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Sample records for arthur kill project

  1. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be maintained in the full open position for navigation at all...

  3. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be maintained in the full open position for navigation at all...

  4. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be maintained in the full open position for navigation at all...

  5. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be maintained in the full open position for navigation at all...

  6. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be maintained in the full open position for navigation at all...

  7. GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. 78 FR 43063 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard... District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Arthur Kill AK Railroad Bridge across Arthur Kill, mile 11.6, between Staten Island, New York and Elizabeth,...

  9. 76 FR 16715 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulations governing the operation of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge at mile 11.6, across Arthur Kill... Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge at mile 11.6, across Arthur Kill, has a vertical clearance of 31 feet at...

  10. 76 FR 45690 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final... operation of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge at mile 11.6, across Arthur Kill between Staten Island... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulations Raritan River, Arthur Kill and...

  11. 77 FR 1023 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ AGENCY... amending the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) in the navigable waters of the Arthur Kill in New York and New... Arthur Kill. An earlier TIR added the basic RNA regulation for that waterway: 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 (76...

  12. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section 165.T01-0727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T01-0727 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. (a) Regulated area. The following area..., and Gulfport Reach in the Arthur Kill; bounded in the northeast by a line drawn from position 40°...

  13. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section 165.T01-0727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T01-0727 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. (a) Regulated area. The following area..., and Gulfport Reach in the Arthur Kill; bounded in the northeast by a line drawn from position 40°...

  14. 76 FR 34692 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC; v. New York...

  15. 76 FR 36910 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC. v. New York...

  16. 76 FR 36914 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC, v. New York...

  17. 3 CFR - Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other Domestic Pipeline Infrastructure Projects Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 22, 2012 Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects...

  18. Evaluation of treatment, disposal, and managerial options for dredged sediments from Newark Bay, Arthur Kill, and Newton Creek of New York/New Jersey Harbor and proposed design

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, A.; Clesceri, N.; Preiss, I.; Stern, E.; Jones, K.; Donato, K.

    1996-11-01

    The bay areas surrounding New York/New Jersey Harbor are naturally shallow, acting as catchments for river-transported sediments and solids from surface point and nonpoint sources. Dredging is required to maintain navigability for large cargo ships. Annually more than 5 million yd{sup 3} of sediments has been dredged to maintain harbors and waterways for New York and New Jersey Harbor. Currently about 80% of dredge sediments are considered clean and ocean disposed of at the designated Mud Dump site, located approximately 6 nautical miles south of Rockaways. In order to be disposed of at the Mud Dump site, the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA) requires the evaluation of the environmental impact using criteria developed by the USEPA and published through 40 CFR Parts 220 to 228. Based on the results of the evaluation, the sediments are assigned one of three categories which defines their potential disposal method--Category 1 sediments (acceptable for ocean disposal), Category 2 sediments (acceptable for ocean disposal with specific mitigation), and Category 3 sediments (not permitted for ocean dumping). A growing public concern over the impacts of contaminated sediments, in addition to a more stringent set of criteria having been established, is expected to significantly increase the volume of sediments requiring special handling or disposal, due to the inability to dispose of Category 3 sediments at the Mud Dump Site. Hence, the objective of this project is to study the contaminant characteristics of sediments in the Newark Bay, Arthur Kill, and Newtown Creek area and identify and evaluate alternative methods for managing or decontaminating sediments that are practical, cost-effective, and protective of human health and the environment.

  19. 77 FR 18891 - Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ..., consultations, and other processes as necessary to expedite decisions related to domestic pipeline..., to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other Domestic Pipeline Infrastructure Projects Memorandum for the Heads... and trucks, and a world-class refining sector that last year was a net exporter of petroleum...

  20. Deployment of a Prototype Plant GFP Imager at the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse of the Haughton Mars Project

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Bamsey, Matthew; Berinstain, Alain; Braham, Stephen; Neron, Philip; Murdoch, Trevor; Graham, Thomas; Ferl, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of engineered plants as biosensors has made elegant strides in the past decades, providing keen insights into the health of plants in general and particularly in the nature and cellular location of stress responses. However, most of the analytical procedures involve laboratory examination of the biosensor plants. With the advent of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a biosensor molecule, it became at least theoretically possible for analyses of gene expression to occur telemetrically, with the gene expression information of the plant delivered to the investigator over large distances simply as properly processed fluorescence images. Spaceflight and other extraterrestrial environments provide unique challenges to plant life, challenges that often require changes at the gene expression level to accommodate adaptation and survival. Having previously deployed transgenic plant biosensors to evaluate responses to orbital spaceflight, we wished to develop the plants and especially the imaging devices required to conduct such experiments robotically, without operator intervention, within extraterrestrial environments. This requires the development of an autonomous and remotely operated plant GFP imaging system and concomitant development of the communications infrastructure to manage dataflow from the imaging device. Here we report the results of deploying a prototype GFP imaging system within the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse (ACMG) an autonomously operated greenhouse located within the Haughton Mars Project in the Canadian High Arctic. Results both demonstrate the applicability of the fundamental GFP biosensor technology and highlight the difficulties in collecting and managing telemetric data from challenging deployment environments. PMID:27879848

  1. NASA Sees Hurricane Arthur's Fireworks

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 3, NASA's TRMM satellite passed over Arthur and saw intense bands of thunderstorms north of Arthur's well defined eye dropping rainfall at a rate of over 98.4 mm (3.9 inches) per hour. Thos...

  2. Arthur: A Tale of Disempowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, La Vergne

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the case of Arthur, a neglected 9-year-old boy from an opulent home. Arthur's illiterate mother failed to provide him with books or a study area and refused to cooperate in a teacher-designed literacy program. Socioeconomic status can foster false assumptions about a child's home environment and its influence on literacy development.…

  3. Arthur: A Personalized Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Juan E.; Han, C. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether there was a significant difference in learner outcomes from the use of Arthur (Gilbert & Han, 1999), a computer-based adaptive instructional system that provides personalized instruction to each learner. Found that Arthur does provide a significant difference in learner outcomes. (EV)

  4. Faces of Marshall: Arthur Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Metallurgist Arthur Brown shares how his high school drafting and welding success led him to a NASA ca...

  5. Arthur Smith, Local Baptist Pastor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School this volume has three articles dealing with East Texas life. The first "Arthur Smith" (David Hancock and others) is an account of growing up in Marian County, Texas is described by the local Baptist minister. The pastor begins with the year of his birth and gives detailed…

  6. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  7. Arthur. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Arthur," a book-based educational television program designed for children ages 4-8, is popular among preschool and kindergarten students. The program is based on the storybooks, by Marc Brown, about Arthur, an 8-year-old aardvark. Each show is 30 minutes in length and includes two stories involving characters dealing with moral issues.…

  8. Targeted Killings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    American territory in history. Two aircraft torpedoed into the Twin Towers in New York City at speeds of over 490mph killing 2,595 people . Shortly...bomb exploded in the World Trade Center in New York City, killing a half-dozen people and wounding over a thousand. Over the next three years Al...executed his most incredible attack killing close to 3,000 people . President Bush announced to the world that, “U.S. troops will hunt down terrorists and

  9. The Unusual Evolution of Hurricane Arthur 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael; Line, William; Cangialosi, John; Halverson, Jeffery; Berndt, Emily; Sienkiewicz, Joseph; Goodman, Steve; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Arthur (2014) was an early season hurricane that had its roots in a convective complex in the Southern Plains of the U.S. As the complex moved into northern Texas, a Mesoscale Convective Vortex (MCV) formed and drifted towards the east of the southern U.S. for a few days before emerging over the southwest Atlantic near South Carolina. The MCV drifted south and slowly acquired tropical characteristics, eventually becoming a Category 2 hurricane that would affect much of eastern North Carolina prior to the 4th of July holiday weekend. Arthur continued up the coast, brushing portions of southeast New England and merged with an upper-level low, completing a full tropical to extratropical-transition in the process, producing damaging wind gusts in portions of the Canadian Maritimes. As part of the GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Proving Grounds, multiple proxy and operational products were available to analyze and forecast this complex evolution. The Storm Prediction Center had products available to monitor the initial severe thunderstorm aspect, while the National Hurricane Center and Ocean Prediction Center were able to monitor the tropical and extratropical transition of Arthur using various convective and red, green, blue (RGB) products that have been introduced in recent years. This paper will discuss Arthur's evolution through the eyes of the various Satellite Proving Ground demonstrations.

  10. Douglas MacArthur Upon Reflection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    father’s funeral .14 Arthur II was a vigorous, bellicose, pugnacious, relentless and heroic military leader.15 According to General Enoch Crowder...the devil may care 1920s, Douglas didn’t understand the stock market, didn’t care for jazz and would not sample bathtub gin. The junior Mrs

  11. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfman, Lois; Walker, Marlon A.

    2011-01-01

    "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, "Diverse" invites every college and…

  12. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfman, Lois; Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, they invite every college and…

  13. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  14. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  15. Suspended-sediment and turbidity responses to sediment and turbidity reduction projects in the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek, Watersheds, New York, 2010–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael R.; Davis, Wae Danyelle

    2016-12-05

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were monitored within the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek tributaries to the upper Esopus Creek in New York, the main source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir, from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2014. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine the effects of suspended-sediment and turbidity reduction projects (STRPs) on SSC and turbidity in two of the three streams; no STRPs were constructed in the Beaver Kill watershed. During the study period, four STRPs were completed in the Stony Clove Creek and Warner Creek watersheds. Daily mean SSCs decreased significantly for a given streamflow after the STRPs were completed. The most substantial decreases in daily mean SSCs were measured at the highest streamflows. Background SSCs, as measured in water samples collected in upstream reference stream reaches, in all three streams in this study were less than 5 milligrams per liter during low and high streamflows. Longitudinal stream sampling identified stream reaches with failing hillslopes in contact with the stream channel as the primary sediment sources in the Beaver Kill and Stony Clove Creek watersheds.

  16. Arthur L. Schmeltekopf Jr. (1932-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Carleton J.

    2009-05-01

    Arthur Louis Schmeltekopf Jr. died of mesothelioma, a lung cancer associated with exposure to asbestos, at his home in Marshall, N. C., on 20 August 2007. He was born on 24 February 1932, in Kyle, Tex., to Arthur L. and Meta (Engelbrecht) Schmeltekopf and grew up nearby on the family farm. Art had an early interest in science. A dispute over the reactivity of alkali metals toward water led to an experiment at Kyle High School involving a chunk of sodium metal and a toilet in the boys' room. The resulting explosion shattered the toilet, creating a flood, multiple geysers and panic in the nearby girls' room, a displaced lid on the school’s septic tank, and an enduring school legend.

  17. Arthur Cayley and the `Gruppen Pest'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, P.

    2015-09-01

    The original contributions of Arthur Cayley to the Philosophical Magazine on group theory and his 'trees' are revisited and to some extend reinterpreted. Both topics were and are of enormous importance not only in physics (group theory, graph theory), but also in quite a few other disciplines as diverse as information technology or, for example, linguistics (trees, graph theory). In order to show that these two topics originally arose from interests in the theory of permutations also Cayley's 'Mousetrap' game is briefly mentioned.

  18. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 1. Project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-07

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer October, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer October, 1934 (a) PROVINCE HOUSE STEPS FROM WEST - Wrought Iron Archway & Steps, Province & Bosworth Streets, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (j) Int- (so- called) Slaves' Pew, East Gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (f) Int-General view looking north toward pulpit. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  2. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (e) Ext- Detail, main entrance, west front. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934 (b) LIGHTHOUSE AND KEEPER'S COTTAGE FROM SOUTHWEST - Lighthouse, Cedar Point Scituate Harbor, Scituate, Plymouth County, MA

  4. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (g) Ext- general view, gateway entrance and fence. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  5. Beyond killing

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Pedro F.; McNally, Luke; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea; King, Kayla C.; Popat, Roman; Domingo-Sananes, Maria R.; Allen, Judith E.; Soares, Miguel P.; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic pipeline is running dry and infectious disease remains a major threat to public health. An efficient strategy to stay ahead of rapidly adapting pathogens should include approaches that replace, complement or enhance the effect of both current and novel antimicrobial compounds. In recent years, a number of innovative approaches to manage disease without the aid of traditional antibiotics and without eliminating the pathogens directly have emerged. These include disabling pathogen virulence-factors, increasing host tissue damage control or altering the microbiota to provide colonization resistance, immune resistance or disease tolerance against pathogens. We discuss the therapeutic potential of these approaches and examine their possible consequences for pathogen evolution. To guarantee a longer half-life of these alternatives to directly killing pathogens, and to gain a full understanding of their population-level consequences, we encourage future work to incorporate evolutionary perspectives into the development of these treatments. PMID:27016341

  6. General Douglas MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition, Command and General Staff College, 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...1 Managing Risk in Today’s Army This paper is the second place winner of the General Douglas MacArthur...principles to guide leaders at all levels. In support of this important objective, the manual offers a comprehensive framework for leadership that

  7. Our Magnetic Planet (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    It is a great honour to receive the Arthur Holmes Medal, certainly the highest scientific award of my life. My first thoughts and deep gratitude are with the people who have contributed to me being here today, from my PhD mentors, Pierre Berge and Pierre Pério, later Jacques Labeyrie, my colleagues and students and last, but not least, the members of the Committee on Education of EGU, with whom I have shared over 10 years of a wonderful educational activity. In this presentation, among the various scientific arguments in which I have been involved, I will recall only those mentioned in my letter of nomination to the Holmes Medal, trying to replace them in what was known at the time. After a PhD in Solid State Physics, working in a laboratory of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, I obtained a post doctoral research position for the the study of liquid binary critical fluids, and worked on this topics for 5 years. I then joined the Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, a CNRS-CEA Institute dedicated to the study of geological-environmental phenomena. My first task there has been to develop a paleomagnetic laboratory, dedicated to the study of Earth Sciences, through the study of the magnetic properties of sediments and igneous rocks. From there on, my entire scientific activity has been devoted to the study of our "Magnetic Planet". My first project in Geophysics dealt with the geodynamical evolution of the Aegean Arc. At the time, only a few paleomagnetic studies existed in the Mediterranean realm, and none in the Aegean region. Moreover all of them dealt with rather old geological formations, so that almost nothing was known about the recent post-cretaceous evolution. The originality of our study was to start from the most recent to the older formations, in order to precisely describe "retro-tectonically" the different phases of rotational deformation. This intensive study (over 700 sampling sites, over 10,000 samples spread over continental Greece, the Aegean

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (b) Ext- Detail doorway, east side of house. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (A) Ext. General view from Southeast. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (a) Ext- General front view from southeast. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey Employee.) (a) Ext- General view from Southeast. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (b) Ext- General view rear, looking from north. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (c) Ext-Detail entrance on south. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey employee.) (b) Ext- Main building, south end. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  15. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. 1, 1939 (l) INT.- STAIRWAY, 4th FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTH - M.I.T., Rogers Building, 491 Boylston Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November 27, 1936 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION OF SECOND FLOOR FIREPLACE. - Judge Sebron G. Sneed House, Route I-35 & Bluff Springs Road, Austin, Travis County, TX

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November 27, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT). - Judge Sebron G. Sneed House, Route I-35 & Bluff Springs Road, Austin, Travis County, TX

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November 27, 1936 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION (SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE). - Judge Sebron G. Sneed House, Route I-35 & Bluff Springs Road, Austin, Travis County, TX

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer September, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer September, 1934 (a) GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - St. Augustine Chapel, St. Augustine Cemetery, Dorchester Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (h) Int-Detail Gallery Stairs, S.E. Corner. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  1. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (i) Int-Looking down on pulpit and first floor from west gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) EXT.-MAPLE MEADOW BROOK AQUEDUCT, WILMINGTON, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middlesex Canal, Maple Meadow Brook Aqueduct, Wilmington, Middlesex County, MA

  3. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May 29, 1939 (r) INT.- MANTEL & MIRROR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, 1st. FLOOR - Cook-Oliver House, 142 Federal Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  4. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (d) Portion of old machinery now lying beside track. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  5. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. 28, 1935 (i) INT.- WALL STENCILLING, REAR ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Peter Jayne House, 37 Mugford Street, Marblehead, Essex County, MA

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer April 24, 1936 EAST ELEVATION (FRONT). - O'Henry House, Lone Star Brewery, 600 Lone Star Boulevard, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (c) Int- Mantel detail (sitting) room SE corner, first floor - Fearing-Warr House, 14 Elm Street, Wareham, Plymouth County, MA

  8. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer, September 23, 1936 DETAIL OF TOWER (EAST ELEVATION). - Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo, Mission Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  9. Arthur Miller Wins a Peace Prize: Teaching, Literature, and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopald, Meredith

    1992-01-01

    Describes how a high school student was able to express powerful feelings and achieve some kind of reconciliation with his father through his therapeutic exploration of Arthur Miller's play "Death of a Salesman." (PRA)

  10. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, O

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief.

  11. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (k) Int-Mantel detail, Dining (S.E. Corner) Room, First Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  12. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (l) Int-Mantel Detail, Bedroom (S.E. Corner) Second Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (c) Ext- General view of House and Ell from Southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (b) Ext- General view of main house from southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March 24, 1936 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION (SOUTH SIDE AND WEST END). - St. Mark's Episcopal Church, 307 East Pecan Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March 16, 1936 EAST ELEVATION (ALTAR END AND BELL TOWER). - St. Mark's Episcopal Church, 307 East Pecan Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March 24, 1936 DETAIL WEST END AND SOUTH SIDE (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION). - St. Mark's Episcopal Church, 307 East Pecan Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  18. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (e) Portion of old quarry wagon at head of incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (a) General view of incline to Quarry from Northwest. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (c) Detail of track and set pulleys on quarry incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (b) Detail of old railroad part way up incline to quarry. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Dec. 29, 1936 (i) EXT.- 32, 34 JACKSON STREET, looking NORTHWEST - Mill Houses, 32 & 34 Jackson Street, Middleboro, Plymouth County, MA

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Nov. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Nov. 5, 1938 (e) INT.- EAST WALL & FIREPLACE, DINING ROOM - Reverend Pitt Clark House, Mansfield Avenue, Norton, Bristol County, MA

  4. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Nov. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Nov. 5, 1938 (f) INT.- EAST WALL & FIREPLACE, BACK KITCHEN - Reverend Pitt Clark House, Mansfield Avenue, Norton, Bristol County, MA

  5. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW AFTER 1919 STORM (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  6. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW PRIOR TO 1919 STORM (EAST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer; COPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer; COPY OF VIEW BELONGING RO MR. FAXON, OF QUINCY. (f) Ext- Photo of full size model of old car. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  8. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (f) Int- Mantel in southwest room first floor - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (c) Ext- Detail old seat on entrance porch - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  10. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (h) Int- Mantel in southwest room second floor - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  11. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (g) Int- Mantel in northeast room first floor - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (b) Ext- Detail entrance porch from southwest - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (a) Model of Old Windmill and Vats found in Atwood House, W. Chatham, Mass. - Enoch Harding Salt Works, Buck's Creek, West Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1938 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1938 (c) Int- Shoe Shop looking toward East End - Henry Wilson Shoe Shop, West Central & Mill Streets, Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  15. Medicalized killing in Auschwitz.

    PubMed

    Lifton, R J

    1982-11-01

    Since late 1977 I have been conducting a psychological study of medical behavior in Auschwitz, and of Nazi doctors in general. I have been especially interested in the relationship of doctors, SS doctors in particular, to the killing process--in the transformation from healer to killer. I am concerned with the importance of the medicalized pattern for the overall Nazi project of mass murder and have therefore tried to examine the interaction of biomedical ideology, political ideology, and individual behavior. Finally, the work raises questions of more general significance: for doctors and medicine elsewhere; for scientists, other professionals, and institutions of all kinds; for approaches to "triage" and control over life and death; and for our understanding of human nature and human values. After describing how I did the study, I will discuss what I call the Nazi "biomedical vision" and its relationship to the killing of mental patients as well as to Auschwitz. Next I will suggest features of the Auschwitz atmosphere, particularly in regard to the psychological factors, or mechanisms, that enabled the Nazi doctors to do what they did. Finally, I will turn very briefly to the more general problems raised by the study.

  16. 76 FR 52569 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... simulator assessments of the drilling and blasting areas. These simulations studied the possibility of... dynamic nature of the dredging process and multitude of drilling and blasting equipment associated with... rule so that they can better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking...

  17. Planning a dynamic kill

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the methodology, design philosophy, and guidelines for planning a dynamic-kill operation for a wild well. The topics covered are two methods of computer analysis for designing dynamic-kill requirements, the design process, determining the pumping spread, and the pitfalls that a designer faces in planning a dynamic kill.

  18. General Douglas MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition, Command and General Staff College 2012 Award Winning Essays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...1 Managing Risk in Today’s Army This paper is the second place winner of the General Douglas MacArthur...principles to guide leaders at all levels. In support of this important objective, the manual offers a comprehensive framework for leadership that

  19. Null Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukács, B.; Perjés, Z.; Sebestyén, Á.

    1981-06-01

    Space-times admitting a null Killing vector are studied, using the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism. The properties of the eigenrays (principal null curves of the Killing bivector) are shown to be related to the twist of the null Killing vector. Among the electrovacs, the ones containing a null Maxwell field turn out to belong to the twist-free class. An electrovac solution is obtained for which the null Killing vector is twisting and has geodesic and shear-free eigenrays. This solution is parameterless and appears to be the field of a zero-mass, spinning, and charged source.

  20. Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marché, Jordan D., II

    2009-12-01

    Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the

  1. American Historian Arthur Schlesinger's Challenge to Women Historians and Scholars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Barbara Bennett

    In 1922, Arthur Schlesinger urged his fellow historians to write women into the history books. He recognized that the size and sweep of women's history offered scholars and students the opportunity of a new major field. His call failed to arouse skeptical minds through the 1940s and 1950s as feminism fell into disrepute. But with the resurgence of…

  2. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, O.

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. PMID:19881059

  3. Reconsidering Arthur Bestor and the Cold War in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, Burton

    2000-01-01

    Explores the development of Arthur Bestor's ideas and his differences with progressives during the 1950's. Contends their differences, exacerbated by the Cold War, were matters of emphasis not principles. Concludes that ongoing post-Cold War battles among liberal social educators should be resolved in favor of their common social and educational…

  4. Astronaut William McArthur prepares for a training exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Wearing training versions of the partial pressure launch and entry garment, Astronaut William S. McArthur prepares to rehearse emergency egress procedures for the STS-58 mission. He is standing outside of the side hatch to the full fuselage trainer.

  5. Narrative Development in Bilingual Kindergarteners: Can Arthur Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the children's TV program Arthur on the development of narrative skills over an academic year for Spanish-speaking English-language learners. In October, February, and June of their kindergarten year, children were asked to tell a story, in English, prompted by 3 pictures. Before the 2nd and 3rd assessments, half…

  6. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  7. Evolution of coalitionary killing.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, R W

    1999-01-01

    Warfare has traditionally been considered unique to humans. It has, therefore, often been explained as deriving from features that are unique to humans, such as the possession of weapons or the adoption of a patriarchal ideology. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that coalitional killing of adults in neighboring groups also occurs regularly in other species, including wolves and chimpanzees. This implies that selection can favor components of intergroup aggression important to human warfare, including lethal raiding. Here I present the principal adaptive hypothesis for explaining the species distribution of intergroup coalitional killing. This is the "imbalance-of-power hypothesis," which suggests that coalitional killing is the expression of a drive for dominance over neighbors. Two conditions are proposed to be both necessary and sufficient to account for coalitional killing of neighbors: (1) a state of intergroup hostility; (2) sufficient imbalances of power between parties that one party can attack the other with impunity. Under these conditions, it is suggested, selection favors the tendency to hunt and kill rivals when the costs are sufficiently low. The imbalance-of-power hypothesis has been criticized on a variety of empirical and theoretical grounds which are discussed. To be further tested, studies of the proximate determinants of aggression are needed. However, current evidence supports the hypothesis that selection has favored a hunt-and-kill propensity in chimpanzees and humans, and that coalitional killing has a long history in the evolution of both species.

  8. Report Bee Kills

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA uses incident report data to help inform our pesticide regulatory decisions. Information from these reports helps us identify patterns of bee kills associated with the use of specific pesticides or active ingredients. Here's how to report incidents.

  9. Meteorological Forcing of the Kills in New York / New Jersey Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, K. L.; Chant, R. J.; Bruno, M. S.; Glenn, S.

    2002-12-01

    Hydrographic surveys of the New York / New Jersey Harbor complex were conducted in Newark Bay, the Arthur Kill, and Kill Van Kull as part of the "Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program" to characterize salient physical processes in this estuarine system. Data collected for the study included shipboard and moored observations of currents, salinity, temperature and turbidity, with the aim of setting a dynamical context in which to interpret chemical data by providing insights into the mechanisms driving the transport pathways of dissolved and suspended contaminated material within the estuary. Analysis of collected data and former studies of the region indicate that the Kills system responds to a complex combination of forcing influences, including tide, wind, basin geometry and freshwater inflow. These influences are responsible for dramatic variations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport characteristics, including, for example, the direction and magnitude of the net, residual flow within the Newark Bay/Kills system. Here we sought to describe the relationship between the sub-tidal currents and the sea surface slope with meteorological forcing (wind/storm events) in the estuary. Measurements being made during the study included three (3) fixed bottom platform stations each equipped with a 1500kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADP) to measure the vertical profile of horizontal currents. We also measured sea surface elevation data with three acoustic radiometric gauges that were deployed at the head of Newark Bay, at the mouth of the Arthur Kill, and at Constable Hook, in the Hudson River. Additional tide data at the Bayonne Bridge were provided by NOAA. Wind data from the Newark International Airport meteorological station (40o 40 57 N, 74o 10 10 W) were supplied by the Northeast Regional Climate Center. Sub-Tidal Motion: Current velocity data from the ADP was averaged over 30-minute intervals and low-pass filtered to remove the tidal component of the

  10. 9. VIEW SHOWING PEARL WHITFORD (LEFT) AND ARTHUR RAINING BIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING PEARL WHITFORD (LEFT) AND ARTHUR RAINING BIRD (RIGHT) HOLDING A FRAMED FLOUR SACK USED BY THE ROCKY BOY'S AGENCY FLOUR MILL. THE SACK SHOWS AN IMAGE OF ROCK BOY, LEADER OF THE CHIPPEWA AND CREE INDIANS IN MONTANA AT THE TIME ROCK BOY'S RESERVATION WAS CREATED BY CONGRESS (PHOTO WAS TAKEN BEHIND THE AGENCY'S SCHOOL). - Rocky Boy's Agency Flour Mill, Rocky Boy, Hill County, MT

  11. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 2. Appendices to project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-07

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  12. William Osler and Arthur Conan Doyle versus the antivivisectionists: some lessons from history for today.

    PubMed

    Key, J D; Rodin, A E

    1984-03-01

    Reaction against vivisection for research reached its height in the last two decades of the 19th century and the first two of the 20th, and a resurgence began in the 1960s. Antivivisectionism was and is related, in part, to emphasis on humanitarian sentiments. Two humanitarian physicians defended vivisection as essential. Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle in 1886 justified the killing of rabbits to relieve human suffering from hydrophobia. In 1910, he objected to the antihuman campaign of the antivivisectionists. Dr. William Osler reacted similarly to the threat to vivisection. He gave emphatic evidence to investigative committees in the United States in 1900 and in Britain in 1907. Osler also performed vivisection. His experimentation included studies of pig typhoid and tapeworm cysts in pigs and of the fate of india ink injected into the lungs of kittens. Osler and Conan Doyle were but two of the many prominent physicians who helped stem the tide of antivivisection legislation near the turn of the century. A review of the elements that fostered antivivisectionism in the society of their time is relevant in understanding and reacting to similar sentiments in the present era.

  13. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  14. Children Who Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1999-01-01

    Two recent books, "When Good Kids Kill," by Michael D. Kelleher, and "Lost Boys," by James Garbarino, explore how children become killers and suggest ways to reduce our high-pressure society's epidemic levels of youth violence. Physically or psychologically distant parents and unaffirmative media messages are negative…

  15. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: the author was an ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Ravin, J G; Migdal, C

    1995-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, and his faithful companion, Dr. Watson. A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle (1859-1930) spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

  16. Arthur Benton and a bunch of Dutch flowers.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Anke; Bakker, Dirk J

    2009-02-01

    This paper shows how Arthur Benton's excellent research in the field of neuropsychological topics like hemispheric specialization, Gerstmann syndrome, aphasia, prosopagnosia and visuospatial deficits has influenced the development of the field of neuropsychology in The Netherlands. Also, his outstanding methodological knowledge and clinical experience have had an enormously significant impact on neuropsychological assessment in this country. Benton's knowledge about the different topics in neuropsychology was tremendous, while at the same time he was always critical and aware of findings he was not able to understand.

  17. Etienne-Arthur Louis Fallot and his tetralogy.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Cesmebasi, Alper; Le, Duong; Etienne, Denzil; Tubbs, R Shane; Anderson, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Étienne-Arthur Louis Fallot (1850-1911) is one of the most significant medical figures of the 19th century with an eponymous congenital cardiac malformation. His initial account of the four anatomical features making up his tetralogy proved remarkably significant in the progression of clinical descriptions of the lesions producing cyanotic congenital cardiac disease. Although subsequently the cause of appreciable controversy, the accuracy of his initial descriptions underscore the current diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the malformation now known uniformly as tetralogy of Fallot.

  18. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  19. It's Elementary: Engaging Students through the Writings of Arthur Conan Doyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's writing allows for a variety of critical thinking activities, extensive use of computer technology, and the involvement of the entire faculty, staff and administration in the learning process. Presents a few activities that teachers can do with their students based on the work of Arthur Conan Doyle. (SG)

  20. Begin at the Beginning: Reflections on the Career of Arthur Cropley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslany, George

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Cropley's academic career began in the early 1960s and, more than 50 years later, shows few signs of abating. Over this lengthy period, he has made important contributions not only to creativity research, but to a range of related areas of psychology. Arthur Cropley has also been an influential figure in the careers of several generations…

  1. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  2. Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle and the case of congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Arthur M; Ruggere, Christine

    2006-01-01

    In 1894, Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle wrote "The Third Generation," a short story involving the transmission of congenital syphilis from generation to generation. Analysts of his writings have interpreted the pathogenetic mechanism involved in modern terms: infection of mother by father and then transplacental infection of the fetus. However, a review of the contemporary literature and the history of the concepts of congenital and "hereditary" syphilis demonstrates that the late 19th-century understanding of the process involved a Lamarckian transmission of paternal infection, via the sperm at the moment of conception. It was undoubtedly this concept that Doyle learned in medical school in the late 1870s and that provided the background to his story.

  3. Ernest Arthur Kendall: his life in peace and war.

    PubMed

    Faragher, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Ernest Arthur Kendall (1876-1938), whose father founded the first veterinary school in Australia, qualified as a veterinary surgeon, as did three of his brothers. He was commissioned in the Australian Army Veterinary Corps and fought with distinction in both the Boer War and World War I. He established an Australian Veterinary Hospital near Calais, France, in 1917. The Purple Cross Society of Victoria paid for the fit-out and necessary material for the running of the hospital, which treated 24,300 animals before it closed in 1919. In that year, Colonel Kendall resumed his career in the Department of Agriculture Victoria, where he was appointed Chief Veterinary Officer in 1926 and Chairman of the Milk Board in 1934. He worked toward a pure milk supply, enabled the establishment of a laboratory to test milk samples, and looked forward to a well-planned campaign for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis.

  4. Does smoking really kill anybody?

    PubMed

    Eysenck, H J

    1995-12-01

    Statements that so many people are killed by smoking use the term "kill" in a very unusual manner which is easily misunderstood by people not expert in epidemiology. In addition, the usual calculations leave out of account the fact that smoking interacts synergistically with other risk factors, so that it is a combination of risk factors rather than any specific one that is likely to have a causal influence on mortality. Strictly speaking it is quite inappropriate to state that smoking kills anybody, if we use the term "kill" in a meaningful fashion.

  5. Kill operation requires thorough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-15

    Full control of a blowout well requires a properly designed post-capping kill operation because failures in regaining well control usually occur during the kill operation, not during capping. Capping (the installation of pressure control or diverter equipment on the wellhead) is generally very reliable in gaining control of a blowout well. The following techniques are some of the viable means of killing blowout wells once the capping assemblies are in place: direct shut in of the flow; bullheading; momentum kill; volumetric control for migration of fluids or lubrication after migration ceases; and dynamic kills (friction-based dynamic kills or mass flow rate kills) The objective of most post-capping operations is to stop the flow and put the well under hydrostatic control. The means of killing a blowout once capping assemblies are in place should be chosen with care to avoid problems such as cratering, equipment failure, and underground blowouts. The particular circumstances and well integrity will dictate which kill method will be the most viable. Each of these five methods are explained.

  6. The osteosarcoma of the great poet Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891).

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G

    2005-01-01

    Thanks to Arthur Rimbaud's excellent medical auto-observation, which is included in his correspondance, we can diagnose, post-mortem, an osteosarcoma in the right knee, a disease which turned out to be fatal for him.

  7. The Operational Leadership of General Douglas MacArthur in OPERATION CHROMITE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. The Operational Leadership of General Douglas MacArthur in OPERATION CHROMITE by Judie A. Heineman Commander, United...Operations. The contents of this paper reflect my own personal views and are not necessarily endorsed by the Naval War College or the Department of...MacArthur in Operation Chromite 9. Personal Author: Judie Ann Heineman, Commander, United States Navy 10.Type of Report: FINAL 11. Date of Report: 13

  8. Asymptotic symmetries on Killing horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Jun-Ichirou

    2001-12-01

    We investigate asymptotic symmetries regularly defined on spherically symmetric Killing horizons in Einstein theory with or without the cosmological constant. These asymptotic symmetries are described by asymptotic Killing vectors, along which the Lie derivatives of perturbed metrics vanish on a Killing horizon. We derive the general form of the asymptotic Killing vectors and find that the group of asymptotic symmetries consists of rigid O(3) rotations of a horizon two-sphere and supertranslations along the null direction on the horizon, which depend arbitrarily on the null coordinate as well as the angular coordinates. By introducing the notion of asymptotic Killing horizons, we also show that local properties of Killing horizons are preserved not only under diffeomorphisms but also under nontrivial transformations generated by the asymptotic symmetry group. Although the asymptotic symmetry group contains the Diff(S1) subgroup, which results from supertranslations dependent only on the null coordinate, it is shown that the Poisson brackets algebra of the conserved charges conjugate to asymptotic Killing vectors does not acquire nontrivial central charges. Finally, by considering extended symmetries, we discuss the fact that unnatural reduction of the symmetry group is necessary in order to obtain the Virasoro algebra with nontrivial central charges, which is not justified when we respect the spherical symmetry of Killing horizons.

  9. Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle Quality Assurance and Reliability Assessment - Part A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-08

    No. DODIG-2014-111 S E P T E M B E R 8 , 2 0 1 4 Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle Quality Assurance and Reliability Assessment – Part A Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle Quality Assurance and Reliability...Department of Defense F r a u d , W a s t e & A b u s e DODIG-2014-111 (Project No. D2013-DT0TAD-0005.000) │ i Results in Brief Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle

  10. Flood geomorphology of Arthurs Rock Gulch, Colorado: paleoflood history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    1994-11-01

    Episodic late Quaternary flooding is recorded by bouldery deposits and slackwater sediments along Arthurs Rock Gulch, an ephemeral stream west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Flood deposits consist of individual granodiorite and pegmatite boulders, boulder bars, and coarse overbank sediment that rest on erosional terrace segments along the channel. We identified evidence for at least five flood in the lower two thirds of the 1.84 km 2 drainage basin. Flood deposits are differentiated by their position above the active channel, weathering characteristics, degree of boulder burial by colluvium, amount of lichen cover, and position with respect to terrace and colluvial deposits. Age estimates for the flood deposits are based on radiocarbon dating, tree-ring analyses, and relative-age criteria from four sites in the basin. At least two floods occurred in the last 300 years; a third flood is at least 5000 years old, but likely younger than 10,000 yr BP; and the two oldest floods occurred at least 40,000 years BP.

  11. Flood geomorphology of Arthurs Rock Gulch, Colorado: paleoflood history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Jarrett, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Episodic late Quaternary flooding is recorded by bouldery deposits and slackwater sediments along Arthurs Rock Gulch, an ephemeral stream west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Flood deposits consist of individual granodiorite and pegmatite boulders, boulder bars, and coarse overbank sediment that rest on erosional terrace segments along the channel. We identified evidence for at least five flood in the lower two thirds of the 1.84 km2 drainage basin. Flood deposits are differentiated by their position above the active channel, weathering characteristics, degree of boulder burial by colluvium, amount of lichen cover, and position with respect to terrace and colluvial deposits. Age estimates for the flood deposits are based on radiocarbon dating, tree-ring analyses, and relative-age criteria from four sites in the basin. At least two floods occurred in the last 300 years; a third flood is at least 5000 years old, but likely younger than 10,000 yr BP; and the two oldest floods occurred at least 40,000 years BP. ?? 1994.

  12. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  13. Arthur Rainsford Mowlem (1902-1986), plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    Arthur Rainsford Mowlem, the junior of the 'big four' plastic surgeons, with Harold Delf Gillies, Thomas Pomfret Kilner and Archibald Hector McIndoe, came to prominence managing casualties of the Second World War. Rainsford Mowlem's ancestor was John Mowlem, the creator of the construction firm. Rainsford worked his passage to the United Kingdom from New Zealand in 1927 and did not return to New Zealand but retired at the age of 60 to enjoy 23 more years in Spain. He was the driving force between 1934 and 1939 at the Plastic Surgery Unit at St James's Hospital, Balham, and instigated the North London Plastic Surgery Unit at Hill End, St Albans, from 1939 to 1953 and subsequently developed the Unit after moving to Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex. After successfully hosting the International Meeting of Plastic Surgeons in London in 1959, he received recognition and honours in America but soon afterwards he surprised colleagues by retiring in 1962. Despite his significant contributions, he did not receive national honours but his life outside surgery was active including Trusteeship of the Mowlem Estate at Swanage in Dorset for 40 years.

  14. How electroshock weapons kill!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  15. How honey kills bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kwakman, Paulus H S; te Velde, Anje A; de Boer, Leonie; Speijer, Dave; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Zaat, Sebastian A J

    2010-07-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria tested, including Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, were killed by 10-20% (v/v) honey, whereas > or = 40% (v/v) of a honey-equivalent sugar solution was required for similar activity. Honey accumulated up to 5.62 +/- 0.54 mM H(2)O(2) and contained 0.25 +/- 0.01 mM methylglyoxal (MGO). After enzymatic neutralization of these two compounds, honey retained substantial activity. Using B. subtilis for activity-guided isolation of the additional antimicrobial factors, we discovered bee defensin-1 in honey. After combined neutralization of H(2)O(2), MGO, and bee defensin-1, 20% honey had only minimal activity left, and subsequent adjustment of the pH of this honey from 3.3 to 7.0 reduced the activity to that of sugar alone. Activity against all other bacteria tested depended on sugar, H(2)O(2), MGO, and bee defensin-1. Thus, we fully characterized the antibacterial activity of medical-grade honey.

  16. Groundwater Flow in the Arthur Marble Aquifer, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. K.

    2008-05-01

    Arthur Marble underlies the Takaka Valley and outcrops in Karst Uplands to east and west of the valley in the South Island of New Zealand. It is the principal groundwater aquifer in the region and host to the remarkable Waikoropupu Springs near the coast. With average flow of 13,300 L/s, the karstic springs have many interesting features including unusual size and clarity. This work uses rainfall and river level, natural tracer and chemical measurements to determine the recharge sources and nature of the flow system in the Arthur Marble Aquifer (AMA). Total recharge to the AMA of 19,750 L/s comes from three sources (Karst Uplands stream seepage, Takaka River seepage and Takaka Valley rainfall infiltration). Since 13,300 L/s is discharged at the springs, the remainder must escape via offshore springs (6,450 L/s). The oxygen-18 mass balance allows the contribution of each source to each spring to be determined; most of the flow to the Main Spring of the Waikoropupu Springs comes from the Karst Uplands. The offshore springs are mostly fed from the Takaka River. The chemical concentrations of the Main Spring show input of 0.5% of sea water on average, but varying with flow. This variation with flow shows that two water components (sea-water-bearing and non-sea-water-bearing) contribute to the spring's discharge. Tritium measurements spanning 40 years, and CFC-11 measurements, give a mean residence time of 8 years for the Main Spring water using the preferred two-component model. Our conceptual flow model, based on the flow, oxygen-18, chloride and tritium measurements, reveals that two different flow systems with different recharge sources are needed to explain the flow within the AMA. One system contains deeply penetrating old water with mean age 10.2 years and water volume 3 cubic kilometers, recharged from the Karst Uplands. The other, at shallow levels below the valley floor, has much younger water, with mean age 1.2 years and water volume 0.4 cubic kilometers

  17. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  18. Selective killing of nonreplicating mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bryk, Ruslana; Gold, Benjamin; Venugopal, Aditya; Singh, Jasbir; Samy, Raghu; Pupek, Krzysztof; Cao, Hua; Popescu, Carmen; Gurney, Mark; Hotha, Srinivas; Cherian, Joseph; Rhee, Kyu; Ly, Lan; Converse, Paul J; Ehrt, Sabine; Vandal, Omar; Jiang, Xiuju; Schneider, Jean; Lin, Gang; Nathan, Carl

    2008-03-13

    Antibiotics are typically more effective against replicating rather than nonreplicating bacteria. However, a major need in global health is to eradicate persistent or nonreplicating subpopulations of bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Hence, identifying chemical inhibitors that selectively kill bacteria that are not replicating is of practical importance. To address this, we screened for inhibitors of dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), an enzyme required by Mtb to cause tuberculosis in guinea pigs and used by the bacterium to resist nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates, a stress encountered in the host. Chemical screening for inhibitors of Mtb DlaT identified select rhodanines as compounds that almost exclusively kill nonreplicating mycobacteria in synergy with products of host immunity, such as nitric oxide and hypoxia, and are effective on bacteria within macrophages, a cellular reservoir for latent Mtb. Compounds that kill nonreplicating pathogens in cooperation with host immunity could complement the conventional chemotherapy of infectious disease.

  19. Research for the Classroom: Playing with Difficult Poetry--High School Seniors and Arthur Sze's "Quipu"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogle, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The author had been assigned two sections of Contemporary Literature, a semester-long senior elective, and he wanted to do something new with poetry. He planned to teach Arthur Sze's "Quipu." Sze's poetry is nonlinear, adopting principles from science, anthropology, and history into a multilayered poetic texture--text unlike anything students…

  20. Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Carl

    2013-09-24

    Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

  1. General MacArthur’s Strategic Success During the Early Months of the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Almond , FECOM’s Chief of Staff, recommended to General MacArthur to send a US infantry task force to Korea with the purpose to delay the North...elements of combat power. 156 MG Almond did not organize the GHQ as a joint headquarters to exploit the opportunities such as the North Korean long

  2. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology: Arthur L. Kovacs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is awarded to Arthur L. Kovacs. He is recognized for making outstanding contributions to achieving statutory recognition and securing insurance reimbursement, and as a pioneer in the professional school movement, having trained several generations of practitioners.

  3. Assessing Early Communicative Ability: A Cross-Reporter Cumulative Score for the MacArthur CDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.; Leach, Diane B.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty middle- to upper middle-class monolingual Dutch speaking families consisting of at least a mother and a father completed the Infant Form "Words and Gestures" of the Dutch adaptation of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for the same child at 1;1. Considerable inter- and intrafamily variation emerged in how two (or three)…

  4. Educating the U.S. Army: Arthur L. Wagner and Reform, 1875-1905.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brereton, T. R.

    Arthur Lockwood Wagner, who graduated from West Point in 1876, was one of the best known and most influential U.S. Army officers of his day. An intellectual and educator, Wagner was instrumental in some of the most critical reforms in U.S. Army history. He advocated enhanced military education, adopting modern combat techniques, holding…

  5. ASCANs Harris, Helms, and McArthur during survival training at Fairchild AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidates (ASCANs) (left to right) Bernard J. Harris, Jr, Susan J. Helms, and William S. McArthur, Jr open dehydrated food packages during wilderness survival training at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) in Spokane, Washington. The training was conducted in the mountain forests of Washington from 08-26-90 through 08-30-90.

  6. 75 FR 69154 - Land Release for Long Island MacArthur Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... proposed release from aeronautical use of approximately 17.69 acres of airport property, to allow for non-aeronautical development. The parcel is located on the northeast corner of the Long Island MacArthur Airport... sponsor's Federal obligation to use certain airport land for aeronautical use. Issued in Garden City,...

  7. Arthur[R] Presents Hooray for Health! A Health Curriculum for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schottman, Elly, Ed.

    This health curriculum for teachers, after-school providers, and school nurses uses the cartoon character Arthur to introduce four units that explore four distinct early childhood health themes. The themes are: "Eat Well. Stay Fit" (good nutrition and exercise); "Open Wide!" (dental health); "Dealing with Feelings"…

  8. The Reasons for Suicide: An Analysis of the Diary of Arthur Inman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Previous analyses of the diary of Arthur Inman, who committed suicide in 1963, portrayed him as psychiatrically disturbed, warped, corrupt, and weak. In contrast, the present article argues that he was an eccentric individual whose diary writing enabled him to live a full life by giving his life a purpose and by enabling him to ventilate at…

  9. William Bagley versus Arthur Bestor: Why the Standard Story Is Not True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, J. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    This essay challenges the conventional understanding of William Bagley and Arthur Bestor, which suggests that they held similar views in curriculum and teacher education. The author thinks this view is completely wrong and provides a radical new interpretation of Bagley and Bestor that uncovers a lost tradition within the field of education.…

  10. Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research

    ScienceCinema

    Haber, Carl

    2016-07-12

    Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

  11. Setting the Standard for Teaching as a Profession: A Conversation with Arthur Wise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Arthur Wise has had a long and distinguished career working for teacher quality and professionalism, school finance reform, and advancement of educational research. As the president of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, he directed that organization's development of performance-based standards and assessments and has…

  12. Short-Form Versions of the Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Maldonodo, Donna; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish-language MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (S-CDIs) are well-established parent report tools for assessing the language development of Spanish-speaking children under 3 years. Here, we introduce the short-form versions of the S-CDIs (SFI and SFII), offered as alternatives to the long forms for screening purposes or…

  13. Environmental Assessment for Perimeter Security Lighting at Fort MacArthur, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    community of San Pedro. Soils within this association typically consist of marine sandstone, shale and breccia . Topography The community of San Pedro...typically comprised of marine sandstone, shale and breccia . Fort MacArthur is situated on Montezuma Clay Adobe which consists of excessively drained

  14. Assessing Internalizing, Externalizing, and Attention Problems in Young Children: Validation of the MacArthur HBQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Schreiber, Jane E.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the validity of the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine optimal thresholds for the HBQ in predicting Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version-IV (DISC-IV)diagnoses. The roles of child sex, level of impairment, and physical health in…

  15. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  16. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  17. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  18. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  19. Women who kill their mates.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Spousal homicide perpetrators are much more likely to be men than women. Accordingly, little research has focused on delineating characteristics of women who have committed spousal homicide. A retrospective clinical review of coroners' files containing all cases of spousal homicide occurring in Quebec over a 20-year period was carried out. A total of 276 spousal homicides occurred between 1991 and 2010, with 42 homicides by female spouses and 234 homicides by male spouses. Differences between homicides committed by female offenders and male offenders are discussed, and findings on spousal homicide committed by women are compared with those of previous studies. Findings regarding offenses perpetrated by females in the context of mental illness, domestic violence, and homicide-suicide are explored. The finding that only 28% of the female offenders in the Quebec sample had previously been subjected to violence by their victim is in contrast to the popular belief and reports that indicate that most female-perpetrated spousal homicide occurs in self-defense or in reaction to long-term abuse. In fact, women rarely gave a warning before killing their mates. Most did not suffer from a mental illness, although one-fifth were acutely intoxicated at the time of the killing. In the vast majority of cases of women who killed their mates, there were very few indicators that might have signaled the risk and helped predict the violent lethal behavior.

  20. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  1. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  2. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  3. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  4. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  5. Arthur C. Graesser: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Arthur C. Graesser as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. "As a multifaceted psychologist, cognitive engineer of useful education and training technologies, and mentor of new talent for the world of applied and translational cognitive science, Arthur C. Graesser is the perfect role model, showing how a strong scholar and intellect can shape both research and practice. His work is a mix of top-tier scholarship in psychology, education, intelligent systems, and computational linguistics. He combines cognitive science excellence with bold use of psychological knowledge and intelligent systems to design new generations of learning opportunities and to help lay the foundation for a translational science of learning." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Reginald Crundall Punnett: first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A W F

    2012-09-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett's career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of "partial coupling" in the sweet pea (later "linkage") and to the diagram known as Punnett's square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described.

  7. Reginald Crundall Punnett: First Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. W. F.

    2012-01-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett’s career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of “partial coupling” in the sweet pea (later “linkage”) and to the diagram known as Punnett’s square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described. PMID:22964834

  8. Killing(-Yano) tensors in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2015-09-01

    We construct the Killing(-Yano) tensors for a large class of charged black holes in higher dimensions and study general properties of such tensors, in particular, their behavior under string dualities. Killing(-Yano) tensors encode the symmetries beyond isometries, which lead to insights into dynamics of particles and fields on a given geometry by providing a set of conserved quantities. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the Killing tensor, we provide a prescription for constructing several conserved quantities starting from a single object, and we demonstrate that Killing tensors in higher dimensions are always associated with ellipsoidal coordinates. We also determine the transformations of the Killing(-Yano) tensors under string dualities, and find the unique modification of the Killing-Yano equation consistent with these symmetries. These results are used to construct the explicit form of the Killing(-Yano) tensors for the Myers-Perry black hole in arbitrary number of dimensions and for its charged version.

  9. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  10. An Analysis of the Extratropical Transition of Hurricane Arthur (2014) from a JPSS Proving Ground Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Halverson, J. B.; Dunion, J. P.; Goldberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Proving Grounds, multiple proxy and operational products were available to analyze and forecast the complex evolution of Hurricane Arthur (2014). The National Hurricane Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Weather Prediction Center, and NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch were able to monitor the tropical and extratropical transition of Arthur using various convective and red, green, blue (RGB) products that have been introduced in recent years. During the extratropical transition, the Air Mass RGB (AM RGB) product and AIRS/CrIS ozone products were available as a compliment to water vapor imagery to identify the upper-level low with associated stratospheric drying that absorbed much of Arthur's energy. The AM RGB product provides forecasters with an enhanced view of various air masses that are combined into a single image and can help differentiate between possible stratospheric/tropospheric interactions, moist tropical air masses, and cool, continental/maritime air masses. Even though this product provides a wealth of qualitative information about the horizontal distribution of synoptic features, forecasters are also interested in more quantitative information such as the vertical distribution of temperature, moisture, and ozone which impact the coloring of the resulting AM RGB. Currently, NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture soundings are available in AWIPS-II as a point-based display. Traditionally, soundings are used to anticipate and forecast severe convection, however unique and valuable information can be gained from soundings for other forecasting applications, such as extratropical transition, especially in data sparse regions. Additional research has been conducted to look at how NUCAPS soundings might help forecasters identify the pre-extratropical transition environment, leading to earlier diagnosis and better public advisories. NUCAPS soundings, AIRS soundings, NOAA G-IV GPS

  11. Arthur Beer and his relations to Einstein and to the Warburg library (German Title: Arthur Beer und seine Beziehungen zu Einstein und zur Warburg-Bibliothek)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Beer, Peter

    We give an account of the scientific life of Arthur Beer (1900-1980). Born in Reichenberg, Bohemia, he studied in Leipzig, Vienna and Berlin. After obtaining his Ph.D., he worked with the Seewarte (maritime observatory) and with the Warburg Library, both in Hamburg. Because of his relations with Finlay Freundlich, Einstein and Fritz Saxl, he succeeded in emigrating to England in 1934, where he obtained a temporary position at Cambridge Observatory, and carried out astrophysical research under F.J.M. Stratton. After shorter stays at the observatories of Mill Hill and Kew, both in the vicinity of London, he obtained, after World War II, the position of Senior Assistant Observer in Cambridge. Besides his studies in astrophysics and the history of astronomy, he is best known as the founding editor of the series "Vistas in Astronomy".

  12. Environmental Assessment for Slope Stabilization Projects at Fort MacArthur, San Pedro, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    dewatering, earthwork, structural stabilization, and material strengthening. Page 2 of 2 Alternatives Considered: The Alternative One (Proposed Action) and a...The slopes consist mainly of fill material , so it is unlikely that archaeological resources are located within the non-native soils. An...Temporary road closures may be necessary during stabilization to allow construction equipment room to operate, while maintaining a safe perimeter

  13. Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Christian

    2004-12-15

    Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector, which are discussed as an approximation for the early stage of a binary system, are studied in a projection formalism. In this setting the four-dimensional Einstein equations are equivalent to a three-dimensional gravitational theory with a SL(2,R)/SO(1,1) sigma model as the material source. The sigma model is determined by a complex Ernst equation. 2+1 decompositions of the three-metric are used to establish the field equations on the orbit space of the Killing vector. The two Killing horizons of spherical topology which characterize the black holes, the cylinder of light where the Killing vector changes from timelike to spacelike, and infinity are singular points of the equations. The horizon and the light cylinder are shown to be regular singularities, i.e., the metric functions can be expanded in a formal power series in the vicinity. The behavior of the metric at spatial infinity is studied in terms of formal series solutions to the linearized Einstein equations. It is shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the strong sense to have a smooth null infinity under the assumption that the metric tends asymptotically to the Minkowski metric. In this case the metric functions have an oscillatory behavior in the radial coordinate in a nonaxisymmetric setting, the asymptotic multipoles are not defined. The asymptotic behavior of the Weyl tensor near infinity shows that there is no smooth null infinity.

  14. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  15. Timelike Killing spinors in seven dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Conamhna, Oisin A.P. Mac

    2004-12-15

    We employ the G-structure formalism to study supersymmetric solutions of minimal and SU(2) gauged supergravities in seven dimensions admitting Killing spinors with an associated timelike Killing vector. The most general such Killing spinor defines a SU(3) structure. We deduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a timelike Killing spinor on the bosonic fields of the theories, and find that such configurations generically preserve one out of 16 supersymmetries. Using our general supersymmetric ansatz we obtain numerous new solutions, including squashed or deformed anti-de Sitter solutions of the gauged theory, and a large class of Goedel-like solutions with closed timelike curves.

  16. New School Art Styles: The Project of Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Art projects are appropriate building blocks for visual art curriculum because good art projects encode complex aesthetic strategies, giving students tools to investigate and make meaning. Art made in schools will inevitably be some form of "school art," defined by Arthur Efland in "The School Art Style: a Functional Analysis,"…

  17. Rural Workplace Literacy Demonstration Project. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    In April 1991, Enterprise State Junior College and MacArthur State Technical College established a rural workplace literacy demonstration project in partnership with adult basic education, seven employers, and a labor organization. The project served 615 persons in classes offered at the 2 colleges, 4 partner locations, and 3 additional worksites.…

  18. What became of Arthur Conan Doyle's father? The last years of Charles Altamont Doyle.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, A

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the fate of Arthur Conan Doyle's father, Charles Altamont Doyle, a Victorian illustrator, who spent his last years as an asylum inmate. Based on new archival research, it looks at the reasons for his institutionalisation and what befell him during his stay. It will consider Doyle's claim that he was wrongfully confined and also the suggestion that his family were responsible for having him committed. Finally, the paper will examine the nature of Doyle's condition and the creative work he produced whilst an asylum inmate.

  19. Fishy Hearing: A Short Biography of Arthur N. Popper, PhD.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    Biologist Dr. Arthur Popper's career spans decades, from his early work on comparative inner ear morphology in fishes to his recent interest in how underwater noise impacts aquatic vertebrates. Along the way Dr. Popper's research subjects span at least 19 vertebrate taxa, from lamprey to lungfish to humans, and he's had a profound influence in the field of fish bioacoustics. This brief biography describes some of Dr. Popper's many contributions to fish hearing research and highlights both some of his major discoveries and some of the biological mysteries he has yet to solve.

  20. Two-message quantum-Arthur-Merlin game with single-qubit measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2016-06-01

    We show that the class quantum-Arthur-Merlin (QAM) does not change even if the verifier's ability is restricted to only single-qubit measurements. To show the result, we use the idea of measurement-based quantum computing: the verifier, who can do only single-qubit measurements, can test the graph state sent from the prover and use it for his measurement-based quantum computing. Inspired by this construction, we also introduce a problem which we call stabilizer state optimization, and show that it is QMA-complete.

  1. Arthur Compton's 1941 Analysis of Explosive Fission in U-235: The Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2008-04-01

    In November 1941 Arthur Compton prepared a report for Vannevar Bush regarding the possibility of explosive fission of U-235. This remarkable report, arguably the parent document of the Los Alamos Primer, presented detailed estimates for the critical mass, expected energy release, efficiency, destructive effects and probable cost of such a weapon. This paper will examine the physics behind Compton's estimates for the critical mass and efficiency of a fission weapon and compare his results to those derived from present-day cross-sections and secondary-neutron numbers. His approach to the efficiency calculation is found to be particularly interesting in that it utilizes some very basic undergraduate physics.

  2. From structuralism to neutral monism in Arthur S. Eddington's philosophy of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherab-Martin, Karim J.

    2013-11-01

    Arthur S. Eddington is remembered as one of the best astrophysicists and popularizers of physics in the twentieth century. Nevertheless, his stimulating speculations in philosophy produced serious disputes among philosophers of his time, his philosophy remaining linked to idealism and mysticism. This paper shows this label to be misleading and argues for the identification of Eddington's philosophy with a kind of neutral monism regained from Bertrand Russell and influenced by the Gestalt psychology. The concept of structure is fundamental to our argument for the existence of a veiled neutral monism in Eddington's ideas.

  3. Bull heading to kill live gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Oudeman, P.; Avest, D. ter; Grodal, E.O.; Asheim, H.A.; Meissner, R.J.H.

    1994-12-31

    To kill a live closed-in gas well by bull heading down the tubing, the selected pump rate should be high enough to ensure efficient displacement of the gas into the formation (i.e., to avoid the kill fluid bypassing the gas). On the other hand, the pressures that develop during bull heading at high rate must not exceed wellhead pressure rating, tubing or casing burst pressures or the formation breakdown gradient, since this will lead, at best, to a very inefficient kill job. Given these constraints, the optimum kill rate, requited hydraulic horsepower, density and type of kill fluids have to be selected. For this purpose a numerical simulator has been developed, which predicts the sequence of events during bull heading. Pressures and flow rates in the well during the kill job are calculated, taking to account slip between the gas and kill fluid, hydrostatic and friction pressure drop, wellbore gas compression and leak-off to the formation. Comparison with the results of a dedicated field test demonstrates that these parameters can be estimated accurately. Example calculations will be presented to show how the simulator can be used to identify an optimum kill scenario.

  4. The Paleoproterozoic McArthur River (HYC) Pb/Zn/Ag deposit of northern Australia: organic geochemistry and ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junhong; Walter, Malcolm R.; Logan, Graham A.; Hinman, Mark C.; Summons, Roger E.

    2003-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ore and mudstone within the McArthur River ore deposit show compound distribution patterns similar to those of hydrothermally generated petroleum in the Guaymas Basin and significantly different from those found in conventional oil. PAH abundances and their isomer distributions result from a temperature gradient between the source of mineralizing fluids and the sediments fringing the ore system during ore formation. Along with other geochemical, geological, paleobiological and mineralogical lines of evidence, these data provide strong evidence that the ore formed within partially lithified sediments under marine conditions. Given that the McArthur River ore body is an exquisitely preserved example of a sediment-hosted base-metal deposit, these results may be widely applicable. The McArthur deposit is also a rich repository of paleobiological information, allowing studies of the microbiology of ore formation and the paleobiology of an ancient hydrothermal system, as is discussed elsewhere.

  5. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  6. Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.D. ); Moore, P. )

    1993-08-30

    The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. An assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.

  7. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Simberloff, Daniel; Ricklefs, Robert E; Aguilée, Robin; Condamine, Fabien L; Gravel, Dominique; Morlon, Hélène; Mouquet, Nicolas; Rosindell, James; Casquet, Juliane; Conti, Elena; Cornuault, Josselin; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Hengl, Tomislav; Norder, Sietze J; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F; Sanmartín, Isabel; Strasberg, Dominique; Triantis, Kostas A; Valente, Luis M; Whittaker, Robert J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Emerson, Brent C; Thébaud, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, 'An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography', was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, island systems have provided new insights into the formation of ecological communities. Here, building on such developments, we highlight prospects for research on islands to improve our understanding of the ecology and evolution of communities in general. Throughout, we emphasise how attributes of islands combine to provide unusual research opportunities, the implications of which stretch far beyond islands. Molecular tools and increasing data acquisition now permit re-assessment of some fundamental issues that interested MacArthur and Wilson. These include the formation of ecological networks, species abundance distributions, and the contribution of evolution to community assembly. We also extend our prospects to other fields of ecology and evolution - understanding ecosystem functioning, speciation and diversification - frequently employing assets of oceanic islands in inferring the geographic area within which evolution has occurred, and potential barriers to gene flow. Although island-based theory is continually being enriched, incorporating non-equilibrium dynamics is identified as a major challenge for the future.

  8. Spacetime encodings. III. Second order Killing tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Jeandrew

    2010-01-15

    This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher-order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing tensors.

  9. Killing Initial Data on spacelike conformal boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetz, Tim-Torben

    2016-08-01

    We analyze Killing Initial Data on Cauchy surfaces in conformally rescaled vacuum space-times satisfying Friedrich's conformal field equations. As an application, we derive the KID equations on a spacelike ℐ-.

  10. The MacArthur Maze Fire and Roadway Collapse: Consequences for SNF Transportation - 12476

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Easton, Earl P.; Adkins, Harold; Cuta, Judith; Klymyshyn, Nicholas; Suffield, Sarah

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, a severe transportation accident occurred near Oakland, California, on a section of Interstate 880 known as the 'MacArthur Maze', involving a tractor trailer carrying gasoline which impacted an overpass support column and burst into flames. The subsequent fire caused the collapse of portions of the Interstate 580 overpass onto the remains of the tractor-trailer in less than 20 minutes, due to a reduction of strength in the structural steel exposed to the fire. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is in the process of examining the impacts of this accident on the performance of a spent nuclear fuel transportation package, using detailed analysis models, in order to determine the potential regulatory implications related to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This paper will provide a summary of this effort and present results and conclusions. The detailed thermal models of the MacArthur Maze fire scenario with ANSYS and COBRASFS have produced preliminary results indicating that in a fire of this severity, the peak fuel cladding temperature would almost certainly exceed the short-term limit of 570 deg. C (1058 deg. F), and would likely exceed the Zircaloy burst temperature limit of 750 deg. C (1382 deg. F) assumed in previous transportation studies. Additional work is needed to refine and verify some of the details of these complex models, but the overall results are consistent with previous fire analyses with similar models, and with the results obtained for the HAC fire evaluations with these models. These results as well as future results produced by these models can therefore be considered as reliable estimates of the temperatures that would be experienced in fire conditions of the severity of the MacArthur Maze fire scenario. The structural analyses show that the GA-4 package is robust enough to withstand the impact of the overhead span without suffering major damage or deformation to the containment boundary. The greatest

  11. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis.

  12. Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill's Pedagogical Concept and His Summerhill School in Hungarian and German Pedagogical Literature and Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer-Buchwald, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Arthur Sutherland Neill is one of the most debated personalities among the representatives of the classic reform pedagogy, due to his pedagogical concept and its practical realization, and his Summerhill School, equally. He is often mentioned during public debates, where mostly the "three S"--"sex, swearing and smoking", are…

  13. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  14. Race Differences in Tested Intelligence: Important Socially, Obscure Causally. A Review ... of "Bias in Mental Testing", by Arthur R. Jensen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Lloyd G.

    1981-01-01

    This document is a book review of "Bias in Mental Testing" by Arthur R. Jensen. Jensen discusses intelligence as a phenotypic construct. The problem of ethnic differences in phenotypic intelligence is emotionally charged, which makes rational consideration of the issues difficult. The reviewer disagrees with the author's predisposition…

  15. Creativity Is More than Silly, More than Art, More than Good: The Diverse Career of Arthur Cropley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I highlight some of Arthur Cropley's work that has been the most influential to me as a scholar. Cropley's work has continually pushed the boundaries by exploring what creativity is and isn't, squashing myths, and not making assumptions. I specifically discuss Cropley's research and theory on the importance of convergent thinking,…

  16. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  17. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-01

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  18. Killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human lactoferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, J R; Arnold, R R

    1988-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a fastidious, facultative gram-negative rod associated with endocarditis, certain forms of periodontal disease, and other focal infections. Human neutrophils have demonstrated bactericidal activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, and much of the oxygen-dependent killing has been attributed to the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system. However, the contribution of other neutrophil components to killing activity is obscure. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a major constituent of neutrophil-specific granules and is also found in mucosal secretions. In this report, we show that human lactoferrin is bactericidal for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Killing activity required an unsaturated (iron- and anion-free) molecule that produced a 2-log decrease in viability within 120 min at 37 degrees C at a concentration of 1.9 microM. Besides exhibiting concentration dependence, killing kinetics were affected by minor variations in temperature and pH. Magnesium, a divalent cation thought to stabilize lipopolysaccharide interactions on the surface of gram-negative organisms, enhanced lactoferrin killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans, while other cations, such as potassium and calcium, had no effect. Our data suggest that lactoferrin contributes to killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils and that it may also play a significant role in innate secretory defense against this potential periodontopathogen. PMID:3417349

  19. Humanism and values in the medical short stories of Arthur Conan Doyle.

    PubMed

    Rodin, A E; Key, J D

    1992-05-01

    In 1894 Arthur Conan Doyle published 15 medical short stories under the title of Round the Red Lamp, a red lamp being the symbol for a physician's office in Victorian England. These 19th-century vignettes do not indulge in scientific descriptions of diseases, their processes, or their treatment. Instead, they are based upon the effects of illness on the lives, sentiments, and emotions of the afflicted, their families, and their physicians. The stories are suffused with romance and humor. Conan Doyle's medical fiction of almost 100 years ago constitutes a superbly written and engaging collection that ranges from the comic to the pathetic. They contain universal themes that are especially appropriate today when humanistic elements are being usurped by rampant technology in both medical education and medical practice. These tales can make a significant contribution in related seminars for both students and practitioners.

  20. Better to light a candle: Arthur Barsky and global plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Christopher D; Barsky, Emily; Hagander, Lars; Barsky, Arthur J; Meara, John G

    2013-08-01

    Plastic and reconstructive surgery has had a long history with international humanitarian efforts. As the field of global surgery continues to gain momentum in academic centers throughout the world, the role of the surgical subspecialist in the public health infrastructure of low-resource communities has also begun to gain a new sense of wonder and importance. Arthur Barsky, Jr was arguably one of the most influential forefathers of global plastic surgery. Throughout his notable career spanning most of the 20th century, Barsky remained dedicated to delivering plastic and reconstructive surgical care to the disadvantaged worldwide, as well as educating others to do the same. Although he was not the first surgeon with an interest in global health, Barsky's work was unique and influential in its originality, magnitude, and scope. An appreciation and understanding of Barsky's groundbreaking work will help inform the future development of sustainable surgical systems in resource-poor settings.

  1. Arthur Compton's 1941 Report on explosive fission of U-235: A look at the physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2007-12-01

    In November 1941, the third of three reports on atomic fission commissioned by Vannevar Bush through the National Academy of Sciences examined the prospects for explosive fission in U-235. This report, prepared by Arthur Compton, developed a model for estimating the critical mass and efficiency of an atomic bomb. I examine Compton's physics, attempt to discern the provenance of the numbers he adopted for various parameters, and compare his results with those yielded by a full diffusion-theory approach with contemporary values for the fission parameters. I conclude that Compton's physics is sound. A combination of somewhat optimistic parameter values and a conservative model for critical mass lead him to a numerical value for the bare critical radius of U-235 that is in fairly good accord with that yielded by diffusion theory. His estimated efficiency proved to be quite accurate for the Little Boy bomb.

  2. Arthur Beer and his relations with Einstein and the Warburg Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Beer, Peter

    2006-06-01

    We give an account of the scientific life of Arthur Beer (1900-1980). Born in Reichenberg, Bohemia, he studied in Leipzig, Vienna and Berlin. After obtaining his Ph.D., he worked with the Seewarte (maritime observatory) and with the Warburg Library, both in Hamburg. Because of his relations with Finlay Freundlich, Albert Einstein and Fritz Saxl, he succeeded in emigrating to England in 1934, where he obtained a temporary position at Cambridge Observatory, and carried out astrophysical research under F.J.M. Stratton. After shorter stays at the observatories of Mill Hill and Kew, both in the vicinity of London, he obtained, after World War II, the position of Senior Assistant Observer in Cambridge. Besides his studies in astrophysics and the history of astronomy, he is best known as the founding Editor of the series Vistas in Astronomy.

  3. Delusions, Anger, and Serious Violence: New Findings From the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Simone; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent research on the association between delusions and violence has suggested complex and differing pathways. Furthermore, it has been emphasized that temporal proximity is fundamental when investigating these relationships. We reanalyzed data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study utilizing a different methodological approach to investigate associations between specific delusions and violence. Methods: Longitudinal study of 1136 male and female civil psychiatric inpatients after discharge. Delusions, affect due to delusions, and violence were measured at baseline and in 5 follow-up assessments. Serious violence was established using the MacArthur Community Violence Interview. Logistic mixed-effect models for repeated measures were performed. Results: A “prospective” model confirmed previous findings that delusions do not predict later violence. However, reanalysis, considering temporal proximity, indicated a relationship between specific delusions and outcome including: being spied upon (adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.06–2.47, P = .027), being followed (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.29–2.80, P = .001), being plotted against (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.14–2.52, P = .009), being under control of person/force (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.24–2.97, P = .003), thought insertion (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.00–2.66, P = .048), and having special gifts/powers (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.31–2.92, P = .001). All these delusions were associated with angry affect (P < .05). Inclusion of anger in the model significantly attenuated the main effects (except grandiose delusions), indicating an indirect pathway. Conclusions: Temporal proximity is crucial when investigating relationships between delusions and violence. Anger due to delusions is the key factor in this pathway. Our findings have important implications for identification of psychotic patients at risk for violent behavior and, most importantly, management of their risk. PMID:24048345

  4. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  5. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  6. Project Probes Digital Media's Effect on Ethics: Howard Gardner Leads Team Studying Youths' Web Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Noted Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner is leading a team studying the social and ethical norms of young people on the Web. Known as the "GoodPlay Project," the study is being financed with a grant from the Chicago-based Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. What researchers hope to do through the project is fill a gap in the burgeoning research…

  7. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  8. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  9. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  10. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  11. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  12. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  13. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  14. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  15. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  16. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  17. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  18. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  19. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  20. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  1. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  2. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  3. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  4. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  5. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  6. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  7. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  8. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  9. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  10. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  11. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  12. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  13. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  14. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  15. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  16. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  17. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  18. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  19. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  20. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  1. 'Total disability' and the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Omelianchuk, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Franklin G Miller recently argued that the wrongness of killing is best explained by the harm that comes to the victim, and that 'total disability' best explains the nature of this harm. Hence, killing patients who are already totally disabled is not wrong. I maintain that their notion of total disability is ambiguous and that they beg the question with respect to whether there are abilities left over that remain relevant for the goods of personhood and human worth. If these goods remain, then something more is lost in death than in 'total disability,' and their explanation of what makes killing wrong comes up short. But if total disability is equivalent with death, then their argument is an interesting one.

  2. Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

    1987-12-01

    Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

  3. Cytotoxic Killing and Immune Evasion by Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Cliburn; George, Andrew J. T.; Stark, Jaroslav

    2007-07-01

    The interaction between the immune system and pathogens is a complex one, with pathogens constantly developing new ways of evading destruction by the immune system. The immune system's task is made even harder when the pathogen in question is an intra-cellular one (such as a virus or certain bacteria) and it is necessary to kill the infected host cell in order to eliminate the pathogen. This causes damage to the host, and such killing therefore needs to be carefully controlled, particularly in tissues with poor regenerative potential, or those involved in the immune response itself. Host cells therefore possess repair mechanisms which can counteract killing by immune cells. These in turn can be subverted by pathogens which up-regulate the resistance of infected cells to killing. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that this repair process plays an important role in determining the efficacy of evasion and escape from immune control. We model a situation where cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells kill pathogen-infected and tumour cells by directed secretion of preformed granules containing perforin and granzymes. Resistance to such killing can be conferred by the expression of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). These are utilized by several virally infected and tumour cells, as well as playing a role in the protection of host bystander, immune and immuneprivileged cells. We build a simple stochastic model of cytotoxic killing, where serpins can neutralize granzymes stoichiometrically by forming an irreversible complex, and the survival of the cell is determined by the balance between serpin depletion and replenishment, which in its simplest form is equivalent to the well known shot noise process. We use existing analytical results for this process, and additional simulations to analyse the effects of repair on cytotoxic killing. We then extend the model to the case of a replicating target cell population, which gives a branching process

  4. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  5. Microbial killing activity of peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Thamlikitkul, V; Trakulsomboon, S; Louisirirotchanakul, S; Chaiprasert, A; Foongladda, S; Thipsuvan, K; Arjratanakool, W; Kunyok, R; Wasi, C; Santiprasitkul, S; Danchaivijitr, S

    2001-10-01

    In vitro killing activity of peracetic acid (Perasafe) at a concentration of 0.26 per cent w/v was tested against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Acinetobacter baumannii, Sternotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis spore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immuno-deficiency virus type I. Exposure to Peracetic acid (0.26% w/v) for 10 minutes resulted in massive killing of all the aforementioned organisms and spore.

  6. IG Statement: Arthur A. Elkins, Jr., on OIG report Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in Landover, Maryland, Requires Immediate EPA Attention

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Statement of Inspector General Arthur A. Elkins, Jr., on the Office of Inspector General (OIG) report Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in Landover, Maryland, Requires Immediate EPA Attention.

  7. The Unintended Consequences of Killing Civilians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited The Unintended Consequences of Killing Civilians A Monograph by...13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Mistreatment of civilians not party to a large-scale, violent conflict is not new. The perceived lack of empathy...it is counterproductive to mission accomplishment and results in a decline in support for military intervention forces. Elaborated throughout this

  8. The evolution of reduced microbial killing.

    PubMed

    Vriezen, Jan A C; Valliere, Michael; Riley, Margaret A

    2009-10-20

    Bacteria engage in a never-ending arms race in which they compete for limited resources and niche space. The outcome of this intense interaction is the evolution of a powerful arsenal of biological weapons. Perhaps the most studied of these are colicins, plasmid-based toxins produced by and active against Escherichia coli. The present study was designed to explore the molecular responses of a colicin-producing strain during serial transfer evolution. What evolutionary changes occur when colicins are produced with no target present? Can killing ability be maintained in the absence of a target? To address these, and other, questions, colicinogenic strains and a noncolicinogenic ancestor were evolved for 253 generations. Samples were taken throughout the experiment and tested for killing ability. By the 38th transfer, a decreased killing ability and an increase in fitness were observed in the colicin-producing strains. Surprisingly, DNA sequence determination of the colicin plasmids revealed no changes in plasmid sequences. However, a set of chromosomally encoded loci experienced changes in gene expression that were positively associated with the reduction in killing. The most significant expression changes were observed in DNA repair genes (which were downregulated in the evolved strains), Mg ion uptake genes (which were upregulated), and late prophage genes (which were upregulated). These results indicate a fine-tuned response to the evolutionary pressures of colicin production, with far more genes involved than had been anticipated.

  9. Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

  10. Mass killings and detection of impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, Digby J.

    1988-01-01

    Highly energetic bolide impacts occur and their flux is known. For larger bodies the energy release is greater than for any other short-term global phenomenon. Such impacts produce or release a large variety of shock induced changes including major atmospheric, sedimentologic, seismic and volcanic events. These events must necessarily leave a variety of records in the stratigraphic column, including mass killings resulting in major changes in population density and reduction or extinction of many taxonomic groups, followed by characteristic patterns of faunal and flora replacement. Of these effects, mass killings, marked by large-scale loss of biomass, are the most easily detected evidence in the field but must be manifest on a near-global scale. Such mass killings that appear to be approximately synchronous and involve disappearance of biomass at a bedding plane in many sedimentologically independent sections globally suggest a common cause and probable synchroneity. Mass killings identify an horizon which may be examined for evidence of cause. Geochemical markers may be ephemeral and absence may not be significant. There appears to be no reason why ongoing phenomena such as climate and sea-level changes are primary causes of anomolous episodic events.

  11. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  12. Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)

  13. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. Conclusions We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings. PMID:26135941

  14. Hysterical chorea: Report of an outbreak and movie documentation by Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914).

    PubMed

    Giménez-Roldán, Santiago; Aubert, Geneviève

    2007-06-15

    Psychogenic movement disorders remain a frequent and important clinical problem. First described in the Middle Ages, the dancing mania is considered to be one form of mass hysteria characterized by outbreaks of collective movement disorders. Patients may exhibit a wide variety of movement and gait disturbances, including tremulousness, jerks, or convulsions, usually with a sudden onset. Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), a distinguished Belgian neuroanatomist and neurologist, reported an outbreak of sudden involuntary movements in 13 adolescent girls residing in an orphanage. The description is to be found in his book Les Maladies nerveuses, completed before 1914 and published posthumously in 1920. The chapter is illustrated with sequential photographs of a girl exhibiting a peculiar gait, which is descriptively referred to as "chorée salutatoire" (saluting chorea). The original film with these pictures has been retrieved and is presented here together with a very similar film excerpt also found in Van Gehuchten's film collection. Van Gehuchten's movie documentation of a psychogenic movement disorder--labeled chorea but which should probably be considered as dystonia according to contemporary classification--appears to be unique. This report illustrates the tremendous value of moving pictures in recording and analyzing movement disorders.

  15. Arthur Neve (1859-1919) and a Mission Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Rais

    2011-11-01

    Mark Harrison has said that hospitals occupy a central place within health-care systems, not only on account of their curative functions but also as centres of teaching and research. The indigenous system of medicine practised by Hakims in Kashmir is the Unani. The Mission Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir became the most important hospital attracting patients, not only within Kashmir but also in the surrounding countries and not only because of the curative facilities provided at the hospital but also because of the humane approach of its physicians, outstanding among them being Arthur Neve. The patients represented every class of society. Patients come from villages scattered throughout Kashmir and the Plains of India, and a few from Tibet, Afghanistan, Yarkand and Khostan. According to Neve, in 1912 there were 23,642 new outpatients and 1979 inpatients. Physical, socio-cultural and political conditions hinder access to the Mission Hospital. Neve's younger brother Ernest F Neve (1861-1946) made significant contributions when an earthquake struck and during cholera outbreaks in Kashmir at the end of the 19th century.

  16. Change in productive activity in late adulthood: MacArthur studies of successful aging.

    PubMed

    Glass, T A; Seeman, T E; Herzog, A R; Kahn, R; Berkman, L F

    1995-03-01

    Both cross-sectional comparisons and patterns of change in productive activities among members of the MacArthur Successful Aging cohort were examined. The data came from a three-site longitudinal study of community-dwelling adults aged 70-79. The highest functioning cohort (n = 1,192) was found to be significantly more productive than a comparison group of medium- and low-functioning respondents at baseline in four of five domains examined. In longitudinal models, we tested several hypotheses regarding the determinants of change in levels of productive activity over a three-year period. Overall, 15.1 percent (n = 162) of the cohort became less productive, while another 12.7 percent (n = 136) became more productive. Risk factors for decline in productivity included hospital admission and stroke. Age, functional disability, marriage, and increased mastery were protective against declines. Conversely, Blacks, those who were more satisfied with life at baseline, and those reporting increased mastery were more likely to increase their productivity.

  17. Arthur L. Benton, Ph.D.: pioneer, colleague, mentor, and friend.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Abigail B; Levin, Harvey S; Hannay, Julia

    2007-07-01

    Arthur Benton, 97, died in Glenview, IL on December 27, 2006. He was born October 16, 1909 in New York City. He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from Oberlin College, where Raymond Stetson was his mentor, and his Ph.D. in Psychology from Columbia University in 1935 under the mentorship of Carney Landis of the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Benton completed his training as a psychologist at the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic of New York Hospital. Early in 1941, he volunteered for service in the United States Navy and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the medical department. His active duty lasted until 1945, followed by many years of service in the United States Navy Reserve, retiring at the rank of Captain. During his assignment at the San Diego Naval Hospital, Benton worked closely with neurologist Morris Bender and examined servicemen who had sustained penetrating brain wounds during combat. The experience of assessing servicemen with brain injury and Bender's influence led Benton to develop the Visual Retention Test, which still bears his name and continues to be widely used in clinical neuropsychological assessment.

  18. Bathymetric Surveys of Lake Arthur and Raccoon Lake, Pennsylvania, June 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hittle, Clinton D.; Ruby, A. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2007, bathymetric surveys of two Pennsylvania State Park lakes were performed to collect accurate data sets of lake-bed elevations and to develop methods and techniques to conduct similar surveys across the state. The lake-bed elevations and associated geographical position data can be merged with land-surface elevations acquired through Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) techniques. Lake Arthur in Butler County and Raccoon Lake in Beaver County were selected for this initial data-collection activity. In order to establish accurate water-surface elevations during the surveys, benchmarks referenced to NAVD 88 were established on land at each lake by use of differential global positioning system (DGPS) surveys. Bathymetric data were collected using a single beam, 210 kilohertz (kHz) echo sounder and were coupled with the DGPS position data utilizing a computer software package. Transects of depth data were acquired at predetermined intervals on each lake, and the shoreline was delineated using a laser range finder and compass module. Final X, Y, Z coordinates of the geographic positions and lake-bed elevations were referenced to NAD 83 and NAVD 88 and are available to create bathymetric maps of the lakes.

  19. Human contamination of the marine environment - Arthur Harbor and McMurdo sound, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kennicutt, M.C. II; McDonald, S.J.; Sericano, J.L.; Boothe, P.; Oliver, J.; Safe, S.; Presley, B.J.; Liu, H.; Wade, T.L.; Wolfe, D.; Crockett, A.; Bockus, D.

    1995-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and trace metal concentrations in McMurdo Sound and Arthur Harbor, Antarctica, sediments and marine biota are reported. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure, biliary metabolites and EROD assays, were also measured. Hydrocarbon and trace metal contamination are generally limited to within hundreds of meters of human settlements. Local releases of fossil fuels, disposal of waste materials, and aging of ship and station structures contribute to contamination. High concentrations of PCBs were detected in sediments (250-4200 ng g{sup -1}) and organisms (up to 420 ng g{sup -1}) from Winter Quarters Bay (WQB). Trace metal and PAH sediment concentrations rarely exceed levels known to cause toxic effects in marine organisms, whereas PCBs in WQB often do. Biological responses to exposure include the formation of PAH metabolites and the inducement of the P4501A detoxification system in fish. Induction of EROD activity in in vitro rat hepatoma H4IIE cell bioassays by tissue extracts correlated with known levels of PCB contamination in invertebrate tissues. Local sources of contaminants greatly exceed those attributable to long-distance atmospheric transport. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  20. 75 FR 61713 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...: Arthur Kill Power LLC. Description: Arthur Kill Power LLC submits tariff filing per 35.12: NRG Arthur Kill Power--FERC Electric Tariff to be effective 9/20/2010. Filed Date: 09/20/2010. Accession...

  1. 75 FR 63453 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... on Wednesday, October 27, 2010. Docket Numbers: ER10-2783-001. Applicants: Arthur Kill Power LLC. Description: Arthur Kill Power LLC submits tariff filing per 35: Arthur Kill--Amendment to Market-Based...

  2. Deprivations, futures and the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Marquis, D

    2001-12-01

    In my essay, Why abortion is immoral, I criticised discussions of the morality of abortion in which the crucial issue is whether fetuses are human beings or whether fetuses are persons. Both argument strategies are inadequate because they rely on indefensible assumptions. Why should being a human being or being a person make a moral difference? I argued that the correct account of the morality of abortion should be based upon a defensible account of why killing children and adults is wrong. I claimed that what makes killing us wrong is that our premature deaths deprive us of our futures of value, that is, the goods of life we would have experienced had we survived. This account of the wrongness of killing explains why killing is one of the worst of crimes and how killing greatly harms the victim. It coheres with the attitudes of those with cancer or HIV facing premature death. It explains why we believe it is wrong to kill infants (as personhood theories do not). It does not entail that it wrongs a human being to end her life if she is in persistent vegetative state or if her future must consist only of unbearable physical suffering and she wants to die (as sanctity of human life theories do not). This account of the wrongness of killing implies (with some defensible additional assumptions) that abortion is immoral because we were fetuses once and we know those fetuses had futures of value. Mark Brown claims that this potential future of value account is unsound because it implies that we have welfare rights to what we need to stay alive that most people would reject. I argue that Brown is incorrect in two ways: a welfare right to what we need to stay alive is not directly implied by my account and, in addition, most of us do believe that dependent human beings have substantial welfare rights to what they need to stay alive. Brown argues that depriving us of a future of value of which we have mental representations both is a better explanation of the wrongness of

  3. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Holten, J.-W. van; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-15

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  4. Integrated Solid Earth Science: the right place and time to discover the unexpected? (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, Sierd

    2013-04-01

    The fascination of learning more about the way system Earth operates has driven generations of Earth scientists. This has been the case for early pioneers such as Arthur Holmes, focusing on the geological record in continental settings, as well as for the founding fathers of plate tectonics, who built upon the results of exploring the ocean floor. Two years ago we celebrated the centenary of the discovery by Mohorovicic of the seismic discontinuity that separates the crust from the mantle, which now carries his name. Reading the rocks and mapping the (sub)surface of the Earth has provided the foundation for a great deal of what we conceptually pursue today in developing and validating coupled deep Earth and surface processes. The unexpected is probably characterizing most of my scientific career. It started in 1968 when, as a student, entering the geology program of Groningen University headed by Professor Philip Kuenen, a pioneer in marine geology and sedimentology, the textbook of Arthur Holmes just happened to be my first purchase. It was during those years that plate tectonics drastically changed everything we were learning. I was also privileged to enter a few years later as an MSc student the Utrecht geophysics school at a time where Nico Vlaar as a young professor was developing a vigorous research program with a focus on seismology, attracting and stimulating many talented students. When he and Rinus Wortel started research on Tectonophysics in Utrecht, I decided to go for a PhD research project tackling the problem of the initiation of subduction, a first order problem in geodynamics, with still many aspects to be resolved. This research and the joint work with Rinus Wortel on modeling intraplate stresses in the Faralon, Nazca and Indo-Australian plates led quite unexpectedly to exploring, together with Kurt Lambeck, intraplate stress fluctuations in the lithosphere as possible tectonic causes for the origin of third-order cycles in relative sea

  5. Parricide: Children Who Kill Their Parents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    adolescents who kill their parents. The research centers on who is the offender, why he or she has used parricide as a solution to an unresolvable problem...parricide. Conclusions Reached Based on the results of the literature review three conclusions were reached. First, adolescents who commit parricide have been...at the hands of their abuser. Secondly, the treatment of these adolescents by the criminal justice system varies greatly depending on the willingness

  6. 11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD SPLITTERS' PLATFORMS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  7. Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    2001-05-01

    Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

  8. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

  9. War neuroses and Arthur Hurst: a pioneering medical film about the treatment of psychiatric battle casualties.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar

    2012-07-01

    From 1917 to 1918, Major Arthur Hurst filmed shell-shocked patients home from the war in France. Funded by the Medical Research Committee, and using Pathé cameramen, he recorded soldiers who suffered from intractable movement disorders as they underwent treatment at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Netley and undertook programs of occupational therapy at Seale Hayne in Devon. As one of the earliest UK medical films, Hurst's efforts may have drawn inspiration from the official documentary of the Battle of the Somme and films made in 1916 by French Army neurologists. Although initially motivated to make use of a novel medium to illustrate lectures, Hurst was alert to the wider appeal of the motion picture and saw an opportunity to position himself in the postwar medical hierarchy. Some "before treatment" shots were reenacted for the camera. Hurst, like some other shell shock doctors, openly used deception as a therapeutic measure. On the basis that the ends justified the means, they defended this procedure as ethical. Clinicians also took advantage of changes in military regulations to address functional symptoms. Claims made of "cures" in the film and associated publications by Hurst were challenged by other doctors treating shell shock. The absence of follow-up data and evidence from war pension files suggested that Hurst may have overstated the effectiveness of his methods. Nevertheless, the message conveyed in the film that chronic cases could be treated in a single session had a powerful resonance for ambitious or charismatic doctors and was revived in World War II.

  10. War Neuroses and Arthur Hurst: A Pioneering Medical Film about the Treatment of Psychiatric Battle Casualties

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    From 1917 to 1918, Major Arthur Hurst filmed shell-shocked patients home from the war in France. Funded by the Medical Research Committee, and using Pathé cameramen, he recorded soldiers who suffered from intractable movement disorders as they underwent treatment at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Netley and undertook programs of occupational therapy at Seale Hayne in Devon. As one of the earliest UK medical films, Hurst’s efforts may have drawn inspiration from the official documentary of the Battle of the Somme and films made in 1916 by French Army neurologists. Although initially motivated to make use of a novel medium to illustrate lectures, Hurst was alert to the wider appeal of the motion picture and saw an opportunity to position himself in the postwar medical hierarchy. Some “before treatment” shots were reenacted for the camera. Hurst, like some other shell shock doctors, openly used deception as a therapeutic measure. On the basis that the ends justified the means, they defended this procedure as ethical. Clinicians also took advantage of changes in military regulations to address functional symptoms. Claims made of “cures” in the film and associated publications by Hurst were challenged by other doctors treating shell shock. The absence of follow-up data and evidence from war pension files suggested that Hurst may have overstated the effectiveness of his methods. Nevertheless, the message conveyed in the film that chronic cases could be treated in a single session had a powerful resonance for ambitious or charismatic doctors and was revived in World War II. PMID:21596724

  11. Phantoms in artists: the lost limbs of Blaise Cendrars,Arthur Rimbaud, and Paul Wittgenstein.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Boller, François

    2014-01-01

    There have been an increasing number of reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs over recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems, which are often poorly understood and considered rather mysterious, are still relevant because they are difficult to treat medically. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Phantom limbs have often been a source of inspiration to writers, particularly in the period following the First World War, which was responsible for thousands of amputees. Some artists have suffered from postamputation complications themselves and have expressed them through their artistic works. Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961), one of the greatest authors of the twentieth century, suffered from stump pain and phantom limb phenomena for almost half a century following the amputation of his right arm during the First World War. He suffered from these phenomena until the end of his life and his literary work and personal correspondence are peppered with references to them. Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891), one of the most famous poets in world literature, developed severe stump pain after his right leg was amputated due to a tumor. He survived for only six months after the procedure but left behind an account of the pain he experienced in correspondence to his family. The famous pianist Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), whose right arm was amputated during the First World War, became a famous left-handed concert pianist. The phantom movements of his right hand helped him to develop the dexterity of his left hand. The impact on the artistic life of these three men provides an original illustration of the various postamputation complications, specifically phantom limbs, stump pain, and moving phantom.

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  13. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... for vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage...

  14. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  15. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  16. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  17. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  18. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  19. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... for vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage...

  20. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  1. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... for vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage...

  2. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  3. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  4. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  5. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  6. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  7. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  8. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  9. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  10. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  11. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... for vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage...

  12. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  13. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  14. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  15. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  16. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  17. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  18. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  19. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  20. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... for vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage...

  1. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  4. It's not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jacqueline T; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

  5. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  6. Sergey Sukhanov, a Russian Physician in Professor Arthur Van Gehuchten's Lab - Based on Original 19th Century Documents

    PubMed Central

    Vein, Alla A.; Aubert, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    In 1898, Russian physician Sergey Alexeevich Sukhanov (1867-1915) spent a 3-month traineeship in Professor Arthur Van Gehuchten's anatomy laboratory in Louvain (Belgium). A folder containing 17 handwritten documents in Russian was recently discovered in the archives of the Museum of the History of Medicine, First Moscow State Medical University. The letters give a lively account of Sukhanov's everyday observations, experiences and opinions while he was in Van Gehuchten's lab. We took a selection of these notes and put them into medical and historical context. PMID:27226287

  7. Accounting for changes in social support among married older adults: insights from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Regan A R; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa E

    2003-09-01

    Using longitudinal, community-based data from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, the authors examined determinants of changes in social support receipt among 439 married older adults. In general, social support increased over time, especially for those with many preexisting social ties, but those experiencing more psychological distress and cognitive dysfunction reported more negative encounters with others. Gender affected social support receipt: Men received emotional support primarily from their spouses, whereas women drew more heavily on their friends and relatives and children for emotional support. Discussion centers on the importance of social support provision to those with the greatest needs.

  8. Dynamic kill: controlling wild wells a new way

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, E.M.; Soeiinah, E.

    1981-10-01

    Dynamic kill describes a technique for terminating a blowout utilizing flowing frictional pressure to supplement the hydrostatic pressure of the kill fluid being injected through the relief well and up the blowing well. Therefore, a lighter kill fluid such as water can be implemented. The objective is to allow a blowout to be killed without breaking down the formation so the maximum amount of fluid can be circulated through the relief well by not losing fluid to a fractured formation. This allows optimum control during the kill operation and stable communication between the two wells. By allowing more fluid to be applied to the kill through one relief well, dynamic kill also increases the probability that one relief well will be sufficient. When the well is dynamically dead, the initial kill fluid, which will usually be too light to hold the well dead in a static condition, is replaced with a heavier kill mud. In fact, three weights of mud may be required to allow control during the transition from low density initial dynamic kill mud to heavy final kill mud. 5 refs.

  9. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene. PMID:21148701

  10. The killing efficiency of soft iron shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication

  11. Micro-sociology of mass rampage killings.

    PubMed

    Collins, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Spectacular but very rare violent events such as mass killings by habitual non-criminals cannot be explained by factors which are very widespread, such as possession of firearms, being a victim of bullying, an introvert, or a career failure. A stronger clue is clandestine preparation of attack by one or two individuals, against randomly chosen representatives of a hated collective identity. Mass killers develop a deep back-stage, obsessed with planning their attack, overcoming social inferiority and isolation by an emotion of clandestine excitement.

  12. The Calabi complex and Killing sheaf cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khavkine, Igor

    2017-03-01

    It has recently been noticed that the degeneracies of the Poisson bracket of linearized gravity on constant curvature Lorentzian manifold can be described in terms of the cohomologies of a certain complex of differential operators. This complex was first introduced by Calabi and its cohomology is known to be isomorphic to that of the (locally constant) sheaf of Killing vectors. We review the structure of the Calabi complex in a novel way, with explicit calculations based on representation theory of GL(n) , and also some tools for studying its cohomology in terms of locally constant sheaves. We also conjecture how these tools would adapt to linearized gravity on other backgrounds and to other gauge theories. The presentation includes explicit formulas for the differential operators in the Calabi complex, arguments for its local exactness, discussion of generalized Poincaré duality, methods of computing the cohomology of locally constant sheaves, and example calculations of Killing sheaf cohomologies of some black hole and cosmological Lorentzian manifolds.

  13. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus) Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Gable, Thomas D.; Windels, Steve K.; Bruggink, John G.; Homkes, Austin T.

    2016-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus) in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58%) kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80%) kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1) waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails) until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2) using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3) immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers. PMID:27992441

  14. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus) Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis).

    PubMed

    Gable, Thomas D; Windels, Steve K; Bruggink, John G; Homkes, Austin T

    2016-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus) in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58%) kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80%) kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1) waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails) until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2) using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3) immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  15. Grounding of the Bahia Paraiso at Arthur Harbor, Antarctica. 1. Distribution and fate of oil spill related hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kennicutt, M.C. II; Sweet, S.T. ); Fraser, W.R.; Culver, M. ); Stockton, W.L. )

    1991-03-01

    In January to March 1989 water, organisms, and sediments within a 2-mile radius of Arthur Harbor were contaminated with an estimated 600,000 L of petroleum spilled by the Bahia Paraiso. All components of the ecosystem were contaminated to varying degrees during the spill, including birds, limpets, macroalgae, clams, bottom-feeding fish, and sediments. The high-energy environment, the relatively small volume of material released, and the volatility of the released product all contributed to limiting toxic effects in time and space. The most effective removal processes were evaporation, dilution, winds, and currents. Sedimentation, biological uptake, microbial oxidation, and photooxidation accounted for removal of only a minor portion of the spill. One year after the spill several areas still exhibited contamination. Subtidal sediments and the more distant intertidal locations were devoid of detectable PAH contaminants whereas sediments near the docking facility at Palmer Station continued to reflect localized nonspill-related activities in the area. Arthur Harbor and adjacent areas continue to be chronically exposed to low-level petroleum contamination emanating from the Bahia Paraiso.

  16. Heterosigma bloom and associated fish kill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Postel, J.R.; Taub, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    A bloom of the harmful marine phytoplankton, Heterosigma carterae occurred in upper Case Inlet, south Puget Sound, Washington in late September, 1994, correlating with the presence of at least 35 dead salmon. This marks the first time that this alga has been closely correlated with a wild fish kill; in the past it was thought to be associated with kills of penned fish at fish farms only. We were informed of the presence of a possible harmful algal bloom and dead salinois Ilear the town of Allyn on 27 September and a team was formed to investigate. We arrived at the Allyn waterfront at 17:30 hours the same day. Prior to our arrival, state agency personnel walked approximatcly two miles of shoreline from the powerlines north of the dock, to the mouth of Sherwood Creek and conducted the only official count of dead fish present along the shore consisting of 12 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 11 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), 12 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), one flat fish, and one sculpin on the morning of 9/27. Since previous harmful blooms of Heterosigma have resultedin the majority of net penreared salmon sinking to the bottom of pens, and only approximately two miles of shoreline were sampled, it is suspected that many more exposed fish may have succumbed than were counted. Witnesses who explored the east side of the bay reported seeing many dead salmon there as well, but no counts were made. State agency personnel who observed the fish kill reported seeing “dying fish coming to the beach, gulping at the surface, trying to get out of the water” Scavengers were seen consuming the salmon carcasses; these included two harbor seals, a house cat, and Hymenopteran insects. None suffered any noticeable acute ill effects. Although precise cause of death has not been ascertained, visual inspection of the reproductive organs from a deceased male chum salmon found on the shore at Allyn confirmed that the fish was not yet reproductively mature and

  17. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides.

  18. f(R)-gravity from Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2016-04-01

    We consider f(R)-gravity in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We apply the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to specify the functional form of f(R) and for the field equations to be invariant under Lie-Bäcklund transformations, which are linear in momentum (contact symmetries). Consequently, the field equations to admit quadratic conservation laws given by Noether’s theorem. We find three new integrable f(R)-models, for which, with the application of the conservation laws, we reduce the field equations to a system of two first-order ordinary differential equations. For each model we study the evolution of the cosmological fluid. We find that for each integrable model the cosmological fluid has an equation of state parameter, in which there is linear behavior in terms of the scale factor which describes the Chevallier, Polarski and Linder parametric dark energy model.

  19. Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, W. K.; Olson, A.; Finato, S.

    1993-06-01

    A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill vehicle (KV) control system packages a total impulse typical of a tactical weapon interceptor for the ground- or sea-based TMD systems. High density packaging makes it possible to increase firepower and to eliminate long-term high pressure gas storage associated with bipropellant systems. The integrated control subsystem technologies encompass solid propellant gas generators, insulated composite overwrapped propellant tanks, lightweight endoatmospheric thrusters, and insensitive munition gel propellants, which meet the requirements of a deployable, operationally safe KV.

  20. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  1. Killing Sections and Sigma Models with Lie Algebroid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Andrew James

    2016-08-01

    We define and examine the notion of a Killing section of a Riemannian Lie algebroid as a natural generalisation of a Killing vector field. We show that the various expression for a vector field to be Killing naturally generalise to the setting of Lie algebroids. As an application we examine the internal symmetries of a class of sigma models for which the target space is a Riemannian Lie algebroid. Critical points of these sigma models are interpreted as generalised harmonic maps.

  2. Transverse conformal Killing forms on Kähler foliations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Seoung Dal

    2015-04-01

    On a closed, connected Riemannian manifold with a Kähler foliation of codimension q = 2 m, any transverse Killing r(≥ 2) -form is parallel (Jung and Jung, 2012). In this paper, we study transverse conformal Killing forms on Kähler foliations. In fact, if the foliation is minimal, then for any transverse conformal Killing r-form ϕ(2 ≤ r ≤ q - 2), Jϕ is parallel. Here J is defined in Section 4.

  3. Killing spinors as a characterisation of rotating black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Michael J.; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the implications of the existence of Killing spinors in a spacetime. In particular, we show that in vacuum and electrovacuum a Killing spinor, along with some assumptions on the associated Killing vector in an asymptotic region, guarantees that the spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr or Kerr-Newman solutions. We show that the characterisation of these spacetimes in terms of Killing spinors is an alternative expression of characterisation results of Mars (Kerr) and Wong (Kerr-Newman) involving restrictions on the Weyl curvature and matter content.

  4. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  5. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect.

    PubMed

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-23

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  6. Advancements in dynamic kill calculations for blowout wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kouba, G.E. . Production Fluids Div.); MacDougall, G.R. ); Schumacher, B.W. . Information Technology Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    This paper addresses the development, interpretation, and use of dynamic kill equations. To this end, three simple calculation techniques are developed for determining the minimum dynamic kill rate. Two techniques contain only single-phase calculations and are independent of reservoir inflow performance. Despite these limitations, these two methods are useful for bracketing the minimum flow rates necessary to kill a blowing well. For the third technique, a simplified mechanistic multiphase-flow model is used to determine a most-probable minimum kill rate.

  7. Organizing and Making Sense of the Literature: Arthur M. Cohen as Director of the ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges, 1966-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2007-01-01

    A major part of Arthur M. Cohen's scholarly legacy is the archive of documents and journal articles catalogued by the ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges, which he led throughout its entire 37-year history (1966-2003). As Clearinghouse director, Cohen oversaw its document acquisition and cataloguing operations, as well as its extensive…

  8. Global Productivity: Roles for Executives and Educators. The Annual W. Arthur Cullman Symposium Proceedings (2nd, Columbus, Ohio, April 27, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. College of Administrative Science.

    Three keynote addresses from the W. Arthur Cullman Symposium are presented in this booklet. The first address, "Global Productivity: New and Renewed Perspectives," was delivered by John G. Keane, Director of the United States Bureau of Census. In his address, Dr. Keane proposed five guideline perspectives: recognizing emerging global unification…

  9. Identification of Children with Language Impairment: Investigating the Classification Accuracy of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, Level III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth; Campbell, Wenonah; Dempsey, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the accuracy with which the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, Level III (CDI-III), a parent report measure of language ability, discriminated children with language impairment from those developing language typically. Method: Parents of 58 children, 49 with typically developing language (age 30 to 42…

  10. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  11. On the College Student as an Individual: A Bibliography of Arthur W. Chickering. Vance Bibliographies, Public Administration Series: Bibliography P-823.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Richard H.

    A bibliography of Arthur W. Chickering's works on the college student as an individual is presented. Specific topics include the following: diverse student bodies and a changing society, competency-based education, adult development and teaching-learning implications, lifelong learning by handicapped persons, college curriculum development,…

  12. An Item Response Theory-Based, Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip S.; Havmose, Philip; Bleses, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the feasibility and potential validity of an item response theory (IRT)-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS; Fenson et al., 2007) vocabulary checklist, with the objective of reducing length while maintaining…

  13. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determined as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact.

  14. Summer kill rates and predation pattern in a wolf-moose system: can we rely on winter estimates?

    PubMed

    Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Johansson, Orjan; Pedersen, Hans C; Liberg, Olof

    2008-05-01

    So far the vast majority of studies on large carnivore predation, including kill rates and consumption, have been based on winter studies. Because large carnivores relying on ungulates as prey often show a preference for juveniles, kill rates may be both higher and more variable during the summer season than during the rest of the year leading to serious underestimates of the total annual predation rate. This study is the first to present detailed empirical data on kill rates and prey selection in a wolf-moose system during summer (June-September) as obtained by applying modern Global Positioning System-collar techniques on individual wolves (Canis lupus) in Scandinavia. Moose (Alces alces) was the dominant prey species both by number (74.4%) and biomass (95.6%); 89.9% of all moose killed were juveniles, representing 76.0% of the biomass consumed by wolves. Kill rate in terms of the kilogram biomass/kilogram wolf per day averaged 0.20 (range: 0.07-0.32) among wolf territories and was above, or well above, the daily minimum food requirements in most territories. The average number of days between moose kills across wolf territories and study periods was 1.71 days, but increased with time and size of growing moose calves during summer. Over the entire summer (June-September, 122 days), a group (from two to nine) of wolves killed a total of 66 (confidence interval 95%; 56-81) moose. Incorporation of body growth functions of moose calves and yearlings and wolf pups over the summer period showed that wolves adjusted their kill rate on moose, so the amount of biomass/kilogram wolf was relatively constant or increased. The kill rate was much higher (94-116%) than estimated from the winter period. As a consequence, projecting winter kill rates to obtain annual estimates of predation in similar predator-prey systems may result in a significant underestimation of the total number of prey killed.

  15. Epidemiology and Public Health in 1906 England: Arthur Newsholme’s Methodological Innovation to Study Breastfeeding and Fatal Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Beth; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    In 1906 Arthur Newsholme linked artificial feeding and fatal diarrhea in infants aged one year and younger on the basis of two independent sources of information: mortality registration and a three-year (1903–1905) census of infants from Brighton, United Kingdom. Artificial feeding was more common in the infants who had died (89.3%) than in those in the survey (22.3%). However, boldly assuming the two data sources were nested, Newsholme computed the risks of fatal diarrhea: these were 48 times greater for infants fed fresh cow’s milk and 94 times greater for those fed condensed milk than for infants who were exclusively breastfed. This mode of computing risks and risk ratios before the invention of the cohort study design was more innovative than was the usual investigation techniques of his contemporary epidemiologists. Newsholme’s conclusions were consistent with the current knowledge that breastfeeding protects against fatal diarrhea. PMID:23678939

  16. STS-92 Mission Specialist McArthur is ready to take his turn driving the M-113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-92 Mission Specialist Bill McArthur gets ready to take his turn at driving the M-113, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. Behind him (left) is Mission Specialist Jeff Wisoff, waiting his turn to drive along with other unidentified crew members. The tracked vehicle could be used by the crew in the event of an emergency at the pad during which the crew must make a quick exit from the area. The TCDT also provides simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-92 is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on the fifth flight to the International Space Station. It will carry two elements of the Space Station, the Integrated Truss Structure Z1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The mission is also the 100th flight in the Shuttle program.

  17. Epidemiology and public health in 1906 England: Arthur Newsholme's methodological innovation to study breastfeeding and fatal diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo; Rubenstein, Beth; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-07-01

    In 1906 Arthur Newsholme linked artificial feeding and fatal diarrhea in infants aged one year and younger on the basis of two independent sources of information: mortality registration and a three-year (1903-1905) census of infants from Brighton, United Kingdom. Artificial feeding was more common in the infants who had died (89.3%) than in those in the survey (22.3%). However, boldly assuming the two data sources were nested, Newsholme computed the risks of fatal diarrhea: these were 48 times greater for infants fed fresh cow's milk and 94 times greater for those fed condensed milk than for infants who were exclusively breastfed. This mode of computing risks and risk ratios before the invention of the cohort study design was more innovative than was the usual investigation techniques of his contemporary epidemiologists. Newsholme's conclusions were consistent with the current knowledge that breastfeeding protects against fatal diarrhea.

  18. The MacArthur Maze Fire and Roadway Collapse: A "Worst Case Scenario" for Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation?

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Easton, Earl P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2012-07-06

    In 2007, a severe transportation accident occurred near Oakland, California, at the interchange known as the "MacArthur Maze." The accident involved a double tanker truck of gasoline overturning and bursting into flames. The subsequent fire reduced the strength of the supporting steel structure of an overhead interstate roadway causing the collapse of portions of that overpass onto the lower roadway in less than 20 minutes. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has analyzed what might have happened had a spent nuclear fuel transportation package been involved in this accident, to determine if there are any potential regulatory implications of this accident to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This paper provides a summary of this effort, presents preliminary results and conclusions, and discusses future work related to the NRC's analysis of the consequences of this type of severe accident.

  19. Tackling Shell Shock in Great War Oxford: Thomas Saxty Good, William McDougall, and James Arthur Hadfield.

    PubMed

    Stewart, John

    2016-01-01

    Shell shock was an important object of diagnostic and therapeutic concern in Oxford during the Great War. The efforts of three Oxford physicians--Thomas Saxty Good, William McDougall, and James Arthur Hadfield--are of particular significance to our story. All worked on the problem at various sites throughout the city. They often collaborated. All were committed to employing innovative techniques such as psychotherapy and hypnosis. Each rose, to differing extents, to prominence in the field of psychological medicine during the succeeding decades. Yet all have been neglected in the current historiography. I argue that a close examination of their practices reveals a curious combination of therapeutic pragmatism and psychoanalytically informed techniques that later helped inform clinical psychology's challenge to psychiatry's dominance over the concept and care of mental disorder.

  20. Archaeological evidence for dental innovation: an eighteenth century porcelain dental prosthesis belonging to Archbishop Arthur Richard Dillon.

    PubMed

    Powers, N

    2006-10-07

    During archaeological investigation by Gifford of St Pancras Old Church burial ground, on the eastern edge of Somers Town, London, in advance of construction of the new London terminus for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, a full porcelain denture was discovered. The high quality porcelain dentures, manufactured in the late eighteenth century French style, may have been brought with their owner, Archbishop Arthur Richard Dillon, on his journey into exile. There is evidence of prolonged use, not only for cosmetic or vocal functions but also in mastication. The dentures are unique archaeological artefacts and represent a pivotal time in dental history, with the adoption of new materials and methods of manufacture. They reflect a period of significant social and economic change for the upper echelons of French society. This paper outlines the development of porcelain dentures, discusses the prosthesis, their owner, and a possible provenance.

  1. Killing of bacteria during solar eclipse and its biological implications.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S K; Chatterjee, S N

    1983-01-01

    Enhanced killing of bacteria was obtained by radiation reaching the earth during total solar eclipse (February 16, 1980) than during the corresponding time of a normal day (February 26, 1980). The killing was not due to the formation of sunlight induced photoproducts of tryptophan. The damage to the bacteria exposed to sunlight could be repaired by photoreactivation.

  2. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  3. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set...

  6. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  7. Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sáez, Juan Antonio

    2016-04-01

    We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similarities and differences with the recently studied non null case (Ferrando and Sáez in Gen Relativ Gravit 47:1911, 2015). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.

  8. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  10. Killing of bacteria by copper surfaces involves dissolved copper.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Cristina; Abicht, Helge K; Solioz, Marc

    2010-06-01

    Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces. However, the mechanism of this process remains unclear. Using Enterococcus hirae, the effect of inactivation of copper homeostatic genes and of medium compositions on survival and copper dissolution was tested. The results support a role for dissolved copper ions in killing.

  11. 9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. Clomipramine kills Trypanosoma brucei by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    de Silva Rodrigues, Jean Henrique; Stein, Jasmin; Strauss, Mariana; Rivarola, Héctor Walter; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Duszenko, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Drug repositioning, i.e. use of existing medicals to treat a different illness, is especially rewarding for neglected tropical diseases (NTD), since in this field the pharmaceutical industry is rather reluctant to spend vast investments for drug development. NTDs afflict primarily poor populations in under-developed countries, which minimizes financial profit. Here we investigated the trypanocidal effect of clomipramine, a commercial antipsychotic drug, on Trypanosoma brucei. The data showed that this drug killed the parasite with an IC50 of about 5μM. Analysis of the involved cell death mechanism revealed furthermore an initial autophagic stress response and finally the induction of apoptosis. The latter was substantiated by a set of respective markers such as phosphatidylserine exposition, DNA degradation, loss of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential and characteristic morphological changes. Clomipramine was described as a trypanothione inhibitor, but as judged from our results it also showed DNA binding capacities and induced substantial morphological changes. We thus consider it likely that the drug induces a multifold adverse interaction with the parasite's physiology and induces stress in a way that trypanosomes cannot cope with.

  13. The Cell Killing Mechanisms of Hydroxyurea

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amanpreet; Xu, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a well-established inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase that has a long history of scientific interest and clinical use for the treatment of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. It is currently the staple drug for the management of sickle cell anemia and chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Due to its reversible inhibitory effect on DNA replication in various organisms, hydroxyurea is also commonly used in laboratories for cell cycle synchronization or generating replication stress. However, incubation with high concentrations or prolonged treatment with low doses of hydroxyurea can result in cell death and the DNA damage generated at arrested replication forks is generally believed to be the direct cause. Recent studies in multiple model organisms have shown that oxidative stress and several other mechanisms may contribute to the majority of the cytotoxic effect of hydroxyurea. This review aims to summarize the progress in our understanding of the cell-killing mechanisms of hydroxyurea, which may provide new insights towards the improvement of chemotherapies that employ this agent. PMID:27869662

  14. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

  15. On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseevsky, D. V.; Cortes, V.

    2009-02-02

    Let M be a pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold of dimension n and signature s and denote by N the rank of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits more than (3/4)N independent Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n {identical_to} 1(mod 4) and s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k{sub +} independent Killing spinors with Killing number {lambda} and k{sub -} independent Killing spinors with Killing number -{lambda} such that k{sub +}+k{sub -}>(3/2)N, unless n {identical_to} s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). Similarly, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold with more than (3/4)N independent conformal Killing spinors is conformally locally homogeneous. For (positive or negative) definite metrics, the bounds (3/4)N and (3/2)N in the above results can be relaxed to (1/2)N and N, respectively. Furthermore, we prove that a pseudo-Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/4)N parallel spinors is flat and that (1/4)N parallel spinors suffice if the metric is definite. Similarly, a Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/8)N Killing spinors with the Killing number {lambda}(set-membership sign)R has constant curvature 4{lambda}{sup 2}. For Lorentzian or negative definite metrics the same is true with the bound (1/2)N. Finally, we give a classification of (not necessarily complete) Riemannian manifolds admitting Killing spinors, which provides an inductive construction of such manifolds.

  16. Gauge theories on A(dS) space and Killing vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2008-03-15

    We provide a general technique for collectively analysing a manifestly covariant formulation of non-abelian gauge theories on both anti-de Sitter as well as de Sitter spaces. This is done by stereographically projecting the corresponding theories, defined on a flat Minkowski space, onto the surface of the A(dS) hyperboloid. The gauge and matter fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors and conformal Killing spinors, respectively. A bilinear map connecting the spinors with the vector is established. Different forms of gauge fixing conditions and their equivalence are discussed. The U(1) axial anomaly as well as the non-abelian covariant and consistent chiral anomalies on A(dS) space are obtained. Electric-magnetic duality is demonstrated. The zero curvature limit is shown to yield consistent findings.

  17. Managing Threat, Cost, and Incentive to Kill: The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Intervention in Mass Killings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathman, Jacob D.; Wood, Reed M.

    2011-01-01

    How do third-party interventions affect the severity of mass killings? The authors theorize that episodes of mass killing are the consequence of two factors: (1) the threat perceptions of the perpetrators and (2) the cost of implementing genocidal policies relative to other alternatives. To reduce genocidal hostilities, interveners must address…

  18. Psychological traits underlying different killing methods among Malaysian male murderers.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, Mohammad Rahim; Shariff, Nadiah Syariani; Nurfarliza, Siti; Othman, Azizah; Ismail, Khaidzir H; Mat Saat, Geshina Ayu

    2014-04-01

    Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or

  19. Macrophage elastase kills bacteria within murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Houghton, A McGarry; Hartzell, William O; Robbins, Clinton S; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Shapiro, Steven D

    2009-07-30

    Macrophages are aptly positioned to function as the primary line of defence against invading pathogens in many organs, including the lung and peritoneum. Their ability to phagocytose and clear microorganisms has been well documented. Macrophages possess several substances with which they can kill bacteria, including reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and antimicrobial proteins. We proposed that macrophage-derived proteinases may contribute to the antimicrobial properties of macrophages. Macrophage elastase (also known as matrix metalloproteinase 12 or MMP12) is an enzyme predominantly expressed in mature tissue macrophages and is implicated in several disease processes, including emphysema. Physiological functions for MMP12 have not been described. Here we show that Mmp12(-/-) mice exhibit impaired bacterial clearance and increased mortality when challenged with both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria at macrophage-rich portals of entry, such as the peritoneum and lung. Intracellular stores of MMP12 are mobilized to macrophage phagolysosomes after the ingestion of bacterial pathogens. Once inside phagolysosomes, MMP12 adheres to bacterial cell walls where it disrupts cellular membranes resulting in bacterial death. The antimicrobial properties of MMP12 do not reside within its catalytic domain, but rather within the carboxy-terminal domain. This domain contains a unique four amino acid sequence on an exposed beta loop of the protein that is required for the observed antimicrobial activity. The present study represents, to our knowledge, the first report of direct antimicrobial activity by a matrix metallopeptidase, and describes a new antimicrobial peptide that is sequentially and structurally unique in nature.

  20. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct

  1. Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the

  2. Grim Job Talks Are a Buzz Kill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a look at five mistakes that candidates should avoid making during their research presentations. These mistakes are the following: (1) they didn't do any research on the norms of the campus culture; (2) they presented a single, well-thought-out project that had no future; (3) they didn't use the opportunity to demonstrate their…

  3. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Panozzo, J.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  4. Role of Peroxide in Phagocytic Killing of Pneumococci

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Jane; Bernheimer, Harriet P.

    1974-01-01

    Two mutants of a pneumococcus type I with diminished peroxide production were selected from a population of nitrosoguanidine-treated cells. White cells of normal patients killed the mutant pneumococci as well as the otherwise isogenic wild-type strain. In patients studied with chronic granulomatous disease, however, the peroxide-poor strain was killed far less well than the wild type. These studies indicate that the removal of a peroxide-generating system in the phagocytic vacuole specifically brings forth the killing defect in chronic granulomatous disease. PMID:4148725

  5. Book Review: Evans, Arthur V. 2014. Beetles of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A. 560 pp. ISBN 978-0-691-13304-1 (paperback). Price: US $35.00

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A book review is presented for “Beetles of Eastern North America” by Arthur V. Evans. This 560 page book was published in 2014 and treats over 1,400 species of beetles distributed in eastern North America....

  6. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators,…

  7. Is research ethics regulation really killing people?

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    2015-04-06

    It has been argued that research ethics regulation is leading to loss of life by delaying life-saving research. For example, Whitney and Schneider argue that the delays to the ISIS-2 trial cost 6538 lives. This suggests that there are grounds for rejecting research ethics regulation. However, the methods adopted by critics are flawed because: they conflate regulatory delays with those due to genuine normative requirements that would be present even if the regulatory framework was not; and looking at the impact of regulation on a per-project basis is the wrong metric, because it neglects all the unsuccessful research and because delaying specific projects does not reduce the overall research done by researchers. Research ethics regulation does not lead to substantial losses of life, but we have strong obligations to make it as efficient as possible.

  8. PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

  9. Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.

    PubMed

    Minasyan, Hayk A

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation.

  10. 'Superbug' Resistant to All Antibiotics Killed Nevada Woman

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163038.html 'Superbug' Resistant to All Antibiotics Killed Nevada Woman She died after possibly ... in September from a "superbug" infection that resisted all antibiotics, according to a report released Friday. The ...

  11. Surface structure influences contact killing of bacteria by copper

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Marco; Solioz, Marc; Edongué, Hervais; Arzt, Eduard; Schneider, Andreas S

    2014-01-01

    Copper kills bacteria rapidly by a mechanism that is not yet fully resolved. The antibacterial property of copper has raised interest in its use in hospitals, in place of plastic or stainless steel. On the latter surfaces, bacteria can survive for days or even weeks. Copper surfaces could thus provide a powerful accessory measure to curb nosocomial infections. We here investigated the effect of the copper surface structure on the efficiency of contact killing of Escherichia coli, an aspect which so far has received very little attention. It was shown that electroplated copper surfaces killed bacteria more rapidly than either polished copper or native rolled copper. The release of ionic copper was also more rapid from electroplated copper compared to the other materials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria nudged into the grooves between the copper grains of deposited copper. The findings suggest that, in terms of contact killing, more efficient copper surfaces can be engineered. PMID:24740976

  12. Surface structure influences contact killing of bacteria by copper.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Marco; Solioz, Marc; Edongué, Hervais; Arzt, Eduard; Schneider, Andreas S

    2014-06-01

    Copper kills bacteria rapidly by a mechanism that is not yet fully resolved. The antibacterial property of copper has raised interest in its use in hospitals, in place of plastic or stainless steel. On the latter surfaces, bacteria can survive for days or even weeks. Copper surfaces could thus provide a powerful accessory measure to curb nosocomial infections. We here investigated the effect of the copper surface structure on the efficiency of contact killing of Escherichia coli, an aspect which so far has received very little attention. It was shown that electroplated copper surfaces killed bacteria more rapidly than either polished copper or native rolled copper. The release of ionic copper was also more rapid from electroplated copper compared to the other materials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria nudged into the grooves between the copper grains of deposited copper. The findings suggest that, in terms of contact killing, more efficient copper surfaces can be engineered.

  13. Mouthwash Helps Kill Gonorrhea Germs in Mouth, Throat: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162649.html Mouthwash Helps Kill Gonorrhea Germs in Mouth, Throat: Study Listerine's maker has ... A commercial brand of mouthwash can help control gonorrhea bacteria in the mouth, and daily use may ...

  14. Hidden symmetries and killing tensors on curved spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ianus, S.; Visinescu, M.; Vilcu, G. E.

    2010-11-15

    Higher-order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and nonstandard supersymmetries is pointed out. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed 3-Sasakian structures.

  15. Killing superalgebra deformations of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Vercnocke, Bert

    2007-12-01

    We explore Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We prove the rigidity of the Poincaré superalgebras in types I, IIA and IIB, as well as of the Killing superalgebra of the Freund Rubin vacuum of type IIB supergravity. We also prove rigidity of the Killing superalgebras of the NS5-, D0-, D3-, D4- and D5-branes, whereas we exhibit the possible deformations of the D1-, D2-, D6- and D7-brane Killing superalgebras, as well as of that of the type II fundamental string solutions. We relate the superalgebra deformations of the D2- and D6-branes to those of the (delocalized) M2-brane and the Kaluza Klein monopole, respectively. The good behaviour under Kaluza Klein reduction suggests that the deformed superalgebras ought to have a geometric interpretation.

  16. Potassium Channels Mediate Killing by Human Natural Killer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichter, Lyanne; Sidell, Neil; Hagiwara, Susumu

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. However, no direct evidence exists for ion channels in NK cells or in their target cells. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, we found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. We tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na+ current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. We could not find any evidence of a Ca2+ current in target cells or in NK cells; therefore, our results cannot explain the Ca dependence of killing. Our findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process. In contrast, the endogenous channel type in the target cell is probably not a factor in determining target cell

  17. Symmetries and conservation laws of space-times admitting two commuting killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Balraj

    In this dissertation, we determined all first-order generalized symmetries of the vacuum Einstein equations for spacetimes admitting two commuting Killing vector fields. The field equations for the two Killing vector models, referred to as the reduced Einstein equations, were first derived using a projection formalism first developed by Geroch. In the derivation of the reduced Einstein equations, we assumed the two-dimensional distribution orthogonal to the vector spaces spanned by the Killing vector fields admits integral submanifolds. Prior to embarking on the symmetry analysis, the reduced Einstein equations were expressed in harmonic-null coordinates. A brief survey of the theory of symmetry groups of differential equations, variational symmetries, and local conservation laws preceded the generalized symmetry analysis of the reduced Einstein equation. These concepts were motivated and presented through their application to a variety of physical systems drawn from classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, classical electromagnetism, and general relativity. We obtained partial results from a preliminary analysis of kth-order generalized symmetries (for k ≥ 1) of the reduced Einstein equations. This was followed by the determination of all first-order generalized symmetries admitted by the reduced Einstein equations. We showed that all first-order generalized symmetries of the reduced Einstein equations are, in fact, prolonged point symmetries. Since the reduced Einstein equations admit a Lagrangian formulation, the variational symmetries and local conservation laws associated with the first-order symmetries were also determined and discussed.

  18. Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2005-07-01

    Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

  19. Autochthonous inheritance of zircon through Cretaceous partial melting of Carboniferous plutons: the Arthur River Complex, Fiordland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulloch, Andrew J.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Kimbrough, David L.; Griffin, William L.; Ramezani, Jahandar

    2011-03-01

    TIMS and SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircons from Milford Orthogneiss metadiorite ( P = 1-1.4 GPa; T ≥ 750°C) of the Arthur River Complex of northern Fiordland reveal a bimodal age pattern. Zircons are predominantly either Paleozoic (357.0 ± 4.2 Ma) and prismatic with oscillatory zoning, or Cretaceous (133.9 ± 1.8 Ma) and ovoid with sector or patchy zoning. The younger age component is not observed overgrowing older grains. Most grains of both ages are overgrown by younger Cretaceous (~120 Ma) metamorphic zircon with very low U and Th/U (0.01). We interpret the bimodal ages as indicating initial igneous emplacement and crystallisation of a dioritic protolith pluton at ~357 Ma, followed by Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism at ~134 Ma, during which a significant fraction (~60%) of the zircon grains dissolved, and subsequently reprecipitated, effectively in situ, in partial melt pockets. The remaining ~40% of original Paleozoic grains were apparently not in contact with the partial melt, remained intact, and show only slight degrees of Pb loss. Sector zoning of the Cretaceous grains discounts their origin by solid state recrystallisation of Paleozoic grains. The alternative explanation—that the Paleozoic component represents a 40% inherited component in an Early Cretaceous transgressive dioritic magma—is considered less likely given the relatively high solubility of zircon in magma of this composition, the absence of 134 Ma overgrowths, the single discrete age of the older component, equivalent time-integrated 177Hf/176Hf compositions of both age groups, and the absence of the Cambrian-Proterozoic detrital zircon that dominates regional Cambro-Ordovician metasedimentary populations. Similar bimodal Carboniferous-Early Cretaceous age distributions are characteristic of the wider Arthur River Complex; 8 of 12 previously dated dioritic samples have a Paleozoic component averaging 51%. Furthermore, the age and chemical suite affinity of these and several

  20. Approximate Killing vectors on S{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Gregory B.; Whiting, Bernard F.

    2007-08-15

    We present a new method for computing the best approximation to a Killing vector on closed 2-surfaces that are topologically S{sup 2}. When solutions of Killing's equation do not exist, this method is shown to yield results superior to those produced by existing methods. In addition, this method appears to provide a new tool for studying the horizon geometry of distorted black holes.

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  2. Arthur J. Dellinger, Sr. , nomination. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, June 28, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A one-day confirmation hearing on the nomination of Arthur J. Dellinger, Sr. as DOE Deputy Inspector General (IG) focused on his ability and willingness to perform the duties and on his technical qualifications. The Deputy IG assists the IG in fraud detection and prevention, department audits to promote economy and efficiency, and policy recommendations. An informational statement covering his background, financial disclosure, and correspondence follows Mr. Dellinger's testimony. (DCK)

  3. Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P D; Assreuy, J

    1997-01-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine). Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (approximately 60% dead trophozoites). The effect was inhibited (> 90%) by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 microM) and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml). Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 microM, respectively). A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml) was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (approximately 35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM). The mixtures of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM). These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoites killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite.

  4. Oxidative and nonoxidative killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaki, K T; Wilson, M E; Brunetti, A J; Genco, R J

    1986-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative microorganism which has been implicated as an etiologic agent in localized juvenile periodontitis and in subacute bacterial endocarditis and abscesses. Although resistant to serum bactericidal action and to oxidant injury mediated by superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), this organism is sensitive to killing by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system (K.T. Miyasaki, M.E. Wilson, and R.J. Genco, Infect. Immun. 53:161-165, 1986). In this study, we examined the sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans to killing by intact neutrophils under aerobic conditions, under anaerobic conditions, and under aerobic conditions in the presence of the heme-protein inhibitor sodium cyanide. Intact neutrophils killed opsonized A. actinomycetemcomitans under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the kinetics of these reactions indicated that both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms were operative. Oxidative mechanisms contributed significantly, and most of the killing attributable to oxidative mechanisms was inhibited by sodium cyanide, which suggested that the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system participated in the oxidative process. We conclude that human neutrophils are capable of killing A. actinomycetemcomitans by both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent pathways, and that most oxygen-dependent killing requires myeloperoxidase activity. PMID:3013778

  5. Chemo killed the small-talk gene.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Urvashi

    2014-01-01

    Urvashi Vaid is a community organizer and writer active in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and social justice movements for over three decades. She is currently Director of the Engaging Tradition Project at the Center for Gender and Sexuality Law at Columbia University Law School. She is founder of LPAC, the first lesbian political action committee, and sits on the Board of Directors of the Gill Foundation. Vaid's past positions include Executive Director of the Arcus Foundation, Deputy Director of Governance and Civil Society Unit for the Ford Foundation, Executive Director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, and staff attorney for the ACLU National Prison Project. She is author of the books Irresistible Revolution: Confronting Race, Class and The Assumptions of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Politics, and Virtual Equality: The Mainstreaming of Gay & Lesbian Liberation, and co-editor of the book Creating Change: Public Policy, Sexuality and Civil Rights. Urvashi has had thyroid cancer and stage III breast cancer.

  6. Arthur Simons (1877-1942) and Tonic Neck Reflexes With Hemiplegic "Mitbewegungen" (Associated Reactions): Cinematography From 1916-1919.

    PubMed

    Holdorff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Tonic neck reflexes were investigated by Rudolf Magnus and Adriaan de Kleijn in animals and men in 1912 and eventually by Arthur Simons, a neurologist in Berlin and coworker of Hermann Oppenheim. Simons studied these reflexes in hemiplegic patients, who were mainly victims of World War I. This work became his most important contribution and remained unsurpassed for many years. The film (Filmarchiv, Bundesarchiv [Film Archive, National Archive] Berlin) with Simons as an examiner shows 11 war casualties with brain lesions that occurred between 1916 and 1919. The injuries reveal asymmetric neck reflexes with "Mitbewegungen," that is, flexion or extension on the hemiplegic side. Mitbewegungen is identical with Francis Walshe's "associated reactions" caused by neck rotation and/or by cocontraction of the nonaffected extremities, for example, by closing of the fist (Walshe). The knowledge of the neck reflexes is important in acute neurology and in rehabilitation therapy of hemiplegics for antispastic positions. Simons' investigations were conducted in the early era of increasing use of cinematography in medical studies. The film had been nearly forgotten until its rediscovery in 2010.

  7. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930): Physician during the typhoid epidemic in the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902).

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Vincent J

    2014-02-01

    When the Anglo-Boer War broke out in October 1899, Arthur Conan Doyle, a retired ophthalmologist, was already famous as the creator of Sherlock Holmes. Motivated by patriotism and adventure, Doyle joined the medical staff of a private field hospital endowed by philanthropist John Langman (1846-1928). Langman Hospital opened in Bloemfontein, South Africa, at the height of that city's typhoid fever epidemic which raged from April to June 1900. There were nearly 5000 cases of typhoid and 1000 deaths but official statistics do not truly reflect the magnitude of the suffering. Doyle argued that the British Army had made a major mistake by not making antityphoid inoculation compulsory. Because of the new vaccine's side effects, 95% of the soldiers refused immunization. Despite his strong opinions, Doyle failed to press the issue of compulsory inoculation when he testified before two Royal Commissions investigating the medical and military management of the war in South Africa. One can only imagine how the army might have benefited from the new idea of prophylactic vaccination in preventive medicine if Doyle had not let these opportunities slip away. As a consequence, antityphoid inoculation was still voluntary when Great Britain entered World War I in August 1914.

  8. The results of the in-flight attitude sensor calibration for the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, W. S.; Eudell, A. H.; Kulp, L. S.; Lindrose, L. A.; Harman, R. R.

    1993-02-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in April 1991. This paper presents the results of the attitude sensor calibration that was performed during the early mission. The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) performed an alignment calibration of the two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and two fine Sun sensors (FSS's) on board Compton GRO. The results show a 27-arcsecond shift between the bore sights of the FHST's with respect to prelaunch measurements. The alignments of the two FSS's shifted by 0.20 and 0.05 degree. During the same time period, the Compton GRO science teams performed an alignment calibration of the science instruments with respect to the attitude reported by the on board computer (OBC). In order to preserve these science alignments, FDF adjusted the overall alignments of the FHST's and FSS's, obtained by the FDF calibration, such that when up linked to the OBC, the shift in the OBC-determined attitude is minimized. FDF also calibrated the inertial reference unit (IRU), which consists of three dual-axis gyroscopes. The observed gyro bias matched the bias that was solved for by the OBC. This bias drifted during the first 6 days after release. The results of the FDF calibration of scale factor and alignment shifts showed changes that were of the same order as their uncertainties.

  9. The results of the in-flight attitude sensor calibration for the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. S.; Eudell, A. H.; Kulp, L. S.; Lindrose, L. A.; Harman, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in April 1991. This paper presents the results of the attitude sensor calibration that was performed during the early mission. The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) performed an alignment calibration of the two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and two fine Sun sensors (FSS's) on board Compton GRO. The results show a 27-arcsecond shift between the bore sights of the FHST's with respect to prelaunch measurements. The alignments of the two FSS's shifted by 0.20 and 0.05 degree. During the same time period, the Compton GRO science teams performed an alignment calibration of the science instruments with respect to the attitude reported by the on board computer (OBC). In order to preserve these science alignments, FDF adjusted the overall alignments of the FHST's and FSS's, obtained by the FDF calibration, such that when up linked to the OBC, the shift in the OBC-determined attitude is minimized. FDF also calibrated the inertial reference unit (IRU), which consists of three dual-axis gyroscopes. The observed gyro bias matched the bias that was solved for by the OBC. This bias drifted during the first 6 days after release. The results of the FDF calibration of scale factor and alignment shifts showed changes that were of the same order as their uncertainties.

  10. Toward a Pragmatist Epistemology: Arthur O. Lovejoy's and H. S. Jennings's Biophilosophical Responses to Neovitalism, 1909-1914.

    PubMed

    Russell, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The sustained interdisciplinary debate about neovitalism between two Johns Hopkins University colleagues, philosopher Arthur O. Lovejoy and experimental geneticist H. S. Jennings, in the period 1911-1914, was the basis for their theoretical reconceptualization of scientific knowledge as contingent and necessarily incomplete in its account of nature. Their response to Hans Driesch's neovitalist concept of entelechy, and his challenge to the continuity between biology and the inorganic sciences, resulted in a historically significant articulation of genetics and philosophy. This study traces the debate's shift of problem-focus away from neovitalism's threat to the unity of science - "organic autonomy," as Lovejoy put it - and toward the potential for development of a nonmechanististic, nonrationalist theory of scientific knowledge. The result was a new pragmatist epistemology, based on Lovejoy's and Jennings's critiques of the inadequacy of pragmatism's account of scientific knowledge. The first intellectual move, drawing on naturalism and pragmatism, was based on a reinterpretation of science as organized experience. The second, sparked by Henri Bergson's theory of creative evolution, and drawing together elements of Dewey's and James's pragmatisms, produced a new account of the contingency and necessary incompleteness of scientific knowledge. Prompted by the neovitalists' mix of a priori concepts and, in Driesch's case, and adherence to empiricism, Lovejoy's and Jennings's developing pragmatist epistemologies of science explored the interrelation between rationalism and empiricism.

  11. [Carl Arthur Scheunert's experiments on human nutrition, 1938-1943: boundary transgressions of a scientist under national socialism].

    PubMed

    Joost, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    Carl Arthur Scheunert (1879-1957) was a German scientist who supervised several studies with prisoners that were designed to assess the optimal vitamin and nutrient supply, and were conducted by his associate Karl-Heinz Wagner (1911-2007) from 1938 to 1943. This contribution describes the aims, results and conclusions of Scheunert's research 1923 to 1945 in comparison with the national and international vitamin research and its consequences for public health measures. Conditions and results of the human experiments are reconstructed and compared with similar studies performed in other countries. Burden as well as health risks for the study participants are assessed. In addition, it is discussed whether general rules for human experimentation were followed (e.g. informed consent and minimizing of health risks). Although the available documents support the conclusion that no deaths or lasting injuries were caused, the experiments violated ethical standards, in particular because of the conditions in the Waldheim prison including progressive deterioration of nutrition and health.

  12. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, John L; Brown, Charles R

    2016-03-30

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions.

  13. Rotating Killing horizons in generic F( R) gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2016-10-01

    We discuss various properties of rotating Killing horizons in generic F( R) theories of gravity in dimension four for spacetimes endowed with two commuting Killing vector fields. Assuming there is no curvature singularity anywhere on or outside the horizon, we construct a suitable (3+1)-foliation. We show that similar to Einstein's gravity, we must have T_{ab}k^ak^b=0 on the Killing horizon, where k^a is a null geodesic tangent to the horizon. For axisymmetric spacetimes, the effective gravitational coupling ˜ F'^{-1}(R) should usually depend upon the polar coordinate and hence need not necessarily be a constant on the Killing horizon. We prove that the surface gravity of such a Killing horizon must be a constant, irrespective of whether F'(R) is a constant there or not. We next apply these results to investigate some further basic features. In particular, we show that any hairy solution for the real massive vector field in such theories is clearly ruled out, as long as the potential of the scalar field generated in the corresponding Einstein's frame is a positive definite quantity.

  14. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions. PMID:27009223

  15. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  16. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  17. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  18. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  19. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  20. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  1. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  2. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  3. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  4. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  5. Mathematical model for comparison of time-killing curves.

    PubMed Central

    Guerillot, F; Carret, G; Flandrois, J P

    1993-01-01

    The relevance of mathematical modeling to investigations of the bactericidal effects of antimicrobial agents has been emphasized in many studies of killing kinetics. We propose here a descriptive model of general use, with four parameters which account for the lag phase, the initial number of bacteria, and the limit of effectiveness and bactericidal rate of antimicrobial agents. The model has been applied to several kinetic datum sets with amoxicillin, cephalothin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, and ofloxacin against two Escherichia coli strains. It is a useful tool to compare killing curves by taking into account model parameter confidence limits. This can be illustrated by studying drug effects, strain effects, and concentration effects. For the antibiotics used here, concentration effects had an influence mainly on the length of the lag phase and the minimum number of living cells observed. It is therefore clear that differences in the killing curves with changes in one or more parameters could occur. PMID:8215284

  6. S. Typhimurium strategies to resist killing by cationic antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Matamouros, Susana; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-11-01

    S. Typhimurium is a broad host range Gram-negative pathogen that must evade killing by host innate immune systems to colonize, replicate, cause disease, and be transmitted to other hosts. A major pathogenic strategy of Salmonellae is entrance, survival, and replication within eukaryotic cell phagocytic vacuoles. These phagocytic vacuoles and gastrointestinal mucosal surfaces contain multiple cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) which control invading bacteria. S. Typhimurium possesses several key mechanisms to resist killing by CAMPs which involve sensing CAMPs and membrane damage to activate signaling cascades that result in remodeling of the bacterial envelope to reduce its overall negative charge with an increase in hydrophobicity to decrease binding and effectiveness of CAMPs. Moreover Salmonellae have additional mechanisms to resist killing by CAMPs including an outer membrane protease which targets cationic peptides at the surface, and specific efflux pumps which protect the inner membrane from damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides.

  7. Supersymmetric backgrounds, the Killing superalgebra, and generalised special holonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We prove that, for M theory or type II, generic Minkowski flux backgrounds preserving N supersymmetries in dimensions D ≥ 4 correspond precisely to integrable generalised {G}_{N} structures, where {G}_{N} is the generalised structure group defined by the Killing spinors. In other words, they are the analogues of special holonomy manifolds in {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. In establishing this result, we introduce the Kosmann-Dorfman bracket, a generalisation of Kosmann's Lie derivative of spinors. This allows us to write down the internal sector of the Killing superalgebra, which takes a rather simple form and whose closure is the key step in proving the main result. In addition, we find that the eleven-dimensional Killing superalgebra of these backgrounds is necessarily the supertranslational part of the N -extended super-Poincaré algebra.

  8. [Serial killings in a nursing home for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Doberentz, Elke; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, a 27-year-old nurse had been sentenced to life imprisonment for killing 9 female residents of the home within 3 years. After the post-mortem examination a natural death had been certified for all the victims. These 9 deaths were retrospectively analysed as to the motive and circumstances of the crime, the method applied, the results of the postmortem examination and the autopsy as well as the profile of the perpetrator. 8 victims had been smothered by blocking the external air passages with a soft fabric and one had been killed by omitting to remove secretion from the respiratory tract. The autopsies performed after exhumation did not furnish unequivocal evidence of homicide. Generally, the method of killing applied in these cases is known to leave almost no traces. Apart from the circumstantial evidence, the court had to base its decision on the confessions of the emotionally disturbed perpetrator, although she partly revoked these confessions later.

  9. Azithromycin kills invasive Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D

    2013-03-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans invades periodontal pocket epithelium and is therefore difficult to eliminate by periodontal scaling and root planing. It is susceptible to azithromycin, which is taken up by many types of mammalian cells. This led us to hypothesize that azithromycin accumulation by gingival epithelium could enhance the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans. [(3)H]azithromycin transport by Smulow-Glickman gingival epithelial cells and SCC-25 oral epithelial cells was characterized. To test our hypothesis, we infected cultured Smulow-Glickman cell monolayers with A. actinomycetemcomitans (Y4 or SUNY 465 strain) for 2 h, treated them with gentamicin to eliminate extracellular bacteria, and then incubated them with azithromycin for 1 to 4 h. Viable intracellular bacteria were released, plated, and enumerated. Azithromycin transport by both cell lines exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-carnitine and several other organic cations. Cell incubation in medium containing 5 μg/ml azithromycin yielded steady-state intracellular concentrations of 144 μg/ml in SCC-25 cells and 118 μg/ml in Smulow-Glickman cells. Azithromycin induced dose- and time-dependent intraepithelial killing of both A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Treatment of infected Smulow-Glickman cells with 0.125 μg/ml azithromycin killed approximately 29% of the intraepithelial CFU of both strains within 4 h, while treatment with 8 μg/ml azithromycin killed ≥82% of the CFU of both strains (P < 0.05). Addition of carnitine inhibited the killing of intracellular bacteria by azithromycin (P < 0.05). Thus, human gingival epithelial cells actively accumulate azithromycin through a transport system that facilitates the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans and is shared with organic cations.

  10. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare.

  11. Protein-rich fraction of Cnidoscolus urens (L.) Arthur leaves: enzymatic characterization and procoagulant and fibrinogenolytic activities.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Yamara A S; Félix-Silva, Juliana; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio A; Rebecchi, Ivanise M M; de Oliveira, Adeliana S; Uchoa, Adriana F; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de F

    2014-03-21

    Proteolytic enzymes are important macromolecules in the regulation of biochemical processes in living organisms. Additionally, these versatile biomolecules have numerous applications in the industrial segment. In this study we have characterized a protein-rich fraction of Cnidoscolus urens (L.) Arthur leaves, rich in proteolytic enzymes, and evaluated its effects on the coagulation cascade. Three protein-rich fractions were obtained from the crude extract of C. urens leaves by precipitation with acetone. Fraction F1.0 showed higher proteolytic activity upon azocasein, and thus, was chosen for subsequent tests. The proteolytic activity of F1.0 on fibrinogen was dose-dependent and time-dependent. The extract demonstrated procoagulant activity on citrated plasma and reduced the APTT, not exerting effects on PT. Despite the fibrin(ogen)olytic activity, F1.0 showed no defibrinogenating activity in vivo. The fraction F1.0 did not express hemorrhagic nor hemolytic activities. The proteolytic activity was inhibited by E-64, EDTA and in the presence of metal ions, and increased when pretreated with reducing agents, suggesting that the observed activity was mostly due to cysteine proteases. Several bands with proteolytic activity were detected by zymography with gelatin, albumin and fibrinogen. The optimal enzymatic activity was observed in temperature of 60 °C and pH 5.0, demonstrating the presence of acidic proteases. In conclusion, these results could provide basis for the pharmacological application of C. urens proteases as a new source of bioactive molecules to treat bleeding and thrombotic disorders.

  12. The enigma of the Arthur's Pass, New Zealand, earthquake 1. Reconciling a variety of data for an unusual earthquake sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abercrombie, R.E.; Webb, T.H.; Robinson, R.; McGinty, P.J.; Mori, J.J.; Beavan, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1994 Arthur's Pass earthquake (Mw6.7) is the largest in a recent sequence of earthquakes in the central South Island, New Zealand. No surface rupture was observed the aftershock distribution was complex, and routine methods of obtaining the faulting orientation of this earthquake proved contradictory. We use a range of data and techniques to obtain our preferred solution, which has a centroid depth of 5 km, Mo=1.3??1019 N m, and a strike, dip, and rake of 221??, 47??, 112??, respectively. Discrepancies between this solution and the Harvard centroid moment tensor, together with the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and unusual aftershock distribution, suggest that the rupture may not have occurred on a planar fault. A second, strike slip, subevent on a more northerly striking plane is suggested by these data but neither the body wave modeling nor regional broadband recordings show any complexity or late subevents. We relocate the aftershocks using both one-dimensional and three-dimensional velocity inversions. The depth range of the aftershocks (1-10 km) agrees well with the preferred mainshock centroid depth. The aftershocks near the hypocenter suggest a structure dipping toward the NW, which we interpret to be the mainshock fault plane. This structure and the Harper fault, ???15 km to the south appear to have acted as boundaries to the extensive aftershock zone trending NNW-SSE Most of the ML???5 aftershocks, including the two largest (ML6.1 and ML5.7), clustered near the Harper fault and have strike slip mechanisms consistent with motion on this fault and its conjugates. Forward modeling of the GPS data suggests that a reverse slip mainshock, combined with strike slip aftershock faulting in the south, is able to match the observed displacements. The occurrence of this earthquake sequence implies that the level of seismic hazard in the central South Island is greater than previous estimates. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Uptake of Web-based clinical resources from the MacArthur Initiative on Depression and Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Han, Changsu; Voils, Corrine I; Williams, John W

    2013-04-01

    This study assessed the usability and desired enhancements for the MacArthur Foundation's Depression and Primary Care (MDPC) Web site to determine if resources for integrated depression care that are disseminated through the Web site are incorporated into routine clinical care. Since its launch in 2003, more than 20,000 users registered as members of the MDPC website to read and download depression care resources. Subjects were randomly selected from MDPC Web site users who had previously downloaded the depression toolkit. Web-based survey, which was administered anonymously, included the following domains: (1) socio-demographic data, (2) confidence in managing depression (3) Web site content and design features, (4) desired enhancements to Web site and content, (5) use of resources downloaded from the Web site, and (6) importance of depression care resources. Of the 3,478 randomly selected participants, 666 (19.1%) responded. Web site content was rated "good" or "excellent" for screening and diagnosis (84.3%), treatment (69.8%), patient education (66.2%), and care management (66.9%). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was rated "very useful" by 68.3%; 47.1% reported using it in at least 25% of encounters with patients who are depressed. PHQ-9 use was significantly associated with higher self-confidence in managing depression (P = 0.05). Evidence-based resources for depression care can be disseminated effectively through a dedicated Web site and may help clinicians incorporate effective care models into routine practice.

  14. [Killing Effect of Carpesium abrotanoides on Taenia asiatica Cysticercus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Wang, Heng

    2015-06-01

    The cysticerci of Taenia asiatica were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of water decoction of Carpesium abrotanoides (20, 40, and 60 mg/ml). The killing effect of C. abrotanoides on T. asiatica and the morphological change of cysticerci were observed under microscope 24 hours post-culture. The water decoction of C. abrotanoides showed significant killing effect on the cysticerci. The mortality of the parasites(95.0%, 57/60) was highest in 60 mg/ml group. The dead body of cysticercus shows shrunken with the enlarged scolex, and sucker tissue degenerated.

  15. Comparison microbial killing efficacy between sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drantantiyas, Nike Dwi Grevika; Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Nasution, Aulia M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Biofilm is a way used by bacteria to survive from their environmental conditions by forming colony of bacteria. Specific characteristic in biofilm formation is the availability of matrix layer, known as extracellular polymer substance. Treatment using antibiotics may lead bacteria to be to resistant. Other treatments to reduce microbial, like biofilm, can be performed by using photodynamic therapy. Successful of this kind of therapy is induced by penetration of light and photosensitizer into target cells. The sonodynamic therapy offers greater penetrating capability into tissues. This research aimed to use sonodynamic therapy in reducing biofilm. Moreover, it compares also the killing efficacy of photodynamic therapy, sonodynamic therapy, and the combination of both therapeutic schemes (known as sono-photodynamic) to achieve higher microbial killing efficacy. Samples used are Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Treatments were divided into 4 groups, i.e. group under ultrasound treatment with variation of 5 power levels, group of light treatment with exposure of 75s, group of combined ultrasound-light with variation of ultrasound power levels, and group of combined lightultrasound with variation of ultrasound power levels. Results obtained for each treatment, expressed in % efficacy of log CFU/mL, showed that the treatment of photo-sonodynamic provides greater killing efficacy in comparison to either sonodynamic and sono-photodynamic. The photo-sonodynamic shows also greater efficacy to photodynamic. So combination of light-ultrasound (photo-sonodynamic) can effectively kill microbial biofilm. The combined therapy will provide even better efficacy using exogenous photosensitizer.

  16. Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not exotoxin secretion.

    PubMed

    Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Lovko, Vincent J; Shields, Jeffrey D; Reece, Kimberly S; Mason, Patrice L; Haas, Leonard W; Walker, Calvin C

    2002-08-29

    Pfiesteria piscicida and P. shumwayae reportedly secrete potent exotoxins thought to cause fish lesion events, acute fish kills and human disease in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries. However, Pfiesteria toxins have never been isolated or characterized. We investigated mechanisms by which P. shumwayae kills fish using three different approaches. Here we show that larval fish bioassays conducted in tissue culture plates fitted with polycarbonate membrane inserts exhibited mortality (100%) only in treatments where fish and dinospores were in physical contact. No mortalities occurred in treatments where the membrane prevented contact between dinospores and fish. Using differential centrifugation and filtration of water from a fish-killing culture, we produced 'dinoflagellate', 'bacteria' and 'cell-free' fractions. Larval fish bioassays of these fractions resulted in mortalities (60-100% in less than 24 h) only in fractions containing live dinospores ('whole water', 'dinoflagellate'), with no mortalities in 'cell-free' or 'bacteria'-enriched fractions. Videomicrography and electron microscopy show dinospores swarming toward and attaching to skin, actively feeding, and rapidly denuding fish of epidermis. We show here that our cultures of actively fish-killing P. shumwayae do not secrete potent exotoxins; rather, fish mortality results from micropredatory feeding.

  17. Killing of Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) mediated by host complement.

    PubMed

    Harris, P D; Soleng, A; Bakke, T A

    1998-08-01

    Gyrodactylus salaris, an important pathogen of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, has been shown to be highly sensitive to factors in host serum and mucus, being killed rapidly (50% within 1 h) by serum at a dilution of 1:200. The time needed for killing was inversely proportional to serum concentration. Similar effects were noted using host mucus, which contained approximately 1/20th of the anti-Gyrodactylus activity of serum. Serum activity was abolished completely by heating at 45 degrees C for 30 min, and by addition of EDTA, but not by EGTA + 1 mM magnesium ions. Activity was not dependent on whether the serum was from infected or naive fishes, nor was it species specific. Attempts to pre-coat parasites in salmon anti-Gyrodactylus antibodies also failed to enhance the activity of fresh serum. These observations suggest that killing is due to the complement system of the host, acting via the alternate pathway. G. salaris appears to be exceptionally sensitive to complement, being killed at concentrations which could be experienced in vivo. The role of complement in the protection of fishes against gyrodactylid infection therefore deserves further investigation.

  18. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-09

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  19. Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertozzi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

  20. Saying the Unsaid: Girl Killing and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlstein, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Although students in Jonesboro, Arkansas, repeatedly claimed that the March 1998 killing of four schoolgirls and a teacher was motivated by a rejected boy's desire for revenge, reporters and authorities dismissed this explanation and gender's role in the crime. Closer analysis suggests opportunities and difficulties for educators who want…

  1. Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2008-12-01

    Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies.

  2. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  3. Killing Range: Explaining Lethality Variance within a Terrorist Organization.

    PubMed

    Asal, Victor; Gill, Paul; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level.

  4. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

  5. What Is John Dewey Doing in "To Kill a Mockingbird"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is taught in countless public schools and is beloved by many teachers and future teachers. Embedded within this novel--interestingly--is a strong criticism of an approach to education mockingly referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System." In this essay I explore Lee's criticism of…

  6. Neocognitron trained with winner-kill-loser rule.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kunihiko

    2010-09-01

    The neocognitron, which was proposed by Fukushima (1980), is a hierarchical multi-layered neural network capable of robust visual pattern recognition. It acquires the ability to recognize patterns through learning. This paper proposes a new rule for competitive learning, named winner-kill-loser, and apply it to the neocognitron. The winner-kill-loser rule resembles the winner-take-all rule. Every time when a training stimulus is presented, non-silent cells compete with each other. The winner, however, not only takes all, but also kills losers. In other words, the winner learns the training stimulus, and losers are removed from the network. If all cells are silent, a new cell is generated and it learns the training stimulus. Thus feature-extracting cells gradually come to distribute uniformly in the feature space. The use of winner-kill-loser rule is not limited to the neocognitron. It is useful for various types of competitive learning, in general. This paper also proposes several improvements made on the neocognitron: such as, disinhibition to the inhibitory surround in the connections to C-cells (or complex cells) from S-cells (or simple cells); and square root shaped saturation in the input-to-output characteristics of C-cells. As a result of these improvements, the recognition rate of the neocognitron has been largely increased.

  7. AKT and oxidative stress team up to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dolado, Ignacio; Nebreda, Angel R

    2008-12-09

    AKT, a protein kinase frequently hyperactivated in cancer, plays an important role in cell survival and contributes to tumor cell resistance to cytotoxic therapies. A new study in this issue of Cancer Cell shows that AKT also induces the accumulation of oxygen radicals, which can be exploited to selectively kill cancer cells containing high levels of AKT activity.

  8. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells. PMID:26441897

  9. [Correspondence from Julio Porto-Carrero to Arthur Ramos: the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and concern over the translation of psychoanalytic terms in the 1920s and 1930s].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafael Dias de

    2015-12-01

    The article presents the correspondence that psychiatrist Julio Porto-Carrero sent to psychiatrist Arthur Ramos in 1932 to inform him about the activities of the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and about a concern over systematizing the translation of certain psychoanalytic concepts into Portuguese. This correspondence is used in conjunction with the analysis of other sources to suggest that psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in Rio de Janeiro were then endeavoring to make a place for psychoanalysis in the day's medical and scientific circles and encourage ever more specialists in Brazil to take an interest in Freud's theory.

  10. Some implications for the study of the doctor-patient interaction: power, structure, and agency in the works of Howard Waitzkin and Arthur Kleinman.

    PubMed

    Pappas, G

    1990-01-01

    This article critiques two major theoretical perspectives concerning the doctor-patient interaction in medical anthropology represented by the work of Howard Waitzkin and Arthur Kleinman. In his work on the doctor-patient interaction Waitzkin has tended to draw on structural explanations which subordinate the role of agency. Kleinman's work emphasizes agency without satisfactorily integrating structural or social causality in his work on the doctor-patient interaction. The work of Anthony Giddens and others has clarified the structure/agency dichotomy in social science to which the nature of power is central.

  11. Killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae by human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hickman-Davis, Judy M; O'Reilly, Philip; Davis, Ian C; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Davis, Glenda; Young, K Randall; Devlin, Robert B; Matalon, Sadis

    2002-05-01

    We investigated putative mechanisms by which human surfactant protein A (SP-A) effects killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae by human alveolar macrophages (AMs) isolated from bronchoalveolar lavagates of patients with transplanted lungs. Coincubation of AMs with human SP-A (25 microg/ml) and Klebsiella resulted in a 68% decrease in total colony forming units by 120 min compared with AMs infected with Klebsiella in the absence of SP-A, and this SP-A-mediated effect was abolished by preincubation with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Incubation of transplant AMs with SP-A increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) by 70% and nitrite and nitrate (NO(x)) production by 45% (from 0.24 +/- 0.02 to 1.3 +/- 0.21 nmol small middle dot 10(6) AMs(-1).h(-1)). Preincubation with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester inhibited the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and abrogated the SP-A-mediated Klebsiella phagocytosis and killing. In contrast, incubation of AMs from normal volunteers with SP-A decreased both [Ca(2+)](i) and NO(x) production and did not result in killing of Klebsiella. Significant killing of Klebsiella was also seen in a cell-free system by sustained production of peroxynitrite (>1 microM/min) at pH 5 but not at pH 7.4. These findings indicate that SP-A mediates pathogen killing by AMs from transplant lungs by stimulating phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen-nitrogen intermediates.

  12. Hidden symmetries and Lie algebra structures from geometric and supergravity Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açık, Özgür; Ertem, Ümit

    2016-08-01

    We consider geometric and supergravity Killing spinors and the spinor bilinears constructed out of them. The spinor bilinears of geometric Killing spinors correspond to the antisymmetric generalizations of Killing vector fields which are called Killing-Yano forms. They constitute a Lie superalgebra structure in constant curvature spacetimes. We show that the Dirac currents of geometric Killing spinors satisfy a Lie algebra structure up to a condition on 2-form spinor bilinears. We propose that the spinor bilinears of supergravity Killing spinors give way to different generalizations of Killing vector fields to higher degree forms. It is also shown that those supergravity Killing forms constitute a Lie algebra structure in six- and ten-dimensional cases. For five- and eleven-dimensional cases, the Lie algebra structure depends on an extra condition on supergravity Killing forms.

  13. Kaluza-Klein consistency, Killing vectors and Kähler spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoxha, P.; Martinez-Acosta, R. R.; Pope, C. N.

    2000-10-01

    We make a detailed investigation of all spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of the form of U(1) bundles over arbitrary products ∏iCPni of complex projective spaces, with arbitrary winding numbers qi over each factor in the base. Special cases, including Q1111 (sometimes known as T11), Q111111 and Q2132, are relevant for compactifications of type IIB and D = 11 supergravity. Remarkable `conspiracies' allow consistent Kaluza-Klein S5, S4 and S7 sphere reductions of these theories that retain all the Yang-Mills fields of the isometry group in a massless truncation. We prove that such conspiracies do not occur for the reductions on the Qn1...nNq1...qN spaces, and that it is inconsistent to make a massless truncation in which the non-Abelian SU(ni + 1) factors in their isometry groups are retained. In the course of proving this we derive many properties of the spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of more general utility. In particular, we show that they always admit Einstein metrics, and that the spaces where qi = (ni + 1)/l all admit two Killing spinors. We also obtain an iterative construction for real metrics on CPn, and construct the Killing vectors on Qn1...nNq1...qN in terms of scalar eigenfunctions on CPni. We derive bounds that allow us to prove that certain Killing-vector identities on spheres, necessary for consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions, are never satisfied on Qn1...nNq1...qN.

  14. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  15. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  16. Clarke, Arthur C (1917-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Science fiction writer and space visionary, born in Minehead, Somerset, England. Worked during the second World War on radar ground controlled approach equipment, became president of the British Interplanetary Society. In 1945 he wrote a paper `Extra-terrestrial relays' which described the principle of satellites in geostationary orbits. The geostationary orbit at 42 000 kilometers has been named...

  17. Secondary Kill Effect of Deltamethrin on Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    MALONEY, KATHLEEN M.; ANCCA-JUAREZ, JENNY; SALAZAR, RENZO; BORRINI-MAYORI, KATTY; PAMO-TITO, DANITZA; KEATING, JOSEPH A.; LEVY, MICHAEL Z.

    2012-01-01

    Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, relies on the application of pyrethroid insecticides, especially deltamethrin. We performed laboratory studies to determine whether a T. infestans nymph that comes into contact with a deltamethrin-treated surface horizontally transfers the insecticide to subsequent triatomines. We found that a triatomine that walks on a deltamethrin-treated surface for a short period of time has the ability to transport the insecticide in concentrations sufficient to kill other triatomines with which it comes into contact. The effect was limited to high-density environments, and mortality as a result of secondary exposure was greater among second-instar nymphs compared with fifth-instar nymphs. Our results suggest that deltamethrin could be killing triatomines through both direct and indirect contact, although it remains unclear whether the phenomenon occurs in natural conditions. PMID:21845956

  18. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  19. Increased Lytic Efficiency of Bovine Macrophages Trained with Killed Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Juste, Ramon A.; Alonso-Hearn, Marta; Garrido, Joseba M.; Abendaño, Naiara; Sevilla, Iker A.; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José; Dominguez, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity is evolutionarily conserved in multicellular organisms and was considered to lack memory until very recently. One of its more characteristic mechanisms is phagocytosis, the ability of cells to engulf, process and eventually destroy any injuring agent. We report the results of an ex vivo experiment in bovine macrophages in which improved clearance of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) was induced by pre-exposure to a heat killed M. bovis preparation. The effects were independent of humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses and lasted up to six months. Specifically, our results demonstrate the existence of a training effect in the lytic phase of phagocytosis that can be activated by killed mycobacteria, thus suggesting a new mechanism of vaccine protection. These findings are compatible with the recently proposed concept of trained immunity, which was developed to explain the observation that innate immune responses provide unspecific protection against pathogens including other than those that originally triggered the immune response. PMID:27820836

  20. Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Estók, Péter; Zsebok, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-02-23

    Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation.

  1. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 μg/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 μg/mL) or lower (20 μg/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 μg/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  2. [The vegetarian appeal and killing animals. An ethical challenge].

    PubMed

    Luy, J; Hildebrandt, G; von Mickwitz, G

    2001-01-01

    The demand for renunciation of killing animals has already been discussed by mankind since ancient times. Many arguments for and against this demand have accumulated in the meantime. The reproaches of the vegetarians repeatedly forced the ones who eat meat to justify their diet. Today most of these historical justifications however have to be rejected because of lacking plausibility. Many of the vegetarian arguments on the other hand must be rejected for similar reasons as well. Remaining as morally convincing is the demand for doing the killing absolutely painless and without frightening the animals, which was already formulated for example by Kant and Schopenhauer. Arguments which consider this way of killing as still immoral belong in a broad sense to the "anthropocentric" animal ethics. They do not belong to what is called in Germany "pathocentric" animal ethics, because an animal that is killed without being frightened or tortured, has not suffered, for it hasn't consciously realized anything like danger or harm. We do even argue that these animals are not harmed at all, because it seems senseless to talk about harm without negative conscious phenomena. To push ahead a ban on animal slaughter for moral reasons could be itself morally wrong because it would disturb indirectly many people's conscious well-being without being justified by protecting an animal's conscious well-being. It is however possible to derive from a general duty not to make animals suffer (pathocentric animal ethics) a duty to boycott food of animal origin if these animals had to suffer during their lives.

  3. Killing of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro by nitric oxide derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, K A; Awburn, M M; Cowden, W B; Clark, I A

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the in vitro susceptibility of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to killing by nitric oxide and related molecules. A saturated solution of nitric oxide did not inhibit parasite growth, but two oxidation products of nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate ions) were toxic to the parasite in millimolar concentrations. Nitrosothiol derivatives of cysteine and glutathione were found to be about a thousand times more active (50% growth inhibitory concentration, approximately 40 microM) than nitrite. PMID:1879941

  4. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  5. Stopping Mass Killings in Africa: Genocide, Airpower and Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    improvised explosive device killed four American soldiers. Still, Aspin refused a corollary request for additional armor and airpower assets, based on his...ethnic conflict between the Tutsis and Hutus since 1960. There had been a population explosion within Rwanda together with the constant cycle of attacks...professor Ervin Staub conducted extensive research in the field of psychology to show nearly all twentieth century genocides only occurred within very

  6. Charged Particles Kill Pathogens and Round Up Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To keep plants fresh longer in space, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded funding to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to develop a titanium oxide-based device that reduced the amount of decay-inducing ethylene gas in the air. Electrolux (now Dallas-based Aerus Holdings) furthered the technology by developing an air purification product that kills pathogens both in the atmosphere and on surfaces.

  7. Einstein Finsler metrics and killing vector fields on Riemannian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, XinYue; Shen, ZhongMin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we use a Killing form on a Riemannian manifold to construct a class of Finsler metrics. We find equations that characterize Einstein metrics among this class. In particular, we construct a family of Einstein metrics on $S^3$ with ${\\rm Ric} = 2 F^2$, ${\\rm Ric}=0$ and ${\\rm Ric}=- 2 F^2$, respectively. This family of metrics provide an important class of Finsler metrics in dimension three, whose Ricci curvature is a constant, but the flag curvature is not.

  8. Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Reichard, K W; Lorence, R M; Cascino, C J; Peeples, M E; Walter, R J; Fernando, M B; Reyes, H M; Greager, J A

    1992-05-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain 73-T, has previously been shown to be cytolytic to mouse tumor cells. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of NDV to replicate in and kill human tumor cells in culture and in athymic mice. Plaque assays were used to determine the cytolytic activity of NDV on six human tumor cell lines, fibrosarcoma (HT1080), osteosarcoma (KHOS), cervical carcinoma (KB8-5-11), bladder carcinoma (HCV29T), neuroblastoma (IMR32), and Wilm's tumor (G104), and on nine different normal human fibroblast lines. NDV formed plaques on all tumor cells tested as well as on chick embryo cells (CEC), the native host for NDV. Plaques did not form on any of the normal fibroblast lines. To detect NDV replication, virus yield assays were performed which measured virus particles in infected cell culture supernatants. Virus yield increased 10,000-fold within 24 hr in tumor and CEC supernatants. Titers remained near zero in normal fibroblast supernatants. In vivo tumoricidal activity was evaluated in athymic nude Balb-c mice by subcutaneous injection of 9 x 10(6) tumor cells followed by intralesional injection of either live or heat-killed NDV (1.0 x 10(6) plaque forming units [PFU]), or medium. After live NDV treatment, tumor regression occurred in 10 out of 11 mice bearing KB8-5-11 tumors, 8 out of 8 with HT-1080 tumors, and 6 out of 7 with IMR-32 tumors. After treatment with heat-killed NDV no regression occurred (P less than 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Nontumor-bearing mice injected with 1.0 x 10(8) PFU of NDV remained healthy. These results indicate that NDV efficiently and selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells, but not normal cells, and that intralesional NDV causes complete tumor regression in athymic mice with a high therapeutic index.

  9. Comments on conformal Killing vector fields and quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.R.; Ottewill, A.C.; Siklos, S.T.C.

    1982-10-15

    We give a comprehensive analysis of those vacuums for flat and conformally flat space-times which can be defined by timelike, hypersurface-orthogonal, conformal Killing vector fields. We obtain formulas for the difference in stress-energy density between any two such states and display the correspondence with the renormalized stress tensors. A brief discussion is given of the relevance of these results to quantum-mechanical measurements made by noninertial observers moving through flat space.

  10. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  11. From Attitudes to Actions: Predictors of Lion Killing by Maasai Warriors.

    PubMed

    Hazzah, Leela; Bath, Alistair; Dolrenry, Stephanie; Dickman, Amy; Frank, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Despite legal protection, deliberate killing by local people is one of the major threats to the conservation of lions and other large carnivores in Africa. Addressing this problem poses particular challenges, mainly because it is difficult to uncover illicit behavior. This article examined two groups of Maasai warriors: individuals who have killed African lions (Panthera leo) and those who have not. We conducted interviews to explore the relationship between attitudes, intentions and known lion killing behavior. Factor analysis and logistic regression revealed that lion killing was mainly determined by: (a) general attitudes toward lions, (b) engagement in traditional customs, (c) lion killing intentions to defend property, and (d) socio-cultural killing intentions. Our results indicated that general attitudes toward lions were the strongest predictor of lion killing behavior. Influencing attitudes to encourage pro-conservation behavior may help reduce killing.

  12. From Attitudes to Actions: Predictors of Lion Killing by Maasai Warriors

    PubMed Central

    Dickman, Amy; Frank, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Despite legal protection, deliberate killing by local people is one of the major threats to the conservation of lions and other large carnivores in Africa. Addressing this problem poses particular challenges, mainly because it is difficult to uncover illicit behavior. This article examined two groups of Maasai warriors: individuals who have killed African lions (Panthera leo) and those who have not. We conducted interviews to explore the relationship between attitudes, intentions and known lion killing behavior. Factor analysis and logistic regression revealed that lion killing was mainly determined by: (a) general attitudes toward lions, (b) engagement in traditional customs, (c) lion killing intentions to defend property, and (d) socio-cultural killing intentions. Our results indicated that general attitudes toward lions were the strongest predictor of lion killing behavior. Influencing attitudes to encourage pro-conservation behavior may help reduce killing. PMID:28135338

  13. Heat killing of bacterial spores analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Belliveau, B H; Beaman, T C; Pankratz, H S; Gerhardt, P

    1992-07-01

    Thermograms of the exosporium-lacking dormant spores of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 33729, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry, showed three major irreversible endothermic transitions with peaks at 56, 100, and 114 degrees C and a major irreversible exothermic transition with a peak at 119 degrees C. The 114 degrees C transition was identified with coat proteins, and the 56 degrees C transition was identified with heat inactivation. Thermograms of the germinated spores and vegetative cells were much alike, including an endothermic transition attributable to DNA. The ascending part of the main endothermic 100 degrees C transition in the dormant-spore thermograms corresponded to a first-order reaction and was correlated with spore death; i.e., greater than 99.9% of the spores were killed when the transition peak was reached. The maximum death rate of the dormant spores during calorimetry, calculated from separately measured D and z values, occurred at temperatures above the 73 degrees C onset of thermal denaturation and was equivalent to the maximum inactivation rate calculated for the critical target. Most of the spore killing occurred before the release of most of the dipicolinic acid and other intraprotoplast materials. The exothermic 119 degrees C transition was a consequence of the endothermic 100 degrees C transition and probably represented the aggregation of intraprotoplast spore components. Taken together with prior evidence, the results suggest that a crucial protein is the rate-limiting primary target in the heat killing of dormant bacterial spores.

  14. Surface Acoustic Waves Enhance Neutrophil Killing of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Loike, John D.; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm2, significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria. PMID:23936303

  15. Antimicrobial metallic copper surfaces kill Staphylococcus haemolyticus via membrane damage

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Quaranta, Davide; Grass, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Recently, copper (Cu) in its metallic form has regained interest for its antimicrobial properties. Use of metallic Cu surfaces in worldwide hospital trials resulted in remarkable reductions in surface contaminations. Yet, our understanding of why microbes are killed upon contact to the metal is still limited and different modes of action have been proposed. This knowledge, however, is crucial for sustained use of such surfaces in hospitals and other hygiene-sensitive areas. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms by which the Gram-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus is inactivated by metallic Cu. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was killed within minutes on Cu but not on stainless steel demonstrating the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic Cu. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and in vivo staining with Coppersensor-1 indicated that cells accumulated large amounts of Cu ions from metallic Cu surfaces contributing to lethal damage. Mutation rates of Cu- or steel-exposed cells were similarly low. Instead, live/dead staining indicated cell membrane damage in Cu- but not steel-exposed cells. These findings support a model of the cellular targets of metallic Cu toxicity in bacteria, which suggests that metallic Cu is not genotoxic and does not kill via DNA damage. In contrast, membranes constitute the likely Achilles’ heel of Cu surface-exposed cells. PMID:22950011

  16. Exploring racial variations in the spousal sex ratio of killing.

    PubMed

    Regoeczi, W C

    2001-12-01

    The following article examines differences in the social situation of intimate partners as an explanation of racial differences in the female to male ratio of spousal homicides in Canada. An analysis of homicide data from 1961 to 1983 generated by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics reveals that the ratio of women killing their husbands to men killing their wives is highest for Aboriginals and lowest for Blacks, with the ratio for Whites falling in between. The possible sources of racial differences in this ratio include the proportion of couples (a) in common-law relationships, (b) who are co-residing as opposed to being separated, and (c) for whom there is a substantial age disparity between the partners. These factors are related to the spousal sex ratio of killing more generally. An exploration of interracial homicide patterns and racial variation in jealousy-motivated homicides was also undertaken. The findings reveal that controlling for the above factors substantially reduces the importance of race in predicting the gender of the homicide victim.

  17. Photoexcited quantum dots for killing multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Colleen M; Goodman, Samuel M; McDaniel, Jessica A; Madinger, Nancy E; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are an ever-growing threat because of the shrinking arsenal of efficacious antibiotics. Metal nanoparticles can induce cell death, yet the toxicity effect is typically nonspecific. Here, we show that photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) can kill a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacterial clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. The killing effect is independent of material and controlled by the redox potentials of the photogenerated charge carriers, which selectively alter the cellular redox state. We also show that the QDs can be tailored to kill 92% of bacterial cells in a monoculture, and in a co-culture of E. coli and HEK 293T cells, while leaving the mammalian cells intact, or to increase bacterial proliferation. Photoexcited QDs could be used in the study of the effect of redox states on living systems, and lead to clinical phototherapy for the treatment of infections.

  18. Mating and male pheromone kill Caenorhabditis males through distinct mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Cheng; Runnels, Alexi M; Murphy, Coleen T

    2017-01-01

    Differences in longevity between sexes is a mysterious yet general phenomenon across great evolutionary distances. To test the roles of responses to environmental cues and sexual behaviors in longevity regulation, we examined Caenorhabditis male lifespan under solitary, grouped, and mated conditions. We find that neurons and the germline are required for male pheromone-dependent male death. Hermaphrodites with a masculinized nervous system secrete male pheromone and are susceptible to male pheromone killing. Male pheromone-mediated killing is unique to androdioecious Caenorhabditis, and may reduce the number of males in hermaphroditic populations; neither males nor females of gonochoristic species are susceptible to male pheromone killing. By contrast, mating-induced death, which is characterized by germline-dependent shrinking, glycogen loss, and ectopic vitellogenin expression, utilizes distinct molecular pathways and is shared between the sexes and across species. The study of sex- and species-specific regulation of aging reveals deeply conserved mechanisms of longevity and population structure regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23493.001 PMID:28290982

  19. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

  20. Targeted cytotoxic therapy kills persisting HIV infected cells during ART.

    PubMed

    Denton, Paul W; Long, Julie M; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Sykes, Craig; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Snyder, Olivia D; Perkey, Katherine; Archin, Nancie M; Choudhary, Shailesh K; Yang, Kuo; Hudgens, Michael G; Pastan, Ira; Haase, Ashley T; Kashuba, Angela D; Berger, Edward A; Margolis, David M; Garcia, J Victor

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the development of strategies to eradicate infectious HIV from patients. Essential to a successful eradication therapy is a component capable of killing persisting HIV infected cells during ART. Therefore, we determined the in vivo efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill infected cells that persist despite long-term ART. For this purpose, we first characterized the impact of ART on HIV RNA levels in multiple organs of bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice and found that antiretroviral drug penetration and activity was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, HIV production in each tissue tested. For targeted cytotoxic killing of these persistent vRNA(+) cells, we treated BLT mice undergoing ART with an HIV-specific immunotoxin. We found that compared to ART alone, this agent profoundly depleted productively infected cells systemically. These results offer proof-of-concept that targeted cytotoxic therapies can be effective components of HIV eradication strategies.

  1. Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

  2. Photoexcited quantum dots for killing multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Colleen M.; Goodman, Samuel M.; McDaniel, Jessica A.; Madinger, Nancy E.; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are an ever-growing threat because of the shrinking arsenal of efficacious antibiotics. Metal nanoparticles can induce cell death, yet the toxicity effect is typically nonspecific. Here, we show that photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) can kill a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacterial clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. The killing effect is independent of material and controlled by the redox potentials of the photogenerated charge carriers, which selectively alter the cellular redox state. We also show that the QDs can be tailored to kill 92% of bacterial cells in a monoculture, and in a co-culture of E. coli and HEK 293T cells, while leaving the mammalian cells intact, or to increase bacterial proliferation. Photoexcited QDs could be used in the study of the effect of redox states on living systems, and lead to clinical phototherapy for the treatment of infections.

  3. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  4. Spacetimes with Killing tensors. [for Einstein-Maxwell fields with certain spinor indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughston, L. P.; Sommers, P.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of the Killing equation and the Killing tensor are discussed. A conformal Killing tensor is of interest inasmuch as it gives rise to a quadratic first integral for null geodesic orbits. The Einstein-Maxwell equations are considered together with the Bianchi identity and the conformal Killing tensor. Two examples for the application of the considered relations are presented, giving attention to the charged Kerr solution and the charged C-metric.

  5. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  6. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  7. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  8. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  9. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  10. It’s Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents’ active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

  11. 77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and... establishing a temporary security zone on the waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the East River and Bronx Kill when public...

  12. 7 CFR 301.51-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Elizabeth River; then east along the Elizabeth River to the Arthur Kill; then south along the Arthur Kill... Arthur Kill in Carteret, NJ; then south along Roosevelt Avenue to Port Reading Avenue (State Route 604...; then along the west shoreline of Main Creek to Fresh Kills Creek; then along the north shoreline...

  13. Mothers who kill: evolutionary underpinnings and infanticide law.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-01-01

    Women who kill their children present a profound challenge to accepted notions of motherhood and the protection offered by mothers to their children. Historically, societies have varied in the sanctions applied to perpetrators of such acts, across both time and place. Where penalties were once severe and punitive for mothers, in modern times some two dozen nations now have infanticide acts that reduce the penalties for mothers who kill their infants. Embedded within these acts are key criteria that relate (a) only to women who are (b) suffering the hormonal or mood effects of pregnancy/lactation at the time of the offence which is (c) usually restricted to within the first year after delivery. Criticisms of infanticide legislation have largely centered on inherent gender bias, misconceptions about the hormonal basis of postpartum psychiatric disorders, and the nexus and contribution of these disorders to the offending in relation to issues of culpability and sentencing. Important differences between female perpetrators relative to the age of the child victim have also highlighted problems in the implementation of infanticide legislation. For example, women who commit neonaticide (murder during the first day of life) differ substantially from mentally ill mothers who kill older children. However, despite these shortcomings, many nations have in recent years chosen to retain their infanticide acts. This article reviews the central controversies of infanticide legislation in relation to current research and fundamental fairness. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework to organize this discussion, it is argued that infanticide legislation is at best unnecessary and at worst misapplied, in that it exculpates criminal intent and fails to serve those for whom an infanticide defense might otherwise have been intended.

  14. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

  15. Nexavar/Stivarga and Viagra Interact to Kill Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tavallai, Mehrad; Hamed, Hossein A.; Roberts, Jane L.; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Chuckalovcak, John; Poklepovic, Andrew; Booth, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether the multi‐kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil) to kill tumor cells. PDE5 and PDGFRα/β were over‐expressed in liver tumors compared to normal liver tissue. In multiple cell types in vitro sorafenib/regorafenib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death, regardless of whether cells were grown in 10 or 100% human serum. Knock down of PDE5 or of PDGFRα/β recapitulated the effects of the individual drugs. The drug combination increased ROS/RNS levels that were causal in cell killing. Inhibition of CD95/FADD/caspase 8 signaling suppressed drug combination toxicity. Knock down of ULK‐1, Beclin1, or ATG5 suppressed drug combination lethality. The drug combination inactivated ERK, AKT, p70 S6K, and mTOR and activated JNK. The drug combination also reduced mTOR protein expression. Activation of ERK or AKT was modestly protective whereas re‐expression of an activated mTOR protein or inhibition of JNK signaling almost abolished drug combination toxicity. Sildenafil and sorafenib/regorafenib interacted in vivo to suppress xenograft tumor growth using liver and colon cancer cells. From multiplex assays on tumor tissue and plasma, we discovered that increased FGF levels and ERBB1 and AKT phosphorylation were biomarkers that were directly associated with lower levels of cell killing by ‘rafenib + sildenafil. Our data are now being translated into the clinic for further determination as to whether this drug combination is a useful anti‐tumor therapy for solid tumor patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2281–2298, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25704960

  16. Broadening the future of value account of the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2015-11-01

    On Don Marquis's future of value account of the wrongness of killing, 'what makes it wrong to kill those individuals we all believe it is wrong to kill, is that killing them deprives them of their future of value'. Marquis has recently argued for a narrow interpretation of his future of value account of the wrongness of killing and against the broad interpretation that I had put forward in response to Carson Strong. In this article I argue that the narrow view is problematic because it violates some basic principles of equality and because it allows for some of the very killing that Marquis sets out to condemn; further, I argue that the chief reason why Marquis chooses the narrow view over the broad view-namely that the broad view would take the killing of some non-human animals to be also wrong-should rather be considered a welcome upshot of the broad view.

  17. Induced melanin reduces mutations and cell killing in mouse melanoma.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Hill, H Z

    1997-03-01

    When melanin absorbs light energy, it can produce potentially damaging active oxygen species. There is little doubt that constitutive pigment in dark-skinned individuals is photoprotective against skin cancer, but induced pigment-as in tanning-may not be. The first step in cancer induction is mutation in DNA. The most suitable systems for evaluating the role of melanin are those in which pigment can be varied and mutations can be measured. Several cell lines from Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma can be induced to form large quantities of melanin pigment after treatment with a number of different agents enabling comparison of mutant yields in the same cells differing principally in pigment concentration. In these studies, melanin was induced with synthetic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and with isobutyl methyl xanthine in the cell line S91/mel. The former inducer produced about 50% more pigment than the latter. Survival and mutation induction at the Na+/K(+)-ATPase locus were studied using ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), a standard mutagen and five UV lamps emitting near monochromatic and polychromatic UV light in the three wave-length ranges of UV. There was greater protection against killing and mutation induction in the more heavily pigmented cells after exposure to EMS and after irradiation with monochromatic UVC and UVB. There was significant protection against killing by polychromatic UVB + UVA (FS20), but the small degree of protection against mutation was not significant. No significant change in killing and mutation using the same protocol was seen in S91/amel, a related cell line that does not respond to these inducers. No mutants were produced by either monochromatic or polychromatic UVA at doses that killed 50% of the cells. Our results show that induced pigment-shown earlier to be eumelanin (K. A. Cieszka et al., Exp. Dermatol. 4, 192-198, 1995)-is photo- and chemoprotective, but it is less effective in protection against mutagenesis by polychromatic

  18. Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Banai, M.; Kahane, I.; Feldner, J.; Razin, S.

    1981-11-01

    To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

  19. Making the Case: What is the Problem with Targeted Killing?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Terrorism, 28 (2005): 225–235. 7 Edward H. Kaplan, Alex Mintz, and Shaul Mishal, “Tactical Prevention of Suicide Bombings in Israel,” Interfaces 36...analysis to determine the actual impact of U.S. targeted killings in the U.S. Long War . In order to do so, what might we need to know to more fully...21 Edward H. Kaplan, et al.., “What Happened?” 225–235. 22 Edward H. Kaplan, Alex Mintz, and Shaul Mishal, “Tactical

  20. Mitochondria: An intriguing target for killing tumour-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Dong, Lanfeng; Neuzil, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) play a pivotal role in cancer initiation, metastasis and recurrence, as well as in resistance to therapy. Therefore, development of drugs targeting TICs has become a focus of contemporary research. Mitochondria have emerged as a promising target of anti-cancer therapies due to their specific role in cancer metabolism and modulation of apoptotic pathways. Mitochondria of TICs possess special characteristics, some of which can be utilised to design drugs specifically targeting these cells. In this paper, we will review recent research on TICs and their mitochondria, and introduce drugs that kill these cells by way of mitochondrial targeting.

  1. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  2. Selective Killing of T Lymphocytes by Phototoxic Liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yemul, Shrishailam; Berger, Carole; Estabrook, Alison; Suarez, Sylvia; Edelson, Richard; Bayley, Hagan

    1987-01-01

    Two-fold specificity in drug delivery obtained through (i) the localized activation of drugs by physical means and (ii) the attachment of drugs to proteins that bind to target cells might be used for highly selective cancer chemotherapy or for immunosuppression. Toward this end, a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of T lymphocytes was covalently attached to liposomes containing a phototoxic drug, pyrene, bound to the lipid bilayer. When unfractionated peripheral blood lymphocytes, or B- and T-cell lines, were irradiated after treatment with these liposomes, T cells were killed while B cells were spared, demonstrating the validity of the approach in a simple in vitro assay.

  3. Homicide by direct snake bite: a case of contract killing.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Meshram, Satin Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that five million snake bite cases occur worldwide every year, causing about 100,000 deaths. Snake bite is exclusively accidental in nature. Suicide by snake bite is very rare and homicidal snake bite is not reported. In the present case, a contract killer was hired, who used a poisonous snake to kill an elderly couple by way of direct snake bite. We believe this to be the first case reported where a snake was directly used for the murder of two victims through a contract killer.

  4. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hustler, Noel; Lischewski, Andree

    2015-08-15

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ∇ + Ω in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where Ω : TM → Λ{sup ∗}(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds.

  5. [A Brazilian medical collection: Central Brazil in Arthur Neiva and Belisário Penna's scientific expedition and Julio Paternostro's voyage to Tocantins].

    PubMed

    Lima, Nísia Trindade

    2009-07-01

    The article addresses the role played within the social imaginary of Brazil by the scientific voyages of physicians in the first half of the twentieth century. Two texts are analyzed: a report by Arthur Neiva and Belisário Penna published in Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz and another by Julio Paternostro, released in 1945 in Viagem ao Tocantins. The former contributed to singling out pathology as defining mark of national identity during the First Republic (1899-1930), a fact that had repercussions in the following decades, as apparent in Paternostro's book, which at the time of its publication was presented as an indictment of national problems. These portraits of Brazil highlight as attributes of the country not only disease but also the geographic and, primarily, cultural distance separating the coast from the sertão.

  6. [Interpreting Brazil as afflicted by disease and by the spirit of routine: the repercussion of Arthur Neiva and Belisário Penna's medical report (1917-1935)].

    PubMed

    de Sá, Dominichi Miranda

    2009-07-01

    The release of a report on the Oswaldo Cruz Institute's 1912 scientific voyage to North and Northeast Brazil, led by physicians Arthur Neiva and Belisário Penna, debate that found its way to the pages of magazines of the letters and sciences. The report used the images of disease, geographic and cultural isolation, illiteracy, poverty, and a vocation for backwardness to portray the people living in interior Brazil. These images of the sertão were extensively criticized in the periodical A Informação Goiana, published by local doctors who refused to see the interior defined as 'sickly' and 'backwards'. The article analyzes the ways in which the Neiva-Penna report distinguished itself becoming a reference for intellectual controversies surrounding the national question in Brazil.

  7. The Computerized MacArthur Story Stem Battery--a pilot study of a novel medium for assessing children's representations of relationships.

    PubMed

    Minnis, Helen; Millward, Reuben; Sinclair, Claire; Kennedy, Eilis; Greig, Anne; Towlson, Kate; Read, Warren; Hill, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Story stem measures allow the assessment of children's representations of relationship functioning, but are expensive and time-consuming to administer. We developed a computerized story stem measure which does not require specific training for administrators and which allows the child to produce their own animated, narrated story completion. This paper describes, firstly, the reliability of the Computerized MacArthur Story Stem Battery (CMSSB) and, secondly, a preliminary comparison of children in foster care and school controls on narrative coherence, intentionality and avoidance. The CMSSB showed good inter-rater reliability. A group of children in foster care showed significantly poorer coherence of narrative, less intentionality and greater avoidance on the CMSSB compared to a school comparison group.

  8. A little-known aspect of Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930): the call of India and a debt to Walter Scott (1771-1832).

    PubMed

    Gardner, D L; Macnicol, M F; Endicott, P; Rayner, D R T; Geissler, P

    2009-02-01

    This paper recalls the early life of Dr Arthur Conan Doyle when his writing centred briefly on India. The significance of a young female skeleton given to the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1879 is reviewed. Morphometric and genetic evidence is provided to show that the skeleton originated in the Andaman Islands. It is suggested that Doyle saw it during his undergraduate or early postgraduate years, leading him to introduce an Andaman Islander into his novel The Sign of the Four, published in 1890. Like his inspiring predecessor Walter Scott, Doyle wrote of India but did not visit the country: both authors learned indirectly of the Indian Raj and the Indian Medical Service. Doyle knew of the convict colony established after the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 at Port Blair, capital of the Andamans, but the reason he chose an Islander to commit murder in London has, until now, remained contentious.

  9. Spacetimes foliated by nonexpanding and Killing horizons: Higher dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Jerzy; Szereszewski, Adam; Waluk, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    The theory of nonexpanding horizons (NEHs) geometry and the theory of near-horizon geometries (NHGs) are two mathematical relativity frameworks generalizing the black hole theory. From the point of view of the NEHs theory, a NHG is just a very special case of a spacetime containing a NEH of many extra symmetries. It can be obtained as the Horowitz limit of a neighborhood of an arbitrary extremal Killing horizon. An unexpected relation between the two of them was discovered in the study of spacetimes foliated by a family of NEHs. The class of four-dimensional NHG solutions (either vacuum or coupled to a Maxwell field) was found as a family of examples of spacetimes admitting a NEH foliation. In the current paper, we systematically investigate geometries of the NEHs foliating a spacetime for arbitrary matter content and in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. We find that each horizon belonging to the foliation satisfies a condition that may be interpreted as an invitation for a transversal NEH to exist and to admit the structure of an extremal isolated horizon. Assuming the existence of a transversal extremal isolated horizon, we derive all the spacetime metrics satisfying the vacuum Einstein's equations. In this case, the NEHs become bifurcated Killing horizons.

  10. Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phenazines that Kill Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cezairliyan, Brent; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Yuen, Grace J.; Saghatelian, Alan; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes employ a variety of methods to overcome host defenses, including the production and dispersal of molecules that are toxic to their hosts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we identify three small molecules in the phenazine class that are produced by P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that are toxic to C. elegans. We demonstrate that 1-hydroxyphenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and pyocyanin are capable of killing nematodes in a matter of hours. 1-hydroxyphenazine is toxic over a wide pH range, whereas the toxicities of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin are pH-dependent at non-overlapping pH ranges. We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. Pyocyanin is not toxic under acidic conditions and 1-hydroxyphenazine is produced at concentrations too low to kill C. elegans. These results suggest a role for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in mammalian pathogenesis because PA14 mutants deficient in phenazine production have been shown to be defective in pathogenesis in mice. More generally, these data demonstrate how diversity within a class of metabolites could affect bacterial toxicity in different environmental niches. PMID:23300454

  11. Light controllable surface coating for effective photothermal killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Kang, Eun Bi; Jeong, Chan Jin; Sharker, Shazid Md; In, Insik; Park, Sung Young

    2015-07-22

    Although the electronic properties of conducting films have been widely explored in optoelectronic fields, the optical absorption abilities of surface-coated films for photothermal conversion have been relatively less explored in the production of antibacterial coatings. Here, we present catechol-conjugated poly(vinylpyrrolidone) sulfobetaine (PVPS) and polyaniline (PANI) tightly linked by ionic interaction (PVPS:PANI) as a novel photothermal antibacterial agent for surface coating, which can absorb broadband near-infrared (NIR) light. Taking advantage of the NIR light absorption, this coating film can release eminent photothermal heat for the rapid killing of surface bacteria. The NIR light triggers a sharp rise in photothermal heat, providing the rapid and effective killing of 99.9% of the Gram-positive and -negative bacteria tested within 3 min of NIR light exposure when used at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Although considerable progress has been made in the design of antibacterial coatings, the user control of NIR-irradiated rapid photothermal destruction of surface bacteria holds increasing attention beyond the traditional boundaries of typical antibacterial surfaces.

  12. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host. PMID:27506800

  13. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-08-23

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host.

  14. Protecting the normal in order to better kill the cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingya; Ezeogu, Lewis; Zellmer, Lucas; Yu, Baofa; Xu, Ningzhi; Joshua Liao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the only option for oncologists when a cancer has widely spread to different body sites. However, almost all currently available chemotherapeutic drugs will eventually encounter resistance after their initial positive effect, mainly because cancer cells develop genetic alterations, collectively coined herein as mutations, to adapt to the therapy. Some patients may still respond to a second chemo drug, but few cases respond to a third one. Since it takes time for cancer cells to develop new mutations and then select those life-sustaining ones via clonal expansion, “run against time for mutations to emerge” should be a crucial principle for treatment of those currently incurable cancers. Since cancer cells constantly change to adapt to the therapy whereas normal cells are stable, it may be a better strategy to shift our focus from killing cancer cells per se to protecting normal cells from chemotherapeutic toxicity. This new strategy requires the development of new drugs that are nongenotoxic and can quickly, in just hours or days, kill cancer cells without leaving the still-alive cells with time to develop mutations, and that should have their toxicities confined to only one or few organs, so that specific protections can be developed and applied. PMID:26177855

  15. Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald; Virmani, Amitabh

    2008-01-15

    The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area ({kappa}/8{pi}){delta}A={delta}E-{omega}{delta}J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same argument. However, to make this law nontrivial, one must show that sufficiently quasistationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary d{>=}3 and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a nontrivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for d{>=}3. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

  16. Univalent antibodies kill tumour cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennie, M. J.; Stevenson, G. T.

    1982-02-01

    Antibody molecules are bivalent, or less often multivalent, with each antibody site within a single molecule having the same specificity. Bivalency must enhance the tenacity of antibody attachment to cell surfaces, as dissociation will require simultaneous release at both sites. However, the bivalency of the antibody sometimes induces a target cell to undergo antigenic modulation1-3, thereby offering the cell a means of evading complement and the various effector cells recruited by the antibody. We have investigated the attack by univalent antibodies, which, despite removal of one antibody site, retain their Fc zones and hence their ability to recruit the killing agents, on neoplastic B lymphocytes of the guinea pig L2C line. Rabbit antibodies raised against surface immunoglobulin of these cells were partially digested with papain to yield the univalent Fab/c derivatives4,5. We report here that these derivatives showed enhanced cell killing both in vitro and in vivo, and that this enhancement appeared to derive from avoiding antigenic modulation.

  17. Bacterial resistance to arsenic protects against protist killing.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuli; Li, Xuanji; Pal, Chandan; Hobman, Jon; Larsson, D G Joakim; Saquib, Quaiser; Alwathnani, Hend A; Rosen, Barry P; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rensing, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Protists kill their bacterial prey using toxic metals such as copper. Here we hypothesize that the metalloid arsenic has a similar role. To test this hypothesis, we examined intracellular survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum (D. discoideum). Deletion of the E. coli ars operon led to significantly lower intracellular survival compared to wild type E. coli. This suggests that protists use arsenic to poison bacterial cells in the phagosome, similar to their use of copper. In response to copper and arsenic poisoning by protists, there is selection for acquisition of arsenic and copper resistance genes in the bacterial prey to avoid killing. In agreement with this hypothesis, both copper and arsenic resistance determinants are widespread in many bacterial taxa and environments, and they are often found together on plasmids. A role for heavy metals and arsenic in the ancient predator-prey relationship between protists and bacteria could explain the widespread presence of metal resistance determinants in pristine environments.

  18. Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents.

    PubMed

    Tallian, Aimee; Ordiz, Andrés; Metz, Matthew C; Milleret, Cyril; Wikenros, Camilla; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R; Kindberg, Jonas; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wabakken, Petter; Swenson, Jon E; Sand, Håkan

    2017-02-08

    Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as a proxy of kill rate. Although brown bears can monopolize wolf kills, we found no support in either study system for the common assumption that they cause wolves to kill more often. On the contrary, our results showed the opposite effect. In Scandinavia, wolf packs sympatric with brown bears killed less often than allopatric packs during both spring (after bear den emergence) and summer. Similarly, the presence of bears at wolf-killed ungulates was associated with wolves killing less often during summer in Yellowstone. The consistency in results between the two systems suggests that brown bear presence actually reduces wolf kill rate. Our results suggest that the influence of predation on lower trophic levels may depend on the composition of predator communities.

  19. Imaging burst kinetics and spatial coordination during serial killing by single natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Paul J; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2013-04-16

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes eliminate virus-infected and cancerous cells by immune recognition and killing through the perforin-granzyme pathway. Traditional killing assays measure average target cell lysis at fixed times and high effector:target ratios. Such assays obscure kinetic details that might reveal novel physiology. We engineered target cells to report on granzyme activity, used very low effector:target ratios to observe potential serial killing, and performed low magnification time-lapse imaging to reveal time-dependent statistics of natural killer (NK) killing at the single-cell level. Most kills occurred during serial killing, and a single NK cell killed up to 10 targets over a 6-h assay. The first kill was slower than subsequent kills, especially on poor targets, or when NK signaling pathways were partially inhibited. Spatial analysis showed that sequential kills were usually adjacent. We propose that NK cells integrate signals from the previous and current target, possibly by simultaneous contact. The resulting burst kinetics and spatial coordination may control the activity of NK cells in tissues.

  20. Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents

    PubMed Central

    Ordiz, Andrés; Metz, Matthew C.; Milleret, Cyril; Wikenros, Camilla; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Kindberg, Jonas; MacNulty, Daniel R.; Wabakken, Petter; Swenson, Jon E.; Sand, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as a proxy of kill rate. Although brown bears can monopolize wolf kills, we found no support in either study system for the common assumption that they cause wolves to kill more often. On the contrary, our results showed the opposite effect. In Scandinavia, wolf packs sympatric with brown bears killed less often than allopatric packs during both spring (after bear den emergence) and summer. Similarly, the presence of bears at wolf-killed ungulates was associated with wolves killing less often during summer in Yellowstone. The consistency in results between the two systems suggests that brown bear presence actually reduces wolf kill rate. Our results suggest that the influence of predation on lower trophic levels may depend on the composition of predator communities. PMID:28179516