Abbasi, Lubna; Haidri, Fakhir Raza
To evaluate frequency of fibromyalgia in rheumatoid arthritis and its effect on disease activity score. Cross-sectional study. The Indus Hospital, Karachi, from December 2010 to May 2011. All adult patients of either gender diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis on the basis of clinical, laboratory and X-ray criteria were included in the study. The sample data was separated into two groups depending on presence or absence of fibromyalgia and 28 joint disease activity score (DAS-28) value was evaluated. There were 31 (25.83%) patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia (RAFM) out of the total 120. The median (IQR) age of patients was 40 (32 - 51) years. All were females. The overall female frequency was 79 (88.8%). The median (IQR) DAS-28 score in RA group was 4.9 (3.66 - 5.71), while the median (IQR) DAS-28 score in RAFM was 7.04 (6.62 - 7.64) [p < 0.0001]. The number of patient getting combination therapy of DMARD in RAFM group was 61.3% while in RA group was 42.7%. DAS-28 was found to be significantly higher in RAFM patients probably because of higher perception of pain.
Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Blumen, Helena; Tagoe, Clement E
To investigate how autoimmune thyroiditis (ATD) affects the clinical presentation of established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with particular reference to fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain (CWP). A cohort of 204 patients with RA for whom the presence or absence of autoimmune thyroid antibodies was documented was examined for the relationships between thyroid autoantibodies and fibromyalgia or CWP. We identified 29 % who tested positive for antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). The anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) was found in 24 %. Among the thyroid autoantibody-positive patients, 40 % had a diagnosis of fibromyalgia or CWP versus 17 % for antibody negative patients. Logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex, diabetes and BMI) indicated that TPOAb-positive patients were more likely to have fibromyalgia or CWP, with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.641, 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.110-10.207) P < .001. Adjusting for spinal degenerative disc disease did not change the association with fibromyalgia, OR 4.458, 95 % CI (1.950-10.191), P < .001. The OR between TgAb and fibromyalgia was not significant (P > .05). Additional logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex and BMI) indicated a significant relationship between TPOAb and fibromyalgia or CWP in patients without diabetes and those without hypothyroidism (OR of 4.873, 95 % CI (1.877-12.653), P = .001 and OR of 4.615 95 % CI (1.810-11.770), P = .001, respectively). There may be a positive association between the ATD antibody TPOAb, and fibromyalgia syndrome and CWP in patients with established RA.
BAYRAM, Korhan; EROL, Almıla
Introduction The close relationship between chronic pain, anxiety, depression, and childhood traumatic experiences is well known. The aim of this study is to investigate childhood traumatic experiences, anxiety, and depression levels in patients with fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, which are diseases that cause chronic pain. Method A total of 30 patients with fibromyalgia, 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 30 healthy controls, matched with patients with respect to gender, age, and education, were included in the study (90 participants in total). All participants were given a form for sociodemographic characteristics, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Patients were also asked to complete a numeric pain scale (NPS). Results Patients with fibromyalgia reported significantly higher scores for CTQ emotional abuse and HAD depression compared with healthy controls. Patients with fibromyalgia reported significantly higher scores for HAD anxiety than both healthy controls and patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis reported significantly higher scores for CTQ emotional abuse and HAD depression compared with healthy controls. Pain scores of patients with fibromyalgia were higher than in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Participants who had scores over the threshold on HAD anxiety and depression had significantly higher scores on CTQ sexual abuse. Conclusion Both patients with fibromyalgia and patients with rheumatoid arthritis have high levels of childhood traumatic experiences and depression. Patients with pain-related disorders should be examined for childhood traumatic experiences, anxiety, and depression for better treatment outcomes.
Kilic, Ozge; Sar, Vedat; Taycan, Okan; Aksoy-Poyraz, Cana; Erol, Turgut C; Tecer, Ozlem; Emul, Murat H; Ozmen, Mine
The aim of this study was to inquire about the possible relations of childhood trauma, anger, and dissociation to depression among women with fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis. Fifty female patients diagnosed as having fibromyalgia (n = 30) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 20) participated in the study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ), Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule were administered to all participants. Women with a lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder had higher scores for somatoform and psychoform dissociation than the nondepressive patients. However, childhood trauma scores did not differ between the 2 groups. In regression analysis, current severity of depression (BDI) was predicted by psychoform dissociation (DIS-Q) and lower education, and lifetime diagnosis of major depression was predicted by somatoform dissociation (SDQ). Whereas childhood emotional neglect predicted somatoform dissociation, psychoform dissociation was predicted by childhood sexual abuse. Mental processing of anger seems to be 1 of the dimensions of psychodynamics in trauma-related depressive conditions. In the context of the perceived threat of loss of control due to expressed anger and mental disintegration, somatoform dissociation seems to contribute to overmodulation of emotions in dissociative depression. Among patients suffering from physical illness with possible psychosomatic dimensions, assessment of somatoform dissociation in addition to psychoform dissociation may be helpful to understand diverse psychopathological trajectories emerging in the aftermath of childhood adversities. The recently proposed category of "dissociative depression" (Sar, 2011) seems to be a promising concept for future research on psychosomatic aspects of traumatic stress.
Fibromyalgia is a disorder that causes muscle pain and fatigue. People with fibromyalgia have "tender points" on the body. Tender points ... when pressure is put on them. People with fibromyalgia may also have other symptoms, such as Trouble ...
... Executive Summary Resources Infographics Online Training Press Room Fibromyalgia Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... their quality of life? More information What is fibromyalgia? Fibromyalgia (\\fiÂ·broÂ·myÂ·alÂ·giÂ·a\\) is ...
Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony Science
Objectives. To compare the mysteriousness scores of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory in fibromyalgia. Methods. Two cohorts of patients, one with fibromyalgia (FM) and one with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), completed the Mystery Scale component of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory to determine whether subjects in the two diagnostic groups had significantly different scores on the Mystery Scale. Results. A total of 126 subjects (64 FM, 62 RA) completed all questionnaires. The FM group had a greater percentage of female subjects, more severe pain, more severe anxiety, more severe depression, and a higher perceived injustice score. When the RA and FM group scores for the Mystery Scale were adjusted for age, sex, pain severity, HADS scores, and perceived injustice scores, the FM group still had a higher Mystery Scale score. Discussion. Fibromyalgia is associated with a higher level of perception of mysteriousness in the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory than is seen with rheumatoid arthritis. This difference appears to be independent of levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and perceived injustice. This sense of mysteriousness may reflect a lack of understanding of pain in fibromyalgia as previously reported and may be an area to be addressed in therapy.
... Reduced ability to exercise Tension or migraine headaches Exams and Tests To be diagnosed with fibromyalgia, you ... yourself include: Eat a well-balanced diet. Avoid caffeine. Practice a good sleep routine to improve quality ...
... the knees, the hip joints, and around the neck.Fibromyalgia is most common among people between 35 ... a feeling of tension in your shoulders or neck, an upset stomach, or a headache. Unfortunately, there ...
Choy, Ernest H; Mease, Philip J
This article discusses the key symptom domains to be assessed in fibromyalgia. Development of a consensus on a core set of outcome measures that should be assessed and reported in all clinical trials is needed to facilitate interpretation, pooling, and comparison of results. This aligns with the key objective of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials initiative to improve outcome measurement in rheumatic diseases through a data-driven interactive consensus process.
Molina Molina, María Ignacia; Pinochet Paiva, Carmen María; Quezada Morales, José Ignacio
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, highly disabling autoimmune disease that requires aggressive pharmacological treatment using immunomodulatory drugs grouped under the name of Disease-Modifying Anti-rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs). Leflunomide is one of the most frequently prescribed. This drug, through its mechanism of action is able to suppress key factors in the disease process. However, its use is not without side effects. While there are series that report that the most prevalent adverse effects are diarrhea, nausea, rash and alopecia, there are few reported cases of alopecia universalis secondary to the use of leflunomide. We present a case in the Regional Hospital of Talca and a review of the use of leflunomide.
McCain, G A; Tilbe, K S
Twenty patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were assessed as outpatients over a 3 day period with respect to peak and trough levels of plasma cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, ACTH and thyroid stimulating hormone. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome had loss of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol (trough levels 347.3 +/- 254.7 vs 232.8 +/- 70.0 nmol/l, p less than 0.001) compared with RA patients. Thirty-five percent (7/20) of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and only 5 percent (1/20) of those with RA exhibited abnormal dexamethasone suppression tests (p less than 0.001). No differences were noted in the diurnal variation of other hormones tested. Beck Depression Inventory scores were similar in both groups and no patient exhibited clinical evidence of depression. These data suggest alteration in the pituitary hypothalamic axis with respect to cortisol secretion in fibromyalgia syndrome, perhaps as a consequence of chronic pain.
Russek, Leslie N; LaShomb, Emily A; Ware, Amy M; Wesner, Sarah M; Westcott, Vanessa
Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is one of the most common inherited connective tissue disorders. It causes significant pain and disability for all age groups, ranging from developmental delay among children to widespread chronic pain in adults. Experts in JHS assert that the condition is under-recognized and poorly managed. The aim of this study was to assess US physical therapists' knowledge about JHS compared with other causes of widespread pain and activity limitations: fibromyalgia, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and adult rheumatoid arthritis. Cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of randomly selected members of the American Physical Therapy Association and descriptive statistics were used to explore physical therapists' knowledge about JHS, fibromyalgia, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and adult rheumatoid arthritis, and chi square was used to compare knowledge about the different conditions. The response rate was 15.5% (496). Although 36% recognized the Beighton Scale for assessing joint hypermobility, only 26.8% of respondents were familiar with the Brighton Criteria for diagnosing JHS. Few respondents (11-19%) realized that JHS has extra-articular features such as anxiety disorder, fatigue, headache, delayed motor development, easy bruising and sleep disturbance. Physical therapists working in environments most likely to see patients with JHS underestimated the likely prevalence in their patient population. The results suggest that many physical therapists in the United States are not familiar with the diagnostic criteria, prevalence or common clinical presentation of JHS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... treatment. Treatment for fibromyalgia may include the following: Pain management. Three medicines have been approved by the U.S. ... future. Your doctor may also suggest non-narcotic pain relievers, low-dose antidepressants, ... Sleep management. Getting the right amount of sleep at night ...
Häuser, Winfried; Ablin, Jacob; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Littlejohn, Geoffrey; Luciano, Juan V; Usui, Chie; Walitt, Brian
Fibromyalgia is a common illness characterized by chronic widespread pain, sleep problems (including unrefreshing sleep), physical exhaustion and cognitive difficulties. The definition, pathogenesis and treatment are controversial, and some even contest the existence of this disorder. In 1990, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) defined classification criteria that required multiple tender points (areas of tenderness occurring in muscles and muscle-tendon junctions) and chronic widespread pain. In 2010, the ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria excluded tender points, allowed less extensive pain and placed reliance on patient-reported somatic symptoms and cognitive difficulties. Fibromyalgia occurs in all populations worldwide, and symptom prevalence ranges between 2% and 4% in the general population. The prevalence of people who are actually diagnosed with fibromyalgia ('administrative prevalence') is much lower. A model of fibromyalgia pathogenesis has been suggested in which biological and psychosocial variables interact to influence the predisposition, triggering and aggravation of a chronic disease, but the details are unclear. Diagnosis requires the history of a typical cluster of symptoms and the exclusion of a somatic disease that sufficiently explains the symptoms by medical examination. Current evidence-based guidelines emphasize the value of multimodal treatments, which encompass both non-pharmacological and selected pharmacological treatments tailored to individual symptoms, including pain, fatigue, sleep problems and mood problems. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/LIBdDX.
Drummond, Peter D; Willox, Margot
The aim of this study was to determine whether the clinical pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis or fibromyalgia would increase during standard laboratory tasks and, if so, whether these increases were linked with individual differences in psychological distress. Twenty-three patients with fibromyalgia and 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis rated changes in clinical pain after an acoustic startle stimulus, during painful forehead cooling, and during stressful mental arithmetic. In addition, pain tolerance was assessed during a submaximal effort tourniquet test, and patients provided ratings of distress on a standard Depression, Anxiety and Stress Inventory. Pain at rest was associated with depression scores in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and was associated with stress scores in the fibromyalgia group. However, pain tolerance was unrelated to individual differences in psychological distress in either group. In patients with fibromyalgia, clinical pain increased after the acoustic startle stimulus and painful forehead cooling, and increased during stressful mental arithmetic. Arthritic pain also increased during forehead cooling and mental arithmetic in association with indices of psychological distress. These findings suggest that processes linked with individual differences in distress aggravate pain in rheumatoid arthritis, whereas some other mechanism (e.g., failure of stress-related pain modulation processes or an aberrant interaction between nociceptive afferent and sympathetic efferent fibers) triggers stress-induced pain in fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wolfe, Frederick; Walitt, Brian T.; Katz, Robert S.; Häuser, Winfried
Purpose To describe and evaluate somatic symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia, determine the relation between somatization syndromes and fibromyalgia, and evaluate symptom data in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) criteria for somatic symptom disorder. Methods We administered the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), a measure of somatic symptom severity to 6,233 persons with fibromyalgia, RA, and osteoarthritis. PHQ-15 scores of 5, 10, and 15 represent low, medium, and high somatic symptom severity cut-points. A likely somatization syndrome was diagnosed when PHQ-15 score was ≥10. The intensity of fibromyalgia diagnostic symptoms was measured by the polysymptomatic distress (PSD) scale. Results 26.4% of RA patients and 88.9% with fibromyalgia had PHQ-15 scores ≥10 compared with 9.3% in the general population. With each step-wise increase in PHQ-15 category, more abnormal mental and physical health status scores were observed. RA patients satisfying fibromyalgia criteria increased from 1.2% in the PHQ-15 low category to 88.9% in the high category. The sensitivity and specificity of PHQ-15≥10 for fibromyalgia diagnosis was 80.9% and 80.0% (correctly classified = 80.3%) compared with 84.3% and 93.7% (correctly classified = 91.7%) for the PSD scale. 51.4% of fibromyalgia patients and 14.8% with RA had fatigue, sleep or cognitive problems that were severe, continuous, and life-disturbing; and almost all fibromyalgia patients had severe impairments of function and quality of life. Conclusions All patients with fibromyalgia will satisfy the DSM-5 “A” criterion for distressing somatic symptoms, and most would seem to satisfy DSM-5 “B” criterion because symptom impact is life-disturbing or associated with substantial impairment of function and quality of life. But the “B” designation requires special knowledge that symptoms are “disproportionate” or “excessive,” something that is
Doss, Jayanth; Mo, Huan; Carroll, Robert J; Crofford, Leslie J; Denny, Joshua C
The differences between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been widely reported. We performed electronic health record (EHR)-based phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) to identify disease associations in seropositive and seronegative RA. A validated algorithm identified RA subjects from the de-identified version of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center EHR. Serotypes were determined by rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) values. We tested EHR-derived phenotypes using PheWAS comparing seropositive RA and seronegative RA, yielding disease associations. PheWAS was also performed in RF-positive versus RF-negative subjects and ACPA-positive versus ACPA-negative subjects. Following PheWAS, select phenotypes were then manually reviewed, and fibromyalgia was specifically evaluated using a validated algorithm. A total of 2,199 RA individuals with either RF or ACPA testing were identified. Of these, 1,382 patients (63%) were classified as seropositive. Seronegative RA was associated with myalgia and myositis (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, P = 3.7 × 10(-10) ) and back pain. A manual review of the health record showed that among subjects coded for Myalgia and Myositis, ∼80% had fibromyalgia. Follow-up with a specific EHR algorithm for fibromyalgia confirmed that seronegative RA was associated with fibromyalgia (OR 1.8, P = 4.0 × 10(-6) ). Seropositive RA was associated with chronic airway obstruction (OR 2.2, P = 1.4 × 10(-4) ) and tobacco use (OR 2.2, P = 7.0 × 10(-4) ). This PheWAS of RA patients identifies a strong association between seronegativity and fibromyalgia. It also affirms relationships between seropositivity and chronic airway obstruction and between seropositivity and tobacco use. These findings demonstrate the utility of the PheWAS approach to discover novel phenotype associations within different subgroups of a disease. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
... FAQs Five Key Public Health Messages Arthritis Types Fibromyalgia Gout Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Management Risk Factors ... the Unites States is osteoarthritis followed by gout, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis. Top of Page What are ...
... Spondylitis, Q&A Bursitis and Tendinitis, Q&A Fibromyalgia, Q&A Gout, Q&A Juvenile Arthritis, Q& ... role. For example, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and fibromyalgia are more common among women. Other Rheumatic Diseases ...
Konno, Takahiko; Wakao, Rika; Fujita, Hiroko; Fujita, Hiroyoshi
Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a widely distributed pain. While many rheumatologists and pain physicians have considered it to be a pain disorder, psychiatry, psychology, and general medicine have deemed it to be a syndrome (FMS) or psychosomatic disorder. The lack of concrete structural and/or pathological evidence has made patients suffer prejudice that FMS is a medically unexplained symptom, implying inauthenticity. Furthermore, FMS often exhibits comorbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA), both of which show similar indications. In this study, disease specific biomarkers were sought in blood samples from patients to facilitate objective diagnoses of FMS, and distinguish it from RA and SpA. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and healthy donors (HD) were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in PBMCs and the mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of cell surface antigen expression in MAIT cells were analyzed. Results There was a decrease in the MAIT cell population in FMS, RA, and SpA compared with HD. Among the cell surface antigens in MAIT cells, three chemokine receptors, CCR4, CCR7, and CXCR1, a natural killer (NK) receptor, NKp80, a signaling lymphocyte associated molecule (SLAM) family, CD150, a degrunulation marker, CD107a, and a coreceptor, CD8β emerged as potential biomarkers for FMS to distinguish from HD. Additionally, a memory marker, CD44 and an inflammatory chemokine receptor, CXCR1 appeared possible markers for RA, while a homeostatic chemokine receptor, CXCR4 deserved for SpA to differentiate from FMS. Furthermore, the drug treatment interruption resulted in alternation of the expression of CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD27, CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS), CD127 (IL-7 receptor α), CD94, NKp80, an activation marker, CD69, an integrin family member, CD49d, and a dipeptidase, CD26, in FMS. Conclusions
Wolfe, F; Kong, S X
Advances in health measurement have led to the application of Rasch Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis (Rasch analysis) to evaluate instruments measuring health status and quality of life of patients, including the Health Assessment Questionnaire and SF-36. This study investigated the extent to which the Western Ontario MacMaster osteoarthritis questionnaire (WOMAC) satisfies the Rasch model, particularly in respect to unidimensionality, item separation, and linearity. The study included a total of 2205 patients, 1013 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 655 with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip (OA), and 537 with fibromyalgia. All patients completed the WOMAC as part of a longitudinal study of rheumatic disease outcomes. To examine whether the WOMAC pain and function scales each fits the Rasch model, the Winsteps program was used to assess item difficulty, scale unidimensionality, item separation, and linearity. Although the WOMAC worked best in OA, regardless of disorder, both the pain and function scales were unidimensional, had adequate item separation, and had a long range (25-150) of linearity in the function scale. Several functional items, however, had a high information weight fit (INFIT) statistic, indicating poor fit to the model. These items included "getting in and out of the bath" and "going down stairs." The WOMAC generally satisfies the requirements of Rasch item response theory across all disorders studied, and is an appropriate measure of lower body function in OA, RA and fibromyalgia. Although some individual items do not fit well, it is not likely that removing such items would result in more than overall minimal differences, and it will be difficult to remove traces of multidimensionality while keeping the central constructs of progressive lower body musculoskeletal abnormality intact. In addition, it is possible that a "purer", still more unidimensional instrument would be less useful in clinical trials and epidemiological studies by restricting
Hellou, Raneen; Brenner, Inbal; Buskila, Dan; Jacob, Giris; Elkayam, Ori; Aloush, Valerie
Objective. The association between Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and childhood maltreatment and adversity has frequently been proposed but limited data exists regarding the transcultural nature of this association. Methods. 75 Israeli FMS patients and 23 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients were compared. Childhood maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and potential depressive and anxiety disorders were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. FMS severity was assessed by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI), the Symptom Severity Score (SSS), and the FIQ. PTSD was diagnosed according to the DSM IV. RA severity was assessed by the RA Disease Activity Index. Health status was assessed by the SF-36. Results. Similar to reports in other countries, high levels of self-reported childhood adversity were reported by Israeli FMS patients. PTSD was significantly more common among FMS patients compared with RA patients, as well as childhood emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Levels of depression and anxiety were significantly higher among FMS patients. Conclusion. The study demonstrated the cross cultural association between FMS and childhood maltreatment, including neglect, emotional abuse, and PTSD. Significant differences were demonstrated between FMS patients and patients suffering from RA, a model of an inflammatory chronic rheumatic disease. PMID:28167861
Forslind, K; Fredriksson, E; Nived, O
Twenty-one of 25 consecutive primary fibromyalgia or fibrositis patients, identified during a 5-year period in a tertiary care day-ward for pain syndromes, were re-examined. Fifteen fulfilled criteria for fibromyalgia but unexpectedly, all cases had either psychiatric disturbance or thyroid dysfunction. Of the four patients not seen at follow-up, two had developed neurological diseases, another rheumatoid arthritis and one other hypothyroidism. Thus, after 5 years no patient fulfilled the criteria for primary fibromyalgia. Women occupied as manual workers were over-represented. Most patients reported beneficial effects of physiotherapy. None of the patients has been able to return to full time work.
Pratt, C. Herbert; King, Lloyd E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Christiano, Angela M.; Sundberg, John P.
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by transient, non-scarring hair loss and preservation of the hair follicle. Hair loss can take many forms ranging from loss in well-defined patches to diffuse or total hair loss, which can affect all hair bearing sites. Patchy alopecia affecting the scalp is the most common type. Alopecia areata affects nearly 2% of the general population at some point during their lifetime. Skin biopsies of alopecia areata affected skin show a lymphocytic infiltrate in and around the bulb or the lower part of the hair follicle in anagen (hair growth) phase. A breakdown of immune privilege of the hair follicle is thought to be an important driver of alopecia areata. Genetic studies in patients and mouse models showed that alopecia areata is a complex, polygenic disease. Several genetic susceptibility loci were identified associated with signaling pathways that are important to hair follicle cycling and development. Alopecia areata is usually diagnosed based on clinical manifestations, but dermoscopy and histopathology can be helpful. Alopecia areata is difficult to manage medically, but recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms have revealed new treatments and the possibility of remission in the near future. PMID:28300084
Lazzarini, Rosana; Capareli, Gabriela Cunha; Buense, Roberta; Lellis, Rute Facchini
Alopecia areata is a non-scarring form of alopecia that can be localized or widespread. Its etiology is unknown, but immunological factors are implicated in its pathogenesis. With the more frequent use of anti TNFα biologic drugs, some alopecia areata cases during their use have been described. We report a case of universal alopecia in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis while using adalimumab and leflunomide. PMID:24770511
Wallace, Daniel J; Gavin, Igor M; Karpenko, Oleksly; Barkhordar, Farnaz; Gillis, Bruce S
Making a correct diagnosis is pivotal in the practice of clinical rheumatology. Occasionally, the consultation fails to provide desired clarity in making labeling an individual as having fibromyalgia (FM), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A chemokine and cytokine multiplex assay was developed and tested with the goal of improving and achieving an accurate differential diagnosis. 160 patients with FM, 98 with RA and 100 with SLE fulfilling accepted criteria were recruited and compared to 119 controls. Supernatant cytokine concentrations for IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta were determined using the Luminex multiplex immunoassay bead array technology after mitogenic stimulation of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Each patient's profile was scored using a logistical regression model to achieve statistically determined weighting for each chemokine and cytokine. Among the 477 patients evaluated, the mean scores for FM (1.7 ± 1.2; 1.52-1.89), controls (-3.56 ± 5.7; -4.59 to -2.54), RA (-0.68 ± 2.26; -1.12 to -0.23) and SLE (-1.45 ± 3.34, -2.1 to -0.79). Ninety-three percent with FM scored positive compared to only 11% of healthy controls, 69% RA or 71% SLE patients had negative scores. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value for having FM compared to controls was 93, 89, 92 and 91%, respectively (p < 2.2 × 10(-16)). Evaluating cytokine and chemokine profiles in stimulated cells reveals patterns that are uniquely present in patients with FM. This assay can be a useful tool in assisting clinicians in differentiating systemic inflammatory autoimmune processes from FM and its related syndromes and healthy individuals.
Pratt, C Herbert; King, Lloyd E; Messenger, Andrew G; Christiano, Angela M; Sundberg, John P
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by transient, non-scarring hair loss and preservation of the hair follicle. Hair loss can take many forms ranging from loss in well-defined patches to diffuse or total hair loss, which can affect all hair-bearing sites. Patchy alopecia areata affecting the scalp is the most common type. Alopecia areata affects nearly 2% of the general population at some point during their lifetime. Skin biopsies of affected skin show a lymphocytic infiltrate in and around the bulb or the lower part of the hair follicle in the anagen (hair growth) phase. A breakdown of immune privilege of the hair follicle is thought to be an important driver of alopecia areata. Genetic studies in patients and mouse models have shown that alopecia areata is a complex, polygenic disease. Several genetic susceptibility loci were identified to be associated with signalling pathways that are important to hair follicle cycling and development. Alopecia areata is usually diagnosed based on clinical manifestations, but dermoscopy and histopathology can be helpful. Alopecia areata is difficult to manage medically, but recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms have revealed new treatments and the possibility of remission in the near future.
Davies, Kate E; Yesudian, PD
Postoperative or pressure alopecia (PA) is an infrequently reported group of scarring and non-scarring alopecias. It has been reported after immobilization of the head during surgery and following prolonged stays on intensive care units, and may be analogous to a healed pressure ulcer. This review presents a summary of cases published in pediatrics and after cardiac, gynecological, abdominal and facial surgeries. PA may manifest as swelling, tenderness, and ulceration of the scalp in the first few postoperative days; in other cases, the alopecia may be the presenting feature with a history of scalp immobilization in the previous four weeks. The condition may cause considerable psychological distress in the long term. Regular head turning schedules and vigilance for the condition should be used as prophylaxis to prevent permanent alopecia. A multi-center study in high-risk patients would be beneficial to shed further light on the etiology of the condition. PMID:23180911
... Walk Test (SMWT) Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) Evidence Based Practice (EBP) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) Fracture Risk ... Investigators Resources for Doctoral Students/Post-Doctoral Fellows Evidence-Based Practice for Academic Researchers Responsible Data Management in ...
... Walk Test (SMWT) Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) Evidence Based Practice (EBP) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) Fracture Risk ... Investigators Resources for Doctoral Students/Post-Doctoral Fellows Evidence-Based Practice for Academic Researchers Responsible Data Management in ...
Trüeb, R M
Cicatricial alopecias are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The irreversibility and cosmetic sequelae of cicatricial alopecia demand special diagnostic attention. Loss of follicular orifices points to permanent hair loss, due to irreversible damage to essential parts of the follicle or destruction of the entire follicle. Where there is no obvious physical/chemical injury or acute infectious etiology, clinical differential diagnosis may be difficult. Clinical inspection is of limited usefulness. Accurate diagnosis based on a careful patient history, examination, microbiological studies, and scalp biopsy are prerequisite to therapy. On the basis of histology, a differentiation is made between primary cicatricial alopecias due to preferential destruction of the follicle, and secondary cicatricial alopecias resulting from events outside impinging upon and eradicating the follicle. The primary cicatricial alopecias include well-defined chronic inflammatory diseases differentiated depending on the type and pattern of inflammation. Although clinicopathologic features allow for diagnosis in most cases, therapeutic limits reflect the boundaries of our present understanding. With expanding technologies for dissecting the immunologic and molecular basis, there is hope for a deeper understanding of the underlying pathogenesis and novel therapeutic interventions.
Kosek, Eva; Altawil, Reem; Kadetoff, Diana; Finn, Anja; Westman, Marie; Le Maître, Erwan; Andersson, Magnus; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Lampa, Jon
The purpose of this study was to relate central inflammation to autonomic activity (heart rate variability (HRV)) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia (FM). RA patients had reduced parasympathetic activity and FM patients had increased sympathetic activity compared to healthy controls. Comparisons between RA and FM showed higher cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) interleukin (IL)-1β inversely correlated to parasympathetic activity in RA. The FM patients had higher concentrations of CSF IL-8, IL-1Ra, IL-4 and IL-10, but none of these cytokines correlated with HRV. In conclusion, we found different profiles of central cytokines, i.e., elevated IL-1β in inflammatory pain (RA) and elevated IL-8 in dysfunctional pain (FM). PMID:25773155
Wolfe, F.; Kong, S.
OBJECTIVE—Advances in health measurement have led to the application of Rasch Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis (Rasch analysis) to evaluate instruments measuring health status and quality of life of patients, including the Health Assessment Questionnaire and SF-36. This study investigated the extent to which the Western Ontario MacMaster osteoarthritis questionnaire (WOMAC) satisfies the Rasch model, particularly in respect to unidimensionality, item separation, and linearity. METHODS—The study included a total of 2205 patients, 1013 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 655 with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip (OA), and 537 with fibromyalgia. All patients completed the WOMAC as part of a longitudinal study of rheumatic disease outcomes. To examine whether the WOMAC pain and function scales each fits the Rasch model, the Winsteps program was used to assess item difficulty, scale unidimensionality, item separation, and linearity. RESULTS—Although the WOMAC worked best in OA, regardless of disorder, both the pain and function scales were unidimensional, had adequate item separation, and had a long range (25-150) of linearity in the function scale. Several functional items, however, had a high information weight fit (INFIT) statistic, indicating poor fit to the model. These items included "getting in and out of the bath" and "going down stairs." CONCLUSION—The WOMAC generally satisfies the requirements of Rasch item response theory across all disorders studied, and is an appropriate measure of lower body function in OA, RA and fibromyalgia. Although some individual items do not fit well, it is not likely that removing such items would result in more than overall minimal differences, and it will be difficult to remove traces of multidimensionality while keeping the central constructs of progressive lower body musculoskeletal abnormality intact. In addition, it is possible that a "purer", still more unidimensional instrument would be less useful in
Piraccini, B M; Alessandrini, A
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of alopecia, affecting up to 80% of men and 50% of women in the course of their life. AGA is caused by a progressive reduction in the diameter, length and pigmentation of the hair. Hair thinning results from the effects of the testosterone metabolite dehydrotestosterone (DHT) on androgen-sensitive hair follicles. In women, AGA produces diffuse thinning of the crown region with maintenance of the frontal hairline (Ludwig pattern AGA). In premenopausal women, AGA can be a sign of hyperandrogenism, together with hirsutism and acnes. Male pattern is characterized by bitemporal recession of the frontal hairline, followed by diffuse thinning at the vertex. Today, scalp dermoscopy is used routinely in patients with androgenetic alopecia, as it facilitates the diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other diseases, allows staging of severity, and allows you to monitor the progress of the disease in time and response to treatment. AGA is a progressive disease that tends to worsen with time. Medical treatment of AGA includes topical minoxidil, antiandrogen agents, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors.
Distinguishing fibromyalgia from rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus in clinical questionnaires: an analysis of the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and its variant, the Symptom Impact Questionnaire (SIQR), along with pain locations
Introduction The purpose of this study was to explore a data set of patients with fibromyalgia (FM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who completed the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and its variant, the Symptom Impact Questionnaire (SIQR), for discriminating features that could be used to differentiate FM from RA and SLE in clinical surveys. Methods The frequency and means of comparing FM, RA and SLE patients on all pain sites and SIQR variables were calculated. Multiple regression analysis was then conducted to identify the significant pain sites and SIQR predictors of group membership. Thereafter stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the order of variables in predicting their maximal statistical contribution to group membership. Partial correlations assessed their unique contribution, and, last, two-group discriminant analysis provided a classification table. Results The data set contained information on the SIQR and also pain locations in 202 FM, 31 RA and 20 SLE patients. As the SIQR and pain locations did not differ much between the RA and SLE patients, they were grouped together (RA/SLE) to provide a more robust analysis. The combination of eight SIQR items and seven pain sites correctly classified 99% of FM and 90% of RA/SLE patients in a two-group discriminant analysis. The largest reported SIQR differences (FM minus RA/SLE) were seen for the parameters "tenderness to touch," "difficulty cleaning floors" and "discomfort on sitting for 45 minutes." Combining the SIQR and pain locations in a stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the seven most important predictors of group membership were mid-lower back pain (29%; 79% vs. 16%), tenderness to touch (11.5%; 6.86 vs. 3.02), neck pain (6.8%; 91% vs. 39%), hand pain (5%; 64% vs. 77%), arm pain (3%; 69% vs. 18%), outer lower back pain (1.7%; 80% vs. 22%) and sitting for 45 minutes (1.4%; 5.56 vs. 1.49). Conclusions A
Perera, Eshini; Yip, Leona; Sinclair, Rodney
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring alopecia that usually presents as well-circumscribed patches of sudden hair loss and affects 0.1-0.2% of the population. The aetiology of AA is thought to be both genetic and autoimmune in nature. One hundred and thirty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to AA have been identified in 8 regions of the genome and have been found to be associated with T cells or the hair follicle. Furthermore, patients with AA have been found to have an increased frequency of hair follicle-specific auto-antibodies. The diagnosis of AA is usually made on clinical grounds, and further investigations are not usually needed. Intralesional corticosteroids remain the treatment of choice. Systemic steroids are also highly effective; however, side effects make them less desirable to both patients and physicians. Other available treatment options include anthralin, minoxidil, topical immunotherapy and systemic immunosuppressants. These treatments will be discussed in depth in this chapter. The morbidity of AA is largely psychological; therefore, the successful treatment of AA should include focusing on improving the psychological impact of this condition. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.
Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a background understanding of the therapeutic regimens and treatment outcomes for alopecia areata (AA), as well as to help identify those patients for whom dermatologist referral might be required. Sources of information PubMed was searched for relevant articles regarding the treatment of AA. Main message Alopecia areata is a form of autoimmune hair loss affecting both children and adults. While there is no associated mortality with the disease, morbidity from the psychological effects of hair loss can be devastating. Upon identification of AA and the disease subtype, an appropriate therapeutic regimen can be instituted to help halt hair loss or possibly initiate hair regrowth. First-line treatment involves intralesional triamcinolone with topical steroids or minoxidil or both. Primary care physicians can safely prescribe and institute these treatments. More advanced or refractory cases might require oral immunosuppressants, topical diphenylcyclopropenone, or topical anthralin. Eyelash loss can be treated with prostaglandin analogues. Those with extensive loss might choose camouflaging options or a hair prosthesis. It is important to monitor for psychiatric disorders owing to the profound psychological effects of hair loss. Conclusion Family physicians will encounter many patients experiencing hair loss. Recognition of AA and an understanding of the underlying disease process will allow an appropriate therapeutic regimen to be instituted. More advanced or refractory cases need to be identified, allowing for an appropriate dermatologist referral when necessary. PMID:26371098
... or have trouble moving around, you might have arthritis. Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints ... joint can become severely damaged. Some kinds of arthritis can also cause problems in your organs, such ...
Wolfe, Frederick; Petri, Michelle; Alarcón, Graciela S; Goldman, John; Chakravarty, Eliza F; Katz, Robert S; Karlson, Elizabeth W
To determine if fibromyalgia (FM) or fibromyalgia-ness (the tendency to respond to illness and psychosocial stress with fatigue, widespread pain, general increase in symptoms, and similar factors) is increased in patients with compared to those without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); to determine whether FM or fibromyalgia-ness biases the SLE Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ); and to determine if the SLAQ is overly sensitive to FM symptoms. We developed a 16-item SLE Symptom Scale (SLESS) modeled on the SLAQ and used that scale to investigate the relation between SLE symptoms and fibromyalgia-ness in 23,321 patients with rheumatic disease. FM was diagnosed by survey FM criteria, and fibromyalgia-ness was measured using the Symptom Intensity (SI) Scale. As comparison groups, we combined patients with rheumatoid arthritis and noninflammatory rheumatic disorders into an "arthritis" group and also utilized a physician-diagnosed group of patients with FM. FM was identified in 22.1% of SLE and 17.0% of those with arthritis. The SI scale was minimally increased in SLE. The correlation between SLAQ and SLESS was 0.738. SLESS/SLAQ scale items (Raynaud's phenomenon, rash, fever, easy bruising, hair loss) were significantly more associated with SLE than FM, while the reverse was true for headache, abdominal pain, paresthesias/stroke, fatigue, cognitive problems, and muscle pain or weakness. There was no evidence of disproportionate symptom-reporting associated with fibromyalgia-ness. Self-reported SLE was associated with an increased prevalence of FM that was unconfirmed by physicians, compared to SLE confirmed by physicians. The prevalence of FM in SLE is minimally increased compared with its prevalence in patients with arthritis. Fibromyalgia-ness does not bias the SLESS and should not bias SLE assessments, including the SLAQ.
... What Causes Alopecia Areata? Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease. Normally the immune system protects the body against infection and disease. In an autoimmune disease, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks some part ...
Katz, Patricia; Pedro, Sofia; Michaud, Kaleb
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed to improve measurement of patient-reported outcomes. We examined performance of the 29-item PROMIS Profile (PROMIS-29) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), fibromyalgia (FM), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Participants in the National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases completed the PROMIS-29, which includes 4-item forms for 7 PROMIS domains. Scales were scored and converted to T scores. Distributions of scale scores were examined, convergent and known-groups validity was tested, and differences in scores from online versus paper questionnaires were examined. Sample sizes were 4,346 for RA, 727 for OA, 241 for FM, and 240 for SLE. Participants were predominantly female, with a mean disease duration ≥20 years, and were ages ∼60 years. Large ceiling effects occurred for some PROMIS-29 scales. Correlations of PROMIS-29 scores with scales measuring similar constructs ranged from high to moderate for RA, OA, and SLE; correlations for FM were markedly lower for some scales. Consistent patterns of worsening PROMIS-29 scores with increasing disease severity or declining health status were observed. Differences in scores obtained by online versus paper questionnaires ranged from 0.3 to 2.2 points. Results provide guarded support for using the PROMIS-29 in these conditions. The PROMIS-29 4-item static forms appear to identify differences among levels of health and to measure constructs similar to those measured by legacy questionnaires. However, large ceiling effects suggest that measurement may be more precise at the "bad" ends of the scales, which may limit responsiveness, and differences by mode of administration appear to exist. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoids in chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases (fibromyalgia syndrome, back pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis): A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Fitzcharles, M-A; Baerwald, C; Ablin, J; Häuser, W
In the absence of an ideal treatment for chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases, there is interest in the potential effects of cannabinoid molecules, particularly in the context of global interest in the legalization of herbal cannabis for medicinal use. A systematic search until April 2015 was conducted in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, www.cannabis-med.org and clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with a study duration of at least 2 weeks and at least ten patients per treatment arm with herbal cannabis or pharmaceutical cannabinoid products in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), osteoarthritis (OA), chronic spinal pain, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pain. Outcomes were reduction of pain, sleep problems, fatigue and limitations of quality of life for efficacy, dropout rates due to adverse events for tolerability, and serious adverse events for safety. The methodology quality of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was evaluated by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Two RCTs of 2 and 4 weeks duration respectively with nabilone, including 71 FMS patients, one 4-week trial with nabilone, including 30 spinal pain patients, and one 5-week study with tetrahydrocannbinol/cannabidiol, including 58 RA patients were included. One inclusion criterion was pain refractory to conventional treatment in three studies. No RCT with OA patients was found. The risk of bias was high for three studies. The findings of a superiority of cannabinoids over controls (placebo, amitriptyline) were not consistent. Cannabinoids were generally well tolerated despite some troublesome side effects and safe during the study duration. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for recommendation for any cannabinoid preparations for symptom management in patients with chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases.
... with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about her conditions. When did you start having symptoms of fibromyalgia? I actually ... with my right wrist since the third grade. Did your problems become more severe over time? Yes, ...
Rossi, A; Calvieri, S
Satisfactory, evidence-based medicine regimen for treating alopecia are available in literature only regarding alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia. About all the other kinds of alopecia, recommendations for therapy are still based upon the literature review, expert opinion, personal experience, expected adverse effects, and some pragmatic considerations such as the cost and the patient's compliance. Cicatricial alopecia is one of the most difficult challenges for dermatologists, because it is uncommon, its etiopathogenesis is not completely understood and there is no best therapy approach. Moreover, in Italy, most of the drugs mentioned below are not always available. Finally, therapies for hair disorders are long treatment and not always lead to a good improvement.
Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella
Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.
Sorrell, Jennifer; Petukhova, Lynn; Reingold, Rachel; Christiano, Angela; Garzon, Maria
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease and it is challenging to predict which patients will have severe disease. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify comorbidities in children enrolled in the National Alopecia Areata Registry. Atopic dermatitis was more common in patients with severe AA than in those with mild disease. The most common autoimmune comorbidities were vitiligo, psoriasis, thyroid disease, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mediterranean diet or extended fasting's influence on changing the intestinal microflora, immunoglobulin A secretion and clinical outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia: an observational study
Michalsen, Andreas; Riegert, Markus; Lüdtke, Rainer; Bäcker, Marcus; Langhorst, Jost; Schwickert, Myriam; Dobos, Gustav J
Background Alterations in the intestinal bacterial flora are believed to be contributing factors to many chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases including rheumatic diseases. While microbiological fecal culture analysis is now increasingly used, little is known about the relationship of changes in intestinal flora, dietary patterns and clinical outcome in specific diseases. To clarify the role of microbiological culture analysis we aimed to evaluate whether in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or fibromyalgia (FM) a Mediterranean diet or an 8-day fasting period are associated with changes in fecal flora and whether changes in fecal flora are associated with clinical outcome. Methods During a two-months-period 51 consecutive patients from an Integrative Medicine hospital department with an established diagnosis of RA (n = 16) or FM (n = 35) were included in the study. According to predefined clinical criteria and the subjects' choice the patients received a mostly vegetarian Mediterranean diet (n = 21; mean age 50.9 +/-13.3 y) or participated in an intermittent modified 8-day fasting therapy (n = 30; mean age 53.7 +/- 9.4 y). Quantitative aerob and anaerob bacterial flora, stool pH and concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) were analysed from stool samples at the beginning, at the end of the 2-week hospital stay and at a 3-months follow-up. Clinical outcome was assessed with the DAS 28 for RA patients and with a disease severity rating scale in FM patients. Results We found no significant changes in the fecal bacterial counts following the two dietary interventions within and between groups, nor were significant differences found in the analysis of sIgA and stool ph. Clinical improvement at the end of the hospital stay tended to be greater in fasting vs. non-fasting patients with RA (p = 0.09). Clinical outcome was not related to alterations in the intestinal flora. Conclusion Neither Mediterranean diet nor fasting treatments affect the
Wolfe, Frederick; Petri, Michelle; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Goldman, John; Chakravarty, Eliza F.; Katz, Robert S.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Michaud, Kaleb
Purpose To determine if fibromyalgia or fibromyalgianess is increased in SLE compared with non-SLE patients, whether fibromyalgia or fibromyalgianess (the tendency to respond to illness and psychosocial stress with fatigue, widespread pain, general increase in symptoms and similar factors ) biases the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ), and to determine if the SLAQ is overly sensitive to fibromyalgia symptoms. Method We developed a 16-item SLE symptom scale (SLESS) modeled on the SLAQ and used that scale to investigate the relation between SLE symptoms and fibromyalgianess in 23,321 rheumatic disease patients. Fibromyalgia was diagnosed by survey fibromyalgia criteria and fibromyalgianess was measured using the Symptom Intensity Scale (SI). As comparison groups, we combined patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-inflammatory rheumatic disorders into an “arthritis” group and also utilized a physician-diagnosed group of fibromyalgia patients. Results Fibromyalgia was identified in 22.1% of SLE and 17.0% of those with arthritis. The SI scale was minimally increased in SLE. The correlation between SLAQ and SLESS was 0.738. SLESS/SLAQ scale items: Raynaud’s, rash, fever, easy bruising and hair loss were significantly more associated with SLE than fibromyalgia, while the reverse was true for headache, abdominal pain, paresthesias/stroke, fatigue, cognitive problems and muscle pain or weakness. There was no evidence of a disproportionate symptom reporting associated with fibromyalgianess. Self-reported SLE was associated with an increased prevalence of fibromyalgia when unconfirmed by physicians compared to SLE confirmed by physicians. Conclusions The prevalence of fibromyalgia in SLE is minimally increased compared with its prevalence in patients with arthritis. Fibromyalgianess does not bias the SLESS and should not bias SLE assessments, including the SLAQ. PMID:19004039
Duque-Estrada, Bruna; Vincenzi, Colombina; Misciali, Cosimo; Tosti, Antonella
Mesotherapy has recently become an advertised method for the treatment of different types of alopecia despite the lack of any data regarding its efficacy and possible side effects. The substances injected into the scalp include "cocktails" of natural plant extracts, homoeopathic agents, vitamins, vasodilators, and drugs that may stimulate hair growth, such as finasteride and minoxidil. We report two cases of patchy alopecia that developed after mesotherapy for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. In the first patient, alopecia developed after injections of the heparinoid vasodilator mesoglycan; the 3-month follow-up examination revealed a small residual area of cicatricial alopecia. The second patient developed reversible alopecia after multiple scalp injections of homeopathic agents. These cases underline the possible risks of mesotherapy as a therapeutic technique for hair loss.
Alopecia is the term used to describe hairless areas of the scalp. They can follow a specific pattern, be diffuse or circumscript. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) follows a pattern: in men thinning of temples and vertex up to total baldness; in women thinning of the midline or parietal area. Lack of iron or cytostatic drugs cause diffuse alopecia, while in autoimmune diseases such as alopecia areata or lichen planus bizarre shapes of hairless areas are observed. For therapy, the following medications are used: topical minoxidil solution for AGA of men and women; systemic finasteride 1 mg for men with AGA; topical diphencyprone immunotherapy for alopecia areata; systemic antimycotic agents for tinea capitis; antibiotics such as clindamycin and rifampicin for folliculitis decalvans; systemic corticosteroids and isotretinoin for folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens; topical corticosteroids for lichen planus and Kossard's frontal fibrosing alopecia.
... Inflammation in the body and its relationship to fibromyalgia. Nondrug therapies to help reduce pain. Methods to improve sleep in people with fibromyalgia. For More Information About Fibromyalgia and Other Related ...
McDonough, Patrick Henry; Schwartz, Robert A
Adolescent androgenic alopecia is pattern hair loss occurring in boys and girls younger than 18 years, whereas early-onset androgenic alopecia refers to pattern hair loss before 35 years of age. A number of studies published in the last decade have helped to elucidate the prevalence of adolescent androgenic alopecia, have clarified the genetic as well as physiologic mechanisms underlying hair loss, and have revealed the associated psychologic and systemic morbidities. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of adolescent androgenic alopecia.
... areata, which may impact their self-esteem and social interaction. Learn more about the different experiences that children with alopecia areata may have and resources to help you and your child cope with their disease. WOMEN AND MEN WITH ... Copyright 2017 National Alopecia Areata ...
Lolli, Francesca; Pallotti, Francesco; Rossi, Alfredo; Fortuna, Maria C; Caro, Gemma; Lenzi, Andrea; Sansone, Andrea; Lombardo, Francesco
Androgenetic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness, is the most common type of progressive hair loss disorder in men. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology and molecular mechanism of androgenetic alopecia. Using the PubMed database, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting studies published from 1916 to 2016. The occurrence and development of androgenetic alopecia depends on the interaction of endocrine factors and genetic predisposition. Androgenetic alopecia is characterized by progressive hair follicular miniaturization, caused by the actions of androgens on the epithelial cells of genetically susceptible hair follicles in androgen-dependent areas. Although the exact pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia remains to be clarified, research has shown that it is a polygenetic condition. Numerous studies have unequivocally identified two major genetic risk loci for androgenetic alopecia, on the X-chromosome AR⁄EDA2R locus and the chromosome 20p11 locus. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have reported that single-nucleotide polymorphisms at different genomic loci are associated with androgenetic alopecia development. A number of genes determine the predisposition for androgenetic alopecia in a polygenic fashion. However, further studies are needed before the specific genetic factors of this polygenic condition can be fully explained.
... joints Infection, most often by bacteria or virus Crystals such as uric acid or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate ... common types of inflammatory arthritis include: Ankylosing ... calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease Juvenile rheumatoid ...
Wallace, M L; Smoller, B R
In some situations, hair growth is under hormonal control. Androgenic alopecia is characterized as hormonally driven hair loss in the genetically susceptible individual. During pregnancy, hair growth is increased, as estrogen appears to prolong the anagen phase. However, postpartum hair loss is common, and thus may be related to a decrease in estrogen and or progesterone levels. In contrast, alopecia areata is not considered to be under hormonal control. We compared the immunohistochemical staining characteristics of nine cases of androgenic alopecia with those of 13 cases of alopecia areata using estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) markers. Estrogen receptor positivity in the dermal papilla was found in only two of 13 cases of alopecia areata, and in one case of androgenic alopecia. Six of 13 cases of alopecia areata demonstrated focal reactivity with the progesterone marker in a similar location, while only three cases of androgenic alopecia showed positivity with this antibody. Examination of the perifollicular fibroblasts for the ER marker showed positivity in one of 13 cases of alopecia areata and in one case of androgenic alopecia. Two cases of alopecia areata revealed focal staining in this location for the PR marker, while the androgenic alopecia cases failed to stain. These results indicate that estrogen and progesterone receptor expression is not significantly increased or decreased in the pilosebaceous units or surrounding mesenchymal cells in androgenic alopecia vs. alopecia areata. Therefore, an indirectly mediated process of estrogen/progesterone control on hair growth and development must be presumed for cases of androgenic alopecia.
Atzeni, F; Sallì, S; Benucci, M; Di Franco, M; Alciati, A; Sarzi-Puttini, P
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome that affects at least 2% of the adult population. It is characterised by widespread pain, fatigue, sleep alterations and distress, and emerging evidence suggests a central nervous system (CNS) malfunction that increases pain transmission and perception. FM is often associated with other diseases that act as confounding and aggravating factors, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritides (SpA), osteoarthritis (OA) and thyroid disease. Mechanism-based FM management should consider both peripheral and central pain, including effects due to cerebral input and that come from the descending inhibitory pathways. Rheumatologists should be able to distinguish primary and secondary FM, and need new guidelines and instruments to avoid making mistakes, bearing in mind that the diffuse pain of arthritides compromises the patients' quality of life.
Cortés G, Andrea; Mardones V, Felipe; Zemelman D, Viviana
Childhood alopecia is a relative rare event in general paediatric dermatology practice. Hair loss in children may have multiple causes, and there are different types of alopecia according to age groups. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of alopecia in children from two Chilean paediatric hospitals. Descriptive analysis of clinical records of patients from the Dermatology Department of Roberto del Rio and Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospitals between January 2007 and June 2010. Patients with clinical diagnosis of alopecia were included. A total of 345 clinical records were analysed, with 179 males (51.9%). The median age was 72 months. Overall, the most common diagnoses were: alopecia areata (AA), (36.8%), tinea capitis (TC), (21%), nevus sebaceous (13.2%), and tellogen effluvium (8.7%). According to age groups, in newborns, the most common causes were aplasia cutis and nevus sebaceous. In toddlers, pre-school and school children, the principal causes were nevus sebaceous, AA and TC. Trichotillomania was also significant in school children. In adolescents, nevus sebaceous, AA and tellogen effluvium were the most frequent diagnoses. AA was statistically associated with autoimmune disease, thyroid disease, nail disorder, psychiatric disease, and Down's syndrome. The most common aetiological agent in TC was M. canis (86.6%). Trichotillomania was also statistically associated to psychiatric disorders. In this study, the main causes of alopecia in children were acquired and non-scarring alopecia. In our results, the type of alopecia varies according to age group. Some types of childhood alopecia showed a close correlation to psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Qi, Ji; Garza, Luis A.
Hair loss is a topic of enormous public interest and understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of various alopecias will likely make a large impact on patients’ lives. The investigation of alopecias also provides important insight in the basic sciences; for instance, the abundance of stem cell populations and regenerative cycles that characterize a hair follicle render it an excellent model for the study of stem cell biology. This review seeks to provide a concise summary of the major alopecias with regard to presentation and management, and correlate these to recent advances in relevant research on pathogenesis. PMID:24591533
Bolduc, Chantal; Sperling, Leonard C; Shapiro, Jerry
Primary cicatricial alopecias can be frustrating for both patients and physicians. Proper diagnosis guides more successful management of these challenging conditions. Part II will cover the remaining lymphocytic primary cicatricial alopecias, which include pseudopelade of Brocq, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, alopecia mucinosa, and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. It will also discuss the neutrophilic and mixed primary cicatricial alopecias, namely folliculitis decalvans, dissecting cellulitis, folliculitis keloidalis, folliculitis (acne) necrotica, and erosive pustular dermatosis.
Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella
Hair disorders have a very high social and psychological impact. Treatment is often frustrating and time-consuming both for the patients and the clinicians and requires special skills and expertise. This paper aims to provide an overview of available treatments for the most common forms of alopecia in adults (androgenetic alopecia [AGA], alopecia areata and cicatricial alopecias) after reviewing the literature in PubMed, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrial.gov. Before starting treatment, it is very important to confirm diagnosis and discuss patient's expectations. Treatment of hair disorders requires time and first results are usually visible a few months after beginning of therapy. Treatment of most hair disorders is mostly not evidenced-based as randomized controlled trials are available only for AGA.
Delamere, F M; Sladden, M M; Dobbins, H M; Leonardi-Bee, J
Alopecia areata is a disorder in which there is loss of hair causing patches of baldness but with no scarring of the affected area. It can affect the entire scalp (alopecia totalis) or cause loss of all body hair (alopecia universalis). It is a relatively common condition affecting 0.15% of the population. Although in many cases it can be a self-limiting condition, nevertheless hair loss can often have a severe social and emotional impact. To assess the effects of interventions used in the management of alopecia areata, alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register in February 2006, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2006), MEDLINE (from 2003 to February 2006), EMBASE (from 2005 to February 2006), PsycINFO (from 1806 to February 2006), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine, from 1985 to February 2006), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database, from 1982 to February 2006), and reference lists of articles. We also searched online trials registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of both topical and systemic interventions for alopecia areata, alopecia totalis, and alopecia universalis. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted the data. We contacted trial authors for more information. We collected adverse effects information from the included trials. Seventeen trials were included with a total of 540 participants. Each trial included from 6 to 85 participants and they assessed a range of interventions that included topical and oral corticosteroids, topical ciclosporin, photodynamic therapy and topical minoxidil. Overall, none of the interventions showed significant treatment benefit in terms of hair growth when compared with placebo. We did not find any studies where the participants self-assessed their hair growth or quality of life. Few treatments for alopecia areata
Alopecia in childhood is a source of high concern, frustration, and anxiety. Delineating types of alopecia and those that are chronic or potentially related to underlying medical problems is important. There are 5 common types of hair loss in children: alopecia related to tinea capitis, alopecia areata spectrum/autoimmune alopecia, traction alopecia, telogen effluvium, and trichotillomania/trichotillosis. Hair-cycle anomalies including loose anagen syndrome can lead to sparse-appearing hair. Rarer reasons for alopecia in children include pressure-induced alopecia, alopecia related to nutritional deficiency or toxic ingestion, and androgenetic alopecia. Congenital lesions should be considered for areas of localized alopecia occurring at birth.
Chang, Zi Yun; Ngian, Jan; Chong, Claudia; Chong, Chin Ted; Liew, Qui Yin
A 49-year-old Chinese female underwent elective laparoscopic assisted Whipple's surgery lasting 12 h. This was complicated by postoperative pressure alopecia at the occipital area of the scalp. Pressure-induced hair loss after general anaesthesia is uncommon and typically temporary, but may be disconcerting to the patient. We report this case of postoperative permanent pressure alopecia due to its rarity in the anaesthesia/local literature, and review the risk factors for its development.
Nalluri, Rajani; Harries, Matthew
Appreciation of different types of hair loss (alopecia) that may be encountered in hospital medicine is important to ensure accurate diagnosis and management, identify underlying medical conditions or treatments that may present with increased hair loss, recognise autoimmune alopecias and their associations, and understand the significant psychological impact of hair loss on an individual. This article discusses common causes of hair loss, as well as those conditions that may be associated with systemic disease, relevant to a general physician.
Hordinsky, Maria; Ericson, Marna
Strong direct and indirect evidence supports an autoimmune etiology for alopecia areata. T lymphocytes that have been shown to be oligoclonal and autoreactive are predominantly present in the peribulbar inflammatory infiltrate. Alopecia areata frequently occurs in association with other autoimmune diseases, such as thyroiditis and vitiligo, and autoantibodies to follicular components have been detected. Finally, the use of immune modulating drugs, including corticosteroids and contact sensitizers such as dyphencyprone, can be beneficial in the management of this disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that alopecia areata scalp skin grafted onto nude mice with severe combined immunodeficiency grow hair and that infiltrating lymphocytes in the graft are lost. It is now also possible to induce alopecia areata in human scalp explants on these mice by injecting T lymphocytes with scalp homogenate. Neuropeptides produced by cutaneous nerves are known to modify immune reactivity and, in all likelihood, affect the alopecia areata process. Future studies may show that modulation of neuropeptide expression is associated with hair regrowth. Likewise, testing the efficacy of the newly developed immunomodulatory agents in patients with alopecia areata may lead to the introduction of novel therapies for this immune-mediated disease of the hair follicle.
Güleç, Hüseyin; Sayar, Kemal; Topbaş, Murat; Karkucak, Murat; Ak, Ismail
Fibromyalgia syndrome is characterized by both somatic and psychic symptoms and it is suggested that psychic factors contribute to the clinical presentation of this syndrome. This study was planned to have a better understanding of fibromyalgia through elaborating the role of alexithymia and anger in the pathogenesis of this illness. The study was carried out in the Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic with 101 women with fibromyalgia syndrome, 30 women with rheumatoid arthritis and 59 healthy women with no current or past medical history. The subjects were evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items, Spielberger State-Trait Anger Inventory, Beck Depression Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and a sociodemographic data form. All these groups were similar to each other in means of age, years of education, marital and economical status. In the fibromyalgia syndrome group, the scores of anxiety and anger-in were calculated significantly higher than other groups. The depression and alexithymia scores were found higher than healthy group. These findings suggest that fibromyalgia patients suffer more anxiety and anger toward oneself, which is anger-in, than rheumatoid arthritis patients. Though the patient groups were more alexithymic than the healthy group, alexitimia scores of the two patient groups were not different. This situation suggest that anger-in, which is suppressed and unexpressed anger style is a part of the fibromyalgia syndrome together as well as high anxiety.
Daoud, Katja F; Barkhuizen, Andre
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by diffuse pain and tender points, which have been present for more than 3 months. Many patients with systemic illnesses can have diffuse pain similar to that found in fibromyalgia, including rheumatic diseases such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, and joint hypermobility. Osteomalacia and thyroid disease are also in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pain and are imminently treatable. In addition, there has been interest throughout the past 10 years in infectious diseases including hepatitis C, Lyme disease, coxsackie B, HIV, and parvovirus infection, which may cause or trigger fibromyalgia. This paper provides a framework to use when identifying these diseases as part of the evaluation of a patient with chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain.
Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O
Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia. Conclusion: No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism. PMID:23002409
Oliveira, Lorena Cassia de Carvalho; Miranda, Amanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Sebastião Alves; Ianhez, Mayra
A 6 year-old patient began to experience localized hairloss in the right temporal region three years ago. During the first appointment, diagnoses of alopecia areata and congenital triangular alopecia were made. After one year, there was no change. Upon dermatological examination, non-scarring alopecia was noted in the right temporal region, revealing extremely fine and fair hair follicles. A dermoscopy revealed only thin vellus-type hairs. Congenital triangular alopecia is a condition commonly confused with alopecia areata and is thus underdiagnosed. However, well-established clinical parameters and dermoscopic criteria can be used to distinguish skin diseases that affect hair and define the diagnosis.
Kadakia, Sameep; Badhey, Arvind; Ashai, Sara; Lee, Thomas S; Ducic, Yadranko
Multiple techniques may be used to perform bicoronal incisions, and alopecia is a known postoperative complication of this procedure. To date, no large studies exist comparing alopecia outcomes among bicoronal incision techniques with and without the use of Raney clips. To determine (1) whether postoperative alopecia is more common when bicoronal incisions are performed with monopolar cautery, Colorado microdissection tip cautery, or traditional cold steel and (2) whether this outcome is affected by the use of Raney clips. This retrospective study of postoperative alopecia included 505 patients undergoing bicoronal incisions in a single head and neck surgery practice from 1997 to 2015 with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Patients with preexisting baldness as well as patients not following up for the minimum period were excluded. All data analysis took place between 1997 and 2015. Maximum alopecia width was measured in the postoperative period and compared among the technique groups both with and without Raney clip use. Raney clip duration as a product of surgery length was also compared. A total of 505 patients (301 male, 204 female) ranging in age from 3 to 97 years were included in the study (median age, 53.9 years). Of these, 236 underwent bicoronal incisions to approach the skull base, 78 to treat chronic frontal sinusitis unresponsive to endoscopic management or frontal sinus mucocele, 143 for trauma, and 48 for craniofacial surgery. For 173 patients, the cold steel technique was used for both skin and subcutaneous incision, 102 of whom needed Raney clips. For 161 patients, cold steel technique was used for skin incisions and monopolar cautery for subcutaneous incision; 81 of these patients required Raney clips. For 171 patients, Colorado tip microdissection cautery was used for both skin and subcutaneous incision, with Raney clips used in 66 of these patients. Incisions made with cold steel for both skin and subcutaneous tissue, regardless of Raney clip use
Adverse skin reactions to anti-tumor agents, can be classified either as general symptoms or as local symptoms. The former type of symptom can manifest as intoxication dermatosis; however, while its occurrence is rare, the symptom that requires the closest attention is toxic epidermal necrolysis, the outcome of which is death in most patients. The latter type of symptom includes extravasation of anti-tumor agents and alopecia. Treatment of extravasation induced skin disorders includes prompt and repeated local injections of steroids, while treatment of alopecia includes scalp cooling and external therapies.
Smith, W A
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a more common a condition than previously estimated. The most recent estimates are that 3 to 6 million patients have been diagnosed with FMS. The ACR criteria, established in 1990, provide the primary care provider with definitive subjective and objective findings that have shown to be 88% accurate in their ability to diagnose patients with the syndrome. There is no cure for FMS. It is a chronic condition, but patients quality of life can be improved when fatigue and pain are reduced. The institution of a plan that is developed collaboratively by the patient and the provider is the essence of successful symptom management. The hallmarks of the management plan include: improving the quality of sleep through the judicious use of medications that boost the body's level of serotonin (therefore reducing fatigue), and reducing pain through complimentary modalities such as exercise, physical therapy, relaxation techniques, massage, and biofeedback.
Wohltmann, Wendi E; Sperling, Leonard
Establishing a definitive diagnosis for any form of alopecia can be challenging. Adding to the diagnostic complexity is the fact that many patients have more than one form of alopecia contributing to their hair loss. We conducted a review of 1360 consecutive scalp biopsy specimens submitted for the evaluation of scalp hair loss over a 16-month period, demonstrating that 12.5% of cases had a combination of diagnoses (multifactorial alopecia) accounting for their hair loss. An approach to the histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia, particularly multiple forms of alopecia found in a single biopsy, is here presented.
Rosychuk, Rod A W
Noninflammatory, nonpruritic alopecias are uncommonly encountered in the horse. Alopecia areata, an apparently autoimmune hair follicle bulbitis produces focal, multifocal to widespread hair loss. The skin is otherwise normal. Diseases that can mimic the widespread hair loss associated with alopecia areata include telogen and anagen effluvium, seasonal alopecias, follicular dysplasias (including color dilution alopecia), various nutritional deficiencies and chemical toxicosis, and diseases that result in defective hair shafts (eg, trichorrhexis nodosa and piedra). These problems are differentiated by history, physical examination, trichography, and skin biopsy. Most are cosmetic diseases that do not have predictably effective therapies.
lupus erythematosus, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or fibromyalgia associated with Persian Gulf War service? An examination of Department of Defense...lupus erythematosus: comparisons with rheumatoid arthritis, noninflamma- tory rheumatic disorders, and fibromyalgia ,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 37, no
Spaëth, Dominique; Rosso, Nathalie; Clivot, Laetitia
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is frequent with most chemotherapy regimens; mechanisms, evolution and small prevention tools are described. Scalp cooling (helmets or continuous cooling systems) can avoid or diminish hair loss in selected chemotherapy regimens but tolerance can be fair and long harmlessness needs to be confirmed by prospective studies. Drug prevention is only in the first steps of research.
Jouanique, C; Reygagne, P
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) was first described in 1994. It is characterized by scarring alopecia in bands involving the anterior area of the scalp. Alopecia of the eyebrows is frequently associated, as are pubic, facial and body hair alopecia. The clinical and histologic features are evocative of lichen planopilaris (LPP), and AFF is in fact regarded as a special pattern of LPP. Histology reveals a lymphocytic infiltrate located around the isthmus and follicular infundibulum associated with a decrease in the number of follicles, which are supplanted by fibrous tract. AFF most commonly affects post-menopausal women, but instances have been described in men and in young women. This orphan disease has increased in recent years, with more than 37 articles dedicated to this condition since it was first described in 1994. The pathophysiology remains unknown. The condition develops slowly with spontaneous stabilization over several years but it is impossible to predict the degree of expression prior to stabilization. In this article we review the various treatments proposed, for none of which formal proof of efficacy has been provided to date.
Naranjo Hernández, A; Rodríguez Lozano, C; Ojeda Bruno, S
The Fibromialgia Syndrome (FS) is a common clinical entity which may produce symtoms and signs related to multiple fields of Medicine. Typical clinical characteristics of FS include extensive pain, presence of sensitive points during exploration, morning stiffness, asthenia and non-refresing sleep. Frequently, associated rheumatologic diseases are observed, as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis and vertebral disorders. In FS, complementary tests are usually normal. The most widely accepted hypothesis suggests that this is a disorder affecting modulation of pain sensitivity.
Hordinsky, Maria; Junqueira, Ana Lucia
There is neither a cure for alopecia areata (AA) nor any universally proven therapy that induces and sustains remission in patients afflicted with this autoimmune disease. AA is characterized as a nonscarring alopecia which affects children and adults. It can be relatively easy to treat when the disease is patchy and limited; but when children and adults present with long standing extensive scalp and body hair loss, successful management can be challenging. Of the treatment choices available, physicians and midlevel providers usually select a cost-effective treatment approach based on disease duration, disease activity, age of the patient, and disease extent. In this manuscript, the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, plus current and evolving treatments for AA will be reviewed.
Bradley, Laurence A.
This article reviews the biologic, genetic, and environmental factors that may contribute to the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia. As an affective spectrum disorder, fibromyalgia may share these causal factors with a number of related and co-occurring pain conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or temporomandibular disorder. There is strong evidence that cardinal pain symptoms of fibromyalgia may be due to alterations in central processing of sensory input, along with aberrations in the endogenous inhibition of pain, Genetic research has shown familial aggregation of fibromyalgia and other related disorders such as major depressive disorder. Exposure to physical or psychosocial stressors, as well as abnormal biologic responses in the autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine responses, may also contribute to dysfunctional pain processing. As fibromyalgia research continues to progress, it is expected that the pathophysiology of this disorder will be further elucidated, leading to more rational and targeted strategies for the treatment of fibromyalgia patients. PMID:19962493
Shupak, Naomi M; McKay, Julia C; Nielson, Warren R; Rollman, Gary B; Prato, Frank S; Thomas, Alex W
BACKGROUND Specific pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been shown to induce analgesia (antinociception) in snails, rodents and healthy human volunteers. OBJECTIVE The effect of specific PEMF exposure on pain and anxiety ratings was investigated in two patient populations. DESIGN A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design was used. METHOD The present study investigated the effects of an acute 30 min magnetic field exposure (less than or equal to 400 μTpk; less than 3 kHz) on pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ], visual analogue scale [VAS]) and anxiety (VAS) ratings in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=13; mean age 52 years) and fibromyalgia (FM) patients (n=18; mean age 51 years) who received either the PEMF or sham exposure treatment. RESULTS A repeated measures analysis revealed a significant pre-post-testing by condition interaction for the MPQ Pain Rating Index total for the RA patients, F(1,11)=5.09, P<0.05, estimate of effect size = 0.32, power = 0.54. A significant pre-post-effect for the same variable was present for the FM patients, F(1,15=16.2, P<0.01, estimate of effect size = 0.52, power =0.96. Similar findings were found for MPQ subcomponents and the VAS (pain). There was no significant reduction in VAS anxiety ratings pre- to post-exposure for either the RA or FM patients. CONCLUSION These findings provide some initial support for the use of PEMF exposure in reducing pain in chronic pain populations and warrants continued investigation into the use of PEMF exposure for short-term pain relief. PMID:16770449
Tatum, William O; Langston, Michael E; Acton, Emily K
The purpose of this case-matched study was to determine how frequently fibromyalgia is associated with different paroxysmal neurological disorders and explore the utility of fibromyalgia as a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. The billing diagnosis codes of 1,730 new, non-selected patient encounters were reviewed over a three-year period for an epileptologist in a neurology clinic to identify all patients with historical diagnoses of fibromyalgia. The frequency with which epileptic seizures, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and physiological non-epileptic events were comorbid with fibromyalgia was assessed. Age and gender case-matched controls were used for a between-group comparison. Wilcoxon tests were used to analyse interval data, and Chi-square was used to analyse categorical data (p<0.05). Fibromyalgia was retrospectively identified in 95/1,730 (5.5%) patients in this cohort. Females represented 95% of the fibromyalgia sample (age: 53 years; 95% CI: 57, 51). Forty-three percent of those with fibromyalgia had a non-paroxysmal, neurological primary clinical diagnosis, most commonly chronic pain. Paroxysmal events were present in 57% of fibromyalgia patients and 54% of case-matched controls. Among patients with fibromyalgia and paroxysmal disorders, 11% had epileptic seizures, 74% had psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and 15% had physiological non-epileptic events, compared to case-matched controls with 37% epileptic seizures, 51% psychogenic non-epileptic events, and 12% physiological non-epileptic events (p = 0.009). Fibromyalgia was shown to be a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in patients with undifferentiated paroxysmal spells. However, our results suggest that the specificity and sensitivity of fibromyalgia as a marker for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in a mixed general neurological population of patients is less than previously described.
Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, MS
Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata. PMID:21188022
Gopinath, Hima; Upadya, Gatha M
Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18-55 years. Eighty five clinically diagnosed cases with early-onset (<35 years) androgenic alopecia of Norwood grade III or above, and 85 controls without androgenic alopecia were included. Data collected included anthropometric measurements, arterial blood pressure and history of chronic diseases. Fasting blood and lipid profile were determined. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed as per the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.00. Metabolic syndrome was seen in 19 (22.4%) patients with androgenic alopecia and 8 (9.4%) controls (P = 0.021). Abdominal obesity, hypertension and lowered high-density lipoprotein were significantly higher in patients with androgenic alopecia versus their respective controls. The limitations of our study include small sample size in subgroups and the lack of evidence of a temporal relationship between metabolic syndrome and androgenic alopecia. A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome is seen in men with early-onset androgenic alopecia. Early screening for metabolic syndrome and its components is beneficial in patients with early-onset androgenic alopecia.
Laniosz, Valerie; Wetter, David A; Godar, Desiree A
The aim of this study was to determine the common dermatologic diagnoses and skin-related symptoms in a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia seen in a tertiary referral center. A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients with a fibromyalgia diagnosis from January 1 to December 31, 2008, whose diagnosis was confirmed in the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Clinic at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Charts were reviewed for dermatologic conditions and cutaneous symptoms. Demographic and clinical data were collected to assess the frequency of skin-related issues in patients with fibromyalgia. Of 2,233 patients screened, 845 patients met the inclusion criteria of having a confirmed diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Among these fibromyalgia patients, various dermatologic conditions and cutaneous problems were identified, including hyperhidrosis in 270 (32.0 %), burning sensation of the skin or mucous membranes in 29 (3.4 %), and various unusual cutaneous sensations in 14 (1.7 %). Pruritus without identified cause was noted by 28 patients (3.3 %), with another 16 patients (1.9 %) reporting neurotic excoriations, prurigo nodules, or lichen simplex chronicus. Some form of dermatitis other than neurodermatitis was found in 77 patients (9.1 %). Patients with fibromyalgia may have skin-related symptoms associated with their fibromyalgia. No single dermatologic diagnosis appears to be overrepresented in this population, with the exception of a subjective increase in sweating.
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of chronic widespread pain typically accompanied by fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, cognitive dysfunction, and mood disorders. As defined by the 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria, fibromyalgia affects approximately 5% of the population and is the second most common disorder, after osteoarthritis, for which patients are referred to rheumatology subspecialists. These criteria provide a framework for diagnosing fibromyalgia that does not require tender points and incorporates other symptoms of the syndrome in addition to pain. Extensive laboratory tests and imaging are not required to diagnose fibromyalgia. A patient-centered, multimodal approach that includes patient education, behavioral therapy, a graded exercise program, and pharmacotherapy should be used for patients with fibromyalgia. Prescribers must be mindful of adverse drug effects and should tailor therapy to the individual patient. Strong evidence of benefit exists for tricyclic antidepressants, cyclobenzaprine, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in fibromyalgia management, whereas nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids have limited proven benefit. Fibromyalgia can cause significant disability and loss of function. Family physicians are well equipped to direct the multimodal care of patients with fibromyalgia.
Waylonis, G W; Heck, W
Previous research has demonstrated a number of conditions, such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, spastic colon and mitral valve prolapse, associated with fibromyalgia. The present report describes additional symptoms and medical conditions that appear to be associated with the syndrome based on a survey of 554 individuals with fibromyalgia compared with a group of 169 controls. Individuals with fibromyalgia self report a greater incidence of bursitis, chondromalacia, constipation, diarrhea, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, vertigo, sinus and thyroid problems. Symptomatic complaints found statistically more prevalent in fibromyalgia patients included concentration problems, sensory symptoms, swollen glands and tinnitus. Other associations occurring with significant increased frequency were chronic cough, coccygeal and pelvic pain, tachycardia and weakness. Our previous report on inheritance patterns in fibromyalgia was reaffirmed with 12% reporting symptomatic children and 25% reporting symptomatic parents. Of the respondents, 70% noted that their symptoms were aggravated by noise, lights, stress, posture and weather.
Le Marshall, Kim Francis; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen
What are the effective, evidence-based strategies available for the management of fibromyalgia? There are a number of management strategies available with robust evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Fibromyalgia is a complex pain syndrome characterized by widespread, chronic muscular pain and tenderness, disordered sleep, emotional distress, cognitive disturbance, and fatigue. Its prevalence is estimated to be 3%-5% in the population and higher yet in patients with comorbid rheumatic diseases. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, Cochrane Library, manual search. Key messages for patients and clinicians are: There are many effective pharmacological management strategies available for fibromyalgia.A nonpharmacological, multicomponent approach utilizing education, aerobic exercise, psychological therapy, and other strategies is also effective for fibromyalgia.Despite the significant and, at times, disabling physical and psychological symptoms, fibromyalgia can be a manageable condition with a potentially good outcome.
Ornelas, Jennifer; Agbai, Oma N; Kiuru, Maija; Sivamani, Raja K
Alopecia can be one of the many symptoms of secondary syphilis and the clinical presentations include essential syphilitic alopecia or symptomatic syphilitic alopecia. In this report, we present a case of a patient with essential syphilitic alopecia whose sole presenting symptom of syphilis was alopecia. Despite an initial negative rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, he was ultimately found to have syphilis on scalp biopsy. His alopecia improved following treatment with benzathine penicillin. This presentation serves as a reminder to clinicians to be cognizant of alopecia as a presenting sign of syphilis. A review of the specificity and sensitivity of the typical tests used for the diagnosis is presented.
Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Amital, Howard; Adawi, Mohammad; Brigo, Francesco; Watad, Samaa; Aljadeff, Gali; Amital, Daniela; Watad, Abdulla
Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease, characterized by pain, fatigue, and poor sleep quality. Patients and mainly those with chronic diseases tend to search for health-related material online. Google Trends (GT), an online tracking system of Internet hit-search volumes that recently merged with its sister project Google Insights for Search (Google Inc.), was used to explore Internet activity related to fibromyalgia. Digital interest in fibromyalgia and related topics searched worldwide has been reported in the last 13 years. A slight decline in this interest has been observed through the years, remaining stable in the last 5 years. Fibromyalgia web behavior exhibited a regular, cyclic pattern, even though no seasonality could be detected. Similar findings have been reported among rheumatoid arthritis and depression. However, differently from rheumatoid arthritis and depression, the focus of the fibromyalgia-related queries was more concentrated on drug side effects and the "elusive" nature of fibromyalgia: is it a real or imaginary condition? Does it really exist or is it all in your head? A tremendous amount of information on fibromyalgia and related topics exist online. Still many queries have been raised and repeated constantly by fibromyalgia patients in the last 13 years. Therefore, physicians should be aware of the common concerns of people or patients regarding fibromyalgia in order to give a proper answers and education.
Prie, BE; Iosif, L; Tivig, I; Stoian, I; Giurcaneanu, C
Rationale:Androgenetic alopecia is not considered a life threatening disease but can have serious impacts on the patient’s psychosocial life. Genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are considered responsible for the presence of androgenetic alopecia. Recent literature reports have proved the presence of inflammation and also of oxidative stress at the level of dermal papilla cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia Objective:We have considered of interest to measure the oxidative stress parameters in the blood of patients with androgenetic alopecia Methods and results:27 patients with androgenetic alopecia and 25 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiols levels were measured on plasma samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) activities, and also non protein thiols levels together with TEAC activity were determined on erythrocytes samples No statistically significant changes were observed for TEAC erythrocytes, non-protein thiols, GPx and CAT activities. Significantly decreased (p<0.01) SOD activity was found in patients with androgenetic alopecia. For plasma samples decreased TEAC activity (p<0.001), increased MDA levels (p<0.001) and no change in total thiols concentration were found in patients when compared with the controls. Discussions:Decreased total antioxidant activity and increased MDA levels found in plasma samples of patients with androgenetic alopecia are indicators of oxidative stress presence in these patients. Significantly decreased SOD activity but no change in catalase, glutathione peroxidase, non protein thiols level and total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes are elements which suggest the presence of a compensatory mechanism for SOD dysfunction in red blood cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Abbreviations: AAG = androgenetic alopecia, MDA = malondialdehyde, SOD = superoxide dismutase
Chwieduk, Claudine M; McCormack, Paul L
Milnacipran is an orally administered selective serotonin and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor indicated for the management of fibromyalgia in adults. In adults, milnacipran was generally effective in the treatment of fibromyalgia in four well designed trials of 3 or 6 months' duration. Composite responder rates for the treatment of fibromyalgia and fibromyalgia pain (co-primary efficacy variables) were generally higher with milnacipran 100 or 200 mg/day (in two divided doses) than with placebo after 12 weeks of fixed-dose treatment. In one study, the composite responder rate for fibromyalgia pain (co-primary efficacy variable) was also higher with milnacipran 200 mg/day than with placebo after 24 weeks of fixed-dose treatment. Furthermore, the benefits of milnacipran therapy were sustained in a 6-month extension of an initial double-blind trial. Improvements from baseline in mean 24-hour recall pain scores, mean weekly recall pain scores, Patient Global Impression of Change scores and in several items of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire were observed in patients receiving continuous milnacipran for up to 12 months, as well as in patients who switched from placebo to milnacipran therapy at the start of the extension phase. Milnacipran was generally well tolerated in adults with fibromyalgia, with most adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Nausea was the most common adverse event reported in milnacipran recipients.
Bielefeldt, Klaus; Wasan, Ajay D.; Szigethy, Eva; Lotrich, Francis; DiMartini, Andrea F.
Background An association between fibromyalgia and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been previously described. However, the relationship between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibromyalgia symptoms has not been assessed, though they share several risk factors. Aim We aimed to assess the factors associated with fibromyalgia symptoms across etiologies of liver disease. Methods Patients with cirrhosis due to HCV, NASH, or alcohol were recruited from an outpatient hepatology clinic and administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. Serum inflammatory markers were measured with standard luminex assays. Results Of 193 participants, 53 (27 %) met criteria for fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with etiology of liver disease (HCV: 35 %, NASH: 30 %, alcohol-related liver disease: 12 %, p < 0.01). Using logistic regression, mood symptoms (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.22), sleep disturbance (OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.16, 1.52), and etiology of liver disease (NASH vs. HCV not different, alcohol vs. HCV OR 0.19, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.63) were associated with fibromyalgia symptoms. If abdominal pain was included in the model, etiology became nonsignificant, indicating that it may be central sensitization due to abdominal pain in patients with chronic liver disease that explains fibromyalgia symptoms rather than the etiology of liver disease or inflammation. Conclusions Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with HCV and NASH cirrhosis and with psychiatric symptoms. Future work should focus on the underlying pathophysiology and management of widespread pain in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:25433921
Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L
The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder.
Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L
The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the first part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of nonscarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Pongratz, D E; Späth, M
The most common morphological finding in muscle biopsies in longstanding fibromyalgia is type II fiber atrophy. This can be found in many other conditions such as disuse atrophy, affections of the corticospinal tracts, steroid atrophy, and other different neuromuscular disorders. An increase in lipid droplets and a slight proliferation of mitochondria in type I muscle fibers are correlated with the duration of fibromyalgia. In some cases we could find some ragged red fibers (RRF) which histochemically show a pronounced accumulation of lipids and mitochondria and single fiber defects of cytochrome-c-oxidase. In some fibromyalgia patients with RRF, we could find deletions of the mitochondrial genoma.
Wagner, Amanda T
Recent advances in our understanding of the autoimmune basis of alopecia areata provide an opportunity to create novel effective pharmaceutical interventions. The current lack of approved therapies for alopecia areata presents a high unmet medical need, as well as a potentially attractive market opportunity. From an industry perspective, achieving clinical proof of concept (PoC) gates investments into larger approval studies. Recent investigator-initiated experience suggests that it may be possible to demonstrate rigorous PoC for new therapies in an attractive time frame with relatively fewer patients than were believed necessary in the past. However, the lack of prior regulatory approval precedent for pharmaceuticals to treat alopecia areata poses significant development challenges, and early interaction with the FDA and other stakeholders will be critically important in evaluating the path to approval and reimbursement for new treatments for this indication. This paper presents a brief industry perspective on the potential development of new alopecia areata therapeutics.
Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.
Kaliyadan, Feroze; Nambiar, Ajit; Vijayaraghavan, Sundeep
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the commonest reasons for dermatological consultation. Over the last few years our understanding of the pathophysiology of AGA has improved and this has paved way for better diagnostic and therapeutic options. Recent research has dwelled on the role of stem cells in the pathophysiology of AGA and has also identified newer genetic basis for the condition. Dermoscopy/trichoscopy has emerged as a useful diagnostic tool for AGA. While the major treatment options continue to be topical minoxidil, systemic Finasteride and hair transplantations, newer modalities are under investigation. Specific diagnostic and treatment recommendations have also been developed on evidence based principles. This article reviews the recent concepts in relation to AGA. With regards to the pathophysiology we have tried to stress on recent knowledge of the molecular and genetic basis of AGA. We have emphasized on an evidence based approach for treatment and diagnosis.
Chow, I J; Balakrishnan, C; Meininger, M S
Alopecia of the unburned scalp, the temporary or permanent loss of hair, is a preventable complication. Patients at highest risk of developing alopecia are those with burn encephalopathy and in a prolonged shock state. The occipital scalp is the most common site and localized pressure-induced ischaemia is the likely cause. Frequent head repositioning and use of devices to decrease the pressure effect may decrease the incidence of this complication.
Prie, B E; Iosif, L; Tivig, I; Stoian, I; Giurcaneanu, C
Rationale:Androgenetic alopecia is not considered a life threatening disease but can have serious impacts on the patient's psychosocial life. Genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are considered responsible for the presence of androgenetic alopecia. Recent literature reports have proved the presence of inflammation and also of oxidative stress at the level of dermal papilla cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia Objective:We have considered of interest to measure the oxidative stress parameters in the blood of patients with androgenetic alopecia Methods and results:27 patients with androgenetic alopecia and 25 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiols levels were measured on plasma samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) activities, and also non protein thiols levels together with TEAC activity were determined on erythrocytes samples No statistically significant changes were observed for TEAC erythrocytes, non-protein thiols, GPx and CAT activities. Significantly decreased (p<0.01) SOD activity was found in patients with androgenetic alopecia. For plasma samples decreased TEAC activity (p<0.001), increased MDA levels (p<0.001) and no change in total thiols concentration were found in patients when compared with the controls. Discussions:Decreased total antioxidant activity and increased MDA levels found in plasma samples of patients with androgenetic alopecia are indicators of oxidative stress presence in these patients. Significantly decreased SOD activity but no change in catalase, glutathione peroxidase, non protein thiols level and total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes are elements which suggest the presence of a compensatory mechanism for SOD dysfunction in red blood cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia.
... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Is Your Child ... lifestyle changes, such as exercise, relaxation, and stress-management techniques. There is no cure for fibromyalgia, but ...
... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... symptoms of fibromyalgia. Some kids also find that changing the way they think about their condition helps ...
Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L
Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being.
Sayar, Kemal; Aksu, Gokhan; Ak, Ismail; Tosun, Mehmet
Although the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia is unknown, central monoaminergic transmission may play a role. Antidepressants have proved to be successful in alleviating symptoms of fibromyalgia. Medications that act on multiple neurotransmitters may be more effective in symptom management. To assess the efficacy of venlafaxine, a potent inhibitor of both norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake, in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia. Fifteen patients with fibromyalgia were assessed prior to and after treatment with fixed-dose venlafaxine 75 mg/d. Before initiation of pharmacotherapy, patients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. The study lasted for 12 weeks, and patients were evaluated in weeks 6 and 12. The primary outcome measures were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total score and pain score. The anxiety and depression levels of the patients were measured with the Beck Depression, the Beck Anxiety, the Hamilton Anxiety, and the Hamilton Depression scales. There was a significant improvement in the mean intensity of pain (F = 14.3; p = 0.0001) and in the disability caused by fibromyalgia (F = 42.7; p = 0.0001) from baseline to week 12 of treatment. The depression and anxiety scores also decreased significantly from baseline to week 12. The improvement in the FIQ scores did not correlate with the decrease of scores in both patient- and physician-rated depression and anxiety inventories. Change in pain scores also was not correlated with the change in depression and anxiety scores. Venlafaxine was quite promising in alleviating the pain and disability associated with fibromyalgia. This effect seems to be independent of its anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. Blockade of both norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake might be more effective than blockade of either neurotransmitter alone in the treatment of fibromyalgia.
... to ourselves inside our heads can affect our perception of pain. Turning negative thoughts into positive ones ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/in-depth/fibromyalgia-pain/ART-20047867 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...
Quimby, L G; Block, S R; Gratwick, G M
We tested the current criteria for fibromyalgia. Pain tolerance was measured at tender point and control point sites using a pressure algometer, and responses to 6 standard psychological self-reports were obtained from 125 patients with generalized nonarticular rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. Among patients with generalized nonarticular rheumatism, published symptom criteria for fibromyalgia did not correlate significantly with the number of tender points. Only lower generalized pressure point pain tolerance distinguished fibromyalgia from other generalized nonarticular rheumatism. Generalized nonarticular rheumatism mean scores were much higher than controls on tests measuring the tendency to report physical symptoms, including headaches and functional bowel syndrome. It is probable that patients with fibromyalgia do not differ in any important physical or psychological respect from other patients with generalized nonarticular rheumatism except for the presence of tender points. However, the presence of tender points is merely a reflection of the patient's general pressure pain sensitivity and is not indicative of any special localized pathological phenomenon. The concept of fibromyalgia as an entity separate from the rest of generalized nonarticular rheumatism may be an artifact of a physician's approach to the patient. Most patients with generalized nonarticular rheumatism demonstrate an abnormally high frequency of reporting manifold disagreeable symptoms and probably come to the attention of many medical disciplines.
Trüeb, Ralph M
Few dermatologic conditions carry as much emotional distress as chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA). The prerequisite for successful development of strategies for CIA prevention is the understanding of the pathobiology of CIA. The incidence and severity of CIA are variable and related to the particular chemotherapeutic protocol. CIA is traditionally categorized as acute diffuse hair loss caused by dystrophic anagen effluvium; however, CIA presents with different clinical patterns of hair loss. When an arrest of mitotic activity occurs, obviously numerous and interacting factors influence the shedding pattern. The major approach to minimize CIA is by scalp cooling. Unfortunately, most published data on scalp cooling are of poor quality. Several experimental approaches to the development of pharmacologic agents are under evaluation and include drug-specific antibodies, hair growth cycle modifiers, cytokines and growth factors, antioxidants, inhibitors of apoptosis, and cell-cycle and proliferation modifiers. Ultimately, the protection should be selective to the hair follicle; for example, topical application, such that the anticancer efficacy of chemotherapy is not hampered. Among the few agents that have been evaluated so far in humans, AS101 and minoxidil were able to reduce the severity or shorten the duration of CIA, but could not prevent CIA.
Price, Vera H
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known in women as female pattern hair loss, is caused by androgens in genetically susceptible women and men. The thinning begins between ages 12 and 40 years, the inheritance pattern is polygenic, and the incidence is the same as in men. In susceptible hair follicles, dihydrotestosterone binds to the androgen receptor, and the hormone-receptor complex activates the genes responsible for the gradual transformation of large terminal follicles to miniaturized follicles. Both young women and young men with AGA have higher levels of 5alpha reductase and androgen receptor in frontal hair follicles compared to occipital follicles. At the same time, young women have much higher levels of cytochrome p-450 aromatase in frontal follicles than men who have minimal aromatase, and women have even higher aromatase levels in occipital follicles. The diagnosis of AGA in women is supported by early age of onset, the pattern of increased thinning over the frontal/parietal scalp with greater density over the occipital scalp, retention of the frontal hairline, and the presence of miniaturized hairs. Most women with AGA have normal menses and pregnancies. Extensive hormonal testing is usually not needed unless symptoms and signs of androgen excess are present such as hirsutism, severe unresponsive cystic acne, virilization, or galactorrhea. Topical minoxidil solution is the only drug available for promoting hair growth in women with AGA. Efficacy has been shown in double-blind studies using hair counts and hair weight.
McElwee, K. J.; Gilhar, A.; Tobin, D. J.; Ramot, Y.; Sundberg, J. P.; Nakamura, M.; Bertolini, M.; Inui, S.; Tokura, Y.; Jr, L. E. King; Duque-Estrada, B.; Tosti, A; Keren, A.; Itami, S.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Zlotogorski, A.; Paus, R.
The pathobiology of alopecia areata (AA), one of the most frequent autoimmune diseases and a major unsolved clinical problem, has intrigued dermatologists, hair biologists and immunologists for decades. Simultaneously, both affected patients and the physicians who take care of them are increasingly frustrated that there is still no fully satisfactory treatment. Much of this frustration results from the fact that the pathobiology of AA remains unclear, and no single AA pathogenesis concept can claim to be universally accepted. In fact, some investigators still harbour doubts whether this even is an autoimmune disease, and the relative importance of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells and NKGD2+ NK or NKT cells and the exact role of genetic factors in AA pathogenesis remain bones of contention. Also, is AA one disease, a spectrum of distinct disease entities or only a response pattern of normal hair follicles to immunologically mediated damage? During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in basic AA-related research, in the development of new models for translationally relevant AA research and in the identification of new therapeutic agents and targets for future AA management. This calls for a re-evaluation and public debate of currently prevalent AA pathobiology concepts. The present Controversies feature takes on this challenge, hoping to attract more skin biologists, immunologists and professional autoimmunity experts to this biologically fascinating and clinically important model disease. PMID:23947678
Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue
Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N=162) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…
Esmer, Oktay; Karadag, Remzi; Cakici, Ozgur; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Demircan, Yuhanize Tas; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Karadag, Ayse S
This study investigated ocular findings in patients with alopecia. A total of 42 patients with alopecia (31 male, 11 female; 84 eyes) and 45 healthy individuals (28 male, 17 female; 90 eyes) were enrolled in the study. Of the patients with alopecia, 34 had alopecia areata, seven had alopecia universalis, and one had ophiasis alopecia. Seven patients had eyebrow involvement and seven had eyelash involvement. Autorefractometry, keratometry, visual acuity, central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, bilateral anterior and posterior segment examinations, Schirmer's tests, and visual field examinations were performed in both groups. The mean ± standard deviation age of the subjects was 25.21 ± 10.88 years in the alopecia group and 28.24 ± 9.31 years in the control group. Lens abnormalities were observed in 35 eyes in the alopecia group and in 11 eyes in the control group (P < 0.05). Posterior segment abnormalities were seen in 29 eyes in the alopecia group and four eyes in the control group (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, visual acuity, refractive error, keratometric findings, IOP, central corneal thickness, perimetry, or Schirmer's test results between the alopecia and control groups (P > 0.05). Patients with alopecia may have more lenticular and retinal findings than normal individuals, but those findings do not interfere with visual acuity. Close surveillance for the early onset of cataract formation is important in patients with alopecia. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.
Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue
Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N = 62) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…
Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue
Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N = 62) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…
Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue
Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N=162) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…
Callan, A W; Montalto, J
Androgenetic alopecia is an androgen dependent disorder occurring in genetically susceptible individuals. The pattern of hair loss in women differs from that of classical male pattern alopecia, being more diffuse and with retention of the frontal hair line in most cases. Characteristic histopathological changes occur but biopsy is rarely helpful in diagnosis. Although research has shown subtle alterations in the androgen status of women with androgenetic alopecia, most patients presenting with this disorder are normal endocrinologically. Anti-androgen therapy will result in some improvement in up to 50% of patients after 6 to 12 months of therapy, but in practice will usually only decrease the rate of hair loss and not result in new hair growth.
Tosti, A; Camacho-Martinez, F; Dawber, R
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most frequent cause of hair loss affecting up to 50% of men and 40% of women by the age of 50. This paper outlines the current status of diagnosis and offers guidelines for optimal management of AGA in both men and women. The diagnosis of AGA can usually be confirmed by medical history and physical examination alone. A trichogram can be useful to assess the progression of the hair loss. A scalp biospy is diagnostic but usually not required. In women with signs of hyperandrogenism, investigation for ovarian (polycystic ovarian disease) or adrenal (late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia) disorders is required. Mild to moderate AGA in men can be treated with oral finasteride or topical minoxidil. Oral finasteride at the dosage of 1 mg/day produced clinical improvement in up to 66% of patients treated for 2 years. The drug is effective for both frontal and vertex hair thinning. Medical treatment with finasteride or minoxidil should be continued indefinitely since interruption of therapy leads to hair loss with return to pretreatment status. Mild to moderate AGA in women can be treated with oral antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate, spironolactone) and/or topical minoxidil with good results in many cases. Hair systems and surgery may be considered for selected cases of severe AGA both in men and in women. Patients with AGA should be informed about the pathogenesis of the condition. If used correctly, available medical treatments arrest progression of the disease and reverse miniaturization in most patients with mild to moderate AGA.
Bardazzi, F; Fanti, P A; Orlandi, C; Chieregato, C; Misciali, C
Although acute or chronic hair loss in psoriasis of the scalp can be a symptom of the disease, until now there has been no agreement as to whether or not it is only restricted to erythrodermic, generalized pustular and scalp plaque psoriasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with chronic scalp psoriasis and alopecia and to determine if the alopecia was of the scarring type. We report four cases of psoriatic scarring alopecia and describe the clinical and histologic features of these patients. The diagnosis was made by scalp biopsies (vertical and transverse sections) and other causes of scarring alopecia were excluded. Psoriasis can cause scarring alopecia.
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain, present above and below the waist and the axial skeleton for a period of at least three months. Other symptoms are frequently present, intolerance to exercise, fatigue, trouble sleeping, morning stiffness, paresthesias, anxiety, headaches, etc. The exact etiology and pathophysiology of the disease are not clearly established. Currently, we primarily retain a bad handling of pain pathways. An understanding of these mechanisms is important as a basis for a global therapeutic program and the rehabilitation of patients with fibromyalgia. By the multiple nature of these symptoms associated with fibromyalgia, an accurate assessment of the patient will be a preamble to any optimal care. Current guidelines recommend comprehensive and multidisciplinary care, however centers that offer this type of care are rare. In mono-disciplinary treatment, the physical therapy recommended is aerobic exercise and the strengthening of muscles associated with different manual techniques to decrease the nociceptive input.
Bagaria, Madhu; Luck, Ali Maria
Postoperative alopecia is a rare occurrence seen after a variety of surgical procedures performed under general anesthesia. The speculated cause is pressure-induced ischemia due to prolonged head immobilization. This case describes a patient who developed this complication after undergoing sacrocolpopexy. A 57-year-old postmenopausal Caucasian female was consented to undergo a robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy, perineoplasty, and midurethral sling with possible conversion to an open procedure. The indication was symptomatic proximal and distal rectocele with foreshortened vagina. It was converted to laparotomy due to difficult presacral dissection. Her total operative time was 540 with 240 min in the Trendelenburg position. No intraoperative hypotension or excessive blood loss was noted. She started complaining of scalp pain in the postoperative recovery area. She developed soreness, crusting, and later alopecia in the same area. It was noted at her 3-week office visit. Referral was made for dermatology and anesthesiology evaluation. There was spontaneous full recovery by the 5th month. Postoperative alopecia is a rare condition mimicking alopecia areata but it is preceded by inciting events. There is some evidence to suggest that it is a preventable condition by frequent head repositioning during surgery. This case report is intended to increase the surgeon's awareness about this rare complication as its occurrence can be distressing for the patient.
Goldberg, Lynne J; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie A
Alopecia is a disorder that affects all patients, young and old. Many diagnoses, particularly the scarring alopecias, are more common in adults; however, others, such as tinea capitis, are more common in children, and some, such as alopecia areata, often affect both age groups. The approach to, and evaluation of, an alopecia patient is thus highly dependent on his or her age. In adults with diffuse, non-scarring hair loss, a part-width examination can help detect pattern hair loss, the most common cause of diffuse loss in this age group. In children this is much less likely, and a careful evaluation for tinea capitis is in order. The same holds true for patchy alopecia in children, as well as scarring alopecia-tinea needs to always be considered. In adults, patchy alopecia is often due to alopecia areata and sometimes to one of the primary scarring alopecias. A laboratory evaluation, and especially a biopsy, would be a more appropriate undertaking for an adult than a child, and an adult would be more likely to tolerate certain therapeutic regimens such as intralesional injections. In a conversational manner, the authors discuss their individual approaches to the alopecia patient, highlighting the differences in diagnosis, workup, and management that depend on whether the affected individual is an adult or a child.
Navarro, Robert P
A roundtable meeting that comprised clinical, patient advocacy, and managed care experts discussed issues regarding the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia. The panel agreed that earlier diagnosis and treatment, additional education for the medical community, and appropriate management by health plans, including patient access to US Food and Drug Administration-approved fibromyalgia medications, are needed. In addition, physicians, payers, and patient advocates must work to improve clinical, economic, and quality-of-life outcomes for fibromyalgia patients. Finally, treatment and diagnostic guidelines must be updated as advances in disease management are made (including approvals of 3 new pharmacologic agents), and development of a therapeutic category for "fibromyalgia" on payer formularies is needed.
Meireles, Sandra Adolph; Antero, Daniel Casagrande; Kulczycki, Marciane Maria; Skare, Thelma Larocca
OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of falls in fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal controls. METHODS: We studied 60 FM, 60 RA patients and 60 controls for fall frequency in one week, one month, six months and one year. Patients were submitted to body mass index determination and balance evaluation through the Berg scale. Data on disease impact and depression were collected in FM patients through the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Beck Questionnaire. RESULTS: FM patients had a higher frequency of falls than RA patients and control individuals in one month (p<0.0001), in six months (p<0.0001) and in one year (p<0.0001). No relationship was found between falls and body mass index, pain or depression scores. Falls in 12 months were associated with higher FIQ values. CONCLUSION: FM patients fall more often than RA patients and control individuals. Level of Evidence II, Investigation of the effect of a patient characteristic on the disease outcome. PMID:25061425
Aloush, Valerie; Ablin, Jacob N; Reitblat, Tatiana; Caspi, Dan; Elkayam, Ori
Fibromyalgia (FM), pre-dominantly found in women, may accompany other pre-existing rheumatic diseases. The association between FM and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is uncertain. We evaluated FM in women with AS. Eighteen women with AS were compared with 18 men with AS (controls) for age, duration of symptoms, time to diagnosis, degree of sacroiliac involvement, history of peripheral arthritis, patient global assessment, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, level of diffuse pain, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Physical examination included the number of tender points and enthesitis sites, Schober test, distance between occiput and wall, chest expansion, lateral spinal flexion, and intermalleolar distance. Inflammatory activity was measured by the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Of all tested parameters, the ones with significant differences between the groups were time between symptom onset and AS diagnosis (longer for women), FM incidence and the number of tender points and enthesitis sites (higher for women), BASDAI (higher in women and correlated with FM and the number of tender points but not with ESR), and BASFI and BASDAI scores (increased in FM patients). FM was present in 50% of women with AS and associated with higher disease activity indices (BASDAI and BASFI) and not related to severity of physical findings or ESR. The reliability of well-accepted assessment tools of AS, such as BASDAI and BASFI, in evaluating AS activity in women may be called into question due to a confounding effect of FM.
Uehlinger, C; Barrelet, L; Touabi, M; Baumann, P
Two cases of alopecia observed during treatment with lithium and valproate are described, and the recent literature on this subject is reviewed. Our clinical observations confirm earlier reports. These toxic alopecias are characterized by a diffuse but rarely total hair loss. After stopping medication, the hair grows back generally and completely. Two cases of toxic alopecia are presented where hair grew back following a substitution of lithium by valproate in the first case and after stopping valproate in the second. The evaluation and therapeutic attitude in the presence of alopecia in patients needing mood stabilizers are also discussed.
Kataria, Vivek; Wang, Hueyyoung; Wald, Joyce W; Phan, Yvonne L
The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) guidelines consider angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors as one of the mainstay therapies in the management of heart failure. The widespread use of ACE inhibitors has been associated with several notable adverse effects such as hyperkalemia and an increased serum creatinine. There are no previous reports of alopecia associated with lisinopril use; however, a few previous cases of alopecia associated with other ACE inhibitors exist. This report discusses a case of lisinopril-induced alopecia of a 53-year-old male presenting to our outpatient heart failure clinic with a chief complaint of a new onset of alopecia. Upon evaluation, it was suspected that the patient's alopecia was likely medication induced by lisinopril; therefore, lisinopril was discontinued and switched to an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), losartan potassium. Alopecia resolved in 4 weeks after the therapeutic intervention. Our report suggests that the patient likely experienced a medication-induced alopecia, which was successfully resolved through proper identification and removal of the causative agent. Causality assessment between lisinopril and alopecia was determined using the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale-a total score of 6 was achieved and thus identified the adverse drug reaction as probable. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility that lisinopril may be an offending agent in a patient with unexplained alopecia.
Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O; Rhudy, Lori M
Patients with fibromyalgia report periods of symptom exacerbation, colloquially referred to as "flares" and despite clinical observation of flares, no research has purposefully evaluated the presence and characteristics of flares in fibromyalgia. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe fibromyalgia flares in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia. Using seven open-ended questions, patients were asked to describe how they perceived fibromyalgia flares and triggers and alleviating factors associated with flares. Patients were also asked to describe how a flare differs from their typical fibromyalgia symptoms and how they cope with fibromyalgia flares. Content analysis was used to analyze the text. A total of 44 participants completed the survey. Responses to the seven open-ended questions revealed three main content areas: causes of flares, flare symptoms, and dealing with a flare. Participants identified stress, overdoing it, poor sleep, and weather changes as primary causes of flares. Symptoms characteristic of flares included flu-like body aches/exhaustion, pain, fatigue, and variety of other symptoms. Participants reported using medical treatments, rest, activity and stress avoidance, and waiting it out to cope with flares. Our results demonstrate that periods of symptom exacerbation (i.e., flares) are commonly experienced by patients with fibromyalgia and symptoms of flares can be differentiated from every day or typical symptoms of fibromyalgia. Our study is the first of its kind to qualitatively explore characteristics, causes, and management strategies of fibromyalgia flares. Future studies are needed to quantitatively characterize fibromyalgia flares and evaluate mechanisms of flares. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Otberg, Nina; Wu, Wen-Yu; McElwee, Kevin John; Shapiro, Jerry
In this 2-part article, the authors review the primary cicatricial alopecias. Primary cicatricial alopecia can be defined as predominantly lymphocytic, neutrophilic, or mixed based on the nature of the follicular infiltrate that is present around affected hair follicles. Lymphocytic primary cicatricial alopecias include chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (discoid lupus erythematosus), lichen planopilaris, classic pseudopelade of Brocq, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, alopecia mucinosa, and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. In this first part, the authors summarize the classification, epidemiology, diagnostic approach, and patient management of lymphocytic cicatricial alopecias. In part II, the authors will focus on neutrophilic cicatricial alopecias and mixed cicatricial alopecias.
Gerkowicz, Agnieszka; Krasowska, Dorota; Pietrzak, Aldona; Michalak-Stoma, Anna; Bartosińska, Joanna; Juszkiewicz-Borowiec, Maria; Chodorowska, Grażyna
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common hair disorder observed in dermatological practice; however, the exact mechanisms that lead to the hair loss are still unknown. Disturbances in the blood supply of hair follicles may be one of the elements in the complex pathogenesis of AA. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy is a noninvasive technique that allows analysis of skin microcirculation in vivo. The aim of the study was the videocapillaroscopic assessment of skin microcirculation in AA patients. The study included 44 patients with patchy alopecia areata, 27 with alopecia universalis or totalis, and 40 healthy volunteers. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy was performed in all participants according to a standard protocol. Obtained images were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Two types of videocapillaroscopic images were distinguished in the study. Abnormal videocapillaroscopic images were found in 42% of patients. Tortuous and branching capillaries (P = 0.013, P = 0.001), decreased density of capillaries (P = 0.009), enlargement of the efferent limb (P < 0.017), or top part of the loop (P = 0.009) were observed significantly more often than in the control group. Only some patients with AA presented with microvascular abnormalities characterised by altered videocapillaroscopic images. More studies, including larger group of patients with AA, are required to determine the role of observed videocapillaroscopic alterations in AA. PMID:24163812
Pain is the most common reason patients with inflammatory arthritis see a rheumatologist. Patients consistently rate pain as one of their highest priorities, and pain is the single most important determinant of patient global assessment of disease activity. Although pain is commonly interpreted as a marker of inflammation, the correlation between pain intensity and measures of peripheral inflammation is imperfect. The prevalence of chronic, non-inflammatory pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia is higher among patients with inflammatory arthritis than in the general population. Inflammatory arthritis patients with fibromyalgia have higher measures of disease activity and lower quality of life than inflammatory patients who do not have fibromyalgia. This review article focuses on current literature involving the effects of pain on disease assessment and quality of life for patients with inflammatory arthritis. It also reviews non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic options for treatment of pain for patients with inflammatory arthritis, focusing on the implications of comorbidities and concurrent disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy. Although several studies have examined the effects of reducing inflammation for patients with inflammatory arthritis, very few clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of treatment directed specifically towards pain pathways. Most studies have been small, have focused on rheumatoid arthritis or mixed populations (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis plus osteoarthritis), and have been at high risk of bias. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to examine the mechanisms of pain in inflammatory arthritis and to determine the safety and efficacy of analgesic medications in this specific patient population. PMID:23292816
Arnold, Lesley M
Research in fibromyalgia has increased understanding of the possible genetic and environmental factors that could be involved in the etiology of fibromyalgia. There is now substantial evidence for augmentation of central pain processing in fibromyalgia. Because the clinical presentation of fibromyalgia is heterogeneous, treatment recommendations must be individualized for each patient. The rapid growth of trials in fibromyalgia in recent years has resulted in new evidence-based approaches to pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bucourt, Emilie; Martaillé, Virginie; Mulleman, Denis; Goupille, Philippe; Joncker-Vannier, Isabelle; Huttenberger, Brigitte; Reveillere, Christian; Courtois, Robert
The personality of patients with fibromyalgia is still under debate. Some studies found high neuroticism associated with low extraversion, while others found that these traits do not differ from the normal population. Personality factors intervene in the emotional regulation and modulation of pain. The aim of the study was to determine the personality traits of patients with fibromyalgia compared to other rheumatic diseases. In a multicentric study, women with fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis or Sjögren's syndrome were asked to complete the Big Five Inventory, which encompasses five main personality dimensions, namely (1) extraversion vs. introversion, (2) agreeableness vs. antagonism, (3) conscientiousness vs. impulsivity, (4) neuroticism vs. emotional stability, and (5) openness vs. closed-mindedness. Variance analysis (Student's t-test and ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons or Bonferroni correction) was performed. We also conducted hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses. Participants were 163 women with fibromyalgia (n=48), rheumatoid arthritis (n=46), spondyloarthritis (n=46) and Sjögren's syndrome (n=23). The mean age was 47.18years (±10.81years, range 21 to 65). Patients with fibromyalgia had higher scores on agreeableness (F(3, 159)=3.39, P<0.05), neuroticism (F(3, 159)=3.79, P<0.05) and openness (F(3, 159)=4.32, P<0.01) than those with other rheumatic diseases. This study highlights the specificity of personality in fibromyalgia. It also underlines the protective role of personality traits: in the fibromyalgia group, high neuroticism and low conscientiousness (high impulsivity) were associated with a high level of chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Estefan, Juliany; Ribeiro, Marcia; Abad, Eliane; Saintive, Simone; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia
Alopecia areata is a trichosis characterized by loss of hair, with the abrupt onset of round or oval, nonscarring, flat, single or multiple areas of alopecia lesions, which can coalesce. Several hypotheses have been raised to explain its etiology, with autoimmunity being accepted until today, along with genetic factors.
Wolfe, Frederick; Walitt, Brian T; Katz, Robert S; Häuser, Winfried
To determine prevalence and incidence of US Social Security Disability and Supplemental Security Income (SSD) in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate prediction of SSD. Over a mean of 4 years (range 1-13 years), we studied 2,321 patients with physician-diagnosed fibromyalgia (prevalent cases) and applied modified American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 research criteria to identify criteria-positive patients. During the study, 34.8% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 32.9-36.8%) of fibromyalgia patients received SSD. The annual incidence of SSD among patients not receiving SSD at study enrollment was 3.4% (95% CI 3.0-3.9%), and 25% were estimated to be work disabled at 9.0 years of followup. By comparison, the prevalence of SSD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with concomitant fibromyalgia was 55.6% (95% CI 54.3-57.0%) and was 42.4% in osteoarthritis (OA). By study conclusion, 31.4% of SSD awardees were no longer receiving SSD. In univariate models, incident SSD in patients with fibromyalgia was predicted by sociodemographic measures and by symptom burden; but the strongest predictor was functional status (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]). In multivariable models, the HAQ DI and the Short Form 36-item health survey physical and mental component summary scores, but no other variables, predicted SSD. Fibromyalgia criteria-positive patients had more SSD, but the continuous scale, polysymptomatic distress index derived from the ACR criteria was a substantially better predictor of SSD than a criteria-positive diagnosis. The prevalence of SSD is high in fibromyalgia, but not higher than in RA and OA patients who satisfy fibromyalgia criteria. The best predictors of work disability are functional status variables. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Jones, Kim D; Mist, Scott D; Casselberry, Marie A; Ali, Ather; Christopher, Michael S
A growing body of literature suggests that mindfulness techniques may be beneficial in fibromyalgia. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of six trials indicated improvement in depressive symptoms and quality of life, calling for increased rigor and use of standardized measures in future trials. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between mindfulness [as measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)] and fibromyalgia impact [as measured by the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR)]. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia from a national fibromyalgia advocacy foundation e-mail list. A total of 4986 respondents represented all 50 states in the United States and 30 countries. FIQR scores demonstrated moderate to severe fibromyalgia with the majority of subjects (59%) scoring ≤60. Scores on the FFMQ subscales ranged from 20.8 to 27.3, with highest scores for the observe subscale. All subscale correlations were small to moderate and indicated that more severe fibromyalgia impact was associated with less mindfulness except in the observe scale (r = .15, P > .000). No clinical or demographics explained as much variance in the FIQR total as any of the mindfulness subscales. Fibromyalgia patients experience symptoms that may be alleviated by mindfulness interventions. Baseline values for the observe subscale of the FFMQ were unexpectedly high. Further research is needed to know if this may be due to non-mindful observations and should be noted when the FFMQ is used in fibromyalgia clinical trials. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jones, Kim D.; Mist, Scott D.; Casselberry, Marie A.; Ali, Ather; Christopher, Michael S.
Context and Objective A growing body of literature suggests that mindfulness techniques may be beneficial in fibromyalgia. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of six trials indicated improvement in depressive symptoms and quality of life, calling for increased rigor and use of standardized measures in future trials. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between mindfulness [as measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)] and fibromyalgia impact [as measured by the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR)]. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional survey was conducted with adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia from a national fibromyalgia advocacy foundation e-mail list. Results A total of 4986 respondents represented all 50 states in the United States and 30 countries. FIQR scores demonstrated moderate to severe fibromyalgia with the majority of subjects (59%) scoring ≤60. Scores on the FFMQ subscales ranged from 20.8 to 27.3, with highest scores for the observe subscale. All subscale correlations were small to moderate and indicated that more severe fibromyalgia impact was associated with less mindfulness except in the observe scale (r = .15, P > .000). No clinical or demographics explained as much variance in the FIQR total as any of the mindfulness subscales. Conclusions Fibromyalgia patients experience symptoms that may be alleviated by mindfulness interventions. Baseline values for the observe subscale of the FFMQ were unexpectedly high. Further research is needed to know if this may be due to non-mindful observations and should be noted when the FFMQ is used in fibromyalgia clinical trials. PMID:26005199
... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic Arthritis Fast Facts Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic arthritis. ... appear before the skin disorder. What is psoriatic arthritis? Psoriasis is a disease in which scaly red ...
Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...
... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile Arthritis Fast Facts Arthritis in children is treatable. It ... as fevers or rash. What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis? Several types of arthritis, all involving chronic (long- ...
Slti, I S; Salem, Z
In one family several male and female members had hypogonadism and frontoparietal alopecia, whereas other members with normal sexual development had normal scalp hair. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of three affected young men (two brothers and their cousin) revealed that the hypogonadism was the result of decreased serum concentrations of follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones. There was no evidence of a deficiency of any other pituitary hormone. Long-term treatment of the three patients with human chorionic gonadotropin resulted in an increase in the serum testosterone concentration, the appearance of male secondary sex characteristics and an increase in the size of the external genitalia. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 4 PMID:466617
Massage therapy is widely used by patients with fibromyalgia seeking symptom relief. We performed a review of all available studies with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials to determine whether massage therapy can be a viable treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. Extensive narrative review. PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, PEDro, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (inception-December 2009) were searched for the key words "massage", "massotherapy", "self-massage", "soft tissue manipulation", "soft tissue mobilization", "complementary medicine", "fibromyalgia" "fibrositis", and "myofascial pain". No language restrictions were imposed. The reference lists of all articles retrieved in full were also searched. The effects of massage on fibromyalgia symptoms have been examined in two single-arm studies and six randomized controlled trials. All reviewed studies showed short-term benefits of massage, and only one single-arm study demonstrated long-term benefits. All reviewed studies had methodological problems. The existing literature provides modest support for use of massage therapy in treating fibromyalgia. Additional rigorous research is needed in order to establish massage therapy as a safe and effective intervention for fibromyalgia. In massage therapy of fibromyalgia, we suggest that massage will be painless, its intensity should be increased gradually from session to session, in accordance with patient's symptoms; and the sessions should be performed at least 1-2 times a week.
Zadorozny, Oleg Gilbert
Fibromyalgia is a widely accepted clinical syndrome that is encountered frequently in general practice. It occurs in all age groups and is characterized by widespread rheumatism with specific tender areas, which are semi-quantifiable and are remarkable, not only for their constant presence, but also for their constant absence in areas that are typically not involved. Treatment consists of reassurance, aerobic exercise, and avoidance of prolonged medical leave. Tricyclic medications in doses subtherapeutic for depression can help, but anti-inflammatory drugs alone have been disappointing. PMID:21233932
Queiroz, Luiz Paulo
Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.
... some cases, fibromyalgia symptoms begin shortly after a person has experienced a mentally or physically traumatic event, such as a car wreck. People who have post-traumatic stress disorder appear to be more likely to develop ...
Campos, Jullyene Gomes de; Oliveira, Cláudia Marina Puga Barbosa; Romero, Sandra Adolfina Reyes; Klein, Ana Paula; Akel, Patricia Bandeira de Melo; Pinto, Giselle Martins
Temporal triangular alopecia, also referred as congenital triangular alopecia, is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology. It is characterized by a non-scarring, circumscribed alopecia often located unilaterally in the frontotemporal region. It usually emerges at ages 2-9 years. Alopecia areata is the main differential diagnosis, especially in atypical cases. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive procedure that helps distinguish temporal triangular alopecia from aloepecia areata. Such procedure prevents invasive diagnostic methods as well as ineffective treatments.
Dobreva, Atanaska; Paus, Ralf; Cogan, N G
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease, and its clinical phenotype is characterized by the formation of distinct hairless patterns on the scalp or other parts of the body. In most cases hair falls out in round patches. A well-established hypothesis for the pathogenesis of AA states that collapse of hair follicle immune privilege is one of the essential elements in disease development. To investigate the dynamics of alopecia areata, we develop a mathematical model that incorporates immune system components and hair follicle immune privilege agents whose involvement in AA has been confirmed in clinical studies and experimentally. We perform parameter sensitivity analysis in order to determine which inputs have the greatest effect on outcome variables. Our findings suggest that, among all processes reflected in the model, immune privilege guardians and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ govern disease dynamics. These results agree with the immune privilege collapse hypothesis for the development of AA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kelly, Yanna; Blanco, Aline; Tosti, Antonella
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by a non-scarring progressive miniaturization of the hair follicle in predisposed men and women with a pattern distribution. Although AGA is a very prevalent condition, approved therapeutic options are limited. This article discusses the current treatment alternatives including their efficacy, safety profile, and quality of evidence. Finasteride and minoxidil for male androgenetic alopecia and minoxidil for female androgenetic alopecia still are the therapeutic options with the highest level evidence. The role of antiandrogens for female patients, the importance of adjuvant therapies, as well as new drugs and procedures are also addressed.
Pires, Mario Cezar; Martins, João Mauricio; Montealegre, F.; Gatti, Flávia Romero
The topical immunotherapy is used to treat alopecia areata and recalcitrant warts since the 1970s. Diphencyprone is a contact sensitizer used to treat dermatological conditions resulting from as altered immunological state, such as extensive alopecia areata, being partially effective and safe. Side effects include local eczema with blistering, regional lymphadenopathy and contact urticaria. Rare adverse effects include an erythema multiforme-like reaction, hyperpigmenttion, hypopigmentation, and vitiligo. We report a 30-year-old, Brazilian male who developed vitiligo lesions following DPCP therapy for alopecia areata. PMID:20585597
Once the physician has identified fibromyalgia as a potential diagnosis, further evaluation is warranted, both to understand the full dimensions of fibromyalgia and to evaluate other potential causes of the patient's symptoms. For example, mood disorders, sleep disorders, and daytime fatigue are often present in patients with fibromyalgia and often are closely related to pain. In addition, a number of physical conditions can mimic fibromyalgia and must be considered in the patient's evaluation. These include endocrine conditions, neurologic disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, and medication-related side effects. Taking a complete medical history and performing a thorough physical examination, including a complete laboratory assessment, can be very helpful in confirming the diagnosis or establishing an alternate diagnosis. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Davis, Erica C.; Reid, Sophia D.; Sperling, Leonard C.
Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a scarring alopecia that is predominantly seen in African American women, but occurs less frequently in men. The authors present three cases of African American men with biopsy-proven central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and detail the clinical presentation, histological findings, and treatment regimens. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating male patients with vertex hair loss accompanied by scalp symptoms. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion in African American men with the appropriate clinical picture and confirm the diagnosis by scalp biopsy. Prompt and appropriate treatment can help halt or slow disease progression. PMID:22768355
Davis, Erica C; Reid, Sophia D; Callender, Valerie D; Sperling, Leonard C
Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a scarring alopecia that is predominantly seen in African American women, but occurs less frequently in men. The authors present three cases of African American men with biopsy-proven central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and detail the clinical presentation, histological findings, and treatment regimens. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating male patients with vertex hair loss accompanied by scalp symptoms. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion in African American men with the appropriate clinical picture and confirm the diagnosis by scalp biopsy. Prompt and appropriate treatment can help halt or slow disease progression.
Walitt, Brian; Klose, Petra; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Phillips, Tudor; Häuser, Winfried
This review is one of a series on drugs used to treat fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep problems and fatigue affecting approximately 2% of the general population. People often report high disability levels and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Drug therapy focuses on reducing key symptoms and disability, and improving HRQoL. Cannabis has been used for millennia to reduce pain and other somatic and psychological symptoms. To assess the efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoids for fibromyalgia symptoms in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE to April 2016, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, three clinical trial registries, and contact with trial authors. We selected randomised controlled trials of at least four weeks' duration of any formulation of cannabis products used for the treatment of adults with fibromyalgia. Two review authors independently extracted the data of all included studies and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. We performed analysis using three tiers of evidence. First tier evidence was derived from data meeting current best standards and subject to minimal risk of bias (outcome equivalent to substantial pain intensity reduction, intention-to-treat analysis without imputation for drop-outs; at least 200 participants in the comparison, eight to 12 weeks' duration, parallel design), second tier evidence from data that did not meet one or more of these criteria and were considered at some risk of bias but with adequate numbers (i.e. data from at least 200 participants) in the comparison, and third tier evidence from data involving small numbers of participants that were considered very likely to be biased or used outcomes of limited clinical utility, or both. We assessed the
Harris, John E
Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments.
Lynch, Michael C; Milchak, Marissa A; Parnes, Herbert; Ioffreda, Michael D
Tick bites can cause a number of local inflammatory reactions, which are often difficult to differentiate from those induced by other arthropod bites or stings. These include erythematous nodular or pustular lesions, erosive plaques, annular lesions of erythema chronicum migrans, and both scarring and nonscarring inflammatory alopecia. We report a case of nonscarring alopecia in a 21-year-old male who reported a recent history of tick bite to the scalp. The biopsy demonstrated a dense pseudolymphomatous inflammatory infiltrate with numerous eosinophils associated with hair follicle miniaturization and an elevated catagen-telogen count. Signs of external rubbing, including lichen simplex chronicus and the "hamburger sign", were also visualized and are indicative of the associated pruritus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the fifth report of nonscarring tick bite alopecia in the literature and the first in an adult patient. This text will review the classic clinical presentation, histologic findings, and proposed mechanism of tick bite alopecia.
Bader, U; Trüeb, R M
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) occurs in approximately 40% of men at the age of 40 and 50% at 50, respectively. Especially for young men progressive hair loss can be distressing. Therefore, understanding of these patients' concerns is important for appropriate management. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of AGA mainly focuses on androgen metabolism as it affects hair growth. As a result, pharmacologic treatment has made considerable progress through the introduction of selective 5 alpha-reductase inhibition with finasteride. In placebo-controlled clinical trials in men with AGA, treatment with oral finasteride proved to be effective. Minoxidil is the only pharmacological substance for topical application with proven efficacy. So far, other treatment modalities have no proven efficacy in clinical trials, so that their use cannot be recommended. Options for advanced AGA not amenable to pharmacologic treatment are autologous hair transplantation and hair replacement, both of which have recently also made progress in terms of cosmetic appeal.
Fertig, Raymond; Tosti, Antonella
Summary Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a rare dermatologic disease that causes scarring and hair loss and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. FFA patients typically present with hair loss in the frontal scalp region and eyebrows which may be associated with sensations of itching or burning. FFA is a clinically distinct variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP) that affects predominantly postmenopausal women, although men and premenopausal women may also be affected. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary to prevent definitive scarring and permanent hair loss. Data from retrospective studies indicate that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5aRIs) are effective in stabilizing the disease. In our clinical experience, we have seen optimal results treating FFA patients with oral finasteride in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine, topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus) and excimer laser in patients with signs of active inflammation. PMID:27904832
MacDermid, Joy C; Wilkins, Seanne; Gibson, Jane; Shaw, Lynn
Background Patients living with fibromyalgia strongly prefer to access health information on the web. However, the majority of subjects in previous studies strongly expressed their concerns about the quality of online information resources. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate existing online fibromyalgia information resources for content, quality and readability by using standardised quality and readability tools. Methods The first 25 websites were identified using Google and the search keyword ‘fibromyalgia’. Pairs of raters independently evaluated website quality using two structured tools (DISCERN and a quality checklist). Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease score maps. Results Ranking of the websites' quality varied by the tool used, although there was general agreement about the top three websites (Fibromyalgia Information, Fibromyalgia Information Foundation and National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases). Content analysis indicated that 72% of websites provided information on treatment options, 68% on symptoms, 60% on diagnosis and 40% on coping and resources. DISCERN ratings classified 32% websites as ‘very good’, 32% as ‘good and 36% as ‘marginal’. The mean overall DISCERN score was 36.88 (good). Only 16% of websites met the recommended literacy level grade of 6–8 (range 7–15). Conclusion Higher quality websites tended to be less readable. Online fibromyalgia information resources do not provide comprehensive information about fibromyalgia, and have low quality and poor readability. While information is very important for those living with fibromyalgia, current resources are unlikely to provide necessary or accurate information, and may not be usable for most people. PMID:22021777
Schlienger, J L; Perrin, A E; Grunenberger, F; Goichot, B
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and fatigue without biological detectable disturbances. The mechanisms of this disease are unknown. It has been postulated that it can be the consequence of a chronic stress mediated mainly through the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. These fields have been extensively studied. Results were scattered and non convincing. A reduction of growth hormone and IGF-1 levels described in a third of patients has led to a double blind random clinical trial with biogenetic growth hormone. Results were equivocal . Other hormonal systems are grossly normals and circadian rhythms are unaltered. Despite some arguments in favour of a CRH neurons hyperactivity, these results are not able to consolide a particular physiopathological mechanism and to argument for a new therapeutic approach. Many of the abnormalities may be the consequence of psychological disturbances.
Hassett, Afton L; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A
Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, and until recently, was considered to be common but relatively "benign." Mounting evidence, however, suggests that some of the 116 million US adults who suffer from chronic pain are also at an increased risk for developing age-related diseases prematurely, suffering earlier cognitive and physical decline, and experiencing earlier mortality. Given the aging US population and the prevalence of chronic pain along with related healthcare consequences, there is a critical need to better understand the relationship between aging and chronic pain. Herein, we focus on one chronic pain state, fibromyalgia, and provide an overview of the evidence suggesting that individuals with this chronic pain condition show signs of premature aging.
Buskila, Dan; Neumann, Lily
The pathogenesis of fibromyalgia (FM) and related conditions is not entirely understood. Recent evidence suggests that these syndromes may share heritable pathophysiologic features. Familial studies suggest that genetic and familial factors may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of these conditions. There is evidence that polymorphisms of genes in the serotoninergic and catecholaminergic systems are linked to the pathophysiology of FM and related conditions and are associated with personality traits. The precise role of genetic factors in the etiopathology of FM remains unknown, but it is likely that several genes are operating together to initiate this syndrome. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to better clarify the role of genetics in the development of FM.
McAllister, Samantha J; Toussaint, Loren L; Williams, David A; Hoskin, Tanya L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann
Patients with fibromyalgia often report dyscognition as a symptom; however, the literature on this symptom is sparse. Our objective for this cross-sectional study was to characterize dyscognition among patients with fibromyalgia, identify comorbid symptoms associated with dyscognition, and evaluate its relation with fibromyalgia severity. Dyscognition was assessed with the Multiple Abilities Self-report Questionnaire (MASQ) for 681 patients with fibromyalgia. Other assessed comorbid symptoms were pain, fatigue, sleep problems, mood, physical and mental health, and autonomic function. Correlation and regression modeling were used to identify relations between the MASQ subscales and other fibromyalgia symptoms. Mixed analysis of variance was used to examine the profile of dyscognition in different levels of fibromyalgia. MASQ subscale scores from a previously described healthy normal control population were used for comparison. The mean (SD) age of the study patients was 55.8 (12.6) years, and most patients were female (93%) and white (91%). Perceived dyscognition was most related to depression, anxiety, and autonomic function. Across all fibromyalgia severity levels, patients had significantly higher levels of perceived dyscognition than the healthy controls. Significant differences existed for the MASQ total and most MASQ subscales among patients with mild, moderate, and severe fibromyalgia. Our study results provide further evidence that perceived dyscognition in fibromyalgia is influenced by various comorbid symptoms. In treating patients with fibromyalgia who have dyscognition, clinicians should consider the multiple types of dyscognition and the effects of other fibromyalgia symptoms.
Moreno-Ramírez, D; Camacho Martínez, F
Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia (PFFA) was described by Kossard et al. as a progressive recession of the frontal hairline affecting particularly postmenopausal women. Further cases of PFFA have been reported to date, all of them considering it as a variant of lichen planopilaris on the basis of its clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features. To describe clinical features, and response to treatment of 16 cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia diagnosed at our department in the last 6 years. In addition to clinical data, biopsies and laboratory tests (antinuclear antibodies, sex hormones, thyroid hormones) were performed in order to rule out other causes of scarring alopecia. Patients were treated with intralesional corticosteroids, finasteride, and minoxidil, depending on the stage of the disease and association to androgenetic alopecia. All patients presented progressive alopecia localized to the frontal and temporal hairlines. Eight patients (50%) had loss of eyebrows, and six patients (37.5%) had axillar alopecia. Ages ranged from 45 to 79. Three of these women were premenopausal. Androgenetic alopecia was evident in seven patients (43.8%). All patients biopsied showed perifollicular lymphocitic infiltrate with lamelar fibrosis limited to the upper portions of the follicle. The progression of the condition stopped in most patients after a variable period on treatment. When treatment was abandoned the alopecia progressed to 'clown alopecia' appearance. Cases of Kossard's type scarring alopecia affecting premenopausal women made us consider that this condition is not exclusive of postmenopausal women. Differential diagnosis should take into account conditions like female androgenetic alopecia, fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution, alopecia areata, and chronic lupus erythematosus. Except for the pattern of alopecia, lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia are indistinguishable, thus the latter is included as a variant of lichen
Pritchard, G C; Hill, M R; Slater, A J
Outbreaks of alopecia with unusually high morbidity occurred among calves reared on milk substitutes on two unrelated farms in Suffolk. On one farm alopecia occurred for three consecutive years; during the winter of 1981-82 there were also clinical signs of muscular dystrophy among the same calves. On the second farm calves with alopecia also showed signs of muscular dystrophy. The apparent relationship between alopecia and milk substitute feeding is discussed together with the possible involvement of vitamin E.
Haddad, Amir; Zisman, Devy
Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are often affected by numerous comorbidities that carry significant morbidity and mortality. Reported comorbidities include diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune eye disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, depression, and fibromyalgia. All health care providers for patients with PsA should recognize and monitor those comorbidities, as well as understand their effect on patient management to ensure an optimal clinical outcome. PMID:28178440
Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi
Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA.
Olsen, E A; Buller, T A; Weiner, S; Delong, E R
Twenty-two men with patterns III-Va androgenetic alopecia were entered into a 10-month study aimed at establishing information on the natural progression of hair loss over a period of time typical of studies of hair growth promoters. The methodology employed was the same as that in published clinical trials of topical minoxidil, but the men refrained from application of either active drug or vehicle to their scalps. As one of the potential explanations for the observed 'placebo-effect' seen in non-vellus hair counts in the topical minoxidil trials was a learning curve of novice hair counters, we were particularly interested in evaluating this in our 'no-treatment' trial. To that end, both a novice (Observer I) and an experienced (Observer II) hair counter independently performed the hair counts. There was a mean decline in the number of vertex target area non-vellus hairs (-17.2 +/- 80.3 for Observer I and -26.6 +/- 63.5 for Observer II) at the end of 10 months; this was not significant. The novice's hair counts were lower than the experienced observer's counts at baseline, and the difference remained relatively constant during the study. Without the application of a placebo, there was no increase in hair growth, making it unlikely that the methods of hair counting led to the 'placebo-effect' seen in prior topical minoxidil studies.
Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J
Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss.
Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J
Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457
Trüeb, Ralph M
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is hereditary and androgen-dependent, progressive thinning of the scalp hair that follows a defined pattern. While the genetic involvement is pronounced but poorly understood, major advances have been achieved in understanding principal elements of the androgen metabolism involved: androgen-dependent processes are predominantly due to the binding of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to the androgen receptor (AR). DHT-dependent cell functions depend on the availability of weak androgens, their conversion to more potent androgens via the action of 5 alpha-reductase, low enzymatic activity of androgen inactivating enzymes, and functionally active AR present in high numbers. The predisposed scalp exhibits high levels of DHT, and increased expression of the AR. Conversion of testosterone to DHT within the dermal papilla plays a central role, while androgen-regulated factors deriving from dermal papilla cells are believed to influence growth of other components of the hair follicle. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy are oral finasteride, a competitive inhibitor of type 2 5 alpha-reductase, and topical minoxidil, an adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener which has been reported to stimulate the production of vascular endothelial growth factor in cultured dermal papilla cells. Since the clinical success rate of treatment of AGA with modulators of androgen metabolism or hair growth promoters is limited, sustained microscopic follicular inflammation with connective tissue remodeling, eventually resulting in permanent hair loss, is considered a possible cofactor in the complex etiology of AGA.
Ambrose, K R; Gracely, R H; Glass, J M
Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain and tenderness; however, comorbid cognitive difficulties are a common complaint among patients. Known as fibro fog or dyscognition, this symptom comprises difficulties with complex cognitive processes including memory, executive function, concentration and attention. While the mechanisms that initiate and maintain these cognitive deficits are still largely unknown, recent research has increased the understanding of subjective symptoms and objectively-determined deficits in cognitive performance. Treatments have also improved to include complementary cognitive and physical strategies. This review focuses on issues of dyscognition in fibromyalgia. Details of objective testing methods are not within the scope of this paper.
Smith, Howard S.; Bracken, Donna; Smith, Joshua M.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder characterized by multifocal pain and other associated somatic symptoms including fatigue, insomnia, cognitive/memory problems, and even psychological distress. It appears that 2–4% of the general population suffers from FM. FM negatively impacts the physical functioning of its patients, as evidenced by difficulties with multiple daily activities, as well as affecting emotional health, social functioning, and health related quality of life. This review will discuss the potential theories that possibly contribute to the pathogenesis of FM, although the precise mechanism is unknown. The evolution of the assessment of FM will also be examined, with the waning use of tender point examinations and the appearance of new simple, practical diagnostic criteria. Although non-pharmacologic therapeutic options (exercise, education, cognitive–behavioral therapy) have been shown to be extremely effective in FM, the focus of this article will be on pharmacologic strategies. Non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved as well as FDA approved agents will be presented. Each agent's therapeutic “niche” in FM management will be discussed based on its pharmacologic profile, patient responsiveness, and tolerability. Finally a clinical algorithm will be presented for the step-wise management of pain and other associated symptoms of FM. PMID:21772818
Gelonch, Olga; Garolera, Maite; Rosselló, Lluís; Pifarré, Josep
Introduccion. Las personas diagnosticadas de fibromialgia refieren de manera muy frecuente quejas sobre su pobre funcionamiento cognitivo. En los ultimos anos ha aumentado el interes para investigar cuales son las alteraciones cognitivas presentes en esta enfermedad. Objetivo. Realizar una revision de las investigaciones publicadas sobre fibromialgia y funciones cognitivas. Desarrollo. Se realizo una busqueda bibliografica con un intervalo temporal desde 1995 hasta 2012. Los terminos de busqueda incluyeron las palabras clave 'fibromyalgia' y 'cognition', 'attention', 'memory', 'language', 'perception', 'executive functions' y 'disexecutive syndrome'. Se seleccionaron 64 registros tras aplicar criterios de inclusion. Conclusiones. Los estudios que han analizado las funciones cognitivas en las personas diagnosticadas de fibromialgia han sido escasos y mayoritariamente con muestras pequenas. Se han identificado deficits principalmente en la memoria de trabajo y en las capacidades atencionales mas complejas, donde el factor distraccion tiene una relevancia importante. Tambien se ha identificado deterioro en la memoria a largo plazo y en las funciones ejecutivas. Existe consenso entre los diversos estudios en que el grado de dolor tiene una relacion directa con el nivel de disfuncion cognitiva, mientras que no existe total consenso para explicar la influencia de la depresion y ansiedad sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo en estos pacientes.
Fietta, Pierluigi; Fietta, Pieranna; Manganelli, Paolo
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common and polymorphic syndrome, characterized by long-lasting, widespread musculoskeletal pain, in the presence of 11 or more tender points located at specific anatomical sites. A heterogeneous series of disturbances, mainly involving autonomic, neuroendocrine and neuropsychic systems, is usually present. Even if subjective, the chronic psychophysical suffering state of FM adversely affects the patient's quality of life, performance and mood. Cognitive behavioural therapy and antidepressant drugs are useful in FM treatment, suggesting a close link between the syndrome and psychiatric, psychological and behavioural factors. Our aim was to evaluate the personality profiles of FM patients, as well as the aggregation and relationships between FM and psychiatric disorders (PD), reviewing the available evidences in current literature on this comorbidity. Personality variables associated with psychological vulnerability are frequent in FM patients. Personality disorders are rarely reported. Compared with controls, FM patients show a significantly higher prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders, reported in 20-80% and 13-63.8% of cases, respectively. This high variability may depend on the psychosocial characteristics of patients, since most of the studies were performed on tertiary care consulting patients, however, even referring to the lower percentages, the occurrence of PD is significantly higher in FM subjects compared to the general population (7%). Moreover, elevated frequencies of PD have been detected in relatives of FM patients. The FM/PD aggregation suggests a common physiopathology, and alterations of neurotransmitter systems may constitute the shared underlying factor.
Hiroi, A; Ito, T; Seo, N; Uede, K; Yoshimasu, T; Ito, M; Nakamura, K; Ito, N; Paus, R; Furukawa, F
Irreversible, permanent and scarring alopecia is associated with several autoimmune diseases, including all autoimmune connective tissue disorders. The pathogenesis of autoimmune-induced permanent alopecia (APA) is still poorly understood, and instructive, simple mouse models for the study of APA are needed urgently. During the course of our studies in a well-established mouse model for chronic rheumatoid arthritis, the New Zealand Black/KN (NZB/KN) mouse, we noticed that ageing male NZB/KN mice developed spontaneous APA. To study whether alopecia seen in ageing male NZB/KN mice displays key features of human APA and may, thus, be a useful new mouse model for clinically relevant APA research. NZB/KN, the F1 hybrid of NZW/N Slc x NZB/KN (W/BKN F1), the F1 hybrid of NZB/KN x NZW/N Slc (BKN/W F1), and the F2 hybrid of W/BKN F1 x W/BKN F1 mice were employed in this study, in order to check which strain carries the highest risk of alopecia development. Besides routine histology, CD3, CD4 and CD8 expression as well as immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM deposition in hair follicles were investigated by immunohistology/immunofluorescence. Mast cell distribution/degranulation and Ki-67 (proliferation)/TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling) (apoptosis) positive cells were also analysed. Only F2 male NZB/KN mice were prone to develop alopecia, suggesting that Y chromosome-associated gene(s) are involved in the pathogenesis of APA, which incidence rises with increasing age. The lesional alopecia skin in 12-month-old male NZB/KN mice showed a sharp decline in hair follicle density, thus meeting a key criterion of permanent alopecia. Both macroscopically and histologically, the alopecia seen in these mice resembled in many respects different stages of clinical APA, such as alopecia associated with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) in humans. Lesional APA hair follicles in mice displayed intrafollicular and perifollicular
Arnold, Lesley M
Fibromyalgia is a chronic, musculoskeletal pain condition that predominately affects women. Although fibromyalgia is common and associated with substantial morbidity and disability, there are no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments. However, progress has been made in identifying pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia. Recent pharmacological treatment studies have focused on selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, which enhance serotonin and norepinephrine neurotransmission in the descending pain pathways and lack many of the adverse side effects associated with tricyclic medications. Promising results have also been reported for medications that bind to the α2δ subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in decreased calcium influx at nerve terminals and subsequent reduction in the release of several neurotransmitters thought to play a role in pain processing. There is also evidence to support exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, education, and social support in the management of fibromyalgia. It is likely that many patients would benefit from combinations of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, but more study is needed. PMID:16762044
Arnold, Lesley M.; Crofford, Leslie J.; Mease, Philip J.; Burgess, Somali Misra; Palmer, Susan C.; Abetz, Linda; Martin, Susan A.
Objective The objective of this study was to elicit and assess important symptom domains and the impact of fibromyalgia on patients’ quality of life and functioning from a patient’s perspective. The intention was to collect this information as part of an overall effort to overcome shortcomings of existing outcome measures in fibromyalgia. Methods This was a qualitative study in which six focus group sessions with 48 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia were conducted to elicit concepts and ideas to assess the impact of fibromyalgia on their lives. Results The focus groups conducted with fibromyalgia patients identified symptom domains that had the greatest impact on their quality of life including pain, sleep disturbance, fatigue depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Fibromyalgia had a substantial negative impact on social and occupational function. Patients reported disrupted relationships with family and friends, social isolation, reduced activities of daily living and leisure activities, avoidance of physical activity, and loss of career or inability to advance in careers or education. Conclusion The findings from the focus groups revealed that fibromyalgia has a substantial negative impact on patients’ lives. Practice Implications A comprehensive assessment of the multiple symptoms domains associated with fibromyalgia and the impact of fibromyalgia on multidimensional aspects of function should be a routine part of the care of fibromyalgia patients. PMID:18640807
Deare, John C; Zheng, Zhen; Xue, Charlie C L; Liu, Jian Ping; Shang, Jingsheng; Scott, Sean W; Littlejohn, Geoff
One in five fibromyalgia sufferers use acupuncture treatment within two years of diagnosis. To examine the benefits and safety of acupuncture treatment for fibromyalgia. We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, National Research Register, HSR Project and Current Contents, as well as the Chinese databases VIP and Wangfang to January 2012 with no language restrictions. Randomised and quasi-randomised studies evaluating any type of invasive acupuncture for fibromyalgia diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, and reporting any main outcome: pain, physical function, fatigue, sleep, total well-being, stiffness and adverse events. Two author pairs selected trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Treatment effects were reported as standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous outcomes using different measurement tools (pain, physical function, fatigue, sleep, total well-being and stiffness) and risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes (adverse events). We pooled data using the random-effects model. Nine trials (395 participants) were included. All studies except one were at low risk of selection bias; five were at risk of selective reporting bias (favouring either treatment group); two were subject to attrition bias (favouring acupuncture); three were subject to performance bias (favouring acupuncture) and one to detection bias (favouring acupuncture). Three studies utilised electro-acupuncture (EA) with the remainder using manual acupuncture (MA) without electrical stimulation. All studies used 'formula acupuncture' except for one, which used trigger points.Low quality evidence from one study (13 participants) showed EA improved symptoms with no adverse events at one month following treatment. Mean pain in the non-treatment control group was 70 points on a 100 point scale; EA reduced pain by a mean of 22 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 4 to 41), or 22% absolute
Deare, John C; Zheng, Zhen; Xue, Charlie CL; Liu, Jian Ping; Shang, Jingsheng; Scott, Sean W; Littlejohn, Geoff
Background One in five fibromyalgia sufferers use acupuncture treatment within two years of diagnosis. Objectives To examine the benefits and safety of acupuncture treatment for fibromyalgia. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, National Research Register, HSR Project and Current Contents, as well as the Chinese databases VIP and Wangfang to January 2012 with no language restrictions. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised studies evaluating any type of invasive acupuncture for fibromyalgia diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, and reporting any main outcome: pain, physical function, fatigue, sleep, total well-being, stiffness and adverse events. Data collection and analysis Two author pairs selected trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Treatment effects were reported as standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95%confidence intervals (CI) for continuous outcomes using different measurement tools (pain, physical function, fatigue, sleep, total well-being and stiffness) and risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes (adverse events).We pooled data using the random-effects model. Main results Nine trials (395 participants) were included. All studies except one were at low risk of selection bias; five were at risk of selective reporting bias (favouring either treatment group); two were subject to attrition bias (favouring acupuncture); three were subject to performance bias (favouring acupuncture) and one to detection bias (favouring acupuncture). Three studies utilised electro-acupuncture (EA) with the remainder using manual acupuncture (MA) without electrical stimulation. All studies used ’formula acupuncture’ except for one, which used trigger points. Low quality evidence from one study (13 participants) showed EA improved symptoms with no adverse events at one month following treatment. Mean pain in the non-treatment control group was 70 points on a 100 point scale
Komen, Marion M C; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van den Hurk, Corina J G; Nortier, J W R Hans
Alopecia is a very common side effect of cytostatic therapy and is considered one of the most emotionally distressing effects. To prevent alopecia scalp cooling is currently used in some indications in medical oncology in 59 hospitals in the Netherlands. The success of scalp cooling depends on various factors such as type of chemotherapy, dose, infusion time, number of treatment cycles and combinations of drugs. In general, scalp cooling is well tolerated. The reported side-effects are headache, coldness, dizziness and sometimes claustrophobia. An increase in the risk of scalp metastases has not been demonstrated. Proceeding from the South Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Centre a national working group is put together in order to draw up a national guideline for chemotherapy-induced alopecia.
Premkumar, Sridhar; Vidya, Kalanjiam
Every treatment in the dental specialty has its own set of complications, Orthodontic therapy being no exception. Such a problem during the course of treatment puts the specialist in a dilemma as to whether to continue or stop the treatment. One such case in which during headgear therapy, a rare complication such as alopecia was encountered has been dealt with in this paper. This case report shows its effective management while still continuing treatment, thus leading to the desired result. It emphasizes on the importance of maintaining a balance between the benefts and risks of a treatment. The use of headgear can lead to the rare complication of alopecia and the clinician should be aware of it. The reader should understand the psychological implications of alopecia and also to carry out the treatment after assessing the risk/beneft ratio.
Eramo, L R; Esterly, N B; Zieserl, E J; Stock, E L; Herrmann, J
We treated two unrelated boys with ichthyosis follicularis, a rare skin disorder characterized by extensive noninflammatory spiny follicular hyperkeratoses, severe photophobia, and generalized noncicatricial alopecia. This disorder must be differentiated from keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans; ulerythema ophryogenes; keratosis pilaris rubra atrophicans faciei; atrichia with papular lesions; atrophodermia vermiculata; and keratitis, ichthyosis, and deafness syndrome, all of which share some clinical features. Ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia appears to be a familial disorder, but too few cases have been reported to establish the exact mode of inheritance.
Allan, F J; Jones, B R; Purdie, E C
Hypothyroidism and concurrent sex hormone imbalance associated with alopecia was diagnosed in a 5 year-old entire male Miniature Poodle. The dog had a 3-year history of alopecia, seborrhoea and recurrent superficial pyoderma. Abnormal thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test results supported a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Partial hair regrowth occurred after interstitial cell tumours, which were present in both testicles, were removed by castration. Complete hair regrowth, however, occurred only after thyroid hormone supplementation. This case highlighted difficulties which may be encountered when interpreting serum hormone concentrations and endocrine function tests.
Raymond, M. C.; Brown, J. B.
OBJECTIVE: To explore illness experiences of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Midsize city in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. METHOD: Seven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the illness experience of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analysis. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. The analysis strategy used a phenomenologic approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. MAIN FINDINGS: Themes that emerged from the interpretive analysis depict patients' journeys along a continuum from experiencing symptoms, through seeking a diagnosis, to coping with the illness. Experiencing symptoms was composed of four subcategories: pain, a precipitating event, associated symptoms, and modulating factors. Seeking a diagnosis entailed frustration and social isolation. Confirmation of diagnosis brought relief as well as anxiety about the future. After diagnosis, several steps led to creation of adaptive coping strategies, which were influenced by several factors. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the conventional medical model fails to address the complex experience of fibromyalgia. Adopting a patient-centred approach is important for helping patients cope with this disease. PMID:10845136
Brecher, L S; Cymet, T C
The term fibromyalgia refers to a collection of symptoms with no clear physiologic cause, but the symptoms together constitute a clearly recognizable and distinct pathologic entity. The diagnosis is made through the examiner's clinical observations. The differential diagnosis must include other somatic syndromes as well as disease entities, including hepatitis, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. Diagnostic criteria serve as guidelines for diagnosis, not as absolute requirements. Treatment of fibromyalgia, which is an ongoing process, remains individualized, relying on a good physician-patient relationship. It is goal-oriented, directed at helping patients get restorative sleep, alleviating the somatic pains, keeping patients productive, and regulating schedules. It can be achieved through a goal-oriented agreement between patient and provider. Because fibromyalgia is chronic and may affect all areas of an individual's functioning, the physician needs to also evaluate the social support systems of patients with fibromyalgia. The approach to treatment should integrate patient education as well as non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic modalities. To keep patients well educated and involved in their healthcare, physicians should provide patients with adequate sources for reliable information.
Berman, B M; Swyers, J P
Fibromyalgia is a chronic-pain-related syndrome associated with high rates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use. Among the many CAM therapies frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, empirical research data exist to support the use of only three: (1) mind-body, (2) acupuncture, and (3) manipulative therapies for treating fibromyalgia. The strongest data exist for the use of mind-body techniques (e.g. biofeedback, hypnosis, cognitive behavioural therapy), particularly when utilized as part of a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. The weakest data exist for manipulative techniques (e.g. chiropractic and massage). The data supporting the use of acupuncture for fibromyalgia are only moderately strong. Also, for some fibromyalgia patients, acupuncture can exacerbate symptoms, further complicating its application for this condition. Further research is needed not only in these three areas, but also for other treatments being frequently utilized by fibromyalgia patients.
Bresters, D; Wanders, D C M; Louwerens, M; Ball, L M; Fiocco, M; van Doorn, R
Permanent alopecia after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is distressing and few studies have investigated this late effect. The aim of the study was to assess the percentage of patients with alopecia and investigate risk factors for alopecia. Patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT before age 19 years, from January 1990 to January 2013, who were at least 2 years after transplant and in follow-up in our clinic were included. Alopecia was defined as clinically apparent decreased hair density. Possible risk factors considered for alopecia after HSCT included: gender, age, diagnosis, donor type, conditioning regimen: cranial irradiation (TBI/cranial radiotherapy) and/or chemotherapy, which chemotherapeutic agents were used and acute/chronic GvHD. The percentage of permanent alopecia in our cohort was 15.6% (41/263 patients). All patients had diffuse alopecia except for one with alopecia totalis. In multivariate analysis, a conditioning regimen with busulphan and busulphan plus fludarabine (odds ratio (OR) 5.7 (confidence interval (CI): 2.5-12.7) and OR 7.4 (CI: 3.3-16.2), respectively, was the main risk factor and associated with alopecia independent of acute/chronic GvHD. Neither TBI nor other alkylating chemotherapy, including treosulfan, was associated with alopecia. In conclusion, permanent alopecia after HSCT is associated with busulphan and GvHD and occurs in 16% of patients.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 20 March 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2017.15.
Zhao, Johnny; Cohen, Philip R
BackgroundAcquired alopecia of the lower legs may occur secondary to friction due to socks, footwear, or both on the lower extremities. There is scant literature that reports on this phenomenon.Methods and MaterialsWe describe 5 patients who presented with alopecia of their lower legs induced by socks, footwear, or both. We reviewed PubMed for the following terms: ankle alopecia, friction alopecia, frictional alopecia, lower extremity alopecia, non-scarring leg alopecia, and sock alopecia. We also reviewed papers containing these terms and their references.ResultsAcquired frictional alopecia of the lower extremities is often an asymptomatic condition found incidentally on physical examination. The condition can persist for many years despite removal of the source of friction.ConclusionThe incidence of acquired frictional alopecia of the lower extremities may be greater than reflected in previously published reports. It is a non-scarring subtype of alopecia that was noted as an incidental finding during the patient's dermatology appointment.
Bolduc, Chantal; Sperling, Leonard C; Shapiro, Jerry
Both primary and secondary forms of cicatricial alopecia have been described. The hair follicles are the specific target of inflammation in primary cicatricial alopecias. Hair follicles are destroyed randomly with surrounding structures in secondary cicatricial alopecia. This 2-part continuing medical education article will review primary cicatricial alopecias according to the working classification suggested by the North American Hair Research Society. In this classification, the different entities are classified into 3 different groups according to their prominent inflammatory infiltrate (ie, lymphocytic, neutrophilic, and mixed). Part I discusses the following lymphocytic primary cicatricial alopecias: chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and Graham-Little syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI); Disseminated gonococcemia; Septic arthritis - gonococcal arthritis ... Gonococcal arthritis is an infection of a joint. It occurs in people who have gonorrhea , which is caused by ...
Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in ... wrist and fingers. More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is ...
Fibromyalgia is a multisystem illness. One of its defining features, generalized pain, may also be present in other rheumatic entities. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is not easy by any means, it requires a profound knowledge of internal medicine. This article discusses the different rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases that overlap or are prone to be confused with fibromyalgia. It emphasizes the key points in the differential diagnosis.
Varni, James W; Burwinkle, Tasha M; Limbers, Christine A; Szer, Ilona S
Background Fibromyalgia is a chronic health condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, multiple tender points on physical examination, generalized muscular aching, stiffness, fatigue, nonrestorative sleep pattern, cognitive dysfunction, and mood disturbance. Recently, the Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials (OMERACT) Fibromyalgia Syndrome Workshop ranked and prioritized the domains that should be consistently measured in fibromyalgia clinical trials, specifically, pain, generic health-related quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, and physical function. The focus of these deliberations was exclusively on adult patients, and to our knowledge, these domains have not been previously tested within a multidimensional framework in children and adolescents with fibromyalgia. Methods An analysis to determine the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the PedsQL™ 4.0 (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™) Generic Core Scales, PedsQL™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and PedsQL™ Rheumatology Module Pain and Hurt Scale as patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures for pediatric patients with fibromyalgia. The PedsQL™ Scales were completed by 59 families in a pediatric rheumatology clinic in a large children's hospital. Results The PedsQL™ evidenced minimal missing responses (0.53% patient self-report, 0.70% parent proxy-report), achieved excellent reliability for the Generic Core Scales Total Scale Score (α = 0.88 patient self-report, 0.87 parent proxy-report), the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale Total Scale Score (α = 0.94 patient self-report, 0.94 parent proxy-report), and acceptable reliability for the 4-item Rheumatology Module Pain and Hurt Scale (α = 0.68 patient self-report, 0.75 parent proxy-report). The PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale significantly distinguished between pediatric patients with fibromyalgia and healthy children. Pediatric patients with fibromyalgia self
Patients with fibromyalgia experience chronic widespread pain, with associated symptoms of fatigue, sleep disturbance and memory problems. There are many therapies which may be helpful in managing the symptoms of fibromyalgia; however, these often require a process of trial and error to establish optimum management using a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Nurses can support patients with fibromyalgia using a biopsychosocial approach to symptom management. Understanding the nature of fibromyalgia and management options will enable nurses to deliver holistic patient-centred care.
... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...
Nordstroem, R.E.; Holsti, L.R.
Two cases of alopecia due to radiation of the scalp are presented in which it has been possible to achieve a technically and cosmetically satisfactory reconstruction by punch hair grafting. This does not mean that every case is suitable, but it does mean that those without contraindications should at least be given a try.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is the most commonly encountered chronic widespread pain (CWP) condition in rheumatology. In comparison to inflammatory arthritis (IA), it can seem ill defined with no clear understanding of the pathology and therefore no specific targeted treatment. This inevitably raises controversies and challenges. However, this is an outdated view perpetuated by poor teaching of pain at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, and the perennial problem of advances in relevant cross-speciality knowledge penetrating speciality silos. Research has provided a better understanding of the aetiopathology and FM is now regarded as a centralized pain state. Effective treatment is possible utilizing a multidisciplinary approach combining nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments rooted in a biopsychosocial model. This article will provide a review of the mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of FM, focus on some ongoing contentious issues and propose a change to the diagnostic terminology. PMID:28458723
Yunus, Muhammad B.
Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS). CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild. PMID:22191024
Yunus, Muhammad B
Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS). CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild.
Picard, Pascale; Jusseaume, Catherine; Boutet, Maryse; Dualé, Christian; Mulliez, Aurélin; Aublet-Cuvellier, Bruno
This randomized, controlled trial contrasted the effects of 5 not-standardized sessions of hypnosis over 2 months in 59 women with fibromyalgia who were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 30) or a wait-list control group (n = 29). Patients in the treated group were encouraged to practice self-hypnosis. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), MOS-Sleep Scale, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), Cognitive Strategy Questionnaire (CSQ), and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) were administered at baseline, 3 months (M3), and 6 months (M6) after inclusion. Compared to the control, the hypnosis group reported better improvement on PGIC (p = .001 at M3, p = .01 at M6) and a significant improvement in sleep and CSQ dramatization subscale (both at M6).
Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...
Gerber, L.H.; Espinoza, L.R.
This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: The history and epidemiologic definition of psoriatic arthritis as a distinct entity; Psoriatic arthritis: Further epidemiologic and genetic considerations; The radiologic features of psoriatic arthritis; and Laboratory findings and pathology of psoriatic arthritis.
Williams, David A.; Kratz, Anna L.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is classified as a chronic pain condition accompanied by symptoms of fatigue, sleep problems, problems with cognition, negative mood, limited functional status, and the presence of other chronic overlapping pain conditions (COPCs). Comprehensive assessment of all of these components can be challenging. This paper provides an overview of patient-reported approaches that can be taken to assess FM in the contexts of diagnosis, symptom monitoring, phenotyping/characterization, and for purposes of clinical trials. PMID:27133492
Horenstein, Marcelo G; Bacheler, Christian J
Follicular counts from transverse sectioning of scalp biopsies have not been statistically scrutinized across disease entities in a standardized fashion. We applied uniform histological criteria and strict statistical measures to compare nonscarring and scarring alopecia. We studied 700 consecutive cases including 355 nonscarring alopecia [136 telogen effluvium, 115 alopecia areata (AA), 95 androgenetic alopecia, and 9 trichotillosis] and 345 scarring alopecia [238 central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, 29 traction alopecia, 26 lichen planopilaris, 21 end-stage alopecia, 20 lupus erythematosus, 11 folliculitis decalvans]. We counted follicular units, anagen, catagen/telogen, and vellus-like follicles at the central follicular unit level. We calculated follicular density per square centimeter, anagen percentage, telogen percentage, anagen to telogen ratio, and terminal to vellus ratio (TVR). The following achieved statistical significance (P < 0.05): follicular density was 249.4 ± 4.6 in nonscarring alopecia versus 120.1 ± 3.8 in scarring alopecia, follicular density of telogen effluvium was 273.5 ± 7.0 (36.5 ± 12.5 above nonscarring alopecia mean), TVR of androgenetic alopecia was 1.6 ± 0.1 (3.6 ± 0.5 below nonscarring alopecia mean), TVR of AA was 3.2 ± 0.4 (1.5 ± 0.6 below nonscarring alopecia mean), anagen percentage of AA was 26.8 ± 1.8 (26.3 ± 3.0 below nonscarring alopecia mean), anagen to telogen ratio of AA was 1.6 ± 0.4 (3.9 ± 0.7 below nonscarring alopecia mean), and telogen percentage of AA was 59.0 ± 2.3 (31.0 ± 3.5 above nonscarring alopecia mean). There exists a great overlap of densities and ratios across the various disorders due to the limited nature of the punch biopsy sample, variations in scalp anatomy, disease biology and duration, patient gender, and age, etc. Our data provide a bell curve distribution that helps analyze hair counts in the clinicopathologic context.
Ursini, Francesco; Naty, Saverio; Grembiale, Rosa Daniela
Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder of uncertain etiology, characterized by widespread pain, muscle tenderness, and decreased pain threshold to pressure and other stimuli. Obesity is a well-known aggravating factor for certain rheumatologic conditions, such as knee osteoarthritis. Emerging evidences are exploring the link between obesity and other rheumatic diseases, such as fibromyalgia. Epidemiological data show that fibromyalgia patients have higher prevalence of obesity (40%) and overweight (30%) in multiple studies compared with healthy patients. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain "the hidden link", but at this time is not possible to ascertain whether obesity is cause or consequence of fibromyalgia. Among mechanisms proposed, there are the following: impaired physical activity, cognitive and sleep disturbances, psychiatric comorbidity and depression, dysfunction of thyroid gland, dysfunction of the GH/IGF-1 axis, impairment of the endogenous opioid system. In this article, we review the scientific evidence supporting a possible link between obesity and fibromyalgia, how obesity influences fibromyalgia symptoms and how fibromyalgia severity can be improved by weight loss. In addition, we analyze the possible mechanisms by which fibromyalgia and obesity interrelate.
Wright, Cheryl L; Mist, Scott D; Ross, Rebecca L; Jones, Kim D
This article presents a brief review of the physiologic abnormalities seen in fibromyalgia, current theories of widespread pain, and treatment options, including emerging therapeutics, with a focus on the use of duloxetine to manage fibromyalgia symptoms. Major clinical trials that examine the efficacy and effectiveness of duloxetine to date are reviewed, and safety issues are discussed. PMID:20828282
Littlejohn, G O
A recent major epidemic of localized fibrositis/fibromyalgia syndrome occurring in the workplaces of Australia is reviewed. The clinical features are described and the important provoking factors are detailed. A neurogenic model is proposed to explain this localized phenomena and also encompass primary generalized fibrositis/fibromyalgia syndrome.
Sawaddiruk, Passakorn; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients. Nevertheless, due to few studies, limited knowledge for alterations in brain activities in fibromyalgia is currently available. In this review, the changes in brain activity in various brain areas obtained from reports in fibromyalgia patients are comprehensively summarized. Changes of the grey matter in multiple regions such as the superior temporal gyrus, posterior thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, SII, caudate and putamen from the MRI as well as the increase of brain activities in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, insula in fMRI studies are presented and discussed. Moreover, evidence from pharmacological interventions offering benefits for fibromyalgia patients by reducing brain activity is presented. Because of limited knowledge regarding the roles of brain activity alterations in fibromyalgia, this summarized review will encourage more future studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the brains of these patients.
Wright, Cheryl L; Mist, Scott D; Ross, Rebecca L; Jones, Kim D
This article presents a brief review of the physiologic abnormalities seen in fibromyalgia, current theories of widespread pain, and treatment options, including emerging therapeutics, with a focus on the use of duloxetine to manage fibromyalgia symptoms. Major clinical trials that examine the efficacy and effectiveness of duloxetine to date are reviewed, and safety issues are discussed.
... alopecia, and nail dystrophy T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy Printable PDF Open All Close ... expand/collapse boxes. Description T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy is a type of severe ...
Rossi, Alessandra; Di Lollo, Anna Chiara; Guzzo, Maria Paola; Giacomelli, Camillo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Bazzichi, Laura; Di Franco, Manuela
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a chronic, generalised pain condition usually accompanied by several associated symptoms, such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, headache, irritable bowel syndrome and mood disorders. Different medical treatments are used to treat fibromyalgia and the recent guidelines suggest that the optimal treatment consists in a multidisciplinary approach with a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities. Among non-pharmacological treatment, nutrition is a promising tool for FM patients. The aim of this review is to update the present knowledge about fibromyalgia and nutrition by means of a systematic search performed on Medline from January 2000 to December 2014. Nutritional deficiencies have been described in FM patients and the benefits of specific diet and nutritional supplementation are shown. Obesity and overweight, often present in FM patients, are related to the severity of FM worsening the quality of life in terms of higher pain, fatigue, worsened sleep quality and higher incidence of mood disorders. Weight control is thus an effective tool to improve the symptoms. Moreover, it seems reasonable to eliminate some foods from the diet of FM patients, for example excitotoxins. Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity is increasingly recognised as a frequent condition with similar manifestations which overlap with those of FM. The elimination of gluten from the diet of FM patients is recently becoming a potential dietary intervention for clinical improvement. In summary, this review reveals the potential benefit of specific dietary interventions as non-pharmacological tools as part of a multidisciplinary treatment for FM patients.
Fanton, N; Michelazzi, M; Cornegliani, L
Abnormal maternal behaviour has been reported in cats, but is generally not included among the causes of alopecia in kittens. A litter of four kittens, 2 months old, was referred for evaluation of facial alopecia of differing severity. The 2-year-old queen was unaffected. Dermatological examination of the kittens did not find any infectious cause. Trichograms showed broken hair shafts with longitudinal splitting. Congenital alopecia was unlikely based on the clinical presentation. A behavioural consultation revealed abnormal grooming behaviour by the mother, who chewed and removed the hair from the kittens. The kittens were separated from the queen and alopecia resolved within a few weeks. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of alopecia caused by abnormal maternal licking behaviour. Abnormal maternal behaviour should be considered in cases of alopecia affecting a litter of kittens, when infectious and congenital causes have been ruled out. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.
Yu, Nan-Lan; Tan, Huan; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Xi-Chuan
The aim of the present study was to provide more information on the role of illness perception in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and those with alopecia areata (AA), and to further investigate the relationship of illness perception with psychological disorders and dermatological QoL. The study included 342 patients who were diagnosed with AGA (n=212) or AA (n=130) for the first time at our institution between October 2013 and December 2014. All patients were surveyed before clinical examination by several questionnaires including the Brief Illness Perception, Self-rating Depression Scale, Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). In the AGA patients, the illness perception and QoL were low, whereas the prevalence of clinical depression and anxiety was higher compared to the AA patients. Illness perception was associated with psychological distress and low QoL in both groups, and some illness perception dimensions were found to be significant predictors of the DLQI scores. Illness perception plays an important role in AGA and AA patients, and is associated with psychological distress and low QoL. The identification of critical components of illness perception in alopecia patients could help to understand alopecia specificities, to design consultations and interventions according to the perception, and to improve physical and mental outcomes as well as QoL in alopecia patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Besteiro González, José Luis; Suárez Fernández, Tomás Vicente; Arboleya Rodríguez, Luis; Muñiz, José; Lemos Giráldez, Serafín; Alvarez Fernández, Angel
The main objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics of sleep in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome. Sleep architecture in 32 patients with fibromyalgia and 20 healthy controls was evaluated. Following the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, polysomnographies were conducted with fibromyalgia patients and the control subjects. The fibromyalgia patients showed alterations in cyclic organization of sleep and an increased number of periodic leg movements associated with cortical arousals. No significant differences were found in respiratory and oximetry variables or in alpha-delta sleep. The results support that fibromyalgia patients present an increase of superficial sleep at the expense of deep sleep and also an increase of periodic leg movements, which could have a pathogenic effect, facilitating the onset of the illness. Lastly, we discuss the results and propose some future lines of research.
New, William N.; Nickel, Walter R.
Since the epochal work of Hamilton there has been general acceptance of the causal relationship of the male sex hormone, age and familial inheritance in development of male pattern baldness. Some of the medicaments used in recent years may cause a diffuse loss of scalp hair. Alopecia that accompanies disease states is probably due to generalized toxemia and disturbances in metabolism. Sometimes male pattern baldness occurs in physiologic states, as exemplified by diffuse hair loss occasionally in the postpartum period. Alopecia areata deserves a critical appraisal, since it may be evidence of underlying neuropsychotic states that need psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. The development of alopecia totalis or universalis in 50 per cent of the prepuberal cases of alopecia areata is of real significance, especially since so very few patients recover their normal scalp hair. The conclusions reached by the authors of two articles reporting on 368 cases of alopecia areata, alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis that the evidence is overwhelming against the malfunction of the endocrine glands as the cause of alopecia areata must be considered real contributions to our understanding of this condition. A few conditions simulate alopecia areata. Probably the ones which are seen most often are trichotillomania and patchy baldness caused by agents used in hair waving and straightening. Our findings in 22 cases of alopecia areata of a persistent inflammatory perivascular and perifollicular infiltrate, massive plugging of the ostia, disappearance of robust hair follicles and diminution in total number of hair follicles and sometimes fibrosis are not necessarily diagnostic of alopecia areata but seem to be very definitely characteristic. Treatment for alopecia areata is of little avail. At this time we do not recommend the general use of the corticosteroids despite the improvement of scalp appearance in the majority of instances in which the systemic administration of these
Ounsakul, Vipawee; Iamsumang, Wimolsiri
Radiation-induced alopecia after fluoroscopically guided procedures is becoming more common due to an increasing use of endovascular procedures. It is characterized by geometric shapes of nonscarring alopecia related to the area of radiation. We report a case of a 46-year-old man presenting with asymptomatic, sharply demarcated rectangular, nonscarring alopecic patch on the occipital scalp following cerebral angiography with fistula embolization under fluoroscopy. His presentations were compatible with radiation-induced alopecia. Herein, we also report a novel scalp dermoscopic finding of blue-grey dots in a target pattern around yellow dots and follicles, which we detected in the lesion of radiation-induced alopecia. PMID:28074164
Kroeker, R.; Bellanca, R. U.; Lee, G. H.; Thom, J. P.; Worlein, J. M.
Alopecia is a persistent problem in captive macaque populations and despite recent interest, no factors have been identified that can unequivocally explain the presence of alopecia in a majority of cases. Seasonal, demographic and environmental factors have been identified as affecting alopecia presentation in rhesus macaques, the most widely studied macaque species. However, few studies have investigated alopecia rates in other macaque species. We report alopecia scores over a period of 12 months for three macaque species (Macaca nemestrina, M. mulatta, and M. fascicularis) housed at three indoor facilities within the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC) in Seattle. Clear species differences emerged with cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) showing the lowest alopecia rates and pigtails (M. nemestrina) the highest rates. Further analysis of pigtail and rhesus (M. mulatta) macaques revealed that sex effects were apparent for rhesus but not pigtails. Age and seasonal effects were evident for both species. In contrast to previous reports, we found that older animals (over 10 years of age) had improved alopecia scores in comparison to younger adults. This is the first report on alopecia rates in pigtail macaques and the first comparison of alopecia scores in pigtail, cynomolgus, and rhesus macaques housed under similar conditions. PMID:24243351
Lo Sicco, Kristen; McGuire, Sean
Background Thyroid dysfunction is classically associated with alopecia. Studies focusing on manual thyroid examinations, with ultrasonography of palpable abnormalities, in alopecia patients are lacking. Objective To examine the clinical utility of manual and sonographic evaluation of the thyroid in alopecia patients. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed among patients diagnosed with alopecia. Results We found that 20.2% (74/367) of manual thyroid exams performed were deemed abnormal and 78.8% (41/52) of patients who had an ultrasound had an abnormal finding. Twenty two of the 74 patients did not obtain the requested ultrasound. Non-scarring alopecia was associated with 36 of 41 patients with abnormal ultrasounds (Telogen effluvium 29.3%, Androgenetic alopecia 27.8%, Alopecia areata 24.4%, and Traction alopecia 9.8%). No one specific structural abnormality was associated with a specific hair loss type. Of note, 78% (32/41) of patients with an abnormal ultrasound exam had normal thyroid function tests and only 9/41 (22%) patients had both. Limitations These include: a retrospective study design, small sample size, use of multiple sites for laboratory and sonographic thyroid evaluation, and a high attrition rate for ultrasound evaluation. Conclusions This study revealed that the manual examination of the thyroid in alopecia patients may identify additional thyroid abnormalities not detected with serologic evaluation alone. Further prospective studies are required to evaluate the necessity and significance of manual thyroid palpation and subsequent ultrasound studies in this patient population. PMID:22259653
Chagas, Flavianne Sobral Cardoso; Donati, Aline; Soares, Isabella Ibrahim Doche; Valente, Neusa Sakai; Romiti, Ricardo
Alopecia areata is a common autoimmune disorder that leads to nonscarring hair loss. Black dots, also called comedo-like cadaver hairs, can be found in almost 50% of alopecia areata patients and indicate disease activity. Trichostasis spinulosa is a follicular disorder resulting from the retention of numerous hairs surrounded by a keratinous sheath in dilated follicles. Trichostasis spinulosa is a relatively common but underdiagnosed disorder of hair follicles. Here, we describe a man with alopecia areata of the eyebrows, androgenetic alopecia and trichostasis spinulosa at the vertex and show how dermoscopy can be useful in distinguishing black dots from Trichostasis spinulosa lesions. PMID:25054768
Feily, Amir; Lal, Karan; Elston, Dirk M
Ant-induced alopecia is a rare cause of acute, localized, nonscarring hair loss. It is most commonly caused by Pheidole pallidula ants, which can be found worldwide but are most common in Iran. The resulting alopecia can have many morphologic patterns (eg, patch, linear, nondiscrete) and thus ant-induced alopecia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients from endemic areas who present with new-onset localized hair loss. The condition is self-limited; however, patients should be evaluated for other more common causes of alopecia, especially in the absence of a convincing history.
Kroeker, R; Bellanca, R U; Lee, G H; Thom, J P; Worlein, J M
Alopecia is a persistent problem in captive macaque populations and despite recent interest, no factors have been identified that can unequivocally explain the presence of alopecia in a majority of cases. Seasonal, demographic, and environmental factors have been identified as affecting alopecia presentation in rhesus macaques, the most widely studied macaque species. However, few studies have investigated alopecia rates in other macaque species. We report alopecia scores over a period of 12 months for three macaque species (Macaca nemestrina, M. mulatta, and M. fascicularis) housed at three indoor facilities within the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC) in Seattle. Clear species differences emerged with cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) showing the lowest alopecia rates and pigtails (M. nemestrina) the highest rates. Further analysis of pigtail and rhesus (M. mulatta) macaques revealed that sex effects were apparent for rhesus but not pigtails. Age and seasonal effects were evident for both species. In contrast to previous reports, we found that older animals (over 10 years of age) had improved alopecia scores in comparison to younger adults. This is the first report on alopecia rates in pigtail macaques and the first comparison of alopecia scores in pigtail, cynomolgus, and rhesus macaques housed under similar conditions.
Famenini, Shannon; Goh, Carolyn
Currently, topical minoxidil and finasteride are the only treatments that have been FDA approved for the treatment of female pattern hair loss and androgenetic alopecia. Given the incomplete efficacy and sife effect profile of these medications, some patients utilize alternative treatments to help improve this condition. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence underlying the efficacy of these alternative approaches, including biotin, caffeine, melatonin, a marine extract, and zinc.
Teraki, Y; Imanishi, K; Shiohara, T
Recent studies have suggested that cytokines play a critical role in the pathophysiology of alopecia areata; however, no information is available regarding the difference in cytokine profiles in these patients. Serum levels of cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6, were measured using radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques in patients with the localized form and the extensive form (alopecia universalis). The serum levels of IL-1 alpha and IL-4 were significantly elevated in patients with the localized form. In contrast, the serum levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 were significantly elevated in patients with the extensive form. These results indicate that immune responses in the localized form and the extensive form of alopecia areata are regulated by Th2 cytokines and Th1 cytokines, respectively.
Kennedy Crispin, Milène; Ko, Justin M.; Craiglow, Brittany G.; Li, Shufeng; Shankar, Gautam; Urban, Jennifer R.; Chen, James C.; Cerise, Jane E.; Winge, Mårten C.G.; Marinkovich, M. Peter; Christiano, Angela M.; Oro, Anthony E.; King, Brett A.
BACKGROUND. Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by hair loss mediated by CD8+ T cells. There are no reliably effective therapies for AA. Based on recent developments in the understanding of the pathomechanism of AA, JAK inhibitors appear to be a therapeutic option; however, their efficacy for the treatment of AA has not been systematically examined. METHODS. This was a 2-center, open-label, single-arm trial using the pan-JAK inhibitor, tofacitinib citrate, for AA with >50% scalp hair loss, alopecia totalis (AT), and alopecia universalis (AU). Tofacitinib (5 mg) was given twice daily for 3 months. Endpoints included regrowth of scalp hair, as assessed by the severity of alopecia tool (SALT), duration of hair growth after completion of therapy, and disease transcriptome. RESULTS. Of 66 subjects treated, 32% experienced 50% or greater improvement in SALT score. AA and ophiasis subtypes were more responsive than AT and AU subtypes. Shorter duration of disease and histological peribulbar inflammation on pretreatment scalp biopsies were associated with improvement in SALT score. Drug cessation resulted in disease relapse in 8.5 weeks. Adverse events were limited to grade I and II infections. An AA responsiveness to JAK/STAT inhibitors score was developed to segregate responders and nonresponders, and the previously developed AA disease activity index score tracked response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS. At the dose and duration studied, tofacitinib is a safe and effective treatment for severe AA, though it does not result in a durable response. Transcriptome changes reveal unexpected molecular complexity within the disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02197455 and NCT02312882. FUNDING. This work was supported by the US Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases National Institutes of Health grant R01 AR47223 and U01 AR67173, the National
Bomar, L; McMichael, A
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a primary cicatricial alopecia first described by Kossard in 1994. It is considered a clinical variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP). In the last two decades, there have been an explosion of cases worldwide. While predominately seen in Caucasian, post-menopausal women, it has been reported in various ethnicities including African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Indians as well as in pre-menopausal women and men.(1-5) Characterized by progressive, scarring frontotemporal hair loss with perifollicular erythema, follicular keratinization, and reduced follicular orifices, the most common finding is bandlike recession of the scalp hairline.(1-5) Accompanying features include eyebrow thinning, eyelash loss, body hair loss, facial papules, lonely hairs, and occipital alopecia.(1-5) While typically asymptomatic, pruritus and trichodynia can occur. Eyebrow thinning often presents prior to scalp hairline regression and has been seen with milder hairline regression compared to individuals who do not experience eyebrow thinning first.(2-4) Other dermatoses seen in patients with FFA include lichen planus on regions other than the scalp and lichen planus pigmentosus in non-Cacuasians. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Yeager, Caroline E; Olsen, Elise A
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia has been well documented as a cause of distress to patients undergoing cancer treatment. Despite the importance of hair loss to patients, however, patients often receive little more counseling than the advice to purchase a wig or other head covering for the duration of their treatment. Research into non-camouflage (wigs, turbans, and head scarves) treatment methods has been complicated both by a lack of a standardized methodology for evaluating hair loss and hair regrowth and by a lack of human trials. Nevertheless, scalp cooling as a method of preventing hair loss during chemotherapy and 2% topical minoxidil as a therapy for accelerating regrowth after chemotherapy are both effective non-camouflage options for treatment. Other proposed treatments for prevention of hair loss during chemotherapy have demonstrated promise in early trials, but these findings will need validation from rigorous further studies. The increasing number of reports of permanent alopecia not just with pre-bone marrow transplant, high-dose busulfan, and cyclophosphamide regimens but also with standard breast cancer chemotherapy regimens illustrates the importance of further research into treatment methods for chemotherapy-induced alopecia. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Üçeyler, Nurcan; Sommer, Claudia; Walitt, Brian; Häuser, Winfried
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinically well-defined chronic condition of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep problems and fatigue. People often report high disability levels and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Drug therapy focuses on reducing key symptoms and disability, and improving HRQoL. Anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs) are drugs frequently used for the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. To assess the benefits and harms of anticonvulsants for treating FM symptoms. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 8, 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to August 2013), PsycINFO (1966 to August 2013), SCOPUS (1980 to August 2013) and the reference lists of reviewed articles for published studies and www.clinicaltrials.gov (to August 2013) for unpublished trials. We selected randomised controlled trials of any formulation of anticonvulsants used for the treatment of people with FM of any age. Two review authors independently extracted the data of all included studies and assessed the risks of bias of the studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. We included eight studies: five with pregabalin and one study each with gabapentin, lacosamide and levetiracetam. A total of 2480 people were included into anticonvulsants groups and 1099 people in placebo groups. The median therapy phase of the studies was 13 weeks. The amount and quality of evidence were insufficient to draw definite conclusions on the efficacy and safety of gabapentin, lacosamide and levetiracetam in FM. The amount and quality of evidence was sufficient to draw definite conclusions on the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in FM. Therefore, we focused on our interpretation of the evidence for pregabalin due to our greater certainty about its effects and its greater relevance to clinical practice. All pregabalin studies had a low risk of bias. Reporting a 50% or greater reduction in pain was more frequent with
Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J
Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by widespread pain, stiffness, insomnia, fatigue and distress. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown moderate effectiveness of pharmacological therapies for fibromyalgia pain. Evidence from these trials suggests that pharmacological therapy can not only improve pain but also fatigue, function and well-being in patients with fibromyalgia. Duloxetine and milnacipran, two highly selective serotonin-norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitors, and the alpha(2)delta agonist pregabalin have been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. In general, about half of all treated patients seem to experience a 30% reduction of symptoms, suggesting that many patients with fibromyalgia will require additional therapies. Thus, other forms of treatment, including exercise, cognitive behavioural therapies and self-management strategies, may be necessary to achieve satisfactory treatment outcomes. Despite promising results of pilot trials, RCTs with dopamine receptor agonists and sodium channel antagonists have so far been disappointing for patients with fibromyalgia. However, new pharmacological approaches for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain and insomnia using sodium oxybate appear to be promising.
Brummett, Chad M.; Clauw, Daniel J.
Purpose of the Review The present review is intended to give an overview of fibromyalgia for the anesthesiologist. While the basics of the treatment of fibromyalgia are included, the intent is to provide context to discuss the potential implications in perioperative management. Recent Findings One of the most important changes in the last year is the new criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Instead of a combination of self-report and a tender point examination, there is a new self-report questionnaire that is now used diagnose fibromyalgia. This tool incorporates aspects of widespread body pain and some of the known comorbid symptoms. A score of 0-31 is given, which allows for the disease to be viewed as a continuum of sensitivity and symptomatology, instead of as a binary diagnosis. This continuum has been termed “fibromyalgia-ness.” This article also reviews the advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and emerging therapies. Little is known about the impact of fibromyalgia in the perioperative period. Summary The impact of fibromyalgia on anesthesia care is not known. Years of quality research have clearly demonstrated multiple pathophysiologic changes that could impact anesthesia care and future study is needed. PMID:21799404
Haliloğlu, S; Carlioglu, A; Sahiner, E; Karaaslan, Y; Kosar, A
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterised by chronic widespread pain at multiple tender points, as well as joint stiffness and systemic symptoms. The aetiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia still remain unclear, although many contributory factors have been suggested. The presence of some common features between fibromyalgia and cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. depression and sleep disturbance) led to question of whether there is there a relationship between fibromyalgia and cardiovascular disease and/or atherosclerosis. Mean platelet volume, which is a determinant of platelet activation, is a newly emerging independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.The present study was designed to evaluate levels of mean platelet volume in patients with fibromyalgia; the study population consisted of 283 individuals with this syndrome, who were compared with 72 healthy controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, platelet count and mean platelet volume levels were retrospectively recorded via the computerised patient database. The levels of mean platelet volume were significantly higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the control group (8.09 ± 0.84 fl and 7.73 ± 0.65 fl, respectively, p < 0.001). There were no statistical differences between groups with regard to platelet count and other parameters. These results suggest that an early atherosclerosis marker, mean platelet volume, is elevated in patients with fibromyalgia. This indicates increased platelet activation and therefore a higher risk of future cardiovascular disease.
Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Gil-González, Diana
BACKGROUND: Managing fibromyalgia is a challenge for both health care systems and the professionals caring for these patients, due, in part, to the fact that the etiology of this disease is unknown, its symptoms are not specific and there is no standardized treatment. OBJECTIVE: The present study examines three aspects of fibromyalgia management, namely diagnostic approach, therapeutic management and the health professional-patient relationship, to explore specific areas of the health care process that professionals and patients may consider unsatisfactory. METHODS: A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews with 12 fibromyalgia patients and nine health professionals was performed. RESULTS: The most commonly recurring theme was the dissatisfaction of both patients and professionals with the management process as a whole. Both groups expressed dissatisfaction with the delay in reaching a diagnosis and obtaining effective treatment. Patients reported the need for greater moral support from professionals, whereas the latter often felt frustrated and of little help to patients. Patients and professionals agreed on one point: the uncertainty surrounding the management of fibromyalgia and, especially, its etiology. CONCLUSION: The present study contributes to a better understanding regarding why current management of fibromyalgia is neither effective nor satisfactory. It also provides insight into how health professionals can support fibromyalgia patients to achieve beneficial results. Health care services should offer greater support for these patients in the form of specific resources such as fibromyalgia clinics and health professionals with increased awareness of the disease. PMID:23457682
Borchers, Andrea T; Gershwin, M Eric
Fibromyalgia is a disorder that is part of a spectrum of syndromes that lack precise classification. It is often considered as part of the global overview of functional somatic syndromes that are otherwise medically unexplained or part of a somatization disorder. Patients with fibromyalgia share symptoms with other functional somatic problems, including issues of myalgias, arthralgias, fatigue and sleep disturbances. Indeed, there is often diagnostic and classification overlap for the case definitions of a variety of somatization disorders. Fibromyalgia, however, is a critically important syndrome for physicians and scientists to be aware of. Patients should be taken very seriously and provided optimal care. Although inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune disorders have all been ascribed to be etiological events in the development of fibromyalgia, there is very little data to support such a thesis. Many of these disorders are associated with depression and anxiety and may even be part of what has been sometimes called affected spectrum disorders. There is no evidence that physical trauma, i.e., automobile accidents, is associated with the development or exacerbation of fibromyalgia. Treatment should be placed on education, patient support, physical therapy, nutrition, and exercise, including the use of drugs that are approved for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Treatment should not include opiates and patients should not become poly pharmacies in which the treatment itself can lead to significant morbidities. Patients with fibromyalgia are living and not dying of this disorder and positive outlooks and family support are key elements in the management of patients.
Marques, Amelia Pasqual; Santo, Adriana de Sousa do Espírito; Berssaneti, Ana Assumpção; Matsutani, Luciana Akemi; Yuan, Susan Lee King
The present study aimed to update the literature review on the prevalence of fibromyalgia published in 2006. A bibliographical survey was carried out from 2005 to 2014 in the MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, LILACS and SciELO databases and 3274 records were identified. Five researchers selected the studies, following the inclusion criteria: studies that obtained the prevalence of fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia studies in associated diseases were excluded. When screening by title and abstract, 2073 irrelevant articles were excluded. The full texts of 210 articles were evaluated for eligibility and this review included 39 studies, described in 41 articles. The selected studies were grouped into four categories: (A) prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population; (B) prevalence of fibromyalgia in women; (C) prevalence of fibromyalgia in rural and urban areas; (D) prevalence of fibromyalgia in special populations. The literature shows values of fibromyalgia prevalence in the general population between 0.2 and 6.6%, in women between 2.4 and 6.8%, in urban areas between 0.7 and 11.4%, in rural areas between 0.1 and 5.2%, and in special populations values between 0.6 and 15%. This literature review update shows a significant increase in fibromyalgia prevalence studies in the world. The new 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria have not been widely used yet and the COPCORD (Community-oriented program for control of Rheumatic Diseases) methodology has increased the quality of studies on the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
O'Malley, Patrick G; Balden, Erin; Tomkins, Glen; Santoro, James; Kroenke, Kurt; Jackson, Jeffrey L
BACKGROUND Fibromyalgia is a common, poorly understood musculoskeletal pain syndrome with limited therapeutic options. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of fibromyalgia and examine whether this effect was independent of depression. DESIGN Meta-analysis of English-language, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Studies were obtained from searching medline, embase, and psyclit(1966-1999), the Cochrane Library, unpublished literature, and bibliographies. We performed independent duplicate review of each study for both inclusion and data extraction. MAIN RESULTS Sixteen randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified, of which 13 were appropriate for data extraction. There were 3 classes of antidepressants evaluated: tricyclics (9 trials), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (3 trials), and S-adenosylmethionine (2 trials). Overall, the quality of the studies was good (mean score 5.6, scale 0-8). The odds ratio for improvement with therapy was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.6 to 6.8). The pooled risk difference for these studies was 0.25 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.34), which calculates to 4 (95% CI, 2.9 to 6.3) individuals needing treatment for 1 patient to experience symptom improvement. When the effect on individual symptoms was combined, antidepressants improved sleep, fatigue, pain, and well-being, but not trigger points. In the 5 studies where there was adequate assessment for an effect independent of depression, only 1 study found a correlation between symptom improvement and depression scores. Outcomes were not affected by class of agent or quality score using meta-regression. CONCLUSION Antidepressants are efficacious in treating many of the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Patients were more than 4 times as likely to report overall improvement, and reported moderate reductions in individual symptoms, particularly pain. Whether this effect is independent of depression needs further study. PMID:11029681
Dell, Deena Damsky
Invisible and incurable, this disorder can wreak havoc with your patient's life. Find out how to get her back on track. Fibromyalgia, a complex, chronic disorder of pain processing, is thought to be the most common cause of generalized musculoskeletal pain in women ages 20 to 55. This disorder, which affects the muscles, ligaments, and tendons, occurs in 3 to 6 million Americans, mostly women. Some patients are affected only mildly, but up to 30% have symptoms that seriously impair their quality of life.
Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...
... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Thumb Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... A joint is where bones connect and move. Arthritis is thinning of the cartilage, which is the ...
Whiting, David A
Senescent alopecia was originally thought to affect people aged 50 years or older with no family history or evidence of pattern balding. It was described as a diffuse thinning involving the whole scalp due to a steady decrease in thick terminal hairs, but without evidence of increased miniaturization. Senescent alopecia is not a primary diagnosis in this clinic. Most possible examples of it are assumed to be androgenetic or diffuse alopecia. In the study reported here, horizontal sections of 2149 scalp specimens from individuals with male and female pattern and diffuse alopecia, as well as from normal controls, were examined, and their follicular counts were recorded and sorted into decades. The decade of 20 to 29 years contained a significant number of patients and was used for baseline follicular counts for comparison with all succeeding decades up to age 99 years. A reduction of 15% below baseline was considered significant. In 10.6% of patients with male pattern alopecia, the age of onset of a significant reduction in follicular counts was 50 years; in 5.7% of patients with female pattern alopecia it was 70 years, and in 2.0% of patients with diffuse alopecia it was 80 years. These data suggest that most cases of significant hair loss in the elderly are androgen driven. The few patients with deteriorating diffuse alopecia may be the exception. The study concluded that old age is not a significant cause of hair loss.
Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D; Affolter, Verena K
To describe a case of testicular neoplasia and alopecia universalis in a dog, and successful treatment of the latter with ciclosporin. Twelve-year-old intact male wirehaired fox terrier. Castration, skin biopsy for histopathology, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and clonality analysis of the canine T-cell receptor gamma locus (TCRγ) rearrangement. The dog presented with symmetrical generalized alopecia. Testicular enlargement was noted which on castration was determined to be caused by bilateral interstitial cell tumours, Sertoli cell tumours and a unilateral seminoma. During the four months after castration the alopecia became more severe and widespread. Histopathology of the skin showed moderate, multifocal, mural folliculitis, peribulbar mucinosis and lymphocytic bulbitis, and targeting of anagen hair follicles. Immunophenotyping of the infiltrate showed a population of well-differentiated, small CD3-positive T lymphocytes, some expressing CD4 and others CD8. Molecular analysis revealed a polyclonal lymphocytic infiltrate, substantiating the diagnosis of alopecia areata rather than lymphoma. Treatment with ciclosporin (4.6 mg/kg) and ketoconazole (4.6 mg/kg) resulted in complete hair regrowth. Ciclosporin treatment, in combination with ketoconazole, can be effective for treatment of alopecia universalis in the dog. Alopecia universalis may present with clinically noninflammatory, symmetrical, generalized alopecia, mimicking an endocrine alopecia, and skin biopsies are needed to confirm the diagnosis. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.
Barrón-Hernández, Yevher Lorena; Tosti, Antonella
Alopecia is a common condition observed among people of all ages. It is a disorder that can involve only the scalp as observed in androgenetic alopecia or scalp and body as in alopecia areata or patients under chemotherapy treatment. There are several treatment options with different safety and efficacy outcomes. Bimatoprost, a synthetic prostamide F2α analog originally approved for the treatment of ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma, is now FDA approved as a 0.03%, solution to be applied once daily to increase eyelashes growth. Areas covered: In this review, the authors evaluate the role of bimatoprost in idiopathic hypotrichosis of the eyelashes, in hypotrichosis of the eyelashes associated to chemotherapy, in alopecia areata of the eyelashes and eyebrows and in androgenetic alopecia. In addition, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of bimatoprost are discussed. Expert opinion: Bimatoprost will likely be the third FDA approved weapon in the fight against hair loss. Prostaglandin analogs are the only possible treatment for hypotrichosis and alopecia of the eyelashes regardless of its etiology. Eyebrow hypotrichosis due to alopecia areata or frontal fibrosis alopecia can also possibly benefit of these medications.
Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva
A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success. PMID:19436637
Salaffi, F; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Ciapetti, A; Atzeni, F
A comprehensive assessment of the multiple symptom domains associated with fibromyalgia (FM) and the impact of FM on multidimensional aspects of function should form a routine part of the care of FM patients. Clinical trials and long-term clinical registries have used various outcome measures, but the key domains include pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep, physical functioning, emotional functioning, patient global ratings of satisfaction, and their health-related quality of life (HRQL). A number of measures have been ''borrowed'' from the fields of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and adapted to FM, and others are being developed specifically for FM. However, despite the burgeoning theoretical literature and the proliferation of instruments for measuring various health status domains, no unified approach has been developed and there is little agreement concerning the meaning of the results. There is, therefore, still a need for further consensus and the development of a core set of measures and response criteria, more refined measuring instruments, standardised assessor training, cross-cultural adaptations of health status questionnaires, electronic data capture, and the introduction of standardised quantitative measurements into routine clinical care. This article discusses the advantages and limitations of a selection of both newly developed and well-established and validated distress screening instruments that underlines the continuing challenge of assessing FM.
Kramer, Joshua A; Mansfield, Keith G; Simmons, Joe H; Bernstein, Joseph A
Focally extensive alopecia affecting the distal limbs is a common clinical finding in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) colonies and is both a regulatory and colony-health concern. We performed diagnostic examinations including physical exams, bloodwork, skin scrapes, surface cytology, and surface bacterial–fungal cultures on 17 rhesus macaques with this presentation of alopecia. Skin biopsies from alopecic skin obtained from each macaque were compared with those of normal skin from the same animal. Immunohistochemistry and metachromatic staining for inflammatory cells were performed to compare alopecic and normal skin. In addition, we compared these biopsies with those previously obtained from macaques with generalized alopecia and dermal inflammatory infiltrates consistent with cutaneous hypersensitivity disorders and with those from animals with normal haircoats. Bacterial and fungal cultures, skin scrapes, surface cytology, and bloodwork were unremarkable. Affected skin showed only mild histologic alteration, with rare evidence of trichomalacia and follicular loss. Numbers of mast cells and CD3+ lymphocytes did not differ between alopecic and normally haired skin from the same animal. The number of mast cells in alopecic skin from animals in the current cohort was significantly lower than that in skin of animals previously diagnosed with a cutaneous hypersensitivity disorder. Numbers of both mast cells and CD3+ lymphocytes in alopecic skin from the current cohort were similar to those from biopsies of animals with normal haircoats. Together, the clinical findings and pathology are consistent with a psychogenic origin for this pattern of alopecia in rhesus macaques. PMID:21819697
... men. About two to three times as many women as men have the disease. Living with Rheumatoid Arthritis Video length: 2 min 54 sec Click to watch this video Learn more about how rheumatoid arthritis occurs. Effects Vary Rheumatoid arthritis affects people differently. Some people ...
McElwee, Kevin J
This article presents a short summary of our current knowledge of cicatricial alopecia disease pathogenesis and the hypothetical disease mechanisms that may be involved in scarring alopecia development. Several forms of scarring alopecia likely involve targeted cytotoxic action against hair follicle cells mediated by a folliculocentric inflammation. However, the specific nature of the inflammatory interference in hair follicle growth is open to question. A popular hypothesis of lymphocyte-mediated scarring alopecia development involves autoimmune targeting of hair follicle-specific self-antigens, although there is no direct evidence in support of such a view. Alternative hypotheses focus on defects in sebaceous gland function, destruction of hair follicle stem cells, and interference in the communication between hair follicle mesenchyme and epithelium. Many questions arise from these hypotheses, and addressing them with a systematic research approach may enable significant advances in understanding cicatricial alopecia etiology.
Nigam, Gaurav; Pathak, Charu; Riaz, Muhammad
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune dermatological disorder characterised by loss of hair in one or more discrete patches over the scalp. It has been linked to multiple disorders having an autoimmune origin. Like many autoimmune disorders it tends to be more common in females. To date, only five cases have been reported where alopecia has been associated with narcolepsy. Male gender is less commonly affected by alopecia areata. No case of alopecia areata in males has been associated with narcolepsy to the best of our knowledge. The current case represents the first ever-reported case of alopecia areata in a male patient with narcolepsy type 1. This coexistence is most likely the manifestation of a common underlying pathoimmunological mechanism that has not been completely understood, rather than a random association.
Rudnicka, Lidia; Kwiatkowska, Małgorzata; Rakowska, Adriana; Czuwara, Joanna; Olszewska, Małgorzata
Satoyoshi syndrome is a multisystem disorder of suspected autoimmune etiology, characterized predominantly by alopecia, muscle spasms and diarrhea. Antinuclear antibodies are present in 60% of patients. The syndrome primarily affects girls and young women. Trichoscopy shows regularly distributed yellow dots, indistinguishable from typical alopecia areata. The condition may be easily misdiagnosed and treated as alopecia areata. On the basis of an in-depth analysis of all published cases we developed diagnostic criteria for Satoyoshi syndrome. We also suggest that two subtypes of the disorder should be distinguished, the ANA-positive Satoyoshi syndrome with generally good response to systemic glucocorticosteroid therapy and the ANA-negative Satoyoshi with less favorable prognosis. In our opinion all patients will alopecia areata (in particular alopecia totalis) should be inquired about muscle spasms and diarrhea and tested for antinuclear antibodies to decrease the risk of missing Satoyoshi syndrome.
Sen, Meral; Kilic, Murat Ozgur; Cemeroglu, Ozlem; Icen, Duygu
The purposes of this study were to determine the coexistence of mastalgia and fibromyalgia, to investigate the effects of this combination on pain patterns, and to discuss the status of breast pain in the diagnostic algorithm of fibromyalgia syndrome. Sixty-one female patients reporting breast pain during the last three months and 53 female patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome were enrolled in this study. The Breast Pain Questionnaire was administered to all participants in the mastalgia group and to those in the fibromyalgia syndrome group who had experienced mastalgia during the past three months. The patients in the fibromyalgia syndrome group were evaluated using the 2010 preliminary American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. All of the patients in the mastalgia group were evaluated for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome by a single physiatrist. The coexistence and pain patterns of mastalgia and fibromyalgia were assessed statistically. Approximately half of the patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (47.2%) reported having mastalgia at the time of admission and 37.7% of the patients with mastalgia met the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome. The patients with mastalgia in the fibromyalgia syndrome group had significantly higher total breast pain scores compared with the women in the mastalgia group. In addition, the patients with fibromyalgia syndrome in the mastalgia group had significantly higher Widespread Pain Index and Symptom Severity Scale scores than the patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. We suggest that mastalgia can be an aspect of the central sensitivity syndrome and can be added to the somatic symptoms of fibromyalgia.
Kaartinen, K; Lammi, K; Hypen, M; Nenonen, M; Hanninen, O; Rauma, A L
The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium. The results revealed significant improvements in Visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (p=0.005), joint stiffness (p=0.001), quality of sleep (p=0.0001), Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) (p=0.031), General health questionnaire (GHQ) (p=0.021), and a rheumatologist's own questionnaire (p=0.038). The majority of patients were overweight to some extent at the beginning of the study and shifting to a vegan food caused a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0001). Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering (p=0.003). Urine sodium dropped to 1/3 of the beginning values (p=0.0001) indicating good diet compliance. It can be concluded that vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms at least in the short run.
de Tommaso, M; Sardaro, M; Serpino, C; Costantini, F; Vecchio, E; Prudenzano, M Pia; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain condition of unknown aetiology characterized by diffuse pain and tenderness at tender points. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and clinical features of FMS in the different forms of primary headaches, in a tertiary headache centre. Primary headache patients (n = 217) were selected and submitted to the Total Tenderness Score, anxiety and depression scales, Migraine Disability Assessment, allodynia questionnaire, Short Form 36 Health Survey and the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale. In patients with FMS, the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, the Pain Visual Analog Scale, the Manual Tender Point Survey and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire were employed. FMS was present in 36.4% of patients and prevailed significantly in tension-type headache and in patients with higher headache frequency. Headache frequency, pericranial muscle tenderness, anxiety and sleep inadequacy were especially associated with FMS comorbidity. In the FMS patients, fatigue and pain at tender points were significantly correlated with headache frequency. FMS seems increasingly prevalent with increased headache frequency, for the facilitation of central sensitization phenomena favoured by anxiety and sleep disturbances.
Resorlu, Mustafa; Sancak, Eyup Burak; Uysal, Fatma; Arslan, Muhammet; Diri, Akif; Adam, Gurhan; Akbas, Alpaslan; Sariyildirim, Abdullah; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Resorlu, Berkan
The objective of this study is to investigate whether patients with androgenetic alopecia were at risk in terms of urinary system stone disease. Patients with no baldness (Hamilton-Norwood Scala [HNS] stage I) were categorized as Group I, those with hair loss in the frontal region (HNS stages II, III, IIIa, and IVa) as Group II, those with hair loss in the vertex region (HNS stage III-vertex, V) as Group III and those with hair loss in both vertex and frontal regions (HNS stages IV, Va, VI, and VII) as Group IV. Patients in all groups were compared in terms of presence of stone, and the presence of any association between alopecia and urolithiasis, with common etiological risk factors, was investigated. Three hundred and two male patients were included in the study. The presence of urolithiasis was detected in 28.9% of patients in Group I; 26.5% of Group II; 36.9% of Group III; and 44.4% of Group IV (p = 0.085). Among patients aged under 60, urinary stone disease was detected in 30.8% of patients in Group I; 26.4% of Group II; 41.2% of Group III; and 53.8% of Group IV (p = 0.001). In patients aged over 60, urolithiasis was detected in 12.5% of patients in Group I; 26.9% of Group II; 32.2% of Group III; and 37.8% of Group IV (p = 0.371). We determined a significant correlation between vertex pattern and total alopecia with urolithiasis in patients younger than 60 years old.
Solitar, Bruce M
Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome of diffuse musculoskeletal pain with tenderness at specific locations, often associated with persistent fatigue, cognitive and mood disorders, joint stiffness, and insomnia. Understanding the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and the establishment of effective treatments have been complex endeavors that have not yielded simple answers. Nevertheless, recent studies have shed light on the roles of central pain processing, genetic abnormalities, and external factors on development of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). These findings have led to the use of new therapies that have shown beneficial effects on symptoms. This review discusses ideas that have become accepted as well as novel associations under consideration in regard to the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia and the current and emerging therapeutics for its treatment.
Tesher, Melissa S
A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia.
Shookster, Linda; Falke, Gerald I; Ducic, Ivica; Maloney, Christopher T; Dellon, A Lee
In the physical examination of the patient suspected of having tarsal tunnel syndrome, the podiatric physician relies on Tinel's sign: tapping the posterior tibial nerve in the tarsal tunnel should produce a distally radiating sensation if the nerve is pathologically compressed at this location. The American College of Rheumatology recognizes fibromyalgia as a condition characterized by multiple "tender points" on physical examination. This report compares the locations of the 18 critical diagnostic fibromyalgia points with known sites of anatomical entrapment of peripheral nerves in the lower extremity. We also describe a patient with both fibromyalgia and tarsal tunnel syndrome. Tinel's sign in the lower extremity is a valid technique for assessing peripheral nerve compression in the patient with fibromyalgia.
Many therapeutic modalities have been used to treat alopecia areata, with variable efficacy and safety profiles. Unfortunately, none of these agents is curative or preventive. Also, many of these therapeutic agents have not been subjected to randomized, controlled trials, and, except for topical immunotherapy, there are few published studies on long-term outcomes. The treatment plan is designed according to the patient’s age and extent of disease. In this paper, the therapeutic agents are organized according to their efficacy and safety profiles into first-line, second-line, and third-line options. PMID:21833161
Fischer, Tobias W; Trüeb, Ralph M; Hänggi, Gabriella; Innocenti, Marcello; Elsner, Peter
In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardised questionnaires, TrichoScan, 60-second hair count test and hair pull test. FIVE CLINICAL STUDIES SHOWED POSITIVE EFFECTS OF A TOPICAL MELATONIN SOLUTION IN THE TREATMENT OF AGA IN MEN AND WOMEN WHILE SHOWING GOOD TOLERABILITY: (1) Pharmacodynamics under once-daily topical application in the evening showed no significant influence on endogenous serum melatonin levels. (2) An observational study involving 30 men and women showed a significant reduction in the degree of severity of alopecia after 30 and 90 days (P < 0.001) based on questionnaires completed by investigators and patients. (3) Using a digital software-supported epiluminescence technique (TrichoScan) in 35 men with AGA, after 3 and 6 months in 54.8% to 58.1% of the patients a significant increase of hair density of 29% and 41%, respectively was measured (M0: 123/cm(2); M3: 159/cm(2); M6: 173/cm(2);) (P < 0,001). (4) In 60 men and women with hair loss, a significant reduction in hair loss was observed in women, while hair loss in men remained constant (P < 0.001). (5) In a large, 3-month, multi-center study with more than 1800 volunteers at 200 centers, the percentage of patients with a 2- to 3-fold positive hair-pull test decreased from 61.6% to 7.8%, while the percentage of patients with a negative hair-pull test increased from 12.2.% to 61.5% (P < 0.001). In addition, a decrease in seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp was observed. Since safety and tolerability in all of the studies was good, the topical application of a cosmetic
Fischer, Tobias W; Trüeb, Ralph M; Hänggi, Gabriella; Innocenti, Marcello; Elsner, Peter
Background: In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Materials and Methods: One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardised questionnaires, TrichoScan, 60-second hair count test and hair pull test. Results: Five clinical studies showed positive effects of a topical melatonin solution in the treatment of AGA in men and women while showing good tolerability: (1) Pharmacodynamics under once-daily topical application in the evening showed no significant influence on endogenous serum melatonin levels. (2) An observational study involving 30 men and women showed a significant reduction in the degree of severity of alopecia after 30 and 90 days (P < 0.001) based on questionnaires completed by investigators and patients. (3) Using a digital software-supported epiluminescence technique (TrichoScan) in 35 men with AGA, after 3 and 6 months in 54.8% to 58.1% of the patients a significant increase of hair density of 29% and 41%, respectively was measured (M0: 123/cm2; M3: 159/cm2; M6: 173/cm2;) (P < 0,001). (4) In 60 men and women with hair loss, a significant reduction in hair loss was observed in women, while hair loss in men remained constant (P < 0.001). (5) In a large, 3-month, multi-center study with more than 1800 volunteers at 200 centers, the percentage of patients with a 2- to 3-fold positive hair-pull test decreased from 61.6% to 7.8%, while the percentage of patients with a negative hair-pull test increased from 12.2.% to 61.5% (P < 0.001). In addition, a decrease in seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp was observed. Conclusions: Since safety and tolerability in all of the studies was
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or pattern hair loss, is a common disorder in Asian men and women, with a reported incidence of up to 73% among general population. There are several descriptions regarding the characteristics of AGA in patients of European descent. Asian patients with AGA have different types of hair loss and family histories from Europeans, which may affect treatment response. Therefore, in this review, prevalence, hair loss patterns, familial factors, androgen receptor gene polymorphisms of Asian AGA patients, and management based on algorithmic guidelines for AGA are discussed. This review may be useful for dermatologists in clinical practice for diagnosing and designing management approaches for Asian patients with AGA. PMID:22879706
Dreher, T; Häuser, W; Schiltenwolf, M
Patients with chronic widespread pain often present with musculo-skeletal pain and therefore often initially contact an orthopaedist. For these patients fibromyalgia syndrome is an important differential diagnosis. Recommendations for the diagnosis of and therapy for fibromyalgia syndrome based on the recent German S3 guidelines for fibromyalgia syndrome (AWMF registration number 041/004) are outlined in this paper. These guidelines were developed under the coordination of the German interdisciplinary association for pain management DIVS and two patient support groups. The history of a typical symptom complex and the exclusion of relevant somatic causes for the pain are epecially relevant for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. Besides the exclusion of relevant orthopaedic causes for the pain, psycho-social aspects should always be evaluated. According to the modified ACR criteria 2010, chronic widespread pain and accompanying sleep disturbances and a physical as well as mental state of exhaustion lead to the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. It is not mandatory to check tender points (ACR 1990 criteria). A graduated treatment approach depending on the severity level of the fibromyalgia syndrome in the individual patient is recommended. Active treatment options (aerobic training, meditative movement therapies, strength training) should be preferred to any drug therapy in the long-term treatment of fibromyalgia. If indicated, amitryptiline or duloxetine may be used to treat accompanying depressive or generalised anxiety disorder. Muscle relaxant medication, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and strong opioids should be avoided. The multimodal pain therapy considering all psycho-social aspects is a promising treatment option for fibromyalgia syndrome of moderate to high severity.
Rain, Carmen; Seguel, Willy; Vergara, Luis
It has been proposed that fibromyalgia could be managed by pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Regular physical exercise is commonly used as a non-pharmacological intervention. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 14 systematic reviews including 25 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We conclude that regular physical exercise probably reduces pain in patients with fibromyalgia.
Heymann, Roberto E; Paiva, Eduardo S; Martinez, José Eduardo; Helfenstein, Milton; Rezende, Marcelo C; Provenza, Jose Roberto; Ranzolin, Aline; Assis, Marcos Renato de; Feldman, Daniel P; Ribeiro, Luiz Severiano; Souza, Eduardo J R
To establish guidelines based on scientific evidence for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Evidence collection was performed based on 9 questions regarding the diagnosis of fibromyalgia, structured using the Patient, Intervention or Indicator, Comparison and Outcome (P.I.C.O.), with searches in the main, primary databases of scientific information. After defining the potential studies to support the recommendations, they were graded according to evidence and degree of recommendation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, and alopecia areata are among the most common forms of nonscarring hair loss encountered in clinical practice. Although the exact pathogenesis of these forms of alopecia remains to be clarified, genetic factors appear to have a significant contribution to their pathogenesis. Current treatment strategies are limited and their effectiveness remains modest at best. This review summarizes the current purported pathogenesis and recent genetic discoveries relating to these forms of alopecia. The role of molecular diagnostic testing is also discussed in relation to its future clinical utility for the prediction of developing hair loss, the diagnosis of the type of alopecia, prediction of disease severity, development of novel therapeutic and preventative targeted treatments, as well as determination of response to therapy. Copyright © 2012 Frontline Medical Communications. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nam, Seungree; Tin, Diane; Bain, Lorna; Thorne, J Carter; Ginsburg, Liane
This paper examines the clinical utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the context of evaluating the Fibromyalgia Outpatient Education Program at Southlake Regional Health Centre (Newmarket, Canada). A pre-test/post-test design was implemented for data analysis. A total of 232 patients' data were obtained through retrospective patient chart review. Complete pre-post data were available for 70 patients and qualitative analysis was done for 12 patients. Main outcome measures included HADS and Arthritis Self-Efficacy (ASE) scores. At the end of the education program, subgroups of patients (high attendance, high exercise habit, low medication) experienced significant improvement on HADS-depression and ASE scores. Linear regression analysis found that HADS pre-program scores explain far more variance in HADS post-test scores than ASE pre-program scores explain in ASE post-program scores; more variance in ASE post-program scores was explained by other variables. In contrast to the quantitative analysis of the Anxiety subscale of HADS, patients in the focus group indicated that their anxiety level decreased through attending the education program. These findings suggest that HADS is an appropriate tool for evaluating fibromyalgia and related patient education programs. Moreover, patient education programs have positive effects on enhancing patients' psychological well-being and self-confidence in controlling fibromyalgia-related symptoms.
Background Consumer surveys provide information on effectiveness and side effects of medical interventions in routine clinical care. A report of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) consumers has not been carried out in Europe. Methods The study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011. Participants diagnosed with FMS rated the effectiveness and side effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological FMS interventions on a 0 to 10 scale, with 10 being most efficacious (harmful). The questionnaire was distributed by the German League for people with Arthritis and Rheumatism and the German Fibromyalgia Association to their members and to all consecutive FMS patients of nine clinical centers of different levels of care. Results 1661 questionnaires (95% women, mean age 54 years, mean duration since FMS diagnosis 6.8 years) were analysed. The most frequently used therapies were self-management strategies, prescription pain medication and aerobic exercise. The highest average effectiveness was attributed to whole body and local warmth therapies, thermal bathes, FMS education and resting. The highest average side effects were attributed to strong opioids, local cold therapy, gamma-amino-butyric acid analogues (pregabalin and gabapentin), tramadol and opioid transdermal systems. Conclusion The German fibromyalgia consumer reports highlight the importance of non-pharmcological therapies in the long-term management of FMS, and challenges the strong recommendations for drug therapies given by FMS-guidelines. PMID:22607517
Moretti, Felipe Azevedo; Heymann, Roberto Ezequiel; Marvulle, Valdecir; Pollak, Daniel Feldman; Riera, Rachel
To assess knowledge on fibromyalgia in a sample of patients, their families, and professionals interested on the theme from some Brazilian states. Analysis of the results of an electronic fibromyalgia knowledge questionnaire completed by 362 adults who had access to the the support group for fibromyalgia site (www.unifesp.br/grupos/fibromialgia). The answers were grouped according to age, sex, years of schooling, and type of interest in the condition. 92% of the responders were women and 62% had higher educational level. The worst results were observed in the "joint protection and energy conservation" domain, followed by the "medication in fibromyalgia" domain. The best results were recorded in the "exercises in fibromyalgia" domain. The answers differed significantly between sexes, and women achieved a higher percentage of correct answers. The female sex accounted for a statistically superior result in five statistical analyses (four questions and one domain). The study suggests the need for a strategic planning for an educational approach to fibromyalgia in Brazil.
Sluka, Kathleen A; Clauw, Daniel J
Fibromyalgia is the current term for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain for which no alternative cause can be identified. The underlying mechanisms, in both human and animal studies, for the continued pain in individuals with fibromyalgia will be explored in this review. There is a substantial amount of support for alterations of central nervous system nociceptive processing in people with fibromyalgia, and that psychological factors such as stress can enhance the pain experience. Emerging evidence has begun exploring other potential mechanisms including a peripheral nervous system component to the generation of pain and the role of systemic inflammation. We will explore the data and neurobiology related to the role of the CNS in nociceptive processing, followed by a short review of studies examining potential peripheral nervous system changes and cytokine involvement. We will not only explore the data from human subjects with fibromyalgia but will relate this to findings from animal models of fibromyalgia. We conclude that fibromyalgia and related disorders are heterogenous conditions with a complicated pathobiology with patients falling along a continuum with one end a purely peripherally driven painful condition and the other end of the continuum is when pain is purely centrally driven. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Living with Fibromyalgia, Drugs Approved to Manage Pain Share Tweet Linkedin ... syndrome, and depression. back to top What Causes Fibromyalgia? Scientists believe that the condition may be due ...
Hootman, Jennifer M; Helmick, Charles G; Barbour, Kamil E; Theis, Kristina A; Boring, Michael A
To update the projected prevalence of arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitations among US adults, using a newer baseline for estimates. Baseline prevalence data were obtained from the 2010-2012 National Health Interview Survey. Arthritis was defined as an answer of "yes" to the question "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have some form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus or fibromyalgia?" Arthritis-attributable activity limitation was defined as an answer of "yes" to the question "Are you limited in any way in any of your usual activities because of arthritis or joint symptoms?" The baseline prevalence of arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation was stratified according to age and sex and was statistically weighted to account for the complex survey design. The projected prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation was calculated by multiplying the age- and sex-stratified population estimates projected for 2015-2040 (in 5-year intervals; provided by the US Census Bureau) by the baseline estimates. Age- and sex-specific prevalences were summed to provide the total prevalence estimates for each year. In 2010-2012, 52.5 million adults in the US (22.7% of all adults) had doctor-diagnosed arthritis, and 22.7 million (9.8%) had arthritis-attributable activity limitation. By 2040, the number of US adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis is projected to increase 49% to 78.4 million (25.9% of all adults), and the number of adults with arthritis-attributable activity limitation will increase 52% to 34.6 million (11.4% of all adults). Updated projections suggest that arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation will remain large and growing problems for clinical and public health systems, which must plan and create policies and resources to address these future needs. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
It is crucial that hair restoration surgeons understand the basic clinical diagnosis and pathologic condition of other hair loss conditions that are not always amenable to successful hair transplantation. In this article nonscarring and scarring mimickers of androgenetic alopecia are discussed. Nonscarring conditions include alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, and tinea capitis. Some of the more common scarring alopecias include lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Less common inflammatory conditions include pseudopelade of Brocq, discoid lupus erythematosus, and folliculitis decalvans.
Harries, Matthew J.; Paus, Ralf
Cicatricial (scarring) alopecia results from irreversible damage to epithelial stem cells located in the bulge region of the hair follicle, generally as a result of inflammatory mechanisms (eg, in the context of autoimmune disease). In primary cicactricial alopecia (PCA), the hair follicle itself is the key target of autoaggressive immunity. This group of permanent hair loss disorders can be classified into distinct subgroups, characterized by the predominant peri-follicular inflammatory cell type. In none of these PCA forms do we know exactly why hair follicles begin to attract such an infiltrate. Thus, it is not surprising that halting or even reversing this inflammation in PCA is often extremely difficult. However, increasing evidence suggests that healthy hair follicle epithelial stem cells enjoy relative protection from inflammatory assault by being located in an immunologically “privileged” niche. Because this protection may collapse in PCA, one key challenge in PCA research is to identify the specific signaling pathways that endanger, or restore, the relative immunoprotection of these stem cells. After a summary of pathobiological principles that underlie the development and clinical phenotype of PCA, we close by defining key open questions that need to be answered if more effective treatment modalities for this therapeutically very frustrating, but biologically fascinating, group of diseases are to be developed. PMID:20889564
Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella
No data exist on the dermatoscopic findings in central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA). We sought to establish the spectrum of dermatoscopic features and their frequency in CCCA. We retrospectively evaluated 153 nonpolarized dermatoscopic images obtained from 51 women with histologically proven CCCA and established a list of 12 dermatoscopic features that were independently scored for each image. Controls included 30 dermatoscopic images from histologically proven cases of scarring traction alopecia and discoid lupus erythematosus. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis assessed the specificity and sensitivity; Cohen kappa statistics assessed the agreement. Dermatoscopic pathologic correlations were performed on the horizontal sections of 41 of the 51 specimens, which were obtained with dermatoscopy-guided biopsy procedures. Peripilar white gray halo around the emergence of hairs was observed in 94% of patients and was highly specific and sensitive for CCCA in all clinical stages. It corresponds on pathology to the lamellar fibrosis surrounding the outer root sheath. This was a retrospective study. The presence of a peripilar white halo is a dermatoscopic feature that suggests the diagnosis of CCCA in African American patients with mild central thinning, and it is an optimal site from which to obtain a biopsy specimen. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya
Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457
Usui, Chie; Hatta, Kotaro; Aratani, Satoko; Yagishita, Naoko; Nishioka, Kenya; Okamura, Satoko; Itoh, Kenji; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Asukai, Nozomu; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Nishioka, Kusuki
The aim of this study was to investigate vulnerability and long-term influence of traumatic stress caused by the Great East Japan Disaster which occurred on March 11, 2011, in patients with fibromyalgia, which is a chronic pain syndrome probably involving central sensitization. A total of 60 female patients with fibromyalgia were compared with female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 23) as another chronic pain disease, and with female healthy controls (HC, n = 26) in the observational study. To evaluate responses to traumatic stress, the scores of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were assessed one month after the disaster and every six months until 19 months after the disaster. We also evaluated levels of depression during the study period. To know the score of IES-R of patients with fibromyalgia during usual living, we assessed IES-R in another population of fibromyalgia patients without exposure to a great disaster. The mean score of IES-R one month after the disaster in the fibromyalgia group (24.6 [SD 18.9]) was significantly higher than that of RA group (13.4 [SD 14.5]) or HC group (9.1 [9.2]) (F = 9.96, p < 0.0001). However, the mean score of IES-R in fibromyalgia patients without exposure to a great disaster was (20.3 [SD 18.7]), which was almost the same value as the fibromyalgia group seven months after the disaster (20.2 [SD 19.5]). Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant effect of time course in the depression-related symptoms (F = 6.68, P = 0.001), and a post-hoc test revealed that the number of depression-related symptoms one month before the disaster was significantly different from other time points until 19 months after the disaster, respectively. Although response to acute stress induced by the great earthquake was likely to be settled within seven months after the disaster, depression-related symptoms have been increasing for more than one year after the disaster, despite exclusion of patients with major
Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate vulnerability and long-term influence of traumatic stress caused by the Great East Japan Disaster which occurred on March 11, 2011, in patients with fibromyalgia, which is a chronic pain syndrome probably involving central sensitization. Methods A total of 60 female patients with fibromyalgia were compared with female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 23) as another chronic pain disease, and with female healthy controls (HC, n = 26) in the observational study. To evaluate responses to traumatic stress, the scores of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were assessed one month after the disaster and every six months until 19 months after the disaster. We also evaluated levels of depression during the study period. To know the score of IES-R of patients with fibromyalgia during usual living, we assessed IES-R in another population of fibromyalgia patients without exposure to a great disaster. Results The mean score of IES-R one month after the disaster in the fibromyalgia group (24.6 [SD 18.9]) was significantly higher than that of RA group (13.4 [SD 14.5]) or HC group (9.1 [9.2]) (F = 9.96, p < 0.0001). However, the mean score of IES-R in fibromyalgia patients without exposure to a great disaster was (20.3 [SD 18.7]), which was almost the same value as the fibromyalgia group seven months after the disaster (20.2 [SD 19.5]). Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant effect of time course in the depression-related symptoms (F = 6.68, P = 0.001), and a post-hoc test revealed that the number of depression-related symptoms one month before the disaster was significantly different from other time points until 19 months after the disaster, respectively. Conclusions Although response to acute stress induced by the great earthquake was likely to be settled within seven months after the disaster, depression-related symptoms have been increasing for more than one year after the disaster, despite
Atarguine, H; Hocar, O; Hamdaoui, A; Akhdari, N; Amal, S
Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a topographic form of lichen planopilaris, which most commonly affects postmenopausal women. We report on three original pediatric cases of this scarring alopecia, including one case of female twins. The first observation concerns twin sisters, 14 years of age, with frontotemporal symmetric and progressive alopecia, beginning at the age of 5 years, with follicular facial noninflammatory micropapules. Histological examination showed a depletion of hair follicles with dermal fibrosis and perivascular infiltrate. The treatment decided was monthly intralesional infiltrations of betamethasone. The second case is a 7-year-old girl, with a frontotemporal alopecia band and partial alopecia of the eyebrows. Histological examination was consistent with lichen planopilaris. The outcome was favorable after six monthly oral boluses of steroids. The initial description of frontal fibrosing alopecia was made in postmenopausal women. Some cases have been reported subsequently in premenopausal women as well as in men, with recent identification of familial cases. To our knowledge, these are the first pediatric cases of this form of alopecia, which is not only postmenopausal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Callender, Valerie D; McMichael, Amy J; Cohen, George F
Hair loss is a common problem that challenges the patient and clinician with a host of cosmetic, psychological and medical issues. Alopecia occurs in both men and women, and in all racial and ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair-care practices (e.g., traction alopecia, trichorrhexis nodosa, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia). The use of thermal or chemical hair straightening, and hair braiding or weaving are examples of styling techniques that place African American women at high risk for various "traumatic" alopecias. Although the exact cause of these alopecias is unknown, a multifactorial etiology including both genetic and environmental factors is suspected. A careful history and physical examination, together with an acute sensitivity to the patient's perceptions (e.g., self-esteem and social problems), are critical in determining the best therapy course. Therapeutic options for these patients range from alteration of current hair grooming practices or products, to use of specific medical treatments, to hair replacement surgery. Since early intervention is often a key to preventing irreversible alopecia, the purpose of the present article is to educate the dermatologist on all aspects of therapy for hair loss in black women--including not only a discussion of the main medical and surgical therapies but also an overview of ethnic hair cosmetics, specific suggestions for alterations of hair-care practices, and recommendations for patient education and compliance.
McInnis, Opal A; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia are disabling conditions without objective diagnostic tests, clear-cut treatments, or established etiologies. Those with the disorders are viewed suspiciously, and claims of malingering are common, thus promoting further distress. It was hypothesized in the current study that levels of unsupportive social interactions and the coping styles used among those with CFS/fibromyalgia would be associated with perceived distress and depressive symptoms. Women with CFS/fibromyalgia (n=39), in fact, reported higher depression scores, greater perceived distress and more frequent unsupportive relationships than healthy women (n=55), whereas those with a chronic, but medically accepted illness comprising an autoimmune disorder (lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis; n=28), displayed intermediate scores. High problem-focused coping was associated with low levels of depression and perceived distress in those with an autoimmune condition. In contrast, although CFS/fibromyalgia was also accompanied by higher depression scores and higher perceived distress, this occurred irrespective of problem-focused coping. It is suggested that because the veracity of ambiguous illnesses is often questioned, this might represent a potent stressor in women with such illnesses, and even coping methods typically thought to be useful in other conditions, are not associated with diminished distress among those with CFS/fibromyalgia.
... IBD Help Center Home > Resources > Arthritis Go Back Arthritis Email Print + Share Arthritis, or inflammation of the ... joints and a reduction in flexibility. TYPES OF ARTHRITIS In IBD, arthritis may appear in three different ...
... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 69 KB November 2014 What is Reactive Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Information About Reactive Arthritis and Other Related Conditions What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set ...
Female pattern hair loss (female androgenetic alopecia) is a common, but puzzling, condition in women. Approximately 10 percent of pre-menopausal women show evidence of androgenetic alopecia. Age increases the incidence and 50-75 percent of women 65 years or older suffer from this condition. Only 2 percent topical mindoxidil is approved for treating female androgenetic alopecia. Reviews suggest that anti-hormonal therapy (e.g. cyproterone acetate, spironolactone) is helpful in treating female pattern alopecia in some women who have normal hormone levels. The use of hormonal therapies is most extensively studied in post-menopausal women. Several studies have suggested that cyproterone acetate with or without ethinyl estradiol and spironolactone can ameliorate female androgenetic alopecia in women with normal hormone levels, but larger controlled studies need to be done. Flutamide was found to be more effective than spironolactone or cyproterone in one study. Testosterone conversion inhibitors have been tried in post-menopausual women with normal hormone levels to treat alopecia. No study has shown that 1 mg of finasteride effectively treats female androgenetic alopecia but doses of 2.5 and 5 mg finasteride have helped some women in a few open studies. One case report notes the utility of dutasteride after finasteride failed. The role and place of anti-androgentic agents in female androgenetic alopecia in both pre and post-menopausal women remains to be fully defined. The need for effective agents is highlighted by the paucity of effective treatments and the substantial psychosocial impact of alopecia on women.
Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Yim, Yi-Rang; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook
Fibromyalgia (FM) affects 1% to 5% of the population, and approximately 90% of the affected individuals are women. FM patients experience impaired quality of life and the disorder places a considerable economic burden on the medical care system. With the recognition of FM as a major health problem, many recent studies have evaluated the pathophysiology of FM. Although the etiology of FM remains unknown, it is thought to involve some combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure that triggers further alterations in gene expression. Because FM shows marked familial aggregation, most previous research has focused on genetic predisposition to FM and has revealed associations between genetic factors and the development of FM, including specific gene polymorphisms involved in the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and catecholaminergic pathways. The aim of this review was to discuss the current evidence regarding genetic factors that may play a role in the development and symptom severity of FM. PMID:26306300
Duchková, Hana; Hašková, Marta
Mesotherapy is one of the options for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Testing 24 women with androgenetic alopecia has demonstrated a positive effect of mesotherapy on the hair growth, hair thickness, with only insignificant increase of hair density. It is known that androgenetic alopecia represents a localized aging of hair follicles. We therefore decided to examine the different effects of mesotherapy on hair density in younger and in elderly women. In younger women mesotherapy significantly increased hair density compared with older women. For mesotherapy we used a combination of micronutrients and antioxidants. Mesotherapy achievements were evident for 6-12 months. Treatment requires a long-term care.
Casanueva, Benigno; Belenguer, Rafael; Moreno-Muelas, José V; Urtiaga, Javier; Urtiaga, Blanca; Hernández, José L; Pina, Trinitario; González-Gay, Miguel A
To investigate the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST), a brief questionnaire for the detection of fibromyalgia (FM) in patients with diffuse chronic pain seen at primary care health centres. The original FiRST French questionnaire was adapted to a Spanish version following the guidelines of the Rheumatology Spanish Society Study Group of FM, and the help provided by professors of French and Spanish Language. In a prospective and multicentre study, patients with chronic pain were initially divided into two groups: a group that included patients that had been diagnosed with FM according to the 1990 ACR criteria and the 2010 ACR preliminary criteria (n=404), and a non-FM (control) group composed of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=147) and osteoarthritis (OA) (n=219) patients. Patients from the FM group were evaluated by assessing tender point assessment, Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SSS), FiRST questionnaire and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). The non-FM group was evaluated by means of FiRST, WPI and SSS. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value as well as the correlation between the global score and other parameters were assessed. 356 of 404 FM (88.1%) patients who met the 1990 ACR criteria and the ACR 2010 preliminary criteria had a positive FiRST. In the control group (AR plus OA), only 16 (4.4%) subjects had a positive FiRST. The sensitivity value was 92% (95% confidence interval CI: 88.9-95.1), specificity 87.4% (95% CI: 80.8-94.0), positive predictive value 95.7% (95% CI: 93.3-98.1), and negative predictive value 78.2% (95% CI: 70.6-85.9). A significant correlation between the total FiRST score (patients with score 5 or 6) and WPI (p<0.0001), SSS (p<0.0001), time to disease progression (p<0.0001) and FIQ (p<0.0001) was found. FiRST questionnaire is a useful tool for the detection of FM in primary care health centres.
Walitt, Brian; Klose, Petra; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Phillips, Tudor; Häuser, Winfried
This review is one of a series on drugs used to treat fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep problems and fatigue. It affects approximately 2% of the general population. Up to 70% of patients with fibromyalgia meet the criteria for a depressive or anxiety disorder. People often report high disability levels and poor health-related quality of life. Drug therapy focuses on reducing key symptoms and disability, and improving health-related quality of life. Antipsychotics might reduce fibromyalgia and associated mental health symptoms. To assess the efficacy, tolerability and safety of antipsychotics in fibromyalgia in adults. We searched CENTRAL (2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE and EMBASE to 20 May 2016, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews and two clinical trial registries. We also contacted trial authors. We selected controlled trials of at least four weeks duration of any formulation of antipsychotics used for the treatment of fibromyalgia in adults. We extracted the data from all included studies and two review authors independently assessed study risks of bias. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. We performed analysis using three tiers of evidence. We derived first tier evidence from data meeting current best standards and subject to minimal risk of bias (outcome equivalent to substantial pain intensity reduction, intention-to-treat analysis without imputation for drop-outs, at least 200 participants in the comparison, eight to 12 weeks duration, parallel design), second tier evidence from data that failed to meet one or more of these criteria and that we considered at some risk of bias but with adequate numbers in the comparison, and third tier evidence from data involving small numbers of participants that we considered very likely to be biased or used outcomes of limited clinical utility, or both. We rated the
Costa, Isis da Silva; Gamundí, Antoni; Miranda, José G. Vivas; França, Lucas G. Souza; De Santana, Charles Novaes; Montoya, Pedro
Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that exerts a considerable impact on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate kinematic parameters of gait, functional performance, and balance in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: The study included 26 female patients with fibromyalgia (49.2 ± 8.0 years) according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, as well as 16 pain-free women (43.5 ± 8.5 years). Gait and balance parameters were extracted from video recordings of participants performing several motor tasks. Non-linear dynamic of body sway time series was also analyzed by computing the Hurst exponent. In addition, functional performance and clinical pain were obtained by using standardized motor tests (Berg's balance scale, 6-min walking test, timed up and go task, Romberg's balance test) and self-report questionnaires (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire). Results: Walking speed was significantly diminished (p < 0.001) in FM patients as compared to pain-free controls, probably due to significant reductions in stride length (p < 0.001) and cycle frequency (p < 0.001). Analyses of balance also revealed significant differences between fibromyalgia and pain-free controls on body sway in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior axes (all ps < 0.01). Several parameters of gait and balance were significantly associated with high levels of pain, depression, stiffness, anxiety, and fatigue in fibromyalgia. Conclusion: Our data revealed that both gait and balance were severely impaired in FM, and that subjective complaints associated with FM could contribute to functional disability in these patients. These findings suggest that optimal rehabilitation and fall prevention in fibromyalgia require a comprehensive assessment of both psychological responses to pain and physical impairments during postural control and gait. PMID:28184193
Klerman, E. B.; Goldenberg, D. L.; Brown, E. N.; Maliszewski, A. M.; Adler, G. K.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic and debilitating disorder characterized by widespread nonarticular musculoskeletal pain whose etiology is unknown. Many of the symptoms of this syndrome, including difficulty sleeping, fatigue, malaise, myalgias, gastrointestinal complaints, and decreased cognitive function, are similar to those observed in individuals whose circadian pacemaker is abnormally aligned with their sleep-wake schedule or with local environmental time. Abnormalities in melatonin and cortisol, two hormones whose secretion is strongly influenced by the circadian pacemaker, have been reported in women with fibromyalgia. We studied the circadian rhythms of 10 women with fibromyalgia and 12 control healthy women. The protocol controlled factors known to affect markers of the circadian system, including light levels, posture, sleep-wake state, meals, and activity. The timing of the events in the protocol were calculated relative to the habitual sleep-wake schedule of each individual subject. Under these conditions, we found no significant difference between the women with fibromyalgia and control women in the circadian amplitude or phase of rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, and core body temperature. The average circadian phases expressed in hours posthabitual bedtime for women with and without fibromyalgia were 3:43 +/- 0:19 and 3:46 +/- 0:13, respectively, for melatonin; 10:13 +/- 0:23 and 10:32 +/- 0:20, respectively for cortisol; and 5:19 +/- 0:19 and 4:57 +/- 0:33, respectively, for core body temperature phases. Both groups of women had similar circadian rhythms in self-reported alertness. Although pain and stiffness were significantly increased in women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy women, there were no circadian rhythms in either parameter. We suggest that abnormalities in circadian rhythmicity are not a primary cause of fibromyalgia or its symptoms.
Klerman, E. B.; Goldenberg, D. L.; Brown, E. N.; Maliszewski, A. M.; Adler, G. K.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic and debilitating disorder characterized by widespread nonarticular musculoskeletal pain whose etiology is unknown. Many of the symptoms of this syndrome, including difficulty sleeping, fatigue, malaise, myalgias, gastrointestinal complaints, and decreased cognitive function, are similar to those observed in individuals whose circadian pacemaker is abnormally aligned with their sleep-wake schedule or with local environmental time. Abnormalities in melatonin and cortisol, two hormones whose secretion is strongly influenced by the circadian pacemaker, have been reported in women with fibromyalgia. We studied the circadian rhythms of 10 women with fibromyalgia and 12 control healthy women. The protocol controlled factors known to affect markers of the circadian system, including light levels, posture, sleep-wake state, meals, and activity. The timing of the events in the protocol were calculated relative to the habitual sleep-wake schedule of each individual subject. Under these conditions, we found no significant difference between the women with fibromyalgia and control women in the circadian amplitude or phase of rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, and core body temperature. The average circadian phases expressed in hours posthabitual bedtime for women with and without fibromyalgia were 3:43 +/- 0:19 and 3:46 +/- 0:13, respectively, for melatonin; 10:13 +/- 0:23 and 10:32 +/- 0:20, respectively for cortisol; and 5:19 +/- 0:19 and 4:57 +/- 0:33, respectively, for core body temperature phases. Both groups of women had similar circadian rhythms in self-reported alertness. Although pain and stiffness were significantly increased in women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy women, there were no circadian rhythms in either parameter. We suggest that abnormalities in circadian rhythmicity are not a primary cause of fibromyalgia or its symptoms.
Costa, Isis da Silva; Gamundí, Antoni; Miranda, José G Vivas; França, Lucas G Souza; De Santana, Charles Novaes; Montoya, Pedro
Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that exerts a considerable impact on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate kinematic parameters of gait, functional performance, and balance in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: The study included 26 female patients with fibromyalgia (49.2 ± 8.0 years) according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, as well as 16 pain-free women (43.5 ± 8.5 years). Gait and balance parameters were extracted from video recordings of participants performing several motor tasks. Non-linear dynamic of body sway time series was also analyzed by computing the Hurst exponent. In addition, functional performance and clinical pain were obtained by using standardized motor tests (Berg's balance scale, 6-min walking test, timed up and go task, Romberg's balance test) and self-report questionnaires (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire). Results: Walking speed was significantly diminished (p < 0.001) in FM patients as compared to pain-free controls, probably due to significant reductions in stride length (p < 0.001) and cycle frequency (p < 0.001). Analyses of balance also revealed significant differences between fibromyalgia and pain-free controls on body sway in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior axes (all ps < 0.01). Several parameters of gait and balance were significantly associated with high levels of pain, depression, stiffness, anxiety, and fatigue in fibromyalgia. Conclusion: Our data revealed that both gait and balance were severely impaired in FM, and that subjective complaints associated with FM could contribute to functional disability in these patients. These findings suggest that optimal rehabilitation and fall prevention in fibromyalgia require a comprehensive assessment of both psychological responses to pain and physical impairments during postural control and gait.
Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara
Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences
Cho, Hyun Hee; Jo, Seong Jin; Paik, Seung Hwan; Jeon, Hye Chan; Kim, Kyu Han; Eun, Hee Chul; Kwon, Oh Sang
Alopecia totalis (AT) and alopecia universalis (AU), severe forms of alopecia areata (AA), show distinguishable clinical characteristics from those of patch AA. In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics of AT/AU according to the onset age. Based on the onset age around adolescence (< or ≥ 13 yr), 108 patients were classified in an early-onset group and the other 179 patients in a late-onset group. We found that more patients in the early-onset group had a family history of AA, nail dystrophy, and history of atopic dermatitis than those in the late-onset group. These clinical differences were more prominent in patients with AU than in those with AT. In addition, significantly more patients with concomitant medical disorders, especially allergic diseases were found in the early-onset group (45.8%) than in the late-onset group (31.2%). All treatment modalities failed to show any association with the present hair condition of patients. In the early-onset group, patients with AU or a family history of AA showed worse prognosis, whereas this trend was not observed in the late-onset group. Systemic evaluations might be needed in early-onset patients due to the higher incidence of comorbid diseases. It is suggested that patients with AU or family history of AA make worse progress in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group.
Singh, Namrata; Vogelgesang, Scott A
Monoarticular arthritis is inflammation characterized by joint pain, swelling, and sometimes periarticular erythema. Although chronic causes are seen, the onset is often acute. An infected joint can quickly lead to permanent damage, making it a medical emergency. However, acute gout presenting as monoarticular arthritis is often so uncomfortable it requires urgent attention. Monoarticular crystalline arthritis is common and a septic joint is a medical emergency so it is no surprise that these diagnoses come to mind with complaint of inflammation in 1 joint. However, there are many causes of monoarticular arthritis that clinicians must consider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fenton, D A; Wilkinson, J D
A modified double blind crossover study was performed to assess the effect of 1% topical minoxidil as compared with placebo in 30 patients with alopecia areata and alopecia totalis. The active preparation produced a highly significant incidence of hair regrowth. A cosmetically acceptable response was noted in 16 patients. No side effects were seen. The study confirmed that topical minoxidil will induce new hair growth in alopecia areata but that it is less likely to do so in more severe and extensive disease. Furthermore, patients with alopecia universalis and totalis may not respond at all. Nevertheless, as compared with other drugs minoxidil applied topically is relatively non-toxic, is easy to use, and has no systemic or local side effects. Images p1016-a PMID:6412929
Harris, John E.
Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments. PMID:24131336
Rubegni, P.; Mandato, F.; Fimiani, M.
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is more common in postmenopausal women, but it can occur in younger women. Some authors consider FFA to be a distinct frontal variant of lichen planopilaris. From a clinical point of view, this relatively uncommon condition is characterized by progressive frontotemporal recession due to inflammatory destruction of hair follicles. Dermoscopy can be very useful, as the differential diagnosis between traction alopecia, alopecia areata, FFA and cicatricial marginal alopecia may be difficult. It is not clear whether or not treatment alters the natural history of the disease - the disease stabilized with time in most of the patients with or without continuing treatment. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old woman with FFA and discuss the relevance of dermoscopy in the differential diagnosis of this disease. PMID:21173926
Dahdah, Maurice J.; Iorizzo, Matilde
Primary scarring alopecias are a group of inflammatory conditions in which the main target of the inflammation is the hair follicle. They represent up to 7.3% of the hair loss cases presenting to specialty hair clinics. They are poorly understood, their pathogeneses are mostly unknown and their management is guided at best by the results of small case series and expert opinions. These alopecias are frequently referred to as a trichologic emergency as their progression can be rapid and the hair loss they induce is permanent. In view of the suboptimal solutions offered by the pharmacological treatments available and the significant emotional distress caused by these conditions, it is only normal for patients with scarring alopecias and their treating physicians alike to explore the prospects of surgical correction. This review attempts to summarize what is known about hair restoration surgery in scarring alopecia. PMID:27843925
Ablin, Jacob N; Buskila, Dan
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of chronic widespread pain, representing sensitization of the central nervous system. The pthophysiology of fibromyalgia is a complex and remains in evolution, encompassing diverse issues such as disturbed patterns of sleep, alter processing and decreased conditioned pain modulation at the spinal level, as well as increased connectivity between various pain - processing areas of the brain. This evolution is continuously uncovering potential novel therapeutic targets. Treatment of fibromyalgia is a multi - faceted endeavor, inevitably combining pharmacological as well as non - pharmacological approaches. 2δ ligands and selective nor-epinephrine - serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the current mainstays of pharmacological treatment. Novel re-uptake inhibitors targeting both nor -epinephrine and dopamine are potential additions to this armamentarium as are substance P antagonists, Opiod antagonism is another intriguing possibility. Canabinoid agonists hold promise in the treatment of fibromyalgia although current evidence is incomplete. Sodium Oxybate is a unique sleep - promoting medication while drugs those promot arousals such as modafilnil are also under investigation. In the current review, current and emerging therapeutic options for the syndrome of fibromyalgia are covered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Podolecki, Tomasz; Podolecki, Andrzej; Hrycek, Antoni
Musculoskeletal pains are one of the most common complaints reported by patients. In 1972, Smythe described the generalized pain and tenderness on palpation at specific points and, 4 years later, the term fibromyalgia was introduced for determining the disease syndrome. The etiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia are still unknown. This disease appears probably multi-factorial. It is considered that the changes in the neuronal activity in the central nervous system, abnormal metabolism of biogenic amines and immunological disorders may among other things, contribute to the development of the disease. The complaints are non characteristic and highly sujective, which makes it substantially difficult to differentiate between fibromialgia and both chronic fatigue syndrome and psychosomatic diseases. The treatment of fibromyalgia is complex and long-term. The antidepressants and psychotherapy is of vital importance. The effectiveness of locally used agents is also being emphasized. Fibromyalgia has become a serious social problem in the well developed countries in the recent years. Therefore, of importance are efforts to appropriately diagnose fibromyalgia and to implement its appropriate treatment that resolves disease symptoms in a possibly maximum degree.
Just, Marek; Ogłodek, Ewa
Fibromyalgia is a disorder of the pain perception, which may, but need not be associated with depression. Modern science does not allow to put an equal sign between the two diseases. However, at least in some people, can be seen as a variant of depression, fibromyalgia. Studies indicate that 50-80 per cent, people with fibromyalgia can recognize depression. The article discusses the current state of knowledge on the role of physical activity, psychosomatic health treatments, physical therapy, relaxation techniques and education for patients with fibromyalgia. The best results, combine different therapies. The use of drugs is to reduce pain, improve mood and improve sleep quality. Various forms of drug-free treatment and help to restore the efficiency of dealing with complaints. In the treatment of fibromyalgia using different forms of therapy, tailored to the individual needs of the patient. The most common are: balneotherapy, exercise, cryotherapy, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and other forms of psychotherapy--in order to develop methods to combat stress and depressed mood, relaxation techniques, acupuncture, massage.
Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Reshmi
The authors sought to investigate androgenic alopecia (AA) utilizing clinical and investigative procedures to establish the pattern of AA in the Indian subcontinent. A total of 35 consecutive women presenting with AA were included. After obtaining informed consent, a detailed history/examination, hair pull test, trichogram, and a scalp biopsy were performed in patients. AA classification was attempted across Ludwig and Norwood guidelines. Of 35 women, 16 had grade I, 10 had grade II, and 1 had grade III Ludwig classification. In addition, 6 other women had Christmas tree baldness: 1 each of fronto-parietal and male pattern baldness. Several investigations including hormonal profile were inconclusive; however, hair pull test and trichogram may be helpful in understanding the sequence in AA in women. AA has infrequently been reported, particularly India and in Asia in general.
Wolff, H; Kunte, C
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common dermatological condition affecting both men and women. Until recently there has been little interest in AGA as a clinical condition, largely due to the lack of any genuinely effective treatment for it. A number of "remedies" exist, such as vitamin supplements, which are not generally harmful but which have no proven efficacy in promoting hair growth or preventing further hair loss. Hair systems and surgery provide camouflage for the symptoms but do not effect a cure. By far the most promising approaches to the treatment of AGA are drug therapies, such as minoxidil and finasteride. Finasteride, an inhibitor of the type II 5alpha-reductase that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, has been shown to prevent further hair loss, and promotes new hair growth in the majority of the men taking part in clinical trials. Tailored drug approaches like this offer the greatest hope for the successful future treatment of AGA.
Libecco, James F; Bergfeld, Wilma F
Finasteride is a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor approved for the treatment of male pattern hair loss. Originally approved for the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy in 1992, its approval was expanded in 1997 to include the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in men at a dose of 1 mg/day. Finasteride inhibits 5alpha-reductase, thereby prohibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is implicated in the development of hairless in some men. Reduction in DHT results in a significant improvement in subjective and objective assessments of hair growth and density. Finasteride is well-tolerated with a favourable adverse event history. The most common adverse events include reduced libido, decreased ejaculate volume and gynaecomastia.
Stress is a state of disharmony, or threatened homeostasis. A stressor could have a psychological origin or a biological origin. Societies have become more intricate with industrialization, and modern individuals try to adapt to the new defiance by forcing their stress response system. The main component of the stress response network is the autonomic nervous system. The present article reviews current knowledge on autonomic dysfunction in fibromyalgia. Sympathetic hyperactivity has been consistently described by diverse groups of investigators. Fibromyalgia is proposed to be a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome, and genomic data support this contention. Autonomic dysfunction may also explain other fibromyalgia features not related to pain. PMID:17626613
Ro, B I
I clinically studied 905 patients with alopecia areata (AA) who visited the Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, from January of 1982 to February of 1994. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical manifestations and compare the effects of treatment with intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide suspension and immunotherapy with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). The results were as follows: 1) The incidence of AA among all out-patients (59,970) was 1.5% (905 cases), and the ratio of males to females was 1.3:1 (512:393). 2) The age distribution showed high incidences in the third (41.8%) and fourth decades (20.0%). 3) The family history was contributory in 104 cases (11.5%). 4) The relapse rate was 17.5% (158 cases). 5) Almost half of the patients had a solitary lesion (408 cases, 46.7%). 6) The most common site of predilection was the occipital region of the scalp in both male and female patients. 7) Associated diseases were seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, hepatitis, hypertension, open heart surgery, thyroid disease, pulmonary disease, and vitiligo in order of frequency. 8) The effect of treatment on the patients who had bald patches less than 50 cm2 was not significantly statistically different between intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide and immunotherapy with DNCB or DPCP. 9) In cases with bald areas more than 50 cm2, including alopecia totalis and universalis, DNCB or DPCP immunotherapy showed better therapeutic effects than did intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide.
Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may operate in fibromyalgia. Signs of sympathetic hyperactivity have been described in this condition. Genetic factors and/or distressful lifestyle may lead to this state of sympathetic hyperactivity. Trauma and infection are recognized fibromyalgia triggers. Women who suffer from fibromyalgia have catecholamine-evoked pain. Sympathetic dysfunction may also explain nonpain-related fibromyalgia symptoms. In conclusion, in fibromyalgia, distress could be converted into pain through forced hyperactivity of the sympathetic component of the stress response system. PMID:22110948
AlGaadi, Salim; Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a cicatricial alopecia that affects mainly postmenopausal women. It is typically characterized by recession of frontotemporal hairline. Hair loss of eyebrows, eyelashes, axillae, limbs, and pubic area may be observed. Here, we describe a case of FFA in a male patient presenting with only localized loss of sideburns. Skin biopsy findings were consistent with lichen planopilaris. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of FFA patient with only localized loss of sideburns. PMID:26180452
Chen, Wenchieh; Kigitsidou, Evanthia; Prucha, Hanna; Ring, Johannes; Andres, Christian
Frontal fibrosing alopecia predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is regarded as a variant of lichen planopilaris. Male cases have rarely been reported. Here we describe a 66-year-old man with a typical receding fronto-temporal hair line in a form of scarring alopecia, which shows features of lichen planopilaris in histology. An extensive loss of body hair involving bilateral axillae, limbs and pubic area was also observed.
Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S
Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce alopecia. Numerous factors may be related to hair loss and range from naturally occurring processes (for example, seasonality, aging) to various biologic dysfunctions, including vitamin and mineral imbalances, endocrine disorders, immunologic diseases, and genetic mutations. We also address bacterial and fungal infections, infestation by parasites, and atopic dermatitis as possible causes of alopecia. Finally, we examine the role of psychogenic factors, such as stress. Depending on the presumed cause of the hair loss, various treatment strategies can be pursued. Alopecia in nonhuman primates is a multifaceted disorder with many potential sources. For this reason, appropriate testing for various disease conditions should be completed before alopecia is considered to be related to stress. PMID:19295051
Senila, Simona C; Danescu, Sorina A; Ungureanu, Loredana; Candrea, Elisabeta; Cosgarea, Rodica M
Severe, extensive, therapy resistant alopecia areata represents a clinical challenge. Systemic corticosteroids are a therapeutic tool that still needs to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in alopecia areata and to find prognostic factors for a favourable outcome. A total of 32 patients with severe multifocal alopecia areata (more than 40% scalp hair loss), alopecia totalis, and alopecia universalis were treated with infusions of 500 mg methylprednisolone for 3 days every month for 3 consecutive months. The end point of the study was 12 months. Of 32 patients, 26 (81.3%) reported a clinical response. Four patients (12.5%) showed complete hair regrowth, 6 patients (18.8%) showed >50% hair regrowth, ten (31.3%) had <50% hair regrowth, 6 (18.75%) were non responders, and another 6 patients (18.8%) had relapse after an initial regrowth. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients reporting at the first episode and those with multifocal disease had the best results. Methylprednisolone infusions represent a possible therapeutic option for patients with multifocal alopecia areata and those presenting with the first episode of the disease.
Wortsman, Ximena; Guerrero, Robinson; Wortsman, Jacobo
To assess hair morphology in androgenetic alopecia on sonography and electron microscopy. A prospective study was performed in 33 patients with androgenetic alopecia and 10 unaffected control participants. In vivo sonography of the hair follicles of the scalp and in vitro sonography and electron microscopy of the hair shafts were performed according to a standardized protocol that included analysis of the right frontal and occipital regions. The upper frequency limit of the ultrasound probes ranged between 15 and 18 MHz. Scalp hair follicles and hair shafts were recognizable on sonography in all cases. Hair follicles in alopecia cases had significantly lower depths (P < .05). The hair shafts in alopecia also had a different distribution of their laminar pattern on in vitro sonography, with a greater presence of mixed (trilaminar and bilaminar) and solely bilaminar tracts in comparison with the controls (mostly trilaminar). On electron microscopy, the alopecia hair tracts showed irregularities and commonly a "melted candle" appearance of the cuticle. Sonography and electron microscopy uncover distinct abnormalities in the morphology of hair in androgenetic alopecia, which may potentially support the diagnosis and management of this common condition. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Dan, Luke; Relic, John
In this article we describe a 39-year-old man who presented with non-scarring non-scalp alopecia of his limbs as the initial presentation of sarcoidosis. Alopecia is a rare cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. A literature review has found only one other example of sarcoidosis presenting as non-scarring non-scalp alopecia in an area other than the scalp in a patient who was otherwise asymptomatic. Several reported cases have described scarring alopecia of the scalp, which is the area of skin most commonly affected by sarcoidosis. There has been one documented case of sarcoidosis manifesting as total body non-scarring alopecia in a patient who had systemic symptoms of sarcoidosis. Other cases have presented rare cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis but in all these cases several other organ systems have been involved, and the patient has had systemic symptoms on presentation or the cutaneous presentation did not include non-scalp non-scarring alopecia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Alopecia, that is, lack of hair in any quantity, is a frequent complaint of pet owners. Although mostly acquired, rare congenital forms of alopecia exist that are associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis. Congenital alopecias can result in changes in quality or quantity of hair follicles and the hair fibres produced by them. They vary in terms of clinical presentation and mode of inheritance. Histopathology is usually needed in order to differentiate between a reduced number of otherwise normal hair follicles and qualitative hair follicle abnormalities. Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive hair follicle morphogenesis in mice and humans has significantly increased during the last decade, still very little is known about congenital alopecias in domestic animals. Because of their rarity and the general lack of knowledge about their pathophysiology, classification of congenital alopecias in domestic animals is still unsatisfactory. This article reviews hair follicle morphogenesis and its most important molecular mechanisms, and it discusses the various forms of congenital alopecia occurring in domestic animals that have been described in the literature, differentiating between hair follicle aplasia, hair follicle dysplasia (i.e. defects associated with hair follicle development and defects associated with hair shaft formation), and neuroectodermal dysplasias, the latter involving the hair follicle pigmentary system.
... septic arthritis. Knees are most commonly affected, but septic arthritis also can affect hips, shoulders and other joints. The infection can quickly and severely damage the cartilage and bone within the joint, so prompt treatment is crucial. Treatment involves draining the joint with ...
Beckett, W S; Oskvig, R; Gaynor, M E; Goldgeier, M H
Boron is widely used in industrial materials, most frequently as the salt borax. Systemic exposure (eg, ingestion) to boron in boric acid been associated with reversible toxic alopecia among other manifestations. There is scant clinical literature on alopecia caused by topical exposure to boron. We observed a series of 3 patients in 2 workplaces who suffered reversible alopecia from cutaneous boron exposure. The scalp alopecia was global in 1 patient and patchy in 2 patients. Alopecia was completely reversed by elimination or reduction of exposure to boron-containing materials in all 3 patients. We conclude that occupational topical exposure to boron in solutions may cause reversible alopecia.
Bechard, Allison; Meagher, Rebecca; Mason, Georgia
Barbering (incessant grooming) is an abnormal behavior causing alopecia and commonly affects various strains of laboratory mice, including C57BL/6J. Barbering-induced alopecia is a potential symptom of brain impairment and can indicate a stressful environment. We compared alopecia prevalence and severity in mice housed in enriched or standard cages. Providing an enriched environment delayed the onset and reduced the prevalence and overall severity of alopecia in C57BL/6J mice. Husbandry methods that reduce adult alopecia are likely to promote the wellbeing of the animals. We suggest that environmental enrichment is a simple and economic way to reduce alopecia in mouse colonies. PMID:21439209
Cabo-Meseguer, Asensi; Cerdá-Olmedo, Germán; Trillo-Mata, José Luis
Fibromyalgia is an idiopathic chronic condition that causes widespread musculoskeletal pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. This review aims to approach the general epidemiology of fibromyalgia according to the most recent published studies, identifying the general worldwide prevalence of the disease, its basic epidemiological profiles and its economic costs, with specific interest in the Spanish and Comunidad Valenciana cases. Fibromyalgia affects, on average, 2.10% of the world's population; 2.31% of the European population; 2.40% of the Spanish population; and 3.69% of the population in the Comunidad Valenciana. It supposes a painful loss of the quality of life of the people who suffer it and the economic costs are enormous: in Spain is has been estimated at more than 12,993 million euros annually. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cathébras, Pascal; Lauwers, Anne
Fibromyalgia is a functional somatic syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, poor sleep, and exercise intolerance, frequently (but inconstantly) associated with psychological distress. Fibromyalgia is a common condition, affecting predominantly middle-aged women, with a chronic course. Fibromaylgia should be differentiated from, and may be associated with, a number of metabolic, rheumatic, neurological or psychiatric conditions. The most plausible pathophysiologic mechanism involves an alteration of pain modulation at the peripheral and central levels of the nervous system ("sensitization"). Psychosocial factors play an important role in precipitating and maintaining symptoms, health care utilization, and disablement. Treatments of fibromyalgia rely mainly on the acknowledgement of pain and distress, patient education, analgesics, balneotherapy and physiotherapy, physical reconditioning (aerobic exercise), and certain antidepressants.
Arnold, Lesley M.; Clauw, Daniel J.; McCarberg, Bill H.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic widespread pain disorder often seen in primary care practices. Advances in the understanding of FM pathophysiology and clinical presentation have improved the recognition and diagnosis of FM in clinical practice. Fibromyalgia is a clinical diagnosis based on signs and symptoms and is appropriate for primary care practitioners to make. The hallmark symptoms used to identify FM are chronic widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. Awareness of common mimics of FM and comorbid disorders will increase confidence in establishing a diagnosis of FM. PMID:21531887
Okifuji, Akiko; Gao, Jeff; Bokat, Christina; Hare, Bradford D
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic pain disorder and defies definitively efficacious therapy. In this review, we summarize the results from the early treatment research as well as recent research evaluating the pharmacological, interventional and nonpharmacological therapies. We further discuss future directions of fibromyalgia syndrome management; we specifically focus on the issues that are associated with currently available treatments, such as the need for personalized approach, new technologically oriented and interventional treatments, the importance of understanding and harnessing placebo effects and enhancement of patient engagement in therapy. PMID:27306300
Okifuji, Akiko; Gao, Jeff; Bokat, Christina; Hare, Bradford D
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic pain disorder and defies definitively efficacious therapy. In this review, we summarize the results from the early treatment research as well as recent research evaluating the pharmacological, interventional and nonpharmacological therapies. We further discuss future directions of fibromyalgia syndrome management; we specifically focus on the issues that are associated with currently available treatments, such as the need for personalized approach, new technologically oriented and interventional treatments, the importance of understanding and harnessing placebo effects and enhancement of patient engagement in therapy.
Malik, Sushma; Singhal, Mani; Jadhav, Shruti Sudhir; Korday, Charusheela Sujit; Nayak, Chitra Shivanand
Hirschsprung's disease is one of the commonest causes of intestinal obstruction in neonates because of gut motility disorder. It is characterized as a complex genetic heterogenous disorder with variable inheritance. Hirschsprung's disease occurs as an isolated phenotype in majority (70 %) of cases. In other cases it may be associated with syndromes (such as Down's syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation, or cartilage-hair hypoplasia) or with a spectrum of congenital anomalies involving neurological, cardiovascular, or urological systems or with sensorineural anomalies. In our patient, Hirschsprung's disease was associated with alopecia universalis. Alopecia universalis congenita is a rare disorder of skin characterized by generalized absence of hair at or shortly after birth. The inheritance patterns range from autosomal recessive, dominant or X-linked recessive forms. The autosomal recessive form is the most common and severe type in which patients present with complete absence of hair development, affecting the entire scalp and body. Alopecia universalis congenita occurs either in isolation or as a part of congenital syndromes. Here, we report the case of a neonate who presented with Hirschsprung's disease with alopecia universalis congenita, an association which has not been reported before. A preterm (33 weeks' gestation) 1.4 kg Indian baby girl was born to a gravida two mother by caesarean section. At birth, clinical examination revealed total absence of scalp and body hair. On day 3, she had bilious vomiting and a barium study was suggestive of Hirschsprung's disease. An exploratory laparotomy and intestinal biopsy report revealed aganglionic muscularis propria; a skin biopsy from her scalp was suggestive of alopecia universalis. Postoperatively, she died due to multiorgan failure. Her family history revealed that her elder sibling also had alopecia universalis and esophageal atresia. This child died on day twelve. Our patient
Yokota, Shumpei; Kikuchi, Masako; Miyamae, Takako
Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) is a disease in which patients complain of acute and chronic severe pain, an overt primary cause for which cannot be found or surmised. Although patients with JFM mainly complain of systemic pain or allodynia in the medical interview and physical examination, the concept of the disease is the total sum of painful illness, chronic fatigue, hypothermia and many other autonomic symptoms and signs. Many issues are interacting including individual traits (personality, temperament, sensitivity, memory of pain; age: early adolescence), individual states (self-esteem, anxiety, developmental level), and external stressors (parent especially mother, school environment). JFM is diagnosed on the combination of disease history, physical examination to determine the 18 tender points and allodynia, pain from gently touching their hair, and negative results of blood tests (inflammatory markers, thyroid function, myogenic enzymes). The goals of treatment are the following: restoration of function and relief of pain. Psychological support is advocated. Although the exact number of patients with JFM is still to be elucidated, it seems to be growing because pediatric rheumatologists in Japan encounter children with a wide variety of musculoskeletal pains. This guideline describes how to diagnose JFM in children and how to treat them appropriately.
Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J.; Goldenberg, Don L.; Harris, Richard E.; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L.; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun
This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients’ lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general. PMID:27022674
Cymet, Tyler Childs
Fibromyalgia is the name given to a collection of symptoms with no clear physiologic cause, The constellation of symptoms are clearly recognizable as a distinct pathologic entity. The diagnosis is made through clinical observations made by the examiner. Differential diagnosis must include other somatic syndromes as well as disease entities like hepatitis, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. Diagnostic criteria are given as guidelines for the diagnosis, not as absolute requirements. Treatment of this condition remains individualized and relies heavily on having a therapeutic relationship with a provider. Treatment of this syndrome needs to be looked at as an ongoing process. Goal oriented treatment aimed at maintaining specific functions can be directed at helping a patient get restorative sleep, alleviating the somatic pains that ail the patient, keeping a person productive, regulating schedules or through goal oriented agreements made with the patient. Since this syndrome is chronic and may effect all areas of a persons functioning the family and social support system of the person being treated need to be evaluated. Patients often seek alternative medical treatments for this problem including diet therapy, acupuncture, and herbal therapy. Treatment must involve more than just the symptoms presented and the patient can only be treated successfully if they are willing to work at changing their own perceptions, and ways of relating to stressors in their world.
Helfenstein Jr, Milton; Goldenfum, Marco Aurélio; Siena, César Augusto Fávaro
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome commonly observed in daily medical practice and its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. As it is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with several symptoms, FM may be confused with several other rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases when they course with pictures of diffuse pain and chronic fatigue. FM treatment should be multidisciplinary, individualized, count on active participation of the patient, and based on combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. It is found both in work and non-work settings, and there is no scientific evidence in the literature showing that FM might be caused by occupation. FM seldom leads to incapacity to work. In cases where pain or fatigue do not respond to appropriate treatment, reaching significant levels, a short period away from work can be considered. As FM is a relevant subject, this review article was based on exploratory, qualitative, and bibliographic investigation, aiming to study the main clinical and occupational aspects of FM, emphasizing the theoretical-conceptual background and the experience of specialists.
Madden, Sue; Sim, Julius
Gaining a diagnosis is considered to legitimate a person's illness, to both the self and the wider social world, while also giving hope that treatments, and possibly a cure, will be found. A further function of diagnosis from the patient's perspective is to give meaning to the illness experience, which is often uncertain and confusing. To do so, a diagnosis must itself have meaning. This paper explores the creation of meaning in a medically unexplained disorder, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Semi-structured interviews, in which the diagnostic process was explored, were conducted with 17 people diagnosed with FMS in the United Kingdom, selected from a hospital database (16 women, 1 man). Documentary analysis was also undertaken on information available from support groups and health professionals. Although initially an acceptable diagnosis to sufferers, FMS was viewed as a mysterious label, which provided no meaning at the time of diagnosis. The sought information was accessed in an attempt to resolve its meaninglessness, but this proved problematic due to the ambiguous definition of FMS within the medical and support group literature, the invisible nature of the illness, and the lack of an environment where these uncertainties could be openly discussed. Informants varied in the degree of longer-term acceptance of a diagnosis of FMS, in relation to the concordance they achieved between the diagnosis and their experience of illness.
Cymet, Tyler Childs
Fibromyalgia is the name given to a collection of symptoms with no clear physiologic cause, The constellation of symptoms are clearly recognizable as a distinct pathologic entity. The diagnosis is made through clinical observations made by the examiner. Differential diagnosis must include other somatic syndromes as well as disease entities like hepatitis, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. Diagnostic criteria are given as guidelines for the diagnosis, not as absolute requirements. Treatment of this condition remains individualized and relies heavily on having a therapeutic relationship with a provider. Treatment of this syndrome needs to be looked at as an ongoing process. Goal oriented treatment aimed at maintaining specific functions can be directed at helping a patient get restorative sleep, alleviating the somatic pains that ail the patient, keeping a person productive, regulating schedules or through goal oriented agreements made with the patient. Since this syndrome is chronic and may effect all areas of a persons functioning the family and social support system of the person being treated need to be evaluated. Patients often seek alternative medical treatments for this problem including diet therapy, acupuncture, and herbal therapy. Treatment must involve more than just the symptoms presented and the patient can only be treated successfully if they are willing to work at changing their own perceptions, and ways of relating to stressors in their world. PMID:12749618
Wood, Patrick B; Schweinhardt, Petra; Jaeger, Erik; Dagher, Alain; Hakyemez, Helene; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Bushnell, M Catherine; Chizh, Boris A
Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances. Accumulating evidence indicates that fibromyalgia may involve a dysfunction of modulatory systems in the brain. While brain dopamine is best known for its role in pleasure, motivation and motor control, recent evidence suggests that it is also involved in pain modulation. Because dopamine is implicated in both pain modulation and affective processing, we hypothesized that fibromyalgia may involve a disturbance of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Fibromyalgia patients and matched healthy control subjects were subjected to deep muscle pain produced by injection of hypertonic saline into the anterior tibialis muscle. In order to determine the endogenous release of dopamine in response to painful stimulation, we used positron emission tomography to examine binding of [(11)C]-raclopride (D2/D3 ligand) in the brain during injection of painful hypertonic saline and nonpainful normal saline. Fibromyalgia patients experienced the hypertonic saline as more painful than healthy control subjects. Control subjects released dopamine in the basal ganglia during the painful stimulation, whereas fibromyalgia patients did not. In control subjects, the amount of dopamine release correlated with the amount of perceived pain but in fibromyalgia patients no such correlation was observed. These findings provide the first direct evidence that fibromyalgia patients have an abnormal dopamine response to pain. The disrupted dopaminergic reactivity in fibromyalgia patients could be a critical factor underlying the widespread pain and discomfort in fibromyalgia and suggests that the therapeutic effects of dopaminergic treatments for this intractable disorder should be explored.
Sumpton, Janice E; Moulin, Dwight E
Fibromyalgia is a condition with widespread muscle pain. Prevalence studies showed that 2% to 7% of the population have fibromyalgia, which affects approximately one million Canadians. Fibromyalgia is most common in women, but it also involves men and children. As with most chronic illnesses, the causes of fibromyalgia are unknown. However, recent research supports underlying abnormalities in the central nervous system, which supports fibromyalgia as a chronic disease state and valid clinical entity. Pain is the primary symptom, often accompanied by overwhelming fatigue, sleep dysfunction and cognitive impairment. In 1990, the American College of Rheumatology developed diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Lifestyle changes, including pacing of activities and aerobic exercise, are very important in managing fibromyalgia symptoms. Emotional and behavioural therapy can also be helpful. Controlled trials of antidepressants, gabapentinoids, tramadol, zopiclone and sodium oxybate have shown effectiveness in fibromyalgia patients. Pregabalin and duloxetine were recently approved in the United States. Effective management of fibromyalgia is complex and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Response and tolerance of different therapeutic interventions vary from patient to patient. Recent advances in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia offer hope for new and improved therapies in the management of this disabling condition. PMID:19225604
Malani, Anurag N; Kerr, Lisa; Obear, Janet; Singal, Bonita; Kauffman, Carol A
Voriconazole was 1 of 2 antifungal agents recommended for treatment of fungal infections associated with injection of contaminated methylprednisolone. Alopecia and nail changes are not commonly reported side effects of voriconazole. Having noted increasing hair loss among our patients treated with voriconazole, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of alopecia associated with this agent. Patients who received voriconazole for at least 1 month for probable or confirmed fungal infection were eligible to complete a survey regarding alopecia and nail changes. For those patients who reported alopecia, additional questions about reversal of hair loss were asked after voriconazole had been stopped for at least 3 months. A total of 152 of 175 eligible patients (87%) completed the survey. One hundred twenty-five (82%) reported alopecia. Hair loss on the scalp was noted in 120 (96%), arms and legs in 52 (42%), and eyebrows and eyelashes in 47 each (38%). Nineteen patients (15%) reported wearing a wig or hat because of extensive hair loss. Alopecia developed a mean (standard deviation) of 75 (54) days after initiation of voriconazole. Of 114 patients who were off voriconazole for at least 3 months, hair loss had stopped in 94 (82%) and regrowth had begun in 79 (69%), including those who were changed to either itraconazole or posaconazole. Nail changes or loss occurred in 106 (70%) patients. Alopecia and nail changes were common adverse effects associated with voriconazole therapy during the multistate fungal outbreak. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hammerschmidt, Mariana; Mulinari Brenner, Fabiane
BACKGROUND Alopecia areata is a chronic disorder of the hair follicles and nails, of unknown etiology, with clear autoimmune components and genetic factors. Several therapeutic options have been suggested; however, no treatment is able to modify the disease course. Methotrexate is an immunosuppressant used in various dermatoses and recently introduced as a therapeutic option for alopecia areata. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and safety of methotrexate in alopecia areata. METHODS In a retrospective, non-controlled study, we evaluated 31 patients with alopecia areata in current or prior treatment with methotrexate to assess the therapeutic response according to sex, age, pattern of alopecia areata, disease duration, cumulative dose of methotrexate, use of systemic corticosteroids or other treatments, and drug safety. RESULTS Regrowth greater than 50% was observed in 67.7% of patients, with the best responses observed in those with <5 years of disease progression (79%), age over 40 years (73.3%), male patients (72.8%), cumulative dose of methotrexate 1000-1500 mg, and multifocal alopecia areata (93%). Among patients receiving systemic corticosteroids in combination with methotrexate, 77.3% had greater than 50% regrowth, compared with 44.4% in those who used methotrexate alone. The therapeutic dose ranged from 10-25 mg/week. No patient had serious adverse effects. Relapse was observed in 33.3% of patients with more than 50% regrowth. CONCLUSION Methotrexate appears to be a promising and safe medication for the treatment of severe alopecia areata when used alone or in combination with corticosteroids. PMID:25184911
Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Latif, Insha; Malik, Rauf; Hassan, Iffat; Sheikh, Gousia; Lone, Kouser Sideeq; Majeed, Sabiya; Sajad, Peerzada
Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated disease in which autoantigens play an important part in activating T-lymphocytes. Vitamin D has been associated with various autoimmune diseases, and Vitamin D receptors are strongly expressed in hair follicles and their expression in keratinocytes is necessary for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle. The aim of this study was to find the association between Vitamin D level and AA. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study in which 50 patients with clinically and trichoscopically diagnosed AA cases, and 35 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied in summer months. Blood samples were taken from both cases as well as controls and samples were immediately processed by centrifugation (4000 rpm) at room temperature. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analyzed by chemiluminescence method. A deficiency in Vitamin D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/ml. The mean body mass index in cases was 20.96 ± 1.91, whereas in controls, it was 21.37 ± 1.70 (P = 0.31). The mean serum 25(OH)D levels of AA patients was 16.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml, whereas in control group, the mean level was 40.5 ± 5.7, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between severity of alopecia tool score and Vitamin D level (P < 0.001; r = -0.730) and also between the number of patches and Vitamin D level (P < 0.001, r = -0.670). In our study, we found that the levels of 25(OH)D were low in AA patients when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum Vitamin D and severity of AA. Thus, the study suggests the role of Vitamin D in pathogenesis of AA and hence a possible role of Vitamin D supplementation in treatment of same. Our study was limited by the lesser number of patients and lack of therapeutic trial of Vitamin D for these patients.
Antoniou, Efstathios; Paraskeva, Panorea; Smyrnis, Anastasios; Konstantopoulos, Kostas
The coincidence of alopecia and a tumour may indicate the paraneoplastic nature of alopecia. Paraneoplastic alopecia is not uncommon in animals, feline paraneoplastic alopecia being the best example known. We present a case of alopecia coinciding with the presentation of a cholangiocarcinoma in a woman. Following surgical resection of the tumour, alopecia resolved spontaneously and it reappeared on local recurrence, 2 years later. As far as pathogenesis is concerned, the coincidence of alopecia and cholangiocarcinoma may indicate the paraneoplastic nature of alopecia as a rare complication of this rare tumour in humans. This also implies that common interspecies mechanism(s) must exist as far as this paraneoplastic complication is concerned. PMID:22717934
... for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) KidsHealth > For Teens > Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) ... people under age 17. What Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis? Arthritis doesn't affect young people as much ...
... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...
... disease that can cause attacks of arthritis. Like gout, crystals form in the joints. But in this ... CPPD arthritis can be confused with: Gouty arthritis (gout) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Exams and Tests Most arthritic ...
Offenbächer, M; Stucki, G
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by chronic wide spread pain, increased tenderness to palpation and additional symptoms such as disturbed sleep, stiffness, fatigue and psychological distress. While medication mainly focus on pain reduction, physical therapy is aimed at disease consequences such as pain, fatigue, deconditioning, muscle weakness and sleep disturbances and other disease consequences. We systematically reviewed current treatment options in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Based on evidence from randomized controlled trials cardiovascular fitness training importantly improves cardiovascular fitness, both subjective and objective measures of pain as well as subjective energy and work capacity and physical and social activities. Based on anecdotal evidence or small observational studies physiotherapy may reduce overloading of the muscle system, improve postural fatigue and positioning, and condition weak muscles. Modalities and whole body cryotherapy may reduce localized as well as generalized pain in short term. Trigger point injection may reduce pain originating from concomitant trigger points in selected FM patient. Massage may reduce muscle tension and may be prescribed as a adjunct with other therapeutic interventions. Acupuncture may reduce pain and increase pain threshold. Biofeedback may positively influence subjective and objective disease measures. TENS may reduce localized musculoskeletal pain in fibromyalgia. While there seems to be no single best treatment option, physical therapy seem to reduce disease consequences. Accordingly a multidisciplinary approach combining these therapies in a well balanced program may be the most promising strategy and is currently recommended in the treatment of fibromyalgia.
Bellato, Enrico; Marini, Eleonora; Castoldi, Filippo; Barbasetti, Nicola; Mattei, Lorenzo; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Blonna, Davide
Fibromyalgia syndrome is mainly characterized by pain, fatigue, and sleep disruption. The etiology of fibromyalgia is still unclear: if central sensitization is considered to be the main mechanism involved, then many other factors, genetic, immunological, and hormonal, may play an important role. The diagnosis is typically clinical (there are no laboratory abnormalities) and the physician must concentrate on pain and on its features. Additional symptoms (e.g., Raynaud's phenomenon, irritable bowel disease, and heat and cold intolerance) can be associated with this condition. A careful differential diagnosis is mandatory: fibromyalgia is not a diagnosis of exclusion. Since 1990, diagnosis has been principally based on the two major diagnostic criteria defined by the ACR. Recently, new criteria have been proposed. The main goals of the treatment are to alleviate pain, increase restorative sleep, and improve physical function. A multidisciplinary approach is optimal. While most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids have limited benefit, an important role is played by antidepressants and neuromodulating antiepileptics: currently duloxetine (NNT for a 30% pain reduction 7.2), milnacipran (NNT 19), and pregabalin (NNT 8.6) are the only drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia. In addition, nonpharmacological treatments should be associated with drug therapy. PMID:23213512
Glycolysis was studied in people with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), hypothyroidism (HO), chronic osteoarticular pain (OACP), and normal control subjects. Comparisons between the controls and the three study groups revealed increased pyruvate and increased lactate (L) production in FMS and HO; decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in FMS only; and no glycolytic impairment in OACP.
Sollecito, Thomas P; Stoopler, Eric T; DeRossi, Scott S; Silverton, Susan
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and fibromyalgia (FM) are two clinical conditions prevalent in today's society. Many individuals suffer from chronic pain in various muscle groups, including the muscles of mastication. Previously, TMDs and FM were thought to be separate, unrelated clinical entities. New research has shown a possible link between the two conditions; this article sheds light on possible correlations between them.
Chinn, Steven; Caldwell, William; Gritsenko, Karina
This review article presents and summarizes up-to-date literature on the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment options for fibromyalgia patients. First, the most recent diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia, as put forth by the American College of Rheumatology will be summarized. Clinical features, including chronic widespread pain, hyperalgesia, mood disorders, anxiety, and disturbed sleep patterns will be explored in-depth. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of fibromyalgia involves alterations in multiple ascending and descending central nervous system pathways, as well as peripheral pathways, leading to heightened pain sensitivity. Risk factors have been studied extensively, and the most recent research focuses on various genetic influences and the contributions of stress and poor sleep. Lastly, the discussion in this article focuses on treatment options for fibromyalgia; some have been mainstay options for many years. Pharmacological agents include tricyclic antidepressants, anti-epileptic drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitors, as well as some investigational agents. The evidence behind non-pharmacologic treatments, including massage therapy, exercise, and acupuncture, are discussed.
Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that has been approved for use in combination with other retroviral agents in the treatment of HIV infection. Common adverse reactions include headache, fatigue, nausea, and rash. A fatal hypersensitivity reaction may occur in 5% of patients receiving abacavir; therefore, screening for HLA-B5701 should be performed before starting abacavir. Alopecia areata (AA) is infrequently reported in HIV-infected patients. Certain underlying conditions have been associated with AA, including a decreased CD4:CD8 ratio related to the progression of HIV infection, some opportunistic infections, and syphilis. Several antiretroviral drugs, such as zidovudine, indinavir, indinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and atazanavir/ritonavir have been implicated in the development of AA. At present, the occurrence of AA has not been associated with abacavir use. We cannot exclude that the use of abacavir and the development of AA could be coincidental. Nevertheless, patients given abacavir should be monitored for hair loss and the drug discontinued promptly if such signs appear. PMID:25024872
Kim, Hee-Sung; Shin, Hyoung-Shik
Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that has been approved for use in combination with other retroviral agents in the treatment of HIV infection. Common adverse reactions include headache, fatigue, nausea, and rash. A fatal hypersensitivity reaction may occur in 5% of patients receiving abacavir; therefore, screening for HLA-B5701 should be performed before starting abacavir. Alopecia areata (AA) is infrequently reported in HIV-infected patients. Certain underlying conditions have been associated with AA, including a decreased CD4:CD8 ratio related to the progression of HIV infection, some opportunistic infections, and syphilis. Several antiretroviral drugs, such as zidovudine, indinavir, indinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and atazanavir/ritonavir have been implicated in the development of AA. At present, the occurrence of AA has not been associated with abacavir use. We cannot exclude that the use of abacavir and the development of AA could be coincidental. Nevertheless, patients given abacavir should be monitored for hair loss and the drug discontinued promptly if such signs appear.
The IFAP syndrome is a rare X-linked genetic disorder reported in nearly 40 patients. It is characterized by the triad of Ichthyosis Follicularis, Alopecia, and Photophobia from birth. Other features such as short stature, intellectual disability, and seizures may develop in the first few years of life. Skin histopathology is non-specific and consists of dilated hair follicles with keratin plugs extending above the surface of the skin, decreased or absent sebaceous glands, and decreased desmosomes in number and size. The disorder results from mutations in the MBTPS2 gene that impairs cholesterol homeostasis and the ability to cope with endoplasmic reticulum stress. Follicular hyperkeratosis can be treated using topical keratolytics, emollients and urea preparations. A moderate response to acitretin therapy has been noted in some patients. Intensive lubrication of the ocular surface is essential. Life expectancy in patients with IFAP syndrome can vary from death in the neonatal period to normal surviving. Cardiopulmonary complications remain the major cause of death. PMID:21600032
Bello-Gutiérrez, Joaquín; Suzán, Gerardo; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea G; Salas, Gerardo
We report alopecic syndrome (hair loss in areas of the body, including chest, abdomen, and back) in four frugivorous bat species (Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, and Sturnira ludovici) within urban and periurban areas of Villahermosa, Tabasco, México, during 2007 and 2008. The overall prevalence of alopecic syndrome was 5.25% (135/2,567 bats). The highest prevalence was found in A. lituratus (5.6%; 62/1,105), followed by A. jamaicensis (5%; 3/1,462). We found a higher prevalence in the dry season, when more than 90% of the alopecic individuals (n=122) were captured. Higher prevalence of alopecia was recorded in urban areas (80% of captured alopecic bats, n=108) than in periurban areas (20%, n=27). Histopathologic studies revealed no evidence of infectious agents. The syndrome may be related to nutritional or endocrinal deficiencies. Spatial and seasonal aggregation in urban areas suggests that anthropogenic activities may interfere with nutritional processes. Further studies are needed to confirm the etiology of the syndrome as well as its impact on population dynamics. This is the first report of alopecic syndrome in sylvatic bats.
Context: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a frequent disorder characterized by progressive hair miniaturization in a very similar pattern among all affected men. The pathogenesis is related to androgen-inducible overexpression of transforming growth factor β-1 from balding dermal papilla cells, which is involved in epithelial inhibition and perifollicular fibrosis. Recent research shows that hair follicle androgen sensitivity is regulated by Hic-5, an androgen receptor co-activator which may be activated by the mechanical stimulation. Moreover, the dermis of scalp susceptible to be affected by AGA is firmly bounded to the galea aponeurotica, so the physical force exerted by the occipitofrontalis muscle is transmitted to the scalp skin. Aims: To know whether mechanical stress supported by hair follicles is involved in AGA phenomenon. Materials and Methods: It is performed with a finite element analysis of a galea model and a schematic representation of AGA progression according to Hamilton–Norwood scale in order to establish the correlation between elastic deformation in scalp and clinical progression of male pattern baldness. Results: The result was a highly significant correlation (r: −0.885, P < 0.001) that clearly identifies a mechanical factor in AGA development. Conclusions: All these data suggest that mechanical stress determines AGA patterning and a stretch-induced and androgen-mediated mechanotransduction in dermal papilla cells could be the primary mechanism in AGA pathogenesis. PMID:26622151
Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Handjani, Farhad; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Kalafi, Amir
Background. Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the hair follicle. The exact pathogenesis of AA remains unknown, although recent studies support a T-cell mediated autoimmune process. On the other hand, some studies have proposed that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may play a role in autoimmunity. Therefore, we assessed serum activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a component of this system, in AA. Methods. ACE activity was measured in the sera of 19 patients with AA and 16 healthy control subjects. In addition, the relationship between severity and duration of the disease and ACE activity was evaluated. Results. Serum ACE activity was higher in the patient group (55.81 U/L) compared to the control group (46.41 U/L), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.085). Also, there was no correlation between ACE activity and severity (P = 0.13) and duration of disease (P = 0.25) in the patient group. Conclusion. The increased serum ACE activity found in this study may demonstrate local involvement of the RAAS in the pathogenesis of AA. Assessment of ACE in a study with a larger sample size as well as in tissue samples is recommended in order to further evaluate the possible role of RAAS in AA. PMID:25349723
Mackay-Wiggan, Julian; Nguyen, Nhan; Cerise, Jane E.; Clark, Charlotte; Ulerio, Grace; Furniss, Megan; Vaughan, Roger; Clynes, Raphael
BACKGROUND. Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease with a lifetime risk of 1.7%; there are no FDA-approved treatments for AA. We previously identified a dominant IFN-γ transcriptional signature in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in human and mouse AA skin and showed that treatment with JAK inhibitors induced durable hair regrowth in mice by targeting this pathway. Here, we investigated the use of the oral JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib in the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe AA. METHODS. We initiated an open-label clinical trial of 12 patients with moderate-to-severe AA, using oral ruxolitinib, 20 mg twice per day, for 3–6 months of treatment followed by 3 months follow-up off drug. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects with 50% or greater hair regrowth from baseline to end of treatment. RESULTS. Nine of twelve patients (75%) demonstrated a remarkable response to treatment, with average hair regrowth of 92% at the end of treatment. Safety parameters remained largely within normal limits, and no serious adverse effects were reported. Gene expression profiling revealed treatment-related downregulation of inflammatory markers, including signatures for CTLs and IFN response genes and upregulation of hair-specific markers. CONCLUSION. In this pilot study, 9 of 12 patients (75%) treated with ruxolitinib showed significant scalp hair regrowth and improvement of AA. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess the safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib in the treatment of AA. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01950780. FUNDING. Locks of Love Foundation, the Alopecia Areata Initiative, NIH/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), and the Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research/Columbia University Medical Center Clinical and Translational Science Award (CUMC CTSA). PMID:27699253
... following conditions increase your risk for septic arthritis: Artificial joint implants Bacterial infection somewhere else in your body Presence of bacteria in your blood Chronic illness or disease (such as diabetes, rheumatoid ...
Cooper, Tess E; Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Moore, R Andrew
This review replaces part of an earlier review that evaluated gabapentin for both neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia, now split into separate reviews for the two conditions. This review will consider pain in fibromyalgia only.Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain lasting longer than three months, and is frequently associated with symptoms such as poor sleep, fatigue, depression, and reduced quality of life. Fibromyalgia is more common in women.Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug widely licensed for treatment of neuropathic pain. It is not licensed for the treatment of fibromyalgia, but is commonly used because fibromyalgia can respond to the same medicines as neuropathic pain. To assess the analgesic efficacy of gabapentin for fibromyalgia pain in adults and the adverse events associated with its use in clinical trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online, MEDLINE via Ovid and Embase via Ovid from inception to 24 May 2016. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, and searched online clinical trial registries. Randomised, double-blind trials of eight weeks' duration or longer for treating fibromyalgia pain in adults, comparing gabapentin with placebo or an active comparator. Two independent review authors extracted data and assessed trial quality and risk of bias. We planned to use dichotomous data to calculate risk ratio and number needed to treat for one additional event, using standard methods. We assessed the evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) and created a 'Summary of findings' table. Two studies tested gabapentin to treat fibromyalgia pain. One was identified in previous versions of the review and is included here. We identified another study as a conference abstract, with insufficient detail to determine eligibility for inclusion; it is awaiting assessment. The one included study of 150
This article provides insight into the growth cycle of a hair follicle and the potential impact chemotherapy agents can have on this process, which often results in hair loss (alopecia). It explores the psychological consequences of chemotherapy-induced alopecia for an individual as a result of the perceptions of others as well as an individual's perception of his or her self-image. Despite the development of various forms of scalp cooling, chemotherapy-induced alopecia remains a major side effect for patients receiving chemotherapy; however, there have been improvements in wig provision and changing public opinion relating to baldness. Although chemotherapy-induced alopecia affects both males and females and all age groups, this article focuses on the potential impact for patients receiving chemotherapy as a form of treatment for breast cancer. As professionals we need to understand the social significance of hair in relation to a person's outward presentation and social interactions, along with the possible psychological implications of a person losing his or her bodily hair, and not just the head hair. We must aim to minimize the distress alopecia can cause by: ensuring we provide patients with up-to-date verbal and written information to enable them to prepare for losing their hair; helping them to preserve their self-image and minimize the psychological consequences of hair loss while receiving chemotherapy; and preparing them for their hair re-growth following completion of chemotherapy.
Perper, Marina; Aldahan, Adam S; Fayne, Rachel A; Emerson, Christopher P; Nouri, Keyvan
Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss. While less is known about the effectiveness of fractional lasers for combating hair loss, research suggests that by creating microscopic thermal injury zones, fractional lasers may cause an increase in hair growth from a wound healing process, making them potential therapeutic options for alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of fractional lasers on hair regrowth. The specific fractional laser therapies include the 1550-nm nonablative fractional erbium-glass laser, the ablative fractional 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser, and the ablative fractional CO2 fractional laser. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of the lasers, as well as to establish appropriate parameters and treatment intervals.
Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P
Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic generalized pain accompanied by a wide range of clinical manifestations. Most clinical practice guidelines recommend multidisciplinary treatment using a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline has been most thoroughly studied in fibromyalgia. Amitriptyline has been evaluated in placebo-controlled studies, and it has served as an active comparator to other therapeutic interventions in the treatment of fibromyalgia. In addition, several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated its efficacy and safety for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Data from individual studies as well as from systematic reviews indicate that low doses (10-75 mg/day) of amitriptyline are effective for the treatment of fibromyalgia and, despite the limited quality of the data, they do not seem to be associated with relevant tolerability or safety issues. Consistent with some clinical guidelines, we believe amitriptyline in low doses should be considered a first-line drug for the treatment of fibromyalgia.
Monselise, Assaf; Bar-On, Reuven; Chan, Lisa; Leibushor, Naama; McElwee, Kevin; Shapiro, Jerry
Emotional stress has been associated with the development of alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Emotional intelligence (EI), a component of general intelligence, is thought to govern the recognition, expression, and control of stress and other emotions. People with low EI are unable to adequately control stress in everyday life. To investigate EI differences between AA and AGA patients and a control population. Thirty-five AGA patients and 42 AA patients, with patchy (n = 28), ophiasis (n = 5), totalis (n = 5), and universalis (n = 4) distribution of hair loss, completed a 133-item Emotional Quotient-Inventory (EQ-I ) psychometric assessment. Scores were compared between AA, AGA, and 77 control subjects obtained from the North American normative population sample on which the psychometric instrument was normed. Statistically significant differences were found in EI between AA patients and controls with the EQ-I Stress Tolerance scale (p = .005). AGA patients also differed significantly from the controls but to a lesser degree compared toAA patients. In overall EI, there were no apparent differences between AGA and AA patients. AA and AGA patients exhibit a mild depressive reaction to their condition, with AA patients demonstrating a significantly stronger deficiency in coping with stress than AGA patients. The data support a psychosomatic contribution to AA. Referral of patients for EI assessment and psychosocial counseling could help reduce stress.
Fawzi, Marwa M T; Mahmoud, Sara B; Shaker, Olfat G; Saleh, Marwah A
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the commonest form of hair loss in men. Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease. Studies revealed that Dickkopf 1 (DKK-1), a powerful suppressor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, induced anagen-to-catagen transition in mice. Moreover, in vitro studies suggested that DKK-1 played a role in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced balding. To evaluate the tissue levels of DKK-1 in patients with AGA and AA, to assess its possible role as a pathogenetic mechanism in both disorders. This study included 24 patients with AGA, 31 patients with AA, and 33 healthy controls. Scalp biopsies were taken from all participants for the detection of tissue DKK-1 levels. Tissue DKK-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with AGA than in controls (P = 0.000) as well as in patients with AA than in controls (P = 0.001). In addition, they were significantly higher in patients with AGA than in patients with AA (P = 0.000). DKK-1 was higher in male than in female patients with AGA. DKK-1 was negatively correlated with disease duration in AGA. In conclusion, this study suggests an important role for DKK-1 in the pathogenesis of AGA and AA through documenting higher tissue DKK-1 levels in patients with both hair disorders compared to controls and suggests that DKK-1 may be a promising therapeutic target for these hair diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fawzi, Marwa M T; Mahmoud, Sara Bahaa; Ahmed, Shereen Fathi; Shaker, Olfat Gamil
Alopecia areata (AA) is a frequent autoimmune disease, the pathogenesis of which is still unknown. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a noncicatricial type of patterned hair loss. Expression of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) on keratinocytes is essential for maintenance of normal hair cycle, especially anagen initiation. To assess VDRs in the skin and blood of AA and AGA patients, in order to evaluate their possible role in these hair diseases. This study recruited 20 patients with AA, 20 patients with AGA, and 20 healthy controls. Blood samples and lesional scalp biopsies were taken from all participants for detection of VDR levels. Serum and tissue VDR levels were lower in AA as well as AGA patients when compared to controls (P = 0.000). Serum and tissue VDR were positively correlated in each group. Tissue VDR was significantly lower in female patients with AA than males (P = 0.046) although serum and tissue VDR levels were significantly higher in female AGA patients than males (P = 0.004). This study suggests an important role for VDR in the pathogenesis of AA and AGA through documenting lower serum and tissue VDR levels in AA and AGA patients in comparison with controls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gilula, Marshall F
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, insomnia and a great variety of different rheumatologic and neurological symptoms that often resemble multiple sclerosis, dysautonomias, chronic fatigue syndrome and others. However, despite long-standing criteria from the American College of Rheumatology for FM, some physicians believe there is probably no single homogeneous condition that can be labeled as FM. Whether it is a disease, a syndrome or something else, sufferers feel like they are living one disaster after another. Active self-involvement in care usually enhances the therapeutic results of various treatments and also improves the patient's sense of being in control of the condition. D-ribose supplementation may prove to significantly enhance energy, sleep, mental clarity, pain control and well-being in FM patients. A form of evoked potential biofeedback, the EPFX, is a powerful stress reduction technique which assesses the chief stressors and risk factors for illness that can impede the FM patient's built-in healing abilities. Future healthcare will likely expand the diagnostic criteria of FM and/or illuminate a group of related conditions and the ways in which the conditions relate to each other. Future medicine for FM and related conditions may increasingly involve multimodality treatment that features CES as one significant part of the therapeutic regimen. Future medicine may also include CES as an invaluable, cost-effective add-on to many facets of clinical pharmacology and medical therapeutics.
Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Ming-Chia; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Ji-An; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung
Several studies have investigated the relationship between alopecia and prostate cancer. However, little information is available regarding the relationship between alopecia and the risk of cancers in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible association between alopecia and thyroid cancer among Taiwanese women. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. The alopecia cohort comprised 4534 women, and each woman was randomly frequency matched by age, index month, and index year with 4 women from the general population without alopecia. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with Bonferroni correction was conducted to estimate the effects of alopecia on the risk of thyroid cancer. In women with alopecia, the overall risk for developing cancer was 22% higher than for subjects without alopecia, but the difference was not significant [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.22, 97.5% confidence interval (97.5% CI) = 0.87-1.70]. However, the risk for developing thyroid cancer among women with alopecia was significantly higher (HR = 2.39, 97.5% CI = 1.05-5.42). Further analyses determined that the alopecia group had a higher incidence of Graves' disease, but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Although alopecia did not significantly increase cancer risks in women, we found that Taiwanese women with alopecia had a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer that is unlikely to be related to underlying thyroid diseases. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marks, Michael; Marks, Jonathan L
Acute-onset arthritis is a common clinical problem facing both the general clinician and the rheumatologist. A viral aetiology is though to be responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of acute arthritis with a wide range of causal agents recognised. The epidemiology of acute viral arthritis continues to evolve, with some aetiologies, such as rubella, becoming less common due to vaccination, while some vector-borne viruses have become more widespread. A travel history therefore forms an important part of the assessment of patients presenting with an acute arthritis. Worldwide, parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and the alphaviruses are among the most important causes of virally mediated arthritis. Targeted serological testing may be of value in establishing a diagnosis, and clinicians must also be aware that low-titre autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, can occur in the context of acute viral arthritis. A careful consideration of epidemiological, clinical and serological features is therefore required to guide clinicians in making diagnostic and treatment decisions. While most virally mediated arthritides are self-limiting some warrant the initiation of specific antiviral therapy. PMID:27037381
Bramwell, Bethany L
Understanding the role of the sex hormones in the pain mechanisms and various effects on nociceptors is imperative to managing potential underlying hormone disruptions in chronic pain syndromes. The myriad of overlapping symptoms between mid-life hormone imbalances and mid-life onset of fibromyalgia syndrome in women indicates a role for sex hormones in the etiology of fibromyalgia syndrome, which is, as of yet, unsupported by the literature. However, fibromyalgia treatment should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient, and adrenal, thyroid, and ovarian hormone support can lessen the painful burden of fibromyalgia through the modulation of various hormone-regulated pain-production pathways.
Adler-Neal, Adrienne L; Zeidan, Fadel
Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread pain and a spectrum of psychological comorbidities, rendering treatment difficult and often a financial burden. Fibromyalgia is a complicated chronic pain condition that requires a multimodal therapeutic approach to optimize treatment efficacy. Thus, it has been postulated that mind-body techniques may prove fruitful in treating fibromyalgia. Mindfulness meditation, a behavioral technique premised on non-reactive sensory awareness, attenuates pain and improves mental health outcomes. However, the impact of mindfulness meditation on fibromyalgia-related outcomes has not been comprehensively characterized. The present review delineates the existing evidence supporting the effectiveness and hypothesized mechanisms of mindfulness meditation in treating fibromyalgia-related outcomes. Mindfulness-based interventions premised on cultivating acceptance, non-attachment, and social engagement may be most effective in decreasing fibromyalgia-related pain and psychological symptoms. Mindfulness-based therapies may alleviate fibromyalgia-related outcomes through multiple neural, psychological, and physiological processes. Mindfulness meditation may provide an effective complementary treatment approach for fibromyalgia patients, especially when combined with other reliable techniques (exercise; cognitive behavioral therapy). However, characterizing the specific analgesic mechanisms supporting mindfulness meditation is a critical step to fostering the clinical validity of this technique. Identification of the specific analgesic mechanisms supporting mindfulness-based pain relief could be utilized to better design behavioral interventions to specifically target fibromyalgia-related outcomes.
Bennett, Robert M; Friend, Ronald; Jones, Kim D; Ward, Rachel; Han, Bobby K; Ross, Rebecca L
Introduction The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) is a commonly used instrument in the evaluation of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Over the last 18 years, since the publication of the original FIQ, several deficiencies have become apparent and the cumbersome scoring algorithm has been a barrier to widespread clinical use. The aim of this paper is to describe and validate a revised version of the FIQ: the FIQR. Methods The FIQR was developed in response to known deficiencies of the FIQ with the help of a patient focus group. The FIQR has the same 3 domains as the FIQ (that is, function, overall impact and symptoms). It differs from the FIQ in having modified function questions and the inclusion of questions on memory, tenderness, balance and environmental sensitivity. All questions are graded on a 0–10 numeric scale. The FIQR was administered online and the results were compared to the same patient's online responses to the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the original FIQ. Results The FIQR was completed online by 202 FM patients, 51 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (31 RA and 20 SLE), 11 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 213 healthy controls (HC). The mean total FIQR score was 56.6 ± 19.9 compared to a total FIQ score of 60.6 ± 17.8 (P < 0.03). The total scores of the FIQR and FIQ were closely correlated (r = 0.88, P < 0.001). Each of the 3 domains of the FIQR correlated well with the 3 related FIQ domains (r = 0.69 to 0.88, P < 0.01). The FIQR showed good correlation with comparable domains in the SF-36, with a multiple regression analysis showing that the three FIQR domain scores predicted the 8 SF-36 subscale scores. The FIQR had good discriminant ability between FM and the 3 other groups; total FIQR scores were HC (12.1 ± 11.6), RA/SLE (28.6 ± 21.2) and MDD (17.3 ± 11.8). The patient completion time was 1.3 minutes; scoring took about 1 minute. Conclusions The FIQR is an updated
Warner, Amelia W
Alopecia areata, alopecia totalis, and alopecia universalis likely represent a constellation of related diseases with similar, yet distinct heritability markers. There is currently no known curative therapy that works universally for all patients. Pharmacogenomic research enables the pharmaceutical industry to understand variability of patient responses to drugs during clinical drug development and during post-marketing surveillance. Understanding the genetic basis for patient response/non-response can enable the development of individualized therapies for those patients with an inherited basis for altered response to drug therapy. There are multiple examples of drugs that now contain a recommendation for genetic testing before dosing in their drug labels, directing clinicians to obtain genetic information for each individual patient in order to help direct drug therapy.
Duvic, M; Lemak, N A; Valero, V; Hymes, S R; Farmer, K L; Hortobagyi, G N; Trancik, R J; Bandstra, B A; Compton, L D
Hair loss is a side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents, and patients have even refused possibly palliative or lifesaving drugs because they could not accept temporary or prolonged baldness. Topical minoxidil has been shown to be effective for androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. Our purpose was to investigate the value and safety of minoxidil in chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Twenty-two women who were facing adjuvant chemotherapy after breast surgery were registered in a protocol that used a 2% minoxidil topical solution or a placebo in a randomized double-blind trial. There was a statistically significant difference (favoring minoxidil) in the interval from maximal hair loss to first regrowth. Thus the period of baldness was shortened (mean, 50.2 days) in the minoxidil group. Minoxidil decreased the duration of alopecia caused by chemotherapy. There were no significant side effects.
Jimenez, Joaquin J.; Roberts, Stephen M.; Mejia, Jessica; Mauro, Lucia M.; Munson, John W.; Elgart, George W.; Connelly, Elizabeth Alvarez; Chen, Qingbin; Zou, Jiangying; Goldenberg, Carlos
Alopecia (hair loss) is experienced by thousands of cancer patients every year. Substantial-to-severe alopecia is induced by anthracyclines (e.g., adriamycin), taxanes (e.g., taxol), alkylating compounds (e.g., cyclophosphamide), and the topisomerase inhibitor etoposide, agents that are widely used in the treatment of leukemias and breast, lung, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Currently, no treatment appears to be generally effective in reliably preventing this secondary effect of chemotherapy. We observed in experiments using different rodent models that localized administration of heat or subcutaneous/intradermal injection of geldanamycin or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induced a stress protein response in hair follicles and effectively prevented alopecia from adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, taxol, and etoposide. Model tumor therapy experiments support the presumption that such localized hair-saving treatment does not negatively affect chemotherapy efficacy. PMID:18347939
Wang, Etienne; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Hee, Tan Hiok
We report a series of four patients who presented with complaints of diffuse non-scarring alopecia. They had similar clinical features of alopecia, hyperseborrhea, and distinct keratinaceous hair casts that encircled the hair shafts. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated from two of the patients’ scalp, and Gram-positive, Giemsa-positive bacteria were seen in the hair follicles in the scalp biopsy of one of the patients. The patients’ symptoms did not respond to standard treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, but responded to a course of systemic antibiotics targeting P. acnes. We propose a role for P. acnes colonization of the terminal hair follicles in the pathogenesis of hair casts, and possibly diffuse non-scarring alopecia. Possible mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed with a literature review. PMID:23180917
Iamsumang, Wimolsiri; Sriphojanart, Tueboon; Suchonwanit, Poonkiat
Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, and relatively common inflammatory dermatologic condition, which demonstrates various clinical manifestations including hair loss. It was once believed that alopecia was not a presentation of scalp psoriasis, but it is now widely accepted that psoriatic alopecia exists. Although the majority of patients get hair regrowth, it can potentially lead to permanent hair loss. Herein, we report a case of 26-year-old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with scalp hair loss and nonpruritic scaly plaques on the scalp. Her clinical presentation, dermoscopic, and histopathologic findings were consistent with psoriatic alopecia. Additionally, we also described a novel scalp dermoscopic pattern of “patchy dotted vessels” which we detected in the lesion of scalp psoriasis. PMID:28611622
Belum, V R; Marulanda, K; Ensslin, C; Gorcey, L; Parikh, T; Wu, S; Busam, K J; Gerber, P A; Lacouture, M E
The introduction of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies presents new challenges, among which dermatologic adverse events are noteworthy. Alopecia in particular is frequently reported, but the true incidence is not known. We sought to ascertain the incidence and risk of developing alopecia during treatment with approved inhibitors of oncogenic pathways and molecules [anaplastic lymphoma kinase, breakpoint cluster region-abelson, B-rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, Janus kinase, MAPK/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) Kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, smoothened, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet derived growth factor receptor; proteasomes; CD20, CD30, CD52]. Electronic database (PubMed, Web of Science) and ASCO meeting abstract searches were conducted to identify clinical trials reporting alopecia. Meta-analysis was conducted utilizing fixed- or random-effects models. The calculated overall incidence of all-grade alopecia was 14.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6% to 17.2%]-lowest with bortezomib, 2.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 10.9%), and highest with vismodegib, 56.9% (95% CI 50.5% to 63.1%). There was an increased risk of all-grade alopecia [relative risk (RR), 7.9 (95% CI 6.2-10.09, P ≤ 0.01)] compared with placebo, but when compared with chemotherapy, the risk was lower [RR, 0.32 (95% CI 0.2-0.55, P ≤ 0.01)]. Targeted therapies are associated with an increased risk of alopecia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Belum, V. R.; Marulanda, K.; Ensslin, C.; Gorcey, L.; Parikh, T.; Wu, S.; Busam, K. J.; Gerber, P. A.; Lacouture, M. E.
Background The introduction of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies presents new challenges, among which dermatologic adverse events are noteworthy. Alopecia in particular is frequently reported, but the true incidence is not known. Patients and methods We sought to ascertain the incidence and risk of developing alopecia during treatment with approved inhibitors of oncogenic pathways and molecules [anaplastic lymphoma kinase, breakpoint cluster region-abelson, B-rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, Janus kinase, MAPK/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) Kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, smoothened, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet derived growth factor receptor; proteasomes; CD20, CD30, CD52]. Electronic database (PubMed, Web of Science) and ASCO meeting abstract searches were conducted to identify clinical trials reporting alopecia. Meta-analysis was conducted utilizing fixed- or random-effects models. Results The calculated overall incidence of all-grade alopecia was 14.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6% to 17.2%]—lowest with bortezomib, 2.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 10.9%), and highest with vismodegib, 56.9% (95% CI 50.5% to 63.1%). There was an increased risk of all-grade alopecia [relative risk (RR), 7.9 (95% CI 6.2–10.09, P ≤ 0.01)] compared with placebo, but when compared with chemotherapy, the risk was lower [RR, 0.32 (95% CI 0.2–0.55, P ≤ 0.01)]. Conclusions Targeted therapies are associated with an increased risk of alopecia. PMID:26387145
Modjtahedi, Bobeck S; Kishan, Amar U; Schwab, Ivan R; Jackson, W Bruce; Maibach, Howard I
To characterize the clinical presentations, features, and outcomes of eyelash alopecia areata. Retrospective chart review of patients evaluated for eyelash loss and found to have eyelash alopecia areata. A 3-year follow-up was required. The study involved 15 patients. Patients who presented at a tertiary care eye clinic for evaluation of eyelash loss and were found to have eyelash alopecia areata were reviewed. Demographic considerations were categorized; they included age at presentation, areas of other hair loss, other relevant history, and treatment responses. Patients were young (mean age 18 years) and had a large female predominance (female-to-male ratio, 14:1). Concurrent scalp and brow involvement, either in isolation (20% and 13%, respectively) or together (13%), were seen in half of the patients (46%). Upper eyelid involvement was more common and severe than lower eyelid involvement, and 40% of patients experienced complete regrowth of lashes, with a mean time to regrowth of 28 months (range, 6 to 60 months). Of these, 13% experienced partial regrowth. Younger age at presentation was associated with regrowth, whereas presence or absence of other involved sites, personal or family histories of atopy, family history of alopecia, other autoimmune diseases, or the use of topical steroids did not appear to affect prognosis. Eyelash alopecia areata is a unique entity, although it remains potentially underdiagnosed. The key differential diagnosis is trichotillomania, which is commonly associated with obsessive-compulsive disorders. The presence of exclamation-mark hairs in alopecia areata plays an important role in differentiating the 2 diagnoses. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Appell, M L; Sherertz, E F
Three members of a family with numerous ectodermal abnormalities are described. These anomalies primarily include patchy alopecia beginning in childhood, premature cataracts, widespread keratosis pilaris, and psoriasis. The alopecia and premature cataracts appear to follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with incomplete penetrance and appear to be linked. Psoriasis also occurs in several members of this family and probably represents a separate but possibly related genodermatosis. This kindred has features of both keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans and ichthyosis follicularis, and the disorder seems to fit into the group of follicular hyperkeratosis disorders.
Lazzarini, Rosana; Oliari, Camila Bilac; Erthal, Ana Luisa Nasser
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scaring hair loss. The onset in over 50-year-old patients is rare and has barely been studied. Cases of this disease have been retrospectively analyzed – according to clinical forms, extension, and associated diseases – to assess alopecia areata characteristics in a group of patients whose disease onset was after the age of 50. 30 patients were studied; a few of them presented with autoimmune-related diseases or family history. The disease onset after the age of 50 seems to have different characteristics from those found in young people. PMID:28099618
Tsiskarishvili, N V; Tsiskarishvili, Ts I
The genetic background and some environmental factors have been reported as cause of hair growth disturbances. The damage of the biological rhythm of hair growth causes the decrease of length of phase and stunted hair growth, leading to diffuse alopecia. The scheme of hair loss treatment, by means of preparations affecting pathogenetical mechanisms of diffuse hair loss development is offered. The clinical evaluation of hair post treatment condition is given as well. The clinical study has shown high therapeutic efficacy of proposed scheme for treatment of patients, suffer from "acute, chronic diffuse hair loss", androgenetical alopecia. Authors conclude that proposed scheme allows obtaining marked results.
Saggar, Vishal; Wu, Shenhong; Dickler, Maura N.
Background. Whereas the frequency of alopecia to cytotoxic chemotherapies has been well described, the incidence of alopecia during endocrine therapies (i.e., anti-estrogens, aromatase inhibitors) has not been investigated. Endocrine agents are widely used in the treatment and prevention of many solid tumors, principally those of the breast and prostate. Adherence to these therapies is suboptimal, in part because of toxicities. We performed a systematic analysis of the literature to ascertain the incidence and risk for alopecia in patients receiving endocrine therapies. Methods. An independent search of citations was conducted using the PubMed database for all literature as of February 2013. Phase II–III studies using the terms “tamoxifen,” “toremifene,” “raloxifene,” “anastrozole,” “letrozole,” “exemestane,” “fulvestrant,” “leuprolide,” “flutamide,” “bicalutamide,” “nilutamide,” “fluoxymesterone,” “estradiol,” “octreotide,” “megestrol,” “medroxyprogesterone acetate,” “enzalutamide,” and “abiraterone” were searched. Results. Data from 19,430 patients in 35 clinical trials were available for analysis. Of these, 13,415 patients had received endocrine treatments and 6,015 patients served as controls. The incidence of all-grade alopecia ranged from 0% to 25%, with an overall incidence of 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.3%–5.9%). The highest incidence of all-grade alopecia was observed in patients treated with tamoxifen in a phase II trial (25.4%); similarly, the overall incidence of grade 2 alopecia by meta-analysis was highest with tamoxifen (6.4%). The overall relative risk of alopecia in comparison with placebo was 12.88 (p < .001), with selective estrogen receptor modulators having the highest risk. Conclusion. Alopecia is a common yet underreported adverse event of endocrine-based cancer therapies. Their long-term use heightens the importance of this condition on patients' quality of life
Aşık, Mehmet; Binnetoğlu, Emine; Şen, Hacer; Tekeli, Zeliha; Uysal, Fatma; Ukinç, Kubilay
Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the most common autoimmune thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism can develop in patients with Graves' disease, either spontaneously or as a result of radioactive iodine therapy or surgery. However, it is rare for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis to subsequently develop Graves' disease. We report a case of alopecia areata associated with Graves' disease in a 41-year-old woman who had previously been diagnosed with Hashimoto's disease. Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease associated with other autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disorders, anemia, and other skin disorders.
Summers, Pamela; Kyei, Angela; Bergfeld, Wilma
Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) occurs primarily in African-American women and is the most common cause of scarring hair loss in this population. Since the mid 20th century, hair care practices of African-American women have been associated with CCCA, although there is developing evidence that the etiology of CCCA may be multifactorial. Clinically diagnosing CCCA may be challenging because it can resemble female pattern hair loss, alopecia areata, lichen planopilaris, or telogen effluvium. Therapeutic options are limited, thus the goal of treatment is to prevent progression of disease because once scar formation occurs, it is irreversible. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.
Abraham, Leonardo Spagnol; Torres, Fernanda Nogueira; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna
Trichotillomania and patchy alopecia areata have similar clinical and dermoscopic features. In trichotillomania, dermoscopy shows decreased hair density, short vellus hair, broken hairs with different shaft lengths, coiled hairs, short vellus hair, trichoptilosis, sparse yellow dots, which may or may not contain black dots and no exclamation mark hairs. In the case of patchy alopecia and broken hairs, the absence of exclamation mark hairs suggests a diagnosis of trichotillomania. On the other hand, the finding of yellow dots without black dots does not exclude it.
Perrot, Serge; Dumont, Dominique; Guillemin, Francis; Pouchot, Jacques; Coste, Joël
To validate a translated and adapted version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) for use in French-speaking populations. The FIQ was translated into French by 2 independent translators and then back-translated into English to assess the conceptual equivalence. The translated version was tested and adapted by an expert committee to obtain the Questionnaire de mesure d'Impact de la Fibromyalgie (QIF), the French version of the FIQ. We administered the QIF to 102 women with fibromyalgia (FM): 71 women who consulted once, and 31 women who were follow for 3 visits (D0, M1, and M3). The patients were also asked to answer 4 other questionnaires: the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), the short form of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2 (AIMS2), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (for psychiatric assessment). To ensure test-retest reliability, the patients were asked to complete the QIF 7 days after the first visit and to send it back to the investigators by mail. During each visit, all patients were asked about pain intensity. A tender point count was obtained by thumb palpation and the tenderness threshold of each specific point was assessed by a 4-point scale score to determine the global tender point index. No major cultural adaptation was needed to obtain the French version of the FIQ. Test-retest reliability coefficients (intraclass correlation coefficient) for each question ranged from 0.04 to 0.84. Two items from the QIF (number of days when the patient felt good and visual analog scale stiffness) did not reach significant levels of test-retest reliability. Internal validity was good. The QIF score correlated well with the SF-36 and AIMS2 scores. The psychological aspects of the QIF were well correlated with those of GHQ-28. None of the items from the McGill Pain Questionnaire was correlated with QIF items. Similarly the clinical data concerning pain assessment were not correlated with QIF items. QIF
(1) Fibromyalgia is characterised by a range of symptoms that include muscle pain, fatigue and sleep disorders. Anxiety and depression are often also present. The cause is unknown. More women than men are affected; (2) The following review focuses on differential diagnoses and available treatments for fibromyalgia, based on a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology; (3) Fibromyalgia is mainly diagnosed by excluding other possibilities. The principal differential diagnoses are rheumatic involvement of the spine, systemic inflammatory disorders, and hypothyroidism. Unlike these other conditions, fibromyalgia is not associated with radiological or laboratory abnormalities; (4) Paracetamol has not been compared with other treatments in fibromyalgia. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs have no specific effect; (5) The only two trials assessing tramadol showed little effect; in one study the average pain score was 53 mm in the tramadol group versus 65 mm in the placebo group, on a scale ranging from 0 to 100 mm. The adverse effects of tramadol are those of opiates in general, mainly nausea and dependence. Tramadol interacts with numerous other drugs; (6) The efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants is also difficult to quantify. Their limited superiority over placebo lasts no more than a few months. The efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (fluoxetine, paroxetine and citalopram), serotonin and nonadrenaline reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine and milnacipran) is even less well established. Duloxetine has been tested in four placebo-controlled trials with unconvincing results; (7) Pregabalin and gabapentin, two antiepileptic drugs, appear to be more effective than placebo but have only been tested in short-term trials. In one trial 44% of patients in the pregabalin group said they felt better after 13 weeks versus 35% of patients in the placebo group. However, adverse effects are frequent and sometimes troublesome
Walitt, Brian; Katz, Robert S.; Bergman, Martin J.; Wolfe, Frederick
Objectives Although fibromyalgia criteria have been in effect for decades, little is known about how the fibromyalgia diagnosis is applied and understood by clinicians and patients. We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the prevalence of self-reported clinician diagnosed fibromyalgia and then compared demographics, symptoms, disability and medical utilization measures of persons with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that did not meet diagnostic criteria (false-positive or prior [F/P] fibromyalgia) to persons with and without criteria-positive fibromyalgia. Methods The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collected information about both clinical diagnosis and symptoms of fibromyalgia that was appropriately weighted to represent 225,726,257 US adults. Surrogate NHIS diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia were developed based on the level of polysymptomatic distress (PSD) as characterized in the 2011 modified American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR) for fibromyalgia. Persons with F/P fibromyalgia were compared with persons who do not have fibromyalgia and those meeting surrogate NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. Results Of the 1.78% of persons reporting a clinical diagnosis, 73.5% did not meet NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. The prevalence of F/P fibromyalgia is 1.3%. F/P fibromyalgia is associated with a mild degree of polysymptomatic distress (NHIS PSD score 6.2) and characterized by frequent but not widespread pain and insomnia. Measures of work disability and medical utilization in F/P fibromyalgia were equal to that seen with NHIS criteria positive fibromyalgia and were 6-7x greater in F/P fibromyalgia than in non-fibromyalgia persons. F/P fibromyalgia was best predicted by being female (Odds Ratio [OR] 8.81), married (OR 3.27), and white (OR 1.96). In contrast, being a white, married woman was only modestly predictive of NHIS (criteria positive) fibromyalgia (OR 2.1). Conclusions The majority of clinically diagnosed fibromyalgia
Walitt, Brian; Katz, Robert S; Bergman, Martin J; Wolfe, Frederick
Although fibromyalgia criteria have been in effect for decades, little is known about how the fibromyalgia diagnosis is applied and understood by clinicians and patients. We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the prevalence of self-reported clinician diagnosed fibromyalgia and then compared demographics, symptoms, disability and medical utilization measures of persons with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that did not meet diagnostic criteria (false-positive or prior [F/P] fibromyalgia) to persons with and without criteria-positive fibromyalgia. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collected information about both clinical diagnosis and symptoms of fibromyalgia that was appropriately weighted to represent 225,726,257 US adults. Surrogate NHIS diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia were developed based on the level of polysymptomatic distress (PSD) as characterized in the 2011 modified American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR) for fibromyalgia. Persons with F/P fibromyalgia were compared with persons who do not have fibromyalgia and those meeting surrogate NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. Of the 1.78% of persons reporting a clinical diagnosis, 73.5% did not meet NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. The prevalence of F/P fibromyalgia is 1.3%. F/P fibromyalgia is associated with a mild degree of polysymptomatic distress (NHIS PSD score 6.2) and characterized by frequent but not widespread pain and insomnia. Measures of work disability and medical utilization in F/P fibromyalgia were equal to that seen with NHIS criteria positive fibromyalgia and were 6-7x greater in F/P fibromyalgia than in non-fibromyalgia persons. F/P fibromyalgia was best predicted by being female (Odds Ratio [OR] 8.81), married (OR 3.27), and white (OR 1.96). In contrast, being a white, married woman was only modestly predictive of NHIS (criteria positive) fibromyalgia (OR 2.1). The majority of clinically diagnosed fibromyalgia cases in the US do not reach levels of
Scott, David L; Wolfe, Frederick; Huizinga, Tom W J
Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by persistent synovitis, systemic inflammation, and autoantibodies (particularly to rheumatoid factor and citrullinated peptide). 50% of the risk for development of rheumatoid arthritis is attributable to genetic factors. Smoking is the main environmental risk. In industrialised countries, rheumatoid arthritis affects 0·5-1·0% of adults, with 5-50 per 100 000 new cases annually. The disorder is most typical in women and elderly people. Uncontrolled active rheumatoid arthritis causes joint damage, disability, decreased quality of life, and cardiovascular and other comorbidities. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), the key therapeutic agents, reduce synovitis and systemic inflammation and improve function. The leading DMARD is methotrexate, which can be combined with other drugs of this type. Biological agents are used when arthritis is uncontrolled or toxic effects arise with DMARDs. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors were the first biological agents, followed by abatacept, rituximab, and tocilizumab. Infections and high costs restrict prescription of biological agents. Long-term remission induced by intensive, short-term treatment selected by biomarker profiles is the ultimate goal.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fibromyalgia Public Meeting on Patient-Focused Drug... public comment on Patient-Focused Drug Development for fibromyalgia. Patient-Focused Drug Development is... fibromyalgia on daily life as well as the available therapies for fibromyalgia. DATES: The public meeting...
Alli, Rajshekhar; Nguyen, Phuong; Boyd, Kelli; Sundberg, John P.; Geiger, Terrence L.
Alopecia areata is among the most prevalent autoimmune diseases, yet compared with other autoimmune conditions is not well studied. This in part results from limitations in the C3H/HeJ mouse and DEBR rat model systems most commonly used to study the disease, which display a low frequency and late onset. We describe a novel high incidence model for spontaneous alopecia areata. The 1MOG244 T cell expresses dual TCRA chains, one of which, when combined with the single TCRB present, promotes the development of CD8+ T cells with specificity for hair follicles. Retroviral transgenic mice expressing this TCR develop spontaneous alopecia areata at nearly 100% incidence. Disease initially follows a reticular pattern, with regionally cyclic episodes of hair loss and regrowth, and ultimately progresses to alopecia universalis. Alopecia development is associated with CD8+ T cell activation, migration into the intrafollicular region, and hair follicle destruction. The disease may be adoptively transferred with T lymphocytes, and is class I and not class II MHC-dependent. Pathologic T cells primarily express IFNG and IL17 early in disease, with dramatic increases in cytokine production and recruitment of IL4 and IL10 production with disease progression. Inhibition of individual cytokines did not significantly alter disease incidence, potentially indicating redundancy in cytokine responses. These results therefore characterize a new high incidence model for alopecia areata in C57BL/6J mice, the first to apply a monoclonal TCR, and indicate that class I MHC-restricted CD8+ T lymphocytes can independently mediate the pathologic response. PMID:22116824
Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nan
Introduction In medical terms, alopecia is considered a relatively mild dermatological condition that nevertheless is a serious condition, but it causes major depression in many sufferers. Alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA) are the main types of hair loss. This study assessed the quality of life (QoL) of Chinese patients with AA and AGA using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Methods A total of 178 AA and AGA patients were enrolled in this study, and DLQI was used to evaluate the QoL of the patients. The DLQI used 10 items regarding symptoms and feelings, daily activities, leisure, work and school, personal relationships, and treatment as dimensions of life. Each was scored on a 0–3 scale. The total DLQI score equaled 0–30; higher scores showed greater impact on QoL. Results The DLQI scores of the 178 patients ranged from 0 to 28, with a mean score of 6.3. Higher DLQI scores were reported by younger patients (P<0.05) and by those who had hair loss for a duration of >12 months (P<0.05). The DLQI score of AA patients was significantly higher than that of AGA patients (P<0.05). QoL was not affected by gender, marital status, educational level, past history of alopecia, family history of alopecia, or severity of alopecia. Conclusion AA and AGA moderately affected the QoL of the patients. A higher DLQI score was significantly associated with younger age, hair loss for a duration of >12 months, and AA. Both AA and AGA moderately affected the QoL of the patients not only in physiological aspects but also in their emotional and social aspects. The bio-psycho-social aspects of disease need to be addressed in patients with AA and AGA, even though these conditions are not life-threatening. PMID:28203058
Solano, Carla; Martinez, Aline; Becerril, Lizbeth; Vargas, Angelica; Figueroa, Javier; Navarro, Carmen; Ramos-Remus, Cesar; Martinez-Lavin, Manuel
It has been suggested that autonomic nervous system dysfunction may explain all of fibromyalgia (FM) multisystem features. Such proposal is based mostly on the results of diverse heart rate variability analyses. The Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) is a different validated method to recognize dysautonomia. The main objective of our study was to investigate symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in FM patients by means of COMPASS. A secondary objective was to define whether there is a correlation between COMPASS and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) scores in FM patients. Design, analytical cross-sectional study. Our study population included 3 different groups of women: 30 patients with FM, 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 30 women who considered themselves healthy. All participants filled out COMPASS and FIQ questionnaires. FM patients had significantly higher values in all COMPASS domains. COMPASS total score (54.6 +/- 20.9; mean +/- standard deviation) clearly differentiated FM patients from the other 2 groups (21.6 +/- 16.5 and 9.5 +/- 10.2, respectively). P < 0.0001. The majority of FM patients gave affirmative answers to questions related to orthostatic, digestive, sleep, sudomotor, or mucosal dysfunction. There was a significant correlation between COMPASS and FIQ scores (Spearman r = 0.5, P < 0.005). Patients with FM have multiple nonpain symptoms related to different expressions of autonomic dysfunction. There is a correlation between a questionnaire that measures FM severity (FIQ) and an autonomic dysfunction questionnaire (COMPASS). Such correlation suggests that autonomic dysfunction is inherent to FM.
Peleg, Roni; Ablin, Jacob N; Peleg, Aya; Neumann, Lily; Rabia, Rasmia Abu; Buskila, Dan
Fibromyalgia (FM) has been described and studied in various sociocultural settings in both developed and developing countries. To study the clinical manifestations of FM and to describe its effect on quality of life in the unique setting of Muslim Bedouin women in the southern Israel Negev desert area. One hundred two Bedouin women were recruited from a primary health care clinic in the Negev area. All patients fulfilled American College of Rheumatology criteria for the diagnosis of FM. Tenderness was assessed by manual dolorimetry and the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire was utilized to estimate the severity of FM symptoms. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales subscales and quality of life was evaluated by the SF-36 questionnaire. The study population was characterized by a low educational level, a high rate of consanguinity, a high number of children per mother, and a high rate of polygamy. There was a high frequency of classic FM symptoms such as pain and fatigue, as well as anxiety and depression. The overall impact of FM on quality of life was exceedingly high (8.9 on a scale of 0 to 10). FM is relatively common in the unique setting of Muslim Bedouin women and has a very significant impact on their quality of life as well as on their dependents. Physicians involved in the primary care of this population should be attentive to the manifestations of FM and related disorders.
Ardigò, Marco; Agozzino, Marina; Franceschini, Chiara; Donadio, Carlo; Abraham, Leonardo Spagnol; Barbieri, Luca; Sperduti, Isabella; Berardesca, Enzo; González, Salvador
Clinical management of alopecia represents one of the major issues in dermatology. Scalp biopsies are not easily accepted because of the high bleeding and sensitive anatomical area. Trichoscopy is routinely used for diagnosis of alopecia, but in several cases lack to provide sufficient information on the status of the disease. Recently, reflectance confocal microscopy demonstrated its usefulness for the evaluation of several inflammatory skin condition and preliminary reports about alopecia have been proposed in the literature. The aim was to identify the confocal features characterizing scarring and non-scarring alopecia. Reflectance confocal microscopy from 86 patients affected by scarring (28 lichen planopilaris and 9 lupus erythematosus) and non-scarring alopecia (30 androgenic alopecia and 19 alopecia areata), were retrospectively, blinded evaluated. Good concordance between different readers on the confocal criteria has been assessed. Statistical significant features, specific for scarring alopecia and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. In this study, data on reflectance confocal microscopy features useful for the differential diagnosis between scarring and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. Further studies focusing on the use of this non-invasive technique in the therapeutic follow-up and distinction of sub-entities of alopecia are still required.
Karashima, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hamada, Takahiro; Ishii, Norito; Ono, Fumitake; Ueda, Akihiro; Abe, Toshifumi; Nakama, Takekuni; Dainichi, Teruki; Hashimoto, Takashi
Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory condition causing non-scarring patchy hair loss. Diagnosis of alopecia areata is made by clinical observations, hair pluck test and dermoscopic signs. However, because differentiation from other alopecia diseases is occasionally difficult, an invasive diagnostic method using a punch biopsy is performed. In this study, to develop a reliable, less invasive diagnostic method for alopecia areata, we performed scanning electron microscopy of the hair roots of alopecia areata patients. This study identified four patterns of hair morphology specific to alopecia areata: (I) long tapering structure with no accumulation of scales; (II) club-shaped hair root with fine scales; (III) proximal accumulation of scales; and (IV) sharp tapering of the proximal end of hair. On the basis of these results, we can distinguish alopecia areata by scanning electron microscopic observation of the proximal end of the hair shafts. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Background Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome. Methods Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients. Results The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%), Physical-Activity (15%), Active Coping (9%) and Passive Coping (6.3%). A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs. Conclusions This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a self
Craddock, Lauren N; Cooley, David M; Endo, Justin O; Longley, B Jack; Caldera, Freddy
TNF-α-inhibitors are known to induce skin adverseeffects including psoriasis and alopecia areata. Here, wedescribe a unique pattern of hair loss that has psoriaticand alopecia areata-like features. Diagnosis requiresclinical-pathologic correlation and is supportedby increased catagen/telogen hairs, psoriasiformepidermal hyperplasia, perifollicular lymphocyticinfiltrate, and the presence of eosinophils and plasmacells. Although there are no treatment consensusguidelines, management options include stoppingtherapy, switching to a different TNF-α inhibitor orustekinumab (in severe cases), or continuing TNF-αinhibitor therapy with addition of topical, intralesional,or systemic immunosuppressants.
Coronel-Pérez, I M; Rodríguez-Rey, E M; Camacho-Martínez, F M
The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of latanoprost in eyelash alopecia areata (AA). This study is a 2-year prospective, non-blinded, non-randomized, bilateral eyelash alopecia controlled study. The setting of this study was Trichology Unit, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Seville, Spain. We conducted a survey of 54 subjects with AA universalis treated with the protocol of the Trichology Unit of our Department. Control group comprised 10 subjects who received injections of 0.5 mg/cm(2) of triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) in their eyebrows and 1 mg/cm(2) of TAC injections in affected scalp. The treatment group included 44 subjects who received the same treatment as the control group in scalp and eyebrows but they also applied a drop of latanoprost 0.005% (50 microg/mL) ophthalmic solution in their eyelid margins every night. Subjects were reviewed every 3 months for 2 years. Forty subjects finished the study and four subjects were lost to follow-up. In the treatment arm of this study, the course was well tolerated and uncomplicated. Both investigators and patients evaluated the regrowth. The results we obtained were: complete regrowth in 17.5%, moderate regrowth in 27.5%, slight regrowth in 30% and without response in 25%. Moderate and total regrowth constituted a cosmetically acceptable response. The therapy was continuous and the response remained without any side effects. No patients had cosmetically acceptable eyelash regrowth in the control group. Latanoprost may be an effective drug in the treatment of eyelash AA because it induces acceptable responses (total and moderate) in 45% of the patients. A formal, blinded prospective unilateral controlled study will permit further understanding about this promising therapeutic agent for eyelash AA.
Otero, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben; Lago, Francisca; Meijide, Juan; Amarelo, Juan; Mera, Antonio; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Gualillo, Oreste
Ghrelin is a recently discovered 28 amino acid peptide that regulates GH secretion and energy homeostasis. In fibromyalgia (FM) there are alterations in the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, particularly in the growth hormone (GH) secretion pattern. Whether this anomalous secretion of GH pertains to abnormal levels of ghrelin is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma ghrelin levels in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls. Plasmatic ghrelin concentrations were determined by a double antibody radioimmunoassay in 19 patients with FM and 14 healthy controls. Compared with controls, patients with FM did not show any significant differences of ghrelin plasmatic levels. In conclusion, FM is not associated with deviation in ghrelin concentrations. Existing alterations in FM with respect to GH are unlikely due to circulating ghrelin.
Williams, David A; Kratz, Anna L
Fibromyalgia (FM) is classified as a chronic pain condition accompanied by symptoms of fatigue, sleep problems, problems with cognition, negative mood, limited functional status, and the presence of other chronic overlapping pain conditions. Comprehensive assessment of all of these components can be challenging. This paper provides an overview of patient-reported approaches that can be taken to assess FM in the contexts of diagnosis, symptom monitoring, phenotyping/characterization, and for purposes of clinical trials.
Azad, K A; Alam, M N; Haq, S A; Nahar, S; Chowdhury, M A; Ali, S M; Ullah, A K
Brain tryptophan is low in fibromyalgia. Intake of protein rich in large neutral amino acids is reported to lower brain tryptophan. This study was undertaken to assess whether any reduction of such proteins by exclusion of animal protein from the diet reduced pain and morbidity in fibromyalgia patients. It was an open, randomized controlled trial. 37 subjects with fibromyalgia were enrolled in the vegetarian diet and 41 in the amitriptyline groups. The outcome was assessed with the help of frequencies of fatigue, insomnia & non-restorative sleep, pain score on a 10-point VAS and tender point count. Fatigue, insomnia and non-restorative sleep were present in 41, 26 and 32 subjects before and in 3, 0 and 0 subjects respectively at six weeks of treatment in the amitriptyline group. The pain score and tender point count were 6.2 +/- 1.9 & 16.1 +/- 2.3 before and 2.3 +/- 1.3 & 6.4 +/- 3.0 after treatment. All these differences were significant (P < 0.001). In the vegetarian diet group, fatigue, insomnia and non-restorative sleep were present in 36, 24 and 27 subjects before and in 34, 29 and 29 subjects at six weeks of treatment. The pain score and tender point count were 5.7 +/- 1.8 and 15.7 +/- 2.4 before and 5.0 +/- 1.8 & 14.7 +/- 3.6 after treatment. All these differences were insignificant except that in the pain score. The decrease in the pain score, though significant, was much smaller than that in the amitriptyline group. So, it may be concluded that vegetarian diet is a poor option in the treatment of fibromyalgia.
Sherry, David D
Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.
Mysore, Venkataram; Shashikumar, B M
Finasteride is a widely used drug in dermatology for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. There are many reports of associated sexual side effects. This article reviews the use of once-daily 1 mg finasteride in androgenetic alopecia and its associated sexual adverse effects. A literature search was performed to collect data on the use of finasteride in male pattern baldness. Relevant literature published till March 2014 was obtained from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane registers and LILACS. The keywords "finasteride", "male pattern baldness" and "androgenetic alopecia" were used for literature search. Similarly, a search was done for finasteride in female pattern hair loss with keywords "female pattern baldness", "finasteride" and "female pattern alopecia". All systematic reviews, meta-analyses, national guidelines, randomized controlled trials, prospective open label studies and retrospective case series in the English literature were reviewed. Two hundred sixty two studies were evaluated, twelve of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Current evidence on the safety of finasteride indicates that it is safe but there is growing concern about its sexual side effects. In view of this, proper information should be provided to patients prior to starting treatment (Level of recommendation 1+, Grade of recommendation B). The reported sexual side effects are few and reverse with stoppage of the drug (Grade of recommendation B) but further studies are required.
Stough, Dow; Stenn, Kurt; Haber, Robert; Parsley, William M; Vogel, James E; Whiting, David A; Washenik, Ken
Androgenetic alopecia In men, or male pattern baldness, is recognized increasingly as a physically and psychologically harmful medical condition that can be managed effectively by generalist clinicians. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, physical and psychosocial importance, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of androgenetic alopecia in men. Androgenetic alopecia affects at least half of white men by the age of 50 years. Although androgenetic alopecia does not appear to cause direct physical harm, hair loss can result in physical harm because hair protects against sunburn, cold, mechanical injury, and ultraviolet light. Hair loss also can psychologically affect the balding individual and can Influence others' perceptions of him. A progressive condition, male pattern baldness is known to depend on the presence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone and on a genetic predisposition for this condition, but its pathophysiology has not been elucidated fully. Pharmacotherapy, hair transplantation, and cosmetic aids have been used to manage male pattern baldness. Two US Food and Drug Administration-approved hair-loss pharmacotherapies-the potassium channel opener minoxidil and the dihydrotestosterone synthesis inhibitor finasteride--are safe and effective for controlling male pattern baldness with long-term daily use. Regardless of which treatment modality is chosen for male pattern baldness, defining and addressing the patient's expectations regarding therapy are paramount in determining outcome.
Everts, Helen B.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Montgomery, Shalise; Suo, Liye; Menser, Monica; Valet, Amy S.; King, Lloyd E.; Ong, David E; Sundberg, John P.
C57BL/6 mice develop dermatitis and scarring alopecia resembling human cicatricial alopecias (CA), particularly the central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) type. To evaluate the role of retinoids in CA, expression of retinoid metabolism components were examined in these mice with mild, moderate, or severe CA compared to hair cycle matched mice with no disease. Two feeding studies were performed with dams fed either NIH 31 diet (study 1) or AIN93G diet (study 2). Adult mice were fed AIN93M diet with 4 (recommended), 28, or 56 IU vitamin A/g diet. Feeding the AIN93M diet to adults increased CA frequency over NIH 31 fed mice. Increased follicular dystrophy was seen in study 1 and increased dermal scars in study 2 in mice fed the 28 IU diet. These results indicate that retinoid metabolism is altered in CA in C57BL/6J mice that require precise levels of dietary vitamin A. Human patients with CCCA, pseudopelade (end stage scarring), and controls with no alopecia were also studied. Many retinoid metabolism proteins were increased in mild CCCA, but were undetectable in pseudopelade. Studies to determine if these dietary alterations in retinoid metabolism seen in C57BL/6J mice are also involved in different types of human CA are needed. PMID:23096705
Diphenyl cyclo propenone (DPCP) is used as a topical immunomodulator in alopecia areata. It is a potent allergen. The process of procuring, dilution and application limits its wider use. This short communication aims to make the DPCP application easy to use. PMID:22223969
Drolet, Richard; Denicourt, Martine; D’Allaire, Sylvie
This report describes an uncommon variant of humpy-back syndrome associated with multiple rib fractures and multisystemic vasculitis in several nursing piglets and, for the first time, a skin disease in swine consistent with alopecia areata. Both conditions were observed concurrently on the farm and occasionally in the same piglets. PMID:23372194
Bhatti, Hammad A; Basra, Mohammad K A; Patel, Girish K
Society places great emphasis on the presence of hair. Some degree of hair loss is accepted as a normal part of the aging process, in line with the observation that more than 50% of men will develop androgenetic alopecia by the age of 50 years. However, it is possible to understand the psychosocial isolation and distress felt by men with a strong familial predisposition to androgenetic alopecia, who tend to display hair loss in their late teens or twenties. There are currently two drugs which have been licensed for the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: oral finasteride and topical minoxidil solution which are effective to some extent. Furthermore, upon discontinuing treatment, any gain that has been achieved is quickly lost. Added to which there is an entire market of unproven over the counter products: advertised in the electronic media, local hair salons, and various departmental stores. In this review, we highlight the important advances in the management of male androgenetic alopecia with emphasis on approaches that can lead to more successful and long-term hair restoration for young adults. In particular, we discuss the evidence supporting the use of the follicular unit grafting technique in conjunction with medical treatment before and after the procedure. Moreover, some other alterations of this most popular state of the art hair restoration technique have been mentioned briefly. As a result, patients and physicians seem equally satisfied from this procedure for its naturally looking results which are cosmetically more acceptable and esthetically pleasing for longer period of time.
Kobayashi, S; Iijima, K; Tanaka, M; Tamura, N; Hashimoto, H; Hirose, S
A 25-year-old woman was admitted in our hospital with back pain and both hip joint pain. Pain was abruptly occurred from the beginning of March 1990. Physical examination revealed wide spread pain (occipital area, both shoulder, lumber area, bilateral gluteal area, inguinal area, both Achilles-plantar area) and more than 12 tender points (occiput, trapezius, second rib, supraspinatus, gluteal, greater trochanter, hip joints, pubic bone). Laboratory examination showed no abnormal findings except ANF (1:160). Any examination including X-ray, bone scintigraphy, CT and MRI did not disclose spondylitis, sacroiliitis and enthesopathy. She was diagnosed as primary fibromyalgia/fibrositis syndrome. Treatment with maprotine hydrochloride (30 mg/day) and phenobarbital (120 mg/day) brought approximately 1/3 reduction of pain and tenderness. Psychoanalysis revealed that she had psychological conflicts against her parents and her colleagues at the work. EEG showed a borderline record with irregular basic pattern and 14 & 6 Hz positive burst at the sleep stage. Although the newly proposed criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia was proposed by ACR, fibromyalgia/fibrositis syndrome has been seldom discussed in the Japanese literature. As this syndrome is frequently associated with various rheumatic diseases, hypothyroidism and malignant diseases, we should pay much more attention to understand this syndrome.
Triviño Martínez, Ángeles; Solano Ruiz, M Carmen; Siles González, José
Finding out women's experiences diagnosed with fibromyalgia applying the Theory of Uncertainty proposed by M. Mishel. A qualitative study was conducted, using a phenomenological approach. An Association of patients in the province of Alicante during the months of June 2012 to November 2013. A total of 14 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia participated in the study as volunteers, aged between 45 and 65 years. Information generated through structured interviews with recording and transcription, prior confidentiality pledge and informed consent. Analysis content by extracting different categories according to the theory proposed. The study patients perceive a high level of uncertainty related to the difficulty to deal with symptoms, uncertainty about diagnosis and treatment complexity. Moreover, the ability of coping with the disease it is influenced by social support, relationships with health professionals and help and information attending to patient associations. The health professional must provide clear information on the pathology to the fibromyalgia suffers, the larger lever of knowledge of the patients about their disease and the better the quality of the information provided, it is reported to be the less anxiety and uncertainty in the experience of the disease. Likewise patient associations should have health professionals in order to avoid bias in the information and advice with scientific evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Fibromyalgia has a distinct pathophysiology involving central amplification of peripheral sensory signals. Core symptoms are chronic widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. Most patients with fibromyalgia have muscle pain and tenderness, forgetfulness or problems concentrating, and significant functional limitations. Fibromyalgia is diagnosed using an updated set of clinical criteria that no longer depend on tender point examination; laboratory testing may rule out other disorders that commonly present with fatigue, such as anemia and thyroid disease. Patients with fibromyalgia should be evaluated for comorbid functional pain syndromes and mood disorders. Management of fibromyalgia should include patient education, symptom relief, and regular aerobic physical activity. Serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, antiepileptics, and muscle relaxants have the strongest evidence of benefit for improving pain, fatigue, sleep symptoms, and quality of life. Multiple complementary and alternative medicine therapies have been used but have limited evidence of effectiveness. Opioids should be used to relieve pain in carefully selected patients only if alternative therapies are ineffective.
Blumenthal, David E; Malemud, Charles J
The US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved 3 medications for treating fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). There have been no additional FDA approvals since January 2009 and the efficacy of the FDA-approved medications for FMS has been questioned. Areas covered: The "search for studies" tool using clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed were employed. The term, "fibromyalgia" was used for clinicaltrials.gov. The terms employed for PubMed were "Name-of-Drug Fibromyalgia", "Fibromyalgia Treatment" or "Fibromyalgia Drug Treatment." Clinical trials were reviewed if they were prospective and blinded, and if they employed a comparator, either placebo or another pharmaceutical. Expert commentary: Progress toward standardizing the outcome measures for FMS clinical trials have been made but challenges remain. Several pharmaceutical candidates for FMS have been tested since 2009. The results of these studies with potential novel targets for drug development for FMS were reviewed including the results of trials with sodium oxybate, quetiapine, esreboxetine, nabilone, memantine, naltrexone, and melatonin.
Metyas, Samy K; Yeter, Karen; Solyman, John; Arkfeld, Daniel
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment. A significant number of fibromyalgia patients do not respond adequately to the current drugs (pregabalin, milnacipran, duloxetine) approved for fibromyalgia treatment by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Thus, there is still a need for adjunctive therapies. Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used to treat alcohol and opioid dependence. It is hypothesized that low dose naltrexone causes transient blockade of opioid receptors centrally resulting in a rebound of endorphin function which may attenuate pain in fibromyalgia. Treatment with low dose naltrexone may be an effective, highly tolerable and inexpensive treatment for fibromyalgia. Further controlled trials are needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Although fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have distinct clinical phenotypes, they do share many other features. Pain, allodynia and dysaesthesia occur in each condition and seem to exist on a similar spectrum. Fibromyalgia and CRPS can both be triggered by specific traumatic events, although fibromyalgia is most commonly associated with psychological trauma and CRPS is most often associated with physical trauma, which is frequently deemed routine or minor by the patient. Fibromyalgia and CRPS also seem to share many pathophysiological mechanisms, among which the most important are those involving central effects. Nonetheless, peripheral effects, such as neurogenic neuroinflammation, are also important contributors to the clinical features of each of these disorders. This Review highlights the differing degrees to which neurogenic neuroinflammation might contribute to the multifactorial pathogenesis of both fibromyalgia and CRPS, and discusses the evidence suggesting that this mechanism is an important link between the two disorders, and could offer novel therapeutic targets.
Discusses grammatical arthritis (an internal buildup of rules that hinders writing flexibility); four new "rules" (concerning "data is,""none are,""hopefully," and the restrictive "which"); attitudes toward English grammar; how to be a helpful editor; and where to learn about grammar. (SR)
... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Fungal Infections Infectious Arthritis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...
Discusses grammatical arthritis (an internal buildup of rules that hinders writing flexibility); four new "rules" (concerning "data is,""none are,""hopefully," and the restrictive "which"); attitudes toward English grammar; how to be a helpful editor; and where to learn about grammar. (SR)
Rhudy, Jamie L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Bartley, Emily J; Olech, Ewa; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L
Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain, as well as affective disturbance (eg, depression). Given that emotional processes are known to modulate pain, a disruption of emotion and emotional modulation of pain and nociception may contribute to FM. The present study used a well-validated affective picture-viewing paradigm to study emotional processing and emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception. Participants were 18 individuals with FM, 18 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 19 healthy pain-free controls (HC). Mutilation, neutral, and erotic pictures were presented in 4 blocks; 2 blocks assessed only physiological-emotional reactions (ie, pleasure/arousal ratings, corrugator electromyography, startle modulation, skin conductance) in the absence of pain, and 2 blocks assessed emotional reactivity and emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception) evoked by suprathreshold electric stimulations over the sural nerve. In general, mutilation pictures elicited displeasure, corrugator activity, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation, whereas erotic pictures elicited pleasure, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation. However, FM was associated with deficits in appetitive activation (eg, reduced pleasure/arousal to erotica). Moreover, emotional modulation of pain was observed in HC and RA, but not FM, even though all 3 groups evidenced modulation of NFR. Additionally, NFR thresholds were not lower in the FM group, indicating a lack of spinal sensitization. Together, these results suggest that FM is associated with a disruption of supraspinal processes associated with positive affect and emotional modulation of pain, but not brain-to-spinal cord circuitry that modulates spinal nociceptive processes.
Rhudy, Jamie L.; DelVentura, Jennifer L.; Terry, Ellen L.; Bartley, Emily J.; Olech, Ewa; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain, as well as affective disturbance (e.g., depression). Given that emotional processes are known to modulate pain, a disruption of emotion and emotional modulation of pain and nociception may contribute to FM. The present study used a well-validated affective picture-viewing paradigm to study emotional processing and emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception. Participants were 18 individuals with FM, 18 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 19 healthy pain-free controls (HC). Mutilation, neutral, and erotic pictures were presented in four blocks; two blocks assessed only physiological-emotional reactions (i.e., pleasure/arousal ratings, corrugator EMG, startle modulation, skin conductance) in the absence of pain and two blocks assessed emotional reactivity and emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception) evoked by suprathreshold electric stimulations over the sural nerve. In general, mutilation pictures elicited displeasure, corrugator activity, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation, whereas erotic pictures elicited pleasure, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation. However, FM was associated with deficits in appetitive activation (e.g., reduced pleasure/arousal to erotica). Moreover, emotional modulation of pain was observed in HC and RA, but not FM, even though all three groups evidenced modulation of NFR. Additionally, NFR thresholds were not lower in the FM group, indicating a lack of spinal sensitization. Together, these results suggest that FM is associated with a disruption of supraspinal processes associated with positive affect and emotional modulation of pain, but not brain-to-spinal cord circuitry that modulates spinal nociceptive processes. PMID:23622762
Kengen Traska, Theresa; Rutledge, Dana N; Mouttapa, Michele; Weiss, Jie; Aquino, Jordan
The goal of this study was to describe how persons with fibromyalgia manage their lives given the multiple symptoms they experience, in particular how they use non-pharmacologic strategies, or how they incorporate these strategies along with pharmacologic agents. Persons with fibromyalgia, a widespread chronic pain condition, often suffer from considerable fatigue, sleep disturbances and morning stiffness. Medical management does not lead to a cure, and sufferers must self-manage to maintain a good quality of life. This qualitative descriptive study used group interview methodology. Data were obtained from eight women with fibromyalgia. Women's mean age was 61 (range 54-81). Participants were invited to participate in a 90- minute group interview focused on symptom management. In the interview, open-ended questions allowed them to speak freely about managing multiple fibromyalgia symptoms. Content analysis by the first and second authors led to the identification of themes, which were validated by the co-authors who attended the interviews. Participants reported many strategies to cope with fibromyalgia symptoms and manage their lives. Main strategies included: 'pacing/planning', 'distraction techniques', 'coping with touch sensitivity', 'putting on the mask' and 'medications'. In addition, 'social support' from others with fibromyalgia and from family members was reported to be very important. Study findings demonstrate that women with fibromyalgia can develop strategies that enable them to cope with a life encumbered with chronic pain and fatigue. Moreover, this study confirmed effective fibromyalgia management strategies reported in other studies. Further research is needed on risks/benefits of these and other self-management strategies used by women with fibromyalgia. Our findings suggest that nurses should discuss the self-management strategies found with persons who have fibromyalgia in the context of individual patient experiences. © 2011 Blackwell
Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Martelletti, Paolo; Tana, Claudio; Negro, Andrea; Lapenna, Domenico; Curto, Martina; Schiavone, Cosima; Stellin, Luisa; Cipollone, Francesco; Costantini, Raffaele
Fibromyalgia (FMS) and high frequency episodic/chronic migraine (M) very frequently co-occur, suggesting common pathophysiological mechanisms; both conditions display generalized somatic hyperalgesia. In FMS-M comorbidity we assessed if: a different level of hyperalgesia is present compared to one condition only; hyperalgesia is a function of migraine frequency; migraine attacks trigger FMS symptoms. Female patients with fibromyalgia (FMS)(n.40), high frequency episodic migraine (M1)(n.41), chronic migraine (M2)(n.40), FMS + M1 (n.42) and FMS + M2 (n.40) underwent recording of: -electrical pain thresholds in skin, subcutis and muscle and pressure pain thresholds in control sites, -pressure pain thresholds in tender points (TePs), -number of monthly migraine attacks and fibromyalgia flares (3-month diary). Migraine and FMS parameters were evaluated before and after migraine prophylaxis, or no prophylaxis, for 3 months with calcium-channel blockers, in two further FMS + H1 groups (n.49, n.39). 1-way ANOVA was applied to test trends among groups, Student's t-test for paired samples was used to compare pre and post-treatment values. The lowest electrical and pressure thresholds at all sites and tissues were found in FMS + M2, followed by FMS + H1, FMS, M2 and M1 (trend: p < 0.0001). FMS monthly flares were progressively higher in FMS, FMS + M1 and FMS + M2 (p < 0.0001); most flares (86-87 %) occurred within 12 h from a migraine attack in co-morbid patients (p < 0.0001). Effective migraine prophylaxis vs no prophylaxis also produced a significant improvement of FMS symptoms (decreased monthly flares, increased pain thresholds)(0.0001 < p < 0.003). Co-morbidity between fibromyalgia and migraine involves heightened somatic hyperalgesia compared to one condition only. Increased migraine frequency - with shift towards chronicity - enhances both hyperalgesia and spontaneous FMS pain, which is reversed by effective migraine
Picard, Larry M; Bartel, Lee R; Gordon, Allan S; Cepo, Davor; Wu, Qi; Pink, Leah R
BACKGROUND: Interventions to improve sleep in fibromyalgia may generalize to improvements in multiple symptom domains. Delta-embedded music, pulsating regularly within the 0.25 Hz to 4 Hz frequency band of brain wave activity, has the potential to induce sleep. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of a delta-embedded music program over four weeks for sleep induction in patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: The present unblinded, investigator-led pilot study used a within-subject design. Analysis was based on 20 individuals with fibromyalgia who completed the study, of the 24 recruited into the study. The primary outcome variables were the change from baseline in Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Jenkins Sleep Scale scores. A patient global impression of change was measured on a seven-point Likert scale. Secondary outcome measures, comprised of items 5, 6 and 7 of the FIQ, were used as indicators of pain, tiredness and being tired on awakening. RESULTS: The FIQ median score of 76.4 (95% CI 61.3 to 82.1) at baseline improved to 60.3 (95% CI 53.1 to 72.0; P=0.004). The Jenkins Sleep Scale median value of 17.5 (95% CI 15.5 to 18.5) at baseline fell to 12.5 (95% CI 8.5 to 14.5; P=0.001) at study completion. The outcomes of the patient global impression of change ratings were mostly positive (P=0.001). Being tired on awakening declined significantly from a median of 9.0 (95% CI 8.0 to 10.0) to 8.0 (95% CI 5.5 to 9.0; P=0.021). However, there was no significant improvement in pain level (baseline median 7.5 [95% CI 7.0 to 8.5] versus study completion median 7.0 [95% CI 6.5 to 8.0]; P=0.335) or tiredness (baseline median 9.0 [95% CI 8.0 to 9.5] versus study completion median 8.0 [95% CI 6.0 to 8.5]; P=0.061). There were no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Delta-embedded music is a potential alternative therapy for fibromyalgia. PMID:24555178
Lan, Chen-Chia; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Lan, Joung-Liang; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Tsay, Gregory J.; Hsu, Chung-Yi
Abstract An increased risk of suicide ideation and death has been reported in patients with fibromyalgia. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of a suicide event in patients with primary fibromyalgia and in fibromyalgia patients with comorbidities. We used the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, a subset of the national insurance claim dataset, which enrolled 1 million Taiwanese people from 2000 to 2005, to identify 95,150 patients with incident fibromyalgia (ICD-9-CM 729.0–729.1) and 190,299 reference subjects matched by sex, age, and index date of diagnosis, with a mean of 8.46 ± 2.37 years of follow-up until 2011. The risk of a suicide event (ICD-9-CM, External-Cause Codes 950–959) was analyzed with a Cox proportional hazards model. Stratification analysis was performed by separating fibromyalgia patients and reference subjects with respect to each comorbidity to determine the risk of suicide in fibromyalgia patients with or without comorbidity relative to subjects who had neither fibromyalgia nor comorbidity. In this Taiwanese dataset, there were 347 suicide events in patients with fibromyalgia (4.16 per 104 person-years) and 424 in matched reference subjects (2.63 per 104 person-years) with a significant crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38–1.83) and an adjusted HR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.17–1.71) for fibromyalgia patients relative to the matched reference subjects. According to the 2 × 2 stratification analysis, we found that fibromyalgia patients without comorbidity had an independent but mild risk of a suicide event with adjusted HRs ranging from 1.33 to 1.69 relative to subjects with neither fibromyalgia nor comorbidity. Meanwhile, fibromyalgia patients with comorbidity led to a markedly enhanced risk of a suicide event relative to the matched reference subjects, with adjusted HRs ranging from 1.51 to 8.23. Our analysis confirmed a mild-to-moderate risk of a suicide event in patients with primary fibromyalgia
Bilgic, Özlem; Altınyazar, Hilmi Cevdet; Eryılmaz, Dilek; Tuğrul, Zehra Ayça
Although the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia is not completely understood, the roles of genetic susceptibility and androgens are well-known. A lower ratio of the second digit (index finger = 2D) to the fourth digit (ring finger = 4D) length has been hypothesized to reflect prenatal androgen exposure and/or higher sensitivity to androgens. To determine the relationship between the second to fourth digit length ratio and androgenetic alopecia. Finger length measurements were made by a digital vernier calliper. Androgenetic alopecia severity was assessed using the Hamilton-Norwood scale. Subjects with an androgenetic alopecia score of grade III or more were included in the study. A total of 189 males with androgenetic alopecia and 171 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The age range of participants was 19-65 years. The 2D:4D ratios in patients with androgenetic alopecia were significantly lower than those of healthy controls for the right hand; however, no significant difference was found for the left hand. Average 2D:4D ratios in androgenetic alopecia patients were also lower than in controls. No significant relationship was observed between androgenetic alopecia severity and 2D:4D ratios. Our data support the anatomical evidence of in utero androgen exposure and/or an individual's sensitivity to androgens in patients with androgenetic alopecia. Furthermore, the right hand 2D:4D ratio might be an indicator of androgenetic alopecia development.
... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Arthritis in America Time to Take Action! Language: English ( ... by about 40% by being physically active. Problem Arthritis is common and a growing health threat. Arthritis ...
... is caused by just two types: osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive condition that ... other, it results in pain, stiﬀness, and weakness. Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that ...
... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 57 KB Audio Version Time: 10:20 Size: 9.7 MB November 2014 What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public Rheumatoid arthritis is ...
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) KidsHealth > For Teens > Juvenile Idiopathic ... can affect people under age 17. What Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis? Arthritis doesn't affect young people ...
... rule out other conditions or infections, such as Lyme disease , that may cause similar symptoms or occur along ... ESR) Bones, Muscles, and Joints Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Word! Arthritis Arthritis Lupus Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis ( ...
... stiffness, inflammation, swelling and, sometimes, destruction of joints. Gout — a form of arthritis that occurs when uric ... the joints. Some 2.1 million Americans have gout. Lupus — a form of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis, ...
Larson, Alice A.; Pardo, José V.; Pasley, Jeffrey D.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is characterized by widespread pain that is exacerbated by cold and stress but relieved by warmth. We review the points along thermal and pain pathways where temperature may influence pain. We also present evidence addressing the possibility that brown adipose tissue activity is linked to the pain of fibromyalgia given that cold initiates thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue via adrenergic activity, while warmth suspends thermogenesis. Although females have a higher incidence of fibromyalgia as well as more resting thermogenesis, they are less able to recruit brown adipose tissue in response to chronic stress than males. In addition, conditions that are frequently comorbid with fibromyalgia compromise brown adipose activity making it less responsive to sympathetic stimulation. This results in lower body temperatures, lower metabolic rates, and lower circulating cortisol/corticosterone in response to stress - characteristics of fibromyalgia. In the periphery, sympathetic nerves to brown adipose also project to surrounding tissues, including tender points characterizing fibromyalgia. As a result, the musculoskeletal hyperalgesia associated with conditions like fibromyalgia may result from referred pain in the adjacent muscle and skin. PMID:23887348
Góes, Suelen M; Leite, Neiva; de Souza, Ricardo M; Homann, Diogo; Osiecki, Ana C V; Stefanello, Joice M F; Rodacki, André L F
Fibromyalgia is a condition which involves chronic pain. Middle-aged individuals with fibromyalgia seem to exhibit changes in gait pattern, which may prematurely expose them to a gait pattern which resembles that found in the elderly population. To determine the 3D spatial (linear and angular) gait parameters of middle-aged women with fibromyalgia and compare to elderly women without this condition. 25 women (10 in the fibromyalgia group and 15 in the elderly group) volunteered to participate in the study. Kinematics was performed using an optoelectronic system, and linear and angular kinematic variables were determined. There was no difference in walking speed, stride length, cadence, hip, knee and ankle joints range of motion between groups, except the pelvic rotation, in which the fibromyalgia group showed greater rotation (P<0.05) compared to the elderly group. Also, there was a negative correlation with pelvic rotation and gluteus pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05), and between pelvic obliquity and greater trochanter pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05) in the fibromyalgia group. Middle-aged women with fibromyalgia showed gait pattern resemblances to elderly, women, which is characterized by reduced lower limb ROM, stride length and walking speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Cabrera-Perona, V; Buunk, A P; Terol-Cantero, M C; Quiles-Marcos, Y; Martín-Aragón, M
In addition to coping strategies, social comparison may play a role in illness adjustment. However, little is known about the role of contrast and identification in social comparison in adaptation to fibromyalgia. To evaluate through a path analysis in a sample of fibromyalgia patients, the association between identification and contrast in social comparison, catastrophising and specific health outcomes (fibromyalgia illness impact and psychological distress). 131 Spanish fibromyalgia outpatients (mean age: 50.15, SD = 11.1) filled out a questionnaire. We present a model that explained 33% of the variance in catastrophising by direct effects of more use of upward contrast and downward identification. In addition, 35% of fibromyalgia illness impact variance was explained by less upward identification, more upward contrast and more catastrophising and 42% of the variance in psychological distress by a direct effect of more use of upward contrast together with higher fibromyalgia illness impact. We suggest that intervention programmes with chronic pain and fibromyalgia patients should focus on enhancing the use of upward identification in social comparison, and on minimising the use of upward contrast and downward identification in social comparison.
Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; McInnes, Iain B
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, which can cause cartilage and bone damage as well as disability. Early diagnosis is key to optimal therapeutic success, particularly in patients with well-characterised risk factors for poor outcomes such as high disease activity, presence of autoantibodies, and early joint damage. Treatment algorithms involve measuring disease activity with composite indices, applying a treatment-to-target strategy, and use of conventional, biological, and newz non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. After the treatment target of stringent remission (or at least low disease activity) is maintained, dose reduction should be attempted. Although the prospects for most patients are now favourable, many still do not respond to current therapies. Accordingly, new therapies are urgently required. In this Seminar, we describe current insights into genetics and aetiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, assessment, therapeutic agents, and treatment strategies together with unmet needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kris; Worlein, Julie M; Kroeker, Rose; Menard, Mark T; Rosenberg, Kendra; Meyer, Jerrold S; Novak, Melinda A
Alopecia can occur in captive non-human primates, but its etiology is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess alopecia and hair cortisol in rhesus monkeys and to identify the potential risk factors. Subjects were 117 rhesus monkeys at two National Primate Research Centers. Photographs and hair samples were obtained during routine physicals. Photographs were analyzed using Image J software to calculate hair loss, and hair samples were assayed for cortisol. Age, days singly housed, and their interactions contributed to the alopecia model for both facilities. Sex and location changes contributed to the hair cortisol model for Facility 1; sedations contributed for Facility 2. Alopecia and hair cortisol were associated at Facility 1. Captive management practices can affect alopecia and hair cortisol. However, there are facility differences in the relationship between alopecia and hair cortisol and in the effect of intrinsic variables and management procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lutz, Corrine K.; Coleman, Kris; Worlein, Julie M.; Kroeker, Rose; Menard, Mark T.; Rosenberg, Kendra; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Novak, Melinda A.
Background Alopecia can occur in captive nonhuman primates, but its etiology is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess alopecia and hair cortisol in rhesus monkeys and to identify potential risk factors. Methods Subjects were 117 rhesus monkeys at two National Primate Research Centers. Photographs and hair samples were obtained during routine physicals. Photographs were analyzed using Image J software to calculate hair loss, and hair samples were assayed for cortisol. Results Age, days singly housed, and their interactions contributed to the alopecia model for both facilities. Sex and location changes contributed to the hair cortisol model for Facility 1; sedations contributed for Facility 2. Alopecia and hair cortisol were associated at Facility 1. Conclusions Captive management practices can affect alopecia and hair cortisol. However, there are facility differences in the relationship between alopecia and hair cortisol and in the effect of intrinsic variables and management procedures. PMID:27283005
Tollenaar, R A; Liefers, G J; Repelaer van Driel, O J; van de Velde, C J
35 patients were studied to determine the effectiveness of scalp hypothermia in the prevention of alopecia caused by adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Scalp hypothermia was induced by the newly developed Theracool cooling machine. The chemotherapeutic regimen consisted of one perioperative course of doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 and 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m2 (EORTC protocol 10854). Only 4 (11%) patients showed acceptable hair preservation (no or minor alopecia). 12 patients (34%) had moderate alopecia, all requiring a wig. 19 patients (54%) had complete alopecia. No scalp metastases were observed after scalp cooling. These results and a review of the literature suggest that scalp hypothermia to prevent alopecia may only be effective in a cytotoxic regimen containing an anthracycline as the sole alopecia-inducing agent. With current adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, in which a combination of cyclophosphamide and an anthracycline is often used, there is no place for scalp hypothermia.
Furlan, Karina Colossi; Kakizaki, Priscila; Chartuni, Juliana Cabral Nunes; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai
Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a distinctive form of scarring alopecia considered to be a clinical variant of lichen planopilaris. It predominantly occurs in postmenopausal women and has a slowly progressive course. It was first described by Kossard in 1994. Since then the number of reported cases has increased significantly. Coexistence of frontal fibrosing alopecia and autoimmune disorders - such as discoid erythematosus lupus and Sjögren's syndrome - may suggest a common pathogenic background among the diseases. PMID:28300881
Kshetrimayum, Sandhyarani; Thokchom, Nandakishore; Hmar, Vanlalhriatpuii
Alopecia in a linear pattern is very rare with only a few cases reported in the medical literature. We report a case of linear non scarring alopecia involving the scalp in a 17-year-old boy with a histological diagnosis of lupus panniculitis. We report this case because of its rarity and also the inclusion of this entity as one of the rare differential of non scarring alopecia. PMID:27688465
Kolivras, Athanassios; Thompson, Curtis
The diagnosis of primary scalp alopecia remains one of the most challenging fields in dermatopathology. In this review, we would like to connect the established classification of primary alopecia into scarring (cicatricial) and non-scarring (non-cicatricial) with current concepts. We introduce a simplified pathway for the diagnosis of the most common causes of alopecia, including a discussion of tissue processing techniques and use of immunohistochemistry. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Furlan, Karina Colossi; Kakizaki, Priscila; Chartuni, Juliana Cabral Nunes; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai
Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a distinctive form of scarring alopecia considered to be a clinical variant of lichen planopilaris. It predominantly occurs in postmenopausal women and has a slowly progressive course. It was first described by Kossard in 1994. Since then the number of reported cases has increased significantly. Coexistence of frontal fibrosing alopecia and autoimmune disorders - such as discoid erythematosus lupus and Sjögren's syndrome - may suggest a common pathogenic background among the diseases.
Donovan, Jeff C; Mirmirani, Paradi
The pathogenesis of scarring alopecia in African American women remains poorly understood. Furthermore, the overlapping clinical and histological features present diagnostic challenges. The diagnosis of end stage traction alopecia secondary to traumatic hair styling practices can sometimes present particular challenges. We present a young African American woman with a scarring alopecia. As we describe, a scalp biopsy processed by transverse sections enabled rapid diagnosis and presented advantages over a biopsy processed with vertical sections.
Ishida, Kazuko; Ishida, Junko; Kiyoko, Kanda
This study aims to clarify the psychosocial reactions of female patients with gynecological cancer undergoing chemotherapy and in the process of suffering from alopecia and to examine their nursing support. The target group comprised female patients who had received two or more cycles of chemotherapy, were suffering from alopecia, and were aged 30-65. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews, conducted from the time the patients were informed by their doctors that they might experience alopecia due to chemotherapy to the time they actually experienced alopecia and until they were able to accept the change. Inductive qualitative analysis was employed to close in on the subjective experiences of the cancer patients. The results showed the existence of six phases in the psychosocial reactions in the process of alopecia: phase one was the reaction after the doctor's explanation; phase two was the reaction when the hair starts to fall out; phase three was the reaction when the hair starts to intensely fall out; phase four was the reaction when the hair has completely fallen out; phase five was the reaction to behavior for coping with alopecia; and phase six was the reaction to change in interpersonal human relationships. The results also made it clear that there are five types of reaction patterns as follows: 1) treatment priority interpersonal relationship maintenance type; 2) alopecia agitated interpersonal relationship maintenance type; 3) alopecia agitated interpersonal relationship reduction type; 4) alopecia denial interpersonal relationship reduction type; and 5) alopecia denial treatment interruption type. It is important to find out which of the five types the patients belong to early during treatment and provide support so that nursing intervention that suits each individual can be practiced. The purpose of this study is to make clear the process in which patients receiving chemotherapy come to accept alopecia and to examine evidence-based nursing
Saricam, Merve Hatun; Tekin, Burak; Unver, Olcay; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Ergun, Tulin
Gómez-López-Hernández syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the triad of rhombencephalosynapsis, parietal alopecia, and trigeminal anesthesia. We report a 16-year-old girl with bilateral parietotemporal alopecia in whom cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed rhombencephalosynapsis, suggesting a diagnosis of Gómez-López-Hernández syndrome. Neurologic examination and neuroimaging may be warranted in select patients with parietal alopecia to exclude this uncommon entity.
Lee, Lulu K; Ebata, Nozomi; Hlavacek, Patrick; DiBonaventura, Marco; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Sadosky, Alesia
Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the health and economic burden associated with fibromyalgia among adults in Japan. Materials and methods Data from the 2011–2014 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey (n=115,271), a nationally representative survey of adults, were analyzed. The greedy matching algorithm was used to match the respondents who self-reported a diagnosis of fibromyalgia with those not having fibromyalgia (n=256). Generalized linear models, controlling for covariates (eg, age and sex), examined whether the respondents with fibromyalgia differed from matched controls based on health status (health utilities; Mental and Physical Component Summary scores from Medical Outcomes Study: 12-item Version 2 and 36-item Version 2 Short Form Survey), sleep quality (ie, sleep difficulty symptoms), work productivity (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire – General Health Version 2.0), health care resource use, and estimated annual indirect and direct costs (based on published annual wages and resource use events) in Japanese yen (¥). Results After adjustment for covariates, respondents with fibromyalgia relative to matched controls scored significantly lower on health utilities (adjusted means =0.547 vs 0.732), Mental Component Summary score (33.15 vs 45.88), and Physical Component Summary score (39.22 vs 50.81), all with P<0.001; these differences exceeded the clinically meaningful levels. In addition, those with fibromyalgia reported significantly poorer sleep quality than those without fibromyalgia. Respondents with fibromyalgia compared with those without fibromyalgia experienced significantly more loss in work productivity and health care resource use, resulting in those with fibromyalgia incurring indirect costs that were more than twice as high (adjusted means =¥2,826,395 vs ¥1,201,547) and direct costs that were nearly six times as high (¥1,941,118 vs ¥335,140), both with P<0.001. Conclusion Japanese adults with
Correa, Angel; Miró, Elena; Martínez, M Pilar; Sánchez, Ana I; Lupiáñez, Juan
Cognitive deficits in fibromyalgia may be specifically related to controlled processes, such as those measured by working memory or executive function tasks. This hypothesis was tested here by measuring controlled temporal preparation (temporal orienting) during a response inhibition (go no-go) task. Temporal orienting effects (faster reaction times for targets appearing at temporally attended vs. unattended moments) and response inhibition were impaired in fibromyalgia compared to the control group. It is concluded that frontal networks underlying attentional control (temporal orienting and response inhibition) can be a dysfunctional neurocognitive mechanism in fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I
Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia.
Gaspar, Neide Kalil
The transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) promotes fibrosis, differentiating epithelial cells and quiescent fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and increasing expression of extracellular matrix. Recent investigations have shown that PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor*) is a negative regulator of fibrotic events induced by TGFβ1. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an immunomodulatory hormone essential for PPAR functions, and is reduced in some processes characterized by fibrosis. Although scarring alopecia characteristically develops in the female biological period in which occurs decreased production of DHEA, there are no data in the literature relating its reduction to fibrogenic process of this condition. This article aims to review the fibrogenic activity of TGFβ1, its control by PPAR and its relation with DHEA in the frontal fibrosing alopecia. PMID:28099600
Fergie, Bonnie; Khaira, Gurpreet; Howard, Vicki; de Zwaan, Sally
We describe three cases of hair loss in a female pattern hair loss (FPHL) distribution with histologic features of lichen planopilaris (LPP). All patients had a history of diffuse, gradual hair loss in a Christmas tree pattern that clinically presented as FPHL on gross and dermoscopic examination. Notably, there were no characteristic clinical signs of LPP and no histologic features of FPHL. These cases are most consistent with cicatricial pattern hair loss (CPHL). This relatively new entity is similar to fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution (FAPD) in that they are both scarring alopecias confined to a FPHL distribution, but CPHL lacks the clinical signs of perifollicular erythema and perifollicular keratosis seen in FAPD. These three cases may present an early, subtle form of CPHL and will be of interest to clinicians and histopathologists alike. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Gaspar, Neide Kalil
The transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) promotes fibrosis, differentiating epithelial cells and quiescent fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and increasing expression of extracellular matrix. Recent investigations have shown that PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor*) is a negative regulator of fibrotic events induced by TGFβ1. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an immunomodulatory hormone essential for PPAR functions, and is reduced in some processes characterized by fibrosis. Although scarring alopecia characteristically develops in the female biological period in which occurs decreased production of DHEA, there are no data in the literature relating its reduction to fibrogenic process of this condition. This article aims to review the fibrogenic activity of TGFβ1, its control by PPAR and its relation with DHEA in the frontal fibrosing alopecia.
Donati, Aline; Gupta, Aditya K; Jacob, Carolina; Cavelier-Balloy, Benedicte; Reygagne, Pascal
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) differs from lichen planopilaris (LPP) in many clinical aspects, but histology fails to distinguish between these entities. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is a diagnostic technique used for autoimmune diseases, including those affecting skin and hair. To characterize DIF patterns in patients with FFA. Data was collected retrospectively from FFA cases presenting to the Centre de Santé Sabouraud Hair Clinic in Paris from November 2013 to November 2014. Of 149 patients with FFA, 44 cases underwent DIF. Thirteen cases showed positive results with DIF. Patterns characteristic of LPP and lupus erythematosus were observed, with nearly half showing nonspecific staining. DIF patterns in patients with FFA were variable. This diagnostic technique should be used with caution in cases of cicatricial alopecia, particularly FFA.
Vila, Teresa Ojeda; Camacho Martinez, Francisco M
Objectives: To evaluate topical bimatoprost for eyelash growth in patients with alopecia areata (AA). Design: A 1-year retrospective study, bilateral eyelash alopecia. Materials and Methods: Forty-one subjects with AA universalis without ocular disease applied 0.03% bimatoprost to the eyelid margin once a day over the course of 1 year. Results: Thirty-seven subjects completed the study, one patient was eliminated due to conjunctivitis at the beginning of treatment, two patients developed conjunctivitis after 6 months of treatment, and a fourth did not follow directions. Researchers evaluated patients’ eyelash growth every 4 months. We observed complete growth in 24.32%, moderate growth in 18.91%, slight growth in 27.02% and without response in 29.72%. Conclusion: Bimatoprost may be effective and safe in the treatment of eyelash AA. 43.24% of the patients had an acceptable cosmetic response (total and moderate growth). Limitations: Design without control. PMID:21712909
Forty patients suffering from androgenetic alopecia were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of 4 to 6 weeks each. Only patients of type III, type III(vertex) and type IV baldness were operated. Twenty patients, six of type III, six of type III(vertex) and eight of type IV baldness were advised to use minoxidil 2% locally at the recipient area in the dose of 1 ml applied twice daily. Twenty patients of similar types of baldness were advised to just shampoo their hair daily without using topical minoxidil. Percentage of response was compared between the two groups. Minoxidil did not play any role in the percentage of hair survival before and after transplantation in androgenetic alopecia. However in 60percent grafts of patients who had used topical minoxidil, there was no initial postoperative hair shedding.
Katoulis, Alexandros C; Diamanti, Konstantina; Sgouros, Dimitrios; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Alevizou, Antigoni; Bozi, Evangelia; Damaskou, Vasileia; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia characterized by a progressive band-like recession of the frontotemporal hairline and frequent loss of the eyebrows. It predominantly affects postmenopausal women. Coexistence of FFA and vitiligo is rarely reported in the literature. We retrospectively studied 20 cases diagnosed with FFA in a 14-month period in our Department. Among them, there were 2 cases, a 72-year-old woman and a 48-year-old man, who developed FFA on preexisting vitiligo of the forehead. Anatomical colocalization of the two dermatoses supports the notion that a causal link may exist and their association may not be coincidental. We suggest that interrelated immunologic events and pathologic processes may underlie both these skin conditions.
McElwee, K J; Shapiro, J S
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) may affect up to 70% of men and 40% of women at some point in their lifetime. While men typically present with a distinctive alopecia pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding, women normally exhibit a diffuse hair thinning over the top of their scalps. The treatment standard in dermatology clinics continues to be minoxidil and finasteride with hair transplantation as a surgical option. Here we briefly review current therapeutic options and treatments under active investigation. Dutasteride and ketoconazole are also employed for AGA, while prostaglandin analogues latanoprost and bimatoprost are being investigated for their hair growth promoting potential. Laser treatment products available for home use and from cosmetic clinics are becoming popular. In the future, new cell mediated treatment approaches may be available for AGA. While there are a number of potential treatment options, good clinical trial data proving hair growth efficacy is limited.
Faure, M; Drapier-Faure, E
Acne, androgenogenetic alopecia, hyperseborrhea and hirsutism may result from hyperandrogenism in women. This may be peripheral "idiopathic" hyperandrogenism due to cutaneous metabolism of steroids, but in some cases hyperandrogenism is due to abnormal production or input of steroids with androgenic activity (hyperplasia, endocrine tumors, cysts, consumption of progestogens or other hormones with androgenic activity, menopause...). An assessment is useful only in cases of acne or alopecia if they are accompanied by other signs of peripheral hyperandrogenism and/or disturbed menstruation. The treatment is based on the administration of an anti-androgen (in France, usually cyproterone acetate), combined with other local or systemic treatments for the problem, depending on the age, dermatological signs and context.
Katoulis, Alexandros C.; Diamanti, Konstantina; Sgouros, Dimitrios; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Alevizou, Antigoni; Bozi, Evangelia; Damaskou, Vasileia; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia characterized by a progressive band-like recession of the frontotemporal hairline and frequent loss of the eyebrows. It predominantly affects postmenopausal women. Coexistence of FFA and vitiligo is rarely reported in the literature. We retrospectively studied 20 cases diagnosed with FFA in a 14-month period in our Department. Among them, there were 2 cases, a 72-year-old woman and a 48-year-old man, who developed FFA on preexisting vitiligo of the forehead. Anatomical colocalization of the two dermatoses supports the notion that a causal link may exist and their association may not be coincidental. We suggest that interrelated immunologic events and pathologic processes may underlie both these skin conditions. PMID:28232924
Neeck, G; Riedel, W
Thyroid function was tested in 13 female patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and 10 healthy age matched controls by intravenous injection of 400 micrograms thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Basal thyroid hormone levels of both groups were in the normal range. However, patients with primary FS responded with a significantly lower secretion of thyrotropin and thyroid hormones to TRH, within an observation period of 2 h, and reacted with a significantly higher increase of prolactin. Total and free serum calcium and calcitonin levels were significantly lower in patients with primary FS, while both groups exhibited parathyroid hormone levels in the normal range.
Abnormal activity of the sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic pain syndromes. This article reviews the animal studies of sympathetically induced pain behavior, the controversy of sympathetically maintained pain in clinical practice, and the dysautonomic nature of fibromyalgia (FM). FM has neuropathic pain features (stimuli-independent pain state accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias). The proposal of FM as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome is based on the controlled studies showing that patients with FM display signs of relentless sympathetic hyperactivity and that the pain is submissive to sympathetic blockade and is rekindled by norepinephrine injections. Dysautonomia also may explain the multisystem features of FM.
Liu, Lucy Y; Craiglow, Brittany G; Dai, Feng; King, Brett A
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disorder. There are no reliably effective therapies for AA. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Janus kinase 1/3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, in a series of patients over an extended period of time. This is a retrospective study of patients age 18 years or older with AA with at least 40% scalp hair loss treated with tofacitinib. The primary end point was the percent change in Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score during treatment. Ninety patients met inclusion criteria. Of 65 potential responders to therapy, defined as those with alopecia totalis or alopecia universalis with duration of current episode of disease of 10 years or less or alopecia areata, 77% achieved a clinical response, with 58% of patients achieving greater than 50% change in SALT score over 4 to 18 months of treatment. Patients with AA experienced a higher percent change in SALT score than did patients with alopecia totalis or alopecia universalis (81.9% vs 59.0%). Tofacitinib was well tolerated, and there were no serious adverse events. The retrospective nature of the data, the relatively small number of patients, and lack of a control group are limitations. Tofacitinib should be considered for the treatment of severe AA, alopecia totalis, and alopecia universalis; tofacitinib dose response will be better defined by randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bichsel, Kyle J.; Gogia, Navdeep; Malouff, Timothy; Pena, Zachary; Forney, Eric; Hammiller, Brianna; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A.
Treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapeutics like cyclophosphamide often causes alopecia as a result of premature and aberrant catagen. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals anagen hair follicles to enter catagen, we hypothesized that EGFR signaling may be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. To test this hypothesis, skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice were generated by crossing floxed Egfr and Keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment of control mice resulted in alopecia while Egfr mutant skin was resistant to cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Egfr mutant skin entered catagen normally, as indicated by dermal papilla condensation and decreased follicular proliferation, but did not progress to telogen as did Egfr wild type follicles. Egfr mutant follicles responded with less proliferation, apoptosis, and fewer p53-positive cells after cyclophosphamide. Treatment of control mice with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib similarly suppressed alopecia and catagen progression by cyclophosphamide. Secondary analysis of clinical trials utilizing EGFR-targeted therapies and alopecia-inducing chemotherapy also revealed evidence for involvement of EGFR in chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Taken together, our results demonstrated the involvement of EGFR signaling in chemotherapy-induced alopecia, which will help in the design of novel therapeutic regimens to minimize chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:23894460
Sharma, Ashok; Mohan, Kanwar; Sharma, Rajan; Nirankari, Verinder S
The authors report acyclovir-induced alopecia in a patient treated for herpetic keratouveitis. A 32-years-old female was diagnosed with herpetic keratouveitis. She was placed on prednisolone acetate (1%) suspension four times a day, atropine sulfate (1%) thrice a day, and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice-daily. Three weeks following oral acylovir, keratouveitis improved, but she developed alopecia without any drug eruptions. Oral acyclovir was discontinued. Three months later, alopecia completely resolved. Alopecia may be considered a possible complication following oral acyclovir.
Reid, Sophia D.; Obayan, Olubusayo; Mcclellan, Liza; Sperling, Leonard
Importance: Frontal fibrosing alopecia has previously been reported as rare among patients of African descent. The authors present 18 cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia affecting African American patients and review all published cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia involving patients of African descent. Observations: Since 2010, there have been 66 published cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia among patients of African descent; 59 women, five men, and two cases of unknown gender. Frontal fibrosing alopecia is not uncommon among patients of African descent. In this study, the authors find that female African American patients may have fewer symptoms and unique clinical presentations. Conclusion and relevance: Frontal fibrosing alopecia is an entity that can be seen in patients with many different ethnic backgrounds, often with varying presentations. The diagnosis of frontal fibrosing alopecia must be considered in any patient of African descent who presents with frontotemporal alopecia. In the authors’ patient population, there was a younger age of presentation. The presence of perifollicular hyperpigmentation along the hairline and concomitant facial hyperpigmentation may aid in making the diagnosis and distinguishing this entity from traction alopecia. PMID:27721910
Ciuchita, Tavi; Usurelu, Mircea; Antipa, Ciprian; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela; Ionescu, Elena
The authors tried to verify the efficacy of Low Power Laser (LPL) in scalp alopecia and crural ulcers of different causes. Laser used was (red diode, continuous emission, 8 mW power, wave length 670 nm spot size about 5 mm diameter on some points 1 - 2 minutes per point. We also use as control classical therapy. Before, during and after treatment, histological samples were done for alopecia. For laser groups (alopecia and ulcers) the results were rather superior and in a three or twice time shorter than control group. We conclude that LPL therapy is a very useful complementary method for the treatment of scalp alopecia and crural ulcers.
Tinoco-Fragoso, Fátima; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Méndez-Flores, Silvia
Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a disease characterized by a symmetric and progressive loss of hair in the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal lines that generally affects postmenopausal women. It is considered a variant of lichen planus pilaris for its clinical and histopathological features; although, its etiopathology is still unknown. In this report, we analyzed 4 cases of this disease and we discussed its clinical and histopathological characteristics, as well as their course after initiating treatment.
Jacobs, J P; Szpunar, C A; Warner, M L
Androgenetic alopecia is the most common cause of hair loss in men and women. Androgenetic alopecia in women begins as a diffuse and progressive thinning of the frontoparietal area of the scalp. In women, hair loss at any age is socially unacceptable and may be the basis of psychiatric illness. A 32-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 10 European centers to assess the efficacy and safety of 2% topical minoxidil solution for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women. Two hundred ninety-four of the 346 women enrolled (85%) completed the 32-week trial. Photographic and computer imaging techniques were used at each visit to determine objectively the number of nonvellus hairs present in a 1-cm2 area selected as the target evaluation site. In the 2% minoxidil group, the mean increase in nonvellus hair count was 33 hairs, which was significantly greater than that of 19 hairs in the placebo group (P = 0.0001). The investigators observed that 44% of the patients in the 2% minoxidil group achieved new hair growth compared with 29% in the placebo group. When asked to evaluate their own hair growth, 55% of the women in the 2% minoxidil group compared to 41% of the women in the placebo group believed that they had achieved new hair growth. No clinically significant changes in vital signs were observed during the study and no serious or unexpected medical events were reported. Topical minoxidil solution was significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.
Falk, Elizabeth F; Lam, Andrea T H; Barber, Lisa G; Ferrer, Lluis
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is common in humans, but there are limited reports describing the clinical features of CIA in dogs. To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of doxorubicin-associated alopecia (DAA) in canine patients at a teaching hospital from 2012 to 2014. Signalment, diagnosis, treatment protocols and clinical examination findings were recorded in 150 dogs treated with doxorubicin from 2012 to 2014. Medical records were searched retrospectively for the keywords "alopecia" and "hypotrichosis." Dogs were excluded if the causal link of hair loss was unclear. Doxorubicin-associated alopecia was reported in 28 of 150 dogs (19%). Two parameters were statistically associated with the development of DAA: coat-type and cumulative doxorubicin dose. Dogs with curly or wire-haired coat-type were significantly more likely to develop DAA than dogs with straight-haired coat-type [χ(2) (1, N = 147) = 30, P < 0.0001]. After adjusting for sex, weight and doxorubicin dose, the odds of dogs with curly or wire-haired coat-type developing DAA were 22 times higher than those with straight-haired coat-type (P < 0.0001). Dogs that developed DAA received a significantly higher median cumulative doxorubicin dose (103.0 versus 84.5 mg/m(2) ; P = 0.0039) than those that did not develop DAA. Dogs treated with doxorubicin may be at risk for developing DAA. This risk increases as the cumulative dose of doxorubicin increases, and with a curly or wire-haired coat-type. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.
Akarsu, Selim; Tok, Fatih; Tekin, Levent
We present a 37 year-old man with HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis for the last 3 years. Interestingly, he developed both alopecia areata and hypertrichosis simultaneously following infliximab treatment. Reporting this interesting patient of ours -to our best notice for the first time in the literature- we call attention of clinicians to the contradistinctive effects of anti-TNF-α agents on hair growth cycle.
Boyer, J D; Vidmar, D A
Postoperative alopecia is the temporary or permanent loss of hair that occurs following prolonged immobilization during general anesthesia and intubation. The clinical and histopathologic aspects of a typical case are described and the literature reviewed. Localized pressure-induced ischemia is the likely cause. Patients at highest risk for permanent hair loss include those subject to cardiac or gynecologic surgical procedures where the combined intraoperative and postoperative intubation time exceeds twenty-four hours. Frequent intraoperative and postoperative head repositioning provides excellent prophylaxis.
Redmond, G P; Bergfeld, W F
Androgen excess disorders--acne, alopecia, and hirsutism--can be treated effectively with endocrine therapy such as androgen receptor blockers or antagonists, or with androgen suppression. Spironolactone, estrogen, and dexamethasone are considered the most effective approaches to treatment. Whatever the modality, careful planning is key to success, with recognition that response rates vary from patient to patient. A treatment regimen generally continues for at least 2 years.
Hanneken, S; Ritzmann, S; Nöthen, M M; Kruse, R
Androgenetic alopecia is the most common type of hair loss in men and women. The disorder represents a quantitative phenotype with an underlying genetic disposition. So far none of the causative genes have been identified. Under the influence of androgens there is a shortening of the anagen phase as well as a reduction of the cellular hair matrix volume in the involved scalp area. This results in the transformation of thick terminal hair follicles into thin vellus-like hair follicles. Clinically, patients present with an alopecia that follows a defined pattern (pattern baldness) and progresses continuously but in varying degrees. In advanced cases, men may develop baldness with remaining hair exclusively in the temporal and occipital regions. Women are prone to exhibit a more diffuse type of hair loss with pronounced thinning in the parietal region. Whereas the diagnosis of androgenetic alopecia is easy, its treatment is often difficult. The physician is commonly confronted with high patients' expectations regarding hair regrowth. Today, with minoxidil and finasteride, effective therapies are available which can lead to cessation of hair loss. The identification of underlying genes will make a more specific therapy easier to achieve.
Santos, Zenildo; Avci, Pinar; Hamblin, Michael R
Introduction Hair loss or alopecia affects the majority of the population at some time in their life, and increasingly, sufferers are demanding treatment. Three main types of alopecia (androgenic [AGA], areata [AA] and chemotherapy-induced [CIA]) are very different, and have their own laboratory models and separate drug-discovery efforts. Areas covered In this article, the authors review the biology of hair, hair follicle (HF) cycling, stem cells and signaling pathways. AGA, due to dihydrotesterone, is treated by 5-α reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor blockers and ATP-sensitive potassium channel-openers. AA, which involves attack by CD8+NK group 2D-positive (NKG2D+) T cells, is treated with immunosuppressives, biologics and JAK inhibitors. Meanwhile, CIA is treated by apoptosis inhibitors, cytokines and topical immunotherapy. Expert opinion The desire to treat alopecia with an easy topical preparation is expected to grow with time, particularly with an increasing aging population. The discovery of epidermal stem cells in the HF has given new life to the search for a cure for baldness. Drug discovery efforts are being increasingly centered on these stem cells, boosting the hair cycle and reversing miniaturization of HF. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune attack in AA will yield new drugs. New discoveries in HF neogenesis and low-level light therapy will undoubtedly have a role to play. PMID:25662177
Karaman, Göksun Can; Dereboy, Ciğdem; Dereboy, Ferhan; Carman, Esra
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of androgenetic alopecia on males with and without hair loss and to delineate the level of stress gained by this type of alopecia. Two hundred and 52 males (175 with hair loss, 77 without hair loss), between 16 and 72 years of age, participated in the study. A hair loss form (five questions for sociodemographical features, eight questions for dermatological features, eight questions for psychological evaluation) and a list of stressful life events were used. Desire for treatment was significantly different between the participants with and without androgenetic alopesia (AGA; chi(2) = 5.877, d.f. = 1, P = 0.015). Regardless of the presence of AGA, 61.4% accepted AGA as a natural condition with a solution that should be sought, 38.5% as a cause for increased attention, and 56.2% thought that the psychological effects of AGA would mostly be negative. The negative effects of their AGA on other family members, relationships with the opposite sex and occupation/academic life were considered by 37.1%, 43.0% and 36.3% of the participants, respectively. None of the psychological parameters differed significantly between the participants with and without AGA. A small portion (5%) of the variance in perception of stress (0.22(2) = 0.048) might be explained by the degree of alopecia. Social and cultural differences might alter perceptions concerning AGA regardless of its presence in an individual.
Santos, Zenildo; Avci, Pinar; Hamblin, Michael R
Hair loss or alopecia affects the majority of the population at some time in their life, and increasingly, sufferers are demanding treatment. Three main types of alopecia (androgenic [AGA], areata [AA] and chemotherapy-induced [CIA]) are very different, and have their own laboratory models and separate drug-discovery efforts. In this article, the authors review the biology of hair, hair follicle (HF) cycling, stem cells and signaling pathways. AGA, due to dihydrotesterone, is treated by 5-α reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor blockers and ATP-sensitive potassium channel-openers. AA, which involves attack by CD8(+)NK group 2D-positive (NKG2D(+)) T cells, is treated with immunosuppressives, biologics and JAK inhibitors. Meanwhile, CIA is treated by apoptosis inhibitors, cytokines and topical immunotherapy. The desire to treat alopecia with an easy topical preparation is expected to grow with time, particularly with an increasing aging population. The discovery of epidermal stem cells in the HF has given new life to the search for a cure for baldness. Drug discovery efforts are being increasingly centered on these stem cells, boosting the hair cycle and reversing miniaturization of HF. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune attack in AA will yield new drugs. New discoveries in HF neogenesis and low-level light therapy will undoubtedly have a role to play.
Guo, Hongwei; Gao, Wendi Victor; Endo, Hiromi; McElwee, Kevin John
Treatments for androgenetic alopecia constitute a multi-billion-dollar industry, however, currently available therapeutic options have variable efficacy. Consequently, in recent years small biotechnology companies and academic research laboratories have begun to investigate new or improved treatment methods. Research and development approaches include improved formulations and modes of application for current drugs, new drug development, development of cell-based treatments, and medical devices for modulation of hair growth. Areas covered: Here we review the essential pathways of androgenetic alopecia pathogenesis and collate the current and emerging therapeutic strategies using journal publications databases and clinical trials databases to gather information about active research on new treatments. Expert opinion: We propose that topically applied medications, or intra-dermal injected or implanted materials, are preferable treatment modalities, minimizing side effect risks as compared to systemically applied treatments. Evidence in support of new treatments is limited. However, we suggest therapeutics which reverse the androgen-driven inhibition of hair follicle signaling pathways, such as prostaglandin analogs and antagonists, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), promotion of skin angiogenesis and perfusion, introduction of progenitor cells for hair regeneration, and more effective ways of transplanting hair, are the likely near future direction of androgenetic alopecia treatment development.
Duquenne, Carole; Cornec, Divi; Marhadour, Thierry; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Cantagrel, Alain; Pavy, Stephan; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Saraux, Alain
In patients with early arthritis naive to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, we evaluated the prevalence of initial and persistent lymphopenia, underlying diagnoses, and risk of infection or malignancy. Eight hundred and thirteen patients with early arthritis included in the ESPOIR cohort had a clinical examination, laboratory tests (viral serology, immunological tests, and cytokine profile), and radiographs. We determined the prevalence of lymphopenia at baseline and after 3 years, associated factors, diagnoses, and risk of infection or malignancy. At baseline, 50/813 (6.2%) patients had lymphopenia. Lymphopenia was associated with positive rheumatoid factor (P=0.02), cytopenia (P≤0.05), hepatitis C (P=0.05), higher C-reactive protein and DAS28 (P≤0.05 for both). Cytokine profile and radiological progression were not significantly different between patients with and without lymphopenia. Suspected diagnoses at inclusion were rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=27), unclassified arthritis (n=15), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n=3), spondyloarthritis (n=2), Sjögren's syndrome (n=1), hematologic disease (n=1), and fibromyalgia (n=1). Fifteen patients out of 42 (35.7%) with initial lymphopenia had persistent lymphopenia after 3 years, including 5 with documented causes (lupus, hepatitis C, undernutrition, azathioprine, and tamoxifen); none had PVB19, HIV, or HBV infection and none experienced infections, solid or hematologic malignancies during follow-up. Final diagnoses in these 15 patients were RA (n=6), unclassified arthritis (n=6), SLE (n=1), spondyloarthritis (n=1), and fibromyalgia (n=1). Lymphopenia is rare in early arthritis. The most common rheumatic cause is RA, in which marked inflammation and other cytopenias are common. Lymphopenia in early arthritis is often short-lived, even when methotrexate is prescribed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Johnson, Courtney M; Miteva, Mariya
Trichoscopy is a noninvasive visualization tool used to more accurately diagnose hair and scalp disorders. Alopecia areata (AA) in the patient of African descent can mimic the early signs of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA), especially if the initial presentation of hair loss occurs on the central scalp. Two African-American women presented with singular round-ovoid patches of decreased hair loss on the central scalp. Given the clinical presentation, CCCA was the working diagnosis. However, using dermoscopy, the patients were found to have exclamation hairs and short broken hairs on a background of honeycomb-like pigmented network and regular pinpoint white dots consistent with AA. The diagnosis was confirmed on biopsy. We demonstrate the role of dermoscopy for diagnosing AA in the patient of African descent.
Thomas, Eric N; Blotman, Francis
The objective of the study was to determine the current evidence to support guidelines for aerobic exercise (AE) and fibromyalgia (FM) in practice, and to outline specific research needs in these areas. Data sources consisted of a PubMed search, 2007 Cochrane Data Base Systematic review, 2008 Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, as well as additional references found from the initial search. Study selection included randomized clinical trials that compared an aerobic-only exercise intervention (land or pool based) with an untreated control, a non-exercise intervention or other exercise programs in patients responding to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. The following outcome data were obtained: pain, tender points, perceived improvement in FM symptoms such as the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (FIQ), physical function, depression (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory, FIQ subscale for depression), fatigue and sleep were extracted from 19 clinical trials that considered the effects of aerobic-only exercise in FM patients. Data synthesis shows that there is moderate evidence of important benefit of aerobic-only exercise in FM on physical function and possibly on tender points and pain. It appears to be sufficient evidence to support the practice of AE as a part of the multidisciplinary management of FM. However, future studies must be more adequately sized, homogeneously assessed, and monitored for adherence, to draw definitive conclusions.
Collado, Antonio; Conesa, Arantxa
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pathology and its main symptom is pain which usually does not respond to traditional analgesia. Its clinical characteristics and the diverse neurophysiologic findings in these patients point to a central sensitization process of the nociceptive system as the central physiopathologic axis in this disease. The knowledge of the nociceptive system functioning and its behavior in this disease has led, in the past few years, to new possibilities for the therapeutic approach. In that way, drugs with a differential mechanism of action, allowing a modulation of the nociceptive system capable of producing analgesia where other medications have failed are being developed. Different drugs with the capacity increasing the activity of biologically active amines implicated in the nociceptive inhibition process and others which are destined to reduce the excitability of the system through ion channels, are being tested with some benefit in Fibromyalgia patients and may constitute a more rational neuromodulating drug profile for this disease. This article reviews the different pharmacological strategies supported by scientific evidence and points to some future research lines that fortifies the therapeutic change taking place in the treatment approach of these patients. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Offenbaecher, M.; Kohls, N.; Toussaint, L. L.; Sigl, C.; Winkelmann, A.; Hieblinger, R.; Walther, A.; Büssing, A.
The objective of this study was to assess spiritual needs of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and to evaluate correlations with disease and health associated variables. Using a set of standardized questionnaires (i.e., Spiritual Needs Questionnaire, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36's Quality of Life, Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, etc.), we enrolled 141 patients (95% women, mean age 58 ± 10 years). Here, needs for inner peace and giving/generativity scored the highest, while existential needs and religious needs scored lowest. Particularly inner peace needs and existential needs correlated with different domains of reduced mental health, particularly with anxiety, the intention to escape from illness, and psychosocial restrictions. Thirty-eight percent of the patients stated needs to be forgiven and nearly half to forgive someone from their past life. Therefore, the specific spiritual needs of patients with chronic diseases should be addressed in clinical care in order to identify potential therapeutic avenues to support and stabilize their psychoemotional situation. PMID:24348691
Hudson, J I; Pope, H G
Looking at the results of the seven types of studies discussed previously, it appears that there is strong evidence for an association between fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder on the basis of (1) overlapping symptomatology, (2) similar pattern of comorbid disorders, and (3) high rates of major depressive disorder among relatives of patients with fibromyalgia. There is additional support for an association on the basis of responses to psychological tests and rating scales and the high lifetime rates of mood disorders in fibromyalgia. Two lines of evidence, (1) response to antidepressant medications and (2) response to biologic tests, offer little evidence either for or against an association. On balance, then the weight of the evidence favors an association between fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder. We therefore turn to an analysis of the nature of the association.
Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder &Fibromyalgia: Choosing What’sRight for You What are anticonvulsant drugs? Anticonvulsants are drugs used to treat seizures. They are also used to treat bipolar ...
Cucurull, E; Espinoza, L R
Disseminated gonococcal infection is the most common systemic complication of acute gonorrhea and occurs in 0.5% to 3.0% of patients with untreated mucosal infection. It is also the most common cause of septic arthritis in patients less than 30 years of age. Fortunately, the incidence of gonorrhea is decreasing dramatically in the United States and Western Europe, although it is still high in developing countries. Increasing resistance to antibiotics requires continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibilities to determine the efficacy of current therapeutic measures.
de Souza, Juliana Barcellos; Goffaux, Philippe; Julien, Nancy; Potvin, Stephane; Charest, Jacques; Marchand, Serge
The main goal of this project was to identify the presence of fibromyalgia (FM) subgroups using a simple and frequently used clinical tool, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). A total of 61 women diagnosed with FM participated in this study. FM subgroups were created by applying a hierarchical cluster analysis on selected items of the FIQ (pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depressive symptoms). We also tested for group differences on experimental pain, psychosocial functioning and demographic characteristics. Two cluster profiles best fit our data. FM-Type I was characterized by the lowest levels of anxiety, depressive and morning tiredness symptoms, while FM-Type II was characterized by elevated levels of pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Both FM subgroups showed hyperalgesic responses to experimental pain. These results suggest that pain and stiffness are universal symptoms of the disorder but that psychological distress is a feature present only in some patients.
Gunawan, Stefanus; Broeke, Chloe Ten; Ven, Peter van de; Arnoldussen, Marijn; Kaspers, Gertjan; Mostert, Saskia
This study assessed parental experiences with chemotherapy-induced alopecia among children with cancer treated at an Indonesian academic hospital. Fifty parents of childhood cancer patients were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. The moment that hair fell out was the moment that parents (84%) had to admit their child had cancer. Alopecia was a traumatizing painful experience (46%). Active strategies to hide alopecia, mainly hats, were used by 66% of children, while 34% never covered their bald head. If money had not been an issue, 40% would use another strategy. Alopecia made children limit outdoor daily activities (78%) and engagement with others (60%). Significantly more children from high-educated (95%) than low-educated (60%) parents received sympathy from other people (P=0.012). Significantly more Christian (29%) than Muslim (0%) families confirmed that alopecia lowered the quality of life (P=0.046). Most parents (82%) had no prior plans about alopecia management, yet for significantly more girls (26%) than boys (0%) such plans existed (P=0.044). Parents received most information about alopecia from other parents (66%). Parents (92%) needed more alopecia education from doctors. Of all school-attending children, 53% were bullied and 47% did not want to attend school due to alopecia. Significantly more high-educated than low-educated families received pity from teachers and pupils (94% vs. 0%, P=0.004), and acceptance by pupils (81% vs. 0%, P=0.021). Alopecia is a severe, far-stretching side-effect of chemotherapy with physical, psychological and social consequences for children and parents. Parents should be better informed about occurrence and impact of alopecia. Extra attention is required to facilitate children's return to school. Health- care providers should facilitate optimal supportive care through open dialogue and provision of educational materials for parents, children and their community.
Barton, James C; Bertoli, Luigi F; Barton, Jackson C; Acton, Ronald T
We sought to determine the prevalence and clinical and laboratory associations of fibromyalgia in adults with primary immunodeficiency (immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). We performed a retrospective analysis of these observations in 300 non-Hispanic white adult index patients with recurrent/severe respiratory tract infections and IgGSD or CVID: age; sex; IgGSD; fibromyalgia; chronic fatigue; autoimmune conditions (ACs); interstitial cystitis (IC); diabetes; body mass index; serum Ig isotypes; blood lymphocytes and subsets; and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and -B types and haplotypes. We performed univariate comparisons, logistic multivariable regressions, and an analysis of covariance. Mean age was 49 ± 12 (standard deviation) y. There were 246 women (82.0%). IgGSD was diagnosed in 276 patients (92.0%). Fifty-six patients had fibromyalgia (18.7%; female:male 13:1). Other characteristics included: chronic fatigue, 63.0%; aggregate ACs, 35.3%; Sjögren's syndrome, 8.0%; IC, 3.0%; diabetes, 10.3%; and HLA-A*29, B*44 positivity, 9.7%. Prevalences of female sex; chronic fatigue; IC; and HLA-A*29, B*44 positivity were greater in patients with fibromyalgia. Logistic regression on fibromyalgia revealed three positive associations: chronic fatigue (p=0.0149; odds ratio 2.6 [95% confidence interval 1.2, 5.6]); Sjögren's syndrome (p=0.0004; 5.2 [2.1, 13.2]); and IC (p=0.0232; 5.7 [1.3, 25.7]). In an analysis of covariance, there were significant interactions of chronic fatigue, Sjögren's syndrome, and interstitial cystitis on fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is common in non-Hispanic white adult index patients with primary immunodeficiency, especially women. Chronic fatigue, Sjögren's syndrome, and IC are significantly associated with fibromyalgia after adjustment for other independent variables.
Homann, Diogo; Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Stefanello, Joice Mara Facco; Góes, Suelen Meira; Lopes, André Luiz; de Oliveira, Alvaro Reischak; Leite, Neiva
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients with fibromyalgia is high, which makes these patients more likely to trigger metabolic changes. It is also uncertain whether the clinical manifestations of fibromyalgia alter the metabolism in these patients. This study investigates the influence of adiposity indicators and presence of fibromyalgia on leptin and acylated ghrelin levels, which are hormones responsible for controlling energy homeostasis. Seventeen women with fibromyalgia (patients) and fifteen healthy women (controls) were evaluated. Pain intensity, physical activity level characteristics and leptin and acylated ghrelin levels were assessed. General linear models, using a main-effects model, were used to test the effect of fibromyalgia (patients vs. controls) on the relationship of leptin and acylated ghrelin with anthropometric indicators [body mass index, waist circumference (WC) and WC by height]. Patients showed higher leptin levels (controls: 9.1 ± 6.7 vs. patients: 22.4 ± 10.6 ng/mL; p < 0.01) and lower acylated ghrelin levels (controls: 188.7 ± 103.4 vs. patients: 126.7 ± 47.8 pg/mL; p = 0.04). The anthropometric variables, entered into linear models as independent variables, significantly influenced both leptin and acylated ghrelin levels (p < 0.01). The explained variance (R(2)) of the models containing leptin was higher (R(2) = 0.52-0.61) compared to the models containing acylated ghrelin (R(2) = 0.24-0.27). When analyzing the influence of the presence of fibromyalgia (study group: women with fibromyalgia vs. healthy women), only the leptin levels were influenced. High leptin levels independent of adiposity in women with fibromyalgia may be associated with the clinical condition of this syndrome.
Ruaro, J A; Fréz, A R; Ruaro, M B; Nicolau, R A
Several clinical treatments have been proposed to manage symptoms of fibromyalgia. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may be a useful tool to treat this dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT in patients with fibromyalgia. A placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out with 20 patients divided randomly into either an LLLT group (n = 10) or a placebo group (n = 10). The LLLT group was treated with a GaAlAs laser (670 nm, 4 J/cm(2) on 18 tender points) three times a week over 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, patients were evaluated with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), McGill Pain Questionnaire, and visual analog scale (VAS). Data from the FIQ and McGill questionnaire for the treated and control groups were analyzed by paired t tests, and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze data from the VAS. After LLLT or sham treatment, the number of tender points was significantly reduced in both groups (LLLT, p < 0.0001; placebo, p = 0.0001). However, all other fibromyalgia symptoms showed significant improvements after LLLT compared to placebo (FIQ, p = 0.0003; McGill, p = 0.0078; and VAS, p = 0.0020). LLLT provided relief from fibromyalgia symptoms in patients and should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for management in fibromyalgia.
Fatigue is a disabling, multifaceted symptom that is highly prevalent and stubbornly persistent. Although fatigue is a frequent complaint among patients with fibromyalgia, it has not received the same attention as pain. Reasons for this include lack of standardized nomenclature to communicate about fatigue, lack of evidence-based guidelines for fatigue assessment, and a deficiency in effective treatment strategies. Fatigue does not occur in isolation; rather, it is present concurrently in varying severity with other fibromyalgia symptoms such as chronic widespread pain, unrefreshing sleep, anxiety, depression, cognitive difficulties, and so on. Survey-based and preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that multiple symptoms feed into fatigue and it may be associated with a variety of physiological mechanisms. Therefore, fatigue assessment in clinical and research settings must consider this multi-dimensionality. While no clinical trial to date has specifically targeted fatigue, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indicate that treatment modalities studied in the context of other fibromyalgia symptoms could also improve fatigue. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Fibromyalgia Working Group and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) have been instrumental in propelling the study of fatigue in fibromyalgia to the forefront. The ongoing efforts by PROMIS to develop a brief fibromyalgia-specific fatigue measure for use in clinical and research settings will help define fatigue, allow for better assessment, and advance our understanding of fatigue. PMID:24289848
de Sá Ribeiro, Guido Assis Cachuba; Scola, Rosana Hermínia; Piovesan, Elcio Juliato; Wollmann Junior, Darley Rugeri; Paiva, Eduardo Dos Santos; da Cunha, Claudio Leinig Pereira; Werneck, Lineu Cesar
Lactic acid is a byproduct of both muscle metabolism and the central nervous system. Changes in metabolism are related to various physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between migraine and fibromyalgia with the levels of lactic acid in the blood. We study of 93 patients was divided into five groups: 1) patients with fibromyalgia (n=20); 2) episodic migraine (n=20); 3) chronic migraine (n=20); 4) fibromyalgia and episodic migraine (n= 13); and 5) fibromyalgia and chronic migraine (n=20), and 20 healthy subjects (control group). Blood levels of lactic acid were measured at four different time points: at rest, during aerobic exercise, during anaerobic physical activity and while resting after anaerobic exercise. Lactic acid increased in all groups during anaerobic physical activity without predominance for either group. During aerobic physical activity, all groups increased lactic acid levels, but the increase was more expressive in the chronic migraine group and the chronic migraine with fibromyalgia group without statistical significance. We did not found abnormalities involving the metabolism of lactic acid in episodic and chronic migraine with or without fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Häuser, W; Jung, E; Erbslöh-Möller, B; Gesmann, M; Kühn-Becker, H; Petermann, F; Langhorst, J; Weiss, T; Thoma, R; Winkelmann, A
Consumer reports provide information on benefits and harms in routine clinical care. We report the first fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) consumer reports in Europe. The study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011. The benefits and harms of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies experienced by the patient were assessed in an 11-point Likert scale (0=no, 10=very high benefit or harm) by a questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed by the German League against Rheumatism and the German Fibromyalgia Association to their members and to all consecutive FMS patients of nine clinical centers of different levels of care. A total of 1,661 questionnaires (95% women, mean age 54 years) were analyzed. Self-management strategies (distraction, resting, aerobic exercise), physical therapies (warm and pool therapies), psychological therapies (education, psychotherapy), and inpatient multicomponent therapies were judged to be more efficacious and less harmful than all types of pharmacological therapies. The German fibromyalgia consumer reports highlight the importance of non-pharmcological therapies in the long-term management of FMS.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fibromyalgia Public Meeting on Patient-Focused Drug... public meeting entitled ``Fibromyalgia Public Meeting on Patient-Focused Drug Development''...
Hazemeijer, I; Rasker, J J
Fibromyalgia has always attracted controversy. Wolfe states that fibromyalgia will always exist regardless of the name given to the syndrome. Hadler describes fibromyalgia as a form of illness behaviour escalated by labelling. However, we believe that fibromyalgia, as other functional somatic syndromes, is not waiting below the surface until it becomes manifest by labelling. We developed our hypothesis on the relationship between a specific social setting (called the therapeutic domain) and fibromyalgia using empirical philosophical arguments based on Foucault and Hacking. A therapeutic domain is a real and heterogeneous medical domain in which people, their thoughts and practices, and medical technology in any form coexist and communicate. In this domain blood is aspirated, radiographs are taken and classification criteria are made and applied. It is a domain where patient and therapist have initiated a relationship, which is influenced by the media and political pressure. This results in a looping effect where classification criteria and images give structure to perceptions and form the description for human behaviour; the person thus diagnosed (!) constantly has to grow into the conformity of these classification criteria, which also have to be constantly revised. The fibromyalgia concept becomes manifest in an individual as non-specific aches and pains along with other features. In other times and settings this resulted in analogue syndromes like railway spine, telegraph wrists, neurocirculatory asthenia or perhaps repetitive strain injury. In the application of American College of Rheumatology fibromyalgia classification criteria, labels and medical technology it is possible that invisible experiences manifest themselves in a therapeutic domain. It is not only a phenotype induced by the physician, but in this domain a certain power creates reality making the 'disease' become manifest. The only certainty in fibromyalgia is that it is still being diagnosed. For
Walitt, Brian; Urrútia, Gerard; Nishishinya, María Betina; Cantrell, Sarah E; Häuser, Winfried
Background Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition with a biopsychosocial aetiology. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep problems, cognitive dysfunction, and fatigue. Patients often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Since there is no specific treatment that alters the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia, drug therapy focuses on pain reduction and improvement of other aversive symptoms. Objectives The objective was to assess the benefits and harms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1946 to June 2014), and the reference lists of reviewed articles. Selection criteria We selected all randomized, double-blind trials of SSRIs used for the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms in adult participants. We considered the following SSRIs in this review: citalopram, fluoxetine, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Data collection and analysis Three authors extracted the data of all included studies and assessed the risks of bias of the studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. Main results The quality of evidence was very low for each outcome. We downgraded the quality of evidence to very low due to concerns about risk of bias and studies with few participants. We included seven placebo-controlled studies, two with citalopram, three with fluoxetine and two with paroxetine, with a median study duration of eight weeks (4 to 16 weeks) and 383 participants, who were pooled together. All studies had one or more sources of potential major bias. There was a small (10%) difference in patients who reported a 30% pain reduction between SSRIs (56/172 (32.6%)) and placebo (39/171 (22.8%)) risk difference (RD) 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.20; number needed to treat for an additional
Walitt, Brian; Urrútia, Gerard; Nishishinya, María Betina; Cantrell, Sarah E; Häuser, Winfried
Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition with a biopsychosocial aetiology. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep problems, cognitive dysfunction, and fatigue. Patients often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Since there is no specific treatment that alters the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia, drug therapy focuses on pain reduction and improvement of other aversive symptoms. The objective was to assess the benefits and harms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1946 to June 2014), and the reference lists of reviewed articles. We selected all randomized, double-blind trials of SSRIs used for the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms in adult participants. We considered the following SSRIs in this review: citalopram, fluoxetine, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Three authors extracted the data of all included studies and assessed the risks of bias of the studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. The quality of evidence was very low for each outcome. We downgraded the quality of evidence to very low due to concerns about risk of bias and studies with few participants. We included seven placebo-controlled studies, two with citalopram, three with fluoxetine and two with paroxetine, with a median study duration of eight weeks (4 to 16 weeks) and 383 participants, who were pooled together.All studies had one or more sources of potential major bias. There was a small (10%) difference in patients who reported a 30% pain reduction between SSRIs (56/172 (32.6%)) and placebo (39/171 (22.8%)) risk difference (RD) 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.20; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 10, 95% CI 5 to 100; and in global improvement (proportion of patients who
Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition with a biopsychosocial aetiology. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep problems, cognitive dysfunction, and fatigue. Patients often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Since there is no specific treatment that alters the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia, drug therapy focuses on pain reduction and improvement of other aversive symptoms. To assess the benefits and harms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1946 to June 2014), and the reference lists of reviewed articles. We selected all randomized, double-blind trials of SSRIs used for the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms in adult participants. We considered the following SSRIs in this review: citalopram, fluoxetine, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Three authors extracted the data of all included studies and assessed the risks of bias of the studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. The quality of evidence was very low for each outcome. We downgraded the quality of evidence to very low due to concerns about risk of bias and studies with few participants. We included seven placebo-controlled studies, two with citalopram, three with fluoxetine and two with paroxetine, with a median study duration of eight weeks (4 to 16 weeks) and 383 participants, who were pooled together. All studies had one or more sources of potential major bias. There was a small (10%) difference in patients who reported a 30% pain reduction between SSRIs (56/172 (32.6%)) and placebo (39/171 (22.8%)) risk difference (RD) 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.20; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 10, 95% CI 5 to 100; and in global improvement (proportion of patients who reported to be much
Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Dong-Jin; Kim, Seong-Ho; Nah, Seong-Su; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Yeon-Ah; Hong, Seung-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Hyoun Ah; Joung, Chung-Il; Kim, Sang-Hyon
Objective Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) is lower than in patients with other chronic diseases and the general population. Although various factors affect HRQOL, no study has examined a structural equation model of HRQOL as an outcome variable in FM patients. The present study assessed relationships among physical function, social factors, psychological factors, and HRQOL, and the effects of these variables on HRQOL in a hypothesized model using structural equation modeling (SEM). Methods HRQOL was measured using SF-36, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was used to assess physical dysfunction. Social and psychological statuses were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), and the Social Support Scale. SEM analysis was used to test the structural relationships of the model using the AMOS software. Results Of the 336 patients, 301 (89.6%) were women with an average age of 47.9±10.9 years. The SEM results supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 2.336, df = 3, p = 0.506). The final model showed that Physical Component Summary (PCS) was directly related to self-efficacy and inversely related to FIQ, and that Mental Component Summary (MCS) was inversely related to FIQ, BDI, and STAI. Conclusions In our model of FM patients, HRQOL was affected by physical, social, and psychological variables. In these patients, higher levels of physical function and self-efficacy can improve the PCS of HRQOL, while physical function, depression, and anxiety negatively affect the MCS of HRQOL. PMID:28158289
Pamuk, Omer Nuri; Cakir, Necati
We determined the frequency of thyroid autoantibodies in fibromyalgia (FM) patients and the relationship between FM symptoms and these antibodies. Euthyroid 128 FM patients, 64 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and 64 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The sociodemographic features and the clinical features of FM patients were determined. By using a visual analog scale, patients were questioned about the severity of FM-related symptoms. All patients were administered with Duke-Anxiety Depression (Duke-AD) scale, the physical function items of the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire scale. Thyroid autoimmunity was defined as the presence of detectable antithyroglobulin (TgAb) and/or antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) antibodies by the immunometric methods. Patients with a connective tissue disorder, hypo- or hyperthyroidism, and patients who had psychiatric treatment within the last 6 months were not included into the study. The frequencies of thyroid autoimmunity in FM (34.4%) and RA (29.7%) patients were significantly higher than controls (18.8%) (p<0.05). Twenty-six (20.3%) FM patients had positive TgAb and 31 (24.2%) had positive TPOAb. When patients with thyroid autoimmunity were compared to others, it was seen that the mean age, the percentage of postmenopausal patients, the frequency of dryness of the mouth, and the percentage of patients with a previous psychiatric treatment were higher in this group (p<0.05). FM patients had thyroid autoimmunity similar to the frequency in RA and higher than controls. Age and postmenopausal status seemed to be associated with thyroid autoimmunity in FM patients. The presence of thyroid autoimmunity had no relationship with the depression scores of FM patients.
Muquith, Mohammed A; Islam, Md Nazrul; Haq, Syed A; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Rasker, Johannes J; Yunus, Muhammad B
Currently, no validated instruments are available to measure the health status of Bangladeshi patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Bengali (B-FIQ) and to test its validity and reliability in Bangladeshi patients with FM. The FIQ was translated following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines and pretested in 30 female patients with FM. Next, the adapted B-FIQ was physician-administered to 102 consecutive female FM patients together with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), selected subscales of the SF-36, and visual analog scales for current clinical symptoms. A tender point count (TPC) was performed by an experienced rheumatologist. Forty randomly selected patients completed the B-FIQ again after 7 days. Two control groups of 50 healthy people and 50 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients also completed the B-FIQ. For the final B-FIQ, five physical function sub-items were replaced with culturally appropriate equivalents. Internal consistency was adequate for both the 11-item physical function subscale (α = 0.73) and the total scale (α = 0.83). With exception of the physical function subscale, expected correlations were generally observed between the B-FIQ items and selected subscales of the SF-36, HAQ, clinical symptoms, and TPC. The B-FIQ was able to discriminate between FM patients and healthy controls and between FM patients and RA patients. Test-retest reliability was adequate for the physical function subscale (r = 0.86) and individual items (r = 0.73-0.86), except anxiety (r = 0.27) and morning tiredness (r = 0.64). This study supports the reliability and validity of the B-FIQ as a measure of functional disability and health status in Bangladeshi women with FM.
Maheswari, Uma G; Chaitra, V; Mohan, Subbiah S
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is an X-linked xenodermatosis characterized by scarring alopecia and follicular hyperkeratosis. This condition mainly affects males with females being carriers and will have milder symptoms. We present two sisters with severe form of KFSD, progressing to scarring alopecia.
Maheswari, Uma G; Chaitra, V; Mohan, Subbiah S
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is an X-linked xenodermatosis characterized by scarring alopecia and follicular hyperkeratosis. This condition mainly affects males with females being carriers and will have milder symptoms. We present two sisters with severe form of KFSD, progressing to scarring alopecia. PMID:23960394