. These substrates are robust and can be characterized by surface analytical techniques that allow both verification of the reproducibility of the preparation and high-resolution analysis of collagen structure. In addition, they have excellent optical properties that allow more details of the cell-matrix interactions to be observed by microscopy. In this study, we performed a side-by-side structural and functional comparison of collagen gels with thin films of collagen. Our results indicate that vSMC on thin films of collagen are nearly identical to vSMC on thick gels as determined by morphology, proliferation rate, integrin ligation, tenascin-C expression and intracellular signaling events. These results suggest that the features of collagen gels that direct the observed vSMC responses are adequately reconstituted in the thin films of collagen. These thin films will be useful for elucidating the features of the collagen matrix that regulate vSMC response and may be applicable to high

  9. Coronary endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle proliferation are programmed by early-gestation dexamethasone exposure in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Roghair, Robert D.; Jung, Felicia; Scholz, Thomas D.; Lamb, Fred S.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of the early-gestation ovine fetus to exogenous glucocorticoids induces changes in postnatal cardiovascular physiology. We sought to characterize coronary artery vascular function in this model by elucidating the contribution of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to altered coronary vascular reactivity and examining the proliferative potential of coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone (dex, 0.28 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 48 h) was administered to pregnant ewes at 27–28-day gestation (term 145 days). Coronary arteries were isolated from 1- to 2-wk-old dex-exposed offspring and aged-matched controls. Compared with controls, coronary arteries from dex-exposed lambs demonstrated enhanced vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 and ACh that was abolished by endothelial removal or preincubation with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NNA, membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase + catalase, or apamin + charybdotoxin, but not indomethacin. The rate of coronary vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation was also significantly greater in dex-exposed lambs. Protein levels of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen were increased and α-smooth muscle actin decreased in dex-exposed coronary VSMC, consistent with a proliferative state. Finally, expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox 4, but not Nox 1, mRNA was also decreased in coronary VSMC from dex-exposed lambs. These findings suggest an important interaction exists between early-gestation glucocorticoid exposure and reactive oxygen species that is associated with alterations in endothelial function and coronary VSMC proliferation. These changes in coronary physiology are consistent with those associated with the development of atherosclerosis and may provide an important link between an adverse intrauterine environment and increased risk for coronary artery disease. PMID:20335378

  10. Role of blood and vascular smooth muscle in the vasoactivity of nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J.; Barcelo, Lisa; Bragg, Shannon L.; Terry, Michael H.; Wilson, Sean M.; Power, Gordon G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from humans and rats indicates that nitrite is a vasodilator under hypoxic conditions by reacting with metal-containing proteins to produce nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that near-physiological concentrations of nitrite would produce vasodilation in a hypoxia- and concentration-dependent manner in the hind limb of sheep. Anesthetized sheep were instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and femoral blood flows continuously in both hind limbs. Nitrite was infused into one femoral artery to raise the nitrite concentration in the femoral vein by 10 to 15-fold while the sheep breathed 50%, 14% or 12% oxygen in inspired air. In contrast to reports in humans and rats, the nitrite infusion had no measurable effect on mean femoral blood flows or vascular conductances, regardless of inspired O2 levels. In vitro experiments showed no significant difference in the release of NO from nitrite in sheep and human red blood cells. Further experiments demonstrated nitrite is converted to NO in rat artery homogenates faster than sheep arteries, and that this source of NO production is attenuated in the presence of a heme oxidizer. Finally, western blots indicate that concentrations of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin, but not myoglobin, are markedly lower in sheep arteries compared with rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that nitrite is not a physiological vasodilator in sheep. This is likely due to a lack of conversion of nitrite to NO within the vascular smooth muscle, perhaps due to deficient amounts of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin. PMID:25108012

  11. Vascular Smooth Muscle Sirtuin-1 Protects Against Diet-Induced Aortic Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jessica L.; Sayah, Leona Al; Weisbrod, Robert; Van Roy, Isabelle; Weng, Xiang; Cohen, Richard A.; Bachschmid, Markus; Seta, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, a major cardiovascular risk factor, develops within two months in mice fed a high fat, high sucrose diet (HFHS), serving as a model of human metabolic syndrome, and is associated with activation of pro-inflammatory and oxidant pathways in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Sirtuin-1 (SirT1) is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase regulated by the cellular metabolic status. Our goal was to study the effects of VSM SirT1 on arterial stiffness in the context of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Overnight fasting acutely decreased arterial stiffness, measured in vivo by pulse wave velocity (PWV), in mice fed HFHS for 2 or 8 months, but not in mice lacking SirT1 in VSM (SMKO). Similarly, VSM specific (SMTG) genetic SirT1 over-expression prevented PWV increases induced by HFHS feeding, over 8 months. Administration of resveratrol or S17834, two polyphenolic compounds known to activate SirT1, prevented HFHS-induced arterial stiffness and were mimicked by global SirT1 over-expression (SirBACO), without evident metabolic improvements. Additionally, HFHS-induced PWV increases were reversed by one-week treatment with a specific, small molecule SirT1 activator (SRT1720). These beneficial effects of pharmacological or genetic SirT1 activation, against HFHS-induced arterial stiffness, were associated with a decrease in NFκB activation and VCAM-1 and p47phox protein expressions, in aorta and VSM cells. In conclusion, VSM SirT1 activation decreases arterial stiffness in the setting of obesity by stimulating anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant pathways in the aorta. SirT1 activators may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent arterial stiffness and associated cardiovascular complications in overweight/obese individuals with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27432859

  12. Monocyte-expressed urokinase regulates human vascular smooth muscle cell migration in a coculture model.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Angelika; Tkachuk, Sergey; Lutter, Steffen; Haller, Hermann; Dietz, Rainer; Lipp, Martin; Dumler, Inna

    2002-01-01

    Interactions of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) with monocytes recruited to the arterial wall at a site of injury, with resultant modulation of VSMC growth and migration, are central to the development of vascular intimal thickening. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expressed by monocytes is a potent chemotactic factor for VSMC and might serve for the acceleration of vascular remodeling. In this report, we demonstrate that coculture of human VSMC with freshly isolated peripheral blood-derived human monocytes results in significant VSMC migration that increases during the coculture period. Accordingly, VSMC adhesion was inhibited with similar kinetics. VSMC proliferation, however, was not affected and remained at the same basal level during the whole period of coculture. The increase of VSMC migration in coculture was equivalent to the uPA-induced migration of monocultured VSMC and was blocked by addition into coculture of soluble uPAR (suPAR). Analysis of uPA and uPAR expression in cocultured cells demonstrated that monocytes are a major source of uPA, whose expression increases in coculture five-fold, whereas VSMC display an increased expression of cell surface-associated uPAR. These findings indicate that upregulated uPA production by monocytes following vascular injury acts most likely as an endogenous activator of VSMC migration contributing to the remodeling of vessel walls.

  13. Genetic Dissection of the Vav2-Rac1 Signaling Axis in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fabbiano, Salvatore; Menacho-Márquez, Mauricio; Sevilla, María A.; Albarrán-Juárez, Julián; Zheng, Yi; Offermanns, Stefan; Montero, María J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are key in the regulation of blood pressure and the engagement of vascular pathologies, such as hypertension, arterial remodeling, and neointima formation. The role of the Rac1 GTPase in these cells remains poorly characterized. To clarify this issue, we have utilized genetically engineered mice to manipulate the signaling output of Rac1 in these cells at will using inducible, Cre-loxP-mediated DNA recombination techniques. Here, we show that the expression of an active version of the Rac1 activator Vav2 exclusively in vSMCs leads to hypotension as well as the elimination of the hypertension induced by the systemic loss of wild-type Vav2. Conversely, the specific depletion of Rac1 in vSMCs causes defective nitric oxide vasodilation responses and hypertension. Rac1, but not Vav2, also is important for neointima formation but not for hypertension-driven vascular remodeling. These animals also have allowed us to dismiss etiological connections between hypertension and metabolic disease and, most importantly, identify pathophysiological programs that cooperate in the development and consolidation of hypertensive states caused by local vascular tone dysfunctions. Finally, our results suggest that the therapeutic inhibition of Rac1 will be associated with extensive cardiovascular system-related side effects and identify pharmacological avenues to circumvent them. PMID:25288640

  14. Effect of sinomenine on vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation and neointima formation after vascular injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lihua; Hao, Yarong; Guan, Hongjing; Cui, Changping; Tian, Song; Yang, Da; Wang, Xinan; Zhang, Shuming; Wang, Lang; Jiang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Sinomenine, a pure alkaloid extract from Sinomenium acutum, has anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory functions. This study investigated the efficiency and the signalling pathways involved in the effect of sinomenine on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dedifferentiation in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB stimulation and vascular injury. VSMCs were isolated from rat aorta and preincubated with sinomenine before being stimulated with PDGF-BB. WST and BrdU incorporation assays were used to evaluate VSMC proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis was performed for testing the cell cycle progression. The cell migration of VSMCs were analysed using a Transwell system. The expression of VSMC specific genes and signalling proteins were tested by Western blot. For the animal study, C57/BL6 mice were fed either normal rodent chow diets or sinomenine chow diets that supplemented with 0.09 % sinomenine (w/w) in the normal chows for 14 days before carotid artery wire injury. PDGF-BB activated the dedifferentiation of VSMCs characterised by decreased expression of SMA, Smoothelin and SM22α. However, sinomenine treatment preserved the dedifferentiation in response to PDGF-BB. The activations of mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinases, Akt, GSK3β and STAT3 induced by PDGF-BB were also inhibited in sinomenine-treated VSMCs. In vivo evidence with wire-injured mice exhibited a reduction in neointimal area and an increase in smooth muscle-specific gene expression in the sinomenine-treated group. In this study, we found that sinomenine-suppressed VSMC phenotype switching induced by PDGF-BB in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo. Therefore, sinomenine is a potential candidate to be used in the treatment of vascular proliferative disease.

  15. Carvacrol induces the apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianlong; Fan, Kai; Wang, Peng; Yu, Juan; Liu, Ruxia; Qi, Hanping; Sun, Hongli; Cao, Yonggang

    2016-01-05

    The abnormal apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is an important pathophysiological process in pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Carvacrol, an essential oil compound from oregano and thyme, has displayed antimicrobial, antitumor, and antioxidant properties. Although carvacrol has pro-apoptosis properties in tumor cells, the underlying mechanisms of carvacrol in PASMC apoptosis remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we aim to investigate the role of carvacrol in pulmonary vascular remodeling and PASMC apoptosis in hypoxia. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Measurements and pulmonary pathomorphology data show that the ratio of the heart weight/tibia length (HW/TL), the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV+S) and the medial width of the pulmonary artery increased in chronic hypoxia and were reversed by carvacrol treatment under hypoxia. Additionally, carvacrol inhibited PASMC viability, attenuated oxidative stress, induced mitochondria membrane depolarization, increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, suppressed Bcl-2 expression, decreased procaspase-3 expression, promoted caspase-3 activation, and inhibited the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that carvacrol attenuates the pulmonary vascular remodeling and promotes PASMC apoptosis by acting on, at least in part, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This process might provide us new insight into the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  16. Vascular smooth muscle cell functional contractility depends on extracellular mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Steucke, Kerianne E.; Tracy, Paige V.; Hald, Eric S.; Hall, Jennifer L.; Alford, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells’ primary function is to maintain vascular homeostasis through active contraction and relaxation. In diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, this function is inhibited concurrent to changes in the mechanical environment surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells. It is well established that cell function and extracellular mechanics are interconnected; variations in substrate modulus affect cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. To date, it is unknown how the evolving extracellular mechanical environment of vascular smooth muscle cells affects their contractile function. Here, we have built upon previous vascular muscular thin film technology to develop a variable-modulus vascular muscular thin film that measures vascular tissue functional contractility on substrates with a range of pathological and physiological moduli. Using this modified vascular muscular thin film, we found that vascular smooth muscle cells generated greater stress on substrates with higher moduli compared to substrates with lower moduli. We then measured protein markers typically thought to indicate a contractile phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells and found that phenotype is unaffected by substrate modulus. These data suggest that mechanical properties of vascular smooth muscle cells’ extracellular environment directly influence their functional behavior and do so without inducing phenotype switching. PMID:26283412

  17. Calcifying nanoparticles promote mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Larry W; Charlesworth, Jon E; Yu, Sam; Lieske, John C; Miller, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized complexes of calcium phosphate mineral and proteins (calcifying nanoparticles [CNPs]) serve as mineral chaperones. Thus, CNPs may be both a result and cause of soft tissue calcification processes. This study determined if CNPs could augment calcification of arterial vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. CNPs 210 nm in diameter were propagated in vitro from human serum. Porcine aortic smooth muscle cells were cultured for up to 28 days in medium in the absence (control) or presence of 2 mM phosphate ([P] positive calcification control) or after a single 3-day exposure to CNPs. Transmission electron-microscopy was used to characterize CNPs and to examine their cellular uptake. Calcium deposits were visualized by light microscopy and von Kossa staining and were quantified by colorimetry. Cell viability was quantified by confocal microscopy of live-/dead-stained cells and apoptosis was examined concurrently by fluorescent labeling of exposed phosphatidylserine. CNPs, as well as smaller calcium crystals, were observed by transmission electron-microscopy on day 3 in CNP-treated but not P-treated cells. By day 28, calcium deposits were visible in similar amounts within multicellular nodules of both CNP- and P-treated cells. Apoptosis increased with cell density under all treatments. CNP treatment augmented the density of apoptotic bodies and cellular debris in association with mineralized multicellular nodules. Exogenous CNPs are taken up by aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and potentiate accumulation of smooth-muscle-derived apoptotic bodies at sites of mineralization. Thus, CNPs may accelerate vascular calcification.

  18. Calcifying nanoparticles promote mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Larry W; Charlesworth, Jon E; Yu, Sam; Lieske, John C; Miller, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Background Nano-sized complexes of calcium phosphate mineral and proteins (calcifying nanoparticles [CNPs]) serve as mineral chaperones. Thus, CNPs may be both a result and cause of soft tissue calcification processes. This study determined if CNPs could augment calcification of arterial vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Methods CNPs 210 nm in diameter were propagated in vitro from human serum. Porcine aortic smooth muscle cells were cultured for up to 28 days in medium in the absence (control) or presence of 2 mM phosphate ([P] positive calcification control) or after a single 3-day exposure to CNPs. Transmission electron-microscopy was used to characterize CNPs and to examine their cellular uptake. Calcium deposits were visualized by light microscopy and von Kossa staining and were quantified by colorimetry. Cell viability was quantified by confocal microscopy of live-/dead-stained cells and apoptosis was examined concurrently by fluorescent labeling of exposed phosphatidylserine. Results CNPs, as well as smaller calcium crystals, were observed by transmission electron-microscopy on day 3 in CNP-treated but not P-treated cells. By day 28, calcium deposits were visible in similar amounts within multicellular nodules of both CNP- and P-treated cells. Apoptosis increased with cell density under all treatments. CNP treatment augmented the density of apoptotic bodies and cellular debris in association with mineralized multicellular nodules. Conclusion Exogenous CNPs are taken up by aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and potentiate accumulation of smooth-muscle-derived apoptotic bodies at sites of mineralization. Thus, CNPs may accelerate vascular calcification. PMID:24920905

  19. Vascular smooth muscle G(q) signaling is involved in high blood pressure in both induced renal and genetic vascular smooth muscle-derived models of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Harris, David M; Cohn, Heather I; Pesant, Stéphanie; Zhou, Rui-Hai; Eckhart, Andrea D

    2007-11-01

    More than 30% of the US population has high blood pressure (BP), and less than a third of people treated for hypertension have it controlled. In addition, the etiology of most high BP is not known. Having a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying hypertension could potentially increase the effectiveness of treatment. Because G(q) signaling mediates vasoconstriction and vascular function can cause BP abnormalities, we were interested in determining the role of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) G(q) signaling in two divergent models of hypertension: a renovascular model of hypertension through renal artery stenosis and a genetic model of hypertension using mice with VSM-derived high BP. Inhibition of VSM G(q) signaling attenuated BP increases induced by renal artery stenosis to a similar extent as losartan, an ANG II receptor blocker and current antihypertensive therapy. Inhibition of G(q) signaling also attenuated high BP in our genetic VSM-derived hypertensive model. In contrast, BP remained elevated 25% following treatment with losartan, and prazosin, an alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, only decreased BP by 35%. Inhibition of G(q) signaling attenuated VSM reactivity to ANG II and resulted in a 2.4-fold rightward shift in EC(50). We also determined that inhibition of G(q) signaling was able to reverse VSM hypertrophy in the genetic VSM-derived hypertensive model. These results suggest that G(q) signaling is an important signaling pathway in two divergent models of hypertension and, perhaps, optimization of antihypertensive therapy could occur with the identification of particular G(q)-coupled receptors involved.

  20. Arterial vascularization patterns of the splenium: An anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Kahilogullari, G; Comert, A; Ozdemir, M; Brohi, R A; Ozgural, O; Esmer, A F; Egemen, N; Karahan, S T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). The splenium is unique in that it is part of the largest commissural tract in the brain and a region in which pathologies are seen frequently. An exact description of the arterial vascularization of this part of the CC remains under debate. Thirty adult human brains (60 hemispheres) were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. Then, the brains were fixed in formaldehyde, and dissections were performed using a surgical microscope. The diameter of the arterial branches supplying the splenium of the CC at their origin was investigated, and the vascularization patterns of these branches were observed. Vascular supply to the splenium was provided by the anterior pericallosal artery (40%) from the anterior circulation and by the posterior pericallosal artery (88%) and posterior accessory pericallosal artery (50%) from the posterior circulation. The vascularization pattern of the splenium differs in each hemisphere and is usually supplied by multiple branches. The arterial vascularization of the splenium of the CC was studied comprehensively considering the ongoing debate and the inadequacy of the studies on this issue currently available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge is essential during the treatment of pathologies in this region and especially for splenial arteriovenous malformations.

  1. Induction of Nur77 by hyperoside inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal formation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yan; Yi, Bing; Chen, Ming; Wang, Nadan; Chen, Pengguo; Guo, Cheng; Sun, Jianxin

    2014-12-15

    Nur77 is an orphan nuclear receptor that belongs to the nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) subfamily, which has been implicated in a variety of biological events, such as cell apoptosis, proliferation, inflammation, and metabolism. Activation of Nur77 has recently been shown to be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to identify novel natural Nur77 activators and investigate their roles in preventing vascular diseases. By measuring Nur77 expression using quantitative RT-PCR, we screened active ingredients extracted from Chinese herb medicines with beneficial cardiovascular effects. Hyperoside (quercetin 3-D-galactoside) was identified as one of the potent activators for inducing Nur77 expression and activating its transcriptional activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We demonstrated that hyperoside, in a time and dose dependent manner, markedly increased the expression of Nur77 in rat VSMCs, with an EC50 of ∼0.83 μM. Mechanistically, we found that hyperoside significantly increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase and its downstream target cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), both of which contributed to the hyperoside-induced Nur77 expression in rat VSMCs. Moreover, through activation of Nur77 receptor, hyperoside markedly inhibited both vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro and the carotid artery ligation-induced neointimal formation in vivo. These findings demonstrate that hyperoside is a potent natural activator of Nur77 receptor, which can be potentially used for prevention and treatment of occlusive vascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. New endoplasmic reticulum stress regulator, Gipie, regulates the survival of vascular smooth muscle cells and the neointima formation after vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Noda, Tomonori; Maeda, Kengo; Hayano, Shinji; Asai, Naoya; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) initiates an adaptive stress response, termed the unfolded protein response. Previous studies suggested that ER stress might be involved in the formation of neointima after vascular injury. We recently discovered a novel regulator of ER stress, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein-interacting protein induced by ER stress (Gipie). The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of Gipie using models of vascular disease. We investigated the functions of Gipie in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and in a vascular injury model of a rat carotid artery. The expression of Gipie was predominantly detected in synthetic VSMCs and to a much lesser extent in contractile VSMCs, which was augmented by treatment with thapsigargin. Gipie knockdown increased the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the number of apoptotic cells under ER stress. Moreover, Gipie knockdown decreased the mature form of collagen I in synthetic VSMCs. The expression of Gipie was rarely detected in the medial VSMCs of the intact carotid artery, whereas it was detected in most of the neointimal cells and some of the medial VSMCs after balloon injury. Depletion of Gipie in the rat carotid artery attenuated the neointimal thickening, which was accompanied by increased cell death in the neointima. Conversely, overexpression of Gipie augmented the neointimal thickening. Gipie participates in the ER stress response in VSMCs and plays an important role in neointima formation after vascular injury. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Jennings F.; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1986-08-01

    Single smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated from the rabbit mesenteric artery. At physiological levels of external Ca, these cells were relaxed and contracted on exposure to norepinephrine, caffeine, or high levels of potassium. The patch-clamp technique was used to measure unitary currents through single channels in the isolated cells. Single channels were selective for divalent cations and exhibited two conductance levels, 8 pS and 15 pS. Both types of channels were voltage-dependent, and channel activity occurred at potentials positive to -40 mV. The activity of both channel types was almost completely inhibited by 50 nM nisoldipine. These channels appear to be the pathways for voltage-dependent Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle and may be the targets of the clinically used dihydropyridines.

  4. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Poyhonen, Minna; Tikka, Saara; Behbahani, Homira

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology.

  5. IL-22 activates oxidant signaling in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Geetanjali; Das, Dividutta; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Wang, Yi-Hsuan; Gilmore, Brent A; Wong, Chi-Ming; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate cell-signaling processes in response to various ligands and play important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The present study reports that interleukin-22 (IL-22) elicits signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through a ROS-dependent mechanism. We find that pulmonary artery SMCs express IL-22 receptor alpha 1 and that IL-22 activates STAT3 through this receptor. IL-22-induced signaling is found to be mediated by NADPH oxidase, as indicated by the observations that the inhibition and siRNA knock-down of this enzyme inhibit IL-22 signaling. IL-22 triggers the oxidative modifications of proteins through protein carbonylation and protein glutathionylation. Mass spectrometry identified some proteins that are carbonylated in response to IL-22 stimulation, including α-enolase, heat shock cognate 71kDa protein, mitochondrial 60kDa heat shock protein, and cytoplasmic 2 actin and determined that α-tubulin is glutathionylated. Protein glutathionylation and STAT3 phosphorylation are enhanced by the siRNA knock-down of glutaredoxin, while IL-22-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation is suppressed by knocking down thioredoxin interacting protein, an inhibitor of thioredoxin. IL-22 is also found to promote the growth of SMCs via NADPH oxidase. In rats, pulmonary hypertension is found to be associated with increased smooth muscle IL-22 expression. These results show that IL-22 promotes the growth of pulmonary vascular SMCs via a signaling mechanism that involves NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidation.

  6. Mice lacking hypertension candidate gene ATP2B1 in vascular smooth muscle cells show significant blood pressure elevation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Tabara, Yasuharu; Muraoka, Hidenori; Fujita, Megumi; Miyazaki, Nobuko; Fujiwara, Akira; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Ichihara, Naoaki; Saka, Sanae; Wakui, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Yatsu, Keisuke; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Gen; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takei, Kohtaro; Goshima, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miki, Tetsuro; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    We reported previously that ATP2B1 was one of the genes for hypertension receptivity in a large-scale Japanese population, which has been replicated recently in Europeans and Koreans. ATP2B1 encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 1, which plays a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. In addition, it is suggested that ATP2B1 plays a major role in vascular smooth muscle contraction. Because the ATP2B1 knockout (KO) mouse is embryo-lethal, we generated mice with vascular smooth muscle cell-specific KO of ATP2B1 using the Cre-loxP system to clarify the relationship between ATP2B1 and hypertension. The KO mice expressed significantly lower levels of ATP2B1 mRNA and protein in the aorta compared with control mice. KO mice showed significantly higher systolic blood pressure as measured by tail-cuff method and radiotelemetric method. Similar to ATP2B1, the expression of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger isoform 1 mRNA was decreased in vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice. However, ATP2B4 expression was increased in KO mice. The cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice showed increased intracellular calcium concentration not only in basal condition but also in phenylephrine-stimulated condition. Furthermore, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was significantly increased in vascular rings of the femoral artery of KO mice. These results suggest that ATP2B1 plays important roles in the regulation of blood pressure through alteration of calcium handling and vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  7. Advanced Glycation End-Products Induce Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: A Mechanism for Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Sayo; Yano, Shozo; Tanaka, Sayuri; Sheikh, Abdullah M.; Nagai, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification, especially medial artery calcification, is associated with cardiovascular death in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To determine the underlying mechanism of vascular calcification, we have demonstrated in our previous report that advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) stimulated calcium deposition in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through excessive oxidative stress and phenotypic transition into osteoblastic cells. Since AGEs can induce apoptosis, in this study we investigated its role on VSMC apoptosis, focusing mainly on the underlying mechanisms. A rat VSMC line (A7r5) was cultured, and treated with glycolaldehyde-derived AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE3-BSA). Apoptotic cells were identified by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. To quantify apoptosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for histone-complexed DNA fragments was employed. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the mRNA levels. Treatment of A7r5 cells with AGE3-BSA from 100 µg/mL concentration markedly increased apoptosis, which was suppressed by Nox inhibitors. AGE3-BSA significantly increased the mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components including Nox4 and p22phox, and these findings were confirmed by protein levels using immunofluorescence. Dihydroethidisum assay showed that compared with cBSA, AGE3-BSA increased reactive oxygen species level in A7r5 cells. Furthermore, AGE3-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nox4 or p22phox. Double knockdown of Nox4 and p22phox showed a similar inhibitory effect on apoptosis as single gene silencing. Thus, our results demonstrated that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived oxidative stress are involved in AGEs-induced apoptosis of VSMCs. These findings might be important to understand the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in diabetes and CKD. PMID:27649164

  8. Vasoconstrictor effect of endothelin-1 on hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle involves Rho-kinase and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Barman, Scott A

    2007-08-01

    Although one of the common characteristics of pulmonary hypertension is abnormal sustained vasoconstriction, the signaling pathways that mediate this heightened pulmonary vascular response are still not well defined. Protein kinase C (PKC) and Rho-kinase are regulators of smooth muscle contraction induced by G protein-coupled receptor agonists including endothelin-1 (ET-1), which has been implicated as a signaling pathway in pulmonary hypertension. Toward this end, it was hypothesized that both Rho-kinase and PKC mediate the pulmonary vascular response to ET-1 in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of PKC and Rho-kinase signaling in ET-1-induced vasoconstriction in both normotensive (Sprague-Dawley) and hypertensive (Fawn-Hooded) rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. Results indicate that ET-1 caused greater vasoconstriction in hypertensive pulmonary arteries compared with the normal vessels, and treatment with the PKC antagonists chelerythrine, rottlerin, and Gö 6983 inhibited the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 in the hypertensive vessels. In addition, the specific Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 significantly attenuated the effect of ET-1 in both normotensive and hypertensive phenotypes, with greater inhibition occurring in the hypertensive arteries. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that ET-1 increased RhoA expression in both normotensive and hypertensive pulmonary arteries, with expression being greater in the hypertensive state. These results suggest that both PKC and Rho/Rho-kinase mediate the heightened pulmonary vascular response to ET-1 in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle.

  9. Influence of constriction, wall tension, smooth muscle activation and cellular deformation on rat resistance artery vasodilator reactivity.

    PubMed

    Colton, Ilsley; Mandalà, Maurizio; Morton, Jude; Davidge, Sandra T; Osol, George

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how vasoconstriction (tone), wall tension, smooth muscle activation, and vascular wall deformation influence resistance artery vasodilator reactivity. Resistance arteries, from two different regional circulations (splanchnic, uterine) and from pregnant and non-pregnant rats, were cannulated and pressurized, or mounted on a wire myograph under isometric conditions prior to being exposed to both endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) vasodilator agonists. A consistent pattern of reduced vasodilator sensitivity was noted as a function of extent of preconstriction for both agonists noted in pressurized arteries. A similar pattern regarding activation was noted in wire-mounted arteries in response to SNP but not ACh. Wall tension proved to be a major determinant of vascular smooth muscle vasodilator reactivity and its normalization reversed this pattern, as more constricted vessels were more sensitive to ACh relaxation without any change in SNP sensitivity, suggesting that endothelial deformation secondary to vasoconstriction augments its vasodilator output. To our knowledge, this is the first study to dissect out the complex interplay between biophysical forces impinging on VSM (pressure, wall tension), the ambient level of tone (vasoconstriction, smooth muscle cell activation), and consequences of cellular (particularly endothelial) deformation secondary to constriction in determining resistance artery vasodilatory reactivity.

  10. CCN1 suppresses pulmonary vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon-Jin; Zhang, Meng; Hu, Kebin; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Duo; Jin, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased vascular resistance are common features in pulmonary hypertension (PH). One of the contributing factors in the development of pulmonary vasoconstriction is increased pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) contraction. Here we report that CCN1, an extracellular matrix molecule, suppressed PASMC contraction in response to hypoxia. CCN1 (Cyr61), discovered in past decade, belongs to the Cyr61-CTGF-Nov (CCN) family. It carries a variety of cellular functions, including angiogenesis and cell adhesion, death, and proliferation. Hypoxia robustly upregulated the expression of CCN1 in the pulmonary vessels and lung parenchyma. Given that CCN1 is a secreted protein and functions in a paracine manner, we examined the potential effects of CCN1 on the adjacent smooth muscle cells. Interestingly, bioactive recombinant CCN1 significantly suppressed hypoxia-induced contraction in human PASMCs in vitro. Consistently, in the in vivo functional studies, administration of bioactive CCN1 protein significantly decreased right ventricular pressure in three different PH animal models. Mechanistically, protein kinase A-pathway inhibitors abolished the effects of CCN1 in suppressing PASMC contraction. Furthermore, CCN1-inhibited smooth muscle contraction was independent of the known vasodilators, such as nitric oxide. Taken together, our studies indicated a novel cellular function of CCN1, potentially regulating the pathogenesis of PH.

  11. Interaction between human monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells induces vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Y; Ikeda, U; Maeda, Y; Takahashi, M; Takizawa, T; Okada, M; Funayama, H; Shimada, K

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major mitogen for vascular endothelial cells, was induced by a cell-to-cell interaction between monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Human VSMCs and THP-1 cells (human monocytoid cell) were cocultured. VEGF levels in the coculture medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Northern blot analysis of VEGF mRNA was performed using a specific cDNA probe. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine which types of cell produce VEGF. Adding THP-1 cells to VSMCs for 24 h increased VEGF levels of the culture media, 8- and 10-fold relative to those of THP-1 cells and VSMCs alone, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that VEGF mRNA expression was induced in the cocultured cells and peaked after 12 h. Immunohistochemistry disclosed that both types of cell in the coculture produced VEGF. Separate coculture experiments revealed that both direct contact and a soluble factor(s) contributed to VEGF production. Neutralizing anti-interleukin (IL)-6 antibody inhibited VEGF production by the coculture of THP-1 cells and VSMCs. A cell-to-cell interaction between monocytes and VSMCs induced VEGF synthesis in both types of cell. An IL-6 mediated mechanism is at least partially involved in VEGF production by the cocultures. Local VEGF production induced by a monocyte-VSMC interaction may play an important role in atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.

  12. Vascular Smooth Muscle Sirtuin-1 Protects Against Diet-Induced Aortic Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jessica L; Al Sayah, Leona; Weisbrod, Robert M; Van Roy, Isabelle; Weng, Xiang; Cohen, Richard A; Bachschmid, Markus M; Seta, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Arterial stiffness, a major cardiovascular risk factor, develops within 2 months in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, serving as a model of human metabolic syndrome, and it is associated with activation of proinflammatory and oxidant pathways in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Sirtuin-1 (SirT1) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase regulated by the cellular metabolic status. Our goal was to study the effects of VSM SirT1 on arterial stiffness in the context of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Overnight fasting acutely decreased arterial stiffness, measured in vivo by pulse wave velocity, in mice fed HFHS for 2 or 8 months, but not in mice lacking SirT1 in VSM (SMKO). Similarly, VSM-specific genetic SirT1 overexpression (SMTG) prevented pulse wave velocity increases induced by HFHS feeding, during 8 months. Administration of resveratrol or S17834, 2 polyphenolic compounds known to activate SirT1, prevented HFHS-induced arterial stiffness and were mimicked by global SirT1 overexpression (SirT1 bacterial artificial chromosome overexpressor), without evident metabolic improvements. In addition, HFHS-induced pulse wave velocity increases were reversed by 1-week treatment with a specific, small molecule SirT1 activator (SRT1720). These beneficial effects of pharmacological or genetic SirT1 activation, against HFHS-induced arterial stiffness, were associated with a decrease in nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) activation and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) and p47phox protein expressions, in aorta and VSM cells. In conclusion, VSM SirT1 activation decreases arterial stiffness in the setting of obesity by stimulating anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways in the aorta. SirT1 activators may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent arterial stiffness and associated cardiovascular complications in overweight/obese individuals with metabolic syndrome. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Extracellular calcium sensing in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Hansen, Jakob Lerche; Christoffersen, Tue E.H.

    2006-10-06

    Extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) can act as a first messenger in many cell types through a G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). It is still debated whether the CaR is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we report the expression of CaR mRNA and protein in rat aortic VSMCs and show that Ca2+o stimulates proliferation of the cells. The effects of Ca2+o were attenuated by pre-treatment with MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor, as well as an allosteric modulator, NPS 2390. Furthermore, stimulation of the VSMCs with Ca2+o-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but surprisingly did not cause inositol phosphate accumulation. We were not able to conclusively state that the CaR mediates Ca2+o-induced cell proliferation. Rather, an additional calcium-sensing mechanism may exist. Our findings may be of importance with regard to atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of VSMCs and high local levels of calcium.

  14. ATP-gated channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Benham, C D

    1990-01-01

    ATP acting through P2x-purinoceptors activates cation channels with some similarities to the activation of channels gated by acetylcholine and glutamate (channels that can also act as fast excitatory transmitters). These experiments clearly demonstrate an ATP-mediated Ca2+ influx through agonist-gated channels and a consequent elevation of [Ca2+]i in these single vascular smooth muscle cells. The combination of the ability to hold these cells under voltage-clamp and to measure [Ca2+]i simultaneously has allowed us to exclude other possible explanations for the rise in [Ca2+]i under these conditions. Thus, although the major cation entering through the channels is Na+, ATP receptor activation will also generate subtle, localized increases in [Ca2+]. These increases might directly activate contractile proteins or, if insufficient to do this, might upregulate other Ca2(+)-dependent enzymes modulating the contractile process and provide an enhanced source of Ca2+ for uptake into internal Ca2+ stores. Further understanding of the physiological role of this conductance pathway may require the development of specific receptor antagonists or channel blockers.

  15. Effects of Hyperglycemia on Vascular Smooth Muscle Ca2+ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Kulkarni, Rashmi P.; Nader, Nancy; Hodeify, Rawad

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a complex disease that is characterized with hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These pathologies are associated with significant cardiovascular implications that affect both the macro- and microvasculature. It is therefore important to understand the effects of various pathologies associated with diabetes on the vasculature. Here we directly test the effects of hyperglycemia on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) Ca2+ signaling in an isolated in vitro system using the A7r5 rat aortic cell line as a model. We find that prolonged exposure of A7r5 cells to hyperglycemia (weeks) is associated with changes to Ca2+ signaling, including most prominently an inhibition of the passive ER Ca2+ leak and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). To translate these findings to the in vivo condition, we used primary VSM cells from normal and diabetic subjects and find that only the inhibition of the ER Ca2+ leaks replicates in cells from diabetic donors. These results show that prolonged hyperglycemia in isolation alters the Ca2+ signaling machinery in VSM cells. However, these alterations are not readily translatable to the whole organism situation where alterations to the Ca2+ signaling machinery are different. PMID:28713824

  16. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis induced by "supercooling" and rewarming.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Wai-ki; Cheng, Stephen W K; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2006-12-01

    The underlying mechanisms for the reduction in restenosis caused by cryoplasty for peripheral atherosclerotic lesions are not well understood. Because vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are known to play a critical role in restenosis and neointimal hyperplasia, the aim of this study was to determine SMC survival under conditions of "supercooling" and/or rewarming. Bovine aortic SMCs were supercooled to -10 degrees C for 0, 60, or 120 seconds with a custom-designed conduction cooling stage and then rewarmed to 37 degrees C in an incubator for 0, 12, or 24 hours. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay was used to measure the degree of apoptosis. Activation of Akt (ie, protein kinase B), a key signal protein involved in cell survival, was assessed by Western blot analysis. An increase in apoptotic SMCs was observed with increasing supercooling and rewarming time. Akt was significantly activated at only the most severe condition (120 seconds of supercooling and 24 hours of rewarming), which showed a 2.03-fold increase compared with the group without rewarming. The data suggest that SMC apoptosis occurs with supercooling and rewarming. Protective cell survival mechanisms were activated only late in the rewarming phase. This may partially explain the long-term patency observed with cryoplasty of atherosclerotic peripheral lesions.

  17. Ageing induced vascular smooth muscle cell senescence in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna K; Bennett, Martin R

    2016-04-15

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of ageing in that its incidence and prevalence increase with age. However, atherosclerosis is also associated with biological ageing, manifest by a number of typical hallmarks of ageing in the atherosclerotic plaque. Thus, accelerated biological ageing may be superimposed on the effects of chronological ageing in atherosclerosis. Tissue ageing is seen in all cells that comprise the plaque, but particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hallmarks of ageing include evidence of cell senescence, DNA damage (including telomere attrition), mitochondrial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, defects in proteostasis, epigenetic changes, deregulated nutrient sensing, and exhaustion of progenitor cells. In this model, initial damage to DNA (genomic, telomeric, mitochondrial and epigenetic changes) results in a number of cellular responses (cellular senescence, deregulated nutrient sensing and defects in proteostasis). Ultimately, ongoing damage and attempts at repair by continued proliferation overwhelm reparative capacity, causing loss of specialised cell functions, cell death and inflammation. This review summarises the evidence for accelerated biological ageing in atherosclerosis, the functional consequences of cell ageing on cells comprising the plaque, and the causal role that VSMC senescence plays in atherogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  18. The Hemoglobin Homolog Cytoglobin in Smooth Muscle Inhibits Apoptosis and Regulates Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Jourd'heuil, Frances L; Xu, Haiyan; Reilly, Timothy; McKellar, Keneta; El Alaoui, Chaymae; Steppich, Julia; Liu, Yong Feng; Zhao, Wen; Ginnan, Roman; Conti, David; Lopez-Soler, Reynold; Asif, Arif; Keller, Rebecca K; Schwarz, John J; Thanh Thuy, Le Thi; Kawada, Norifumi; Long, Xiaochun; Singer, Harold A; Jourd'heuil, David

    2017-10-01

    The role of hemoglobin and myoglobin in the cardiovascular system is well established, yet other globins in this context are poorly characterized. Here, we examined the expression and function of cytoglobin (CYGB) during vascular injury. We characterized CYGB content in intact vessels and primary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells and used 2 different vascular injury models to examine the functional significance of CYGB in vivo. We found that CYGB was strongly expressed in medial arterial VSM and human veins. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that CYGB was lost after VSM cell dedifferentiation. In the rat balloon angioplasty model, site-targeted delivery of adenovirus encoding shRNA specific for CYGB prevented its reexpression and decreased neointima formation. Similarly, 4 weeks after complete ligation of the left common carotid, Cygb knockout mice displayed little to no evidence of neointimal hyperplasia in contrast to their wild-type littermates. Mechanistic studies in the rat indicated that this was primarily associated with increased medial cell loss, terminal uridine nick-end labeling staining, and caspase-3 activation, all indicative of prolonged apoptosis. In vitro, CYGB could be reexpressed after VSM stimulation with cytokines and hypoxia and loss of CYGB sensitized human and rat aortic VSM cells to apoptosis. This was reversed after antioxidant treatment or NOS2 (nitric oxide synthase 2) inhibition. These results indicate that CYGB is expressed in vessels primarily in differentiated medial VSM cells where it regulates neointima formation and inhibits apoptosis after injury. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Protein kinase C–independent inhibition of arterial smooth muscle K+ channels by a diacylglycerol analogue

    PubMed Central

    Rainbow, RD; Parker, AM; Davies, NW

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Analogues of the endogenous diacylglycerols have been used extensively as pharmacological activators of protein kinase C (PKC). Several reports show that some of these compounds have additional effects that are independent of PKC activation, including direct block of K+ and Ca2+ channels. We investigated whether dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8), a commonly used diacylglycerol analogue, blocks K+ currents of rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle in a PKC-independent manner. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Conventional whole-cell and inside-out patch clamp was used to measure the inhibition of K+ currents of rat isolated mesenteric smooth muscle cells by DiC8 in the absence and presence of PKC inhibitor peptide. KEY RESULTS Mesenteric artery smooth muscle Kv currents inactivated very slowly with a time constant of about 2 s following pulses from −65 to +40 mV. Application of 1 µM DiC8 produced an approximate 40-fold increase in the apparent rate of inactivation. Pretreatment of the cells with PKC inhibitor peptide had a minimal effect on the action of DiC8, and substantial inactivation still occurred, indicating that this effect was mainly independent of PKC. We also found that DiC8 blocked BK and KATP currents, and again a significant proportion of these blocks occurred independently of PKC activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results show that DiC8 has a direct effect on arterial smooth muscle K+ channels, and this precludes its use as a PKC activator when investigating PKC-mediated effects on vascular K+ channels. PMID:21323899

  20. CADASIL mutations and shRNA silencing of NOTCH3 affect actin organization in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Saara; Ng, Yan Peng; Di Maio, Giuseppe; Mykkänen, Kati; Siitonen, Maija; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Pöyhönen, Minna; Viitanen, Matti; Virtanen, Ismo; Kalimo, Hannu; Baumann, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common hereditary vascular dementia caused by mutations in NOTCH3 gene. Pathology is manifested in small- and middle-sized arteries throughout the body, though primarily in cerebral white matter. Hemodynamics is altered in CADASIL and NOTCH3 is suggested to regulate actin filament polymerization and thereby vascular tone. We analyzed NOTCH3 expression and morphology of actin cytoskeleton in genetically genuine cultured human CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) (including a cell line homozygous for p.Arg133Cys mutation) derived from different organs, and in control VSMCs with short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-silenced NOTCH3. NOTCH3 protein level was higher in VSMCs derived from adult than newborn arteries in both CADASIL and control VSMCs. CADASIL VSMCs showed altered actin cytoskeleton including increased branching and node formation, and more numerous and smaller adhesion sites than control VSMCs. Alterations in actin cytoskeleton in shRNA-silenced VSMCs were similar as in CADASIL VSMCs. Severity of the alterations in actin filaments corresponded to NOTCH3 expression level being most severe in VSMCs derived from adult cerebral arteries. These observations suggest that hypomorphic NOTCH3 activity causes alterations in actin organization in CADASIL. Furthermore, arteries from different organs have specific characteristics, which modify the effects of the NOTCH3 mutation and which is one explanation for the exceptional susceptibility of cerebral white matter arteries.

  1. Heterogeneity in vascular smooth muscle cell embryonic origin in relation to adult structure, physiology, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.; Bader, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Regional differences in vascular physiology and disease response exist throughout the vascular tree. While these differences in physiology and disease correspond to regional vascular environmental conditions, there is also compelling evidence that the embryonic origins of the smooth muscle inherent to the vessels may play a role. Here we review what is known regarding the role of embryonic origin of vascular smooth muscle cells during vascular development. The focus of this review is to highlight the heterogeneity in the origins of vascular smooth muscle cells and the resulting regional physiologies of the vessels. Our goal is to stimulate future investigation into this area and provide a better understanding of vascular organogenesis and disease. PMID:25546231

  2. Sulforaphane inhibits restenosis by suppressing inflammation and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Sook; Joung, Hosouk; Kim, Yong Sook; Shim, Young-Sun; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kee, Hae Jin

    2012-11-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring organosulfur compound in broccoli, has chemopreventive properties in cancer. However, the effects of sulforaphane in vascular diseases have not been examined. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of sulforaphane on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and neointimal formation and the related mechanisms. The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was examined in VSMCs. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and GATA6 expression was examined in VSMCs and in a carotid artery injury model by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. We also investigated whether local delivery of sulforaphane affected neointimal formation. Sulforaphane inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of VCAM-1 induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in VSMCs. Treatment of VSMCs with sulforaphane blocked TNF-α-induced IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 and GATA6 expression. Furthermore, NF-κB p65 and GATA6 expression were reduced in sulforaphane-treated carotid injury sections. Notably, binding of GATA6 to the VCAM-1 promoter was dramatically reduced by sulforaphane. The MTT, BrdU incorporation, and in vitro scratch assays revealed that the proliferation and migration of VSMCs were reduced by sulforaphane. Furthermore, local administration of sulforaphane significantly reduced neointima formation 14 days after vascular injury in rats. Our results indicate that sulforaphane inhibits neointima formation via targeting of adhesion molecules through the suppression of NF-κB/GATA6. Furthermore, sulforaphane regulates migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Sulforaphane may be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing restenosis after vascular injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Premature birth is associated with not fully differentiated contractile smooth muscle cells in human umbilical artery.

    PubMed

    Roffino, S; Lamy, E; Foucault-Bertaud, A; Risso, F; Reboul, R; Tellier, E; Chareyre, C; Dignat-George, F; Simeoni, U; Charpiot, P

    2012-06-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) participate to the regulation of peripheral arterial resistance and blood pressure. To assume their function, SMCs differentiate throughout the normal vascular development from a synthetic phenotype towards a fully differentiated contractile phenotype by acquiring a repertoire of proteins involved in contraction. In human fetal muscular arteries and umbilical arteries (UAs), no data are available regarding the differentiation of SMCs during the last trimester of gestation. The objective of this study was to characterize the phenotype of SMCs during this gestation period in human UAs. We investigated the phenotype of SMCs in human UAs from very preterm (28-31 weeks of gestation), late preterm (32-35 weeks) and term (37-41 weeks) newborns using biochemical and immunohistochemical detection of α-actin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, smoothelin, and non-muscle myosin heavy chain. We found that the number of SMCs positive for smoothelin in UAs increased with gestational age. Western blot analysis revealed a higher content of smoothelin in term compared to very preterm UAs. These results show that SMCs in human UAs gradually acquire a fully differentiated contractile phenotype during the last trimester of gestation and thus that premature birth is associated with not fully differentiated contractile SMCs in human UAs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intracellular Ca(2+) handling in vascular smooth muscle cells is affected by proliferation.

    PubMed

    Vallot, O; Combettes, L; Jourdon, P; Inamo, J; Marty, I; Claret, M; Lompré, A M

    2000-05-01

    Despite intensive interest in the dedifferentiation process of vascular smooth muscle cells, very little data are available on intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. The present study was designed to investigate the evolution of the intracellular Ca(2+) pools when rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) proliferate and to define the mechanisms involved in the functional alterations. RASMCs were cultured in different conditions, and [Ca(2+)](i) was measured by use of fura 2. Expression of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pumps (SERCA2a and SERCA2b), Ca(2+) channels, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), and the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Antibodies specific for myosin heavy chain isoforms were used as indicators of the differentiation state of the cell, whereas an anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen antibody was a marker of proliferation. SERCA2a, SERCA2b, RyR3, and IP3R-1 mainly were present in the aorta in situ and in freshly isolated RASMCs. These cells used the 2 types of Ca(2+) channels to release Ca(2+) from a common thapsigargin-sensitive store. Proliferation of RASMCs, induced by serum or by platelet-derived growth factor-BB, resulted in the disappearance of RyR and SERCA2a mRNAs and proteins and in the loss of the caffeine- and ryanodine-sensitive pool. The differentiated nonproliferative phenotype was maintained in low serum or in cells cultured at high density. In these conditions, RyR and SERCA2a were also present in RASMCs. Thus, expression of RyR and SERCA2a is repressed by cell proliferation, inducing loss of the corresponding Ca(2+) pool. In arterial smooth muscle, Ca(2+) release through RyRs is involved in vasodilation, and suppression of the ryanodine-sensitive pool might thus alter the control of vascular tone.

  5. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-γ (CaMKIIγ) negatively regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Saddouk, Fatima Z.; Sun, Li-Yan; Liu, Yong Feng; Jiang, Miao; Singer, Diane V.; Backs, Johannes; Van Riper, Dee; Ginnan, Roman; Schwarz, John J.; Singer, Harold A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) expresses calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-δ and -γ isoforms. CaMKIIδ promotes VSM proliferation and vascular remodeling. We tested CaMKIIγ function in vascular remodeling after injury. CaMKIIγ protein decreased 90% 14 d after balloon injury in rat carotid artery. Intraluminal transduction of adenovirus encoding CaMKIIγC rescued expression to 35% of uninjured controls, inhibited neointima formation (>70%), inhibited VSM proliferation (>60%), and increased expression of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21 (>2-fold). Comparable doses of CaMKIIδ2 adenovirus had no effect. Similar dynamics in CaMKIIγ mRNA and protein expression were observed in ligated mouse carotid arteries, correlating closely with expression of VSM differentiation markers. Targeted deletion of CaMKIIγ in smooth muscle resulted in a 20-fold increase in neointimal area, with a 3-fold increase in the cell proliferation index, no change in apoptosis, and a 60% decrease in p21 expression. In cultured VSM, CaMKIIγ overexpression induced p53 mRNA (1.7 fold) and protein (1.8-fold) expression; induced the p53 target gene p21 (3-fold); decreased VSM cell proliferation (>50%); and had no effect on expression of apoptosis markers. We conclude that regulated CaMKII isoform composition is an important determinant of the injury-induced vasculoproliferative response and that CaMKIIγ and -δ isoforms have nonequivalent, opposing functions.—Saddouk, F. Z., Sun, L.-Y., Liu, Y. F., Jiang, M., Singer, D. V., Backs, J., Van Riper, D., Ginnan, R., Schwarz, J. J., Singer, H. A. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-γ (CaMKIIγ) negatively regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and vascular remodeling. PMID:26567004

  6. Age-dependent blood pressure elevation is due to increased vascular smooth muscle tone mediated by G-protein signalling.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Angela; Wang, Shengpeng; Takefuji, Mikito; Tang, Cong; Althoff, Till F; Schweda, Frank; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The kidney and its natriuretic function are in the centre of the prevailing models to explain the pathogenesis of hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying blood pressure elevation remain unclear in most patients. Development of hypertension is strongly correlated with age, and this blood pressure increase typically accelerates in the fourth decade of life. The cause of age-dependent blood pressure elevation is poorly understood. This study aims to understand the role of procontractile G-protein-mediated signalling pathways in vascular smooth muscle in age-dependent hypertension. Similar to humans at mid-life, we observed in 1-year-old mice elevated blood pressure levels without any evidence for increased vessel stiffness, impaired renal function, or endocrine abnormalities. Hypertensive aged mice showed signs of endothelial dysfunction and had an increased vascular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevated endothelial ET-1 expression. Age-dependent hypertension could be normalized by ETA receptor blockade, smooth muscle-specific inactivation of the gene encoding the ETA receptor, as well as by acute disruption of downstream signalling via induction of smooth muscle-specific Gα12/Gα13, Gαq/Gα11, or LARG deficiency using tamoxifen-inducible smooth muscle-specific conditional mouse knock-out models. Induction of smooth muscle-specific ETA receptor deficiency normalized the blood pressure in aged mice despite the continuous presence of signs of endothelial dysfunction. Age-dependent blood pressure elevation is due to a highly reversible activation of procontractile signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells indicating that increased vascular tone can be a primary factor in the development of hypertension. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Dihydrotestosterone alters cyclooxygenase-2 levels in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Osterlund, Kristen L.; Handa, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Both protective and nonprotective effects of androgens on the cardiovascular system have been reported. Our previous studies show that the potent androgen receptor (AR) agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increases levels of the vascular inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in rodent cerebral arteries independent of an inflammatory stimulus. Little is known about the effects of androgens on inflammation in human vascular tissues. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DHT alters COX-2 levels in the absence and presence of induced inflammation in primary human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Furthermore, we tested the ancillary hypothesis that DHT's effects on COX-2 levels are AR-dependent. Cells were treated with DHT (10 nM) or vehicle for 6 h in the presence or absence of LPS or IL-1β. Similar to previous observations in rodent arteries, in HCASMC, DHT alone increased COX-2 levels compared with vehicle. This effect of DHT was attenuated in the presence of the AR antagonist bicalutamide. Conversely, in the presence of LPS or IL-1β, increases in COX-2 were attenuated by cotreatment with DHT. Bicalutamide did not affect this response, suggesting that DHT-induced decreases in COX-2 levels occur independent of AR stimulation. Thus we conclude that DHT differentially influences COX-2 levels under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in HCASMC. This effect of DHT on COX-2 involves AR-dependent and- independent mechanisms, depending on the physiological state of the cell. PMID:20103743

  8. Myosin light chain kinase controls voltage-dependent calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, A; Schakman, O; Yerna, X; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-07-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent kinase myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is the activator of smooth muscle contraction. In addition, it has been reported to be involved in Ca(2+) channel regulation in cultured cells, and we previously showed that the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 decreases arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced Ca(2+) influx in rat aorta. This study was designed to investigate whether MLCK is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in resistance artery smooth muscle cell, which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. As ML compounds were shown to have off-target effects, MLCK was downregulated by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting MLCK (MLCK-siRNA) in rat small resistance mesenteric artery (RMA) and in the rat embryonic aortic cell line A7r5. Noradrenaline-induced contraction and Ca(2+) signal were significantly depressed in MLCK-siRNA compared to scramble-siRNA-transfected RMA. Contraction and Ca(2+) signal induced by high KCl and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were also significantly decreased in MLCK-siRNA-transfected RMA, suggesting that MLCK depletion modifies voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. KCl- and AVP-induced Ca(2+) signals and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were decreased in MLCK-depleted A7r5 cells. Eventually, real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that in A7r5, MLCK controlled mRNA expression of CaV1.2 (L-type) and CaV3.1 (T-type) voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Our results suggest that MLCK controls the transcription of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  9. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Tikka, Saara

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  10. Carvedilol inhibits proliferation of cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fujio, Hideki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Matsubara, Hiromi; Kusano, Kengo Fukushima; Miyaji, Katsumasa; Nagase, Satoshi; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Aiko; Ohta-Ogo, Keiko; Miura, Daiji; Miura, Aya; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Date, Hiroshi; Ohe, Tohru

    2006-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is associated with proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in small pulmonary arteries. Inhibition of proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) may be an effective treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Recent studies have shown that carvedilol, an alpha- and beta-blocker with antioxidant and calcium channel blocking properties, inhibits the proliferation of cultured normal human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that carvedilol has antiproliferative effects on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from six idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients who had undergone lung transplantation were cultured. To determine cell proliferation, H-thymidine incorporation was measured. Platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation of IPAH-PASMCs was significantly greater than that of normal control pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Carvedilol (0.1 microM to 10 microM) inhibited the proliferation of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension-pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Prazosin (an alpha-blocker) and N-acetyl L cysteine (an antioxidant agent) (0.1 microM to 10 microM) did not inhibit their proliferation, but the high concentration of propranolol (a beta-blocker) and nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker) (10 microM) inhibited the proliferation. The combination of propranolol and nifedipine inhibited the proliferation but only at a high concentration (10 microM) combination. Cell cycle analysis revealed that carvedilol (10 microM) significantly decreased the number of cells in S and G2/M phases. These results indicate that carvedilol inhibits the exaggerated proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

  11. Inducible expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and within rabbit atheroma.

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.; Cybulsky, M. I.; Gimbrone, M. A.; Libby, P.

    1993-01-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a mononuclear leukocyte adhesion molecule, is expressed in cultured vascular endothelial cells activated by cytokines and is induced in rabbit aortic endothelium in vivo within 1 week after initiation of an atherogenic diet. We now demonstrate that vascular smooth muscle cells can also express VCAM-1 in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions in vivo and in response to cytokines in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining of aortas from rabbits fed a 0.3% cholesterol-containing diet revealed that a portion of smooth muscle cells within intimal foam cell-rich lesions expressed VCAM-1. The intimal VCAM-1-expressing cells localized predominantly in regions above the internal elastic lamina. These VCAM-1-positive cells had the typical spindle shape of smooth muscle cells but had reduced alpha-actin expression in comparison to normal medial smooth muscle cells, and did not bear markers for endothelium, macrophages, and T cells. In culture, rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells expressed VCAM-1 mRNA and protein in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion when exposed to interferon-gamma or Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells also expressed VCAM-1 mRNA and protein in response to lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4. The monokines interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha did not induce VCAM-1 expression in either rabbit or human vascular smooth muscle cells. Inducible VCAM-1 expression by vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo during hypercholesterolemia and in vitro in response to certain cytokines suggests a broader range of VCAM-1 functions in vascular biology than heretofore appreciated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7504883

  12. The properties and distribution of inward rectifier potassium currents in pig coronary arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Quayle, J M; Dart, C; Standen, N B

    1996-01-01

    1. Whole-cell potassium currents were studied in single smooth muscle cells enzymatically isolated from pig coronary arteries. 2. In cells isolated from small diameter branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), an inward rectifier potassium current (IK(IR)) was identified, which was inhibited by extracellular barium ions, suggesting the presence of inward rectifier potassium (KIR) channels. 3. The conductance for IK(IR) measured in 6, 12, 60 and 140 mM extracellular potassium was a function of membrane potential and the extracellular potassium concentration. 4. On hyperpolarization, IK(IR) activated along an exponential time course with a time constant that was voltage dependent. 5. Inward rectifier current was compared in cells isolated from coronary vessels taken from different points along the vascular tree. Current density was greater in cells isolated from small diameter coronary arteries; at -140 mV it was -20.5 +/- 4.4 pA pF-1 (n = 23) in 4th order branches of the LAD, but -0.8 +/- 0.2 pA pF-1 (n = 11) in the LAD itself. 6. In contrast to IK(IR), there was little effect of arterial diameter on the density of voltage-dependent potassium current; densities at +30 mV were 12.8 +/- 1.3 pA pF-1 (n = 19) in 4th order branches and 17.4 +/- 3.1 pA pF-1 (n = 11) in the LAD. 7. We conclude that KIR channels are present in pig coronary arteries, and that they are expressed at a higher density in small diameter arteries. The presence of an enhanced IK(IR) may have functional consequences for the regulation of cell membrane potential and tone in small coronary arteries. PMID:8865069

  13. Size-dependent heterogeneity of contractile Ca2+ sensitization in rat arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Toshio; Kitazawa, Kazuyo

    2012-01-01

    Each segment along arterial vessels adapts to different circumstances, including blood pressure and sympathetic innervation. PKC and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) Ca2+-sensitizing pathways leading to myosin phosphatase inhibition are critically involved in α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vascular smooth muscle contraction in distinctive time-dependent manners. We tested whether the amplitude and time course of each pathway varies dynamically between arterial segments. Using pharmacological approaches, we determined the time-dependent roles of Ca2+ release, Ca2+ influx, PKC and ROCK in α1-agonist-induced contraction and phosphorylation of key proteins in denuded rat small mesenteric artery, midsized caudal artery and thoracic aorta. SR Ca2+ release and voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx were essential for the initial rising and late sustained phases, respectively, of phenylephrine-induced contraction, regardless of arterial size. In small mesenteric arteries, α1A-subtype-specific antagonists and inhibitors of PKC, but not ROCK, markedly reduced the initial and late phases of contraction in a non-additive manner and suppressed phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and CPI-17, but not myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MYPT1). In aorta, an α1D-specific antagonist reduced both the initial and late phases of contraction with a significant decrease in MLC but not CPI-17 or MYPT1 phosphorylation. ROCK inhibitors, but not PKC inhibitors, suppressed the sustained phase of contraction with a decrease in MLC and MYPT1 phosphorylation in the aorta. The effect of ROCK inhibitors was additive with the α1D-antagonist. The results for midsized arteries were intermediate. Thus, the PKC–CPI-17 Ca2+-sensitizing pathway, which is dependent on PKC subtype and a Ca2+-handling mechanism, and is downstream of α1A receptors, plays a major role in α1-agonist-induced contraction of small resistance arteries in the splanchnic vascular beds. The effect of PKC and

  14. Arsenic increases Pi-mediated vascular calcification and induces premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Martín-Pardillos, Ana; Sosa, Cecilia; Sorribas, Victor

    2013-02-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the vascular toxicity of arsenic. Some of them are described in this work, such as stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), dedifferentiation, and medial vascular calcification, and they all affect vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Rat aortic VSMC were treated with 1-100 µM of either sodium arsenate (As(V)), sodium arsenite (As(III)), monomethylarsonic acid, or dimethylarsinic acid. None of the treatments induced VSMC calcification in the presence of 1mM inorganic phosphate (Pi), but 1 µM As(III) did increase calcification when induced with 2.5mM Pi. A lactate dehydrogenase assay revealed that this increase was explained by a rise in cytotoxicity due to simultaneous incubation with 1 µM As(III) and 2.5mM Pi. This calcification increase was also observed in the aortas of a vascular calcification model: 5/6 nephrectomized rats fed with a high Pi diet and treated with vitamin D(3). Several known mechanisms that might explain arsenic toxicity in our experimental model were discarded: apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammasome activation. Nevertheless, both senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and p21 expression were increased by As(III), which reveals the induction of SIPS. As(III) also caused dedifferentiation of VSMC, as shown by the reduced expression of the VSMC markers SM22α and calponin. Senescence and gene expression were also observed in the aortas of healthy rats treated with 50 ppm As(V) in drinking water for 1 month. In conclusion, both premature senescence in aortic VSMC with phenotypic dedifferentiation and the increase of Pi-induced calcification are novel mechanisms of arsenic vasculotoxicity.

  15. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-γ (CaMKIIγ) negatively regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Saddouk, Fatima Z; Sun, Li-Yan; Liu, Yong Feng; Jiang, Miao; Singer, Diane V; Backs, Johannes; Van Riper, Dee; Ginnan, Roman; Schwarz, John J; Singer, Harold A

    2016-03-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) expresses calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-δ and -γ isoforms. CaMKIIδ promotes VSM proliferation and vascular remodeling. We tested CaMKIIγ function in vascular remodeling after injury. CaMKIIγ protein decreased 90% 14 d after balloon injury in rat carotid artery. Intraluminal transduction of adenovirus encoding CaMKIIγC rescued expression to 35% of uninjured controls, inhibited neointima formation (>70%), inhibited VSM proliferation (>60%), and increased expression of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21 (>2-fold). Comparable doses of CaMKIIδ2 adenovirus had no effect. Similar dynamics in CaMKIIγ mRNA and protein expression were observed in ligated mouse carotid arteries, correlating closely with expression of VSM differentiation markers. Targeted deletion of CaMKIIγ in smooth muscle resulted in a 20-fold increase in neointimal area, with a 3-fold increase in the cell proliferation index, no change in apoptosis, and a 60% decrease in p21 expression. In cultured VSM, CaMKIIγ overexpression induced p53 mRNA (1.7 fold) and protein (1.8-fold) expression; induced the p53 target gene p21 (3-fold); decreased VSM cell proliferation (>50%); and had no effect on expression of apoptosis markers. We conclude that regulated CaMKII isoform composition is an important determinant of the injury-induced vasculoproliferative response and that CaMKIIγ and -δ isoforms have nonequivalent, opposing functions. © FASEB.

  16. Factors influencing acute thrombus formation on carotid artery vascular grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Torem, S.; Schneider, P.A.; Paxton, L.D.; Yasuda, H.; Hanson, S.R.

    1988-10-01

    Scintillation camera imaging of 111Indium-labeled platelets has been used to measure acute thrombus formation on modified expanded Teflon (ePTFE) vascular grafts placed in the carotid arteries of normal baboons. Platelet deposition plateaued over 2 hr postoperatively and occurred primarily at the graft-vessel anastomoses. A positive correlation was found between the circulating platelet count in individual animals and the extent of early platelet thrombus deposition. Unmodified ePTFE grafts accumulated 4.6 +/- 1.2 x 10(9) platelets per graft, or 2.3 +/- 0.71 x 10(9) platelets per anastomosis. Acutely, platelet accumulation was reduced versus control graft results by coating the graft lumenal surfaces with a smooth layer of silicone rubber polymer (0.60 +/- 0.19 x 10(9) platelets per anastomosis; P less than 0.02) but not by coating the grafts using a plasma polymer based on methane, which did not modify graft texture (8.2 +/- 1.7 x 10(9) platelets per graft; P greater than 0.10). The benefit of the silicone rubber coating persisted for at least 48 hr. However, longer term patency was not preserved because 10 of 12 grafts placed had failed within 1 to 2 months.

  17. Vascular C-reactive protein in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease: role of vascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2006-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered to be a chronic inflammatory disease. Vascular inflammation occurs in response to injury induced by various stimuli, such as oxidative stress, shear stress, infection, and so on. This concept is supported by the recent clinical findings that C-reactive protein (CRP) is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. CRP, which was originally identified as a protein that could precipitate the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcal cell walls, has been widely used as a clinical marker of the state of inflammation, since its production by hepatocytes increases during the acute phase of the inflammatory response. Recent investigations have provided two new concepts for the research field of CRP, namely, its extra-hepatic production and its potent biological activities such as the induction of adhesion molecules and chemokines. Recently, we demonstrated that smooth muscle cells and macrophages in coronary arteries expressed CRP protein and mRNA, as evaluated using coronary specimens of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients obtained by atherectomy. The expression of vascular CRP was closely associated with NAD(P)H oxidase, an important enzymatic origin of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vessel walls. Furthermore, CRP directly up-regulated NAD(P)H oxidase p22(phox) and enhanced ROS generation in cultured coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Thus, vascular CRP is likely to be a direct participant in vascular inflammation and lesion formation via its potent biological effects. Since lysophosphatidylcholine, a major atherogenic lipid of oxidized LDL, was reported to activate vascular NAD(P)H oxidase, we speculate that there is a vicious circle consisting of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase, ROS and oxidized LDL. Since phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase is at the first line of the host defense system, it is important to selectively suppress vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in the localized inflammatory lesions in therapeutic strategies for CAD. In this review, we

  18. Differentiation and Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eithne Margaret; Xiao, Qingzhong; Xu, Qingbo

    2017-08-31

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a role in the development of vascular disease, for example, neointimal formation, arterial aneurysm, and Marfan syndrome caused by genetic mutations in VSMCs, but little is known about the mechanisms of the disease process. Advances in induced pluripotent stem cell technology have now made it possible to derive VSMCs from several different somatic cells using a selection of protocols. As such, researchers have set out to delineate key signaling processes involved in triggering VSMC gene expression to grasp the extent of gene regulatory networks involved in phenotype commitment. This technology has also paved the way for investigations into diseases affecting VSMC behavior and function, which may be treatable once an identifiable culprit molecule or gene has been repaired. Moreover, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs are also being considered for their use in tissue-engineered blood vessels as they may prove more beneficial than using autologous vessels. Finally, while several issues remains to be clarified before induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs can become used in regenerative medicine, they do offer both clinicians and researchers hope for both treating and understanding vascular disease. In this review, we aim to update the recent progress on VSMC generation from stem cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms of VSMC differentiation. We will also explore how the use of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs has changed the game for regenerative medicine by offering new therapeutic avenues to clinicians, as well as providing researchers with a new platform for modeling of vascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Epigallocatechin suppression of proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells: correlation with c-jun and JNK

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liang-Huei; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Huang, Huei-Chen

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms of the antiproliferative effect of epigallocatechin, one of the catechin derivatives found in green tea, in vascular smooth muscle cells were studied. The proliferative response was determined from the uptake of tritiated thymidine. In the concentration range of 10−6 to 10−4 M, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, concentration-dependently inhibited the proliferative response stimulated by serum in rabbit cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Catechin and epicatechin were less effective in inhibiting the serum-stimulated smooth muscle cell proliferation, indicating that the galloyl group may be important for full inhibitory activity. Epigallocatechin (EGC) inhibited the proliferative responses in different cells including rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5 cells), rabbit cultured aortic smooth muscle cells, human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, and human CEM lymphocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. The possible mechanisms of the antiproliferative effect of EGC were further studied in A7r5 cells. The membranous protein tyrosine kinase activity stimulated by serum in A7r5 cells was significantly reduced by 10−5 M EGC. In contrast, the cytosolic protein kinase C activity stimulated by phorbol ester was unaffected by directly incubating with EGC (10−6−10−4 M). We also performed Western blot analysis using the anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody PY-20. EGC (10−5 M) reduced the levels of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins with different molecular weights, indicating that EGC may inhibit the protein tyrosine kinase activity or stimulate the protein phosphatase activity. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc mRNA levels demonstrated that c-jun mRNA level after serum-stimulation was significantly reduced by 10−5 M EGC. However, the reduction of c-fos and c-myc mRNA levels by 10−5 M EGC did not

  20. Transfection of CYP4A1 cDNA increases vascular reactivity in renal interlobar arteries.

    PubMed

    Kaide, Jun-Ichi; Wang, Mong-Heng; Wang, Ji-Shi; Zhang, Fan; Gopal, V Raj; Falck, John R; Nasjletti, Alberto; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal

    2003-01-01

    20-HETE, a cytochrome P-450 4A (CYP4A1)-derived arachidonic acid metabolite, is a major eicosanoid formed in renal and extrarenal microcirculation. 20-HETE inhibits Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and thereby may modulate vascular reactivity. We transfected renal interlobar arteries with an expression plasmid containing the cDNA of CYP4A1, the low-K(m) arachidonic acid omega-hydroxylase, and examined the consequences of increasing 20-HETE synthesis on constrictor responses to phenylephrine. CYP4A1-transfected interlobar arteries demonstrated a twofold increase in CYP4A protein levels and 20-HETE production compared with arteries transfected with the empty plasmid; they also showed increased sensitivity to phenylephrine, as evidenced by a decrease in EC(50) from 0.37 +/- 0.04 microM in plasmid-transfected arteries to 0.07 +/- 0.01 microM in CYP4A1-transfected arteries. The increased sensitivity to phenylephrine was greatly attenuated by N-methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide (DDMS), a selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, and by 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid, a specific 20-HETE antagonist. This effect of DDMS was reversed by addition of 20-HETE, further substantiating the notion that increased levels of 20-HETE contribute to the increased sensitivity to phenylephrine in vessels overexpressing CYP4A1. These data suggest that 20-HETE of vascular origin sensitizes renal vascular smooth muscle to phenylephrine.

  1. Impaired arterial smooth muscle cell vasodilatory function in methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Nabaei, Ghaemeh; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Ghorbani, Askar; Fatehi, Farzad

    2016-11-15

    Methamphetamine use is a strong risk factor for stroke. This study was designed to evaluate arterial function and structure in methamphetamine users ultrasonographically. In a cross-sectional study, 20 methamphetamine users and 21 controls, aged between 20 and 40years, were enrolled. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) marker of early atherogenesis, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) determinants of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD) independent marker of vasodilation were measured in two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic and metabolic characteristics. The mean (±SD) CCA-IMT in methamphetamine users was 0.58±0.09mm, versus 0.59±0.07mm in the controls (p=0.84). Likewise, FMD% was not significantly different between the two groups [7.6±6.1% in methamphetamine users vs. 8.2±5.1% in the controls; p=0.72], nor were peak flow and shear rate after hyperemia. However, NMD% was considerably decreased in the methamphetamine users [8.5±7.8% in methamphetamine users vs. 13.4±6.2% in controls; p=0.03]. According to our results, NMD is reduced among otherwise healthy methamphetamine users, which represents smooth muscle dysfunction in this group. This may contribute to the high risk of stroke among methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PDT-induced apoptosis in arterial smooth muscles cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Isaac; Renick, R.; Gilbert, C.; McEwan, Jean R.; Evan, G.; Bishop, Christopher C. R.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-03-01

    PDT kills smooth muscle cells (SMC) in vivo and thus prevents intimal hyperplasia after angioplasty. It causes little inflammation and structural integrity of the artery is not compromised. We have studied the process of the SMC death in vitro. Cultured rat SMC (cell line sv40 ATCC) were sensitized with aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc), and then irradiated with 675 nm laser light (2.5 J/cm2). Controls were studied using only sensitizer or laser for treatment. The cells were incubated and the dying process observed with a time lapse video and microscope system. PDT caused a characteristic pattern of death. Cells lost contact with neighbors, shrank, and showed hyperactivity and membrane ruffling. The cells imploded into active and condensed membrane bound vesicles which were terminally reduced to residual bodies. These are the morphological changes of apoptosis. The control cells which were given AlS2Pc alone or laser alone showed no death. PDT induced cultured arterial SMC death by apoptosis rather than necrosis. An apoptotic mechanism of cell death in vivo would explain the relative lack of inflammation and local tissue destruction in the face of massive death.

  3. Inhibition of Rho protein stimulates iNOS expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Muniyappa, R; Xu, R; Ram, J L; Sowers, J R

    2000-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is upregulated in arterial injury and plays a role in regulating VSMC proliferation and restenosis. Inflammatory cytokines [e.g., interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)] released during vascular injury induce iNOS. Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily play a major role in IL-1beta-dependent signaling pathways. In this study, we examined the role of Rho GTPases in regulating iNOS expression in VSMCs. Treatment of VSMCs with mevastatin, which inhibits isoprenylation of Rho and other small GTP-binding proteins, produced significantly higher amounts of IL-1beta-evoked NO and iNOS protein compared with control. Similarly, bacterial toxins [Toxin B from Clostridium difficile and C3 ADP-ribosyl transferase (C3) toxin from Clostridium botulinium] that specifically inactivate Rho proteins increased NOS products (NO and citrulline) and iNOS expression. Toxin B increased the activity of iNOS promoter-reporter construct in VSMCs. Both toxins enhanced IL-1beta-stimulated iNOS expression and NO production. These data demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of Rho induces iNOS and suggest a role for Rho protein in IL-1beta-stimulated NO production in VSMCs.

  4. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco . E-mail: fperez@med.ucm.es; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica; Duarte, Juan; Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Bosca, Lisardo; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2006-08-04

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries. The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPAR{gamma}, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin.

  5. Vascular smooth muscle cell-derived adiponectin: a paracrine regulator of contractile phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Min; Carrao, Ana Catarina; Wagner, Robert J.; Xie, Yi; Jin, Yu; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Yu, Jun; Li, Wei; Tellides, George; Hwa, John; Aprahamian, Tamar R.; Martin, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Adiponectin is a cardioprotective adipokine derived predominantly from visceral fat. We recently demonstrated that exogenous adiponectin induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation via repression of mTORC1 and FoxO4. Here we report for the first time that VSMC express and secrete adiponectin, which acts in an autocrine and paracrine manner to regulate VSMC contractile phenotype. Adiponectin was found to be expressed in human coronary artery and mouse aortic VSMC. Importantly, siRNA knock-down of endogenous adiponectin in VSMC significantly reduced the expression of VSMC contractile proteins. Contractile protein deficiency was also observed in primary VSMC isolated from Adiponectin-/- mice. This deficiency could be rescued by culturing Adiponectin-/- VSMC in conditioned media from wild type (WT) VSMC. Moreover, the paracrine effect of VSMC-derived adiponectin was confirmed as adiponectin neutralizing antibody blocked the rescue. Overexpressed adiponectin also exerted paracrine effects on neighboring untransfected VSMC, which was also blocked by adiponectin neutralizing antibody. Interestingly, adiponectin expression was inducible by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. Our data support an important role for VSMC-derived adiponectin in maintaining VSMC contractile phenotype, contributing to critical cardioprotective functions in the vascular wall. PMID:21952104

  6. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica; Duarte, Juan; Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Bosca, Lisardo; Mitchell, Jane A; Warner, Timothy D

    2006-08-04

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries. The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPARgamma, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin.

  7. Globular adiponectin reduces vascular calcification via inhibition of ER-stress-mediated smooth muscle cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Bian, Yunfei; Wang, Yueru; Bai, Rui; Wang, Jiapu; Xiao, Chuanshi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the mechanism of globular adiponectin inhibiting vascular calcification. We established drug-induced rat vascular calcification model, globular adiponectin was given to observe the effect of globular Adiponectin on the degree of calcification. The markers of vascular calcification and apoptosis were also investigated. Meanwhile, the in vitro effect of globular Adiponectin on vascular calcification was also evaluated using primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that globular adiponectin could inhibit drug-induced rat vascular calcification significantly in vivo. The apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells was also reduced. The possible mechanism could be the down-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by globular adiponectin. Experiments in primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells also confirmed that globular adiponectin could reduce cell apoptosis to suppress vascular calcification via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress. This study confirmed that globular adiponectin could suppress vascular calcification; one of the mechanisms could be inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress to reduce cell apoptosis. It could provide an effective method in the therapy of vascular calcification-associated diseases.

  8. Globular adiponectin reduces vascular calcification via inhibition of ER-stress-mediated smooth muscle cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Bian, Yunfei; Wang, Yueru; Bai, Rui; Wang, Jiapu; Xiao, Chuanshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the mechanism of globular adiponectin inhibiting vascular calcification. Methods: We established drug-induced rat vascular calcification model, globular adiponectin was given to observe the effect of globular Adiponectin on the degree of calcification. The markers of vascular calcification and apoptosis were also investigated. Meanwhile, the in vitro effect of globular Adiponectin on vascular calcification was also evaluated using primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Results: We found that globular adiponectin could inhibit drug-induced rat vascular calcification significantly in vivo. The apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells was also reduced. The possible mechanism could be the down-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by globular adiponectin. Experiments in primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells also confirmed that globular adiponectin could reduce cell apoptosis to suppress vascular calcification via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Conclusions: This study confirmed that globular adiponectin could suppress vascular calcification; one of the mechanisms could be inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress to reduce cell apoptosis. It could provide an effective method in the therapy of vascular calcification-associated diseases. PMID:26045760

  9. Evidence for a role of collagen synthesis in arterial smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed Central

    Rocnik, E F; Chan, B M; Pickering, J G

    1998-01-01

    Migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and collagen synthesis by SMCs are central to the pathophysiology of vascular disease. Both processes can be induced shortly after vascular injury; however, a functional relationship between them has not been established. In this study, we determined if collagen synthesis was required for SMC migration, using ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), an inhibitor of prolyl-4-hydroxylase, and 3,4-DL-dehydroproline (DHP), a proline analogue, which we demonstrate inhibit collagen elaboration by porcine arterial SMCs. SMCs exposed to EDHB or DHP attached normally to collagen- and vitronectin-coated substrates; however, spreading on collagen but not vitronectin was inhibited. SMC migration speed, quantified by digital time-lapse video microscopy, was significantly and reversibly reduced by EDHB and DHP. Flow cytometry revealed that expression of beta1 integrins, through which SMCs interact with collagen, was unaffected by EDHB or DHP. However, both inhibitors prevented normal clustering of beta1 integrins on the surface of SMCs, consistent with a lack of appropriate matrix ligands for integrin engagement. Moreover, there was impaired recruitment of vinculin into focal adhesion complexes of spreading SMCs and disassembly of the smooth muscle alpha-actin-containing cytoskeleton. These findings suggest that de novo collagen synthesis plays a role in SMC migration and implicates a mechanism whereby newly synthesized collagen may be necessary to maintain the transcellular traction system required for effective locomotion. PMID:9576753

  10. Role of KCNQ channels in skeletal muscle arteries and periadventitial vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zavaritskaya, Olga; Zhuravleva, Nadezda; Schleifenbaum, Johanna; Gloe, Torsten; Devermann, Lena; Kluge, Reinhart; Mladenov, Mitko; Frey, Manfred; Gagov, Hristo; Fésüs, Gabor; Gollasch, Maik; Schubert, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    KCNQ channels have been identified in arterial smooth muscle. However, their role in vasoregulation and chronic vascular diseases remains elusive. We tested the hypothesis that KCNQ channels contribute to periadventitial vasoregulation in peripheral skeletal muscle arteries by perivascular adipose tissue and that they represent novel targets to rescue periadventitial vascular dysfunction. Two models, spontaneously hypertensive rats and New Zealand obese mice, were studied using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the patch-clamp technique, membrane potential measurements, myography of isolated vessels, and blood pressure telemetry. In rat Gracilis muscle arteries, anticontractile effects of perivascular fat were inhibited by the KCNQ channel blockers XE991 and linopirdine but not by other selective K(+) channel inhibitors. Accordingly, XE991 and linopirdine blocked noninactivating K(+) currents in freshly isolated Gracilis artery smooth muscle cells. mRNAs of several KCNQ channel subtypes were detected in those arteries, with KCNQ4 channels being dominant. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, the anticontractile effect of perivascular fat in Gracilis muscle arteries was largely reduced compared with Wistar rats. However, the vasodilator effects of KCNQ channel openers and mRNA expression of KCNQ channels were normal. Furthermore, KCNQ channel openers restored the diminished anticontractile effects of perivascular fat in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Moreover, KCNQ channel openers reduced arterial blood pressure in both models of hypertension independent of ganglionic blockade. Thus, our data suggest that KCNQ channels play a pivotal role in periadventitial vasoregulation of peripheral skeletal muscle arteries, and KCNQ channel opening may be an effective mechanism to improve impaired periadventitial vasoregulation and associated hypertension.

  11. Transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells play an important role in vascular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Musri, Melina Mara; Ivo, Victor; Barberà, Joan Albert; Tura-Ceide, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery remodelling it is a major feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is characterised by cellular and structural changes of the pulmonary arteries causing higher pulmonar vascular resistance and right ventricular failure. Abnormal deposition of smooth muscle-like (SM-like) cells in normally non-muscular, small diameter vessels and a deregulated control of endothelial cells are considered pathological features of PH. The origin of the SM-like cells and the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this remodelling process are not understood. Endothelial cells within the intima may migrate from their organised layer of cells and transition to mesenchymal or SM-like phenotype in a process called endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Traditionally, Waddington’s epigenetic landscape illustrates that fates of somatic cells are progressively determined to compulsorily follow a downhill differentiation pathway. EnMT induces the transformation of cells with stem cell traits, therefore contrasting Waddington’s theory and confirming that cell fate seems to be far more flexible than previously thought. The prospect of therapeutic inhibition of EnMT to delay or prevent PH may represent a promising new treatment modality. PMID:25973327

  12. Transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells play an important role in vascular remodelling.

    PubMed

    Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Musri, Melina Mara; Ivo, Victor; Barberà, Joan Albert; Tura-Ceide, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery remodelling it is a major feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is characterised by cellular and structural changes of the pulmonary arteries causing higher pulmonar vascular resistance and right ventricular failure. Abnormal deposition of smooth muscle-like (SM-like) cells in normally non-muscular, small diameter vessels and a deregulated control of endothelial cells are considered pathological features of PH. The origin of the SM-like cells and the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this remodelling process are not understood. Endothelial cells within the intima may migrate from their organised layer of cells and transition to mesenchymal or SM-like phenotype in a process called endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Traditionally, Waddington's epigenetic landscape illustrates that fates of somatic cells are progressively determined to compulsorily follow a downhill differentiation pathway. EnMT induces the transformation of cells with stem cell traits, therefore contrasting Waddington's theory and confirming that cell fate seems to be far more flexible than previously thought. The prospect of therapeutic inhibition of EnMT to delay or prevent PH may represent a promising new treatment modality.

  13. Nucleoplasmic calcium regulation in rabbit aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Abrenica, Bernard; Pierce, Grant N; Gilchrist, James S C

    2003-03-01

    In this study, we investigated whether nucleoplasmic free Ca2+ in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) might be independently regulated from cytosolic free Ca2+. Understanding mechanisms and pathways responsible for this regulation is especially relevant given the role of a numerous intranuclear Ca2+-sensitive proteins in transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and cell division. The question of an independent regulatory mechanism remains largely unsettled because the previous use of intensitometric fluorophores (e.g., Fluo-3) has been criticized on technical grounds. To circumvent the potential problem of fluorescence artifact, we utilized confocal laser scanning microscopy to image intracellular Ca2+ movements with the ratiometric fluorophore Indo-1. In cultured rabbit VSMCs, we found sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pumps and ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ channel proteins to be discretely arranged within a perinuclear locus, as determined by fluorescent staining patterns of BODIPY FL thapsigargin and BODIPY FL-X Ry. When intracellular Ca2+ stores were mobilized by addition of thapsigargin (5 microM) and activatory concentrations of ryanodine (1 microM), Indo-1 ratiometric signals were largely restricted to the nucleoplasm. Cytosolic signals, by comparison, were relatively small and even then its spatial distribution was largely perinuclear rather homogeneous. These observations indicate perinuclear RyR and SERCA proteins are intimately involved in regulating VSMC nucleoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. We also observed a similar pattern of largely nucleoplasmic Ca2+ mobilization upon exposure of cells to the immunosuppressant drug FK506 (tacrolimus), which binds to the RyR-associated immunophillin-binding proteins FKBP12 and FKBP12.6. However, initial FK506-induced nucleoplasmic Ca2+ mobilization was followed by marked reduction of Indo-1 signal intensity close to pretreatment levels. This suggested FK506 exerts both activatory and inhibitory

  14. [Primary culture and functional identification of distal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in mice].

    PubMed

    Li, M C; Chen, Y Q; Zhang, C T; Jiang, Q; Lu, W J; Wang, J

    2017-02-12

    Objective: To establish a method of isolation and primary culture of mice distal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and identify the functional properties. Methods: PASMCs were harvested from the distal pulmonary artery (PA) tissue of mice by enzymatic digestion of collagenaseⅠand papain; and the growth characteristics were observed under inverted microscope and identified by Immunofluorescence technique. Effects on the intracellular calcium ion concentration of distal PASMCs were detected by Fura-2-AM fluorescent probe tracer under a fluorescence microscope in Krebs solution containing clopiazonic acid (CPA) and nifedipin (Nif). Results: PASMCs density reached approximately to 80% in a typical valley-peak-like shape after 6 days. Cell α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunofluorescence identified that 95% of the cultured cells were PASMCs. More than 95% PASMCs responded well to calcium-potassium Krebs solution (potassium ion concentration of 60 mmol/L) and showed a rapid increase in basal [Ca(2+) ](i) after 1 minute's perfusion (Δ[Ca(2+) ](i)>50), which demonstrated that the voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) of distal PASMCs were in good function; after the perfusion of calcium Krebs, calcium-free/calcium-Krebs containing CPA and Nif, distal PASMCs showed two typical peaks, indicated the full function of store-operated calcium channel (SOCC) in distal PASMCs. Conclusion: This experiment successfully established a stable and reliable mice distal PASMCs model and the study of pulmonary vascular diseases could benefit from its higher purity and better functional condition.

  15. Increased endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion on nanostructured titanium and CoCrMo

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Saba; Berhe, Mikal; Haberstroh, Karen M; Webster, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    In the body, vascular cells continuously interact with tissues that possess nanostructured surface features due to the presence of proteins (such as collagen and elastin) embedded in the vascular wall. Despite this fact, vascular stents intended to restore blood flow do not have nanoscale surface features but rather are smooth at the nanoscale. As the first step towards creating the next generation of vascular stent materials, the objective of this in vitro study was to investigate vascular cell (specifically, endothelial, and vascular smooth muscle cell) adhesion on nanostructured compared with conventional commercially pure (cp) Ti and CoCrMo. Nanostructured cp Ti and CoCrMo compacts were created by separately utilizing either constituent cp Ti or CoCrMo nanoparticles as opposed to conventional micronsized particles. Results of this study showed for the first time increased endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion on nanostructured compared with conventional cp Ti and CoCrMo after 4 hours’ adhesion. Moreover, compared with their respective conventional counterparts, the ratio of endothelial to vascular smooth muscle cells increased on nanostructured cp Ti and CoCrMo. In addition, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells had a better spread morphology on the nanostructured metals compared with conventional metals. Overall, vascular cell adhesion was better on CoCrMo than on cp Ti. Results of surface characterization studies demonstrated similar chemistry but significantly greater root-mean-square (rms) surface roughness as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for nanostructured compared with respective conventional metals. For these reasons, results from the present in vitro study provided evidence that vascular stents composed of nanometer compared with micron-sized metal particles (specifically, either cp Ti or CoCrMo) may invoke cellular responses promising for improved vascular stent applications. PMID:17722261

  16. PPARβ/δ, a Novel Regulator for Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Phenotypic Modulation and Vascular Remodeling after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongrong; Jiang, Li; Guo, Zongduo; Zhong, Jianjun; Wu, Jingchuan; He, Junchi; Liu, Han; He, Zhaohui; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Chongjie; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2017-03-22

    Cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic switch is involved in the pathophysiology of vascular injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), whereas the molecular mechanism underlying it remains largely speculative. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) has been implicated to modulate the vascular cells proliferation and vascular homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of PPARβ/δ in VSMC phenotypic switch following SAH. Activation of PPARβ/δ by GW0742 and adenoviruses PPARβ/δ (Ad-PPARβ/δ) significantly inhibited hemoglobin-induced VSMC phenotypic switch. However, the effects of PPARβ/δ on VSMC phenotypic switch were partly obstacled in the presence of LY294002, a potent inhibitor of Phosphatidyl-Inositol-3 Kinase-AKT (PI3K/AKT). Furthermore, following study demonstrated that PPARβ/δ-induced PI3K/AKT activation can also contribute to Serum Response Factor (SRF) nucleus localization and Myocardin expression, which was highly associated with VSMC phenotypic switch. Finally, we found that Ad-PPARβ/δ positively modulated vascular remodeling in SAH rats, i.e. the diameter of basilar artery and the thickness of vessel wall. In addition, overexpression of PPARβ/δ by adenoviruses significantly improved neurological outcome. Taken together, this study identified PPARβ/δ as a useful regulator for VSMC phenotypic switch and vascular remodeling following SAH, providing novel insights into the therapeutic strategies of delayed cerebral ischemia.

  17. PPARβ/δ, a Novel Regulator for Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Phenotypic Modulation and Vascular Remodeling after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongrong; Jiang, Li; Guo, Zongduo; Zhong, Jianjun; Wu, Jingchuan; He, Junchi; Liu, Han; He, Zhaohui; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Chongjie; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic switch is involved in the pathophysiology of vascular injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), whereas the molecular mechanism underlying it remains largely speculative. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) has been implicated to modulate the vascular cells proliferation and vascular homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of PPARβ/δ in VSMC phenotypic switch following SAH. Activation of PPARβ/δ by GW0742 and adenoviruses PPARβ/δ (Ad-PPARβ/δ) significantly inhibited hemoglobin-induced VSMC phenotypic switch. However, the effects of PPARβ/δ on VSMC phenotypic switch were partly obstacled in the presence of LY294002, a potent inhibitor of Phosphatidyl-Inositol-3 Kinase-AKT (PI3K/AKT). Furthermore, following study demonstrated that PPARβ/δ-induced PI3K/AKT activation can also contribute to Serum Response Factor (SRF) nucleus localization and Myocardin expression, which was highly associated with VSMC phenotypic switch. Finally, we found that Ad-PPARβ/δ positively modulated vascular remodeling in SAH rats, i.e. the diameter of basilar artery and the thickness of vessel wall. In addition, overexpression of PPARβ/δ by adenoviruses significantly improved neurological outcome. Taken together, this study identified PPARβ/δ as a useful regulator for VSMC phenotypic switch and vascular remodeling following SAH, providing novel insights into the therapeutic strategies of delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:28327554

  18. Characterization of pressure-mediated vascular tone in resistance arteries from bile duct-ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Thounaojam, Menaka C.; Khurana, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    In cirrhosis, changes in pressure-mediated vascular tone, a key determinant of systemic vascular resistance (SVR), are unknown. To address this gap in knowledge, we assessed ex vivo dynamics of pressurized mesenteric resistance arteries (diameter ~ 260 μm) from bile duct-ligated (BDL) and sham-operated (SHAM) rats and determined the underlying mechanisms. At isobaric intraluminal pressure (70 mmHg) as well as with step-wise increase in pressure (10-110 mmHg), arteries from SHAM-rats constricted more than BDL-rats, and had reduced luminal area. In both groups, incubation with LNAME (a NOS inhibitor) had no effect on pressure-mediated tone, and expression of NOS isoforms were similar. TEA, which enhances Ca2+ influx, augmented arterial tone only in SHAM-rats, with minimal effect in those from BDL-rats that was associated with reduced expression of Ca2+ channel TRPC6. In permeabilized arteries, high-dose Ca2+ and γGTP enhanced the vascular tone, which remained lower in BDL-rats that was associated with reduced ROCK2 and pMLC expression. Further, compared to SHAM-rats, in BDL-rats, arteries had reduced collagen expression which was associated with increased expression and activity of MMP-9. BDL-rats also had increased plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro, peroxynitrite enhanced MMP-9 activity and reduced ROCK2 expression. These data provide evidence that in cirrhosis, pressure-mediated tone is reduced in resistance arteries, and suggest that circulating ROS play a role in reducing Ca2+ sensitivity and enhancing elasticity to induce arterial adaptations. These findings provide insights into mechanisms underlying attenuated SVR in cirrhosis. PMID:28430609

  19. Relative resistance to Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition in vascular smooth muscle cells of diabetic donors.

    PubMed

    Lightell, Daniel J; Woods, T Cooper

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Intimal thickening, a component of cardiovascular disease, entails the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) blocks VSMC proliferation, in part through an increase in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27(Kip1). The use of mTOR inhibitors, such as rapamycin, is effective clinically in inhibiting intimal thickening. This efficacy is reduced in diabetic subjects, however, suggesting a change in the role of the mTOR pathway in intimal thickening under diabetic conditions. To examine whether diabetes induced changes in the role of mTOR in VSMC proliferation, we compared the response to rapamycin of human coronary artery VSMCs from diabetic (DM-huCASMC [human coronary artery smooth muscle cell]) and nondiabetic (ND-huCASMC) subjects. The DM-huCASMCs exhibited a relative resistance to rapamycin's inhibition of proliferation. Activation of the mTOR effector p70(S6kinase) was inhibited in rapamycin-treated DM-huCASMCs as in ND-huCASMCs. While ND-huCASMCs exhibited the normal increase in p27(Kip1) in response to rapamycin treatment, the DM-huCASMCs did not. Additionally, activation of the extracellular signal response kinase pathway was increased in the DM-huCASMCs, suggesting a potential pathway mediating the mTOR-independent decrease in p27(Kip1). We conclude that diabetes is accompanied by a relative resistance to the effects of mTOR inhibition on VSMC proliferation through a loss of mTOR's effects on p27(Kip1) levels. These data provide insight into the effects of insulin resistance on the role of mTOR in regulating intimal thickening.

  20. Increased arterial smooth muscle Ca2+ signaling, vasoconstriction, and myogenic reactivity in Milan hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Cristina I.; Karashima, Eiji; Raina, Hema; Zulian, Alessandra; Wier, Withrow G.; Hamlyn, John M.; Ferrari, Patrizia; Blaustein, Mordecai P.

    2012-01-01

    The Milan hypertensive strain (MHS) rats are a genetic model of hypertension with adducin gene polymorphisms linked to enhanced renal tubular Na+ reabsorption. Recently we demonstrated that Ca2+ signaling is augmented in freshly isolated mesenteric artery myocytes from MHS rats. This is associated with greatly enhanced expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger-1 (NCX1), C-type transient receptor potential (TRPC6) protein, and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) compared with arteries from Milan normotensive strain (MNS) rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that the enhanced Ca2+ signaling in MHS arterial smooth muscle is directly reflected in augmented vasoconstriction [myogenic and phenylephrine (PE)-evoked responses] in isolated mesenteric small arteries. Systolic blood pressure was higher in MHS (145 ± 1 mmHg) than in MNS (112 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.001; n = 16 each) rats. Pressurized mesenteric resistance arteries from MHS rats had significantly augmented myogenic tone and reactivity and enhanced constriction to low-dose (1–100 nM) PE. Isolated MHS arterial myocytes exhibited approximately twofold increased peak Ca2+ signals in response to 5 μM PE or ATP in the absence and presence of extracellular Ca2+. These augmented responses are consistent with increased vasoconstrictor-evoked sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release and increased Ca2+ entry, respectively. The increased SR Ca2+ release correlates with a doubling of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 and tripling of SERCA2 expression. Pressurized MHS arteries also exhibited a ∼70% increase in 100 nM ouabain-induced vasoconstriction compared with MNS arteries. These functional alterations reveal that, in a genetic model of hypertension linked to renal dysfunction, multiple mechanisms within the arterial myocytes contribute to enhanced Ca2+ signaling and myogenic and vasoconstrictor-induced arterial constriction. MHS rats have elevated plasma levels of endogenous ouabain, which may initiate the

  1. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, Rajendra; Kim, Seong-Bin; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-12-10

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  2. IL-19 Reduces Ligation-Mediated Neointimal Hyperplasia by Reducing Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Stephen; Gabunia, Khatuna; Richards, James M.; Kelemen, Sheri E.; England, Ross N.; Rudic, Dan; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Munroy, M. Alexandra; Eguchi, Satoru; Autieri, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that IL-19, a putative member of the type 2 helper T-cell family of anti-inflammatory interleukins, can attenuate intimal hyperplasia and modulate the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) response to injury. Ligated carotid artery of IL-19 knockout (KO) mice demonstrated a significantly higher neointima/intima ratio compared with wild-type (WT) mice (P = 0.04). More important, the increased neointima/intima ratio in the KO could be reversed by injection of 10 ng/g per day recombinant IL-19 into the KO mouse (P = 0.04). VSMCs explanted from IL-19 KO mice proliferated significantly more rapidly than WT. This could be inhibited by addition of IL-19 to KO VSMCs (P = 0.04 and P < 0.01). IL-19 KO VSMCs migrated more rapidly compared with WT (P < 0.01). Interestingly, there was no type 1 helper T-cell polarization in the KO mouse, but there was significantly greater leukocyte infiltrate in the ligated artery in these mice compared with WT. IL-19 KO VSMCs expressed significantly greater levels of inflammatory mRNA, including IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in response to tumor necrosis factor α stimulation (P < 0.01 for all). KO VSMCs expressed greater adhesion molecule expression and adherence to monocytes. Together, these data indicate that IL-19 is a previously unrecognized counterregulatory factor for VSMCs, and its expression is an important protective mechanism in regulation of vascular restenosis. PMID:24814101

  3. Nuclear envelope proteins modulate proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells during cyclic stretch application.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying-Xin; Yao, Qing-Ping; Huang, Kai; Shi, Qian; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Guo-Liang; Han, Yue; Bao, Han; Wang, Lu; Li, Hai-Peng; Shen, Bao-Rong; Wang, Yingxiao; Chien, Shu; Jiang, Zong-Lai

    2016-05-10

    Cyclic stretch is an important inducer of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, which is crucial in vascular remodeling during hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We studied the effects of emerin and lamin A/C, two important nuclear envelope proteins, on VSMC proliferation in hypertension and the underlying mechano-mechanisms. In common carotid artery of hypertensive rats in vivo and in cultured cells subjected to high (15%) cyclic stretch in vitro, VSMC proliferation was increased significantly, and the expression of emerin and lamin A/C was repressed compared with normotensive or normal (5%) cyclic stretch controls. Using targeted siRNA to mimic the repressed expression of emerin or lamin A/C induced by 15% stretch, we found that VSMC proliferation was enhanced under static and 5%-stretch conditions. Overexpression of emerin or lamin A/C reversed VSMC proliferation induced by 15% stretch. Hence, emerin and lamin A/C play critical roles in suppressing VSMC hyperproliferation induced by hyperstretch. ChIP-on-chip and MOTIF analyses showed that the DNAs binding with emerin contain three transcription factor motifs: CCNGGA, CCMGCC, and ABTTCCG; DNAs binding with lamin A/C contain the motifs CVGGAA, GCCGCYGC, and DAAGAAA. Protein/DNA array proved that altered emerin or lamin A/C expression modulated the activation of various transcription factors. Furthermore, accelerating local expression of emerin or lamin A/C reversed cell proliferation in the carotid artery of hypertensive rats in vivo. Our findings establish the pathogenetic role of emerin and lamin A/C repression in stretch-induced VSMC proliferation and suggest mechanobiological mechanism underlying this process that involves the sequence-specific binding of emerin and lamin A/C to specific transcription factor motifs.

  4. Nuclear envelope proteins modulate proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells during cyclic stretch application

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying-Xin; Yao, Qing-Ping; Huang, Kai; Shi, Qian; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Guo-Liang; Han, Yue; Bao, Han; Wang, Lu; Li, Hai-Peng; Shen, Bao-Rong; Wang, Yingxiao; Chien, Shu; Jiang, Zong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic stretch is an important inducer of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, which is crucial in vascular remodeling during hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We studied the effects of emerin and lamin A/C, two important nuclear envelope proteins, on VSMC proliferation in hypertension and the underlying mechano-mechanisms. In common carotid artery of hypertensive rats in vivo and in cultured cells subjected to high (15%) cyclic stretch in vitro, VSMC proliferation was increased significantly, and the expression of emerin and lamin A/C was repressed compared with normotensive or normal (5%) cyclic stretch controls. Using targeted siRNA to mimic the repressed expression of emerin or lamin A/C induced by 15% stretch, we found that VSMC proliferation was enhanced under static and 5%-stretch conditions. Overexpression of emerin or lamin A/C reversed VSMC proliferation induced by 15% stretch. Hence, emerin and lamin A/C play critical roles in suppressing VSMC hyperproliferation induced by hyperstretch. ChIP-on-chip and MOTIF analyses showed that the DNAs binding with emerin contain three transcription factor motifs: CCNGGA, CCMGCC, and ABTTCCG; DNAs binding with lamin A/C contain the motifs CVGGAA, GCCGCYGC, and DAAGAAA. Protein/DNA array proved that altered emerin or lamin A/C expression modulated the activation of various transcription factors. Furthermore, accelerating local expression of emerin or lamin A/C reversed cell proliferation in the carotid artery of hypertensive rats in vivo. Our findings establish the pathogenetic role of emerin and lamin A/C repression in stretch-induced VSMC proliferation and suggest mechanobiological mechanism underlying this process that involves the sequence-specific binding of emerin and lamin A/C to specific transcription factor motifs. PMID:27114541

  5. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by cholesterol and its oxides in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Chaufour, X; McLachlan, C; McGuire, M; White, G; King, N; Hambly, B

    2000-02-01

    The ability of cholesterol and its oxides to induce apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells in tissue culture and in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis was evaluated. Apoptosis was detected using DNA laddering and in situ end-labelling of fragmented DNA. Cholesterol oxides, but not cholesterol, were found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in tissue culture. 7-ketocholesterol was found to be the most potent inhibitor of proliferation, while 25-hydroxycholesterol was found to be the most potent inducer of apoptosis. These data suggest that the inhibition of proliferation and the induction of apoptosis by cholesterol oxides within vascular smooth muscle cells use different pathways, suggesting a differential role for these cholesterol oxides within the arterial wall. Cholesterol feeding after balloon injury in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis is known to result in the accumulation of cholesterol oxides. However, we found that cholesterol feeding had no effect on the level of apoptosis in the rabbit aortic wall after balloon injury, suggesting that the major factor determining apoptosis in our model was the balloon injury.

  6. ECM-mimetic heparin glycosamioglycan-functionalized surface favors constructing functional vascular smooth muscle tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jimin; Wang, Jianing; Wei, Yongzhen; Gao, Cheng; Chen, Xuejiao; Kong, Wei; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Contractile vascular smooth muscle accounts for the normal physiological function of artery. Heparin, as a native glycosaminoglycan, has been well known for its important function in promoting or maintaining the contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, heparin-functionalized non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) mat was fabricated by a facile and efficient surface modification protocol, which enables the control of surface heparin density within a broad range. Surface heparization remarkably increased the hydrophilicity of PCL, and reduced platelet adhesion. MTT assay showed that VSMC proliferation was evidently inhibited on the heparin-functionalized PCL surface in a dose-dependent manner. Gene analysis confirmed that surface heparization also promoted the transition of VSMCs from synthetic phenotype to contractile one. Furthermore, with a proper surface density of heparin, it allowed VSMCs to grow in a certain rate, while exhibiting contractile phenotype. Culture of VSMCs on a modified PCL mat with moderate heparin density (PCL-Hep-20) for 2 days resulted in a confluent layer of contractile smooth muscle cells. These data suggest that the heparin-modified PCL scaffolds may be a promising candidate to generate functional vascular tissues in vitro.

  7. Attenuation of endothelin-1-induced calcium response by tyrosine kinase inhibitors in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Y; Sturek, M

    1996-06-01

    Although tyrosine kinases play an important role in cell growth and have been implicated in regulation of smooth muscle contraction, their role in agonist-induced myoplasmic Ca2+ responses is unclear. We examined effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate (MDHC) on the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced Ca2+ response and determined underlying mechanisms for the effects. Freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from porcine coronary arteries were loaded with fura 2 ester, and myoplasmic free Ca2+ (Ca2+ (m)) concentration was estimated with fura 2 microfluorometry. Both genistein and MDHC inhibited the initial transient Cam2+ response to ET by 54 and 81%, respectively (P < 0.05), in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Genistein also significantly delayed the Cam2+ response, with the latent period from ET-1 application to the beginning of the Cam2+ response being increased from 1.08 +/- 0.17 to 2.65 +/- 0.52 min (P < 0.05). In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, genistein inhibited the ET-1-induced Cam2+ response by 93% (P < 0.05). The Cam2+ responses to caffeine (5 mM) or inositol trisphosphate (IP3) applied intracellularly via a patch-clamp pipette were not affected by genistein. Both genistein and MDHC also abolished the sustained Cam2+ response to ET-1. However, the Cam2+ response to depolarization by 80 mM K+ was not inhibited by MDHC and only inhibited 22% by genistein (P < 0.05). These results indicate that 1) activation of tyrosine kinases is an important regulatory mechanism for the ET-1-induced Cam2+ response in vascular smooth muscle and 2) tyrosine kinases mediate ET-1-induced Ca2+ release with no direct effect on IP3-mediated Ca2+ release. Thus ET-1-mediated signaling upstream of IP3 interaction with the Ca2+ stores is regulated by tyrosine kinases.

  8. Effect and mechanism of betaxolol and timolol on vascular relaxation in isolated rabbit ciliary artery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yaru; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Wu, Yazhen; Shimizu, Kimiya; Goseki, Toshiaki; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    In order to clarify the vasodilatory mechanism of betaxolol and timolol, we studied the effects of these drugs in isolated rabbit ciliary arteries. Rabbit ciliary artery specimens were mounted in a double myograph system, and betaxolol, timolol, or another agent was introduced into the organ chamber. The mechanical response of the arteries was studied using an isometric tension recording method. The intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i was also measured using fluorescence photometry. Betaxolol and timolol induced dose-dependent relaxation in the rabbit ciliary arteries precontracted by high-K+ Krebs solution. The minimum concentrations required to cause relaxation were 10 microM of betaxolol, and 30 microM of timolol. At the maximum concentration of 1 mM, betaxolol induced almost complete relaxation of the ciliary arteries, whereas timolol induced approximately 70% relaxation. These actions were not inhibited by pretreatment with 100 microM NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or by denudation of the vascular endothelium. However, 300 microM of betaxolol or timolol decreased the [Ca2+]i of the vascular smooth muscle, an action similar to that of diltiazem, a typical L-type voltage calcium-channel blocker. Betaxolol, a selective beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist, and timolol, a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, both frequently used in the medical management of glaucoma, decrease [Ca2+]i by acting as Ca2+ channel blockers, thus causing relaxation of isolated rabbit ciliary artery.

  9. Quantification of Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Vascularization in Double-injury Restenotic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Meng; Zhang, Bai-Gen; Zhang, Lan; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates a potential role of adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of restenosis. However, characterization of VV vascularization in restenotic arteries with primary lesions is still missing. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the response of adventitial VV to vascular injury resulting from balloon angioplasty in diseased arteries. Methods: Primary atherosclerotic-like lesions were induced by the placement of an absorbable thread surrounding the carotid artery of New Zealand rabbits. Four weeks following double-injury induced that was induced by secondary balloon dilation, three-dimensional patterns of adventitial VV were reconstructed; the number, density, and endothelial surface of VV were quantified using micro-computed tomography. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed in order to examine the development of intimal hyperplasia. Results: Results from our study suggest that double injured arteries have a greater number of VV, increased luminal surface, and an elevation in the intima/media ratio (I/M), along with an accumulation of macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the intima, as compared to sham or single injury arteries. I/M and the number of VV were positively correlated (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Extensive adventitial VV neovascularization occurs in injured arteries after balloon angioplasty, which is associated with intimal hyperplasia. Quantitative assessment of adventitial VV response may provide insight into the basic biological process of postangioplasty restenosis. PMID:26228224

  10. Knockdown of connexin 43 attenuates balloon injury-induced vascular restenosis through the inhibition of the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Jian; He, Dan; Xu, Liang-Jing; Chen, Min; Wang, Yi-Qi; Feng, Jiu-Geng; Wei, Min-Jun; Hong, Tao; Jiang, Li-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) or atherosclerotic heart disease is one of the most common types of cardiovascular disease. Although percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)] is a mature, well-established technique used to treat atherosclerotic heart disease, its long‑term therapeutic effects are compromised by a high incidence of vascular restenosis (RS) following angioplasty. In our previous study, we found that the principal gap junction protein, connexin 43 (Cx43), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was involved in the development of vascular RS following angioplasty-induced balloon injury. However, the exact role action of Cx43 in vascular RS remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to further examine whether the knockdown of Cx43 attenuates the development of vascular RS through the inhibition of the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. We found that the use of a lentiviral vector expressing shRNA targeting Cx43 (Cx43‑RNAi-LV) efficiently silenced the mRNA and protein expression of Cx43 in cultured VSMCs. In addition, MTT and Transwell assays were used to examined the proliferation and migration of the VSMCs, respectively. The results revealed that the knockdown of Cx43 by Cx43-RNAi-LV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of the VSMCs in vitro. Notably, the knockdown of Cx43 also effectively attenuated the development of vascular RS and intimal hyperplasia following balloon injury in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that Cx43 is involved in the development of vascular RS and intimal hyperplasia through the regulation of the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Thus, the present study provides new insight into the pathogenesis of vascular RS, and suggests that further comfirms that Cx43 may well be a novel potential pharmacological target for preventing vascular RS following PCI.

  11. Hypoxia Does neither Stimulate Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cell Proliferation in Mice and Rats with Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Remodeling nor in Human Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lunyin; Hales, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling due to induction of pulmonary artery cell proliferation. Besides pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) are also involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension, but the effect of hypoxia on PAEC proliferation has not been completely understood. Methods We investigated PAEC proliferation in mice and rats with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling as well as in human PAECs under hypoxia. Results and Conclusion We did not find significant PAEC proliferation in chronically hypoxic rats or mice. There was a slight decrease in proliferation in mice and rats with pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. We also did not find significant human PAEC proliferation and cell cycle progression under different levels of oxygen (1, 2, 3, 5 and 10%) for one day, although the same conditions of hypoxia induced significant proliferation and cell cycle progression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and pulmonary artery fibroblasts. Exposure to hypoxia for 7 days also did not increase PAEC proliferation. These results demonstrated that hypoxia alone is not a stimulus to PAEC proliferation in vivo and in vitro. The present study provides a novel role for PAECs in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. PMID:21691120

  12. Calcium and TRP channels in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, Judd W; Yuan, Jason X-J

    2004-04-01

    Ca(2+) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction and a stimulus for pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. The transient receptor potential cation channels participate in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) and thus vascular contractility and cell proliferation. Upregulation of genes encoding these channels is involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  13. [Arterial vascularization of the triceps sural muscle].

    PubMed

    Mairesse, J L; Mestdagh, H; Procyk, S; Depreux, R

    1984-01-01

    The triceps surae muscle, the dorsal and medial leg skin constitute a very important reserve of muscular and myocutaneous flaps. The material on which the study was carried out consisted of 20 legs from standard cadavers. The superficialis femoral artery was injected with terebenthene and minimum mixture. The medial head of gastrocnemius is 23.3 em long, 6.9 cm wide, 1.25 mm thick at distal third. Its dominant blood supply is carried by the medialis gastrocnemius artery. It rises from popliteal artery 1.2 cm above the femoral tibial articulation with 1.9 mm diameter. It runs 3 cm down before entering muscle where it provides 2 or 3 mean branches. These branches give musculocutaneous arteries to the skin of the dorsal leg. The same study was performed for the lateral head of gastrocnemius and soleus. We studied also arteries of dorsomedial leg skin. The characteristics of long saphenous and short saphenous arteries were described. These muscles and dorsomedial leg skin can be used as muscular or myocutaneous flap for covering defects between the lower leg and the lower thigh.

  14. Steroid-sensitive gene 1 is a novel cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I substrate in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-rong; Surks, Howard K; Tang, K Mary; Zhu, Yan; Mendelsohn, Michael E; Blanton, Robert M

    2013-08-23

    NO, via its second messenger cGMP, activates protein kinase GI (PKGI) to induce vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation. The mechanisms by which PKGI kinase activity regulates cardiovascular function remain incompletely understood. Therefore, to identify novel protein kinase G substrates in vascular cells, a λ phage coronary artery smooth muscle cell library was constructed and screened for phosphorylation by PKGI. The screen identified steroid-sensitive gene 1 (SSG1), which harbors several predicted PKGI phosphorylation sites. We observed direct and cGMP-regulated interaction between PKGI and SSG1. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, both the NO donor S-nitrosocysteine and atrial natriuretic peptide induced SSG1 phosphorylation, and mutation of SSG1 at each of the two predicted PKGI phosphorylation sites completely abolished its basal phosphorylation by PKGI. We detected high SSG1 expression in cardiovascular tissues. Finally, we found that activation of PKGI with cGMP regulated SSG1 intracellular distribution.

  15. Steroid-sensitive Gene 1 Is a Novel Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase I Substrate in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang-rong; Surks, Howard K.; Tang, K. Mary; Zhu, Yan; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Blanton, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    NO, via its second messenger cGMP, activates protein kinase GI (PKGI) to induce vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation. The mechanisms by which PKGI kinase activity regulates cardiovascular function remain incompletely understood. Therefore, to identify novel protein kinase G substrates in vascular cells, a λ phage coronary artery smooth muscle cell library was constructed and screened for phosphorylation by PKGI. The screen identified steroid-sensitive gene 1 (SSG1), which harbors several predicted PKGI phosphorylation sites. We observed direct and cGMP-regulated interaction between PKGI and SSG1. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, both the NO donor S-nitrosocysteine and atrial natriuretic peptide induced SSG1 phosphorylation, and mutation of SSG1 at each of the two predicted PKGI phosphorylation sites completely abolished its basal phosphorylation by PKGI. We detected high SSG1 expression in cardiovascular tissues. Finally, we found that activation of PKGI with cGMP regulated SSG1 intracellular distribution. PMID:23831687

  16. Reconstruction of small diameter arteries using decellularized vascular scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kishida, Akio; Fujisato, Toshia; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2014-03-19

    Although artificial vessels are available for large diameter arteries, there are no artificial vessels for small diameter arteries of < 4 mm. We created a decellularized vascular scaffold (length, 10 mm; outer diameter, 1.5 mm; inner diameter, 1.3 mm) from rat abdominal arteries. We measured the biomechanical characteristics of the scaffolds, implanted them to defects made in rat carotid arteries, and evaluated their patency and the endothelial cell linings. Silastic grafts were implanted as controls. The decellularized scaffolds demonstrated similar mechanical characteristics to normal arteries. All of the control grafts were occluded. Fibroblast-like cells were discovered in the thrombus, and fibrous organization was apparent. In contrast, patency of the grafts in 10 of 12 animals was observed 4 weeks after implantation. The internal cavity of the patent scaffold was completely lined by endotheliallike cells. Thus, the possibility of small artery reconstruction using decellularized scaffolds was demonstrated.

  17. Laminar shear stress stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis via the Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Tamara N; Shepherd, Benjamin R; Asada, Hidenori; Teso, Desarom; Muto, Akihito; Fancher, Tiffany; Pimiento, Jose M; Maloney, Stephen P; Dardik, Alan

    2008-08-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) may be directly exposed to blood flow after an endothelial-denuding injury. It is not known whether direct exposure of SMC to shear stress reduces SMC turnover and contributes to the low rate of restenosis after most vascular interventions. This study examines if laminar shear stress inhibits SMC proliferation or stimulates apoptosis. Bovine aortic SMC were exposed to arterial magnitudes of laminar shear stress (11 dynes/cm(2)) for up to 24 h and compared to control SMC (0 dynes/cm(2)). SMC density was assessed by cell counting, DNA synthesis by (3)[H]-thymidine incorporation, and apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Akt, caspase, bax, and bcl-2 phosphorylation were assessed by Western blotting; caspase activity was also measured with an in vitro assay. Analysis of variance was used to compare groups. SMC exposed to laminar shear stress had a 38% decrease in cell number (n = 4, P = 0.03), 54% reduction in (3)[H]-thymidine incorporation (n = 3, P = 0.003), and 15-fold increase in TUNEL staining (n = 4, P < 0.0001). Akt phosphorylation was reduced by 67% (n = 3, P < 0.0001), whereas bax/bcl-2 phosphorylation was increased by 1.8-fold (n = 3, P = 0.01). Caspase-3 activity was increased threefold (n = 5, P = 0.03). Pretreatment of cells with ZVAD-fmk or wortmannin resulted in 42% increased cell retention (n = 3, P < 0.01) and a fourfold increase in apoptosis (n = 3, P < 0.04), respectively. Cells transduced with constitutively-active Akt had twofold decreased apoptosis (n = 3, P < 0.002). SMC exposed to laminar shear stress have decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis, mediated by the Akt pathway. These results suggest that augmentation of SMC apoptosis may be an alternative strategy to inhibit restenosis after vascular injury.

  18. Advanced glycation endproducts induce a proliferative response in vascular smooth muscle cells via altered calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    David, Kanola C; Scott, Roderick H; Nixon, Graeme F

    2008-10-30

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are proteins that accumulate in the plasma of diabetics as a result of increased glucose concentrations and are closely linked with vascular disease. The mechanisms involved are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AGE-induced changes in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis could contribute to these mechanisms. Cultured porcine coronary artery vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells were preincubated with glycated albumin for 96 h. The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase, although not increased in amplitude, was significantly prolonged in cells preincubated with glycated albumin. Intracellular Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiological recording of ion channel currents following release of caged Ca2+ indicated that this prolonged Ca2+ rise occurred predominantly via changes in Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. Preincubation with glycated albumin also resulted in a threefold increase in expression of the receptor for AGE. As a consequence of the prolonged intracellular Ca2+ rise following preincubation with glycated albumin, the S1P-induced activation of the Ca2+-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin (CaN) was increased. This resulted in increased S1P-induced activation of the Ca2+-dependent transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc). BrdU incorporation in VSM cells was increased in cells preincubated with glycated albumin and was inhibited by the CaN inhibitor, cyclosporin A. In conclusion, AGE can induce VSM proliferation via a prolonged agonist-induced Ca2+ increase leading to increased activation of CaN and subsequently NFATc. This mechanism may contribute to pathogenesis of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus.

  19. Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation to an osteogenic phenotype involves matrix metalloproteinase-2 modulation by homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingjiao; Lin, Jinghan; Ju, Ting; Chu, Lei; Zhang, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Arterial calcification is common in vascular diseases and involves conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to an osteoblast phenotype. Clinical studies suggest that the development of atherosclerosis can be promoted by homocysteine (HCY), but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we determined whether increases in HCY levels lead to an increase in VSMC calcification and differentiation, and examined the role of an extracellular matrix remodeler, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Rat VSMCs were exposed to calcification medium in the absence or presence of HCY (10, 100 or 200 μmol/L) or an MMP-2 inhibitor (10(-6) or 10(-5) mol/L). MTT assays were performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the MMP-2 inhibitor in calcification medium containing 200 μmol/L HCY. Calcification was assessed by measurements of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as von Kossa staining. Expression of osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and osteopontin, and MMP-2 was determined by immunoblotting. Calcification medium induced osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs. HCY promoted calcification, increased osteocalcin and BMP-2 expression, and decreased expression of osteopontin. MMP-2 expression was increased by HCY in a dose-dependent manner in VSMCs exposed to both control and calcification medium. The MMP-2 inhibitor decreased the calcium content and ALP activity, and attenuated the osteoblastic phenotype of VSMCs. Vascular calcification and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs were positively regulated by HCY through increased/restored MMP-2 expression, increased expression of calcification proteins, and decreased anti-calcification protein levels. In summary, MMP-2 inhibition may be a protective strategy against VSMC calcification.

  20. Crystallizing nanoparticles derived from vascular smooth muscle cells contain the calcification inhibitor osteoprotegerin.

    PubMed

    Schoppet, Michael; Kavurma, Mary M; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2011-04-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, was initially found to modulate bone mass by blocking osteoclast maturation and function. Rodent models have also revealed a role for OPG as an inhibitor of vascular calcification. However, the precise mode of how OPG blocks mineralization is unclear. In this study, OPG was found in an in vitro assay to significantly inhibit calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by high calcium/phosphate (Ca/P) treatment (p=0.0063), although this effect was blunted at high OPG concentrations. By confocal microscopy, OPG was detected in VSMC in the Golgi, the same localization seen in osteoblasts, which express OPG in bone. Treatment of VSMC by minerals (Ca, P, or both) induced OPG mRNA expression as assessed by real-time quantitative PCR, and VSMC derived from atherosclerotic plaque material also exhibited higher OPG expression as compared to control cells (p<0.05). Furthermore, OPG was detected by Western blotting in matrix vesicles (MV), nanoparticles that are released by VSMC with the capacity to nucleate mineral. In atherosclerotic arteries, OPG colocalized immunohistochemically with annexin VI, a calcium-dependent membrane and phospholipid binding protein found in MV. Thus, the calcification inhibitor OPG is contained in crystallizing MV and has a biphasic effect on VSMC: physiologic concentrations inhibit calcification, whereas high concentrations commonly seen in patients with vascular disease have no effect. Like other calcification inhibitors, OPG may be specifically loaded into these nanoparticles to be deposited at remote sites, where it acts to inhibit calcification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endothelial-dependent relaxant actions of carbachol and substance P in arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Bolton, T B; Clapp, L H

    1986-04-01

    In helical strips cut from the small mesenteric artery of guinea-pig (GPSMA) (0.3-0.6 mm o.d.) relaxations induced by substance P were more susceptible to damage of the endothelium by rubbing than were relaxations evoked by carbachol. Relaxations induced by 2-nicotin-amidoethyl nitrate (SG75) were unaffected by this procedure. Relaxations evoked by the calcium ionophore A23187 persisted when those to substance P had been abolished by rubbing the endothelium in GPSMA, rabbit mesenteric and rabbit ear arteries. In guinea-pig pulmonary artery and aorta relaxations to A23187 were lost after this treatment. Carbachol and SG75 were more effective in inhibiting phasic than tonic tension induced by noradrenaline in GPSMA, but substance P was more effective against tonic tension. In the GPSMA, carbachol and substance P inhibited tension produced by noradrenaline to similar extents. However, carbachol was less, and substance P much less effective in inhibiting tension evoked by high-potassium solution than by noradrenaline. Susceptibility of relaxations to blockade by haemoglobin in GPSMA was: substance P greater than carbachol greater than ATP greater than SG75. The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells in the media of the GPSMA was recorded by microelectrode. Carbachol, but not substance P, hyperpolarized the cells both in the presence and absence of noradrenaline at concentrations which relaxed the muscle. These results suggest a heterogeneity in the mechanisms of endothelial-dependent relaxations induced by various vascular relaxants.

  2. Endothelial-dependent relaxant actions of carbachol and substance P in arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, T. B.; Clapp, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    In helical strips cut from the small mesenteric artery of guinea-pig (GPSMA) (0.3-0.6 mm o.d.) relaxations induced by substance P were more susceptible to damage of the endothelium by rubbing than were relaxations evoked by carbachol. Relaxations induced by 2-nicotin-amidoethyl nitrate (SG75) were unaffected by this procedure. Relaxations evoked by the calcium ionophore A23187 persisted when those to substance P had been abolished by rubbing the endothelium in GPSMA, rabbit mesenteric and rabbit ear arteries. In guinea-pig pulmonary artery and aorta relaxations to A23187 were lost after this treatment. Carbachol and SG75 were more effective in inhibiting phasic than tonic tension induced by noradrenaline in GPSMA, but substance P was more effective against tonic tension. In the GPSMA, carbachol and substance P inhibited tension produced by noradrenaline to similar extents. However, carbachol was less, and substance P much less effective in inhibiting tension evoked by high-potassium solution than by noradrenaline. Susceptibility of relaxations to blockade by haemoglobin in GPSMA was: substance P greater than carbachol greater than ATP greater than SG75. The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells in the media of the GPSMA was recorded by microelectrode. Carbachol, but not substance P, hyperpolarized the cells both in the presence and absence of noradrenaline at concentrations which relaxed the muscle. These results suggest a heterogeneity in the mechanisms of endothelial-dependent relaxations induced by various vascular relaxants. PMID:2423170

  3. Vanin-1 pantetheinase drives smooth muscle cell activation in post-arterial injury neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Dammanahalli, K Jagadeesha; Stevens, Stephanie; Terkeltaub, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The pantetheinase vanin-1 generates cysteamine, which inhibits reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Vanin-1 promotes inflammation and tissue injury partly by inducing oxidative stress, and partly by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contribute to neointimal hyperplasia in response to injury, by multiple mechanisms including modulation of oxidative stress and PPARγ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that vanin-1 drives SMC activation and neointimal hyperplasia. We studied reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and functional responses to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the pro-oxidant diamide in cultured mouse aortic SMCs, and also assessed neointima formation after carotid artery ligation in vanin-1 deficiency. Vnn1(-/-) SMCs demonstrated decreased oxidative stress, proliferation, migration, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity in response to PDGF and/or diamide, with the effects on proliferation linked, in these studies, to both increased GSH levels and PPARγ expression. Vnn1(-/-) mice displayed markedly decreased neointima formation in response to carotid artery ligation, including decreased intima:media ratio and cross-sectional area of the neointima. We conclude that vanin-1, via dual modulation of GSH and PPARγ, critically regulates the activation of cultured SMCs and development of neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid artery ligation. Vanin-1 is a novel potential therapeutic target for neointimal hyperplasia following revascularization.

  4. Nitric Oxide and the Mechanism of Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Photorelaxation

    PubMed Central

    Flitney, Frederick Werner; Megson, Ian L

    2003-01-01

    Photorelaxation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) was studied using segments of tail artery from normotensive rats (NTR) or spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Isolated vessels with intact endothelium were perfused with Krebs solution containing phenylephrine. Perfusion pressures were recorded while arteries were irradiated with either visible (VIS; λ = 514.5 nm) or long wavelength ultra-violet (UVA; λ = 366 nm) light. VIS light produced a transient vasodilator response: a rapid decrease of pressure that recovered fully during the period (6 min) of illumination. An irradiated artery was refractory to a second period of illumination delivered immediately after the first, but its photosensitivity recovered slowly in the dark, a process called ‘repriming’. Photorelaxations generated by UVA light were qualitatively different and consisted of two components: a phasic (or p-) component superimposed on a sustained (or s-) component. The p-component is similar to the VIS light-induced response in that both exhibit refractoriness and repriming depends upon endothelium-derived NO. In contrast, the s-component persists throughout the period of illumination and does not show refractoriness. We conclude that VIS light-induced photorelaxations and the p-component of UVA light-induced responses are mediated by the photochemical release of NO from a finite molecular ‘store’ that can be reconstituted afterwards in the dark. The s-component of the UVA light-induced response does not depend directly on endothelial NO and may result instead from a stimulatory effect of UVA light on soluble guanylate cyclase. NO-dependent photorelaxation is impaired in vessels from SHR while the s-component is enhanced. PMID:12824453

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that is precipitated by hypertrophic pulmonary vascular remodeling of distal arterioles to increase pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance in the absence of left heart, lung parenchymal, or thromboembolic disease. Despite available medical therapy, pulmonary artery remodeling and its attendant hemodynamic consequences result in right ventricular dysfunction, failure, and early death. To limit morbidity and mortality, attention has focused on identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant pulmonary artery remodeling to identify pathways for intervention. While there is a well-recognized heritable genetic component to PAH, there is also evidence of other genetic perturbations, including pulmonary vascular cell DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response, and variations in microRNA expression. These findings likely contribute, in part, to dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis signaling pathways akin to what is observed in cancer; changes in cellular metabolism, metabolic flux, and mitochondrial function; and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as key signaling pathways that promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. This review will highlight recent advances in the field with an emphasis on the aforementioned molecular mechanisms as contributors to the pulmonary vascular disease pathophenotype. PMID:27213345

  6. Regional specific modulation of the glycocalyx and smooth muscle cell contractile apparatus in conduit arteries of tail-suspended rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyan; Fan, Yubo; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Changhui; Wang, Zhenze; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    The glycocalyx is a key mechanosensor on the surfaces of vascular cells (endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells), and recently, we reported that the redistribution of the hemodynamic factors in tail-suspended (TS) hindlimb-unloaded rats induces the dimensional adaptation of the endothelial glycocalyx in a regional-dependent manner. In the present study, we investigated the coverage and gene expression of the glycocalyx and its possible relationship with smooth muscle contractility in the conduit arteries from the TS rats. The coverage of the glycocalyx, determined by the area analysis of the fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-FITC) staining to the cryosections of rat vessels, showed a 27.2% increase in the common carotid artery, a 13.3 and 8.0% decrease in the corresponding abdominal aorta and the femoral artery after 3 wk of tail suspension. The relative mRNA levels of syndecan-2, 3, 4, glypican-1, smooth muscle protein 22 (SM22), smoothelin (SMTN), and calponin were enhanced to 1.40, 1.53, 1.70, 1.90, 2.93, 2.30, and 5.23-fold, respectively, in the common carotid artery of the TS rat. However, both glycocalyx-related genes and smooth muscle contractile apparatus were totally or partially downregulated in the abdominal aorta and femoral artery of the TS rat. A linear positive correlation between the normalized coverage of glycocalyx and normalized mRNA levels of SM22, SMTN, and calponin exists. These results suggest the regional-dependent adaptation of the glycocalyx in simulated microgravity condition, which may affect its mechanotransduction of shear stress to regulate the contractility of the smooth muscle, finally contributing to postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Local control of TRPV4 channels by AKAP150-targeted PKC in arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Jose; Baylie, Rachael; Navedo, Manuel F.; Yuan, Can; Scott, John D.; Nelson, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels are Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channels expressed in multiple tissues, including smooth muscle. Although TRPV4 channels play a key role in regulating vascular tone, the mechanisms controlling Ca2+ influx through these channels in arterial myocytes are poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in arterial myocytes the anchoring protein AKAP150 and protein kinase C (PKC) play a critical role in the regulation of TRPV4 channels during angiotensin II (AngII) signaling. Super-resolution imaging revealed that TRPV4 channels are gathered into puncta of variable sizes along the sarcolemma of arterial myocytes. Recordings of Ca2+ entry via single TRPV4 channels (“TRPV4 sparklets”) suggested that basal TRPV4 sparklet activity was low. However, Ca2+ entry during elementary TRPV4 sparklets was ∼100-fold greater than that during L-type CaV1.2 channel sparklets. Application of the TRPV4 channel agonist GSK1016790A or the vasoconstrictor AngII increased the activity of TRPV4 sparklets in specific regions of the cells. PKC and AKAP150 were required for AngII-induced increases in TRPV4 sparklet activity. AKAP150 and TRPV4 channel interactions were dynamic; activation of AngII signaling increased the proximity of AKAP150 and TRPV4 puncta in arterial myocytes. Furthermore, local stimulation of diacylglycerol and PKC signaling by laser activation of a light-sensitive Gq-coupled receptor (opto-α1AR) resulted in TRPV4-mediated Ca2+ influx. We propose that AKAP150, PKC, and TRPV4 channels form dynamic subcellular signaling domains that control Ca2+ influx into arterial myocytes. PMID:24778429

  8. Lean and Obese Coronary Perivascular Adipose Tissue Impairs Vasodilation via Differential Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle K+ Channels.

    PubMed

    Noblet, Jillian N; Owen, Meredith K; Goodwill, Adam G; Sassoon, Daniel J; Tune, Johnathan D

    2015-06-01

    The effects of coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on vasomotor tone are influenced by an obese phenotype and are distinct from other adipose tissue depots. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of lean and obese coronary PVAT on end-effector mechanisms of coronary vasodilation and to identify potential factors involved. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed similarities in coronary perivascular adipocyte size between lean and obese Ossabaw swine. Isometric tension studies of isolated coronary arteries from Ossabaw swine revealed that factors derived from lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuated vasodilation to adenosine. Lean coronary PVAT inhibited K(Ca) and KV7, but not KATP channel-mediated dilation in lean arteries. In the absence of PVAT, vasodilation to K(Ca) and KV7 channel activation was impaired in obese arteries relative to lean arteries. Obese PVAT had no effect on K(Ca) or KV7 channel-mediated dilation in obese arteries. In contrast, obese PVAT inhibited KATP channel-mediated dilation in both lean and obese arteries. The differential effects of obese versus lean PVAT were not associated with changes in either coronary KV7 or K(ATP) channel expression. Incubation with calpastatin attenuated coronary vasodilation to adenosine in lean but not in obese arteries. These findings indicate that lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuates vasodilation via inhibitory effects on vascular smooth muscle K(+) channels and that alterations in specific factors such as calpastatin are capable of contributing to the initiation or progression of smooth muscle dysfunction in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Smooth muscle architecture within cell-dense vascular tissues influences functional contractility.

    PubMed

    Win, Zaw; Vrla, Geoffrey D; Steucke, Kerianne E; Sevcik, Emily N; Hald, Eric S; Alford, Patrick W

    2014-12-01

    The role of vascular smooth muscle architecture in the function of healthy and dysfunctional vessels is poorly understood. We aimed at determining the relationship between vascular smooth muscle architecture and contractile output using engineered vascular tissues. We utilized microcontact printing and a microfluidic cell seeding technique to provide three different initial seeding conditions, with the aim of influencing the cellular architecture within the tissue. Cells seeded in each condition formed confluent and aligned tissues but within the tissues, the cellular architecture varied. Tissues with a more elongated cellular architecture had significantly elevated basal stress and produced more contractile stress in response to endothelin-1 stimulation. We also found a correlation between the contractile phenotype marker expression and the cellular architecture, contrary to our previous findings in non-confluent tissues. Taken with previous results, these data suggest that within cell-dense vascular tissues, smooth muscle contractility is strongly influenced by cell and tissue architectures.

  10. A comparative study of potassium-induced relaxation in vascular smooth muscle of tiger salamanders and rats.

    PubMed

    Malvin, G M; Webb, R C

    1984-07-01

    This study compares potassium-induced relaxation in vascular tissue of an amphibian (Ambystoma tigrinum) and a mammal (rat). Aortas (salamanders) and tail arteries (rats) were cut into helical strips for isometric force recording. After norepinephrine-induced contraction in potassium-free solution, arteries relaxed in response to added potassium (1-20 mmol/l). Potassium-induced relaxation was greater in rat tail arteries than in salamander aortas. Half-maximal relaxation occurred at a potassium concentration of approximately 3 mmol/l in both species. Ouabain inhibited potassium-induced relaxation; salamanders were more sensitive to the glycoside than rats. Potassium-induced relaxation decreased as the temperature of the bathing medium was lowered; half-maximal inhibition occurred at 19 and 29 degrees C for salamander aortas and rat tail arteries, respectively. Potassium-induced relaxation also varied with the interval in potassium-free solution, the hydrogen ion concentration (rats only), and the magnitude of norepinephrine-induced contraction. It appears that the cellular mechanism causing potassium-induced relaxation is similar in blood vessels of salamanders and rats. The observations are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulated electrogenic sodium transport produced membrane hyperpolarization and relaxation in vascular smooth muscle.

  11. Effects of a high calcium diet and deoxycorticosterone on vascular smooth muscle responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pörsti, I; Arvola, P; Wuorela, H; Ilkka, M; Säynävälammi, P; Huhtala, H; Metsä-Ketelä, T; Vapaatalo, H

    1990-09-01

    The effects of calcium and deoxycorticosterone (DOC) were studied in four groups of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR): control, calcium, DOC and DOC + calcium. Calcium was administered in drinking fluid as 1.5% calcium chloride, and DOC was injected weekly (25 mg/kg subcutaneously). During the 9-week study the increase in systolic blood pressure was enhanced in the DOC and attenuated in the calcium group, but did not differ from control values in the DOC + calcium group. DOC augmented in vitro contractions of aortic and mesenteric arterial rings induced by noradrenaline and impaired relaxations in response to nitroprusside and acetylcholine. Calcium alone enhanced the relaxation in response to nitroprusside in the mesenteric artery. In the DOC + calcium group vascular contractions did not differ from control values, but the relaxations caused by nitroprusside and acetylcholine were augmented in the mesenteric artery. The activity of erythrocyte Ca2(+)-ATPase increased in both calcium groups. The Na+:K+ ratio of tail artery tissue was reduced in the calcium group. In conclusion, calcium supplementation attenuates the development of hypertension, and prevents DOC-induced blood pressure increases in SHR by altering vascular reactivity. Changes in smooth muscle electrolyte ratios and Ca2(+)-ATPase activity may account for these alterations.

  12. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine

    PubMed Central

    Virsolvy, Anne; Farah, Charlotte; Pertuit, Nolwenn; Kong, Lingyan; Lacampagne, Alain; Reboul, Cyril; Aimond, Franck; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na+ current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na+-dependent Ca2+ overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca2+ calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine. PMID:26655634

  13. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine.

    PubMed

    Virsolvy, Anne; Farah, Charlotte; Pertuit, Nolwenn; Kong, Lingyan; Lacampagne, Alain; Reboul, Cyril; Aimond, Franck; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-12-10

    Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na(+) current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca(2+) calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine.

  14. Effect of calcium and the calcimimetic AMG 641 on matrix-Gla protein in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Francisco J; Martinez-Moreno, Julio; Almaden, Yolanda; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria E; Lopez, Ignacio; Estepa, Jose Carlos; Henley, Charles; Rodriguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico

    2011-03-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is frequently observed in patients with chronic renal failure and appears to be an active process involving transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to osteoblast-like cells. Reports of VC prevention in uremic rodents by calcimimetics coupled with identification of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in VSMCs led us to hypothesize that CaSR activation in arterial cells and VSMCs may elicit expression of an endogenous inhibitor of VC. Toward this end, we determined the effects of calcium and the calcimimetic AMG 641 on arterial wall and isolated VSMC expression of matrix-Gla protein (MGP). Bovine VSMCs were incubated with increasing calcium chloride or AMG 641 concentrations, while in vivo experiments were carried out on healthy and uremic rats. Both AMG 641 and hypercalcemia induced MGP expression in the arterial wall in healthy and uremic rats. The results obtained in vitro supported those from in vivo experiments. In conclusion, selective CaSR activation, either by extracellular calcium or AMG 641, increased MGP expression in vivo in the arterial wall and in vitro in bovine VSMCs. This local upregulation of MGP expression provides one potential mechanism by which calcimimetics prevent VC.

  15. Lanthanum prevents high phosphate-induced vascular calcification by preserving vascular smooth muscle lineage markers.

    PubMed

    Ciceri, Paola; Elli, Francesca; Brenna, Irene; Volpi, Elisa; Romagnoli, Solange; Tosi, Delfina; Braidotti, Paola; Brancaccio, Diego; Cozzolino, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) represents a major cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease patients. High phosphate (Pi) levels are strongly associated with VC in this population. Therefore, Pi binders are commonly used to control high Pi levels. The aim of this work was to study the mechanism of action of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on the progression of Pi-induced VC through its direct effect on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. High Pi induced VSCM Ca deposition. We evaluated the action of LaCl3, compared to gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), and found different effects on the modulation of VSMC lineage markers, such as α-actin and SM22α. In fact, only LaCl3 preserved the expression of both VSMC lineage markers compared to high Pi-treated cells. Interestingly, both LaCl3 and GdCl3 reduced the high Pi-induced elevations of bone morphogenic protein 2 mRNA expression, with no reduction of the high core binding factor-alpha 1 mRNA levels observed in calcified VSMCs. Furthermore, we also found that only LaCl3 completely prevented the matrix GLA protein mRNA levels and osteonectin protein expression elevations induced by high Pi compared to GdCl3. Finally, LaCl3, in contrast to GdCl3, prevented the high Pi-induced downregulation of Axl, a membrane tyrosine kinase receptor involved in apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that LaCl3 prevents VC by preserving VSMC lineage markers and by decreasing high Pi-induced osteoblastic differentiation.

  16. Arterial disease and vascular access in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Baktiroglu, Selcuk; Yanar, Fatih; Ozata, Ibrahim H; Oner, Gizem; Ercan, Damla

    2016-03-01

    There are conflicting reports on the effects of diabetes on the outcomes of hemodialysis access procedures. While some found no negative effects, others reported deleterious effects of diabetes on vascular access outcomes. Why is there concern about diabetes and related vascular problems on vascular access procedures? What are the differences of diabetic patients and their vasculature from that of nondiabetics? Do they have an effect on hemodialysis vascular access outcomes? We will try to find answers to these questions in light of the available evidence. Recent literature on arterial disease in diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and the effects on vascular access outcomes were searched in order to find answers to above questions. There are conflicting and controversial reports on the effects of preexisting vascular problems due to diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the outcomes of hemodialysis access procedures. Diabetic vasculature, especially in patients with ESRD, has some specific problems, the most important of which seem to be the calcification and stiffening of the arteries. Although some authors report inferior outcomes of vascular access procedures in diabetic patients, there is evidence that most of the problems encountered can be dealt with by careful patient selection, surgical skill, and experience.

  17. Identification of a 94-bp GC-rich element in the smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain promoter controlling vascular smooth muscle cell-specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Deindl, Elisabeth; Middeler, Guido; Müller, Oliver J; Selbert, Stefan; Schlenke, Peter; Marienfeld, Uta; Thirion, Christian; Katus, Hugo A; Franz, Wolfgang M

    2006-01-01

    The previously described rabbit 2.3-kilobase smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain (SMHCwt) promoter targets gene expression in transgenic animals to vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), including coronary arteries. Therefore, SMHCwt is thought to provide a promising tool for human gene therapy. In the present study, we examined tissue specificity and expression levels of wild-type and mutated SMHC promoters within the system of high-capacity adenoviral (hcAd) vectors. SMHCwt and a series of SMHC promoter deletion mutants, a triple promoter as well as a cytomegalovirus-SMHC hybrid promoter driving the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter gene were transiently transfected into aortic SMCs. Fluorescence intensity was measured by flow cytometric analysis. Consecutively, hcAd vectors were constructed with the SMHCwt and the mutant promoter with the highest fluorescence activity. Levels of EGFP expression were determined after transduction of SMCs derived from human coronary arteries. For analysis of tissue specificity, embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived SMCs (ESdSMHCs) and cardiomyocytes (ESdCMs) were used. In comparison with SMHCwt, only the SMHCdel94 mutant lacking a 94-bp GC-rich element revealed a 1.5-fold increased fluorescence activity. Transduction of primary SMCs of human coronary arteries with hcAd vectors confirmed an increased EGFP expression driven by the SMHCdel94 promoter. In ES-cell-derived embryoid bodies, SMHCwt was exclusively active in transduced ESdSMCs. In contrast, expression of SMHCdel94 was also found in ESdCMs and other nontarget cells of the embryoid body. The tissue-specific rabbit SMHCwt promoter seems to be suitable for adenoviral gene transfer in SMCs of human coronary arteries and deletion of a 94-bp negative cis-acting GC-rich element results in loss of specificity.

  18. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor gemigliptin protects against vascular calcification in an experimental chronic kidney disease and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soon-Youn; Ryu, Hye-Myung; Oh, Eun-Joo; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim; Park, Sun-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Although dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, a class of antidiabetic drugs, have various pleiotropic effects, it remains undetermined whether gemigliptin has a beneficial effect on vascular calcification. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of gemigliptin on vascular calcification in a rat model of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease and in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Gemigliptin attenuated calcification of abdominal aorta and expression of RUNX2 in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease rats. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, phosphate-induced increase in calcium content was reduced by gemigliptin. Gemigliptin reduced phosphate-induced PiT-1 mRNA expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and NADPH oxidase mRNA expression (p22phox and NOX4). The reduction of oxidative stress by gemigliptin was associated with the downregulation of phospho-PI3K/AKT expression. High phosphate increased the expression of frizzled-3 (FDZ3) and decreased the expression of dickkopf-related protein-1 (DKK-1) in the Wnt pathway. These changes were attenuated by gemigliptin treatment. Gemigliptin restored the decreased expression of vascular smooth muscle cells markers (α-SMA and SM22α) and increased expression of osteogenic makers (CBFA1, OSX, E11, and SOST) induced by phosphate. In conclusion, gemigliptin attenuated vascular calcification and osteogenic trans-differentiation in vascular smooth muscle cells via multiple steps including downregulation of PiT-1 expression and suppression of reactive oxygen species generation, phospho-PI3K/AKT, and the Wnt signaling pathway.

  19. Oligogalacturonic Acid Inhibits Vascular Calcification by Two Mechanisms: Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Osteogenic Conversion and Interaction With Collagen.

    PubMed

    Hodroge, Ahmed; Trécherel, Eric; Cornu, Marjorie; Darwiche, Walaa; Mansour, Ali; Ait-Mohand, Katia; Verissimo, Thomas; Gomila, Cathy; Schembri, Carole; Da Nascimento, Sophie; Elboutachfaiti, Redouan; Boullier, Agnès; Lorne, Emmanuel; Courtois, Josiane; Petit, Emmanuel; Toumieux, Sylvestre; Kovensky, José; Sonnet, Pascal; Massy, Ziad A; Kamel, Saïd; Rossi, Claire; Ausseil, Jérôme

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases constitute the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Calcification of the vessel wall is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients having many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and chronic kidney disease. Vascular calcification is actively regulated by inductive and inhibitory mechanisms (including vascular smooth muscle cell adaptation) and results from an active osteogenic process. During the calcification process, extracellular vesicles (also known as matrix vesicles) released by vascular smooth muscle cells interact with type I collagen and then act as nucleating foci for calcium crystallization. Our primary objective was to identify new, natural molecules that inhibit the vascular calcification process. We have found that oligogalacturonic acids (obtained by the acid hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid) reduce in vitro inorganic phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells by 80% and inorganic phosphate-induced calcification of isolated rat aortic rings by 50%. A specific oligogalacturonic acid with a degree of polymerization of 8 (DP8) was found to inhibit the expression of osteogenic markers and, thus, prevent the conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteoblast-like cells. We also evidenced in biochemical and immunofluorescence assays a direct interaction between matrix vesicles and type I collagen via the GFOGER sequence (where single letter amino acid nomenclature is used, O=hydroxyproline) thought to be involved in interactions with several pairs of integrins. DP8 inhibits vascular calcification development mainly by inhibition of osteogenic marker expression but also partly by masking the GFOGER sequence-thereby, preventing matrix vesicles from binding to type I collagen. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Connexin45 is expressed in vascular smooth muscle but its function remains elusive.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker J; Jobs, Alexander; von Maltzahn, Julia; Wörsdörfer, Philipp; Willecke, Klaus; de Wit, Cor

    2012-01-01

    Connexins (Cx) form gap junctions and allow the coordination of cellular behaviour. In vessels, expression of Cx40, Cx37, and Cx43 is well established and specifically Cx40 serves important functions in endothelial cells. In contrast, expression and physiological functions of Cx45 is unclear although its expression has been suggested in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). Therefore, we studied expression and function of Cx45 in vessels using different mice models allowing to identify and delete Cx45. Smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific deletion was achieved by the Cre/loxP system using Cre-recombinase driven by a Nestin promoter. Deletion of Cx45 leads concomitantly to the expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) in these mice. Conduction of vasomotor responses was studied in cremasteric arterioles using intravital microscopy and arterial pressure was measured telemetrically. Cx45 is transcriptionally expressed in VSM as detected by EGFP expression in SMC-specific Cx45-deficient mice (Cx45fl/fl:Nestin-Cre) but not in endothelial cells (Cx45fl/fl:TIE2-Cre). Moreover, EGFP was located at VSM cell borders in arterioles of transgenic mice carrying an EGFP-tagged Cx45. Expectedly, arteriolar conduction of dilations evoked by the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine were not different between Cx45fl/fl:Nestin-Cre mice and controls carrying homozygously a floxed Cx45 gene (Cx45fl/fl). Surprisingly, the amplitude of locally initiated endothelium-independent constrictions (K(+)) and dilations (adenosine) declined similarly with distance in both genotypes indicating an intact VSM conduction pathway also in mice being deficient for Cx45 in VSM. Arterial pressure was not different between freely moving Cx45fl/fl and Cx45fl/fl:Nestin-Cre mice during day or night. We conclude that Cx45 is physiologically expressed in VSM, but not in EC in murine arterioles. However, Cx45 is dispensable for the conduction of vasomotor responses along these arterioles. Possibly

  1. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into normal rabbit arteries results in prolonged vascular cell activation, inflammation, and neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, K D; Dunn, P F; Owens, J W; Schulick, A H; Virmani, R; Sukhova, G; Libby, P; Dichek, D A

    1995-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are capable of high efficiency in vivo arterial gene transfer, and are currently in use as therapeutic agents in animal models of vascular disease. However, despite substantial data on the ability of viruses to cause vascular inflammation and proliferation, and the presence in current adenovirus vectors of viral open reading frames that are translated in vivo, no study has examined the effect of adenovirus vectors alone on the arterial phenotype. In a rabbit model of gene transfer into a normal artery, we examined potential vascular cell activation, inflammation, and neointimal proliferation resulting from exposure to replication-defective adenovirus. Exposure of normal arteries to adenovirus vectors resulted in: (a) pronounced infiltration of T cells throughout the artery wall; (b) upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in arterial smooth muscle cells; (c) neointimal hyperplasia. These findings were present both 10 and 30 d after gene transfer, with no evidence of a decline in severity over time. Adenovirus vectors have pleiotropic effects on the arterial wall and cause significant pathology. Interpretation of experimental protocols that use adenovirus vectors to address either biological or therapeutic issues should take these observations into account. These observations should also prompt the design of more inert gene transfer vectors. Images PMID:8675667

  2. Importance of extracellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+ release in ethanol-induced contraction of cerebral arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Wang, J; Zheng, T; Altura, B T; Altura, B M

    2001-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the roles of extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]0) influx and intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) release in ethanol-induced contractions of isolated canine cerebral arteries and primary cultured, cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. Ethanol (20-200 mM) produced significant contractions in isolated canine basilar arterial rings in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of [Ca2+]0 and pretreatment of canine basilar arterial rings with verapamil (an antagonist of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels), thapsigargin (a selective antagonist of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump), caffeine plus ryanodine (a specific antagonist of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release), or heparin (an inositol 1,4,5,-trisphosphate [InsP3]-mediated Ca2+ release antagonist) markedly attenuated (approximately 50%-80%) ethanol-induced contractions. The absence of [Ca2+]0 and preincubation of primary single smooth muscle cells obtained from canine basilar arteries with verapamil, thapsigargin, heparin, or caffeine plus ryanodine markedly attenuated (approximately 50%-80%) the transient and sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i induced by ethanol. Results of the present study suggest to us that both Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores (both InsP3 sensitive and ryanodine sensitive) are required for ethanol-induced contractions of isolated canine basilar arteries.

  3. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle hypertrophy: roles of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huan; Hershenson, Marc B; Lei, Jing; Anyanwu, Anuli C; Pinsky, David J; Bentley, J Kelley

    2010-06-01

    Increased medial arterial thickness is a structural change in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The role of smooth muscle hypertrophy in this process has not been well studied. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), and endothelin (ET)-1 have been implicated in PAH pathogenesis. We examined the effect of these mediators on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, and contractile function, as well on the roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), two proteins involved in translational control, in this process. Unlike epidermal growth factor, BMP-4, TGF-beta1, 5-HT, and ET-1 each increased smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, fractional cell shortening, and GSK-3beta phosphorylation. GSK-3beta inhibition by lithium or SB-216763 increased cell size, protein synthesis, and contractile protein expression. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable GSK-3beta mutant blocked BMP-4-, TGF-beta1-, 5-HT-, and ET-1-induced cell size enlargement, suggesting that GSK-3beta phosphorylation is required and sufficient for cellular hypertrophy. However, BMP-4, TGF-beta1, 5-HT, and ET-1 stimulation was accompanied by an increase in serum response factor transcriptional activation but not eIF2 phosphorylation, suggesting that GSK-3beta-mediated hypertrophy occurs via transcriptional, not translational, control. Finally, BMP-4, TGF-beta1, 5-HT, and ET-1 treatment induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and ribosomal protein S6, and siRNAs against p70S6K and S6 blocked the hypertrophic response. We conclude that mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH induce pulmonary arterial smooth muscle hypertrophy. Identification of the signaling pathways regulating vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy may define new therapeutic targets for PAH.

  4. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle hypertrophy: roles of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huan; Hershenson, Marc B.; Lei, Jing; Anyanwu, Anuli C.; Pinsky, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased medial arterial thickness is a structural change in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The role of smooth muscle hypertrophy in this process has not been well studied. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), and endothelin (ET)-1 have been implicated in PAH pathogenesis. We examined the effect of these mediators on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, and contractile function, as well on the roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), two proteins involved in translational control, in this process. Unlike epidermal growth factor, BMP-4, TGF-β1, 5-HT, and ET-1 each increased smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, fractional cell shortening, and GSK-3β phosphorylation. GSK-3β inhibition by lithium or SB-216763 increased cell size, protein synthesis, and contractile protein expression. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable GSK-3β mutant blocked BMP-4-, TGF-β1-, 5-HT-, and ET-1-induced cell size enlargement, suggesting that GSK-3β phosphorylation is required and sufficient for cellular hypertrophy. However, BMP-4, TGF-β1, 5-HT, and ET-1 stimulation was accompanied by an increase in serum response factor transcriptional activation but not eIF2 phosphorylation, suggesting that GSK-3β-mediated hypertrophy occurs via transcriptional, not translational, control. Finally, BMP-4, TGF-β1, 5-HT, and ET-1 treatment induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and ribosomal protein S6, and siRNAs against p70S6K and S6 blocked the hypertrophic response. We conclude that mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH induce pulmonary arterial smooth muscle hypertrophy. Identification of the signaling pathways regulating vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy may define new therapeutic targets for PAH. PMID:20190034

  5. Regulation of RhoA/ROCK and sustained arterial contraction by low cytosolic Ca(2+) levels during prolonged depolarization of arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Porras-González, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Castellano, Antonio; Ureña, Juan

    2017-08-01

    The role of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) on depolarization-induced sustained arterial contraction lasting several minutes is already known. However, in vivo, vascular smooth muscle cells can be depolarized for longer periods, inducing substantial inactivation of LTCCs and markedly reducing Ca(2+) influx into the myocytes. We have examined, in femoral arterial rings, the role of LTCCs and RhoA/ROCK during long-lasting depolarization. Our results reveal a new vasoreactive response after 20-30min of depolarization in 2.5mM external Ca(2+) that has not been identified previously with shorter stimuli. Prolonged depolarization-induced arterial contraction was permanently abolished when arterial rings were treated with 100nM external Ca(2+) or 20nM nifedipine. However, when Ca(2+) influx was restricted, applying ~7μM external Ca(2+) solution or 3nM nifedipine, vasorelaxation was transient, and isometric force slowly increased after 30min and maintained its level until the end of the stimulus. Under these conditions, arterial contraction showed the same temporal course of RhoA activity and was sensitive to fasudil, nifedipine and cyclopiazonic acid. Ca(2+)-response curve in β-escin permeabilized arteries was also sensitive to ROCK inhibitors. Thus, although long-lasting depolarization inactivates LTCCs, the reduced Ca(2+) entry can induce a detectable arterial contraction via RhoA/ROCK activation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Circulating Angiogenic Cell Populations, Vascular Function, and Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Susan; Wang, Na; Larson, Martin G.; Palmisano, Joseph N.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Levy, Daniel; McCabe, Elizabeth L.; Vita, Joseph A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Cohen, Kenneth S.; Hamburg, Naomi M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several bone marrow-derived cell populations have been identified that may possess angiogenic activity and contribute to vascular homeostasis in experimental studies. We examined the extent to which lower quantities of these circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes may be related to impaired vascular function and greater arterial stiffness. Methods We studied 1,948 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 66±9 years; 54% women) who were phenotyped for circulating angiogenic cells: CD34+, CD34+/KDR+, and early outgrowth colony forming units (CFU). Participants underwent non-invasive assessments of vascular function including peripheral arterial tone (PAT), arterial tonometry, and brachial reactivity testing. Results In unadjusted analyses, higher CD34+ and CD34+/KDR+ concentrations were modestly associated with lower PAT ratio (β=−0.052±0.011, P<0.001 and β=−0.030±0.011, P=0.008, respectively) and with higher carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity (β=0.144±0.043, P=0.001 and β=0.112±0.043, P=0.009), but not with flow-mediated dilation; higher CD34+ was also associated with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (β=−0.229±0.094, P=0.015) However, only the association of lower CD34+ concentration with higher PAT ratio persisted in multivariable analyses that adjusted for standard cardiovascular risk factors. In all analyses, CFU was not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness. Conclusions In our large, community-based sample of men and women, circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes largely were not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness in analyses adjusting for traditional risk factors. PMID:22093724

  7. The Function of Vascular Smooth Muscle Phosphodiesterase III is Preserved in Healthy Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Elvebak, Rachel L.; Eisenach, John H.; Joyner, Michael J.; Nicholson, Wayne T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Phosphodiesterase (PDE) III is an enzyme in vascular smooth muscle that metabolizes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Milrinone inhibits PDE III, increasing the availability of cAMP. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is regulated by nitric oxide (NO), also inhibits PDE III. The endothelial NO component of prostacyclin (PGI2)‐mediated vasodilation is reduced in aging. This study investigated if PGI2‐mediated vasodilation during concomitant inhibition of endothelial NO and smooth muscle PDE III is affected by healthy aging. PDE III was inhibited with milrinone in 10 older subjects and 10 young matched controls while simultaneously infusing NG‐monomethyl‐l‐arginine acetate (l‐NMMA) to remove the confounding inhibitory effects of cGMP on PDE III. Incremental doses of PGI2 and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were administered to the brachial artery during separate trials. l‐NMMA decreased baseline blood flow similarly, and the addition of milrinone increased baseline blood flow similarly in both groups. The forearm blood flow responses to PGI2 were similar between groups (younger: 7.62 ± 0.72; older: 6.88 ± 0.81 mL•dL−1 FAV•min−1 at the highest dose of PGI2). SNP responses were also similar. This study suggests that the vasodilator pathway associated with PDE III function, the bioavailability of cAMP, and the interaction with cGMP may be preserved in healthy aging. Clin Trans Sci 2010; Volume 3: 239–242. PMID:21500398

  8. Effect of glucocorticoid on prostaglandin E1 mediated cyclic AMP formation by vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Murakawa, K; Yokokawa, K; Takeda, T

    1988-12-01

    The effect of glucocorticoid on the prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from renal arteries (RA) was studied in rats. Dexamethasone (DEX) at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to approximately 10(-8) mol/l dose-dependently potentiates the PGE1-mediated response. This facilitation began at 6 h and reached its maximum after 24 h of DEX administration. Aldosterone (10(-6) mol/l) did not affect the dose-response curve of PGE1. Inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis blocked this glucocorticoid effect. The basal activity of adenylate cyclase in DEX-treated cells was twice as high as in control cells. Treatment of VSMC with DEX increased cholera toxin- and pertussis toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. DEX treatment also augments forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. These results suggest that DEX increases PGE1-mediated cAMP formation of VSMC from RA through a mechanism that involves the induction of protein synthesis, and that the activation of the catalytic unit may play some role in this facilitating process.

  9. Imaging and analyzing the elasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells by atomic force acoustic microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Qian; Chen, Ming; Yao, Wengang; Qian, Menglu; Hu, Bing

    2012-08-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play an important role in the good performance of the vasculature. To study the surface, intracellular structure and elasticity of VSMCs, atomic force acoustic microscope (AFAM) was used for imaging VSMCs from A7r5 rat aorta arteries. The topography images of VSMCs were obtained in contact mode and the acoustic images were obtained by AFAM in sample vibration mode. Then, the force curve measurement derived using Young's modulus of the interested areas was used for evaluating elasticity properties. The acoustic images were found in higher resolution with more information than the topography images. The force curves showed the difference in Young's modulus of the different parts of VSMC. These findings demonstrate that AFAM is useful for displaying the surface, structure and elasticity property of VSMCs clearly, with short scanning time, negligible harm or damage to cell and nanometer-level resolution. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impaired coronary microvascular dilation correlates with enhanced vascular smooth muscle MLC phosphorylation in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Clements, Richard T; Sodha, Neel R; Feng, Jun; Boodhwani, Munir; Liu, Yuhong; Mieno, Shigetoshi; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Bianchi, Cesario; Sellke, Frank W

    2009-02-01

    Impaired endothelium-independent vasodilation is a known consequence of types 1 and 2 diabetes, and the mechanism of impaired vasodilation is not well understood. The following study investigated the effects of types 1 and 2 diabetes in endothelial-independent vasodilation associated with coronary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) relaxation and contractile signaling mechanisms. Type 1 diabetes was induced in Yucatan miniswine via alloxan injection and treated with or without insulin (DM and IDM). Nondiabetic swine served as controls (ND). Expression and/or phosphorylation of determinants of VSM relaxation and contraction signaling were examined in coronary arteries and microvessels. Coronary microvessel relaxation was assessed by using sodium nitroprusside (SNP). In addition, SNP-induced vasodilation and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation was determined in coronary microvessels isolated from ND and type 2 diabetic human atrial appendage. Diabetic impairment in SNP-induced relaxation was completely normalized by insulin. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) VSM expression decreased in both DM and IDM groups and did not correlate with vasorelaxation. Phosphorylation of MLC and myosin phosphatase increased in the DM group and MLC phosphorylation strongly correlated with impaired VSM relaxation (r=0.670, P<0.01). Coronary microvessels from type 2 diabetic human patients exhibited similarly impaired vasodilation and enhanced VSM MLC phosphorylation. Impaired vasodilation in type 1 diabetes correlates with enhanced VSM MLC phosphorylation. In addition, enhanced VSM MLC phosphorylation is associated with impaired vasodilation in type 2 diabetes in humans.

  11. Progressive vascular smooth muscle cell defects in a mouse model of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Varga, Renee; Eriksson, Maria; Erdos, Michael R; Olive, Michelle; Harten, Ingrid; Kolodgie, Frank; Capell, Brian C; Cheng, Jun; Faddah, Dina; Perkins, Stacie; Avallone, Hedwig; San, Hong; Qu, Xuan; Ganesh, Santhi; Gordon, Leslie B; Virmani, Renu; Wight, Thomas N; Nabel, Elizabeth G; Collins, Francis S

    2006-02-28

    Children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) suffer from dramatic acceleration of some symptoms associated with normal aging, most notably cardiovascular disease that eventually leads to death from myocardial infarction and/or stroke usually in their second decade of life. For the vast majority of cases, a de novo point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene is the cause of HGPS. This missense mutation creates a cryptic splice donor site that produces a mutant lamin A protein, termed "progerin," which carries a 50-aa deletion near its C terminus. We have created a mouse model for progeria by generating transgenics carrying a human bacterial artificial chromosome that harbors the common HGPS mutation. These mice develop progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in the medial layer of large arteries, in a pattern very similar to that seen in children with HGPS. This mouse model should prove valuable for testing experimental therapies for this devastating disorder and for exploring cardiovascular disease in general.

  12. P2Y12 Promotes Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Through Cofilin Dephosphorylation During Atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xuan; Pi, Shu-Lan; Baral, Suraj; Xia, Yuan-Peng; He, Quan-Wei; Li, Ya-Nan; Jin, Hui-Juan; Li, Man; Wang, Meng-Die; Mao, Ling; Hu, Bo

    2017-03-01

    P2Y12 is a well-recognized receptor expressed on platelets and the target of thienopyridine-type antiplatelet drugs. However, recent evidence suggests that P2Y12 expressed in vessel wall plays a role in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of how vessel wall P2Y12 mediates vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and promotes the progression of atherosclerosis. Using a high-fat diet-fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice model, we found that the expression of P2Y12 in VSMCs increased in a time-dependent manner and had a linear relationship with the plaque area. Moreover, administration of P2Y12 receptor antagonist for 12 weeks caused significant reduction in atheroma and decreased the abundance of VSMCs in plaque. In cultured VSMCs, we found that activation of P2Y12 receptor inhibited cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway, which induced cofilin dephosphorylation and filamentous actin disassembly, thereby enhancing VSMCs motility and migration. In addition, the number of P2Y12-positive VSMCs was decreased in the carotid artery plaque from patients receiving clopidogrel. Vessel wall P2Y12 receptor, which promotes VSMCs migration through cofilin dephosphorylation, plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerotic lesion and may be used as a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Vascular smooth muscle, endothelial regulation and effects of aspirin in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, M A

    1998-04-27

    Dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is at the center of occlusive disorders of the cardiovascular system such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and hypoxia. In addition to circulating biogenic amines and various neurotransmitters originating from the central nervous system and endocrine system, various autocoids of arachidonic acid metabolism in the blood as well as in the endothelium play an important regulatory role in the maintenance of the tone and the contractile function of VSM. A monolayer of endothelial cells lining the heart and large blood vessels is responsible for producing and releasing both endocrine and paracrine substances such as endothelins, nitric oxide, prostaglandins and prostacyclins. Aspirin, (acetylsalicylic acid/ASA) an ancient remedy against fever and pain, is emerging as an effective drug not only against occlusive disorders but also against various cancers and the AIDs virus. During pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and in occlusive disorders, aspirin provides relief through inhibition of cyclooxygenase, an enzyme required for the metabolism of arachidonic acid to produce prostaglandins and prostacyclins in platelets and in endothelial cells. Because of its unique molecular constitution, synergistic ability and solubility in the lipidic environment, various mechanisms of aspirin's actions are being currently investigated. In this review, the effect of aspirin on the regulation of VSM in the presence and absence of endothelium are discussed.

  14. Annexin-Mediated Matrix Vesicle Calcification in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Neal X; O'Neill, Kalisha D; Chen, Xianming; Moe, Sharon M

    2008-01-01

    In bone, osteoblasts and chondrocytes synthesize matrix vesicles (MVs) that interact with collagen to initiate calcification. MVs have been identified in human calcified arteries but are poorly characterized. The objective of this study is to determine the role of annexins and fetuin-A in MV formation and activity during calcification in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells (BVSMCs). BVSMCs were treated with control or calcification (high phosphorus) media, and cellular MVs were isolated by collagenase digestion and secreted MVs were isolated from cultured media by ultracentrifugation. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was significantly increased in MVs from calcified BVSMCs compared with noncalcified BVSMCs, as was annexin II and VI content and 45Ca uptake. We also determined that MVs from calcifying BVSMCs could mineralize type I collagen but not type II collagen in the absence of cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Blockade of annexin calcium channel activity by K201 significantly decreased ALP activity and reduced the ability of the MVs to subsequently calcify on collagen, whether the K201 was added during or after MV formation. Furthermore, cellular MVs had significantly increased ability to calcify on collagen compared with secreted MVs, likely because of their increased ALP activity and annexin II content but low fetuin-A content. In conclusion, our results suggest that mineralization in VSMCs requires both active MVs and an interaction of the MVs with type I collagen, and both steps require annexin activity. PMID:18597635

  15. Effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX-2 and ROS pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Nurgül; Kırça, Mustafa; Çetin, Arzu; Yeşilkaya, Akın

    2017-10-01

    Hyperuricemia is thought to play a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including hypertension, coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. However, exactly how uric acid contributes to these pathologies is unknown. An underlying mechanism of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, includes enhanced production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and superoxide anion. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX-2 and superoxide anion production and to determine the role of losartan. Primarily cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were time and dose-dependently induced by uric acid and COX-2 and superoxide anion levels were measured. COX-2 levels were determined by ELISA, and superoxide anion was measured by the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c method. Uric acid elevated COX-2 levels in a time-dependent manner. Angiotensin-II receptor blocker, losartan, diminished uric-acid-induced COX-2 elevation. Uric acid also increased superoxide anion level in VSMCs. Uric acid plays an important role in CVD pathogenesis by inducing inflammatory COX-2 and ROS pathways. This is the first study demonstrating losartan's ability to reduce uric-acid-induced COX-2 elevation.

  16. Loss of the mechanotransducer zyxin promotes a synthetic phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Kollar, Branislav; Nahar, Taslima; Suresh Babu, Sahana; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Wagner, Andreas H; Korff, Thomas; Hecker, Markus

    2015-06-12

    Exposure of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to excessive cyclic stretch such as in hypertension causes a shift in their phenotype. The focal adhesion protein zyxin can transduce such biomechanical stimuli to the nucleus of both endothelial cells and VSMCs, albeit with different thresholds and kinetics. However, there is no distinct vascular phenotype in young zyxin-deficient mice, possibly due to functional redundancy among other gene products belonging to the zyxin family. Analyzing zyxin function in VSMCs at the cellular level might thus offer a better mechanistic insight. We aimed to characterize zyxin-dependent changes in gene expression in VSMCs exposed to biomechanical stretch and define the functional role of zyxin in controlling the resultant VSMC phenotype. DNA microarray analysis was used to identify genes and pathways that were zyxin regulated in static and stretched human umbilical artery-derived and mouse aortic VSMCs. Zyxin-null VSMCs showed a remarkable shift to a growth-promoting, less apoptotic, promigratory and poorly contractile phenotype with ≈90% of the stretch-responsive genes being zyxin dependent. Interestingly, zyxin-null cells already seemed primed for such a synthetic phenotype, with mechanical stretch further accentuating it. This could be accounted for by higher RhoA activity and myocardin-related transcription factor-A mainly localized to the nucleus of zyxin-null VSMCs, and a condensed and localized accumulation of F-actin upon stretch. At the cellular level, zyxin is a key regulator of stretch-induced gene expression. Loss of zyxin drives VSMCs toward a synthetic phenotype, a process further consolidated by exaggerated stretch. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. PDZK1 Prevents Neointima Formation via Suppression of Breakpoint Cluster Region Kinase in Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan Ru; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Behling-Kelly, Erica; Oltmann, Sarah C.; Zhu, Weifei; Ahmed, Mohamed; Gerard, Robert D.; Hui, David Y.; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and its adaptor protein PDZK1 mediate responses to HDL cholesterol in endothelium. Whether the receptor-adaptor protein tandem serves functions in other vascular cell types is unknown. The current work determined the roles of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). To evaluate possible VSM functions of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vivo, neointima formation was assessed 21 days post-ligation in the carotid arteries of wild-type, SR-BI-/- or PDZK1-/- mice. Whereas neointima development was negligible in wild-type and SR-BI-/-, there was marked neointima formation in PDZK1-/- mice. PDZK1 expression was demonstrated in primary mouse VSM cells, and compared to wild-type cells, PDZK1-/- VSM displayed exaggerated proliferation and migration in response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry revealed that PDZK1 interacts with breakpoint cluster region kinase (Bcr), which contains a C-terminal PDZ binding sequence and is known to enhance responses to PDGF in VSM. PDZK1 interaction with Bcr in VSM was demonstrated by pull-down and by coimmunoprecipitation, and the augmented proliferative response to PDGF in PDZK1-/- VSM was abrogated by Bcr depletion. Furthermore, compared with wild-type Bcr overexpression, the introduction of a Bcr mutant incapable of PDZK1 binding into VSM cells yielded an exaggerated proliferative response to PDGF. Thus, PDZK1 has novel SR-BI-independent function in VSM that affords protection from neointima formation, and this involves PDZK1 suppression of VSM cell proliferation via an inhibitory interaction with Bcr. PMID:25886360

  18. PDZK1 prevents neointima formation via suppression of breakpoint cluster region kinase in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan Ru; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Behling-Kelly, Erica; Oltmann, Sarah C; Zhu, Weifei; Ahmed, Mohamed; Gerard, Robert D; Hui, David Y; Abe, Jun-ichi; Shaul, Philip W; Mineo, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and its adaptor protein PDZK1 mediate responses to HDL cholesterol in endothelium. Whether the receptor-adaptor protein tandem serves functions in other vascular cell types is unknown. The current work determined the roles of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). To evaluate possible VSM functions of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vivo, neointima formation was assessed 21 days post-ligation in the carotid arteries of wild-type, SR-BI-/- or PDZK1-/- mice. Whereas neointima development was negligible in wild-type and SR-BI-/-, there was marked neointima formation in PDZK1-/- mice. PDZK1 expression was demonstrated in primary mouse VSM cells, and compared to wild-type cells, PDZK1-/- VSM displayed exaggerated proliferation and migration in response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry revealed that PDZK1 interacts with breakpoint cluster region kinase (Bcr), which contains a C-terminal PDZ binding sequence and is known to enhance responses to PDGF in VSM. PDZK1 interaction with Bcr in VSM was demonstrated by pull-down and by coimmunoprecipitation, and the augmented proliferative response to PDGF in PDZK1-/- VSM was abrogated by Bcr depletion. Furthermore, compared with wild-type Bcr overexpression, the introduction of a Bcr mutant incapable of PDZK1 binding into VSM cells yielded an exaggerated proliferative response to PDGF. Thus, PDZK1 has novel SR-BI-independent function in VSM that affords protection from neointima formation, and this involves PDZK1 suppression of VSM cell proliferation via an inhibitory interaction with Bcr.

  19. Low levels of the reverse transactivator fail to induce target transgene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viceconte, Nikenza; McKenna, Tomás; Eriksson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a genetic disease with multiple features that are suggestive of premature aging. Most patients with HGPS carry a mutation on one of their copies of the LMNA gene. The LMNA gene encodes the lamin A and lamin C proteins, which are the major proteins of the nuclear lamina. The organs of the cardiovascular system are amongst those that are most severely affected in HGPS, undergoing a progressive depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells, and most children with HGPS die in their early teens from cardio-vascular disease and other complications from atherosclerosis. In this study, we developed a transgenic mouse model based on the tet-ON system to increase the understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to the most lethal aspect of HGPS. To induce the expression of the most common HGPS mutation, LMNA c.1824C>T; p.G608G, in the vascular smooth muscle cells of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta, we used the previously described reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator, sm22α-rtTA. However, the expression of the reverse sm22α-transactivator was barely detectable in the arteries, and this low level of expression was not sufficient to induce the expression of the target human lamin A minigene. The results from this study are important because they suggest caution during the use of previously functional transgenic animal models and emphasize the importance of assessing transgene expression over time.

  20. Low Levels of the Reverse Transactivator Fail to Induce Target Transgene Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Viceconte, Nikenza; McKenna, Tomás; Eriksson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a genetic disease with multiple features that are suggestive of premature aging. Most patients with HGPS carry a mutation on one of their copies of the LMNA gene. The LMNA gene encodes the lamin A and lamin C proteins, which are the major proteins of the nuclear lamina. The organs of the cardiovascular system are amongst those that are most severely affected in HGPS, undergoing a progressive depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells, and most children with HGPS die in their early teens from cardio-vascular disease and other complications from atherosclerosis. In this study, we developed a transgenic mouse model based on the tet-ON system to increase the understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to the most lethal aspect of HGPS. To induce the expression of the most common HGPS mutation, LMNA c.1824C>T; p.G608G, in the vascular smooth muscle cells of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta, we used the previously described reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator, sm22α-rtTA. However, the expression of the reverse sm22α-transactivator was barely detectable in the arteries, and this low level of expression was not sufficient to induce the expression of the target human lamin A minigene. The results from this study are important because they suggest caution during the use of previously functional transgenic animal models and emphasize the importance of assessing transgene expression over time. PMID:25090270

  1. Assessing Intracranial Vascular Compliance Using Dynamic Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lirong; Liu, Collin Y.; Smith, Robert X.; Jog, Mayank; Langham, Michael; Krasileva, Kate; Chen, Yufen; Ringman, John M.; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular compliance (VC) is an important marker for a number of cardiovascular diseases and dementia, which is typically assessed in central and peripheral arteries indirectly by quantifying pulse wave velocity (PWV), and/or pulse pressure waveform. To date, very few methods are available for the quantification of intracranial VC. In the present study, a novel MRI technique for in-vivo assessment of intracranial VC was introduced, where dynamic arterial spin labeling (ASL) scans were synchronized with the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. VC is defined as the ratio of change in arterial cerebral blood volume (ΔCBV) and change in arterial pressure (ΔBP). Intracranial VC was assessed in different vascular components using the proposed dynamic ASL method. Our results show that VC mainly occurs in large arteries, gradually decreases in small arteries and arterioles. The comparison of intracranial VC between young and elderly subjects shows that aging is accompanied by a reduction of intracranial VC, in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, a positive association between intracranial VC and cerebral perfusion measured using pseudo-continuous ASL with 3D GRASE MRI was observed independent of aging effects, suggesting loss of VC is associated with a decline in perfusion. Finally, a significant positive correlation between intracranial and central (aortic arch) VC was observed using an ungated phase-contrast 1D projection PWV technique. The proposed dynamic ASL method offers a promising approach for assessing intracranial VC in a range of cardiovascular diseases and dementia. PMID:26364865

  2. Defective autophagy in vascular smooth muscle cells accelerates senescence and promotes neointima formation and atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grootaert, Mandy Oj; da Costa Martins, Paula A; Bitsch, Nicole; Pintelon, Isabel; De Meyer, Guido Ry; Martinet, Wim; Schrijvers, Dorien M

    2015-11-02

    Autophagy is triggered in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of diseased arterial vessels. However, the role of VSMC autophagy in cardiovascular disease is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of defective autophagy on VSMC survival and phenotype and its significance in the development of postinjury neointima formation and atherosclerosis. Tissue-specific deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg7 in murine VSMCs (atg7(-/-) VSMCs) caused accumulation of SQSTM1/p62 and accelerated the development of stress-induced premature senescence as shown by cellular and nuclear hypertrophy, CDKN2A-RB-mediated G1 proliferative arrest and senescence-associated GLB1 activity. Transfection of SQSTM1-encoding plasmid DNA in Atg7(+/+) VSMCs induced similar features, suggesting that accumulation of SQSTM1 promotes VSMC senescence. Interestingly, atg7(-/-) VSMCs were resistant to oxidative stress-induced cell death as compared to controls. This effect was attributed to nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFE2L2 resulting in upregulation of several antioxidative enzymes. In vivo, defective VSMC autophagy led to upregulation of MMP9, TGFB and CXCL12 and promoted postinjury neointima formation and diet-induced atherogenesis. Lesions of VSMC-specific atg7 knockout mice were characterized by increased total collagen deposition, nuclear hypertrophy, CDKN2A upregulation, RB hypophosphorylation, and GLB1 activity, all features typical of cellular senescence. To conclude, autophagy is crucial for VSMC function, phenotype, and survival. Defective autophagy in VSMCs accelerates senescence and promotes ligation-induced neointima formation and diet-induced atherogenesis, implying that autophagy inhibition as therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neointimal stenosis and atherosclerosis would be unfavorable. Conversely, stimulation of autophagy could be a valuable new strategy in the treatment of arterial disease.

  3. Decreasing mitochondrial fission diminishes vascular smooth muscle cell migration and ameliorates intimal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Yu, Tianzheng; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K.; Sesaki, Hiromi; Yoon, Yisang

    2015-01-01

    Aims Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to arterial wall injury is a critical process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. Cell migration is an energy-demanding process that is predicted to require mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic, undergoing continuous shape change through fission and fusion. However, the role of mitochondrial morphology in VSMC migration is not well understood. The aim of the study is to understand how mitochondrial fission contributes to VSMC migration and provides its in vivo relevance in the mouse model of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results In primary mouse VSMCs, the chemoattractant PDGF induced mitochondrial shortening through the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1)/Drp1. Perturbation of mitochondrial fission by expressing the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A or by DLP1 silencing greatly decreased PDGF-induced lamellipodia formation and VSMC migration, indicating that mitochondrial fission is an important process in VSMC migration. PDGF induced an augmentation of mitochondrial energetics as well as ROS production, both of which were found to be necessary for VSMC migration. Mechanistically, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission induced an increase of mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak in VSMCs, abrogating the PDGF-induced energetic enhancement and an ROS increase. In an in vivo model of intimal hyperplasia, transgenic mice expressing DLP1-K38A displayed markedly reduced ROS levels and neointima formation in response to femoral artery wire injury. Conclusions Mitochondrial fission is an integral process in cell migration, and controlling mitochondrial fission can limit VSMC migration and the pathological intimal hyperplasia by altering mitochondrial energetics and ROS levels. PMID:25587046

  4. Decreasing mitochondrial fission diminishes vascular smooth muscle cell migration and ameliorates intimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yu, Tianzheng; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K; Sesaki, Hiromi; Yoon, Yisang

    2015-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to arterial wall injury is a critical process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. Cell migration is an energy-demanding process that is predicted to require mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic, undergoing continuous shape change through fission and fusion. However, the role of mitochondrial morphology in VSMC migration is not well understood. The aim of the study is to understand how mitochondrial fission contributes to VSMC migration and provides its in vivo relevance in the mouse model of intimal hyperplasia. In primary mouse VSMCs, the chemoattractant PDGF induced mitochondrial shortening through the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1)/Drp1. Perturbation of mitochondrial fission by expressing the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A or by DLP1 silencing greatly decreased PDGF-induced lamellipodia formation and VSMC migration, indicating that mitochondrial fission is an important process in VSMC migration. PDGF induced an augmentation of mitochondrial energetics as well as ROS production, both of which were found to be necessary for VSMC migration. Mechanistically, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission induced an increase of mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak in VSMCs, abrogating the PDGF-induced energetic enhancement and an ROS increase. In an in vivo model of intimal hyperplasia, transgenic mice expressing DLP1-K38A displayed markedly reduced ROS levels and neointima formation in response to femoral artery wire injury. Mitochondrial fission is an integral process in cell migration, and controlling mitochondrial fission can limit VSMC migration and the pathological intimal hyperplasia by altering mitochondrial energetics and ROS levels. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. /sup 45/Ca distribution and transport in saponin skinned vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, M.A.; Diecke, F.P.

    1983-04-01

    /sup 45/Ca distribution and transport were studied in chemically skinned strips of caudal artery from Kyoto Wistar rats. Sarcolemmal membranes were made hyperpermeable by exposure for 60 min to solutions containing 0.1 mg/ml of saponin. Skinned helical strips responded with graded contractions to changes in ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid buffered free Ca solutions (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) and were sensitive to the Mg-ATP concentration. Tissues loaded in the presence of 10(-7) M Ca contracted in response to 10 mM caffeine. These experiments indicate the strips are skinned and possess a functional regulatory and contractile system and an intact Ca sequestering system. /sup 45/Ca distributes in three compartments in skinned caudal artery strips. The Ca contents of two components are linear functions of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration and desaturate at rapid rates. They correspond to the extracellular and cytoplasmic spaces. A significantly smaller component releases Ca at comparatively slower rates. /sup 45/Ca uptake by the slow component consists of an ATP-dependent and an ATP-independent fraction. The /sup 45/Ca content of the ATP-dependent fraction is a function of the free Ca concentration and is independent of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration. Its content was enhanced by oxalate and was abolished by Triton X-100 skinning solutions. The ATP-independent component was not affected by Triton X-100 skinning and may represent Ca binding to cytoplasmic molecules and structures. The sequestered Ca was released with caffeine or Ca but not by epinephrine. The observations indicate that the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of vascular smooth muscle strips skinned with saponin retain their functional integrity after saponin skinning.

  6. Acetylcholine-induced K+ currents in smooth muscle cells of intact rat small arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Weidelt, T; Boldt, W; Markwardt, F

    1997-01-01

    1. The mechanism of the sustained acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) in intact rat small mesenteric arteries prestimulated with noradrenaline (10(-6) M) was investigated by means of the single microelectrode voltage-clamp method. 2. The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in this preparation are poorly or even not coupled for the reasons that: (1) the mean input resistance Rlnp of the clamped vascular smooth muscle increases from 120 M omega under control conditions to 440 M omega after application of K+ channel blocking drugs, (2) the voltage relaxation after injection of hyperpolarizing currents has a monoexponential time course and is linearly dependent on Rlnp, and (3) voltage steps induced by current-clamp steps are not transferred to locations in the vascular musculature 120 microns apart from the current injecting microelectrode. 3. Sustained (> 5 min) application of ACh (10(-5) M) hyperpolarized the VSMCs by induction of a hyperpolarizing current. This effect was completely blocked by the inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase L-NAME (10(-3) M) but not by the inhibitor of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGCl) Methylene Blue (MB, 10(-4) M). 4. Application of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10(-6) M) for more than 5 min mimicked the induction of the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing current in vessels with destroyed endothelium. The reversal potential of this current is dependent on the extracellular K+ concentration. The effect of SNP could also not be blocked by MB. 5. The blockers of ATP-dependent and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels, glibenclamide (Glb, 10(-5) M) and charybdotoxin (CTX, 5 x 10(-8) M), respectively, blocked a hyperpolarizing current in the VSMCs similar to the ACh- or SNP-induced current. 6. The isolated application of either Glb or CTX did not block the activation of the hyperpolarizing current by SNP. Only the combined administration of Glb and CTX blocked the SNP-induced current completely

  7. Crucial role of ROCK2 in vascular smooth muscle cells for hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toru; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shin-Ichi; Satoh, Kimio; Ikeda, Shohei; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Rho-kinase has 2 isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, with different functions in different cells; ROCK1 for circulating inflammatory cells and ROCK2 for the vasculature. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether ROCK2 in VSMC is involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. In patients with PAH, the expression of ROCK2 was increased in pulmonary arterial media and primary pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells when compared with controls. To investigate the role of ROCK2 in VSMC, we generated VSMC-specific heterozygous ROCK2-deficient (ROCK2(+/-)) mice and VSMC-specific ROCK2-overexpressing transgenic (ROCK2-Tg) mice. The extent of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was reduced in ROCK2(+/-) mice and was enhanced in ROCK2-Tg mice compared with respective littermates. The protein expression of ROCK activity and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the number of Ki67-positive proliferating cells in the lung were reduced in ROCK2(+/-) mice and were increased in ROCK2-Tg mice compared with respective littermates. In cultured mouse aortic VSMC, migration and proliferation activities were reduced in ROCK2(+/-) mice, and migration activity was increased in ROCK2-Tg mice compared with respective littermates. In addition, in primary pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from a patient with PAH, ROCK2 was required for migration and proliferation through ROCK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. ROCK2 in VSMC contributes to the pathogenesis of PAH.

  8. Sphingosine induces phospholipase D and mitogen activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Taher, M M; Abd-Elfattah, A S; Sholley, M M

    1998-12-01

    The enzymes phospholipase D and diacylglycerol kinase generate phosphatidic acid which is considered to be a mitogen. Here we report that sphingosine produced a significant amount of phosphatidic acid in vascular smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59 949 partially depressed sphingosine induced phosphatidic acid formation, suggesting that activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase can not account for the bulk of phosphatidic acid produced and that additional pathways such as phospholipase D may contribute to this. Further, we have shown that phosphatidylethanol was produced by sphingosine when vascular smooth muscle cells were stimulated in the presence of ethanol. Finally, as previously shown for other cell types, sphingosine stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  9. Distribution of alpha-vascular smooth muscle actin in the smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract of the chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Y; Kubota, T; Atoji, Y; Suzuki, Y

    1996-01-01

    Immunoreactivity specific for alpha-vascular smooth muscle actin (ASMA) was examined in the enteric smooth muscle cells along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract of the chicken. Specificity for gamma-smooth muscle actin (GSMA) and desmin was also examined. All smooth muscle layers, i.e. the muscularis mucosae, and the circular and longitudinal muscle layers, showed immunoreactivity specific for GSMA and desmin throughout the gastrointestinal tract whereas immunoreactivity for ASMA differed between regions and muscle layers. In the oesophagus and crop, immunoreactivity for ASMA was observed in the muscularis mucosae and the inner and outer muscle layers, together with staining for GSMA and desmin. In the proventriculus, immunoreactivity for ASMA was observed in all smooth muscle cells in the inner layer of the muscularis mucosae and the longitudinal muscle layer. In the outer layer of the muscularis mucosae, immunoreactivity for ASMA on smooth muscle cells was observed on the luminal side and decreased in the serosal direction. In the intermediate muscles, immunoreactivity for ASMA was observed in the luminal portion, the intensity of staining decreasing gradually in the serosal direction. In contrast to the intermediate muscles, the latter muscles were negative for ASMA. In the pyloric region, the outer part was weakly immunopositive, while the inner part was intensely positive. In the small and large intestines, the muscularis mucosae and the longitudinal muscle layer were positive for ASMA. The outer part of the circular muscle layer was immunonegative for ASMA whereas the inner part was positive. The complex structure and contractile functions of each organ and muscle layers may be related to the difference patterns of expression of ASMA molecules in the smooth muscle cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8982838

  10. Attenuation of chondrogenic transformation in vascular smooth muscle by dietary quercetin in the MGP-deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Beazley, Kelly E; Lima, Florence; Borras, Teresa; Nurminskaya, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cartilaginous metaplasia of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is characteristic for arterial calcification in diabetes and uremia and in the background of genetic alterations in matrix Gla protein (MGP). A better understanding of the molecular details of this process is critical for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to VSM transformation and arterial calcification. This study aimed to identify the effects of bioflavonoid quercetin on chondrogenic transformation and calcification of VSM in the MGP-null mouse model and upon TGF-β3 stimulation in vitro, and to characterize the associated alterations in cell signaling. Molecular analysis revealed activation of β-catenin signaling in cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- aortae in vivo and during chondrogenic transformation of VSMCs in vitro. Quercetin intercepted chondrogenic transformation of VSM and blocked activation of β-catenin both in vivo and in vitro. Although dietary quercetin drastically attenuated calcifying cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- animals, approximately one-half of total vascular calcium mineral remained as depositions along elastic lamellae. Quercetin is potent in preventing VSM chondrogenic transformation caused by diverse stimuli. Combined with the demonstrated efficiency of dietary quercetin in preventing ectopic chondrogenesis in the MGP-null vasculature, these findings indicate a potentially broad therapeutic applicability of this safe for human consumption bioflavonoid in the therapy of cardiovascular conditions linked to cartilaginous metaplasia of VSM. Elastocalcinosis is a major component of MGP-null vascular disease and is controlled by a mechanism different from chondrogenic transformation of VSM and not sensitive to quercetin.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Renal Denervation on Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Qingyan, Zhao; Xuejun, Jiang; Yanhong, Tang; Zixuan, Dai; Xiaozhan, Wang; Xule, Wang; Zongwen, Guo; Wei, Hu; Shengbo, Yu; Congxin, Huang

    2015-07-01

    Activation of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that renal denervation decreases renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity and inhibits the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty-two beagles were randomized into 3 groups. The dogs' pulmonary dynamics were measured before and 8 weeks after injection of 0.1mL/kg dimethylformamide (control dogs) or 2mg/kg dehydromonocrotaline (pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs). Eight weeks after injection, neurohormone levels and pulmonary tissue morphology were measured. Levels of plasma angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were significantly increased after 8 weeks in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs and were higher in the lung tissues of these dogs than in those of the control and renal denervation dogs (mean [standard deviation] angiotensin II: 65 [9.8] vs 38 [6.7], 46 [8.1]; endothelin-1: 96 [10.3] vs 54 [6.2], 67 [9.4]; P < .01). Dehydromonocrotaline increased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (16 [3.4] mmHg vs 33 [7.3] mmHg; P < .01), and renal denervation prevented this increase. Pulmonary smooth muscle cell proliferation was higher in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs than in the control and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs. Renal denervation attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreases pulmonary arterial pressure in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension. The effect of renal denervation may contribute to decreased neurohormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of miRNA-145 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells with vascular damages in patients with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Liao, Wang; Yi, Zhuwen; Xiang, Wei; He, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    miRNAs have been found to contribute to the regulation of multiple cellular processes, including cell apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. The patients with lupus nephritis (LN) exhibit thickened renal vascular membrane and highly proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Of various miRNAs discovered, miR-145 is essential to mediate the proliferation of VSMCs and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we studied the pathological and vascular damage of renal LN, and the correlation between miR-145 expression in VSMCs and the vascular damages. Serum, urine, and renal biopsies were obtained from 41 patients with active LN. The serum and urinary VEGF levels were examined to confirm the renal damage of each patient. Biopsies were stained to observe the glomerular segmental lesions, sclerosis, and to evaluate the vascular damages. The expression of miR-145 was also examined to determine the correlation between its expression and the vascular damages. The expression of miR-145 was mainly detected in the renal VSMCs and the epithelial cells of glomerular proximal convoluted tubule. Nevertheless, the expression of miR-145 reduced as the tunicae media vasorum ratios increased, indicating the development of LN inhibits the expression of miR-145. Furthermore, our studies revealed no significant correlation among renal interstitial vascular damage, glomerular damage and severity classification of LN. Therefore, we suggest the damage of renal interstitial vascular should be considered as one of the factors to evaluate the severity of the LN.

  13. Augmented vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion when hypertension is superimposed on aging.

    PubMed

    Sehgel, Nancy L; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhongkui; Hunter, William C; Hill, Michael A; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F; Meininger, Gerald A

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension and aging are both recognized to increase aortic stiffness, but their interactions are not completely understood. Most previous studies have attributed increased aortic stiffness to changes in extracellular matrix proteins that alter the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Alternatively, we hypothesized that a significant component of increased vascular stiffness in hypertension is due to changes in the mechanical and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aging would augment the contribution from vascular smooth muscle cells when compared with the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we studied aortic stiffness in young (16-week-old) and old (64-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto wild-type controls. Systolic and pulse pressures were significantly increased in young spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with young Wistar-Kyoto rats, and these continued to rise in old spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with age-matched controls. Excised aortic ring segments exhibited significantly greater elastic moduli in both young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats versus Wistar-Kyoto rats. were isolated from the thoracic aorta, and stiffness and adhesion to fibronectin were measured by atomic force microscopy. Hypertension increased both vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, and these increases were both augmented with aging. By contrast, hypertension did not affect histological measures of aortic collagen and elastin, which were predominantly changed by aging. These findings support the concept that stiffness and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells are novel mechanisms contributing to the increased aortic stiffness occurring with hypertension superimposed on aging. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Cocaine mediated apoptosis of vascular cells as a mechanism for carotid artery dissection leading to ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Dabbouseh, Noura M; Ardelt, Agnieszka

    2011-08-01

    In arterial dissection, blood may enter the arterial wall through an intimal tear, splitting the arterial wall and activating the coagulation cascade at the site of endothelial damage. Dissection of extracranial and intracranial vessels may lead to ischemic stroke through thromboembolic or hemodynamic mechanisms. Major blunt trauma or rapid acceleration-deceleration may cause dissection, but in patients with inherent arterial wall weakness, dissection can occur spontaneously or as a result of minor neck movement. Cocaine use has been associated with dissection of the aortic arch and coronary and renal arteries through cocaine-mediated hypertension. Recent preclinical studies have suggested, however, that cocaine may cause apoptosis of cells in the vascular wall. In this article, we postulate that cocaine may cause apoptosis of vascular endothelial and/or smooth muscle cells, thus weakening the vascular wall and resulting in a dissection-prone state. We review the literature and propose a biological basis for vasculopathy, vascular dissection, and ischemic stroke in the setting of cocaine use. Further research studies on vascular cells, as well as focused analysis of human pathological material, will be important in providing evidence for or against our hypotheses.

  15. Arterial smooth muscle contractions in spontaneously hypertensive rats on a high-calcium diet.

    PubMed

    Pörsti, I

    1992-03-01

    To study the effects of a high-calcium diet upon blood pressure, vascular smooth muscle contractions and intracellular free calcium in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Eight-week old animals were placed on a normal-calcium diet (1.1% calcium; SHR and WKY rat groups) or a high-calcium diet (2.1% calcium; Ca-SHR and Ca-WKY rat groups) and observed for 12 weeks. Blood pressure was measured indirectly by the tail-cuff method and in vitro smooth muscle responses were studied using a standard organ bath chamber. Platelets were used as a cell model for analysis of intracellular free calcium concentration, measured by the fluorescent indicator Quin-2. The blood pressure of Ca-WKY and WKY rats did not differ, but increased systolic blood pressure was attenuated in Ca-SHR compared with SHR. The concentration-response curves of mesenteric arterial rings for potassium chloride and noradrenaline were not affected by the high-calcium diet in either SHR or WKY rats. The time required for total relaxation after washout of contractile agents (washout time) was shortest in WKY and Ca-WKY rats after both agonists, and shorter in Ca-SHR than in SHR after noradrenaline. Smooth muscle responses were also studied by contracting the preparations with noradrenaline and potassium chloride in a calcium-free solution, after which, calcium was added to the organ bath in increasing concentrations. Calcium contraction responses were similar in WKY and Ca-WKY rats; SHR displayed an attenuated response to calcium addition in mesenteric rings stimulated by both agonists. After potassium chloride as agonist, the responses of SHR and Ca-SHR did not deviate but, after noradrenaline, a significant shift in the calcium contraction curve towards the normotensive curve was observed in Ca-SHR. Intracellular free calcium was clearly lower in WKY rats than in SHR, and was significantly reduced by calcium supplementation in the hypertensive but not the

  16. Cytoskeletal remodeling in differentiated vascular smooth muscle is actin isoform dependent and stimulus dependent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Rim; Gallant, Cynthia; Leavis, Paul C; Gunst, Susan J; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2008-09-01

    Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton plays an essential role in the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. It has been suggested that actin remodeling may also play an important functional role in nonmigrating, nonproliferating differentiated vascular smooth muscle (dVSM). In the present study, we show that contractile agonists increase the net polymerization of actin in dVSM, as measured by the differential ultracentrifugation of vascular smooth muscle tissue and the costaining of single freshly dissociated cells with fluorescent probes specific for globular and filamentous actin. Furthermore, induced alterations of the actin polymerization state, as well as actin decoy peptides, inhibit contractility in a stimulus-dependent manner. Latrunculin pretreatment or actin decoy peptides significantly inhibit contractility induced by a phorbol ester or an alpha-agonist, but these procedures have no effect on contractions induced by KCl. Aorta dVSM expresses alpha-smooth muscle actin, beta-actin, nonmuscle gamma-actin, and smooth muscle gamma-actin. The incorporation of isoform-specific cell-permeant synthetic actin decoy peptides, as well as isoform-specific probing of cell fractions and two-dimensional gels, demonstrates that actin remodeling during alpha-agonist contractions involves the remodeling of primarily gamma-actin and, to a lesser extent, beta-actin. Taken together, these results show that net isoform- and agonist-dependent increases in actin polymerization regulate vascular contractility.

  17. Thrombospondin-1 limits ischemic tissue survival by inhibiting nitric oxide–mediated vascular smooth muscle relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Isenberg, Jeff S.; Hyodo, Fuminori; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Romeo, Martin J.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tsokos, Maria; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Wink, David A.; Krishna, Murali C.

    2007-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway, by relaxing vascular smooth muscle cells, is a major physiologic regulator of tissue perfusion. We now identify thrombospondin-1 as a potent antagonist of NO for regulating F-actin assembly and myosin light chain phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Thrombospondin-1 prevents NO-mediated relaxation of precontracted vascular smooth muscle cells in a collagen matrix. Functional magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that an NO-mediated increase in skeletal muscle perfusion was enhanced in thrombospondin-1–null relative to wild-type mice, implicating endogenous thrombospondin-1 as a physiologic antagonist of NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a random myocutaneous flap model for ischemic injury, tissue survival was significantly enhanced in thrombospondin-1–null mice. Improved flap survival correlated with increased recovery of oxygen levels in the ischemic tissue of thrombospondin-1–null mice as measured by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. These findings demonstrate an important antag-onistic relation between NO/cGMP signaling and thrombospondin-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells to regulate vascular tone and tissue perfusion. PMID:17082319

  18. Bacterial toxins activation of abbreviated urea cycle in porcine cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rajesh G; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Po-Yi; Lee, Tony J-F

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in vasodilatory shock in sepsis, leading to septic encephalopathy and accelerating cerebral ischemic injury. An abbreviated urea-cycle (l-citrulline-l-arginine-NO cycle) has been demonstrated in cerebral perivascular nitrergic nerves and endothelial cells but not in normal cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (CVSMC). This cycle indicates that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) catalyzes l-citrulline (l-cit) conversion to form argininosuccinate (AS), and subsequent AS cleavage by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) forms l-arginine (l-arg), the substrate for NO synthesis. The possibility that ASS enzyme in this cycle was induced in the CVSMC in sepsis was examined. Blood-vessel myography technique was used for measuring porcine isolated basilar arterial tone. NO in cultured CVSMC and in condition mediums were estimated by diaminofluorescein (DAF)-induced fluorescence and Griess reaction, respectively. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses were used to examine iNOS and ASS induction. l-cit and l-arg, which did not relax endothelium-denuded normal basilar arteries precontracted by U-46619, induced significant vasorelaxation with increased NO production in these arteries and the CVSMCs following 6-hour exposure to 20μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Pre-treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and salicylate (SAL) (NFκB inhibitors), aminoguanidine (AG, an iNOS inhibitor), and nitro-l-arg (NLA, a non-specific NOS inhibitor) blocked NO synthesis in the CVSMC and attenuated l-cit- and l-arg-induced relaxation of LPS- and LTA-treated arteries. Furthermore, immunohistochemical and immunoblotting studies demonstrated that expression of basal iNOS and ASS in the smooth muscle cell of arterial segments denuded of endothelium and the cultured CVSMCs was significantly increased following 6-hour incubation with LPS or LTA. This increased i

  19. Arterial structure and function in vascular ageing: are you as old as your arteries?

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Carter, Sophie E; Green, Daniel J

    2016-04-15

    Advancing age may be the most potent independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, a relationship that is not fully explained by time-related changes in traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Since some arteries exhibit differential susceptibility to atherosclerosis, generalisations regarding the impact of ageing in humans may be overly simplistic, whereas in vivo assessment of arterial function and health provide direct insight. Coronary and peripheral (conduit, resistance and skin) arteries demonstrate a gradual, age-related impairment in vascular function that is likely to be related to a reduction in endothelium-derived nitric oxide bioavailability and/or increased production of vasoconstrictors (e.g. endothelin-1). Increased exposure and impaired ability for defence mechanisms to resist oxidative stress and inflammation, but also cellular senescence processes, may contribute to age-related changes in vascular function and health. Arteries also undergo structural changes as they age. Gradual thickening of the arterial wall, changes in wall content (i.e. less elastin, advanced glycation end-products) and increase in conduit artery diameter are observed with older age and occur similarly in central and peripheral arteries. These changes in structure have important interactive effects on artery function, with increases in small and large arterial stiffness representing a characteristic change with older age. Importantly, direct measures of arterial function and structure predict future cardiovascular events, independent of age or other cardiovascular risk factors. Taken together, and given the differential susceptibility of arteries to atherosclerosis in humans, direct measurement of arterial function and health may help to distinguish between biological and chronological age-related change in arterial health in humans.

  20. Endothelial dysfunction impairs vascular neurotransmission in tail arteries.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joana B; Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study intends to clarify if endothelium dysfunction impairs vascular sympathetic neurotransmission. Electrically-evoked tritium overflow (100 pulses/5 Hz) was evaluated in arteries (intact and denuded) or exhibiting some degree of endothelium dysfunction (spontaneously hypertensive arteries), pre-incubated with [(3)H]-noradrenaline in the presence of enzymes (nitric oxide synthase (NOS); nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase; xanthine oxidase; cyclooxygenase; adenosine kinase) inhibitors and a nucleoside transporter inhibitor. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with L-NIO dihydrochloride reduced tritium overflow in intact arteries whereas inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase with Nω-Propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride was devoid of effect showing that only endothelial nitric oxide synthase is involved in vascular sympathetic neuromodulation. Inhibition of enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species or prostaglandins production with apocynin and allopurinol or indomethacin, respectively, failed to alter tritium overflow. A facilitation or reduction of tritium overflow was observed in the presence of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) or of 5-iodotubericidin, respectively, but only in intact arteries. These effects can be ascribed to a tonic inhibitory effect mediated by A1 receptors. In denuded and hypertensive arteries, 7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c] pyrimidine (SCH 58261) reduced tritium overflow, suggesting the occurrence of a tonic activation of A2A receptors. When endogenous adenosine bioavailability was increased by the nucleoside transporter inhibitor, S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine, tritium overflow increased in intact, denuded and hypertensive arteries. Among the endothelium-derived substances studied that could alter vascular sympathetic transmission only adenosine/adenosine receptor mediated mechanisms were clearly impaired by endothelium injury/dysfunction.

  1. Vascular CXCR4 Limits Atherosclerosis by Maintaining Arterial Integrity: Evidence From Mouse and Human Studies.

    PubMed

    Döring, Yvonne; Noels, Heidi; van der Vorst, Emiel P C; Neideck, Carlos; Egea, Virginia; Drechsler, Maik; Mandl, Manuela; Pawig, Lukas; Jansen, Yvonne; Schröder, Katrin; Bidzhekov, Kiril; Megens, Remco T A; Theelen, Wendy; Klinkhammer, Barbara M; Boor, Peter; Schurgers, Leon; van Gorp, Rick; Ries, Christian; Kusters, Pascal J H; van der Wal, Allard; Hackeng, Tilman M; Gäbel, Gabor; Brandes, Ralf P; Soehnlein, Oliver; Lutgens, Esther; Vestweber, Dietmar; Teupser, Daniel; Holdt, Lesca M; Rader, Daniel J; Saleheen, Danish; Weber, Christian

    2017-07-25

    The CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine ligand/receptor axis controls (progenitor) cell homeostasis and trafficking. So far, an atheroprotective role of CXCL12/CXCR4 has only been implied through pharmacological intervention, in particular, because the somatic deletion of the CXCR4 gene in mice is embryonically lethal. Moreover, cell-specific effects of CXCR4 in the arterial wall and underlying mechanisms remain elusive, prompting us to investigate the relevance of CXCR4 in vascular cell types for atheroprotection. We examined the role of vascular CXCR4 in atherosclerosis and plaque composition by inducing an endothelial cell (BmxCreER(T2)-driven)-specific or smooth muscle cell (SMC, SmmhcCreER(T2)- or TaglnCre-driven)-specific deficiency of CXCR4 in an apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse model. To identify underlying mechanisms for effects of CXCR4, we studied endothelial permeability, intravital leukocyte adhesion, involvement of the Akt/WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway and relevant phosphatases in VE-cadherin expression and function, vascular tone in aortic rings, cholesterol efflux from macrophages, and expression of SMC phenotypic markers. Finally, we analyzed associations of common genetic variants at the CXCR4 locus with the risk for coronary heart disease, along with CXCR4 transcript expression in human atherosclerotic plaques. The cell-specific deletion of CXCR4 in arterial endothelial cells (n=12-15) or SMCs (n=13-24) markedly increased atherosclerotic lesion formation in hyperlipidemic mice. Endothelial barrier function was promoted by CXCL12/CXCR4, which triggered Akt/WNT/β-catenin signaling to drive VE-cadherin expression and stabilized junctional VE-cadherin complexes through associated phosphatases. Conversely, endothelial CXCR4 deficiency caused arterial leakage and inflammatory leukocyte recruitment during atherogenesis. In arterial SMCs, CXCR4 sustained normal vascular reactivity and contractile responses, whereas CXCR4 deficiency favored a synthetic phenotype

  2. Association of T Cell and Macrophage Activation with Arterial Vascular Health in HIV.

    PubMed

    Grome, Heather N; Barnett, Louise; Hagar, Cindy C; Harrison, David G; Kalams, Spyros A; Koethe, John R

    2017-02-01

    HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the arterial vascular functions affected by persistent innate and cellular immune activation are not well described. We assessed the relationship between immunologic and vascular parameters in 70 HIV-infected adults on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine with more than 2 years of virologic suppression and no history of CVD. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound and circulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) by multiple immunoassay. We also measured circulating naive (CD45RO(-)CCR7(+)CD27(+)), activated (CD38(+) and CD38(+)DR(+)), exhausted (PD1(+)), senescent (CD57(+)), and memory (CD45RO(+)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets by flow cytometry, and macrophage activation markers by ELISA and multiple immunoassay. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and body mass index. Median age was 45 years (IQR 39, 50), median CD4(+) count 701 cells/μl (IQR 540, 954), and 43% were female. Lower brachial FMD was associated with a higher percentage of activated CD8(+) T cells (p < .01), but not associated with macrophage activation. In contrast, higher ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were associated with sCD163 (p < = .01 for both), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (p < = .02 for both), and sCD14 (p = .01 for ICAM-1 only). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that circulating CD8(+) T cell activation may impair arterial smooth muscle relaxation, while macrophage activation has a role in the expression of endothelial cell proteins involved in immune cell translocation. Both innate and cellular immune activation appear to promote arterial vascular disease in HIV-infected persons on ART using differing mechanisms.

  3. Arterial Smooth Muscle Mitochondria Amplify Hydrogen Peroxide Microdomains Functionally Coupled to L-Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Nathan L.; Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline; Fresquez, Adriana M.; Navedo, Manuel F.; Amberg, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Mitochondria are key integrators of convergent intracellular signaling pathways. Two important second messengers modulated by mitochondria are calcium and reactive oxygen species. To date, coherent mechanisms describing mitochondrial integration of calcium and oxidative signaling in arterial smooth muscle are incomplete. Objective To address and add clarity to this issue we tested the hypothesis that mitochondria regulate subplasmalemmal calcium and hydrogen peroxide microdomain signaling in cerebral arterial smooth muscle. Methods and Results Using an image-based approach we investigated the impact of mitochondrial regulation of L-type calcium channels on subcellular calcium and ROS signaling microdomains in isolated arterial smooth muscle cells. Our single cell observations were then related experimentally to intact arterial segments and to living animals. We found that subplasmalemmal mitochondrial amplification of hydrogen peroxide microdomain signaling stimulates L-type calcium channels and that this mechanism strongly impacts the functional capacity of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. Importantly, we also found that disrupting this mitochondrial amplification mechanism in vivo normalized arterial function and attenuated the hypertensive response to systemic endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions From these observations we conclude that mitochondrial amplification of subplasmalemmal calcium and hydrogen peroxide microdomain signaling is a fundamental mechanism regulating arterial smooth muscle function. As the principle components involved are fairly ubiquitous and positioning of mitochondria near the plasma membrane is not restricted to arterial smooth muscle, this mechanism could occur in many cell types and contribute to pathological elevations of intracellular calcium and increased oxidative stress associated with many diseases. PMID:26390880

  4. Lipid Loading of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induces Changes in Tropoelastin Protein Levels and Physical Structure

    PubMed Central

    Samouillan, Valerie; Dandurand, Jany; Nasarre, Laura; Badimon, Lina; Lacabanne, Colette; Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta

    2012-01-01

    Aggregated low-density lipoprotein (agLDL), one of the main LDL modifications in the arterial intima, contributes to massive intracellular cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which are major producers of elastin in the vascular wall. Our aim was to analyze the levels, physical structure, and molecular mobility of tropoelastin produced by agLDL-loaded human VSMC (agLDL-VSMC) versus that produced by control VSMC. Western blot analysis demonstrated that agLDL reduced VSMC-tropoelastin protein levels by increasing its degradation rate. Moreover, our results demonstrated increased levels of precursor and mature forms of cathepsin S in agLDL-VSMC. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed modifications in the secondary structures of tropoelastin produced by lipid-loaded VSMCs. Thermal and dielectric analyses showed that agLDL-VSMC tropoelastin has decreased glass transition temperatures and distinct chain dynamics that, in addition to a loss of thermal stability, lead to strong changes in its mechanical properties. In conclusion, agLDL lipid loading of human vascular cells leads to an increase in cathepsin S production concomitantly with a decrease in cellular tropoelastin protein levels and dramatic changes in secreted tropoelastin physical structure. Therefore, VSMC-lipid loading likely determines alterations in the mechanical properties of the vascular wall and plays a crucial role in elastin loss during atherosclerosis. PMID:22947869

  5. Thrombospondin-1, -2 and -5 have differential effects on vascular smooth muscle cell physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Helkin, Alex; Maier, Kristopher G.; Gahtan, Vivian

    2015-09-04

    Introduction: The thrombospondins (TSPs) are matricellular proteins that exert multifunctional effects by binding cytokines, cell-surface receptors and other proteins. TSPs play important roles in vascular pathobiology and are all expressed in arterial lesions. The differential effects of TSP-1, -2, and -5 represent a gap in knowledge in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) physiology. Our objective is to determine if structural differences of the TSPs imparted different effects on VSMC functions critical to the formation of neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that TSP-1 and -2 induce similar patterns of migration, proliferation and gene expression, while the effects of TSP-5 are different. Methods: Human aortic VSMC chemotaxis was tested for TSP-2 and TSP-5 (1–40 μg/mL), and compared to TSP-1 and serum-free media (SFM) using a modified Boyden chamber. Next, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2 or TSP-5 (0.2–40 μg/mL). Proliferation was assessed by MTS assay. Finally, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-5 or SFM for 3, 6 or 24 h. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 96 genes using a microfluidic card. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or t-test, with p < 0.05 being significant. Results: TSP-1, TSP-2 and TSP-5 at 20 μg/mL all induce chemotaxis 3.1 fold compared to serum-free media. TSP-1 and TSP-2 induced proliferation 53% and 54% respectively, whereas TSP-5 did not. In the gene analysis, overall, cardiovascular system development and function is the canonical pathway most influenced by TSP treatment, and includes multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases implicated in cellular migration, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study indicate TSP-1, -2, and -5 play active roles in VSMC physiology and gene expression. Similarly to TSP-1, VSMC chemotaxis to TSP-2 and -5 is dose-dependent. TSP-1 and -2 induces VSMC proliferation, but TSP-5 does not, likely

  6. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Marcelo H.; Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine; Ellertsen, Ingvill; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Bäck, Magnus

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

  7. Vascular Smooth Muscle Sirtuin-1 Protects Against Aortic Dissection During Angiotensin II–Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jessica L; Shiraishi, Yasunaga; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yu, Xunjie; Gao, Yuan Z; Akiki, Rachid; Bachschmid, Markus; Zhang, Yanhang; Morgan, Kathleen G; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background Sirtuin-1 (SirT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+–dependent deacetylase, is a key enzyme in the cellular response to metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stresses; however, the role of endogenous SirT1 in the vasculature has not been fully elucidated. Our goal was to evaluate the role of vascular smooth muscle SirT1 in the physiological response of the aortic wall to angiotensin II, a potent hypertrophic, oxidant, and inflammatory stimulus. Methods and Results Mice lacking SirT1 in vascular smooth muscle (ie, smooth muscle SirT1 knockout) had drastically high mortality (70%) caused by aortic dissection after angiotensin II infusion (1 mg/kg per day) but not after an equipotent dose of norepinephrine, despite comparable blood pressure increases. Smooth muscle SirT1 knockout mice did not show any abnormal aortic morphology or blood pressure compared with wild-type littermates. Nonetheless, in response to angiotensin II, aortas from smooth muscle SirT1 knockout mice had severely disorganized elastic lamellae with frequent elastin breaks, increased oxidant production, and aortic stiffness compared with angiotensin II–treated wild-type mice. Matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity were increased in the aortas of angiotensin II–treated smooth muscle SirT1 knockout mice and were prevented in mice overexpressing SirT1 in vascular smooth muscle or with use of the oxidant scavenger tempol. Conclusions Endogenous SirT1 in aortic smooth muscle is required to maintain the structural integrity of the aortic wall in response to oxidant and inflammatory stimuli, at least in part, by suppressing oxidant-induced matrix metalloproteinase activity. SirT1 activators could potentially be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent aortic dissection and rupture in patients at risk, such as those with hypertension or genetic disorders, such as Marfan’s syndrome. PMID:26376991

  8. Internal carotid artery occlusion: association with atherosclerotic disease in other arterial beds and vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Liapis, Christos D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association between internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) and the presence of atherosclerotic disease and vascular risk factors. The clinical characteristics and risk factors of 120 patients presenting with ICAO were retrospectively reviewed. All patients (n = 120) had at least 1 of the 4 vascular risk factor (diabetes, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension); 2, 3, or all 4 risk factors were present in 14 to 82 of the patients (11.7% to 68.3%), 10 to 39 of the patients (8.3% to 32.5%), and 9 of the patients (7.5%), respectively. A total of 84 patients (70%) with ICAO had disease in at least 1 additional vascular bed (aorta, coronary or lower limb arteries). In addition to ICAO, vascular disease was present in 2 and all 3 of these arterial beds in 42 (35%) and 9 (7.5%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, stenosis or occlusion of the ipsilateral or contralateral vertebral arteries was recorded in 19 of 120 patients (15.8%). Regarding the contralateral carotid artery, 1 patient had bilateral ICAO. One patient had contralateral common carotid artery occlusion, and 1 patient was excluded from the analysis because of surgery to the contralateral carotid artery. Of the remaining 117 patients, 34 (29.0%) had less than 50% contralateral carotid artery stenosis. Thirty-two patients (27.4%) had 50% to 69%, and 51 (43.6%) had 70% to 99% stenosis. Ultrasonographic imaging of the carotid plaque of the contralateral carotid artery revealed that 52 of the 120 arteries (43.3%) were uniformly or predominantly echolucent (types I and II, respectively). Fifty-nine (49.2%) were predominantly or uniformly echogenic (types III and IV), and 9 (7.5%) could not be classified. A similar distribution of echomorphology was observed on the occluded side. ICAO is associated with widespread atherosclerotic disease and a high prevalence of vascular risk factors. Detection of ICAO should prompt the investigation of other arterial beds and

  9. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; P<0.05) at all examined time points (2 to 24 hours). mRNA half-life studies showed that this response was not due to increased mRNA instability. tPA mRNA expression was decreased (to 10% of stationary control; P<0.05) by low shear stress after 12 hours of exposure and was increased (to 250% of stationary control; P<0.05) after 24 hours at high shear stress. The same trends in PAR-1 mRNA levels were observed in rat smooth muscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  10. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; P<0.05) at all examined time points (2 to 24 hours). mRNA half-life studies showed that this response was not due to increased mRNA instability. tPA mRNA expression was decreased (to 10% of stationary control; P<0.05) by low shear stress after 12 hours of exposure and was increased (to 250% of stationary control; P<0.05) after 24 hours at high shear stress. The same trends in PAR-1 mRNA levels were observed in rat smooth muscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  11. The possible mechanisms of the antiproliferative effect of fullerenol, polyhydroxylated C60, on vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liang-Huei; Lee, Yuan-Teh; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chiang, Long Y; Huang, Huei-Chen

    1998-01-01

    The possible mechanisms of the antiproliferative effect of polyhydroxylated fullerene (fullerenol), a novel free radical trapper, were studied in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5 cells) and compared with the effect of ascorbic acid.Fullerenol-1 and ascorbic acid inhibited the proliferative responses in a number of cells, including rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5 cells), human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, and human CEM lymphocytes (CEM cells) in a concentration dependent manner.At the concentration range of 10−6 to 10−2 M, fullerenol-1 and ascorbic acid concentration-dependently inhibited the proliferative responses stimulated by serum in A7r5 cells. Fullerenol-1 was more potent than ascorbic acid.The production of O2− induced by alloxan, a diabetogenic compound, was reduced by fullerenol-1 (10−4 M) in the presence of A7r5 cells.The cytosolic protein kinase C activity of A7r5 cells stimulated by phorbol ester was reduced by 10−3 M fullerenol-1, but not ascorbic acid (10−4–10−2 M) and fullerenol-1 at lower concentrations (10−6–10−4 M).In contrast, the membraneous protein tyrosine kinase activity of A7r5 cells stimulated by foetal calf serum was significantly reduced by fullerenol-1 (10−6–10−3 M) and ascorbic acid (10−4–10−2 M). Again, the inhibitory activity of fullerenol-1 was greater than that of ascorbic acid.Our results demonstrate that fullerenol-1 and ascorbic acid exhibit inhibitory effects on transduction signals in addition to their antioxidative property. It is suggested that the antiproliferative effect of fullerenol-1 on vascular smooth muscle cells may partly be mediated through the inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase. PMID:9559892

  12. Inhibition of the Ca sup 2+ -ATPase of vascular smooth muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum by superoxide radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Ford, G.D. )

    1991-03-15

    The effect of oxygen free radicals generated by hypoxanthine plus xanthine oxidase on the Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum from bovine aortic smooth muscle were studied. Exogenous hypoxanthine plus xanthine oxidase produced an hypoxanthine concentration dependent inhibition of the Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase. The inhibition could be completely blocked by superoxide dismutase but not by either mannitol or deferoxamine. Direct addition of reagent hydrogen peroxide in the {mu}M range did not cause significant inhibition. These results suggest that superoxide is the primary damaging species. Additionally, 1.16 {plus minus} 0.17 mU/g wet wt of xanthine oxidase activity were detected in the post-nuclear supernatant of bovine aortic smooth muscle, suggesting the existence of a possible intracellular source of superoxide. This value was calculated to be approximately 5 mU/ml by using a usual value of vascular smooth muscle cellular volume. Thus the level of endogenous xanthine oxidase resident in vascular smooth muscle is comparable with the level of exogenous xanthine oxidase used in the present study. These findings suggest a potential role of xanthine oxidase-generated superoxide in free radical injury to vascular smooth muscle.

  13. Adipocytokines in Atherothrombosis: Focus on Platelets and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anfossi, Giovanni; Russo, Isabella; Doronzo, Gabriella; Pomero, Alice; Trovati, Mariella

    2010-01-01

    Visceral obesity is a relevant pathological condition closely associated with high risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease including myocardial infarction and stroke. The increased vascular risk is related also to peculiar dysfunction in the endocrine activity of adipose tissue responsible of vascular impairment (including endothelial dysfunction), prothrombotic tendency, and low-grade chronic inflammation. In particular, increased synthesis and release of different cytokines, including interleukins and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and adipokines—such as leptin—have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular events. Since vascular cell dysfunction plays a major role in the atherothrombotic complications in central obesity, this paper aims at focusing, in particular, on the relationship between platelets and vascular smooth muscle cells, and the impaired secretory pattern of adipose tissue. PMID:20652043

  14. Dual effect of initial [K] on vascular tone in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Brochet, Didier X P; Langton, Philip D

    2006-10-01

    A slight increase in extracellular concentration of potassium ([K(+)](o)) can act as a vasodilator in rat mesenteric vascular bed. However, in recent years, several groups have failed to consistently observe relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries in these conditions. The aim of the present study was to provide a mechanistic understanding of this discrepancy. In rat small mesenteric arteries, 37 of 40 arteries mounted for measurement of isometric force and pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE) did not relax when ([K(+)](o) was raised from 5.9 mM (control ([K(+)](o) to 11.2 or 21.2 mM. However, when ([K(+)](o) was briefly lowered to 1.2 mM, increasing ([K(+)](o) to between 5.9 and 41.2 mM evoked relaxation. This relaxation was not reduced by barium or by removal of the endothelium, but was abolished by 0.1 mM ouabain. Raising ([K(+)](o) from concentrations between 0 and 5.9 mM to 13.8 mM elicited a relaxation of PE-induced tone that was inversely proportional to initial ([K(+)](o). Relaxation was associated with a ouabain-sensitive hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells. In arteries exposed to dihydroouabain (DHO), raising ([K(+)](o) from 5.9 to 13.8 mM and simultaneously washing out DHO resulted in relaxation of PE-induced force. These results suggest that only when the initial ([K(+)](o) is less than approximately 5 mM do small elevations in ([K(+)](o) evoke smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation via activation of Na,K-ATPase, and not inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Therefore, small differences in the initial ([K(+)](o) (4.6 vs 5.9 mM) can strongly influence the variations of vascular tone to increases in ([K(+)](o).

  15. Cellular mechanism through which parathyroid hormone-related protein induces proliferation in arterial smooth muscle cells: definition of an arterial smooth muscle PTHrP/p27kip1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi-Taesch, Nathalie; Sicari, Brian M; Ubriani, Kiran; Bigatel, Todd; Takane, Karen K; Cozar-Castellano, Irene; Bisello, Alessandro; Law, Brian; Stewart, Andrew F

    2006-10-27

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is present in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), is markedly upregulated in response to arterial injury, is essential for normal VSM proliferation, and also markedly accentuates neointima formation following rat carotid angioplasty. PTHrP contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) through which it enters the nucleus and leads to marked increases in retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. Our goal was to define key cell cycle molecules upstream of pRb that mediate cell cycle acceleration induced by PTHrP. The cyclin D/cdk-4,-6 system and its upstream regulators, the inhibitory kinases (INKs), are not appreciably influenced by PTHrP. In striking contrast, cyclin E/cdk-2 kinase activity is markedly increased by PTHrP, and this is a result of a specific, marked, PTHrP-induced proteasomal degradation of p27(kip1). Adenoviral restoration of p27(kip1) fully reverses PTHrP-induced cell cycle progression, indicating that PTHrP mediates its cell cycle acceleration in VSM via p27(kip1). In confirmation, adenoviral delivery of PTHrP to murine primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) significantly decreases p27(kip1) expression and accelerates cell cycle progression. p27(kip1) is well known to be a central cell cycle regulatory molecule involved in both normal and pathological VSM proliferation and is a target of widely used drug-eluting stents. The current observations define a novel "PTHrP/p27(kip1) pathway" in the arterial wall and suggest that this pathway is important in normal arterial biology and a potential target for therapeutic manipulation of the arterial response to injury.

  16. Measuring T-Type Calcium Channel Currents in Isolated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Hill, Caryl E

    2017-01-01

    Patch clamp electrophysiology is a powerful tool that has been important in isolating and characterizing the ion channels that govern cellular excitability under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The ability to enzymatically dissociate blood vessels and acutely isolate vascular smooth muscle cells has enabled the application of patch clamp electrophysiology to the identification of diverse voltage dependent ion channels that ultimately control vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Since intraluminal pressure results in depolarization of vascular smooth muscle, the channels that control the voltage dependent influx of extracellular calcium are of particular interest. This chapter describes methods for isolating smooth muscle cells from resistance vessels, and for recording, isolating, and characterizing voltage dependent calcium channel currents, using patch clamp electrophysiological and pharmacological protocols.

  17. Targeted gene transfection from microbubbles into vascular smooth muscle cells using focused, ultrasound-mediated delivery

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Linsey C.; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Wamhoff, Brian R.; Hossack, John A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a method for gene delivery to vascular smooth muscle cells using ultrasound triggered delivery of plasmid DNA from electrostatically coupled cationic microbubbles. Microbubbles carrying reporter plasmid DNA were acoustically ruptured in the vicinity of smooth muscle cells in vitro under a range of acoustic pressures (0–950 kPa) and pulse durations (0–100 cycles). No effect on gene transfection or viability was observed from application of microbubbles, DNA, or ultrasound alone. Microbubbles in combination with ultrasound (500 kPa, 1MHz, 50 cycle bursts at a Pulse Repetition Frequency [PRF] of 100 Hz) significantly reduced viability both with DNA (53 +/− 27%) and without (19 +/− 8%). Maximal gene transfection (~1% of cells) occurred using 50 cycle, 1 MHz pulses at 300 kPa which resulted in 40% viability of cells. We demonstrated that we can locally deliver DNA to vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro using microbubble carriers and focused ultrasound. PMID:20800174

  18. Development of vascular smooth muscle contractility by endothelium-derived transforming growth factor β proteins.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Chiwaka; Konishi, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Maki; Oike, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that the release of vasodilators and vasoconstrictors from vascular endothelium regulates vascular smooth muscle contraction. In this report, we investigate the role of the endothelium in the development and maintenance of constitutive vascular contractility. For that purpose, contractile activity of cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) embedded in collagen gels was monitored by changes in gel diameter. After culturing for 5 days, ATP- and high KCl solution-induced contractions were significantly enhanced in the gels that were overlaid with bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) or were cultured with conditioned medium of cultured BAECs. ATP-induced Ca(2+) transients, recorded in BASMCs cultured with conditioned medium of BAECs, were markedly augmented, but high KCl-induced Ca(2+) transients were not affected. BASMCs in control gels were spindle shaped, and those in endothelium-treated gels were more elongated and interconnected. The endothelial conditioned medium also strongly affected the intracellular distribution of actin fibers. Conditioned medium of BAECs contained TGFβ1 and TGFβ2. The TGFβ receptor antagonist SB431542 as well as simultaneous treatment with TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 neutralizing antibodies completely reversed the above effects of endothelial conditioned medium on BASMCs. BAECs medium induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and increased ATP-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain in BASMCs. The present results indicate that the release of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 from vascular endothelium affects the contractility of vascular smooth muscle cells by altering their morphology and agonist-induced Ca(2+) mobilization.

  19. Statins inhibited erythropoietin-induced proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Tae; Tsuruoka, Shuichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2010-12-15

    Erythropoietin (EPO) directly stimulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and this is believed to be one of the mechanisms of vascular access failure of hemodialysis patients. However, precise mechanisms of the EPO-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells are not certain. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are primarily used to reduce cholesterol levels, but also exert other effects, including reno-protective effects. We evaluated the effect of several statins with various hydrophilicities on the EPO-induced proliferation of primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. EPO significantly and concentration-dependently increased DNA synthesis as assessed by [³H]thymidine incorporation, cell proliferation as assessed by WST-1 assay, and activation of the p44/42MAPK pathway. Therapeutic doses of statins (pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin and fluvastatin) in patients with hypercholesterolemia almost completely suppressed all of the EPO-induced effects in a concentration-dependent manner. Co-addition of mevalonic acid almost completely reversed the effects of statins. Statin alone did not affect the basal proliferation capacity of the cells. The effects were almost similar among the statins. We concluded that statins inhibited EPO-induced proliferation in rat VSMCs at least partly through their inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. In the future, statins might prove useful for the treatment of EPO-induced hyperplasia of vascular access. Because the statins all showed comparable effects irrespective of their hydrophilicities, these effects might be a class effect.

  20. Vascular nanomedicine: Site specific delivery of elastin stabilizing therapeutics to damaged arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Aditi

    Elastin, a structural protein in the extra-cellular matrix, plays a critical role in the normal functioning of blood vessels. Apart from performing its primary function of providing resilience to arteries, it also plays major role in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, response to injury, and morphogenesis. Medial arterial calcification (MAC) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are two diseases where the structural and functional integrity of elastin is severely compromised. Although the clinical presentation of MAC and AAA differ, they have one common underlying causative mechanism---pathological degradation of elastin. Hence prevention of elastin degradation in the early stages of MAC and AAA can mitigate, partially if not wholly, the fatal consequences of both the diseases. The work presented here is motivated by the overwhelming statistics of people afflicted by elastin associated cardiovascular diseases and the unavailability of cure for the same. Overall goal of our research is to understand role of elastin degradation in cardiovascular diseases and to develop a targeted vascular drug delivery system that is minimally invasive, biodegradable, and non-toxic, that prevents elastin from degradation. Our hope is that such treatment will also help regenerate elastin, thereby providing a multi-fold treatment option for elasto-degenerative vascular diseases. For this purpose, we have first confirmed the combined role of degraded elastin and hyperglycemia in the pathogenesis of MAC. We have shown that in the absence of degraded elastin and TGF-beta1 (abundantly present in diabetic arteries) vascular smooth muscle cells maintain their homeostatic state, regardless of environmental glucose concentrations. However simultaneous exposure to glucose, elastin peptides and TGF-beta1 causes the pathological transgenesis of vascular cells to osteoblast-like cells. We show that plant derived polyphenols bind to vascular elastin with great affinity resulting in

  1. Signalling pathways activated by 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptors in native smooth muscle and primary cultures of rabbit renal artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J M; Hill, P; Jeremy, J; Garland, C

    2000-01-01

    The potential of primary cultures of rabbit renal artery vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was assessed as a means to investigate the signalling pathways linked to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptors in native arteries. In renal artery segments denuded of endothelium, incubated with ketanserin and prazosin (each 1 microM), and prestimulated with 20 mM K(+) Krebs buffer, 5-HT and CP 93,129, a 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, evoked concentration-dependent contractions. GR 127935, a 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist, significantly antagonised 5-HT-evoked contractions at nanomolar concentrations. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mRNA from smooth muscle cells from the isolated renal artery and from primary cultures of VSMCs from the same artery expressed mRNA transcripts for the 5-HT(1B) receptor and the 5-HT(1D) receptor in both preparations. The sequence of the PCR fragments corresponded to the known sequence for these receptors. Application of 5-HT evoked a concentration-dependent, pertussis toxin (PTx)-sensitive reduction in cyclic AMP in both cultured cells and intact artery (cyclic AMP concentration reduced by 65.53 +/- 3.33 and 52.65 +/- 5.34% from basal with 10 microM 5-HT, respectively). The effect of 10 microM 5-HT on cAMP was increased in the presence of 20 mM K(+) (reduced by 82.50 +/- 2.50 and 87.54 +/- 3.97%, respectively). In intact arteries, contraction through 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptors was significantly attenuated by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (wortmannin) and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MEK (U0126). In the cultured VSMCs, activated MAPK was identified by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting after stimulation with 5-HT, but only if 20 mM K(+) was present at the onset of stimulation. These data provide the first direct evidence that 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1B) receptors are linked to the activation of MAPK and indicate that primary cultures of renal VSMCs could provide a

  2. Calcium uptake in vascular smooth muscle during exposure to NE

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.L.

    1986-03-05

    Calcium uptakes were determined in canine mesenteric and ulnar arteries and in rabbit abdominal aortas. All vessels were excised, cut into 1 mm rings, mounted at near in-situ circumferences on stainless steel holders, and run in triplicate. Calcium uptakes were carried out in HEPES-buffered PSS using /sup 45/Ca 5 sec uptake durations. Uptakes were quenched in 5 mM EGTA-O-Ca-PSS at 1-2/sup 0/C. Tissues were weighed and leached with 10 mM EDTA before counting with a liquid scintillation counter. Calcium uptakes were obtained first at resting conditions and then at successive 5 sec intervals throughout 90 sec exposure periods to various concentrations of NE. Resting Ca uptakes ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 nanomoles/sec/g tissue (wet). Peak Ca uptakes during exposure to 10/sup -5/M NE ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 nanomoles/sec/g tissue. Increases in rates of uptake occurred early in the exposure period to NE (within 5-10 sec) and did not appear to be associated only with the tonic phase of the response. These data provide evidence that increased Ca uptake by the cells occurs early in the response to NE. They also indicate that short-term Ca uptake determinations (5 sec) provide reliable estimates of calcium uptake occurring throughout the NE-induced contractile response.

  3. Adrenal Androgen Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Inhibits Vascular Remodeling Following Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ii, Masaaki; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Negoro, Nobuyuki; Fukui, Ryosuke; Nakakoji, Takahiro; Kohbayashi, Eiko; Shibata, Nobuhiko; Furutama, Daisuke; Ishihara, Tadashi; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Losordo, Douglas W.; Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels have a significant inverse correlation with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. However, direct evidence for the association with DHEAS and vascular disorders has not yet been explored. DHEAS significantly reduced neointima formation 28 days after surgery without altering other serum metabolite levels in a rabbit carotid balloon injury model. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and increase of TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) index, expressing differentiated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) markers in the media 7 days after surgery. In vitro, DHEAS exhibited inhibitory effects on VSMC proliferation and migration activities, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest with upregulation of one of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p16INK4a and apoptosis with activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α in VSMCs. DHEAS inhibits vascular remodeling reducing neointima formation after vascular injury via its effects on VSMC phenotypic modulation, functions and apoptosis upregulating p16INK4a/activating PPARα. DHEAS may play a pathophysiological role for vascular remodeling in cardiovascular disease. PMID:19298964

  4. Endothelial cells are progenitors of cardiac pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Adams, Susanne; Eilken, Hanna; Stehling, Martin; Corada, Monica; Dejana, Elisabetta; Zhou, Bin; Adams, Ralf H.

    2016-01-01

    Mural cells of the vessel wall, namely pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, are essential for vascular integrity. The developmental sources of these cells and molecular mechanisms controlling their progenitors in the heart are only partially understood. Here we show that endocardial endothelial cells are progenitors of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in the murine embryonic heart. Endocardial cells undergo endothelial–mesenchymal transition and convert into primitive mesenchymal progenitors expressing the platelet-derived growth factor receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ. These progenitors migrate into the myocardium, differentiate and assemble the wall of coronary vessels, which requires canonical Wnt signalling involving Frizzled4, β-catenin and endothelial cell-derived Wnt ligands. Our findings identify a novel and unexpected population of progenitors for coronary mural cells with potential relevance for heart function and disease conditions. PMID:27516371

  5. Distribution of a lanthanide (147 Pm) in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Weiss, G B; Goodman, F R

    1976-08-01

    In order to ascertain whether trivalent rare earth ions such as lanthanum (La+++) penetrate the cell membrane under physiological conditions, the extracellular and cellular distribution of promethium (147 Pm), a carrier-free rare earth radioisotope, was examined in rabbit aortic smooth muscle. As the duration of incubation was lengthened, uptake of 147Pm continued to increase; it was inhibited by La+++ and other rare earth ions (Nd+++, Lu+++) only when the 147 Pm/rare earth concentration ratio exceeded 1:10(6). However, equally high concentrations of Ca++ had no effect on 147Pm uptake. Efflux of 147Pm was only transiently increased by 1.5 mM La+++, and exposure to 0.05 mM EDTA elicited an increased 147Pm efflux with both transient and maintained components. The magnitude of the EDTA-induced increase in 147 Pm efflux was similar over a 30-fold range of EDTA concentration (0.05-1.5 mM); the limiting factor for 147Pm efflux is the rate of 147Pm desorption from the tissue rather than the extracellular concentration of EDTA. Loss of 147Pm in the presence of 0.05 mM EDTA could be described in terms of two specific washout components (the more rapid of which included 147Pm within the extracellular space and the slower of which had half-times of washout of approximately 7-10 minutes). Uptake of 147Pm was inhibited by lowering the incubation solution temperature to 0 degrees C or by procaine. However, concentrations of metabolic inhibitors (iodoacetate and dinitrophenol) which diminish loss of Ca++ from the cell did not decrease either the uptake or efflux of 147Pm. Thus, significant quantities of 147Pm do not appear to be accumulated within the cell or transported out of the cell; distribution of 147Pm can be most simply described in terms of a binding at and desorption from surface acessible fiber sites.

  6. Alteration of Contractile Function and Calcium Ion Movements in Vascular Smooth Muscle by Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Adams, H. Richard; Goodman, Frank R.; Weiss, George B.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of certain aminoglycoside antibiotics on contractile responses and related calcium ion (Ca2+) movements in isolated vascular smooth muscle. Gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin decreased contractile responses produced by norepinephrine, histamine, and high K+ in rabbit aortic strips. The inhibitory action of these antibiotics on mechanical function was more pronounced when the Ca2+ concentration of the bathing solution was decreased from 1.5 mM (normal Ca2+ solution) to 0.05 mM (low Ca2+ solution). The uptake of radiocalcium (45Ca) into the isolated media-intimal layer of rabbit aortae was decreased in a maintained manner by each antibiotic. With gentamicin, the inhibitory effect on 45Ca uptake was shown to be dependent upon the concentration of gentamicin employed and to be more evident in a 0.1 mM Ca2+ solution than in a normal Ca2+ solution. In addition, the rate of 45Ca efflux from the rabbit aortic media-intimal layer was increased in a sustained manner by gentamicin, streptomycin, and kanamycin. Furthermore, contractile responses induced by high K+ and norepinephrine in canine carotid arterial strips were inhibited by gentamicin. Present findings indicate that aminoglycoside antibiotics interfere with Ca2+-linked events leading to activation of the contractile mechanism of vascular smooth muscle. These in vitro findings may partially explain the occurrence of in vivo cardiovascular depression that has occasionally been observed after the administration of chemically related antimicrobial agents. PMID:15825418

  7. MiR-21 inhibits c-Ski signaling to promote the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Li; He, Xie; Yang, Ting; Yang, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we reported that the decrease of endogenous c-Ski expression is implicated in the progression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation after arterial injury. However, the molecular mechanism of the down-regulation of c-Ski is not clear. In this study, a potential miR-21 recognition element was identified in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of rat c-Ski mRNA. A reporter assay revealed that miR-21 could recognize the miR-21 recognition element of c-Ski mRNA. In A10 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, overexpression of miR-21 significantly inhibited the expression of c-Ski protein and promoted cell proliferation, which could be blocked by inhibition of miR-21 or overexpression of c-Ski. Further investigation demonstrated that the effect of miR-21 on VSMC proliferation resulted from negative regulation of c-Ski to suppress p38-p21/p27 signaling, the downstream pathway of c-Ski in VSMCs. These results indicate that c-Ski is a target gene of miR-21. miR-21 specifically binds to the 3'-untranslated region of c-Ski and negatively regulates c-Ski expression to diminish the protective effects of c-Ski and stimulate VSMC proliferation in the progression of arterial injury.

  8. Phosphate binders prevent phosphate-induced cellular senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular calcification in a modified, adenine-based uremic rat model.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Tatsumoto, N; Tokumoto, M; Noguchi, H; Ooboshi, H; Kitazono, T; Tsuruya, K

    2015-04-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have reported that phosphate overload plays a central role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. However, it remains undetermined whether phosphate induces cellular senescence during vascular calcification. We established a modified uremic rat model induced by a diet containing 0.3% adenine that showed more slowly progressive kidney failure, more robust vascular calcification, and longer survival than the conventional model (0.75% adenine). To determine the effect of phosphate on senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the protective effect of phosphate binders, rats were divided into four groups: (1) normal control rats; (2) rats fed with the modified adenine-based diet (CKD); (3) CKD rats treated with 6% lanthanum carbonate (CKD-LaC); and (4) CKD rats treated with 6% calcium carbonate (CKD-CaC). After 8 weeks, CKD rats showed circumferential arterial medial calcification, which was inhibited in CKD-LaC and CKD-CaC rats. CKD rats showed increased protein expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, bone-related proteins, p16 and p21, and increased oxidative stress levels in the calcified area, which were inhibited by both phosphate binders. However, serum levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, serum fibroblast growth factor 23, and aortic calcium content in CKD-CaC rats were higher than those in CKD-LaC rats. In conclusion, phosphate induces cellular senescence of VSMCs in the modified uremic rat model, and phosphate binders can prevent both cellular senescence and calcification of VSMCs via phosphate unloading. Our modified adenine-based uremic rat model is useful for evaluating uremia-related complications, including vascular calcification.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote eNOS expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and suppress hypoxia-induced cell growth.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoling; Feng, Lan; Huang, Xiaoyong; Yang, Yidong; Yang, Chengzhong; Gao, Yuqi

    2017-03-07

    Hypoxia stimulates excessive growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributing to vascular remodelling. Recent studies have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) suppress VSMC proliferation and activate eNOS expression. However, the effects of HDI on hypoxia-induced VSMC growth and the role of activated eNOS in VSMCs are unclear. Using an EdU incorporation assay and flow cytometry analysis, we found that the HDIs, butyrate (Bur) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) significantly suppressed the proliferation of hypoxic VSMC lines and induced apoptosis. Remarkable induction of cleaved caspase 3, p21 expression and reduction of PCNA expression were also observed. Increased eNOS expression and enhanced NO secretion by hypoxic VSMC lines were detected using Bur or SAHA treatment. Knockdown of eNOS by siRNA transfection or exposure of hypoxic VSMCs to NO scavengers weakened the effects of Bur and SAHA on the growth of hypoxic VSMCs. In animal experiments, administration of Bur to Wistar rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 28 days ameliorated the thickness and collagen deposition in pulmonary artery walls. Although the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was not obviously decreased with Bur in hypoxic rats, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI) was decreased and the oxygen partial pressure of arterial blood was elevated. Furthermore, cell viability was decreased and eNOS and cleaved caspase 3 were induced in HDI-treated rat pulmonary arterial SMCs. These findings imply that HDIs prevent hypoxia-induced VSMC growth, in correlation with activated eNOS expression and activity in hypoxic VSMCs.

  10. Coronary Artery Disease Associated Transcription Factor TCF21 Regulates Smooth Muscle Precursor Cells That Contribute to the Fibrous Cap

    PubMed Central

    Raiesdana, Azad; Kundu, Ramendra; Miller, Clint L.; Kim, Juyong B.; Arora, Komal; Carcamo-Oribe, Ivan; Xiong, Yiqin; Tellakula, Nikhil; Nanda, Vivek; Murthy, Nikitha; Boisvert, William A.; Hedin, Ulf; Perisic, Ljubica; Aldi, Silvia; Maegdefessel, Lars; Pjanic, Milos; Owens, Gary K.; Tallquist, Michelle D.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome wide association studies have identified a number of genes that contribute to the risk for coronary heart disease. One such gene, TCF21, encodes a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor believed to serve a critical role in the development of epicardial progenitor cells that give rise to coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) and cardiac fibroblasts. Using reporter gene and immunolocalization studies with mouse and human tissues we have found that vascular TCF21 expression in the adult is restricted primarily to adventitial cells associated with coronary arteries and also medial SMC in the proximal aorta of mouse. Genome wide RNA-Seq studies in human coronary artery SMC (HCASMC) with siRNA knockdown found a number of putative TCF21 downstream pathways identified by enrichment of terms related to CAD, including “vascular disease,” “disorder of artery,” and “occlusion of artery,” as well as disease-related cellular functions including “cellular movement” and “cellular growth and proliferation.” In vitro studies in HCASMC demonstrated that TCF21 expression promotes proliferation and migration and inhibits SMC lineage marker expression. Detailed in situ expression studies with reporter gene and lineage tracing revealed that vascular wall cells expressing Tcf21 before disease initiation migrate into vascular lesions of ApoE-/- and Ldlr-/- mice. While Tcf21 lineage traced cells are distributed throughout the early lesions, in mature lesions they contribute to the formation of a subcapsular layer of cells, and others become associated with the fibrous cap. The lineage traced fibrous cap cells activate expression of SMC markers and growth factor receptor genes. Taken together, these data suggest that TCF21 may have a role regulating the differentiation state of SMC precursor cells that migrate into vascular lesions and contribute to the fibrous cap and more broadly, in view of the association of this gene with human CAD, provide

  11. Osteopontin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hironori; Honda, Hirokazu; Inada, Yoshifumi; Kato, Noriyuki; Kato, Kenichi; Kitazawa, Kozo; Sugisaki, Tetsuzo

    2006-06-01

    beta-glycerophosphate, a phosphate donor, and uremic sera induce osteopontin (OPN) expression in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the correlations of serum phosphorus level with OPN expression, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level with OPN expression in humans have not previously been reported. The purpose of the current study is to compare the expression of OPN in VSMCs with clinical data in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The radial arteries of 33 patients (21 male and 12 female patients) were examined to determine the expression of OPN and collagen type I (Col I) by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of the expression of bone matrix proteins with clinical data was analyzed. Between the low-serum phosphorus (<6 mg/dL) group and high-serum phosphorus (> or =6 mg/dL) group, significant differences were detected in the expression of OPN (P = 0.0049) and the levels of BUN (P = 0.0005), serum phosphorus (P < 0.0001) and calcium x phosphorus products (P < 0.0001). Moreover, between the low-BUN (<70 mg/dL, N = 19) group and high-BUN (> or =70 mg/dL) group, significant differences were detected in the expression of OPN (P = 0.0039) and the levels of BUN (P = 0.0002), serum phosphorus (P = 0.0002) and calcium x phosphorus products (P = 0.0003). We have shown that hyperphosphatemia or azotemia is associated with the expression of OPN in VSMCs in patients with ESRD.

  12. TLR4-Activated MAPK-IL-6 Axis Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guan-Lin; Wu, Jing-Yiing; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Fu; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Kuo, Cheng-Chin

    2016-08-24

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima is considered to be a vital event in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Despite substantial evidence supporting the pathogenic role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of atherogenesis, its function in the regulation of VSMC migration remains unclear. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which TLR4 regulates VSMC migration. Inhibitor experiments revealed that TLR4-induced IL-6 secretion and VSMC migration were mediated via the concerted actions of MyD88 and TRIF on the activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling. Neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibodies abrogated TLR4-driven VSMC migration and F-actin polymerization. Blockade of p38 MAPK or ERK1/2 signaling cascade inhibited TLR4 agonist-mediated activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Moreover, siRNA-mediated suppression of CREB production repressed TLR4-induced IL-6 production and VSMC migration. Rac-1 inhibitor suppressed TLR4-driven VSMC migration but not IL-6 production. Importantly, the serum level of IL-6 and TLR4 endogenous ligand HMGB1 was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) than in healthy subjects. Serum HMGB1 level was positively correlated with serum IL-6 level in CAD patients. The expression of both HMGB1 and IL-6 was clearly detected in the atherosclerotic tissue of the CAD patients. Additionally, there was a positive association between p-CREB and HMGB1 in mouse atherosclerotic tissue. Based on our findings, we concluded that, upon ligand binding, TLR4 activates p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling through MyD88 and TRIF in VSMCs. These signaling pathways subsequently coordinate an additive augmentation of CREB-driven IL-6 production, which in turn triggers Rac-1-mediated actin cytoskeleton to promote VSMC migration.

  13. Drug packaging and delivery using perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for targeted inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhao-xiong; Zhang, Bai-gen; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Xiao-zhong; Hu, Ya-li; Sun, Li; Wang, Xiao-min; Zhang, Ji-wei

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the in vitro release profile of drugs encapsulated within perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles (NPs) and their ability to inhibit the activity of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Methods: Dexamethasone phosphate (DxP) or dexamethasone acetate (DxA) was encapsulated into PFC nanoparticles using a high-pressure homogenous method. The morphology and size of the NPs were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a laser particle size analyzer. Drug loading and in vitro release were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The impact of NP capsules on SMC proliferation, migration and apoptosis in vitro was assessed using cell counting kit-8, transwell cell migration and flow cytometry assays. Results: The sizes of DxP-NPs and DxA-NPs were 224±6 nm and 236±9 nm, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DxP-NPs was 66.4%±1.0%, with an initial release rate of 77.2%, whereas the EE of DxA-NPs was 95.3%±1.3%, with an initial release rate of 23.6%. Both of the NP-coated drugs could be released over 7 d. Human umbilical artery SMCs were harvested and cultured for four to six passages. Compared to free DxP, SMCs treated with tissue factor (TF)-directed DxP-NPs showed significant differences in the inhibition of proliferation, migration and apoptosis (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results collectively suggest that PFC nanoparticles will be beneficial for targeted drug delivery because of the sustained drug release and effective inhibition of SMC proliferation and migration. PMID:19890365

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor 12 Is a Novel Regulator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Plasticity and Fate.

    PubMed

    Song, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Kyungjong; Jo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Young-Wook; Kwon, Jin-Sook; Bae, Sun Sik; Sung, Jong-Hyuk; Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Jee Taek; Suh, Wonhee

    2016-09-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) modulate their phenotype between synthetic and contractile states in response to environmental changes; this modulation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of restenosis and atherosclerosis. Here, we identified fibroblast growth factor 12 (FGF12) as a novel key regulator of the VSMC phenotype switch. Using murine models and human specimens, we found that FGF12 was highly expressed in contractile VSMCs of normal vessel walls but was downregulated in synthetic VSMCs from injured and atherosclerotic vessels. In human VSMCs, FGF12 expression was inhibited at the transcriptional level by platelet-derived growth factor-BB. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that FGF12 was both necessary and sufficient for inducing and maintaining the quiescent and contractile phenotypes of VSMCs. FGF12 inhibited cell proliferation through the p53 pathway and upregulated the key factors involved in VSMC lineage differentiation, such as myocardin and serum response factor. Such FGF12-induced phenotypic change was mediated by the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. Moreover, FGF12 promoted the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and the transdifferentiation of human dermal fibroblasts into SMC-like cells. Furthermore, adenoviral infection of FGF12 substantially decreased neointima hyperplasia in a rat carotid artery injury model. In general, FGF family members induce a synthetic VSMC phenotype. Interestingly, the present study showed the unanticipated finding that FGF12 belonging to FGF family, strongly induced the quiescent and contractile VSMC phenotypes and directly promoted VSMC lineage differentiation. These novel findings suggested that FGF12 could be a new therapeutic target for treating restenosis and atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2012-09-07

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 μM) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-κB activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Inhibiting AMPK and PTEN restored ROS levels stimulated with TNF-α. Taken together, PTEN could be a possible downstream regulator of AMPK, and the AMPK-PTEN pathway might be important in the regulation of the inflammatory response in VSMCs.

  16. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits L-type calcium channels in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Collazo, Julio; Alonso-Carbajo, Lucía; López-Medina, Ana I; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Tajada, Sendoa; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; López-López, José Ramón; Talavera, Karel; Pérez-García, María Teresa; Alvarez, Julio L

    2014-11-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CA), a major component of cinnamon, is known to have important actions in the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and decrease in blood pressure. Although CA-induced activation of the chemosensory cation channel TRPA1 seems to be involved in these phenomena, it has been shown that genetic ablation of Trpa1 is insufficient to abolish CA effects. Here, we confirm that CA relaxes rat aortic rings and report that it has negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on isolated mouse hearts. Considering the major role of L-type Ca(2+) channels in the control of the vascular tone and cardiac contraction, we used whole-cell patch-clamp to test whether CA affects L-type Ca(2+) currents in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCM, with Ca(2+) as charge carrier) and in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (VSMC, with Ba(2+) as charge carrier). We found that CA inhibited L-type currents in both cell types in a concentration-dependent manner, with little voltage-dependent effects. However, CA was more potent in VCM than in VSMC and caused opposite effects on the rate of inactivation. We found these divergences to be at least in part due to the use of different charge carriers. We conclude that CA inhibits L-type Ca(2+) channels and that this effect may contribute to its vasorelaxing action. Importantly, our results demonstrate that TRPA1 is not a specific target of CA and indicate that the inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels should be taken into account when using CA to probe the pathophysiological roles of TRPA1.

  17. Kindlin-2 siRNA inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and intimal hyperplasia via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Liu, Wenwei; Jiang, Hong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jichun; Zhu, Rui; Li, Bin

    2016-02-01

    It is known that vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration leads to intimal hyperplasia in cases of atherosclerosis and restenosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of kindlin-2 on VSMC proliferation, migration and intimal hyperplasia, and the underlying mechanisms. The left common carotid artery of Sprague‑Dawley rats were subjected to balloon injury in order to induce intimal hyperplasia, and then transfected with kindlin-2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) lentivirus or negative control siRNA lentivirus. We noted that the degree of intimal hyperplasia 4 weeks after balloon injury was significantly reduced in arteries transfected with kindlin-2 siRNA lentivirus (P<0.05). In vitro, kindlin-2 siRNA suppressed VSMC proliferation and migration induced by Wnt3a (100 ng/ml). Western blot analyses and RT-qPCR revealed that kindlin-2 regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and thereby modulated the expression of β-catenin target genes, including c-myc and cyclin D1. This study demonstrated that kindlin-2 plays a critical role in VSMC proliferation, migration and intimal hyperplasia via Wnt signaling. Therefore, blocking the activity of kindlin-2 represents a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular injury.

  18. Effects of an artery/vascular graft compliance mismatch on protein transport: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sandy F C; Lyman, Donald J

    2004-07-01

    Small-diameter vascular graft failure by intimal hyperplasia and thrombosis may result from flow disturbances and disruption of chemical transport in the fluid at the distal anastomosis, because of compliance mismatch between the graft and host artery. In previous studies. lower-than-normal wall shear stress (WSS), particle trapping, and high particle residence times were observed at the distal anastomosis due to a pulsatile tubular expansion effect caused by nonuniform radial deformations. This study was undertaken to examine effects of compliance and radius mismatch on the distribution of a model protein released at the graft-fluid interface. Finite element simulations of end-to-end vascular grafting were performed under pulsatile flow, using fluid-structure coupling to give physiologic wall displacements. Results showed that protein is convected smoothly downstream in a uniform compliant tube. A compliance mismatch disturbed the transport, causing positive and negative gradients in the concentration profile at the distal anastomosis. This was seen when the graft and artery radii were matched at zero pressure and at mean arterial pressure; low WSSs were only observed in the former case. Thus the distal intimal hypertrophy seen in noncompliant grafts may be caused partly by decreased WSS, and partly by concentration gradients of dissolved chemicals affecting chemotaxis of cells.

  19. Uteroplacental insufficiency and lactational environment separately influence arterial stiffness and vascular function in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tare, Marianne; Parkington, Helena C; Bubb, Kristen J; Wlodek, Mary E

    2012-08-01

    Early life environmental influences can have lifelong consequences for health, including the risk of cardiovascular disease. Uteroplacental insufficiency causes fetal undernutrition and impairs fetal growth. Previously we have shown that uteroplacental insufficiency is associated with impaired maternal mammary development, compromising postnatal growth leading to hypertension in male rat offspring. In this study we investigated the roles of prenatal and postnatal nutritional environments on endothelial and smooth muscle reactivity and passive wall stiffness of resistance arteries of male rat offspring. Fetal growth restriction was induced by maternal bilateral uterine vessel ligation (restricted) on day 18 of pregnancy. Control offspring were from mothers that had sham surgery (control) and another group from mothers with their litter size reduced (reduced; litter size reduced to 5 at birth, equivalent to the restricted group). On postnatal day 1, offspring (control, restricted, and reduced) were cross-fostered onto control or restricted mothers. At 6 months, mesenteric and femoral arteries were studied using wire and pressure myography. In restricted-on-restricted rats, wall stiffness was increased, and sensitivity to phenylephrine and relaxation evoked by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and sodium nitroprusside were impaired in mesenteric arteries. In femoral arteries, relaxation to sodium nitroprusside was reduced, whereas wall stiffness was unaltered. Cross-fostering restricted offspring onto control mothers alleviated deficits in vascular stiffness and reactivity. Control or reduced offspring who suckled a restricted mother had marked vascular stiffening. In conclusion, prenatal and early postnatal environments separately influence vascular function and stiffness. Furthermore, the early postnatal lactational environment is a determinant of later cardiovascular function.

  20. Orai channel-mediated Ca2+ signals in vascular and airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Orai (Orai1, Orai2, and Orai3) proteins form a family of highly Ca2+-selective plasma membrane channels that are regulated by stromal-interacting molecules (STIM1 and STIM2); STIM proteins are Ca2+ sensors located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. STIM and Orai proteins are expressed in vascular and airway smooth muscle and constitute the molecular components of the ubiquitous store-operated Ca2+ entry pathway that mediate the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current. STIM/Orai proteins also encode store-independent Ca2+ entry pathways in smooth muscle. Altered expression and function of STIM/Orai proteins have been linked to vascular and airway pathologies, including restenosis, hypertension, and atopic asthma. In this review we discuss our current understanding of Orai proteins and the store-dependent and -independent signaling pathways mediated by these proteins in vascular and airway smooth muscle. We also discuss the current studies linking altered expression and function of Orai proteins with smooth muscle-related pathologies. PMID:26718630

  1. Decreased vascular smooth muscle cell density in medial degeneration of human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    López-Candales, A.; Holmes, D. R.; Liao, S.; Scott, M. J.; Wickline, S. A.; Thompson, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by structural deterioration of the aortic wall leading to progressive aortic dilatation and eventual rupture. The histopathological changes in AAAs are particularly evident within the elastic media, which is normally dominated by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To determine whether a decrease in vascular SMCs contributes to medial degeneration, we measured SMC density in 21 normal and pathological human abdominal aortic tissue specimens using immunohistochemistry for alpha-SMC actin and direct cell counts (medial SMCs per high-power field (HPF)). Medial SMC density was not significantly different between normal aorta (n = 5; 199.5 +/- 14.9 SMCs/HPF) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (n = 6; 176.4 +/- 13.9 SMCs/HPF), but it was reduced by 74% in AAA (n = 10; 50.9 +/- 6.1 SMCs/HPF; P < 0.01 versus normal aorta). Light and electron microscopy revealed no evidence of overt cellular necrosis, but SMCs in AAAs exhibited ultrastructural changes consistent with apoptosis. Using in situ end-labeling (ISEL) of fragmented DNA to detect apoptotic cells, up to 30% of aortic wall cells were ISEL positive in AAAs. By double-labeling techniques, many of these cells were alpha-actin-positive SMCs distributed throughout the degenerative media. In contrast, ISEL-positive cells were observed only within the intimal plaque in atherosclerotic occlusive disease. The amount of p53 protein detected by immunoblotting was increased nearly fourfold in AAA compared with normal aorta and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (P < 0.01), and immunoreactive p53 was localized to lymphocytes and residual SMCs in the aneurysm wall. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays a substantial amount of p53 mRNA expression was observed in AAAs. These results demonstrate that medial SMC density is significantly decreased in human AAA tissues associated with evidence of SMC apoptosis and increased production of p53, a potential

  2. Galectin‑3 induces the phenotype transformation of human vascular smooth muscle cells via the canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Chen, Kan; Cao, Jiatian; Han, Zhihua; Wang, Yue; Gao, Lin; Fan, Yuqi; Wang, Changqian

    2017-06-01

    Galectin‑3, a galactoside‑binding protein, is highly expressed in carotid plaques and plays an important role in the atherosclerotic lesions. The phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells is the basic pathological change of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the effects of exogenous galectin‑3 on the function and phenotype transformation of human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells (HUSMC). In this study, we treated vascular smooth muscle cells with recombinant galectin‑3 and tested its effect on cell proliferation, migration, and phenotype transformation. Our results showed that exogenous galectin‑3 promoted human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells (HUSMC) proliferation and migration. Exogenous galectin‑3 enhanced the expression of the smooth muscle synthetic protein osteopontin, smooth muscle contractile proteins calponin and smooth muscle α‑actin. The galectin‑3‑induced change in cell phenotype was associated with the activation of canonical Wnt signaling, as measured by β‑catenin axin2 and cyclin D1 expression. β‑catenin inhibition by small interfering RNA reduced cell proliferation, decreased cell motility, and blocked galectin‑3‑induced phenotype transformation of human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells (HUSMC). Our data suggest galectin‑3 promotes the phenotype transformation of human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells (HUSMC) by activating Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway.

  3. Cigarette smoke extract stimulates rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation via PKC-PDGFB signaling.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ai-ping; Du, Yong-cheng; Hu, Xiao-yun; Xu, Jian-ying; Zhang, Huan-ping; Li, Yi; Nie, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a direct role for cigarette smoke in pulmonary vascular remodeling, which contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potential mitogen and chemoattractant implicated in several biological processes, including cell survival, proliferation, and migration. In this study, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on cell proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (rPASMCs). We found that stimulation of rPASMCs with CSE significantly increased cell proliferation and promoted cell cycle progression from G1 phase to the S and G2 phases. CSE treatment also significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of PDGFB and PDGFRβ. Our study also revealed that Rottlerin, an inhibitor of PKCδ signaling, prevented CSE-induced cell proliferation, attenuated the increase of S and G2 phase populations induced by CSE treatment, and downregulated PDGFB and PDGFRβ mRNA and protein levels in rPASMCs exposed to CSE. Collectively, our data demonstrated that CSE-induced cell proliferation of rPASMCs involved upregulation of the PKCδ-PDGFB pathway.

  4. Ca2+-sensitivity and cGMP-independent effects of NO in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lehen'kyi, V V; Zelensky, S N; Stefanov, A V

    2005-03-01

    The effects of NO on Ca2+-sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) myofilaments have been the focus of this study. Simultaneous measurements of [Ca2+]i and force were carried out in rat tail artery segments. NO, 10(-7) M, evoked a transient decrease in [Ca2+]i accompanied by sustained relaxation (45.3+/-6.3 vs. 69.45+/-7.2%, P<0.05, respectively) of VSM precontracted with K+ (70 mM), suggesting a decrease in Ca2+-sensitivity of VSM. This decrease in Ca2+-sensitivity was completely abolished by preincubation of VSM with ODQ (10(-6) M) (63.9+/-7.8% for [Ca2+]i vs. 20.5+/-8.4% for relaxation, P<0.05). Ca2+-presensitization of VSM myofilaments with PE (10(-6) M) decreased the efficacy of NO to relax VSM (44.25+/-6.9% vs. 69.45+/-7.2%, P<0.05), but increased its ability to lower [Ca2+]i (70.5+/-6.8% vs. 45.3+/-6.3%, P<0.05). Application of DTT (10(-3) M) together with ODQ (10(-6) M) to subtract possible cGMP-independent effects revealed the total suppression of both the relaxant responses and [Ca2+]i of VSM under high-K+ preactivation of VSM. The data indicate that NO not only relaxes VSM and lowers [Ca2+]i in K+-preactivated VSM, but also decreases Ca2+-sensitivity of VSM myofilaments and these effects are strongly cGMP-dependent. In PE-induced contractions of VSM, NO relaxed VSM of rat tail artery and lowered [Ca2+]i, but failed to reverse Ca2+-presensitized myofilaments. We suggest that alternative cGMP-independent effects of NO are primarily manifested via activation of K+-channels and inhibition of Ca2+ current rather than to affect relaxation. An importance of reduced SH-groups within VSM myoplasm for both relaxation and [Ca2+]i disposal evoked by NO is evident whatever Ca2+-mobilization pathways are involved.

  5. MicroRNA-182 prevents vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation via FGF9/PDGFRβ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Nana; Wang, Wei; Tian, Jinwei; Xie, Zulong; Lv, Bo; Dai, Jiannan; Jiang, Rui; Huang, Dan; Fang, Shaohong; Tian, Jiangtian; Li, Hulun; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) causes various proliferative vascular diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been established to play important roles in SMC biology and phenotypic modulation. This study revealed that the expression of miR-182 was markedly altered during rat vascular SMC phenotypic transformation in vitro. We aimed to investigate the role of miR-182 in the vascular SMC phenotypic switch and to determine the potential molecular mechanisms involved. The expression of miR-182 gene was significantly downregulated in cultured SMCs during dedifferentiation from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. Conversely, the upregulation of miR-182 increased the expression of SMC-specific contractile genes, such as α-smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle 22α and calponin. Additionally, miR-182 overexpression potently inhibited SMC proliferation and migration under both basal conditions and under platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulation. Furthermore, we identified fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) as the target gene of miR-182 for the phenotypic modulation of SMCs mediated through platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) signaling. These data suggest that miR-182 may be a novel SMC phenotypic marker and a modulator that may be used to prevent SMC dedifferentiation via FGF9/PDGFRβ signaling. PMID:28259995

  6. Silencing of osterix expression by siRNA inhibits aldosterone‑induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan-Chun; He, Yue; Wang, Hao; Niu, Wen-Quan; Ji, Kai-Da; Li, Hua

    2016-09-01

    The process of vascular calcification shares numerous similarities with that of skeletal mineralization and involves the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in arteries and cardiac valves. However, the underlying cellular mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Microarray analysis in the present study demonstrated that greater than 2,000 genes were upregulated during the calcification of murine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), of which osterix (OSX) and integrin‑binding sialoprotein (IBSP) were the most significantly differentially expressed genes. Following the validation of increased OSX and IBSP expression by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction in calcifying murine VSMCs induced by aldosterone. Subsequent to transfection with siRNA‑OSX, results indicated that OSX may inhibit calcification of VSMCs via IBSP. It was suggested that the increased OSX expression in calcifying VSMCs may reflect the well‑established prenatal role of OSX. A full understanding of the importance of OSX in this pathological process would improve understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular calcification.

  7. G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 35 Mediates Human Saphenous Vein Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Endothelial Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Jennifer E.; Mackenzie, Amanda E.; Divorty, Nina; Clarke, Carolyn; Delles, Christian; Milligan, Graeme; Nicklin, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation is central to neointima formation in vein graft failure following coronary artery bypass. However, there are currently no pharmacological interventions that prevent vein graft failure through intimal occlusion. It is hence a therapeutic target. Here, we investigated the contribution of GPR35 to human VSMC and endothelial cell (EC) migration, using a scratch-wound assay, and also the contribution to proliferation, using MTS and BrdU assays, in in vitro models using recently characterized human GPR35 ortholog-selective small-molecule agonists and antagonists. Real-time PCR studies showed GPR35 to be robustly expressed in human VSMCs and ECs. Stimulation of GPR35, with either the human-selective agonist pamoic acid or the reference agonist zaprinast, promoted VSMC migration in the scratch-wound assay. These effects were blocked by coincubation with either of the human GPR35-specific antagonists, CID-2745687 or ML-145. These GPR35-mediated effects were produced by inducing alterations in the actin cytoskeleton via the Rho A/Rho kinase signaling axis. Additionally, the agonist ligands stimulated a proliferative response in ECs. These studies highlight the potential that small molecules that stimulate or block GPR35 activity can modulate vascular proliferation and migration. These data propose GPR35 as a translational therapeutic target in vascular remodeling. PMID:27064272

  8. Morphology and Ploidy of Smooth Muscle Cells in Chorionic Arteries under Different Hemodynamic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gansburgskii, A N; Yal'tsev, A V

    2017-02-01

    Smooth muscle cells from the arterial wall of placental chorion were studied at 39-40-week gestation. The content of mono- and binuclear tetraploid myocytes was higher in sites of arterial branching and turns (27.3% vs. 4.4% straight parts of the arteries; DNA cytophotometry data). Mitoses were found only in these arterial regions (0.18%). Regional changes in the sizes of diploid and polyploid myocytes were detected, associated with the blood flow pattern in the chorion; myocyte hypertrophy was 17-fold more incident in sites of arterial turns and branching than in straight arteries. Possible causes of changes in the proliferative characteristics and subsequent growth of the chorionic arterial wall myocytes are discussed.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor stimulates angiotensin converting enzyme expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Possible mediator of the response to vascular injury.

    PubMed Central

    Fishel, R S; Thourani, V; Eisenberg, S J; Shai, S Y; Corson, M A; Nabel, E G; Bernstein, K E; Berk, B C

    1995-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity contributes to the vascular response to injury because ACE inhibition limits neointima formation in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury. To investigate the mechanisms by which ACE may contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, we studied expression of ACE in vivo after injury and in vitro after growth factor stimulation. ACE activity 14 d after injury was increased 3.6-fold in the injured vessel. ACE expression, measured by immunohistochemistry, became apparent at 7 d in the neointima and at 14 d was primarily in the most luminal neointimal cells. To characterize hormones that induce ACE in vivo, cultured VSMC were exposed to steroids and growth factors. Among steroids, only glucocorticoids stimulated ACE expression with an 8.0 +/- 2.1-fold increase in activity and a 6.5-fold increase in mRNA (30 nM dexamethasone for 72 h). Among growth factors tested, only fibroblast growth factor (FGF) stimulated ACE expression (4.2 +/- 0.7-fold increase in activity and 1.6-fold increase in mRNA in response to 10 ng/ml FGF for 24 h). Dexamethasone and FGF were synergistic at the indicated concentrations inducing 50.6 +/- 12.4-fold and 32.5-fold increases in activity and mRNA expression, respectively. In addition, when porcine iliac arteries were transfected with recombinant FGF-1 (in the absence of injury), ACE expression increased in neointimal VSMC, to the same extent as injured, nontransfected arteries. The data suggest a temporal sequence for the response to injury in which FGF induces ACE, ACE generates angiotensin II, and angiotensin II stimulates VSMC growth in concert with FGF. Images PMID:7814638

  10. Heparin modulates the composition of the extracellular matrix domain surrounding arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Snow, A. D.; Bolender, R. P.; Wight, T. N.; Clowes, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    Heparin and related molecules influence vascular wall structure by their ability to inhibit smooth muscle cell (smc) proliferation and migration. However, little is known as to whether heparin has an effect on the extracellular matrix. In the present study, the effect of heparin on the content and regional distribution of elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans (PGs) in blood vessels following experimental injury was determined. Two groups of rats were subjected to left common carotid balloon injury and were infused with either 0.9% saline or heparin in a saline solution, for 2 weeks. Using a new morphometric method of analysis, the authors determined changes in volumes of elastin, collagen, and PGs contained within an 'extracellular matrix domain (ECM domain),' the average envelope of connective tissue surrounding each smc. Heparin treatment inhibited intimal thickening and decreased the elastin content in the ECM domain in the upper and lower arterial intima. Collagen also was found to be significantly decreased 5.0-fold and 7.6-fold in the ECM domains of upper and lower intima, respectively, of heparin-treated animals. The decrease in both elastin and collagen was balanced by a significant increase in amorphous and filamentous electron-dense material. Heparin also caused a significant 1.8-fold and 1.9-fold increase in the PG content in the ECM domain in the upper and lower intima, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis, using antibodies to elastin and PG subclasses, supported the morphometric observations. This study has shown that heparin administered in vivo can alter the accumulation and distribution of each of the major vascular ECM components in a specific and differential manner. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2386199

  11. Vascular Clips in Anastomoses of Femoropopliteal Arterial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Aarnio; Järvinen; Varjo

    2000-03-01

    The vascular anastomoses are usually made with sutures. Some mainly experimental studies have been published about a new method of doing the vascular anastomoses with metal clips. We studied the suitability of vascular closure staple (VCS) clip applier system for making the anastomoses in femoropopliteal and femorotibial arterial reconstruction. During an 11-month period, VCS clips were used in 17 out of 27 patients who were operated due to severe claudication or incipient gangrena of the foot. Altogether 26 anastomoses were made with VCS clips using either great saphenous vein or PTFE graft. The making of anastomosis was easy and reliable. No postoperative bleeding was noticed. All anastomoses were patent 4-6 weeks postoperatively studied by palpation and measured by ankle brachial pressure index (mean 0.96). In Duplex Doppler examination all studied patients had well patent anastomoses on an average 11 months after the operation. With VCS clip applier system, it is possible to do anastomoses in arteriosclerotic arteries like in femoropopliteal reconstructions. This method helps making reliable anastomoses more easily.

  12. Exogenous H2S modulates mitochondrial fusion-fission to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in a hyperglycemic state.

    PubMed

    Sun, Aili; Wang, Yan; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Xiangjing; Sun, Yu; Yang, Fan; Dong, Shiyun; Wu, Jichao; Zhao, Yajun; Xu, Changqing; Lu, Fanghao; Zhang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in response to hyperglycemia is an important process in the development of arterial vessel hyperplasia. The shape change of mitochondria is dynamic and closely related to fission and fusion. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was confirmed to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, little it is known about its effects on mitochondrial morphology induced by hyperglycemia. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that H2S inhibits VSMC proliferation through regulating mitochondrial fission. We observe lower H2S levels as well as higher proliferative protein expression levels for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 and higher mitochondrial fusion-fission protein expression levels for dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) in human kidney arteries and in db/db mouse aorta. Exogenous H2S (100 μM NaHS) inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells of human pulmonary aorta(HPASMC) proliferation and migration in response to high glucose using the BrdU and scratch wound repair assays, decreases proliferative protein (PCNA and cyclin D1) expression, and reduces ROS production in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. When HPASMCs proliferate with a high glucose treatment, the mitochondria become small spheres with a short rod-shaped structure, whereas NaHS, a mitochondrial division inhibitor and siDrp prevent VSMC proliferation and maintain mitochondria as stationary and randomly dispersed with fixed structures. Exogenous H2S aids in inhibiting mitochondrial fragmentation and affects proliferation in db/db mice and HPASMCs by decreasing Drp 1 expression.

  13. Taurine inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells via the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiao-bo; Zhou, Xin-min; Li, Jian-ming; Yang, Jin-fu; Tan, Zhi-ping; Hu, Zhuo-wei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying; Yuan, Ling-qing

    2008-05-01

    Vascular calcification develops within atherosclerotic lesions and results from a process similar to osteogenesis. Taurine is a free beta-amino acid and plays an important physiological role in mammals. We have recently demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express a functional taurine transporter. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in vascular calcification, we assessed its effects on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs in vitro. The results showed that taurine inhibited the beta-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs as evidenced by both the decreasing alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and expression of the core binding factor alpha1 (Cbfalpha1). Taurine also activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway. Inhibition of ERK pathway reversed the effect of taurine on ALP activity and Cbfalpha1 expression. These results suggested that taurine inhibited osteoblastic differentiation of vascular cells via the ERK pathway.

  14. Biomechanical regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell functions: from in vitro to in vivo understanding

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Juhui; Zheng, Yiming; Hu, Jianjun; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Guixue

    2014-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have critical functions in vascular diseases. Haemodynamic factors are important regulators of VSMC functions in vascular pathophysiology. VSMCs are physiologically active in the three-dimensional matrix and interact with the shear stress sensor of endothelial cells (ECs). The purpose of this review is to illustrate how haemodynamic factors regulate VSMC functions under two-dimensional conditions in vitro or three-dimensional co-culture conditions in vivo. Recent advances show that high shear stress induces VSMC apoptosis through endothelial-released nitric oxide and low shear stress upregulates VSMC proliferation and migration through platelet-derived growth factor released by ECs. This differential regulation emphasizes the need to construct more actual environments for future research on vascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis and hypertension) and cardiovascular tissue engineering. PMID:24152813

  15. Real-time vascular mechanosensation through ex vivo artery perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell-based perfusion studies have provided great insight into fluid-sensing mechanisms, such as primary cilia in the renal and vascular systems. However, the intrinsic limitations of in vitro cell culture, such as the inability to reflect cellular organization within tissues, has distanced observed paradigms from possible clinical developments. Here we describe a protocol that applies ex vivo artery perfusion and calcium imaging to observe real-time cellular responses to fluid-shear stress. Results Through our ex vivo artery perfusion method, we were able to simulate physiological flow and initiate distinct fluid shear stress mechanosensory responses, as well as induced acetylcholine responses in mouse aortic tissue. The observed calcium profiles confirm results found through previous in vitro cell culture experiments. The overall procedure, including dissection, sample preparation and perfusion, takes around 3 hours to complete. Conclusion Through our unique method, we are able to induce laminar flow within intact mouse aortic tissue and illicit subsequent cellular responses. This method of ex vivo artery perfusion provides the opportunity to bridge the novel findings of in vitro studies with subsequent physiological models of fluid-shear stress mechanosensation in vascular tissues. PMID:24685068

  16. Phospholipase D signaling in serotonin-induced mitogenesis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Fanburg, B L

    2008-09-01

    We have previously reported the participation of mitogen-activated protein, Rho, and phosphoinositide-3 (PI3) kinases in separate pathways in serotonin (5-HT)-induced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In this study, we investigated the possible participation of phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in this growth process. 5-HT stimulated a time-dependent increase in [(3)H]phosphatidylbutanol and PA generation. Exposure of SMCs to 1-butanol or overexpression of an inactive mutant of human PLD1R898R blocked 5-HT-induced proliferation. Furthermore, 1-butanol inhibited 5-HT activation of S6K1 and S6 protein, downstream effectors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), by 80 and 72%, respectively, and partially blocked activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by 30% but had no effect on other associated signaling pathways. Exogenous PA caused cellular proliferation and revitalized cyclin D1 expression by 5-HT of the 1-butanol-treated cells. PA also reproduced activations by 5-HT of mTOR, S6K1, and ERK. Transfection with inactive human PLD1 reduced 5-HT-induced activation of S6K1 by approximately 50%. Inhibition of 5-HT receptor 2A (R 2A) with ketaserin blocked PLD activation by 5-HT. Inhibition with PI3-kinase inhibitor failed to block either activation of PLD by 5-HT or PA-dependent S6K1 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that ligation of the 5-HTR 2A by 5-HT initiates PLD activation in SMCs, and that its product, PA, is an early signaling molecule in 5-HT-induced pulmonary artery SMC proliferation. Signaling by PA produces its downstream effects primarily through the mTOR/S6K1 pathway and to a lesser extent through the ERK pathway. Hydrolysis of cell membrane lipid may be important in vascular effects of 5-HT.

  17. Influences on vascular wall smooth muscle cells with novel short-duration thermal angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunio, M.; Shimazaki, N.; Arai, T.; Sakurada, M.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the influences on smooth muscle cells after our novel short-duration thermal angioplasty, Photo-thermo Dynamic Balloon Angioplasty (PTDBA), to reveal the mechanism that can suppress neo-intimal hyperplasia after PTDBA. We obtained the sufficient arterial dilatations by short-duration heating (<=15 s, <70°C) and low dilatation pressure (<0.4 MPa) without arterial injuries in our previous in vivo studies. Smooth muscle cells, which play most important role in chronic treatment effects, were heated during PTDBA and stretch-fixed after PTDBA. The dead cell rate by heating, estimated by Arrhenius equation with A=2.5x1016 s-1 and Ea=1.17×105 J mol-1, was 15.7+/-2.2% after PTDBA. The measured deformation rate of smooth muscle cells' nuclei was 1.6+/-0.1 after PTDBA in vivo. We found that the expression of smooth muscle cells' growth factor after PTDBA was inhibited 0.52 fold compared to that after the conventional balloon angioplasty in vivo. The measured neo-intimal hyperplasia occupancy rate was less than 20% after PTDBA in vivo. We prospect that the inhibition of the growth factor's expression by stretch-fixing may result to suppress the neo-intimal hyperplasia. In addition, the decrease of smooth muscle cells' density in the vessel media by heating might be another reason for the neo-intimal hyperplasia suppression.

  18. Transmembrane Protein 184A Is a Receptor Required for Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Responses to Heparin.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Raymond J; Slee, Joshua B; Farwell, Sara Lynn N; Li, Yaqiu; Barthol, Trista; Patton, Walter A; Lowe-Krentz, Linda J

    2016-03-04

    Vascular cell responses to exogenous heparin have been documented to include decreased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation following decreased ERK pathway signaling. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which heparin interacts with cells to induce those responses has remained unclear. Previously characterized monoclonal antibodies that block heparin binding to vascular cells have been found to mimic heparin effects. In this study, those antibodies were employed to isolate a heparin binding protein. MALDI mass spectrometry data provide evidence that the protein isolated is transmembrane protein 184A (TMEM184A). Commercial antibodies against three separate regions of the TMEM184A human protein were used to identify the TMEM184A protein in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. A GFP-TMEM184A construct was employed to determine colocalization with heparin after endocytosis. Knockdown of TMEM184A eliminated the physiological responses to heparin, including effects on ERK pathway activity and BrdU incorporation. Isolated GFP-TMEM184A binds heparin, and overexpression results in additional heparin uptake. Together, these data support the identification of TMEM184A as a heparin receptor in vascular cells.

  19. Outcomes of arterial vascular extremity trauma in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kirkilas, Mary; Notrica, David M; Langlais, Crystal S; Muenzer, Jared T; Zoldos, Jozef; Graziano, Kathleen

    2016-11-01

    Vascular trauma in children, although rare, carries significant risk for repair. Here we report outcomes from a single trauma center for children with extremity vascular trauma, proximal to the digits. Retrospective chart review of patients less than age 18years with an acute, non-iatrogenic traumatic arterial vascular injury of the upper and/or lower extremity between January 2008 and December 2013. Abstracted patient demographics, injury characteristics, surgical management, and disposition were summarized and compared with nonparametric methods. 23 children comprised the study cohort: median age of 8years (IQR: 4.6-12), 61% (n=14) males, 100% survival. Penetrating injuries were the predominate mechanism (n=17, 74%). The median time to presentation was 154min (IQR: 65-330). Acute operations for revascularization included a primary repair (n=15, 65%) or reversed vein graft (n=7, 30%). Fasciotomies were done for 3 (13%) patients. Three amputations were done for failed revascularization. Upper extremity vascular injury (n=15, 65%) was more common. The rate of associated extremity fracture was similar between upper (21%) and lower (33%) extremities (p=0.643). Eight (35%) patients required additional surgery most commonly for debridement, washouts and dressing changes. Three patients' hospital stays were complicated by infection. Impaired function was the most common short- and long-term complication (60%, 75%). Pediatric vascular injuries are commonly associated with penetrating injuries and male gender and occurred more frequently in the upper extremities. Overall patency rates after repair were 87%. Fasciotomies were done in 13% of patients, and the overall surgical amputation rate was 13%. There was no mortality in this cohort; however, multiple operations are commonly required, including the return to OR for washouts, debridements and dressing changes. The most common short- and long-term complication was impaired function. Overall good results are achievable in

  20. Pregnancy is associated with hypotrophy of carotid artery endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, S; Jovanović, A

    1998-04-01

    It is known that blood flow through the carotid artery is decreased during pregnancy, which may be due to a pregnancy-associated increase in the sensitivity of this artery to vasoconstrictors. Recent studies have shown that alteration of blood flow or pressure could remodel some arteries over a short time frame. However, the possibility of remodelling of the carotid artery during pregnancy has not yet been examined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to study the morphometrical and stereological characteristics of guinea-pig carotid artery during different stages of pregnancy (non-pregnant, early-pregnant, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, n = 8-10 for each group). The cross-sectional area of the different layers of the carotid artery and the cross-sectional area of endothelial and smooth muscle cells were measured using both light and electron microscopy. The values of internal diameter and cross-sectional area of adventitia were not significantly different, regardless of the pregnancy status. In contrast, external diameter, wall thickness and cross-sectional areas of media and intima progressively and significantly decreased during pregnancy. In addition, volume/surface density ratio of intima and media also significantly and progressively decreased during pregnancy, suggesting hypotrophy of endothelial and smooth muscle cells of carotid artery. Indeed, electron microscopy revealed that the size, defined as cross-sectional area, of endothelial and smooth muscle cells was significantly decreased during different stages of pregnancy. It is concluded that during pregnancy there is thinning of the intimal and medial layers of guinea-pig carotid artery, which reflect pregnancy-associated hypotrophy of carotid artery endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  1. UAP56 is an important mediator of Angiotensin II/platelet derived growth factor induced vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Abha; Wang, Nadan; Alexis, Jeffrey

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Angiotensin II/PDGF induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. ► UAP56 is a positive regulator of E2F transcriptional activation. ► UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low flow carotid arteries. -- Abstract: Angiotensin (Ang) II and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are important mediators of pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Identifying downstream mediators of Ang II and PDGF signaling may provide insights for therapies to improve vascular proliferative diseases. We have previously demonstrated that breakpoint cluster region (Bcr) is an important mediator of Ang II/PDGF signaling in VSMC. We have recently reported that the DExD/H box protein UAP56 is an interacting partner of Bcr in regulating VSMC DNA synthesis. We hypothesized that UAP56 itself is an important regulator of VSMC proliferation. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Ang II/PDGF induced VSMC DNA synthesis and proliferation, and inhibits E2F transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrate that UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low-flow carotid arteries. These findings suggest that UAP56 is a regulator of VSMC proliferation and identify UAP56 as a target for preventing vascular proliferative disease.

  2. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei; Li Qian; Chen Li; Wang Guisong Tang Jian

    2007-11-16

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE{sup -/-} mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% and 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury.

  3. Emerging roles for vascular smooth muscle cell exosomes in calcification and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kapustin, A N; Shanahan, C M

    2016-06-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic conversion from a contractile to 'synthetic' state contributes to vascular pathologies including restenosis, atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. We have recently found that the secretion of exosomes is a feature of 'synthetic' VSMCs and that exosomes are novel players in vascular repair processes as well as pathological vascular thrombosis and calcification. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors as well as mineral imbalance stimulate exosome secretion by VSMCs, most likely by the activation of sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3) and cytoskeletal remodelling. Calcium stress induces dramatic changes in VSMC exosome composition and accumulation of phosphatidylserine (PS), annexin A6 and matrix metalloproteinase-2, which converts exosomes into a nidus for calcification. In addition, by presenting PS, VSMC exosomes can also provide the catalytic surface for the activation of coagulation factors. Recent data showing that VSMC exosomes are loaded with proteins and miRNA regulating cell adhesion and migration highlight VSMC exosomes as potentially important communication messengers in vascular repair. Thus, the identification of signalling pathways regulating VSMC exosome secretion, including activation of SMPD3 and cytoskeletal rearrangements, opens up novel avenues for a deeper understanding of vascular remodelling processes.

  4. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine Modulates Molecular Arterial Homeostasis of Human Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ye, Geng-Fan; Zhu, Shao-Wei; Zhu, Shu-Gan; Li, Feng; Wang, Yun-Yan

    2016-12-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is widely expressed in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of human intracranial aneurysms (IAs), but the effect and underlying mechanism of SPARC on VSMCs during the formation and progression of IAs needs to be probed. Human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) were treated with a gradient concentrations of SPARC in vitro for different time. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis were used to investigate the effect of SPARC on HUASMCs. After exposure to 2 and 4 μg/ml SPARC, cell viability were 89.3 ± 2.00 %, and 87.57 ± 2.17 % (P < 0.05 vs. control), respectively. Induced by 2 μg/ml SPARC, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase was 74.77 ± 1.33 % (P < 0.05 vs. control), and the early and late apoptosis ratio were 7.38 ± 1.25 % and 4.86 ± 0.81 % (P < 0.01 vs. control), respectively. After exposure to 2 μg/ml SPARC for 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, Western blot analysis showed that the protein level of p21 was upregulated significantly at 2-12 h (P < 0.05 vs. control), while the expression of p53 remained stable within 48 h. The expression of Bax protein increased markedly and peaked at 24 (P < 0.01 vs. control), while Bcl2 protein decreased significantly at 48 h (P < 0.01 vs. control). Cleaved caspase3 was also upregulated dramatically and peaked at 24 h (P < 0.05 vs. control). The protein level of MMP2 increased significantly and peaked at 24 h (P < 0.01 vs. control), while TIMP2 remained stable and even reduced at 48 h (P < 0.05 vs. control). Taken together, SPARC could arrest HUASMCs in G0/G1 phase by overexpression of p21 and induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in vitro, which could result in the decreased cell viability. Besides, SPARC might also lead to the activation of MMP2 instead of MMP9. These results indicated SPARC could reduce the self-repair capability and increase injury of media layer and internal elastic

  5. Localisation of members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and their receptors in human atherosclerotic arteries

    PubMed Central

    Belgore, F; Blann, A; Neil, D; Ahmed, A S; Lip, G Y H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mediates endothelial cell mitogenesis and enhances vascular permeability. The existence of single or multiple VEGF isoforms and receptors suggests that these proteins may have overlapping but distinct functions, which may be reflected in their cell expression and distribution. Methods: The localisation of VEGFs A–C and their receptors (VEGFRs 1–3, respectively) in 30 fresh human atherosclerotic arteries, 15 normal uterine arteries, and 15 saphenous veins using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results: Saphenous veins showed no staining for VEGF-B or VEGFR-2. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) showed the strongest staining for VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 in all specimens. Conversely, VEGFR-3 and VEGF-C were predominately localised to the endothelial vasa vasorum in normal arteries, whereas medial SMCs showed the strongest staining in atherosclerotic arteries. Western blotting showed variations in VEGF protein localisation, with lower amounts of VEGF-B and VEGF-C in saphenous veins, compared with arterial tissue. Amounts of VEGF-C were lower than those of VEGF-A and VEGF-B in all specimens. Conclusion: This study provides direct evidence of the presence of VEGF proteins and receptors in human physiology and pathology, with variations in both the amounts of VEGF proteins expressed and their cellular distribution in normal arteries compared with atherosclerotic arteries. The presence of VEGFs A–C and their receptors in normal arterial tissue implies that VEGF functions may extend beyond endothelial cell proliferation. Reduced VEGFR-2 staining in atherosclerotic arteries may have implications for the atherosclerosis process and the development of vascular disease and its complications. PMID:14990597

  6. Desalted Salicornia europaea extract attenuated vascular neointima formation by inhibiting the MAPK pathway-mediated migration and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Kyung Jong; Lee, Kang Pa; Baek, Suji; Cui, Long; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Jung, Seung Hyo; Ryu, Yun-Kyoung; Hong, Jung Min; Cho, Eun-Ah; Shin, Hwa-Sup; Kim, Bokyung

    2017-10-01

    Salicornia europaea L. (SE) has been used as folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer. However, its effects on atherosclerotic events in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remain unknown. The present study explored the effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of desalted SE hot water extract (SEWEAF) on atherosclerotic responses (especially migration and proliferation) in VSMCs and vascular neointima formation. Treatment with the SEWEAF significantly suppressed the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation as well the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as the p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Moreover, oral administration of the SEWEAF resulted in the attenuation of neointima formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Additionally, HPLC analysis showed that the major components in the two subfractions of the SEWEAF were five phenolic acids and four flavonols. In the SEWEAF components, for which atherosclerosis-linked responses in VSMCs have not been known, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside, and isorhamnetin-3-β-d-glucoside inhibited both PDGF-BB-induced migration and proliferation and isorhamnetin attenuated only PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMC proliferation. These results suggest that the SEWEAF may suppress PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration by downregulating the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2, thus leading to the reduction of neointimal hyperplasia during vascular remodeling. Therefore, the desalted SE extract, SEWEAF may be a potential ingredient for dietary supplements or nutraceuticals to ameliorate and/or prevent vascular remodeling-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutations in Smooth Muscle Alpha-Actin (ACTA2) Cause Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke, and Moyamoya Disease, Along with Thoracic Aortic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-Chuan; Papke, Christina L.; Tran-Fadulu, Van; Regalado, Ellen S.; Avidan, Nili; Johnson, Ralph Jay; Kim, Dong H.; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Willing, Marcia C.; Sparks, Elizabeth; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Singh, Michael N.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Grotta, James C.; Marian, Ali J.; Boerwinkle, Eric A.; Frazier, Lorraine Q.; LeMaire, Scott A.; Coselli, Joseph S.; Estrera, Anthony L.; Safi, Hazim J.; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David A.; Willerson, James T.; Yu, Robert K.; Shete, Sanjay S.; Scherer, Steven E.; Raman, C.S.; Buja, L. Maximilian; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2009-01-01

    The vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoform of α-actin (ACTA2) is a major component of the contractile apparatus in SMCs located throughout the arterial system. Heterozygous ACTA2 mutations cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD), but only half of mutation carriers have aortic disease. Linkage analysis and association studies of individuals in 20 families with ACTA2 mutations indicate that mutation carriers can have a diversity of vascular diseases, including premature onset of coronary artery disease (CAD) and premature ischemic strokes (including Moyamoya disease [MMD]), as well as previously defined TAAD. Sequencing of DNA from patients with nonfamilial TAAD and from premature-onset CAD patients independently identified ACTA2 mutations in these patients and premature onset strokes in family members with ACTA2 mutations. Vascular pathology and analysis of explanted SMCs and myofibroblasts from patients harboring ACTA2 suggested that increased proliferation of SMCs contributed to occlusive diseases. These results indicate that heterozygous ACTA2 mutations predispose patients to a variety of diffuse and diverse vascular diseases, including TAAD, premature CAD, ischemic strokes, and MMD. These data demonstrate that diffuse vascular diseases resulting from either occluded or enlarged arteries can be caused by mutations in a single gene and have direct implications for clinical management and research on familial vascular diseases. PMID:19409525

  8. Current Trends in Heparin Use During Arterial Vascular Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Durran, Alexandra C.; Watts, Christopher

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the current use of heparinized saline and bolus doses of heparin in non-neurological interventional radiology and to determine whether consensus could be reached to produce guidance for heparin use during arterial vascular intervention. Methods: An interactive electronic questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Society of Interventional Radiology regarding their current practice in the use, dosage, and timing of heparin boluses and heparinized flushing solutions.ResultsA total of 108 completed questionnaires were received. More than 80% of respondents used heparinized saline with varying concentrations; the most prevalent was 1,000 IU/l (international units of heparin per liter) and 5,000 IU/l. Fifty-one percent of interventionalists use 3,000 IU as their standard bolus dose; however, the respondents were split regarding the timing of bolus dose with {approx}60% administering it after arterial access is obtained and 40% after crossing the lesion. There was no consensus on altering dose according to body weight, and only 4% monitored clotting parameters. Conclusions: There seems to be some coherence among practicing interventionalists regarding heparin administration. We hypothesize that heparinized saline should be used at a recognized standard concentration of 1,000 IU/l as a flushing concentration in all arterial vascular interventions and that 3,000 IU bolus is considered the standard dose for straightforward therapeutic procedures and 5000 IU for complex, crural, and endovascular aneurysm repair work. The bolus should be given after arterial access is obtained to allow time for optimal anticoagulation to be achieved by the time of active intervention and stenting. Further research into clotting abnormalities following such interventional procedures would be an interesting quantifiable follow-up to this initial survey of opinions and practice.

  9. Attenuation of Chondrogenic Transformation in Vascular Smooth Muscle by Dietary Quercetin in the MGP-Deficient Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Borras, Teresa; Nurminskaya, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Cartilaginous metaplasia of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is characteristic for arterial calcification in diabetes and uremia and in the background of genetic alterations in matrix Gla protein (MGP). A better understanding of the molecular details of this process is critical for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to VSM transformation and arterial calcification. Objective This study aimed to identify the effects of bioflavonoid quercetin on chondrogenic transformation and calcification of VSM in the MGP-null mouse model and upon TGF-β3 stimulation in vitro, and to characterize the associated alterations in cell signaling. Methods and Results Molecular analysis revealed activation of β-catenin signaling in cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- aortae in vivo and during chondrogenic transformation of VSMCs in vitro. Quercetin intercepted chondrogenic transformation of VSM and blocked activation of β-catenin both in vivo and in vitro. Although dietary quercetin drastically attenuated calcifying cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- animals, approximately one-half of total vascular calcium mineral remained as depositions along elastic lamellae. Conclusion Quercetin is potent in preventing VSM chondrogenic transformation caused by diverse stimuli. Combined with the demonstrated efficiency of dietary quercetin in preventing ectopic chondrogenesis in the MGP-null vasculature, these findings indicate a potentially broad therapeutic applicability of this safe for human consumption bioflavonoid in the therapy of cardiovascular conditions linked to cartilaginous metaplasia of VSM. Elastocalcinosis is a major component of MGP-null vascular disease and is controlled by a mechanism different from chondrogenic transformation of VSM and not sensitive to quercetin. PMID:24098781

  10. c-Myb Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Adventitial Sca1+ Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Progenitors by Transactivation of Myocardin.

    PubMed

    Shikatani, Eric A; Chandy, Mark; Besla, Rickvinder; Li, Cedric C; Momen, Abdul; El-Mounayri, Omar; Robbins, Clinton S; Husain, Mansoor

    2016-07-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are believed to dedifferentiate and proliferate in response to vessel injury. Recently, adventitial progenitor cells were implicated as a source of VSMCs involved in vessel remodeling. c-Myb is a transcription factor known to regulate VSMC proliferation in vivo and differentiation of VSMCs from mouse embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors in vitro. However, the role of c-Myb in regulating specific adult vascular progenitor cell populations was not known. Our objective was to examine the role of c-Myb in the proliferation and differentiation of Sca1(+) adventitial VSMC progenitor cells. Using mice with wild-type or hypomorphic c-myb (c-myb(h/h)), BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) uptake and flow cytometry revealed defective proliferation of Sca1(+) adventitial VSMC progenitor cells at 8, 14, and 28 days post carotid artery denudation injury in c-myb(h/h) arteries. c-myb(h/h) cKit(+)CD34(-)Flk1(-)Sca1(+)CD45(-)Lin(-) cells failed to proliferate, suggesting that c-myb regulates the activation of specific Sca1(+) progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Although expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 did not vary between wild-type and c-myb(h/h) carotid arteries, in vitro differentiation of c-myb(h/h) Sca1(+) cells manifested defective transforming growth factor-β1-induced VSMC differentiation. This is mediated by reduced transcriptional activation of myocardin because chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed c-Myb binding to the myocardin promoter only during differentiation of Sca1(+) cells, myocardin promoter mutagenesis identified 2 specific c-Myb-responsive binding sites, and adenovirus-mediated expression of myocardin rescued the phenotype of c-myb(h/h) progenitors. These data support a role for c-Myb in the regulation of VSMC progenitor cells and provide novel insight into how c-myb regulates VSMC differentiation through myocardin. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. ADAR1-Mediated RNA Editing, A Novel Mechanism Controlling Phenotypic Modulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jia; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Jia-Ning; Dong, Kun; Chen, Shi-You

    2016-07-22

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation is characterized by the downregulation of SMC contractile genes. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, a well-known stimulator of SMC phenotypic modulation, downregulates SMC genes via posttranscriptional regulation. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. To establish RNA editing as a novel mechanism controlling SMC phenotypic modulation. Precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNA) of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin were accumulated while their mature mRNAs were downregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation, suggesting an abnormal splicing of the pre-mRNAs. The abnormal splicing resulted from SMC marker pre-mRNA editing that was facilitated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), an enzyme converting adenosines to inosines (A→I editing) in RNA sequences. ADAR1 expression inversely correlated with SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin levels; knockdown of ADAR1 restored SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin expression in phenotypically modulated SMC, and editase domain mutation diminished the ADAR1-mediated abnormal splicing of SMC marker pre-mRNAs. Moreover, the abnormal splicing/editing of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin pre-mRNAs occurred during injury-induced vascular remodeling. Importantly, heterozygous knockout of ADAR1 dramatically inhibited injury-induced neointima formation and restored SMC marker expression, demonstrating a critical role of ADAR1 in SMC phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling in vivo. Our results unraveled a novel molecular mechanism, that is, pre-mRNA editing, governing SMC phenotypic modulation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Gene Expressions Underlying Mishandled Calcium Clearance and Elevated Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells of Chronic Heart Failure Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liang; Su, Xian-Xiu; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Xu, Yu-Xiang; Pan, Xue-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: The calcium clearance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations in the coronary artery smooth muscle cells in chronic heart failure (HF) have not been fully investigated. Therefore, we attempted to understand the gene expressions underlying the mishandling of calcium clearance and the accumulations of ROS. Methods: We initially established an animal model of chronic HF by making the left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (CAL) in rats, and then isolated the coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells from the ischemic and the nonischemic parts of the coronary artery vessels in 12 weeks after CAL operation. The intracellular calcium concentration and ROS level were measured using flow cytometry, and the gene expressions of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a), encoding sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a, encoding sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX), and p47phox encoding a subunit of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase were examined using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Results: We found that the calcium accumulation and ROS generation in the coronary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from either the ischemic or the nonischemic part of the CAL coronary artery vessel were significantly increased irrespective of blood supply (all P < 0.01). Moreover, these were accompanied by the increased expressions of NCX and p47phox, the decreased expression of SERCA2a, and the increased amount of phosphorylated forms of p47phox in NADPH oxidase (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the disordered calcium clearance and the increased ROS generation occurred in the coronary artery smooth muscle cells in rats with chronic HF produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (CAL), and which was found to be disassociated from blood supply, and the increased generation of ROS in the cells was found to make

  13. Design and utilization of macrophage and vascular smooth muscle cell co-culture systems in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease investigation.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Mary C; White, Sharla L Powell; Zhou, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has been acknowledged as a chronic inflammatory condition. Monocytes and macrophages lead the inflammatory pathology of atherosclerosis whereas changes in atheromatous plaque thickness and matrix composition are attributed to vascular smooth muscle cells. Because these cell types are key players in atherosclerosis progression, it is crucial to utilize a reliable system to investigate their interaction. In vitro co-culture systems are useful platforms to study specific molecular mechanisms between cells. This review aims to summarize the various co-culture models that have been developed to investigate vascular smooth muscle cell and monocyte/macrophage interactions, focusing on the monocyte/macrophage effects on vascular smooth muscle cell function.

  14. Voltage-dependent effects of barnidipine in rat vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wegener, J W; Korstanje, C; Nawrath, H

    2003-08-01

    The effects of the dihydropyridine nifedipine and its more lipophilic congener, barnidipine, were investigated in smooth muscle preparations from the rat in resting and depolarizing conditions. Both drugs relaxed precontracted aortic rings more potently in depolarizing conditions, barnidipine being more potent than nifedipine. Currents through Ca2+ channels in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5) and in isolated rat cardiomyocytes were reduced more potently by both drugs at a holding potential of -40 mV than at -80 mV. However, barnidipine and nifedipine were more effective in reducing the current in A7r5 cells than in cardiomyocytes. The IC(50) obtained in aortic rings and in A7r5 cells were similar for barnidipine but an order of magnitude different for nifedipine. The results show that, in depolarizing conditions, barnidipine was more effective than nifedipine. It is suggested that the higher potency of barnidipine acting in vascular smooth muscle is related to both a higher affinity to the inactivated state of vascular Ca2+ channels and to a more lipophilic property as compared with nifedipine.

  15. Role of Na+-K+ ATPase in cyclic GMP-mediated relaxation of canine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, J; Tagaya, E; Nishimura, K; Isono, K; Nagai, A

    1997-01-01

    Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+ ATPase) plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone, but contribution of this enzyme to nitrovasodilator-induced pulmonary vasodilatation remains uncertain. We thus studied the interaction between guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and Na+-K+ ATPase in smooth muscle cells isolated from canine pulmonary artery. To assess the contractile properties, changes in smooth muscle cell length were determined microscopically. Application of potassium chloride (KCl) shortened the cell length, an effect which was reduced by sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo-cyclic GMP in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment of cells with the cyclic GMP-dependent kinase inhibitor KT 5823 (2 μM) abolished the effects of sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Ouabain (0.3 μM) did not alter the KCl-induced muscle shortening, but inhibited the relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Incubation of smooth muscle cells with sodium nitroprusside concentration-dependently increased intracellular cyclic GMP levels and ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake, and these values were significantly correlated. In the presence of KT 5823, sodium nitroprusside increased cyclic GMP levels but did not alter ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake. These results suggest that there is a link between accumulation of intracellular cyclic GMP and activation of sarcolemmal Na+-K+ ATPase in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and that this link may be involved in the sodium nitroprusside-induced pulmonary vasodilatation. PMID:9298536

  16. Pharmacological evidence for a novel cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor subtype in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Walch, Laurence; Norel, Xavier; Bäck, Magnus; Gascard, Jean-Pierre; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Brink, Charles

    2002-01-01

    To characterize the cysteinyl-leukotriene receptors (CysLT receptors) in isolated human pulmonary arteries, ring preparations were contracted with leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and leukotriene D4 (LTD4) in either the absence or presence of the selective CysLT1 receptor antagonists, ICI 198615, MK 571 or the dual CysLT1/CysLT2 receptor antagonist, BAY u9773. Since the contractions induced by the cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysLTs) in intact preparations failed to attain a plateau response over the concentration range studied, the endothelium was removed and the tissue treated continuously with indomethacin (Rubbed+INDO). In these latter preparations, the pEC50 for LTC4 and LTD4 were not significantly different (7.61±0.07, n=20 and 7.96±0.09, n=22, respectively). However, the LTC4 and LTD4 contractions were markedly potentiated when compared with data from intact tissues. Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) did not contract human isolated pulmonary arterial preparations. In addition, treatment of preparations with LTE4 (1 μM; 30 min) did not modify either the LTC4 or LTD4 contractions. Treatment of preparations with the S-conjugated glutathione (S-hexyl-GSH; 100 μM, 30 min), an inhibitor of the metabolism of LTC4 to LTD4, did not modify LTC4 contractions. The pEC50 values for LTC4 were significantly reduced by treatment of the preparations with either ICI 198615, MK 571 or BAY u9773 and the pKB values were: 7.20, 7.02 and 6.26, respectively. In contrast, these antagonists did not modify the LTD4 pEC50 values. These findings suggest the presence of two CysLT receptors on human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle. A CysLT1 receptor with a low affinity for CysLT1 antagonists and a novel CysLT receptor subtype, both responsible for vasoconstriction. Activation of this latter receptor by LTC4 and LTD4 induced a contractile response which was resistant to the selective CysLT1 antagonists (ICI 198615 and MK 571) as well as the non-selective (CysLT1/CysLT2) antagonist, BAY u9773. PMID

  17. Deletion of mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells blunts renal vascular resistance following acute cyclosporine administration

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Cristian A.; Bertocchio, Jean-Philippe; Andre-Gregoire, Gwennan; Placier, Sandrine; Van Huyen, Jean-Paul Duong; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Berger, Stefan; Warnock, David G.; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Rieu, Philippe; Jaisser, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A (CsA) are still commonly used after renal transplantation, despite CsA–induced nephrotoxicity (CIN), which is partly related to vasoactive mechanisms. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is now recognized as a key player in the control of vascular tone, and both endothelial cell- and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC)-MR modulate the vasoactive responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Here we tested whether vascular MR is involved in renal hemodynamic changes induced by CsA. The relative contribution of vascular MR in acute CsA treatment was evaluated using mouse models with targeted deletion of MR in endothelial cell or SMC. Results indicate that MR expressed in SMC, but not in endothelium, contributes to the increase of plasma urea and creatinine, the appearance of isometric tubular vacuolization, and overexpression of a kidney injury biomarker (neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin) after CsA treatment. Inactivation of MR in SMC blunted CsA–induced phosphorylation of contractile proteins. Finally, the in vivo increase of renal vascular resistance induced by CsA was blunted when MR was deleted from SMC cells, and this was associated with decreased L-type Ca2+ channel activity. Thus, our study provides new insights into the role of vascular MR in renal hemodynamics during acute CIN, and provides rationale for clinical studies of MR antagonism to manage the side effects of calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:26422501

  18. Procontractile G protein–mediated signaling pathways antagonistically regulate smooth muscle differentiation in vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Till F.; Juárez, Julián Albarrán; Troidl, Kerstin; Tang, Cong; Wang, Shengpeng; Wirth, Angela; Takefuji, Mikito; Wettschureck, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (Sm) cells (VSMCs) are highly plastic. Their differentiation state can be regulated by serum response factor (SRF), which activates genes involved in Sm differentiation and proliferation by recruiting cofactors, such as members of the myocardin family and ternary complex factors (TCFs), respectively. However, the extracellular cues and upstream signaling mechanisms regulating SRF-dependent VSMC differentiation under in vivo conditions are poorly understood. In this study, we show that the procontractile signaling pathways mediated by the G proteins G12/G13 and Gq/G11 antagonistically regulate VSMC plasticity in different models of vascular remodeling. In mice lacking Gα12/Gα13 or their effector, the RhoGEF protein LARG, RhoA-dependent SRF-regulation was blocked and down-regulation of VSMC differentiation marker genes was enhanced. This was accompanied by an excessive vascular remodeling and exacerbation of atherosclerosis. In contrast, Sm-specific Gαq/Gα11 deficiency blocked activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and the TCF Elk-1, resulting in a reduced VSMC dedifferentiation in response to flow cessation or vascular injury. These data show that the balanced activity of both G protein–mediated pathways in VSMCs is required for an appropriate vessel remodeling response in vascular diseases and suggest new approaches to modulate Sm differentiation in vascular pathologies. PMID:23129751

  19. The effect of deuterium oxide (D sub 2 O) on in vitro vascular smooth muscle contraction

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliam, T.M.; Liepins, A.; Rankin, A.J. )

    1990-02-26

    Deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O), a stable nonradioactive isotope of water, has been demonstrated to reduce L-type calcium channel conductance in isolated myocytes. Since the concentration of intracellular free calcium has been implicated in the mechanism of vascular smooth muscle contraction, the authors investigated whether it inhibits contraction of vascular smooth muscle. Phenylephrine concentration-contraction curves were carried out in the rat aortic ring preparation to determine whether D{sub 2}O inhibits contraction of rat aorta induced through activation of receptor-operated calcium channels. D{sub 2}O depressed these response curves in a concentration dependent manner with 50% inhibition of maximum contraction observed with 60% D{sub 2}O; this effect proved to be reversible and non-toxic. D{sub 2}O also depressed potassium chloride curves, demonstrating an effect on voltage-operated calcium channels. Since vascular endothelium releases endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) when stimulated by a range of pharmacological agents, it was examined whether the endothelium has a role in these actions of D{sub 2}O on vascular contraction. Mechanical disruption of the endothelium had no effect.

  20. Characterization of evolving biomechanical properties of tissue engineered vascular grafts in the arterial circulation.

    PubMed

    Udelsman, Brooks V; Khosravi, Ramak; Miller, Kristin S; Dean, Ethan W; Bersi, Matthew R; Rocco, Kevin; Yi, Tai; Humphrey, Jay D; Breuer, Christopher K

    2014-06-27

    We used a murine model to assess the evolving biomechanical properties of tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) implanted in the arterial circulation. The initial polymeric tubular scaffold was fabricated from poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and coated with a 50:50 copolymer of poly(caprolactone) and poly(lactic acid)(P[PC/LA]). Following seeding with syngeneic bone marrow derived mononuclear cells, TEVGs (n=50) were implanted as aortic interposition grafts in wild-type mice and monitored serially using ultrasound. A custom biaxial mechanical testing device was used to quantify the in vitro circumferential and axial mechanical properties of grafts explanted at 3 or 7 months. At both times, TEVGs were much stiffer than native tissue in both directions. Repeated mechanical testing of some TEVGs treated with elastase or collagenase suggested that elastin did not contribute significantly to the overall stiffness whereas collagen did contribute. Traditional histology and immunostaining revealed smooth muscle cell layers, significant collagen deposition, and increasing elastin production in addition to considerable scaffold at both 3 and 7 months, which likely dominated the high stiffness seen in mechanical testing. These results suggest that PLA has inadequate in vivo degradation, which impairs cell-mediated development of vascular neotissue having properties closer to native arteries. Assessing contributions of individual components, such as elastin and collagen, to the developing neovessel is needed to guide computational modeling that may help to optimize the design of the TEVG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monocyte-expressed urokinase inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell growth by activating Stat1.

    PubMed

    Kunigal, Sateesh; Kusch, Angelika; Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Jerke, Uwe; Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna

    2003-12-15

    After vascular injury, a remodeling process occurs that features leukocyte migration and infiltration. Loss of endothelial integrity allows the leukocytes to interact with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to elicit "marching orders"; however, the signaling processes are poorly understood. We found that human monocytes inhibit VSMC proliferation and induce a migratory potential. The monocytes signal the VSMCs through the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). The VSMC uPA receptor (uPAR) receives the signal and activates the transcription factor Stat1 that, in turn, mediates the antiproliferative effects. These results provide the first evidence that monocytes signal VSMCs by mechanisms involving the fibrinolytic system, and they imply an important link between the uPA/uPAR-related signaling machinery and human vascular disease.

  2. Function and regulation of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-09-01

    Large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels are abundantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. Activation of BK(Ca) channels leads to hyperpolarization of cell membrane, which in turn counteracts vasoconstriction. Therefore, BK(Ca) channels have an important role in regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. The activity of BK(Ca) channels is subject to modulation by various factors. Furthermore, the function of BK(Ca) channels are altered in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as pregnancy, hypertension and diabetes, which has dramatic impacts on vascular tone and hemodynamics. Consequently, compounds and genetic manipulation that alter activity and expression of the channel might be of therapeutic interest.

  3. Regulation of mitochondrial morphology by positive feedback interaction between PKCδ and Drp1 in vascular smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soyeon; Lee, Se-Yeon; Seo, Hyang-Hee; Ham, Onju; Lee, Changyeon; Park, Jun-Hee; Lee, Jiyun; Seung, Minji; Yun, Ina; Han, Sun M; Lee, Seahyoung; Choi, Eunhyun; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2015-04-01

    Dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) plays a critical role in mitochondrial fission which allows cell proliferation and Mdivi-1, a specific small molecule Drp1 inhibitor, is revealed to attenuate proliferation. However, few molecular mechanisms-related to Drp1 under stimulus for restenosis or atherosclerosis have been investigated in vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs). Therefore, we hypothesized that Drp1 inhibition can prevent vascular restenosis and investigated its regulatory mechanism. Angiotensin II (Ang II) or hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced proliferation and migration in SMCs were attenuated by down-regulation of Drp1 Ser 616 phosphorylation, which was demonstrated by in vitro assays for migration and proliferation. Excessive amounts of ROS production and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were prevented by Drp1 inhibition under Ang II and H2 O2 . Under the Ang II stimulation, activated Drp1 interacted with PKCδ and then activated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade and MMP2, but not MMP9. Furthermore, in ex vivo aortic ring assay, inhibition of the Drp1 had significant anti-proliferative and -migration effects for vSMCs. A formation of vascular neointima in response to a rat carotid artery balloon injury was prevented by Drp1 inhibition, which shows a beneficial effect of Drp1 regulation in the pathologic vascular condition. Drp1-mediated SMC proliferation and migration can be prevented by mitochondrial division inhibitor (Mdivi-1) in in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo, and these results suggest the possibility that Drp1 can be a new therapeutic target for restenosis or atherosclerosis.

  4. Preliminary Experience with Vascular Plugs for Parent Artery Occlusion of the Carotid or Vertebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woosung; Shin, Yong Sam; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Hong, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to report the authors' preliminary experience using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) (St. Jude Medical, Plymouth, MN, USA) for parent artery occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or vertebral artery (VA). Materials and Methods Between September 2008 and December 2015, we performed 52 therapeutic parent artery occlusions (PAOs) by an endovascular technique. Among them, 10 patients underwent PAO of the carotid or vertebral arteries using AVPs. Clinical and radiographic data of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results The devices were used for VA dissection that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in five patients, traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in two patients, spontaneous AVF in one patient, recurrence of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in one patient, and symptomatic unruptured giant ICA aneurysm in one patient. The devices were used in conjunction with detachable and/or pushable coils and in the extracranial segments of the ICA or VA. Complete occlusion of the parent artery was achieved in all patients. There was one intra-procedural rupture of the VA dissection during coiling prior to using the device. Conclusion Results from the current series suggest that the AVP might be used for therapeutic PAO in the extracranial segments of the ICA or VA. PMID:27847763

  5. Vascular narrowing in pulmonary arterial hypertension is heterogeneous: rethinking resistance.

    PubMed

    Rol, Nina; Timmer, Esther M; Faes, Theo J C; Noordegraaf, Anton Vonk; Grünberg, Katrien; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; Westerhof, Nico

    2017-03-01

    In idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), increased pulmonary vascular resistance is associated with structural narrowing of small (resistance) vessels and increased vascular tone. Current information on pulmonary vascular remodeling is mostly limited to averaged increases in wall thickness, but information on number of vessels affected and internal diameter decreases for vessels of different sizes is limited. Our aim was to quantify numbers of affected vessels and their internal diameter decrease for differently sized vessels in PAH in comparison with non-PAH patients. Internal and external diameters of transversally cut vessels were measured in five control subjects and six PAH patients. Resistance vessels were classified in Strahler orders, internal diameters 13 μm (order 1) to 500 μm (order 8). The number fraction, that is, percentage of affected vessels, and the internal diameter fraction, that is, percentage diamet