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Sample records for arthur kill project

  1. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  3. 78 FR 43063 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard... District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Arthur Kill AK Railroad Bridge across Arthur Kill, mile 11.6, between Staten Island, New York and Elizabeth,...

  4. Navigation study on improvements to existing federal navigation channels Arthur Kill Channel, Howland Hook Marine Terminal, Staten Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    Improvements to the Arthur Kill Channel from the confluence of the Kill Van Kull Channel, the Arthur Kill Channel, and Newark Bay, along the Arthur Kill to the vicinity of Howland Hook Marine Terminal on Staten Island, New York are proposed. In addition, the study area was extended south from Howland Hook Terminal for approximately one mile in order to serve two oil terminals. The recommended improvements would include deepening to various depths down to 45 feet mean low water (MLW), widening the channel for unrestricted two-way traffic, and the creation of a turning basin. Specifically, a 41-foot MLW deep channel would be dredged in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from its confluence with the Newark Bay and Kill Van Kull channels to the Howland Hook Marine Terminal for a distance of approximately 2.1 miles. Also recommended are selected widenings and realignments of the channel at a depth of 41 feet in the interest of navigational safety. Additionally, a 40-foot MLW channel is proposed in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from the Howland Hook Marine Terminal to the Exxon Bayway and Gulfport facilities for a distance of approximately one mile. The channel would be selectively realigned to a 40-foot depth for navigational safety. No final determination has been made regarding the disposal of dredged material due to the uncertainty of available upland sites at this time. The turning basin would lie in the Kill Van Kull Channel at Bergen Point, where vessels turn from Kill Van Kull into Arthur Kill and Newark Bay. Total cost of the recommended plan is $49.4 million; the benefit-cost ratio is 4.35. The plan would take 4 years for completion and would have a projected life of 50 years.

  5. 76 FR 45690 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... tributaries, in the Federal Register (76 FR 16715). We received one comment in response to the proposed rule... Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final... operation of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge at mile 11.6, across Arthur Kill between Staten...

  6. 76 FR 16715 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulations governing the operation of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge at mile 11.6, across Arthur...

  7. 77 FR 1023 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Arthur Kill. An earlier TIR added the basic RNA regulation for that waterway: 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 (76 FR... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting within the... amending the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) in the navigable waters of the Arthur Kill in New York and...

  8. 76 FR 36914 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC..., 2011, Astoria Generating Company, NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

  9. 76 FR 52569 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Arthur Kill in New York and New... the RNA is in place. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments identified by docket number USCG-...

  10. 76 FR 36910 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC. v. New York...

  11. 76 FR 34692 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC; v. New York...

  12. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (NAD 83). (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (2) All... requirements through VTS measures, as per 33 CFR 161.11. (9) Suspension of enforcement: the Captain of the Port... Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section 165.T01-0727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  13. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (NAD 83). (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (2) All... requirements through VTS measures, as per 33 CFR 161.11. (9) Suspension of enforcement: the Captain of the Port... Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section 165.T01-0727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  14. Building bridges to evidence-based practice: the MacArthur Foundation Child System and Treatment Enhancement Projects (Child STEPs).

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Kelleher, Kelly; Weisz, John R

    2008-03-01

    The papers in this special issue describe research undertaken by the MacArthur Foundation-funded Research Network on Youth Mental Health. The project is designed to understand the challenges of implementing evidence-based treatments in community-based mental health practices. This Introduction and the following articles describe the impetus and conceptual framework underlying one cluster of the Network's activity-i.e., the Clinic Systems Project (CSP). The CSP studies examined the organizational and service system environments in a large national sample of community mental health and affiliated organizations that provide services to children. The main goal is to identify leverage points for, and barriers to, the adoption and implementation of evidence-based practices for children. PMID:18085433

  15. Deployment of a Prototype Plant GFP Imager at the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse of the Haughton Mars Project

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Bamsey, Matthew; Berinstain, Alain; Braham, Stephen; Neron, Philip; Murdoch, Trevor; Graham, Thomas; Ferl, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of engineered plants as biosensors has made elegant strides in the past decades, providing keen insights into the health of plants in general and particularly in the nature and cellular location of stress responses. However, most of the analytical procedures involve laboratory examination of the biosensor plants. With the advent of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a biosensor molecule, it became at least theoretically possible for analyses of gene expression to occur telemetrically, with the gene expression information of the plant delivered to the investigator over large distances simply as properly processed fluorescence images. Spaceflight and other extraterrestrial environments provide unique challenges to plant life, challenges that often require changes at the gene expression level to accommodate adaptation and survival. Having previously deployed transgenic plant biosensors to evaluate responses to orbital spaceflight, we wished to develop the plants and especially the imaging devices required to conduct such experiments robotically, without operator intervention, within extraterrestrial environments. This requires the development of an autonomous and remotely operated plant GFP imaging system and concomitant development of the communications infrastructure to manage dataflow from the imaging device. Here we report the results of deploying a prototype GFP imaging system within the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse (ACMG) an autonomously operated greenhouse located within the Haughton Mars Project in the Canadian High Arctic. Results both demonstrate the applicability of the fundamental GFP biosensor technology and highlight the difficulties in collecting and managing telemetric data from challenging deployment environments.

  16. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clearly visible from both the up and downstream sides of the bridge. (c) Tide constrained deep draft... of rail traffic during any predicted high tide period if a tide constrained deep draft vessel has... purposes of this regulation, the predicted high tide period shall be considered to be from two hours...

  17. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clearly visible from both the up and downstream sides of the bridge. (c) Tide constrained deep draft... of rail traffic during any predicted high tide period if a tide constrained deep draft vessel has... purposes of this regulation, the predicted high tide period shall be considered to be from two hours...

  18. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clearly visible from both the up and downstream sides of the bridge. (c) Tide restrained deep draft... of rail traffic during any predicted high tide period if a tide restrained deep draft vessel has... purposes of this regulation, the predicted high tide period shall be considered to be from two-hours...

  19. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clearly visible from both the up and downstream sides of the bridge. (c) Tide constrained deep draft... of rail traffic during any predicted high tide period if a tide constrained deep draft vessel has... purposes of this regulation, the predicted high tide period shall be considered to be from two hours...

  20. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... clearly visible from both the up and downstream sides of the bridge. (c) Tide restrained deep draft... of rail traffic during any predicted high tide period if a tide restrained deep draft vessel has... purposes of this regulation, the predicted high tide period shall be considered to be from two-hours...

  1. NASA Sees Hurricane Arthur's Fireworks

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 3, NASA's TRMM satellite passed over Arthur and saw intense bands of thunderstorms north of Arthur's well defined eye dropping rainfall at a rate of over 98.4 mm (3.9 inches) per hour. Thos...

  2. Arthur: A Personalized Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Juan E.; Han, C. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether there was a significant difference in learner outcomes from the use of Arthur (Gilbert & Han, 1999), a computer-based adaptive instructional system that provides personalized instruction to each learner. Found that Arthur does provide a significant difference in learner outcomes. (EV)

  3. Faces of Marshall: Arthur Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Metallurgist Arthur Brown shares how his high school drafting and welding success led him to a NASA ca...

  4. Port Arthur Alive: Exploring Past and Present, 4. Eyewitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This document presents part 4 of a five part project in which students of the Tasmanian region of Australia are invited to explore the history of Port Arthur, a 19th century penal colony located in Tasmania. The project is based on three ideas: (1) studying history can be educational and enjoyable; (2) imagination is an essential part of studying…

  5. Port Arthur Alive: Exploring Past and Present, 3. Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    Part 3 of this five part project asks students of the Tasmanian region of Australia to explore the history of Port Arthur, a 19th century penal colony located in Tasmania. The project is based on three ideas: (1) studying history can be educational and enjoyable; (2) imagination is an essential part of studying history; and (3) history is most of…

  6. Arthur Smith, Local Baptist Pastor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School this volume has three articles dealing with East Texas life. The first "Arthur Smith" (David Hancock and others) is an account of growing up in Marian County, Texas is described by the local Baptist minister. The pastor begins with the year of his birth and gives detailed information about…

  7. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  8. Arthur. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Arthur," a book-based educational television program designed for children ages 4-8, is popular among preschool and kindergarten students. The program is based on the storybooks, by Marc Brown, about Arthur, an 8-year-old aardvark. Each show is 30 minutes in length and includes two stories involving characters dealing with moral issues. The show…

  9. Create Your Own Amazing Arthur Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Amina

    Since 1996, the "Arthur" program on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) has featured stories about the challenges of childhood for children ages 3 through 8, illustrating problem-solving and communication skills as well as the importance of self-respect and respect for others. This booklet provides creative ideas for ways to incorporate "Arthur"…

  10. Arthur Kelman: tribute and remembrance.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Luis

    2012-01-01

    With the death of Professor Arthur Kelman at age 90, the plant sciences, and particularly the field of plant pathology, lost one of its most influential and effective leaders. His long career involved important positions in the Departments of Plant Pathology at North Carolina State University (1949-1965) and the University of Wisconsin (1965-1989). Recognized not only for his achievements in research and his charismatic influence on his numerous students, Arthur was, most of all, an extraordinary teacher. He and his students made significant contributions in the fields of virulence, ecology, and control of bacterial plant pathogens. In addition, he was extremely active in service to professional societies, including the American Phytopathological Society, and a major force in the development of the International Society for Plant Pathology. In addition, he was an influential member of the Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and, after retirement from the University of Wisconsin, he served for two years as Chief Scientist of the Competitive Grants Program of the US Department of Agriculture. He received numerous awards as a teacher and researcher, and felt an intense sense of duty to his profession. He was one of the most influential plant pathologists of the twentieth century and will be remembered for his great intellect and his humanity. PMID:22656646

  11. Killing and conformal Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Konstantin; Moroianu, Andrei; Semmelmann, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an appropriate formalism in order to study conformal Killing (symmetric) tensors on Riemannian manifolds. We reprove in a simple way some known results in the field and obtain several new results, like the classification of conformal Killing 2-tensors on Riemannian products of compact manifolds, Weitzenböck formulas leading to non-existence results, and construct various examples of manifolds with conformal Killing tensors.

  12. Killing Coyotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Presents different viewpoints concerning the federal government's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program cited as responsible for killing millions of predators. Critics provide evidence of outdated and inhumane methods exemplified in the coyote killings. The ADC emphasizes new, nonlethal methods of controlling animals cited as "noxious." (MCO)

  13. Evaluating the 1995 BLS Projections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Neal H.; Fullerton, Howard N., Jr.; Andreassen, Arthur; Veneri, Carolyn M.

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Neal H. Rosenthal); "Labor Force Projections" (Howard N. Fullerton, Jr.); "Industry Employment Projections" (Arthur Andreassen); and "Occupational Employment Projections" (Carolyn M. Veneri). (JOW)

  14. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  15. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  16. Convergent Creativity: From Arthur Cropley (1935-) Onwards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ai-Girl

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Cropley's view on convergent thinking is reviewed, with reflections on the relations of divergent and convergent processes and the roles of knowledge and convergent creativity. While divergence is about considering and generating multiplicity, possibility, difference, originality, and so on; convergence is about relating, associating,…

  17. Arthur Wright Combs: A Humanistic Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Arthur Wright Combs (1912-1999) championed humanistic counseling and education. He proposed a theory that incorporated humanistic values and cognitive factors. This article features a review of his contributions, an overview of his theory, a synthesis of stories about Combs that were acquired during research interviews, and my commentary on his…

  18. The Unusual Evolution of Hurricane Arthur 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael; Line, William; Cangialosi, John; Halverson, Jeffery; Berndt, Emily; Sienkiewicz, Joseph; Goodman, Steve; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Arthur (2014) was an early season hurricane that had its roots in a convective complex in the Southern Plains of the U.S. As the complex moved into northern Texas, a Mesoscale Convective Vortex (MCV) formed and drifted towards the east of the southern U.S. for a few days before emerging over the southwest Atlantic near South Carolina. The MCV drifted south and slowly acquired tropical characteristics, eventually becoming a Category 2 hurricane that would affect much of eastern North Carolina prior to the 4th of July holiday weekend. Arthur continued up the coast, brushing portions of southeast New England and merged with an upper-level low, completing a full tropical to extratropical-transition in the process, producing damaging wind gusts in portions of the Canadian Maritimes. As part of the GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Proving Grounds, multiple proxy and operational products were available to analyze and forecast this complex evolution. The Storm Prediction Center had products available to monitor the initial severe thunderstorm aspect, while the National Hurricane Center and Ocean Prediction Center were able to monitor the tropical and extratropical transition of Arthur using various convective and red, green, blue (RGB) products that have been introduced in recent years. This paper will discuss Arthur's evolution through the eyes of the various Satellite Proving Ground demonstrations.

  19. Chariots of Fire: King Arthur Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Fred

    1987-01-01

    Discusses one of the perennial challenges of teaching English literature--finding ways to relate it to modern problems and issues and thus make the study accessible to students. Includes an example that relates the themes of "Morte D'Arthur" and "Chariots of Fire" and focuses on the sea imagery in both pieces. (JD)

  20. Arthur Dunn: Civic Visionary from the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieboer, Ruth A.

    This paper considers the life and accomplishments of Arthur Dunn, a pioneer in the field of social studies education. The paper discusses the cooperative community of Dunn's youth, his education and teaching experiences, and his publications on civics and their influence on teaching methods. (BT)

  1. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfman, Lois; Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, they invite every college and…

  2. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfman, Lois; Walker, Marlon A.

    2011-01-01

    "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, "Diverse" invites every college and…

  3. Arthur R. Jensen (1923-2012).

    PubMed

    Lubinski, David

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Arthur R. Jensen. Arthur R. Jensen epitomized the "London School" of psychological thought, studying human individuality as a branch of biology by teaming evolutionary, genetic, and experimental/multivariate/quantitative methods to examine psychological diversity. His intellectual ancestry traces back through his mentor Hans Eysenck to Cyril Burt, Charles Spearman, and, ultimately, Sir Francis Galton. Haggbloom et al. (2002, Review of General Psychology) ranked him among the top 50 eminent psychologists of the 20th century primarily for his work on the construct of general intelligence (g) and its antecedents. But he was also known for his studies in human learning, memory, the cumulative deficit hypothesis, Spearman's hypothesis, the speed of information hypothesis, and test bias. Yet, because of the controversial nature of his work, his career was conspicuously marked by tensions: The extent to which his work was either admired or reviled by many distinguished scientists is unparalleled. PMID:23895609

  4. Arthur R. Jensen (1923-2012).

    PubMed

    Lubinski, David

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Arthur R. Jensen. Arthur R. Jensen epitomized the "London School" of psychological thought, studying human individuality as a branch of biology by teaming evolutionary, genetic, and experimental/multivariate/quantitative methods to examine psychological diversity. His intellectual ancestry traces back through his mentor Hans Eysenck to Cyril Burt, Charles Spearman, and, ultimately, Sir Francis Galton. Haggbloom et al. (2002, Review of General Psychology) ranked him among the top 50 eminent psychologists of the 20th century primarily for his work on the construct of general intelligence (g) and its antecedents. But he was also known for his studies in human learning, memory, the cumulative deficit hypothesis, Spearman's hypothesis, the speed of information hypothesis, and test bias. Yet, because of the controversial nature of his work, his career was conspicuously marked by tensions: The extent to which his work was either admired or reviled by many distinguished scientists is unparalleled.

  5. Arthur Cayley and the `Gruppen Pest'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, P.

    2015-09-01

    The original contributions of Arthur Cayley to the Philosophical Magazine on group theory and his 'trees' are revisited and to some extend reinterpreted. Both topics were and are of enormous importance not only in physics (group theory, graph theory), but also in quite a few other disciplines as diverse as information technology or, for example, linguistics (trees, graph theory). In order to show that these two topics originally arose from interests in the theory of permutations also Cayley's 'Mousetrap' game is briefly mentioned.

  6. Beyond killing

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Pedro F.; McNally, Luke; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea; King, Kayla C.; Popat, Roman; Domingo-Sananes, Maria R.; Allen, Judith E.; Soares, Miguel P.; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic pipeline is running dry and infectious disease remains a major threat to public health. An efficient strategy to stay ahead of rapidly adapting pathogens should include approaches that replace, complement or enhance the effect of both current and novel antimicrobial compounds. In recent years, a number of innovative approaches to manage disease without the aid of traditional antibiotics and without eliminating the pathogens directly have emerged. These include disabling pathogen virulence-factors, increasing host tissue damage control or altering the microbiota to provide colonization resistance, immune resistance or disease tolerance against pathogens. We discuss the therapeutic potential of these approaches and examine their possible consequences for pathogen evolution. To guarantee a longer half-life of these alternatives to directly killing pathogens, and to gain a full understanding of their population-level consequences, we encourage future work to incorporate evolutionary perspectives into the development of these treatments. PMID:27016341

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934 (b) LIGHTHOUSE AND KEEPER'S COTTAGE FROM SOUTHWEST - Lighthouse, Cedar Point Scituate Harbor, Scituate, Plymouth County, MA

  8. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (g) Ext- general view, gateway entrance and fence. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  9. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (j) Int- (so- called) Slaves' Pew, East Gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  10. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (e) Ext- Detail, main entrance, west front. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  11. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (f) Int-General view looking north toward pulpit. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  12. LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, STUDENT VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    A STUDENT VERSION OF A CURRICULUM GUIDE ON THE "LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR" WAS DEVELOPED. SELECTED LEGENDS ARE REPRODUCED ALONG WITH AN INTRODUCTION, STUDY QUESTIONS, AND A PASSAGE FROM MALORY'S "LE MORTE D'ARTHUR" IN THE ORIGINAL LANGUAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION (1485). THE TEACHER VERSION IS ED 010 814. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 129 THROUGH ED 010…

  13. Our Magnetic Planet (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    It is a great honour to receive the Arthur Holmes Medal, certainly the highest scientific award of my life. My first thoughts and deep gratitude are with the people who have contributed to me being here today, from my PhD mentors, Pierre Berge and Pierre Pério, later Jacques Labeyrie, my colleagues and students and last, but not least, the members of the Committee on Education of EGU, with whom I have shared over 10 years of a wonderful educational activity. In this presentation, among the various scientific arguments in which I have been involved, I will recall only those mentioned in my letter of nomination to the Holmes Medal, trying to replace them in what was known at the time. After a PhD in Solid State Physics, working in a laboratory of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, I obtained a post doctoral research position for the the study of liquid binary critical fluids, and worked on this topics for 5 years. I then joined the Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, a CNRS-CEA Institute dedicated to the study of geological-environmental phenomena. My first task there has been to develop a paleomagnetic laboratory, dedicated to the study of Earth Sciences, through the study of the magnetic properties of sediments and igneous rocks. From there on, my entire scientific activity has been devoted to the study of our "Magnetic Planet". My first project in Geophysics dealt with the geodynamical evolution of the Aegean Arc. At the time, only a few paleomagnetic studies existed in the Mediterranean realm, and none in the Aegean region. Moreover all of them dealt with rather old geological formations, so that almost nothing was known about the recent post-cretaceous evolution. The originality of our study was to start from the most recent to the older formations, in order to precisely describe "retro-tectonically" the different phases of rotational deformation. This intensive study (over 700 sampling sites, over 10,000 samples spread over continental Greece, the Aegean

  14. Our Magnetic Planet (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    It is a great honour to receive the Arthur Holmes Medal, certainly the highest scientific award of my life. My first thoughts and deep gratitude are with the people who have contributed to me being here today, from my PhD mentors, Pierre Berge and Pierre Pério, later Jacques Labeyrie, my colleagues and students and last, but not least, the members of the Committee on Education of EGU, with whom I have shared over 10 years of a wonderful educational activity. In this presentation, among the various scientific arguments in which I have been involved, I will recall only those mentioned in my letter of nomination to the Holmes Medal, trying to replace them in what was known at the time. After a PhD in Solid State Physics, working in a laboratory of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, I obtained a post doctoral research position for the the study of liquid binary critical fluids, and worked on this topics for 5 years. I then joined the Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, a CNRS-CEA Institute dedicated to the study of geological-environmental phenomena. My first task there has been to develop a paleomagnetic laboratory, dedicated to the study of Earth Sciences, through the study of the magnetic properties of sediments and igneous rocks. From there on, my entire scientific activity has been devoted to the study of our "Magnetic Planet". My first project in Geophysics dealt with the geodynamical evolution of the Aegean Arc. At the time, only a few paleomagnetic studies existed in the Mediterranean realm, and none in the Aegean region. Moreover all of them dealt with rather old geological formations, so that almost nothing was known about the recent post-cretaceous evolution. The originality of our study was to start from the most recent to the older formations, in order to precisely describe "retro-tectonically" the different phases of rotational deformation. This intensive study (over 700 sampling sites, over 10,000 samples spread over continental Greece, the Aegean

  15. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Aug. 1937. (j) Int- Mantel and Breast, N. E. First Floor Room, looking toward front. - Joshua Ward House, 148 Washington Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  16. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. August, 1937. (l) Int- Mantel and Breast S. E. First Floor Room. - Joshua Ward House, 148 Washington Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May 31, 1936 (ttt) BOSTON STONE, PUBLIC ALLEY No. 102, NEAR MARSHALL ST., BOSTON - Boundary Stones QQQ, RRR, SSS, & TTT, Various Boston locations, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (a) Model of Old Windmill and Vats found in Atwood House, W. Chatham, Mass. - Enoch Harding Salt Works, Buck's Creek, West Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 3, 1938 (k) INT.- MANTLE, NORTHEAST ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  20. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (k) Int-Detail of Corner Fireplace in Parlor (Living) (SE) Room, First Floor. - Daniel Shute House, Main & South Pleasant Streets, Hingham, Plymouth County, MA

  1. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1936 (k) Int- Paneled fireplace end, southeast room, first floor. - Squire William Sever House, 2 Linden Street, Kingston, Plymouth County, MA

  2. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. 28, 1935 (i) INT.- WALL STENCILLING, REAR ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Peter Jayne House, 37 Mugford Street, Marblehead, Essex County, MA

  3. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May 29, 1939 (r) INT.- MANTEL & MIRROR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, 1st. FLOOR - Cook-Oliver House, 142 Federal Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (l) Int-Mantel Detail, Bedroom (S.E. Corner) Second Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (b) Ext- General view of main house from southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (c) Ext- General view of House and Ell from Southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  7. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (k) Int-Mantel detail, Dining (S.E. Corner) Room, First Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (A) Ext. General view from Southeast. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (b) Ext- Detail doorway, east side of house. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  10. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer, September 22, 1936 DETAIL OF ROSE WINDOW (SOUTH ELEVATION OF SMALL CHAPEL). - Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo, Mission Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  11. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer, September 22, 1936 CLOSE-UP DETAIL OF ROSE WINDOW (SOUTH ELEVATION OF SMALL CHAPEL). - Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo, Mission Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (b) Ext- General view rear, looking from north. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey employee.) (b) Ext- Main building, south end. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey Employee.) (a) Ext- General view from Southeast. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (a) Ext- General front view from southeast. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (c) Ext-Detail entrance on south. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer July 15, 1936 DETAIL OF COOKING FIREPLACE IN BASEMENT (LOOKING WEST). - Judge Thomas J. Devine House, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  18. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (i) Int-Looking down on pulpit and first floor from west gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  19. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (h) Int-Detail Gallery Stairs, S.E. Corner. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer April 24, 1936 EAST ELEVATION (FRONT). - O'Henry House, Lone Star Brewery, 600 Lone Star Boulevard, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 DETAIL OF PORCH (NORTH ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  2. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer October 10, 1936 DETAIL OF CAST IRON GRILLE ON FRONT PORCH. - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW (NORTH AND EAST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 24, 1936 EAST ELEVATION MAIN RANCH HOUSE (REAR). - San Bartolo Ranch Buildings, Falcon Reservoir Site, Zapata, Zapata County, TX

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 24, 1936 EAST ELEVATION SHOWING BUILDINGS 3, 2 AND 1. - San Bartolo Ranch Buildings, Falcon Reservoir Site, Zapata, Zapata County, TX

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 24, 1936 WEST ELEVATION SHOWING BUILDINGS 1,2 AND 3. - San Bartolo Ranch Buildings, Falcon Reservoir Site, Zapata, Zapata County, TX

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 24, 1936 WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN RANCH HOUSE (FRONT). - San Bartolo Ranch Buildings, Falcon Reservoir Site, Zapata, Zapata County, TX

  8. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Oct. 1937. (h) Int- Old Bar in Basement Tap Room - Old Tavern Inn, Wareham Street (State Route 28), Middleboro, Plymouth County, MA

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (b) Detail of old railroad part way up incline to quarry. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  10. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (c) Detail of track and set pulleys on quarry incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  11. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (e) Portion of old quarry wagon at head of incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (a) General view of incline to Quarry from Northwest. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  13. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934 (d) SIDE DOORWAY IN TOWER FROM NORTHWEST - Bulfinch Church, North Street & Maplewood Avenue (moved from Park Row), Pittsfield, Berkshire County, MA

  14. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Oct. 1937. (d) Ext- Detail of Entrance (East) Front. - Colonel Alexander Field House, 280 Longmeadow Street, Longmeadow, Hampden County, MA

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (d) Ext- Detail west entrance doorway. - Captain John Stearns House, Old Post Road, Oldtown, North Attleboro, Bristol County, MA

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. 3, 1936 (d) INT.-MAIN STAIRWAY - Jennie Sampson House, Main Street (moved to Cotchpinicutt Road, North Chatham, MA), Lakeville, Plymouth County, MA

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Nov. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Nov. 12, 1936 (d) INT.- EAST WALL, NORTHWEST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Francis Wyman House, Francis Wyman Road, Burlington, Middlesex County, MA

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (d) Int-Paneled (East) side of parlor, N.W. corner, first floor. - Daniel Caldwell House, 126 Main Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  19. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW AFTER 1919 STORM (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW PRIOR TO 1919 STORM (EAST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  1. Arthur Miller Wins a Peace Prize: Teaching, Literature, and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopald, Meredith

    1992-01-01

    Describes how a high school student was able to express powerful feelings and achieve some kind of reconciliation with his father through his therapeutic exploration of Arthur Miller's play "Death of a Salesman." (PRA)

  2. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, O

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief.

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (c) Int- Mantel detail (sitting) room SE corner, first floor - Fearing-Warr House, 14 Elm Street, Wareham, Plymouth County, MA

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) EXT.-MAPLE MEADOW BROOK AQUEDUCT, WILMINGTON, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middlesex Canal, Maple Meadow Brook Aqueduct, Wilmington, Middlesex County, MA

  5. Planning a dynamic kill

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the methodology, design philosophy, and guidelines for planning a dynamic-kill operation for a wild well. The topics covered are two methods of computer analysis for designing dynamic-kill requirements, the design process, determining the pumping spread, and the pitfalls that a designer faces in planning a dynamic kill.

  6. Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marché, Jordan D., II

    2009-12-01

    Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the

  7. 75 FR 69154 - Land Release for Long Island MacArthur Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Long Island MacArthur Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation... requesting public comment on the Long Island MacArthur Airport (ISP), Ronkonkoma, New York, notice of...-aeronautical development. The parcel is located on the northeast corner of the Long Island MacArthur...

  8. Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marché, Jordan D., II

    2009-12-01

    Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the

  9. Narrative Development in Bilingual Kindergarteners: Can Arthur Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the children's TV program Arthur on the development of narrative skills over an academic year for Spanish-speaking English-language learners. In October, February, and June of their kindergarten year, children were asked to tell a story, in English, prompted by 3 pictures. Before the 2nd and 3rd assessments, half…

  10. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars 2009--Male Finalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article features the male and female finalists of the Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars 2009. The male finalists are: (1) Sam Bradford (University of Oklahoma); (2) Jamaal Parker (University of Georgia); (3) Masumi Turnbull (University of Kentucky); and (4) Brian Robiskie (The Ohio State University). The female finalists are: (1) Shardea Croes…

  11. Reconsidering Arthur Bestor and the Cold War in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, Burton

    2000-01-01

    Explores the development of Arthur Bestor's ideas and his differences with progressives during the 1950's. Contends their differences, exacerbated by the Cold War, were matters of emphasis not principles. Concludes that ongoing post-Cold War battles among liberal social educators should be resolved in favor of their common social and educational…

  12. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, O.

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. PMID:19881059

  13. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  14. How neutrophils kill fungi.

    PubMed

    Gazendam, Roel P; van de Geer, Annemarie; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the prevention of invasive fungal infections. Whereas mouse studies have demonstrated the role of various neutrophil pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), signal transduction pathways, and cytotoxicity in the murine antifungal immune response, much less is known about the killing of fungi by human neutrophils. Recently, novel primary immunodeficiencies have been identified in patients with a susceptibility to fungal infections. These human 'knock-out' neutrophils expand our knowledge to understand the role of PRRs and signaling in human fungal killing. From the studies with these patients it is becoming clear that neutrophils employ fundamentally distinct mechanisms to kill Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:27558342

  15. Meteorological Forcing of the Kills in New York / New Jersey Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, K. L.; Chant, R. J.; Bruno, M. S.; Glenn, S.

    2002-12-01

    Hydrographic surveys of the New York / New Jersey Harbor complex were conducted in Newark Bay, the Arthur Kill, and Kill Van Kull as part of the "Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program" to characterize salient physical processes in this estuarine system. Data collected for the study included shipboard and moored observations of currents, salinity, temperature and turbidity, with the aim of setting a dynamical context in which to interpret chemical data by providing insights into the mechanisms driving the transport pathways of dissolved and suspended contaminated material within the estuary. Analysis of collected data and former studies of the region indicate that the Kills system responds to a complex combination of forcing influences, including tide, wind, basin geometry and freshwater inflow. These influences are responsible for dramatic variations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport characteristics, including, for example, the direction and magnitude of the net, residual flow within the Newark Bay/Kills system. Here we sought to describe the relationship between the sub-tidal currents and the sea surface slope with meteorological forcing (wind/storm events) in the estuary. Measurements being made during the study included three (3) fixed bottom platform stations each equipped with a 1500kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADP) to measure the vertical profile of horizontal currents. We also measured sea surface elevation data with three acoustic radiometric gauges that were deployed at the head of Newark Bay, at the mouth of the Arthur Kill, and at Constable Hook, in the Hudson River. Additional tide data at the Bayonne Bridge were provided by NOAA. Wind data from the Newark International Airport meteorological station (40o 40 57 N, 74o 10 10 W) were supplied by the Northeast Regional Climate Center. Sub-Tidal Motion: Current velocity data from the ADP was averaged over 30-minute intervals and low-pass filtered to remove the tidal component of the

  16. STS-74 MS Bill McArthur in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-74 William S. 'Bill' McArthur Jr. bids farewell to white room closeout crew members before he enters the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Closeout crew members are (from left) Mike Mangione, KSC Lockheed closeout crew lead; Eartha Shoemaker, KSC NASA quality assurance technician; and Chris Meinert, KSC Lockheed mechanical technician. Atlantis is scheduled for liftoff at about 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  17. A Rosenzweig-MacArthur (1963) Criterion for the Chemostat

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanji

    2016-01-01

    The Rosenzweig-MacArthur (1963) criterion is a graphical criterion that has been widely used for elucidating the local stability properties of the Gause (1934) type predator-prey systems. It has not been stated whether a similar criterion holds for models with explicit resource dynamics (Kooi et al. (1998)), like the chemostat model. In this paper we use the implicit function theorem and implicit derivatives for proving that a similar graphical criterion holds under chemostat conditions, too. PMID:27517080

  18. A Rosenzweig-MacArthur (1963) Criterion for the Chemostat.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Torsten; Cheng, Yuanji

    2016-01-01

    The Rosenzweig-MacArthur (1963) criterion is a graphical criterion that has been widely used for elucidating the local stability properties of the Gause (1934) type predator-prey systems. It has not been stated whether a similar criterion holds for models with explicit resource dynamics (Kooi et al. (1998)), like the chemostat model. In this paper we use the implicit function theorem and implicit derivatives for proving that a similar graphical criterion holds under chemostat conditions, too.

  19. 9. VIEW SHOWING PEARL WHITFORD (LEFT) AND ARTHUR RAINING BIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING PEARL WHITFORD (LEFT) AND ARTHUR RAINING BIRD (RIGHT) HOLDING A FRAMED FLOUR SACK USED BY THE ROCKY BOY'S AGENCY FLOUR MILL. THE SACK SHOWS AN IMAGE OF ROCK BOY, LEADER OF THE CHIPPEWA AND CREE INDIANS IN MONTANA AT THE TIME ROCK BOY'S RESERVATION WAS CREATED BY CONGRESS (PHOTO WAS TAKEN BEHIND THE AGENCY'S SCHOOL). - Rocky Boy's Agency Flour Mill, Rocky Boy, Hill County, MT

  20. Cataract surgery without anaesthesia: two descriptions by Arthur Jacob.

    PubMed

    Haridas, R P

    2009-07-01

    Dr Arthur Jacob (1790-1874), of Dublin, Ireland, was one of the leading ophthalmologists of his time. He was the first to describe the membrane that contains the rods and cones in the eye (membrana Jacobi) and basal cell carcinoma (Jacob's ulcer). He made a curved needle for cataract surgery from a sewing needle (Jacob's needle). Two descriptions of cataract surgery without anaesthesia are presented. PMID:19705632

  1. William Osler and Arthur Conan Doyle versus the antivivisectionists: some lessons from history for today.

    PubMed

    Key, J D; Rodin, A E

    1984-03-01

    Reaction against vivisection for research reached its height in the last two decades of the 19th century and the first two of the 20th, and a resurgence began in the 1960s. Antivivisectionism was and is related, in part, to emphasis on humanitarian sentiments. Two humanitarian physicians defended vivisection as essential. Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle in 1886 justified the killing of rabbits to relieve human suffering from hydrophobia. In 1910, he objected to the antihuman campaign of the antivivisectionists. Dr. William Osler reacted similarly to the threat to vivisection. He gave emphatic evidence to investigative committees in the United States in 1900 and in Britain in 1907. Osler also performed vivisection. His experimentation included studies of pig typhoid and tapeworm cysts in pigs and of the fate of india ink injected into the lungs of kittens. Osler and Conan Doyle were but two of the many prominent physicians who helped stem the tide of antivivisection legislation near the turn of the century. A review of the elements that fostered antivivisectionism in the society of their time is relevant in understanding and reacting to similar sentiments in the present era.

  2. The Biggest Bang for the Buck: An Initial Report on Technical Economic Efficiency in Illinois K-12 Schools. With a Comment on "Rose v. the Council." MacArthur/Spencer Series Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickrod, G. Alan; And Others

    The MacArthur/Spencer special project on Illinois school finance is dedicated to the exploration of three central concepts in Illinois school finance: equity, adequacy, and efficiency. While most reports on the project have dealt directly with equity and adequacy, this report confronts the issue of efficiency by discussing the policy and legal…

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 DETAIL OF WINDOW BREAKING INTO PEDIMENT. - First Congregational Church, 301 Benefit Street, Providence, Providence County, RI

  4. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  5. Children Who Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1999-01-01

    Two recent books, "When Good Kids Kill," by Michael D. Kelleher, and "Lost Boys," by James Garbarino, explore how children become killers and suggest ways to reduce our high-pressure society's epidemic levels of youth violence. Physically or psychologically distant parents and unaffirmative media messages are negative influences. (MLH)

  6. Redshifts and Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Alex; Schucking, Engelbert; Surowitz, Eugene J.

    2006-11-01

    Current approaches to physics stress the importance of conservation laws due to spacetime and internal symmetries. In special and general relativity the generators of these symmetries are known as Killing vectors. We use them for the rigorous determination of gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

  7. Symposium 1: The Arthur case--a proposal for legislation.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D; Brahams, M

    1983-03-01

    Following the acquittal of Dr Leonard Arthur in the case of the Down's syndrome infant the co-authors of the first paper in this symposium prepared a draft bill on the treatment of chronically disabled infants which has since been informally commended by the Director of Public Prosecutions. A second contributor, a law student, also argues for legislation as being the most effective way for society to have its standards clarified and observed. In a final paper Dr Havard, Secretary of the British Medical Association, opposes legislation believing it would raise far more problems than it would resolve. The first article was originally published in the Law Society's Gazette. PMID:6220153

  8. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: the author was an ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Ravin, J G; Migdal, C

    1995-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, and his faithful companion, Dr. Watson. A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle (1859-1930) spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

  9. 77 FR 47284 - Safety Zone; Dredge Arthur J, Lake Huron, Lakeport, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Dredge Arthur J, Lake Huron, Lakeport, MI... from a portion of Lake Huron during the preparation for and salvage operations of the Arthur J....

  10. It's Elementary: Engaging Students through the Writings of Arthur Conan Doyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's writing allows for a variety of critical thinking activities, extensive use of computer technology, and the involvement of the entire faculty, staff and administration in the learning process. Presents a few activities that teachers can do with their students based on the work of Arthur Conan Doyle. (SG)

  11. Begin at the Beginning: Reflections on the Career of Arthur Cropley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslany, George

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Cropley's academic career began in the early 1960s and, more than 50 years later, shows few signs of abating. Over this lengthy period, he has made important contributions not only to creativity research, but to a range of related areas of psychology. Arthur Cropley has also been an influential figure in the careers of several generations…

  12. How microglia kill neurons.

    PubMed

    Brown, Guy C; Vilalta, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident brain macrophages that become inflammatory activated in most brain pathologies. Microglia normally protect neurons, but may accidentally kill neurons when attempting to limit infections or damage, and this may be more common with degenerative disease as there was no significant selection pressure on the aged brain in the past. A number of mechanisms by which activated microglia kill neurons have been identified, including: (i) stimulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) to produce superoxide and derivative oxidants, (ii) expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) producing NO and derivative oxidants, (iii) release of glutamate and glutaminase, (iv) release of TNFα, (v) release of cathepsin B, (vi) phagocytosis of stressed neurons, and (vii) decreased release of nutritive BDNF and IGF-1. PHOX stimulation contributes to microglial activation, but is not directly neurotoxic unless NO is present. NO is normally neuroprotective, but can react with superoxide to produce neurotoxic peroxynitrite, or in the presence of hypoxia inhibit mitochondrial respiration. Glutamate can be released by glia or neurons, but is neurotoxic only if the neurons are depolarised, for example as a result of mitochondrial inhibition. TNFα is normally neuroprotective, but can become toxic if caspase-8 or NF-κB activation are inhibited. If the above mechanisms do not kill neurons, they may still stress the neurons sufficiently to make them susceptible to phagocytosis by activated microglia. We review here whether microglial killing of neurons is an artefact, makes evolutionary sense or contributes in common neuropathologies and by what mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection.

  13. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  14. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  15. Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle and the case of congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Arthur M; Ruggere, Christine

    2006-01-01

    In 1894, Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle wrote "The Third Generation," a short story involving the transmission of congenital syphilis from generation to generation. Analysts of his writings have interpreted the pathogenetic mechanism involved in modern terms: infection of mother by father and then transplacental infection of the fetus. However, a review of the contemporary literature and the history of the concepts of congenital and "hereditary" syphilis demonstrates that the late 19th-century understanding of the process involved a Lamarckian transmission of paternal infection, via the sperm at the moment of conception. It was undoubtedly this concept that Doyle learned in medical school in the late 1870s and that provided the background to his story.

  16. How to kill creativity.

    PubMed

    Amabile, T M

    1998-01-01

    In today's knowledge economy, creativity is more important than ever. But many companies unwittingly employ managerial practices that kill it. How? By crushing their employees' intrinsic motivation--the strong internal desire to do something based on interests and passions. Managers don't kill creativity on purpose. Yet in the pursuit of productivity, efficiency, and control--all worthy business imperatives--they undermine creativity. It doesn't have to be that way, says Teresa Amabile. Business imperatives can comfortably coexist with creativity. But managers will have to change their thinking first. Specifically, managers will need to understand that creativity has three parts: expertise, the ability to think flexibly and imaginatively, and motivation. Managers can influence the first two, but doing so is costly and slow. It would be far more effective to increase employees' intrinsic motivation. To that end, managers have five levers to pull: the amount of challenge they give employees, the degree of freedom they grant around process, the way they design work groups, the level of encouragement they give, and the nature of organizational support. Take challenge as an example. Intrinsic motivation is high when employees feel challenged but not overwhelmed by their work. The task for managers, therefore, becomes matching people to the right assignments. Consider also freedom. Intrinsic motivation--and thus creativity--soars when managers let people decide how to achieve goals, not what goals to achieve. Managers can make a difference when it comes to employee creativity. The result can be truly innovative companies in which creativity doesn't just survive but actually thrives.

  17. Kill operation requires thorough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-15

    Full control of a blowout well requires a properly designed post-capping kill operation because failures in regaining well control usually occur during the kill operation, not during capping. Capping (the installation of pressure control or diverter equipment on the wellhead) is generally very reliable in gaining control of a blowout well. The following techniques are some of the viable means of killing blowout wells once the capping assemblies are in place: direct shut in of the flow; bullheading; momentum kill; volumetric control for migration of fluids or lubrication after migration ceases; and dynamic kills (friction-based dynamic kills or mass flow rate kills) The objective of most post-capping operations is to stop the flow and put the well under hydrostatic control. The means of killing a blowout once capping assemblies are in place should be chosen with care to avoid problems such as cratering, equipment failure, and underground blowouts. The particular circumstances and well integrity will dictate which kill method will be the most viable. Each of these five methods are explained.

  18. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 FIREPLACE SET WITH BIBLICAL TILES, NORTHEAST ROOM. - Nichols-Wanton-Hunter House, 54 Washington Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. How electroshock weapons kill!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  20. Flood geomorphology of Arthurs Rock Gulch, Colorado: paleoflood history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Jarrett, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Episodic late Quaternary flooding is recorded by bouldery deposits and slackwater sediments along Arthurs Rock Gulch, an ephemeral stream west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Flood deposits consist of individual granodiorite and pegmatite boulders, boulder bars, and coarse overbank sediment that rest on erosional terrace segments along the channel. We identified evidence for at least five flood in the lower two thirds of the 1.84 km2 drainage basin. Flood deposits are differentiated by their position above the active channel, weathering characteristics, degree of boulder burial by colluvium, amount of lichen cover, and position with respect to terrace and colluvial deposits. Age estimates for the flood deposits are based on radiocarbon dating, tree-ring analyses, and relative-age criteria from four sites in the basin. At least two floods occurred in the last 300 years; a third flood is at least 5000 years old, but likely younger than 10,000 yr BP; and the two oldest floods occurred at least 40,000 years BP. ?? 1994.

  1. Arthur Rainsford Mowlem (1902-1986), plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    Arthur Rainsford Mowlem, the junior of the 'big four' plastic surgeons, with Harold Delf Gillies, Thomas Pomfret Kilner and Archibald Hector McIndoe, came to prominence managing casualties of the Second World War. Rainsford Mowlem's ancestor was John Mowlem, the creator of the construction firm. Rainsford worked his passage to the United Kingdom from New Zealand in 1927 and did not return to New Zealand but retired at the age of 60 to enjoy 23 more years in Spain. He was the driving force between 1934 and 1939 at the Plastic Surgery Unit at St James's Hospital, Balham, and instigated the North London Plastic Surgery Unit at Hill End, St Albans, from 1939 to 1953 and subsequently developed the Unit after moving to Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex. After successfully hosting the International Meeting of Plastic Surgeons in London in 1959, he received recognition and honours in America but soon afterwards he surprised colleagues by retiring in 1962. Despite his significant contributions, he did not receive national honours but his life outside surgery was active including Trusteeship of the Mowlem Estate at Swanage in Dorset for 40 years.

  2. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  3. Notes on super Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, P. S.; Lindström, U.

    2016-03-01

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the even Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed.

  4. Women who kill their children.

    PubMed

    d'Orbán, P T

    1979-06-01

    During a 6 year period (1970-75) 89 women charged with the killing or attempted murder of their children were examined in a female remand prison. Six types of maternal filicide were distinguished: battering mothers (36 cases), mentally ill mothers (24 cases), neonaticides (11 cases), retaliating mothers (9 cases), women who killed unwanted children (8 cases) and mercy killing (1 case). Types of filicide were compared on a number of social and psychiatric characteristics and on their offence patterns and court disposals. The operation of the Infanticide Act is discussed in the light of these findings.

  5. Groundwater Flow in the Arthur Marble Aquifer, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. K.

    2008-05-01

    Arthur Marble underlies the Takaka Valley and outcrops in Karst Uplands to east and west of the valley in the South Island of New Zealand. It is the principal groundwater aquifer in the region and host to the remarkable Waikoropupu Springs near the coast. With average flow of 13,300 L/s, the karstic springs have many interesting features including unusual size and clarity. This work uses rainfall and river level, natural tracer and chemical measurements to determine the recharge sources and nature of the flow system in the Arthur Marble Aquifer (AMA). Total recharge to the AMA of 19,750 L/s comes from three sources (Karst Uplands stream seepage, Takaka River seepage and Takaka Valley rainfall infiltration). Since 13,300 L/s is discharged at the springs, the remainder must escape via offshore springs (6,450 L/s). The oxygen-18 mass balance allows the contribution of each source to each spring to be determined; most of the flow to the Main Spring of the Waikoropupu Springs comes from the Karst Uplands. The offshore springs are mostly fed from the Takaka River. The chemical concentrations of the Main Spring show input of 0.5% of sea water on average, but varying with flow. This variation with flow shows that two water components (sea-water-bearing and non-sea-water-bearing) contribute to the spring's discharge. Tritium measurements spanning 40 years, and CFC-11 measurements, give a mean residence time of 8 years for the Main Spring water using the preferred two-component model. Our conceptual flow model, based on the flow, oxygen-18, chloride and tritium measurements, reveals that two different flow systems with different recharge sources are needed to explain the flow within the AMA. One system contains deeply penetrating old water with mean age 10.2 years and water volume 3 cubic kilometers, recharged from the Karst Uplands. The other, at shallow levels below the valley floor, has much younger water, with mean age 1.2 years and water volume 0.4 cubic kilometers

  6. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  7. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  8. Selective Killing of Nonreplicating Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bryk, Ruslana; Gold, Benjamin; Venugopal, Aditya; Singh, Jasbir; Samy, Raghu; Pupek, Krzysztof; Cao, Hua; Popescu, Carmen; Gurney, Mark; Hotha, Srinivas; Cherian, Joseph; Rhee, Kyu; Ly, Lan; Converse, Paul J.; Ehrt, Sabine; Vandal, Omar; Jiang, Xiuju; Schneider, Jean; Lin, Gang; Nathan, Carl

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Antibiotics are typically more effective against replicating rather than nonreplicating bacteria. However, a major need in global health is to eradicate persistent or nonreplicating subpopulations of bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Hence, identifying chemical inhibitors that selectively kill bacteria that are not replicating is of practical importance. To address this, we screened for inhibitors of dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), an enzyme required by Mtb to cause tuberculosis in guinea pigs and used by the bacterium to resist nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates, a stress encountered in the host. Chemical screening for inhibitors of Mtb DlaT identified select rhodanines as compounds that almost exclusively kill nonreplicating mycobacteria in synergy with products of host immunity, such as nitric oxide and hypoxia, and are effective on bacteria within macrophages, a cellular reservoir for latent Mtb. Compounds that kill nonreplicating pathogens in cooperation with host immunity could complement the conventional chemotherapy of infectious disease. PMID:18329613

  9. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  10. Phagocyte roulette in Salmonella killing.

    PubMed

    Fenlon, Luke A; Slauch, James M

    2014-01-15

    Salmonella propagates in macrophages to cause life-threatening infections, but the role of neutrophils in combating Salmonella has been controversial. In this issue, Burton et al. (2014) use single cell analyses and modeling to explain the ability of Salmonella to survive in macrophages while being killed by neutrophils.

  11. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  12. South Lake Arthur field and occurrence of buried structures along Oligocene trend of southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    Significant gas reserves have recently been discovered in the Miogypsinoides sands along the Oligocene trend at the South Lake Arthur field. Detailed subsurface maps and seismic data are presented to exhibit the extent and nature of this local structure and to demonstrate future opportunities along the Oligocene trend.

  13. Assessing Internalizing, Externalizing, and Attention Problems in Young Children: Validation of the MacArthur HBQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Schreiber, Jane E.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the validity of the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine optimal thresholds for the HBQ in predicting Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version-IV (DISC-IV)diagnoses. The roles of child sex, level of impairment, and physical health in…

  14. Research for the Classroom: Playing with Difficult Poetry--High School Seniors and Arthur Sze's "Quipu"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogle, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The author had been assigned two sections of Contemporary Literature, a semester-long senior elective, and he wanted to do something new with poetry. He planned to teach Arthur Sze's "Quipu." Sze's poetry is nonlinear, adopting principles from science, anthropology, and history into a multilayered poetic texture--text unlike anything students…

  15. Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research

    ScienceCinema

    Haber, Carl

    2016-07-12

    Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

  16. Short-Form Versions of the Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Maldonodo, Donna; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish-language MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (S-CDIs) are well-established parent report tools for assessing the language development of Spanish-speaking children under 3 years. Here, we introduce the short-form versions of the S-CDIs (SFI and SFII), offered as alternatives to the long forms for screening purposes or…

  17. Factor Structure and Validity of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool--Criminal Adjudication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapf, Patricia A.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Golding, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    Examination of the available literature regarding the development of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) reveals 2 theoretical factor structures on which the MacCAT-CA was based: one in which 3 lower-order constructs are proposed (understanding, reasoning, appreciation) and one in which 2 higher-order…

  18. Reconsidering Arthur Bestor: A Postmortem for the Cold War in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, Burton

    This essay traces the liberal to conservative changes in U.S. political attitudes and the effect these changes had on progressive and essentialist theories of education from the 1940s to the present. Focus is on the role Arthur Bestor played in these developments. Bestor was a leader of the anti-progressive movement during the 1950s and the most…

  19. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology: Arthur L. Kovacs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is awarded to Arthur L. Kovacs. He is recognized for making outstanding contributions to achieving statutory recognition and securing insurance reimbursement, and as a pioneer in the professional school movement, having trained several generations of practitioners.

  20. Arthur[R] Presents Hooray for Health! A Health Curriculum for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schottman, Elly, Ed.

    This health curriculum for teachers, after-school providers, and school nurses uses the cartoon character Arthur to introduce four units that explore four distinct early childhood health themes. The themes are: "Eat Well. Stay Fit" (good nutrition and exercise); "Open Wide!" (dental health); "Dealing with Feelings" (emotions); and "Head Lice…

  1. Connecting Communities, Schools, and Families: An Interview with Arthur (Andy) Horne, Phd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Arthur (Andy) Horne completed his PhD at Southern Illinois University in 1971. He taught at Indiana State University from 1971 until 1989, during which time he served as a member of the faculty and the director of training of the APA-accredited Counseling Psychology Program. He also was a member of the AAMFT-accredited Marriage and Family…

  2. Educating the U.S. Army: Arthur L. Wagner and Reform, 1875-1905.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brereton, T. R.

    Arthur Lockwood Wagner, who graduated from West Point in 1876, was one of the best known and most influential U.S. Army officers of his day. An intellectual and educator, Wagner was instrumental in some of the most critical reforms in U.S. Army history. He advocated enhanced military education, adopting modern combat techniques, holding…

  3. Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Carl

    2013-09-24

    Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

  4. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  5. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  6. Women who kill their mates.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Spousal homicide perpetrators are much more likely to be men than women. Accordingly, little research has focused on delineating characteristics of women who have committed spousal homicide. A retrospective clinical review of coroners' files containing all cases of spousal homicide occurring in Quebec over a 20-year period was carried out. A total of 276 spousal homicides occurred between 1991 and 2010, with 42 homicides by female spouses and 234 homicides by male spouses. Differences between homicides committed by female offenders and male offenders are discussed, and findings on spousal homicide committed by women are compared with those of previous studies. Findings regarding offenses perpetrated by females in the context of mental illness, domestic violence, and homicide-suicide are explored. The finding that only 28% of the female offenders in the Quebec sample had previously been subjected to violence by their victim is in contrast to the popular belief and reports that indicate that most female-perpetrated spousal homicide occurs in self-defense or in reaction to long-term abuse. In fact, women rarely gave a warning before killing their mates. Most did not suffer from a mental illness, although one-fifth were acutely intoxicated at the time of the killing. In the vast majority of cases of women who killed their mates, there were very few indicators that might have signaled the risk and helped predict the violent lethal behavior.

  7. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  8. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  9. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  10. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  11. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  12. Reginald Crundall Punnett: First Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. W. F.

    2012-01-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett’s career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of “partial coupling” in the sweet pea (later “linkage”) and to the diagram known as Punnett’s square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described. PMID:22964834

  13. Reginald Crundall Punnett: first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A W F

    2012-09-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett's career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of "partial coupling" in the sweet pea (later "linkage") and to the diagram known as Punnett's square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described.

  14. Arthur C. Graesser: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Arthur C. Graesser as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. "As a multifaceted psychologist, cognitive engineer of useful education and training technologies, and mentor of new talent for the world of applied and translational cognitive science, Arthur C. Graesser is the perfect role model, showing how a strong scholar and intellect can shape both research and practice. His work is a mix of top-tier scholarship in psychology, education, intelligent systems, and computational linguistics. He combines cognitive science excellence with bold use of psychological knowledge and intelligent systems to design new generations of learning opportunities and to help lay the foundation for a translational science of learning." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. STS-92 MS McArthur gets suit checked in the White Room before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-92 Mission Specialist William S. McArthur Jr. undergoes final suit check in the White Room before entering Discovery. The White Room is an environmentally controlled area at the end of the Orbiter Access Arm that provides entry to the orbiter as well as emergency egress if needed. The arm remains in the extended position until 7 minutes 24 seconds before launch. McArthur and the rest of the crew are making the fifth flight to the International Space Station for construction. Discovery carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. The mission includes four spacewalks for the construction activities. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  16. STS-74 Mission Specialist Bill McArthur Jr suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    William S. 'Bill' McArthur Jr., Mission Specialist 3 on Shuttle Mission STS-74, shares a light moment with a suit technician during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and four fellow astronauts will depart shortly for Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits a second liftoff attempt during a seven-minute window scheduled to open at approximately 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  17. Killing(-Yano) tensors in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2015-09-01

    We construct the Killing(-Yano) tensors for a large class of charged black holes in higher dimensions and study general properties of such tensors, in particular, their behavior under string dualities. Killing(-Yano) tensors encode the symmetries beyond isometries, which lead to insights into dynamics of particles and fields on a given geometry by providing a set of conserved quantities. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the Killing tensor, we provide a prescription for constructing several conserved quantities starting from a single object, and we demonstrate that Killing tensors in higher dimensions are always associated with ellipsoidal coordinates. We also determine the transformations of the Killing(-Yano) tensors under string dualities, and find the unique modification of the Killing-Yano equation consistent with these symmetries. These results are used to construct the explicit form of the Killing(-Yano) tensors for the Myers-Perry black hole in arbitrary number of dimensions and for its charged version.

  18. Cross-Cultural Adaptations of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Ali; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Akasheh, Goodarz; Sehat, Mojtaba; Zanjani, Zahra; Larijani, Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background According to general ethical and legal principles, valid consent must be obtained before starting any procedure. Objectives Due to the lack of a standard tool for assessing patients’ capacity to consent to medical treatment in Iran, the present study was carried out aiming to devise a Persian version of a cross-cultural adaptation of the MacArthur competence assessment tool. Patients and Methods By reviewing different methods of cultural translation and adaptation for assessment tools, and due to the lack of consensus on its processes, we selected Wild’s model as one of the most comprehensive methods in this regard. Wild’s (2005) 10-stage model includes preparation, forward translation, reconciliation of the forward translation, back translation of reconciliation, back translation review, cognitive debriefing and cognitive review, and finalization, proofreading and final reporting. Using this model, we translated the MacArthur assessment tool and made it adaptable to Iranian patients. Results The MacArthur assessment tool is not dependent on any specific culture and language. As a result, if translation and its scientific adaptation are done based on an integrated and detailed model, the tool can be used for every culture and language. In other words, this tool is not culture-specific; so, it is applicable in cases where a translation is needed, and it can be culturally adapted to suit different societies. Conclusions In the present study, we are able to focus on and prove the efficacy and benefits of this measurement tool. PMID:27148503

  19. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  20. An Analysis of the Extratropical Transition of Hurricane Arthur (2014) from a JPSS Proving Ground Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Halverson, J. B.; Dunion, J. P.; Goldberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Proving Grounds, multiple proxy and operational products were available to analyze and forecast the complex evolution of Hurricane Arthur (2014). The National Hurricane Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Weather Prediction Center, and NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch were able to monitor the tropical and extratropical transition of Arthur using various convective and red, green, blue (RGB) products that have been introduced in recent years. During the extratropical transition, the Air Mass RGB (AM RGB) product and AIRS/CrIS ozone products were available as a compliment to water vapor imagery to identify the upper-level low with associated stratospheric drying that absorbed much of Arthur's energy. The AM RGB product provides forecasters with an enhanced view of various air masses that are combined into a single image and can help differentiate between possible stratospheric/tropospheric interactions, moist tropical air masses, and cool, continental/maritime air masses. Even though this product provides a wealth of qualitative information about the horizontal distribution of synoptic features, forecasters are also interested in more quantitative information such as the vertical distribution of temperature, moisture, and ozone which impact the coloring of the resulting AM RGB. Currently, NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture soundings are available in AWIPS-II as a point-based display. Traditionally, soundings are used to anticipate and forecast severe convection, however unique and valuable information can be gained from soundings for other forecasting applications, such as extratropical transition, especially in data sparse regions. Additional research has been conducted to look at how NUCAPS soundings might help forecasters identify the pre-extratropical transition environment, leading to earlier diagnosis and better public advisories. NUCAPS soundings, AIRS soundings, NOAA G-IV GPS

  1. Arthur Beer and his relations to Einstein and to the Warburg library (German Title: Arthur Beer und seine Beziehungen zu Einstein und zur Warburg-Bibliothek)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Beer, Peter

    We give an account of the scientific life of Arthur Beer (1900-1980). Born in Reichenberg, Bohemia, he studied in Leipzig, Vienna and Berlin. After obtaining his Ph.D., he worked with the Seewarte (maritime observatory) and with the Warburg Library, both in Hamburg. Because of his relations with Finlay Freundlich, Einstein and Fritz Saxl, he succeeded in emigrating to England in 1934, where he obtained a temporary position at Cambridge Observatory, and carried out astrophysical research under F.J.M. Stratton. After shorter stays at the observatories of Mill Hill and Kew, both in the vicinity of London, he obtained, after World War II, the position of Senior Assistant Observer in Cambridge. Besides his studies in astrophysics and the history of astronomy, he is best known as the founding editor of the series "Vistas in Astronomy".

  2. Timelike Killing spinors in seven dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Conamhna, Oisin A.P. Mac

    2004-12-15

    We employ the G-structure formalism to study supersymmetric solutions of minimal and SU(2) gauged supergravities in seven dimensions admitting Killing spinors with an associated timelike Killing vector. The most general such Killing spinor defines a SU(3) structure. We deduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a timelike Killing spinor on the bosonic fields of the theories, and find that such configurations generically preserve one out of 16 supersymmetries. Using our general supersymmetric ansatz we obtain numerous new solutions, including squashed or deformed anti-de Sitter solutions of the gauged theory, and a large class of Goedel-like solutions with closed timelike curves.

  3. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  4. Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Christian

    2004-12-15

    Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector, which are discussed as an approximation for the early stage of a binary system, are studied in a projection formalism. In this setting the four-dimensional Einstein equations are equivalent to a three-dimensional gravitational theory with a SL(2,R)/SO(1,1) sigma model as the material source. The sigma model is determined by a complex Ernst equation. 2+1 decompositions of the three-metric are used to establish the field equations on the orbit space of the Killing vector. The two Killing horizons of spherical topology which characterize the black holes, the cylinder of light where the Killing vector changes from timelike to spacelike, and infinity are singular points of the equations. The horizon and the light cylinder are shown to be regular singularities, i.e., the metric functions can be expanded in a formal power series in the vicinity. The behavior of the metric at spatial infinity is studied in terms of formal series solutions to the linearized Einstein equations. It is shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the strong sense to have a smooth null infinity under the assumption that the metric tends asymptotically to the Minkowski metric. In this case the metric functions have an oscillatory behavior in the radial coordinate in a nonaxisymmetric setting, the asymptotic multipoles are not defined. The asymptotic behavior of the Weyl tensor near infinity shows that there is no smooth null infinity.

  5. Couplage neutronique-thermohydraulique arthur-donjon avec les conditions aux collecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Alexandre

    First, the ARTHUR code of thermal-hydraulic encloses four initial elements, which are also initial conditions: channel outlet pressure, inlet mass flux, inlet coolant temperature and reactor geometry. The calculations using conservation laws and the modeling correlation for the CANDU-6 thermal-hydraulic phenomenon are based on the drift-flux model. It's a middle point between a simple and fast model and a complex and slow calculation. The couple ARTHUR-DONJON is a good tool since 2008. But, there is a place for improvements. For thermal-hydraulics, inlet pressure has to be added as initial condition. This will influence mass flux and coolant temperature. A jacobian method for mass flux correction will be developed and implemented to satisfy inlet and outlet pressures initial conditions. We have to use jacobians to find a relation between initials conditions and systems inputs. The jacobians is used to transform the system between state 1 and state 2. In reactor physics, IQS unit in DONJON code will be substituted by KINSOL unit for kinetics. For cross sections calculations in AFM unit, it will be corrected for a better power evolution. Thermal-hydraulics changes will involve some reactor physics changes and then, it will give a better simulation system. The results are excellent with the new ARTHUR-DONJON. We are going from 4 to 6 % of error to 0,1 % with power plant essay measurements. We are going from 0,5 second in one week calculations to 1,0 second in two or three days of calculations. Our results are not divergent with power plant essay measurements and they're now near those observed for a real nuclear reactor.

  6. Fishy Hearing: A Short Biography of Arthur N. Popper, PhD.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    Biologist Dr. Arthur Popper's career spans decades, from his early work on comparative inner ear morphology in fishes to his recent interest in how underwater noise impacts aquatic vertebrates. Along the way Dr. Popper's research subjects span at least 19 vertebrate taxa, from lamprey to lungfish to humans, and he's had a profound influence in the field of fish bioacoustics. This brief biography describes some of Dr. Popper's many contributions to fish hearing research and highlights both some of his major discoveries and some of the biological mysteries he has yet to solve.

  7. Two-message quantum-Arthur-Merlin game with single-qubit measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2016-06-01

    We show that the class quantum-Arthur-Merlin (QAM) does not change even if the verifier's ability is restricted to only single-qubit measurements. To show the result, we use the idea of measurement-based quantum computing: the verifier, who can do only single-qubit measurements, can test the graph state sent from the prover and use it for his measurement-based quantum computing. Inspired by this construction, we also introduce a problem which we call stabilizer state optimization, and show that it is QMA-complete.

  8. What became of Arthur Conan Doyle's father? The last years of Charles Altamont Doyle.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, A

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the fate of Arthur Conan Doyle's father, Charles Altamont Doyle, a Victorian illustrator, who spent his last years as an asylum inmate. Based on new archival research, it looks at the reasons for his institutionalisation and what befell him during his stay. It will consider Doyle's claim that he was wrongfully confined and also the suggestion that his family were responsible for having him committed. Finally, the paper will examine the nature of Doyle's condition and the creative work he produced whilst an asylum inmate.

  9. [Arthur Kronfeld (1886-1941)--a psychiatrist in the service of psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Schröder, C

    1986-07-01

    The psychotherapeutic life-work of psychiatrist Arthur Kronfeld has almost fallen into oblivion. Against the background of the 100th anniversary of his birth the author traces Kronfeld's psychotherapeutic career, pointing out his activity at the Berliner "Institute of Sexual Research" under Magnus Hirschfeld, and his psychotherapeutic concept--the psychagogic guidance of the patient--and its connection with the individual psychology of Alfred Adler. Kronfeld translated his theoretical positions into activities directed towards socialization and the teachability of psychotherapy which are still worthy of note by those engaged in the field.

  10. Bull heading to kill live gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Oudeman, P.; Avest, D. ter; Grodal, E.O.; Asheim, H.A.; Meissner, R.J.H.

    1994-12-31

    To kill a live closed-in gas well by bull heading down the tubing, the selected pump rate should be high enough to ensure efficient displacement of the gas into the formation (i.e., to avoid the kill fluid bypassing the gas). On the other hand, the pressures that develop during bull heading at high rate must not exceed wellhead pressure rating, tubing or casing burst pressures or the formation breakdown gradient, since this will lead, at best, to a very inefficient kill job. Given these constraints, the optimum kill rate, requited hydraulic horsepower, density and type of kill fluids have to be selected. For this purpose a numerical simulator has been developed, which predicts the sequence of events during bull heading. Pressures and flow rates in the well during the kill job are calculated, taking to account slip between the gas and kill fluid, hydrostatic and friction pressure drop, wellbore gas compression and leak-off to the formation. Comparison with the results of a dedicated field test demonstrates that these parameters can be estimated accurately. Example calculations will be presented to show how the simulator can be used to identify an optimum kill scenario.

  11. 3 CFR - Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... buildings, and facilitating the safe and responsible development of our natural gas resources. But for the... benefit consumers. Although expanding and modernizing our Nation's pipeline infrastructure will not...

  12. Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.D. ); Moore, P. )

    1993-08-30

    The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. An assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.

  13. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Simberloff, Daniel; Ricklefs, Robert E; Aguilée, Robin; Condamine, Fabien L; Gravel, Dominique; Morlon, Hélène; Mouquet, Nicolas; Rosindell, James; Casquet, Juliane; Conti, Elena; Cornuault, Josselin; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Hengl, Tomislav; Norder, Sietze J; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F; Sanmartín, Isabel; Strasberg, Dominique; Triantis, Kostas A; Valente, Luis M; Whittaker, Robert J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Emerson, Brent C; Thébaud, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, 'An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography', was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, island systems have provided new insights into the formation of ecological communities. Here, building on such developments, we highlight prospects for research on islands to improve our understanding of the ecology and evolution of communities in general. Throughout, we emphasise how attributes of islands combine to provide unusual research opportunities, the implications of which stretch far beyond islands. Molecular tools and increasing data acquisition now permit re-assessment of some fundamental issues that interested MacArthur and Wilson. These include the formation of ecological networks, species abundance distributions, and the contribution of evolution to community assembly. We also extend our prospects to other fields of ecology and evolution - understanding ecosystem functioning, speciation and diversification - frequently employing assets of oceanic islands in inferring the geographic area within which evolution has occurred, and potential barriers to gene flow. Although island-based theory is continually being enriched, incorporating non-equilibrium dynamics is identified as a major challenge for the future.

  14. [Arthur Simons on tonic neck reflexes in persons with hemiplegia. From the years 1916 to 1919].

    PubMed

    Holdorff, B

    2012-04-01

    Tonic neck reflexes described in 1921 by Magnus and deKlejn in animals and men were studied in hemiplegic patients who were mainly victims of WWI by Arthur Simons, a neurologist in Berlin and coworker of Hermann Oppenheim. The effect of the asymmetric neck reflexes after head rotation was restricted to the paralyzed side: tonus (spasms) of extension and adduction during mid-position of the head or head version to the paralyzed side; flexion tonus and abduction during head version to the non-paralyzed side; and flexion tonus (spasms) of the paralyzed limbs during flexion of the head and extension spasms by head extension. More than this, hemiplegic "Mitbewegungen" or associated reactions (Walshe) were observed. They are elicited by conscious innervations of the unaffected side, e.g. by fist closure, and are increased or varied by head rotation, the tonic neck reflexes. They occurred in 25%. A film with Arthur Simons as examiner from the years 1916-1919 shows these nearly forgotten phenomena. Their everyday significance was already stressed in 1920, long before the rules of antispastic positions were defined by Bobath. PMID:21845452

  15. Spacetime encodings. III. Second order Killing tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Jeandrew

    2010-01-15

    This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher-order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing tensors.

  16. New School Art Styles: The Project of Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Art projects are appropriate building blocks for visual art curriculum because good art projects encode complex aesthetic strategies, giving students tools to investigate and make meaning. Art made in schools will inevitably be some form of "school art," defined by Arthur Efland in "The School Art Style: a Functional Analysis,"…

  17. [Killing of cattle via electrical stunning].

    PubMed

    Maurer, B; Forster, S

    2007-04-01

    For disease control in the case of epidemics killing of cattle via electrical stunning is a method of choice. The official veterinarian is responsible for monitoring the adhesion to animal welfare principles during electrical stunning and killing. This requires specialised knowledge and experience as the symptoms of effective stunning are quite variable in cattle. Signs of effective and ineffective stunning are described below. In addition to suitable technical equipment, restraint of the animals and correct use of the equipment, neurophysiological processes have to be considered. Calm handling of the animals avoiding stress is a prerequisite for ensuring animal welfare and minimising pain especially when killing cattle using electrical methods.

  18. Quantum integrability of quadratic Killing tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, C.; Valent, G.

    2005-05-01

    Quantum integrability of classical integrable systems given by quadratic Killing tensors on curved configuration spaces is investigated. It is proven that, using a 'minimal' quantization scheme, quantum integrability is ensured for a large class of classic examples.

  19. Killing Initial Data on spacelike conformal boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetz, Tim-Torben

    2016-08-01

    We analyze Killing Initial Data on Cauchy surfaces in conformally rescaled vacuum space-times satisfying Friedrich's conformal field equations. As an application, we derive the KID equations on a spacelike ℐ-.

  20. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  1. Scores on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory of Children from Low- and Middle-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaga, Rose I.; Fenson, Larry; Cronan, Terry; Pethick, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared language skills in a group of very low-income toddlers with those of a middle-income sample matched on age and sex. The assessment instrument used was the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for toddlers, a parent report form. Scores for low-income group were strikingly lower on three key indices evaluated: size of…

  2. Creativity Is More than Silly, More than Art, More than Good: The Diverse Career of Arthur Cropley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I highlight some of Arthur Cropley's work that has been the most influential to me as a scholar. Cropley's work has continually pushed the boundaries by exploring what creativity is and isn't, squashing myths, and not making assumptions. I specifically discuss Cropley's research and theory on the importance of convergent thinking,…

  3. 75 FR 39662 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 116A-Port Arthur, TX; Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Motiva...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Subzone 116A--Port Arthur, TX; Expansion of Manufacturing..., requesting an expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority approved within Subzone 116A, on behalf of... petrochemical feedstocks (Board Order 668, 59 FR 61, 12-3-1994, as amended by Board Order 740, 60 FR...

  4. 75 FR 16456 - Adequacy Status of the Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX Maintenance Plan; 8-Hour Ozone Motor Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...; Transportation Conformity Rule Amendments: Response to Court Decision and Additional Rule Changes'' (69 FR 40004... been made, pursuant to 40 CFR 93.104(e). See, 73 FR 4419 (January 24, 2008). Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401... motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEB) in the Beaumont-Port Arthur, Texas (BPA) Redesignation...

  5. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  6. Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill's Pedagogical Concept and His Summerhill School in Hungarian and German Pedagogical Literature and Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer-Buchwald, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Arthur Sutherland Neill is one of the most debated personalities among the representatives of the classic reform pedagogy, due to his pedagogical concept and its practical realization, and his Summerhill School, equally. He is often mentioned during public debates, where mostly the "three S"--"sex, swearing and smoking", are existing as subject of…

  7. The Complexity of Intellectual Currents: Duncan McArthur and Ontario's Progressivist Curriculum Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Theodore Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper concentrates on a seminal figure in the history of Canadian education who has never previously been the subject of historical examination: Duncan McArthur. As Deputy Minister, then Minister of Education, in Ontario between 1934 and 1942, he guided the province's public schools during a period of dramatic reorganisation within a…

  8. The MacArthur Maze Fire and Roadway Collapse: Consequences for SNF Transportation - 12476

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Easton, Earl P.; Adkins, Harold; Cuta, Judith; Klymyshyn, Nicholas; Suffield, Sarah

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, a severe transportation accident occurred near Oakland, California, on a section of Interstate 880 known as the 'MacArthur Maze', involving a tractor trailer carrying gasoline which impacted an overpass support column and burst into flames. The subsequent fire caused the collapse of portions of the Interstate 580 overpass onto the remains of the tractor-trailer in less than 20 minutes, due to a reduction of strength in the structural steel exposed to the fire. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is in the process of examining the impacts of this accident on the performance of a spent nuclear fuel transportation package, using detailed analysis models, in order to determine the potential regulatory implications related to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This paper will provide a summary of this effort and present results and conclusions. The detailed thermal models of the MacArthur Maze fire scenario with ANSYS and COBRASFS have produced preliminary results indicating that in a fire of this severity, the peak fuel cladding temperature would almost certainly exceed the short-term limit of 570 deg. C (1058 deg. F), and would likely exceed the Zircaloy burst temperature limit of 750 deg. C (1382 deg. F) assumed in previous transportation studies. Additional work is needed to refine and verify some of the details of these complex models, but the overall results are consistent with previous fire analyses with similar models, and with the results obtained for the HAC fire evaluations with these models. These results as well as future results produced by these models can therefore be considered as reliable estimates of the temperatures that would be experienced in fire conditions of the severity of the MacArthur Maze fire scenario. The structural analyses show that the GA-4 package is robust enough to withstand the impact of the overhead span without suffering major damage or deformation to the containment boundary. The greatest

  9. On the killing of mycobacteria by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jordao, Luisa; Bleck, Christopher K E; Mayorga, Luis; Griffiths, Gareth; Anes, Elsa

    2008-02-01

    Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria are internalized into macrophage phagosomes. Whereas the non-pathogenic types are invariably killed by all macrophages, the pathogens generally survive and grow. Here, we addressed the survival, production of nitrogen intermediates (RNI) and intracellular trafficking of the non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, the pathogen-like, BCG and the pathogenic M. bovis in different mouse, human and bovine macrophages. The bacteriocidal effects of RNI were restricted for all bacterial species to the early stages of infection. EM analysis showed clearly that all the mycobacteria remained within phagosomes even at late times of infection. The fraction of BCG and M. bovis found in mature phagolysosomes rarely exceeded 10% of total, irrespective of whether bacteria were growing, latent or being killed, with little correlation between the extent of phagosome maturation and the degree of killing. Theoretical modelling of our data identified two different potential sets of explanations that are consistent with our results. The model we favour is one in which a small but significant fraction of BCG is killed in an early phagosome, then maturation of a small fraction of phagosomes with both live and killed bacteria, followed by extremely rapid killing and digestion of the bacteria in phago-lysosomes.

  10. Killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human lactoferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, J R; Arnold, R R

    1988-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a fastidious, facultative gram-negative rod associated with endocarditis, certain forms of periodontal disease, and other focal infections. Human neutrophils have demonstrated bactericidal activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, and much of the oxygen-dependent killing has been attributed to the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system. However, the contribution of other neutrophil components to killing activity is obscure. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a major constituent of neutrophil-specific granules and is also found in mucosal secretions. In this report, we show that human lactoferrin is bactericidal for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Killing activity required an unsaturated (iron- and anion-free) molecule that produced a 2-log decrease in viability within 120 min at 37 degrees C at a concentration of 1.9 microM. Besides exhibiting concentration dependence, killing kinetics were affected by minor variations in temperature and pH. Magnesium, a divalent cation thought to stabilize lipopolysaccharide interactions on the surface of gram-negative organisms, enhanced lactoferrin killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans, while other cations, such as potassium and calcium, had no effect. Our data suggest that lactoferrin contributes to killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils and that it may also play a significant role in innate secretory defense against this potential periodontopathogen. PMID:3417349

  11. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  12. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis.

  13. STS-92 M.S. Bill McArthur suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-92 Mission Specialist William S. McArthur Jr. is fully suited up before the second launch attempt. He and the rest of the crew will be leaving soon for the ride to Launch Pad 39A on the Astrovan. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  14. Better to light a candle: Arthur Barsky and global plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Christopher D; Barsky, Emily; Hagander, Lars; Barsky, Arthur J; Meara, John G

    2013-08-01

    Plastic and reconstructive surgery has had a long history with international humanitarian efforts. As the field of global surgery continues to gain momentum in academic centers throughout the world, the role of the surgical subspecialist in the public health infrastructure of low-resource communities has also begun to gain a new sense of wonder and importance. Arthur Barsky, Jr was arguably one of the most influential forefathers of global plastic surgery. Throughout his notable career spanning most of the 20th century, Barsky remained dedicated to delivering plastic and reconstructive surgical care to the disadvantaged worldwide, as well as educating others to do the same. Although he was not the first surgeon with an interest in global health, Barsky's work was unique and influential in its originality, magnitude, and scope. An appreciation and understanding of Barsky's groundbreaking work will help inform the future development of sustainable surgical systems in resource-poor settings. PMID:22868314

  15. Arthur Compton's 1941 Report on explosive fission of U-235: A look at the physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2007-12-01

    In November 1941, the third of three reports on atomic fission commissioned by Vannevar Bush through the National Academy of Sciences examined the prospects for explosive fission in U-235. This report, prepared by Arthur Compton, developed a model for estimating the critical mass and efficiency of an atomic bomb. I examine Compton's physics, attempt to discern the provenance of the numbers he adopted for various parameters, and compare his results with those yielded by a full diffusion-theory approach with contemporary values for the fission parameters. I conclude that Compton's physics is sound. A combination of somewhat optimistic parameter values and a conservative model for critical mass lead him to a numerical value for the bare critical radius of U-235 that is in fairly good accord with that yielded by diffusion theory. His estimated efficiency proved to be quite accurate for the Little Boy bomb.

  16. Arthur Beer and his relations with Einstein and the Warburg Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Beer, Peter

    2006-06-01

    We give an account of the scientific life of Arthur Beer (1900-1980). Born in Reichenberg, Bohemia, he studied in Leipzig, Vienna and Berlin. After obtaining his Ph.D., he worked with the Seewarte (maritime observatory) and with the Warburg Library, both in Hamburg. Because of his relations with Finlay Freundlich, Albert Einstein and Fritz Saxl, he succeeded in emigrating to England in 1934, where he obtained a temporary position at Cambridge Observatory, and carried out astrophysical research under F.J.M. Stratton. After shorter stays at the observatories of Mill Hill and Kew, both in the vicinity of London, he obtained, after World War II, the position of Senior Assistant Observer in Cambridge. Besides his studies in astrophysics and the history of astronomy, he is best known as the founding Editor of the series Vistas in Astronomy.

  17. Humanism and values in the medical short stories of Arthur Conan Doyle.

    PubMed

    Rodin, A E; Key, J D

    1992-05-01

    In 1894 Arthur Conan Doyle published 15 medical short stories under the title of Round the Red Lamp, a red lamp being the symbol for a physician's office in Victorian England. These 19th-century vignettes do not indulge in scientific descriptions of diseases, their processes, or their treatment. Instead, they are based upon the effects of illness on the lives, sentiments, and emotions of the afflicted, their families, and their physicians. The stories are suffused with romance and humor. Conan Doyle's medical fiction of almost 100 years ago constitutes a superbly written and engaging collection that ranges from the comic to the pathetic. They contain universal themes that are especially appropriate today when humanistic elements are being usurped by rampant technology in both medical education and medical practice. These tales can make a significant contribution in related seminars for both students and practitioners.

  18. Karl Pribram, the James Arthur Lectures, and What Makes Us Human

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background The annual James Arthur lecture series on the Evolution of the Human Brain was inaugurated at the American Museum of Natural History in 1932, through a bequest from a successful manufacturer with a particular interest in mechanisms. Karl Pribram's thirty-ninth lecture of the series, delivered in 1970, was a seminal event that heralded much of the research agenda, since pursued by representatives of diverse disciplines, that touches on the evolution of human uniqueness. Discussion In his James Arthur lecture Pribram raised questions about the coding of information in the brain and about the complex association between language, symbol, and the unique human cognitive system. These questions are as pertinent today as in 1970. The emergence of modern human symbolic cognition is often viewed as a gradual, incremental process, governed by inexorable natural selection and propelled by the apparent advantages of increasing intelligence. However, there are numerous theoretical considerations that render such a scenario implausible, and an examination of the pattern of acquisition of behavioral and anatomical novelties in human evolution indicates that, throughout, major change was both sporadic and rare. What is more, modern bony anatomy and brain size were apparently both achieved well before we have any evidence for symbolic behavior patterns. This suggests that the biological substrate underlying the symbolic thought that is so distinctive of Homo sapiens today was exaptively achieved, long before its potential was actually put to use. In which case we need to look for the agent, perforce a cultural one, that stimulated the adoption of symbolic thought patterns. That stimulus may well have been the spontaneous invention of articulate language. PMID:17134484

  19. Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

    1988-12-01

    Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate.

  20. Kill fluid for oil field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes a process employing a kill fluid to substantially reduce the volumetric flow of formation fluid into a wellbore penetrating a formation containing the formation fluid below an earthen surface. It comprises: admixing components of a continuous flowing gel at the surface comprising of water-soluble carboxylate-containing polymer, a complex capable of crosslinking the polymer and formed of at least one electropositive chromium III species and at least one electronegative carboxylatespecies, and an aqueous solvent for the polymer and the complex; crosslinking the polymer and the complex to form the gel, wherein the kill fluid comprises the gel; placing a volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore sufficient to create a hydrostatic head which exerts a kill fluid pressure against the formation fluid substantially equal to or greater than the formation fluid pressure and thereby substantially reduces the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore; performing an oil field operation after placing the volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore; and removing the gel from the wellbore to substantially restore the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore.

  1. Killing superalgebras for Lorentzian four-manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, Paul; Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Santi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    We determine the Killing superalgebras underpinning field theories with rigid unextended supersymmetry on Lorentzian four-manifolds by re-interpreting them as filtered deformations of mathbb{Z} -graded subalgebras with maximum odd dimension of the N = 1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Part of this calculation involves computing a Spencer cohomology group which, by analogy with a similar result in eleven dimensions, prescribes a notion of Killing spinor, which we identify with the defining condition for bosonic supersymmetric backgrounds of minimal off-shell supergravity in four dimensions. We prove that such Killing spinors always generate a Lie superalgebra, and that this Lie superalgebra is a filtered deformation of a subalgebra of the N = 1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Demanding the flatness of the connection defining the Killing spinors, we obtain equations satisfied by the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We solve these equations, arriving at the classification of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds whose associated Killing superalgebras are precisely the filtered deformations we classify in this paper.

  2. Non-standard symmetries and Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinescu, Mihai

    2009-10-01

    Higher order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard supersymmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated with a Killing-Yano tensor. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. The 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space and its generalizations introduced by Iwai and Katayama are analyzed from the point of view of hidden symmetries. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The axial anomaly, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, is computed for the generalized Taub-NUT metrics. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed Sasakian structures.

  3. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  5. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  6. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  7. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  8. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  9. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  10. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  11. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  12. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  13. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  14. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  15. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  16. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  17. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  18. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  19. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  20. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  1. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  2. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  3. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  4. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  5. Strain ŽP - the first bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system.

    PubMed

    Starčič Erjavec, Marjanca; Petkovšek, Živa; Kuznetsova, Marina V; Maslennikova, Irina L; Žgur-Bertok, Darja

    2015-11-01

    As multidrug resistant bacteria pose one of the greatest risks to human health new alternative antibacterial agents are urgently needed. One possible mechanism that can be used as an alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy is transfer of killing agents via conjugation. Our work was aimed at providing a proof of principle that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems are possible. We constructed a bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system employing the well known Escherichia coli probiotic strain Nissle 1917 genetically modified to harbor a conjugative plasmid carrying the "kill" gene (colicin ColE7 activity gene) and a chromosomally encoded "anti-kill" gene (ColE7 immunity gene). The constructed strain acts as a donor in conjugal transfer and its efficiency was tested in several types of conjugal assays. Our results clearly demonstrate that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems can be highly efficient. PMID:26436830

  6. Cancer log-kill revisited.

    PubMed

    Norton, Larry

    2014-01-01

    At the root of science lie basic rules, if we can discover or deduce them. This is not an abstract project but practical; if we can understand the why then perhaps we can rationally intervene. One of the unifying unsolved problems in physics is the hypothetical "Theory of Everything." In a similar vein, we can ask whether our own field contains such hidden fundamental truths and, if so, how we can use them to develop better therapies and outcomes for our patients. Modern oncology has developed as drugs and translational science have matured over the 50 years since ASCO's founding, but almost from that beginning tumor modeling has been a key tool. Through this general approach Norton and Simon changed our understanding of cancer biology and response to therapy when they described the fit of Gompertzian curves to both clinical and animal observations of tumor growth. The practical relevance of these insights has only grown with the development of DNA sequencing promising a raft of new targets (and drugs). In that regard, Larry Norton's contribution to this year's Educational Book reminds us to always think creatively about the fundamental problems of tumor growth and metastases as well as therapeutic response. Demonstrating the creativity and thoughtfulness that have marked his remarkable career, he now incorporates a newer concept of self-seeding to further explain why Gompertzian growth occurs and, in the process, provides a novel potential therapeutic target. As you read his elegantly presented discussion, consider how this understanding, wisely applied to the modern era of targeted therapies, might speed the availability of better treatments. But even more instructive is his personal model-not only the Norton-Simon Hypothesis-of how to live and approach science, biology, patients and their families, as well as the broader community. He shows that with energy, enthusiasm, optimism, intellect, and hard work we can make the world better. Clifford A. Hudis, MD, FACP

  7. Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

    1987-12-01

    Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

  8. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  9. Cytotoxic Killing and Immune Evasion by Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Cliburn; George, Andrew J. T.; Stark, Jaroslav

    2007-07-01

    The interaction between the immune system and pathogens is a complex one, with pathogens constantly developing new ways of evading destruction by the immune system. The immune system's task is made even harder when the pathogen in question is an intra-cellular one (such as a virus or certain bacteria) and it is necessary to kill the infected host cell in order to eliminate the pathogen. This causes damage to the host, and such killing therefore needs to be carefully controlled, particularly in tissues with poor regenerative potential, or those involved in the immune response itself. Host cells therefore possess repair mechanisms which can counteract killing by immune cells. These in turn can be subverted by pathogens which up-regulate the resistance of infected cells to killing. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that this repair process plays an important role in determining the efficacy of evasion and escape from immune control. We model a situation where cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells kill pathogen-infected and tumour cells by directed secretion of preformed granules containing perforin and granzymes. Resistance to such killing can be conferred by the expression of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). These are utilized by several virally infected and tumour cells, as well as playing a role in the protection of host bystander, immune and immuneprivileged cells. We build a simple stochastic model of cytotoxic killing, where serpins can neutralize granzymes stoichiometrically by forming an irreversible complex, and the survival of the cell is determined by the balance between serpin depletion and replenishment, which in its simplest form is equivalent to the well known shot noise process. We use existing analytical results for this process, and additional simulations to analyse the effects of repair on cytotoxic killing. We then extend the model to the case of a replicating target cell population, which gives a branching process

  10. Mass killings and detection of impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, Digby J.

    1988-01-01

    Highly energetic bolide impacts occur and their flux is known. For larger bodies the energy release is greater than for any other short-term global phenomenon. Such impacts produce or release a large variety of shock induced changes including major atmospheric, sedimentologic, seismic and volcanic events. These events must necessarily leave a variety of records in the stratigraphic column, including mass killings resulting in major changes in population density and reduction or extinction of many taxonomic groups, followed by characteristic patterns of faunal and flora replacement. Of these effects, mass killings, marked by large-scale loss of biomass, are the most easily detected evidence in the field but must be manifest on a near-global scale. Such mass killings that appear to be approximately synchronous and involve disappearance of biomass at a bedding plane in many sedimentologically independent sections globally suggest a common cause and probable synchroneity. Mass killings identify an horizon which may be examined for evidence of cause. Geochemical markers may be ephemeral and absence may not be significant. There appears to be no reason why ongoing phenomena such as climate and sea-level changes are primary causes of anomolous episodic events.

  11. Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

  12. Methods of killing employed by psychotic parricides.

    PubMed

    Marleau, Jacques D

    2003-10-01

    Lewis, et al. in 1998 showed that psychotic women are more likely to use a weapon than nonpsychotic women to kill their children. This study presents data concerning psychotic parricide. Analysis indicated that a higher percentage used a weapon (81% versus 36%) than psychotic filicide. Reasons for this difference are discussed. PMID:14650686

  13. Peanut Roaster Temperatures Relative to Salmonella Kill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Raleigh NC 27695 In response to the limited peanut butter contamination incident of 2006/7, studies were initiated to examine the effect of various time and temperature protocols on log kill levels for Salmonella on peanuts. The objective of the work ...

  14. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  15. Integrating Poetry and "To Kill a Mockingbird."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2002-01-01

    Outlines a method of teaching "To Kill a Mockingbird" along with the study of poetry. Notes that this method allows students to consider the themes of courage and developing compassion. Concludes that teaching such a multigenre unit allows students to look for connections among fact and fiction, the past and present, their own lives and…

  16. Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)

  17. Nonlinear symmetries on spaces admitting Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinescu, Mihai

    2010-04-01

    Nonlinear symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard supersymmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated with a Killing-Yano tensor. In the case of the nonlinear symmetries the dynamical algebras of the Dirac-type operators is more involved and could be organized as infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to some concrete spaces involved in theories of modern physics. As a first example it is considered the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space and its generalizations introduced by Iwai and Katayama. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on Taub-NUT space that could be seen as a graded loop superalgebra of the Kac-Moody type. The axial anomaly, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, is computed for the generalized Taub-NUT metrics. Finally the existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed Sasakian structures.

  18. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. Conclusions We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings. PMID:26135941

  19. 77 FR 18885 - Improving Performance of Federal Permitting and Review of Infrastructure Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ..., employees, or agents, or any other person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 22, 2012. [FR Doc... and Review of Infrastructure Projects Memorandum of March 22, 2012--Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other Domestic Pipeline Infrastructure...

  20. Project Probes Digital Media's Effect on Ethics: Howard Gardner Leads Team Studying Youths' Web Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Noted Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner is leading a team studying the social and ethical norms of young people on the Web. Known as the "GoodPlay Project," the study is being financed with a grant from the Chicago-based Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. What researchers hope to do through the project is fill a gap in the burgeoning research…

  1. Bathymetric Surveys of Lake Arthur and Raccoon Lake, Pennsylvania, June 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hittle, Clinton D.; Ruby, A. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2007, bathymetric surveys of two Pennsylvania State Park lakes were performed to collect accurate data sets of lake-bed elevations and to develop methods and techniques to conduct similar surveys across the state. The lake-bed elevations and associated geographical position data can be merged with land-surface elevations acquired through Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) techniques. Lake Arthur in Butler County and Raccoon Lake in Beaver County were selected for this initial data-collection activity. In order to establish accurate water-surface elevations during the surveys, benchmarks referenced to NAVD 88 were established on land at each lake by use of differential global positioning system (DGPS) surveys. Bathymetric data were collected using a single beam, 210 kilohertz (kHz) echo sounder and were coupled with the DGPS position data utilizing a computer software package. Transects of depth data were acquired at predetermined intervals on each lake, and the shoreline was delineated using a laser range finder and compass module. Final X, Y, Z coordinates of the geographic positions and lake-bed elevations were referenced to NAD 83 and NAVD 88 and are available to create bathymetric maps of the lakes.

  2. Arthur Neve (1859-1919) and a Mission Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Rais

    2011-11-01

    Mark Harrison has said that hospitals occupy a central place within health-care systems, not only on account of their curative functions but also as centres of teaching and research. The indigenous system of medicine practised by Hakims in Kashmir is the Unani. The Mission Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir became the most important hospital attracting patients, not only within Kashmir but also in the surrounding countries and not only because of the curative facilities provided at the hospital but also because of the humane approach of its physicians, outstanding among them being Arthur Neve. The patients represented every class of society. Patients come from villages scattered throughout Kashmir and the Plains of India, and a few from Tibet, Afghanistan, Yarkand and Khostan. According to Neve, in 1912 there were 23,642 new outpatients and 1979 inpatients. Physical, socio-cultural and political conditions hinder access to the Mission Hospital. Neve's younger brother Ernest F Neve (1861-1946) made significant contributions when an earthquake struck and during cholera outbreaks in Kashmir at the end of the 19th century.

  3. Hurricane Arthur and its effect on the short term variation of pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, Jonathan; Thomas, Helmuth; Craig, Susanne; Greenan, Blair; Fennel, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal changes in carbon cycling over the years have become better understood on the Scotian Shelf, however little is resolved in short term variation. Hourly measurements were collected from an autonomous moored instrument (CARIOCA) stationed at Halifax Line 2 (HL2), roughly 30km off the coast of Halifax for the 2014 year. Data from the 2007 deployment of the SeaHorse vertical sampling mooring at HL2 was also collected. Focusing on the storm event, Hurricane Arthur, July 5th 2014 reveals a significant drop in pCO2. With the shelf having carbon rich deep water, a reduction of pCO2 due to mixing went against current understanding. It was revealed that slightly above the mixed layer there is a sustained population of phytoplankton. When wind mixing from storms occurs, this population moves to the surface allowing greater light and nutrients for short term growth. This growth then reduces pCO2 for a short period of time until wind speeds slow down reducing mixing of the water column.

  4. Approximate joint measurement of qubit observables through an Arthur-Kelly model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rajarshi; Ghosh, Sibasish

    2011-12-01

    We consider a joint measurement of two and three unsharp qubit observables through an Arthur-Kelly-type joint measurement model for qubits. We investigate the effect of the initial state of the detectors on the unsharpness of the measurement as well as the post-measurement state of the system. Particular emphasis is given on a physical understanding of the POVM to PVM transition in the model and entanglement between the system and the detectors. Two approaches for characterizing the unsharpness of the measurement and the resulting measurement uncertainty relations are considered. The corresponding measures of unsharpness are connected for the case where both the measurements are equally unsharp. The connection between the POVM elements and symmetries of the underlying Hamiltonian of the measurement interaction is made explicit and used to perform the joint measurement in arbitrary directions. Finally, in the case of three observables, we derive a necessary condition for the approximate joint measurement and use it to show the relative freedom available when the observables are non-orthogonal.

  5. 75 FR 61713 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...: Arthur Kill Power LLC. Description: Arthur Kill Power LLC submits tariff filing per 35.12: NRG Arthur Kill Power--FERC Electric Tariff to be effective 9/20/2010. Filed Date: 09/20/2010. Accession...

  6. Deprivations, futures and the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Marquis, D

    2001-12-01

    In my essay, Why abortion is immoral, I criticised discussions of the morality of abortion in which the crucial issue is whether fetuses are human beings or whether fetuses are persons. Both argument strategies are inadequate because they rely on indefensible assumptions. Why should being a human being or being a person make a moral difference? I argued that the correct account of the morality of abortion should be based upon a defensible account of why killing children and adults is wrong. I claimed that what makes killing us wrong is that our premature deaths deprive us of our futures of value, that is, the goods of life we would have experienced had we survived. This account of the wrongness of killing explains why killing is one of the worst of crimes and how killing greatly harms the victim. It coheres with the attitudes of those with cancer or HIV facing premature death. It explains why we believe it is wrong to kill infants (as personhood theories do not). It does not entail that it wrongs a human being to end her life if she is in persistent vegetative state or if her future must consist only of unbearable physical suffering and she wants to die (as sanctity of human life theories do not). This account of the wrongness of killing implies (with some defensible additional assumptions) that abortion is immoral because we were fetuses once and we know those fetuses had futures of value. Mark Brown claims that this potential future of value account is unsound because it implies that we have welfare rights to what we need to stay alive that most people would reject. I argue that Brown is incorrect in two ways: a welfare right to what we need to stay alive is not directly implied by my account and, in addition, most of us do believe that dependent human beings have substantial welfare rights to what they need to stay alive. Brown argues that depriving us of a future of value of which we have mental representations both is a better explanation of the wrongness of

  7. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Holten, J.-W. van; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-15

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  8. Killing activity of microwaves in milk.

    PubMed

    Kindle, G; Busse, A; Kampa, D; Meyer-König, U; Daschner, F D

    1996-08-01

    The killing activity of microwaves of 2450 MHz frequency and 600 W power on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium terrae and poliomyelitis vaccine-virus suspended in five infant formula preparations was investigated. The samples were brought to the boil (85-100 s depending on milk type). They had reached average temperatures of 82-93 degrees C at this point. Most of the vegetative organisms were killed. In those samples where growth was still detectable after microwave treatment, a significant reduction in viable micro-organisms (at least 5000-fold) was noted. We conclude that microwave beating to the boil is a convenient and fast method to reduce microbial contamination of infant feeds. However, care should be taken to ensure that milk is adequately cooled to the required temperature before it is fed to an infant. PMID:8864939

  9. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

  10. Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    2001-05-01

    Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

  11. 11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD SPLITTERS' PLATFORMS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. Integrated Solid Earth Science: the right place and time to discover the unexpected? (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, Sierd

    2013-04-01

    The fascination of learning more about the way system Earth operates has driven generations of Earth scientists. This has been the case for early pioneers such as Arthur Holmes, focusing on the geological record in continental settings, as well as for the founding fathers of plate tectonics, who built upon the results of exploring the ocean floor. Two years ago we celebrated the centenary of the discovery by Mohorovicic of the seismic discontinuity that separates the crust from the mantle, which now carries his name. Reading the rocks and mapping the (sub)surface of the Earth has provided the foundation for a great deal of what we conceptually pursue today in developing and validating coupled deep Earth and surface processes. The unexpected is probably characterizing most of my scientific career. It started in 1968 when, as a student, entering the geology program of Groningen University headed by Professor Philip Kuenen, a pioneer in marine geology and sedimentology, the textbook of Arthur Holmes just happened to be my first purchase. It was during those years that plate tectonics drastically changed everything we were learning. I was also privileged to enter a few years later as an MSc student the Utrecht geophysics school at a time where Nico Vlaar as a young professor was developing a vigorous research program with a focus on seismology, attracting and stimulating many talented students. When he and Rinus Wortel started research on Tectonophysics in Utrecht, I decided to go for a PhD research project tackling the problem of the initiation of subduction, a first order problem in geodynamics, with still many aspects to be resolved. This research and the joint work with Rinus Wortel on modeling intraplate stresses in the Faralon, Nazca and Indo-Australian plates led quite unexpectedly to exploring, together with Kurt Lambeck, intraplate stress fluctuations in the lithosphere as possible tectonic causes for the origin of third-order cycles in relative sea

  13. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  14. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  19. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... established as follows: (1) Twenty-five parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall...

  20. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  1. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  2. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  3. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  4. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  5. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  6. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  7. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  8. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  9. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  10. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  11. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  13. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  14. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  15. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  16. War neuroses and Arthur Hurst: a pioneering medical film about the treatment of psychiatric battle casualties.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar

    2012-07-01

    From 1917 to 1918, Major Arthur Hurst filmed shell-shocked patients home from the war in France. Funded by the Medical Research Committee, and using Pathé cameramen, he recorded soldiers who suffered from intractable movement disorders as they underwent treatment at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Netley and undertook programs of occupational therapy at Seale Hayne in Devon. As one of the earliest UK medical films, Hurst's efforts may have drawn inspiration from the official documentary of the Battle of the Somme and films made in 1916 by French Army neurologists. Although initially motivated to make use of a novel medium to illustrate lectures, Hurst was alert to the wider appeal of the motion picture and saw an opportunity to position himself in the postwar medical hierarchy. Some "before treatment" shots were reenacted for the camera. Hurst, like some other shell shock doctors, openly used deception as a therapeutic measure. On the basis that the ends justified the means, they defended this procedure as ethical. Clinicians also took advantage of changes in military regulations to address functional symptoms. Claims made of "cures" in the film and associated publications by Hurst were challenged by other doctors treating shell shock. The absence of follow-up data and evidence from war pension files suggested that Hurst may have overstated the effectiveness of his methods. Nevertheless, the message conveyed in the film that chronic cases could be treated in a single session had a powerful resonance for ambitious or charismatic doctors and was revived in World War II.

  17. Phantoms in artists: the lost limbs of Blaise Cendrars,Arthur Rimbaud, and Paul Wittgenstein.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Boller, François

    2014-01-01

    There have been an increasing number of reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs over recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems, which are often poorly understood and considered rather mysterious, are still relevant because they are difficult to treat medically. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Phantom limbs have often been a source of inspiration to writers, particularly in the period following the First World War, which was responsible for thousands of amputees. Some artists have suffered from postamputation complications themselves and have expressed them through their artistic works. Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961), one of the greatest authors of the twentieth century, suffered from stump pain and phantom limb phenomena for almost half a century following the amputation of his right arm during the First World War. He suffered from these phenomena until the end of his life and his literary work and personal correspondence are peppered with references to them. Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891), one of the most famous poets in world literature, developed severe stump pain after his right leg was amputated due to a tumor. He survived for only six months after the procedure but left behind an account of the pain he experienced in correspondence to his family. The famous pianist Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), whose right arm was amputated during the First World War, became a famous left-handed concert pianist. The phantom movements of his right hand helped him to develop the dexterity of his left hand. The impact on the artistic life of these three men provides an original illustration of the various postamputation complications, specifically phantom limbs, stump pain, and moving phantom.

  18. Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status intend to measure the subjective social status using a numbered stepladder image. This study investigated the reliability of the MacArthur scale in a subsample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Method Three scales were employed using different references: 1) the overall socioeconomic position; 2) the socioeconomic situation of the participant’s closer community; 3) the workplace as a whole. A total of 245 of the ELSA participants from six states were involved. They were interviewed twice by the same person within an interval of seven to fourteen days. The reliability of the scale was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Kappa values were 0.62(0.58 to 0.64) for the society ladder; 0.58(0.56 to 0.61) for the community-related ladder; and 0.67(0.66 to 0.72) for the work-related ladder. The ICC ranged from 0.75 for the work ladder to 0.64 for the community ladder. These values differed slightly according to the participants’ age, sex and education category. Conclusion The three ladders showed good stability in the test-retest, except the community ladder that showed moderate stability. Because the social structure in Brazil is rapidly changing, future qualitative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and understand the construct underlying the MacArthur Scale in the country. PMID:23253581

  19. Dynamic kill: controlling wild wells a new way

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, E.M.; Soeiinah, E.

    1981-10-01

    Dynamic kill describes a technique for terminating a blowout utilizing flowing frictional pressure to supplement the hydrostatic pressure of the kill fluid being injected through the relief well and up the blowing well. Therefore, a lighter kill fluid such as water can be implemented. The objective is to allow a blowout to be killed without breaking down the formation so the maximum amount of fluid can be circulated through the relief well by not losing fluid to a fractured formation. This allows optimum control during the kill operation and stable communication between the two wells. By allowing more fluid to be applied to the kill through one relief well, dynamic kill also increases the probability that one relief well will be sufficient. When the well is dynamically dead, the initial kill fluid, which will usually be too light to hold the well dead in a static condition, is replaced with a heavier kill mud. In fact, three weights of mud may be required to allow control during the transition from low density initial dynamic kill mud to heavy final kill mud. 5 refs.

  20. [The question of killing in animal protection ethics].

    PubMed

    Luy, J

    2000-03-01

    About twenty years ago the traditional question whether humans are allowed to kill animals was replaced by two new questions: the question of killing and the question of suffering. The question of killing ist the abstract question if--in isolation from the question of suffering--finishing an animal's life is moral. So the question of killing can be raised for every single case of an animal killed by man. The moral evaluation of a killing without suffering (of all directly and indirectly involved beings) concerns just the question of killing; for example, an experiment in which the animal is made unconscious by an anesthetic prior to the experiment being performed and is then killed before it regains consciousness.--The comparative analysis of the popular arguments demonstrates fallacies in some of them and shows a new view of the problem. Because not the killing itself (without fear or pain) but the innate fear of death is the real motive to reject ones own killing, it is necessary to demand that every killing of an animal by man is done without any fear (or pain) for the animal. To claim an animal's right to life however is not yet justified.

  1. The killing efficiency of soft iron shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication

  2. Micro-sociology of mass rampage killings.

    PubMed

    Collins, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Spectacular but very rare violent events such as mass killings by habitual non-criminals cannot be explained by factors which are very widespread, such as possession of firearms, being a victim of bullying, an introvert, or a career failure. A stronger clue is clandestine preparation of attack by one or two individuals, against randomly chosen representatives of a hated collective identity. Mass killers develop a deep back-stage, obsessed with planning their attack, overcoming social inferiority and isolation by an emotion of clandestine excitement. PMID:25179819

  3. Targeting the Checkpoint to Kill Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Benada, Jan; Macurek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and most of the chemotherapies act by damaging DNA of cancer cells. Upon DNA damage, cells stop proliferation at cell cycle checkpoints, which provides them time for DNA repair. Inhibiting the checkpoint allows entry to mitosis despite the presence of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. Importantly, as cancer cells exhibit increased levels of endogenous DNA damage due to an excessive replication stress, inhibiting the checkpoint kinases alone could act as a directed anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the current status of inhibitors targeted towards the checkpoint effectors and discuss mechanisms of their actions in killing of cancer cells. PMID:26295265

  4. Targeting the Checkpoint to Kill Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benada, Jan; Macurek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and most of the chemotherapies act by damaging DNA of cancer cells. Upon DNA damage, cells stop proliferation at cell cycle checkpoints, which provides them time for DNA repair. Inhibiting the checkpoint allows entry to mitosis despite the presence of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. Importantly, as cancer cells exhibit increased levels of endogenous DNA damage due to an excessive replication stress, inhibiting the checkpoint kinases alone could act as a directed anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the current status of inhibitors targeted towards the checkpoint effectors and discuss mechanisms of their actions in killing of cancer cells. PMID:26295265

  5. Progress at Fresh Kills improving water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Londres, E.J.

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that in December 1987, the federal district court in Nevada issued a consent order forcing New York City (NYC) to improve its handling of solid waste and reduce the discharge of solid waste into the surrounding waterway. Implementation of the consent order by NYC resulted in many improvements in the transport of solid waste from the Marine Transfer Station (MTS) to Fresh Kills Landfill. The end result was a marked reduction in solid waste discharge and an improvement in water quality along the New Jersey shore areas.

  6. Killing-Yano forms and Killing tensors on a warped space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtouš, Pavel; KubizÅák, David; Kolář, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We formulate several criteria under which the symmetries associated with the Killing and Killing-Yano tensors on the base space can be lifted to the symmetries of the full warped geometry. The procedure is explicitly illustrated on several examples, providing new prototypes of spacetimes admitting such tensors. In particular, we study a warped product of two Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes and show that it gives rise to a new class of highly symmetric vacuum (with a cosmological constant) black hole solutions that inherit many of the properties of the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS geometry.

  7. Accounting for changes in social support among married older adults: insights from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Regan A R; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa E

    2003-09-01

    Using longitudinal, community-based data from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, the authors examined determinants of changes in social support receipt among 439 married older adults. In general, social support increased over time, especially for those with many preexisting social ties, but those experiencing more psychological distress and cognitive dysfunction reported more negative encounters with others. Gender affected social support receipt: Men received emotional support primarily from their spouses, whereas women drew more heavily on their friends and relatives and children for emotional support. Discussion centers on the importance of social support provision to those with the greatest needs.

  8. Why are potential women being killed?

    PubMed

    Thomson, A

    1993-12-01

    The persistence of traditional practices that provide disincentives to having daughters is giving rise to widespread infanticide in India. In a survey conducted in Madras in 1993, over half of the mothers interviewed acknowledged having killed an infant girl. The infanticide rate is believed to be even higher in India's rural areas. Families who can afford ultrasound to determine the fetal sex are reportedly using selective abortion to avert the birth of a daughter. Of 8000 abortions induced in a Bombay clinic, 7999 involved a female fetus. Families cite the financial burden inherent in providing a dowry as the primary reason for female infanticide. Also cited is the need for a son to both provide financial support to parents in old age and to light their funeral pyre. There are reports of mothers who refuse to kill female infants being abandoned or physically battered by their husbands. At present, there are 116 males to every 100 females in India--an imbalance that is likely to increase in the future and make it impossible for many men to form families. Just as television has been implicated in creating a demand for large dowries that would enable husbands' families to purchase Western luxury items, the mass media should use its influence to alter the attitudes that perpetuate the low status of women in India.

  9. Heterosigma bloom and associated fish kill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Postel, J.R.; Taub, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    A bloom of the harmful marine phytoplankton, Heterosigma carterae occurred in upper Case Inlet, south Puget Sound, Washington in late September, 1994, correlating with the presence of at least 35 dead salmon. This marks the first time that this alga has been closely correlated with a wild fish kill; in the past it was thought to be associated with kills of penned fish at fish farms only. We were informed of the presence of a possible harmful algal bloom and dead salinois Ilear the town of Allyn on 27 September and a team was formed to investigate. We arrived at the Allyn waterfront at 17:30 hours the same day. Prior to our arrival, state agency personnel walked approximatcly two miles of shoreline from the powerlines north of the dock, to the mouth of Sherwood Creek and conducted the only official count of dead fish present along the shore consisting of 12 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 11 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), 12 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), one flat fish, and one sculpin on the morning of 9/27. Since previous harmful blooms of Heterosigma have resultedin the majority of net penreared salmon sinking to the bottom of pens, and only approximately two miles of shoreline were sampled, it is suspected that many more exposed fish may have succumbed than were counted. Witnesses who explored the east side of the bay reported seeing many dead salmon there as well, but no counts were made. State agency personnel who observed the fish kill reported seeing “dying fish coming to the beach, gulping at the surface, trying to get out of the water” Scavengers were seen consuming the salmon carcasses; these included two harbor seals, a house cat, and Hymenopteran insects. None suffered any noticeable acute ill effects. Although precise cause of death has not been ascertained, visual inspection of the reproductive organs from a deceased male chum salmon found on the shore at Allyn confirmed that the fish was not yet reproductively mature and

  10. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides.

  11. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. PMID:25682709

  12. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  13. f(R)-gravity from Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2016-04-01

    We consider f(R)-gravity in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We apply the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to specify the functional form of f(R) and for the field equations to be invariant under Lie-Bäcklund transformations, which are linear in momentum (contact symmetries). Consequently, the field equations to admit quadratic conservation laws given by Noether’s theorem. We find three new integrable f(R)-models, for which, with the application of the conservation laws, we reduce the field equations to a system of two first-order ordinary differential equations. For each model we study the evolution of the cosmological fluid. We find that for each integrable model the cosmological fluid has an equation of state parameter, in which there is linear behavior in terms of the scale factor which describes the Chevallier, Polarski and Linder parametric dark energy model.

  14. Killed poliovirus antigen titration in humans.

    PubMed

    Salk, J; Cohen, H; Fillastre, C; Stoeckel, P; Rey, J L; Schlumberger, M; Nicolas, A; van Steenis, G; van Wezel, A L; Triau, R; Saliou, P; Barry, L F; Moreau, J P; Mérieux, C

    1978-01-01

    To establish the antigen content of a killed poliovirus vaccine sufficiently potent to induce immunity with one or two doses and to establish a reference standard vaccine which has been tested under field conditions, a titration was carried out in infants to determine the amount of each of the three antigenic types of poliovirus vaccine required to induce seroconversion with a single dose. It has been observed that over a critical range of antigen concentration there is an essentially linear relationship between antibody response and quantity of antigen administered. More than 90 percent of the groups studied had detectable antibody after receiving single injections of 80, 8 and 64 D-antigen units of Types I, II and III, respectively. Four-fold less antigen for each of the three types was less effective. The implications of these findings for an efficient immunization procedure are discussed.

  15. Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, W. K.; Olson, A.; Finato, S.

    1993-06-01

    A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill vehicle (KV) control system packages a total impulse typical of a tactical weapon interceptor for the ground- or sea-based TMD systems. High density packaging makes it possible to increase firepower and to eliminate long-term high pressure gas storage associated with bipropellant systems. The integrated control subsystem technologies encompass solid propellant gas generators, insulated composite overwrapped propellant tanks, lightweight endoatmospheric thrusters, and insensitive munition gel propellants, which meet the requirements of a deployable, operationally safe KV.

  16. Self-forces from generalized Killing fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Abraham I.

    2008-12-01

    A non-perturbative formalism is developed that simplifies the understanding of self-forces and self-torques acting on extended scalar charges in curved spacetimes. Laws of motion are locally derived using momenta generated by a set of generalized Killing fields. Self-interactions that may be interpreted as arising from the details of a body's internal structure are shown to have very simple geometric and physical interpretations. Certain modifications to the usual definition for a center-of-mass are identified that significantly simplify the motions of charges with strong self-fields. A derivation is also provided for a generalized form of the Detweiler Whiting axiom that pointlike charges should react only to the so-called regular component of their self-field. Standard results are shown to be recovered for sufficiently small charge distributions.

  17. Transverse conformal Killing forms on Kähler foliations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Seoung Dal

    2015-04-01

    On a closed, connected Riemannian manifold with a Kähler foliation of codimension q = 2 m, any transverse Killing r(≥ 2) -form is parallel (Jung and Jung, 2012). In this paper, we study transverse conformal Killing forms on Kähler foliations. In fact, if the foliation is minimal, then for any transverse conformal Killing r-form ϕ(2 ≤ r ≤ q - 2), Jϕ is parallel. Here J is defined in Section 4.

  18. Killing Sections and Sigma Models with Lie Algebroid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Andrew James

    2016-08-01

    We define and examine the notion of a Killing section of a Riemannian Lie algebroid as a natural generalisation of a Killing vector field. We show that the various expression for a vector field to be Killing naturally generalise to the setting of Lie algebroids. As an application we examine the internal symmetries of a class of sigma models for which the target space is a Riemannian Lie algebroid. Critical points of these sigma models are interpreted as generalised harmonic maps.

  19. Advancements in dynamic kill calculations for blowout wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kouba, G.E. . Production Fluids Div.); MacDougall, G.R. ); Schumacher, B.W. . Information Technology Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    This paper addresses the development, interpretation, and use of dynamic kill equations. To this end, three simple calculation techniques are developed for determining the minimum dynamic kill rate. Two techniques contain only single-phase calculations and are independent of reservoir inflow performance. Despite these limitations, these two methods are useful for bracketing the minimum flow rates necessary to kill a blowing well. For the third technique, a simplified mechanistic multiphase-flow model is used to determine a most-probable minimum kill rate.

  20. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  1. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect.

    PubMed

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-23

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  2. Killing spinors as a characterisation of rotating black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Michael J.; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the implications of the existence of Killing spinors in a spacetime. In particular, we show that in vacuum and electrovacuum a Killing spinor, along with some assumptions on the associated Killing vector in an asymptotic region, guarantees that the spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr or Kerr–Newman solutions. We show that the characterisation of these spacetimes in terms of Killing spinors is an alternative expression of characterisation results of Mars (Kerr) and Wong (Kerr–Newman) involving restrictions on the Weyl curvature and matter content.

  3. [Killing and dignity of animals: a problem for veterinarians?].

    PubMed

    Fahrion; Dürr, S; Doherr, M G; Hartnack, S; Kunzmann, P

    2011-05-01

    Killing of animals is an important task to be performed by veterinarians. Killing decisions and their implementation often raise ethical questions. As a result of an interdisciplinary workshop targeting the subject "killing of animals" with veterinarians and ethicists, a three-dimensional dimension scheme was developed. Whereas the first two dimensions are focused on the animal's past and future life and are discussed with regard to life quality and life accomplishment (the "telos"), the third dimension incorporates the reason to kill and may integrate the concept of dignity. This form of dignity and the weighing of interests are applied to example scenarios and the resulting responsibilities of veterinarians and society are discussed.

  4. On the Lie subalgebra of Killing-Milne and Killing-Cartan vector fields in Newtonian spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamel, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    The Galilean (and more generally Milne) invariance of Newtonian theory allows for Killing vector fields of a general kind, whereby the Lie derivative of a field is not required to vanish but only to be cancellable by some infinitesimal Galilean (respectively Milne) gauge transformation. In this paper, it is shown that both the Killing-Milne vector fields, which preserve the background Newtonian spacetime structure and the Killing-Cartan vector fields, which in addition preserve the gravitational field, form a Lie subalgebra.

  5. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determined as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact.

  6. An Item Response Theory-Based, Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip S.; Havmose, Philip; Bleses, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the feasibility and potential validity of an item response theory (IRT)-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS; Fenson et al., 2007) vocabulary checklist, with the objective of reducing length while maintaining…

  7. On the College Student as an Individual: A Bibliography of Arthur W. Chickering. Vance Bibliographies, Public Administration Series: Bibliography P-823.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Richard H.

    A bibliography of Arthur W. Chickering's works on the college student as an individual is presented. Specific topics include the following: diverse student bodies and a changing society, competency-based education, adult development and teaching-learning implications, lifelong learning by handicapped persons, college curriculum development,…

  8. Global Productivity: Roles for Executives and Educators. The Annual W. Arthur Cullman Symposium Proceedings (2nd, Columbus, Ohio, April 27, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. College of Administrative Science.

    Three keynote addresses from the W. Arthur Cullman Symposium are presented in this booklet. The first address, "Global Productivity: New and Renewed Perspectives," was delivered by John G. Keane, Director of the United States Bureau of Census. In his address, Dr. Keane proposed five guideline perspectives: recognizing emerging global unification…

  9. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  10. Organizing and Making Sense of the Literature: Arthur M. Cohen as Director of the ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges, 1966-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2007-01-01

    A major part of Arthur M. Cohen's scholarly legacy is the archive of documents and journal articles catalogued by the ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges, which he led throughout its entire 37-year history (1966-2003). As Clearinghouse director, Cohen oversaw its document acquisition and cataloguing operations, as well as its extensive…

  11. 77 FR 18891 - Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... HOUSE, Washington, March 22, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-7638 Filed 3-27-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3110-01-P ... flowing in than can flow out, creating a bottleneck that is dampening incentives for new production while... bottleneck in Cushing, as well as other current or anticipated bottlenecks, agencies shall, to the...

  12. Summer kill rates and predation pattern in a wolf-moose system: can we rely on winter estimates?

    PubMed

    Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Johansson, Orjan; Pedersen, Hans C; Liberg, Olof

    2008-05-01

    So far the vast majority of studies on large carnivore predation, including kill rates and consumption, have been based on winter studies. Because large carnivores relying on ungulates as prey often show a preference for juveniles, kill rates may be both higher and more variable during the summer season than during the rest of the year leading to serious underestimates of the total annual predation rate. This study is the first to present detailed empirical data on kill rates and prey selection in a wolf-moose system during summer (June-September) as obtained by applying modern Global Positioning System-collar techniques on individual wolves (Canis lupus) in Scandinavia. Moose (Alces alces) was the dominant prey species both by number (74.4%) and biomass (95.6%); 89.9% of all moose killed were juveniles, representing 76.0% of the biomass consumed by wolves. Kill rate in terms of the kilogram biomass/kilogram wolf per day averaged 0.20 (range: 0.07-0.32) among wolf territories and was above, or well above, the daily minimum food requirements in most territories. The average number of days between moose kills across wolf territories and study periods was 1.71 days, but increased with time and size of growing moose calves during summer. Over the entire summer (June-September, 122 days), a group (from two to nine) of wolves killed a total of 66 (confidence interval 95%; 56-81) moose. Incorporation of body growth functions of moose calves and yearlings and wolf pups over the summer period showed that wolves adjusted their kill rate on moose, so the amount of biomass/kilogram wolf was relatively constant or increased. The kill rate was much higher (94-116%) than estimated from the winter period. As a consequence, projecting winter kill rates to obtain annual estimates of predation in similar predator-prey systems may result in a significant underestimation of the total number of prey killed.

  13. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  15. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  16. PDE5 inhibitors enhance celecoxib killing in multiple tumor types.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Webb, Timothy; Samuel, Peter; Conley, Adam; Binion, Brittany; Young, Harold F; Poklepovic, Andrew; Spiegel, Sarah; Dent, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or knock down of CD95/FADD significantly reduced killing by the drug combination. CD95 activation was dependent on nitric oxide and ceramide signaling. CD95 signaling activated the JNK pathway and inhibition of JNK suppressed cell killing. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and increased the levels of autophagy and knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 strongly suppressed killing by the drug combination. The drug combination caused an ER stress response; knock down of IRE1α/XBP1 enhanced killing whereas knock down of eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP suppressed killing. Sildenafil and celecoxib treatment suppressed the growth of mammary tumors in vivo. Collectively our data demonstrate that clinically achievable concentrations of celecoxib and sildenafil have the potential to be a new therapeutic approach for cancer. PMID:25303541

  17. PDE5 Inhibitors Enhance Celecoxib Killing in Multiple Tumor Types

    PubMed Central

    BOOTH, LAURENCE; ROBERTS, JANE L.; CRUICKSHANKS, NICHOLA; TAVALLAI, SEYEDMEHRAD; WEBB, TIMOTHY; SAMUEL, PETER; CONLEY, ADAM; BINION, BRITTANY; YOUNG, HAROLD F.; POKLEPOVIC, ANDREW; SPIEGEL, SARAH; DENT, PAUL

    2015-01-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or knock down of CD95/FADD significantly reduced killing by the drug combination. CD95 activation was dependent on nitric oxide and ceramide signaling. CD95 signaling activated the JNK pathway and inhibition of JNK suppressed cell killing. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and increased the levels of autophagy and knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 strongly suppressed killing by the drug combination. The drug combination caused an ER stress response; knock down of IRE1α/XBP1 enhanced killing whereas knock down of eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP suppressed killing. Sildenafil and celecoxib treatment suppressed the growth of mammary tumors in vivo. Collectively our data demonstrate that clinically achievable concentrations of celecoxib and sildenafil have the potential to be a new therapeutic approach for cancer. PMID:25303541

  18. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  19. 9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

    2001-01-01

    In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium. PMID:11591663

  1. [Murder of the wife after 2 test killings].

    PubMed

    Wirth, I; Strauch, H

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of phenomenological particularities the described case of a triple murderer of women from East Berlin proves to be complementary to the casuistry of multiple homicide. In one day a 30-year old autopsy assistant killed three intimate female partners, ultimately his wife, in their respective dwellings. The first two homicides were test killings. The perpetrator was executed in 1970.

  2. Effects of the MacArthur Maze Fire and Roadway Collapse on a Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Easton, Earl P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2011-03-03

    In 2007, a severe transportation accident occurred near Oakland, California, on a section of Interstate 880 known as the "MacArthur Maze," involving a tractor trailer carrying gasoline which impacted an overpass support column and burst into flames. The subsequent fire caused the collapse of portions of the Interstate 580 overpass onto the remains of the tractor-trailer in less than 20 minutes, due to a reduction of strength in the structural steel exposed to the fire. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is in the process of examining the impacts of this accident on the performance of a spent nuclear fuel transportation package, using detailed analysis models, in order to determine the potential regulatory implications related to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This paper will provide a summary of this ongoing effort and present some preliminary results and conclusions.

  3. STS-92 Mission Specialist McArthur is ready to take his turn driving the M-113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-92 Mission Specialist Bill McArthur gets ready to take his turn at driving the M-113, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. Behind him (left) is Mission Specialist Jeff Wisoff, waiting his turn to drive along with other unidentified crew members. The tracked vehicle could be used by the crew in the event of an emergency at the pad during which the crew must make a quick exit from the area. The TCDT also provides simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-92 is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on the fifth flight to the International Space Station. It will carry two elements of the Space Station, the Integrated Truss Structure Z1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The mission is also the 100th flight in the Shuttle program.

  4. The MacArthur Maze Fire and Roadway Collapse: A "Worst Case Scenario" for Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation?

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Easton, Earl P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2012-07-06

    In 2007, a severe transportation accident occurred near Oakland, California, at the interchange known as the "MacArthur Maze." The accident involved a double tanker truck of gasoline overturning and bursting into flames. The subsequent fire reduced the strength of the supporting steel structure of an overhead interstate roadway causing the collapse of portions of that overpass onto the lower roadway in less than 20 minutes. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has analyzed what might have happened had a spent nuclear fuel transportation package been involved in this accident, to determine if there are any potential regulatory implications of this accident to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This paper provides a summary of this effort, presents preliminary results and conclusions, and discusses future work related to the NRC's analysis of the consequences of this type of severe accident.

  5. Epidemiology and Public Health in 1906 England: Arthur Newsholme’s Methodological Innovation to Study Breastfeeding and Fatal Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Beth; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    In 1906 Arthur Newsholme linked artificial feeding and fatal diarrhea in infants aged one year and younger on the basis of two independent sources of information: mortality registration and a three-year (1903–1905) census of infants from Brighton, United Kingdom. Artificial feeding was more common in the infants who had died (89.3%) than in those in the survey (22.3%). However, boldly assuming the two data sources were nested, Newsholme computed the risks of fatal diarrhea: these were 48 times greater for infants fed fresh cow’s milk and 94 times greater for those fed condensed milk than for infants who were exclusively breastfed. This mode of computing risks and risk ratios before the invention of the cohort study design was more innovative than was the usual investigation techniques of his contemporary epidemiologists. Newsholme’s conclusions were consistent with the current knowledge that breastfeeding protects against fatal diarrhea. PMID:23678939

  6. Tackling Shell Shock in Great War Oxford: Thomas Saxty Good, William McDougall, and James Arthur Hadfield.

    PubMed

    Stewart, John

    2016-01-01

    Shell shock was an important object of diagnostic and therapeutic concern in Oxford during the Great War. The efforts of three Oxford physicians--Thomas Saxty Good, William McDougall, and James Arthur Hadfield--are of particular significance to our story. All worked on the problem at various sites throughout the city. They often collaborated. All were committed to employing innovative techniques such as psychotherapy and hypnosis. Each rose, to differing extents, to prominence in the field of psychological medicine during the succeeding decades. Yet all have been neglected in the current historiography. I argue that a close examination of their practices reveals a curious combination of therapeutic pragmatism and psychoanalytically informed techniques that later helped inform clinical psychology's challenge to psychiatry's dominance over the concept and care of mental disorder.

  7. Archaeological evidence for dental innovation: an eighteenth century porcelain dental prosthesis belonging to Archbishop Arthur Richard Dillon.

    PubMed

    Powers, N

    2006-10-01

    During archaeological investigation by Gifford of St Pancras Old Church burial ground, on the eastern edge of Somers Town, London, in advance of construction of the new London terminus for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, a full porcelain denture was discovered. The high quality porcelain dentures, manufactured in the late eighteenth century French style, may have been brought with their owner, Archbishop Arthur Richard Dillon, on his journey into exile. There is evidence of prolonged use, not only for cosmetic or vocal functions but also in mastication. The dentures are unique archaeological artefacts and represent a pivotal time in dental history, with the adoption of new materials and methods of manufacture. They reflect a period of significant social and economic change for the upper echelons of French society. This paper outlines the development of porcelain dentures, discusses the prosthesis, their owner, and a possible provenance.

  8. Tackling Shell Shock in Great War Oxford: Thomas Saxty Good, William McDougall, and James Arthur Hadfield.

    PubMed

    Stewart, John

    2016-01-01

    Shell shock was an important object of diagnostic and therapeutic concern in Oxford during the Great War. The efforts of three Oxford physicians--Thomas Saxty Good, William McDougall, and James Arthur Hadfield--are of particular significance to our story. All worked on the problem at various sites throughout the city. They often collaborated. All were committed to employing innovative techniques such as psychotherapy and hypnosis. Each rose, to differing extents, to prominence in the field of psychological medicine during the succeeding decades. Yet all have been neglected in the current historiography. I argue that a close examination of their practices reveals a curious combination of therapeutic pragmatism and psychoanalytically informed techniques that later helped inform clinical psychology's challenge to psychiatry's dominance over the concept and care of mental disorder. PMID:27344909

  9. Boromycin Kills Mycobacterial Persisters without Detectable Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Wilfried; Aziz, Dinah B.; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Boromycin is a boron-containing polyether macrolide antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It was shown to be active against Gram positive bacteria and to act as an ionophore for potassium ions. The antibiotic is ineffective against Gram negative bacteria where the outer membrane appears to block access of the molecule to the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we asked whether boromycin is active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis which, similar to Gram negative bacteria, possesses an outer membrane. The results show that boromycin is a potent inhibitor of mycobacterial growth (MIC50 = 80 nM) with strong bactericidal activity against growing and non-growing drug tolerant persister bacilli. Exposure to boromycin resulted in a rapid loss of membrane potential, reduction of the intracellular ATP level and leakage of cytoplasmic protein. Consistent with boromycin acting as a potassium ionophore, addition of KCl to the medium blocked its antimycobacterial activity. In contrast to the potent antimycobacterial activities of the polyether macrolide, its cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity were low (CC50 = 30 μM, HC50 = 40 μM) with a selectivity index of more than 300. Spontaneous resistant mutants could not be isolated suggesting a mutation frequency of less than 10-9/CFU. Taken together, the results suggests that targeting mycobacterial transmembrane ion gradients may be an attractive chemotherapeutic intervention level to kill otherwise drug tolerant persister bacilli, and to slow down the development of genetic antibiotic resistance. PMID:26941723

  10. Boromycin Kills Mycobacterial Persisters without Detectable Resistance.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Wilfried; Aziz, Dinah B; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Boromycin is a boron-containing polyether macrolide antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It was shown to be active against Gram positive bacteria and to act as an ionophore for potassium ions. The antibiotic is ineffective against Gram negative bacteria where the outer membrane appears to block access of the molecule to the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we asked whether boromycin is active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis which, similar to Gram negative bacteria, possesses an outer membrane. The results show that boromycin is a potent inhibitor of mycobacterial growth (MIC50 = 80 nM) with strong bactericidal activity against growing and non-growing drug tolerant persister bacilli. Exposure to boromycin resulted in a rapid loss of membrane potential, reduction of the intracellular ATP level and leakage of cytoplasmic protein. Consistent with boromycin acting as a potassium ionophore, addition of KCl to the medium blocked its antimycobacterial activity. In contrast to the potent antimycobacterial activities of the polyether macrolide, its cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity were low (CC50 = 30 μM, HC50 = 40 μM) with a selectivity index of more than 300. Spontaneous resistant mutants could not be isolated suggesting a mutation frequency of less than 10(-9)/CFU. Taken together, the results suggests that targeting mycobacterial transmembrane ion gradients may be an attractive chemotherapeutic intervention level to kill otherwise drug tolerant persister bacilli, and to slow down the development of genetic antibiotic resistance. PMID:26941723

  11. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

  12. [Time point and methods for emergency killing in cattle].

    PubMed

    Khol, J L; Schafbauer, T; Wittek, T

    2016-01-01

    Emergency killing is defined as the killing of injured or ill animals to avoid excessive pain or harm. Decision-making for emergency killing or a prolonged therapy can be difficult and has to be based on the case history and results of the clinical examination contributing to the prognosis, particularly in downer cows. Evaluation of enzyme activities and total bilirubin can be used as additional factors pointing to a guarded prognosis; however, none of these parameters provides a clear cut-off value indicating a poor prognosis and mandatory emergency killing. Euthanasia by intravenous drug application is seen as the least stressful method of killing and should therefore always be the first method of choice for emergency killing in cattle. Drugs containing pentobarbital as well as a combination of three different drugs (T61-Injektionslösung, MSD Animal Health) are available for euthanasia in cattle. All drugs must be administered by a veterinarian. Before application of pentobarbital, an animal should be deeply sedated. The administration of T61 requires anaesthesia of the animal and it is not licensed for use in pregnant animals. Alternative methods for emeragency killing, including captive bolt stunning and the use of firearms, although not regularly performed by veterinarians, should be assessed concerning their correct application and performance. When captive bolt stunning or emergency killing using firearms is performed, the correct position of the device is crucial as well as a quick exsanguination or the application of a pithing rod for the actual killing of the animal after captive bolt stunning. In addition to medical considerations, economic and personal factors contribute to the decision about emergency killing in cattle. Therefore, veterinarians should aim to evaluate each case thoroughly based on personal knowledge and experience, case history, clinical findings and laboratory parameters to avoid prolonged suffering of the animal.

  13. [Time point and methods for emergency killing in cattle].

    PubMed

    Khol, J L; Schafbauer, T; Wittek, T

    2016-01-01

    Emergency killing is defined as the killing of injured or ill animals to avoid excessive pain or harm. Decision-making for emergency killing or a prolonged therapy can be difficult and has to be based on the case history and results of the clinical examination contributing to the prognosis, particularly in downer cows. Evaluation of enzyme activities and total bilirubin can be used as additional factors pointing to a guarded prognosis; however, none of these parameters provides a clear cut-off value indicating a poor prognosis and mandatory emergency killing. Euthanasia by intravenous drug application is seen as the least stressful method of killing and should therefore always be the first method of choice for emergency killing in cattle. Drugs containing pentobarbital as well as a combination of three different drugs (T61-Injektionslösung, MSD Animal Health) are available for euthanasia in cattle. All drugs must be administered by a veterinarian. Before application of pentobarbital, an animal should be deeply sedated. The administration of T61 requires anaesthesia of the animal and it is not licensed for use in pregnant animals. Alternative methods for emeragency killing, including captive bolt stunning and the use of firearms, although not regularly performed by veterinarians, should be assessed concerning their correct application and performance. When captive bolt stunning or emergency killing using firearms is performed, the correct position of the device is crucial as well as a quick exsanguination or the application of a pithing rod for the actual killing of the animal after captive bolt stunning. In addition to medical considerations, economic and personal factors contribute to the decision about emergency killing in cattle. Therefore, veterinarians should aim to evaluate each case thoroughly based on personal knowledge and experience, case history, clinical findings and laboratory parameters to avoid prolonged suffering of the animal. PMID:26830543

  14. On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseevsky, D. V.; Cortes, V.

    2009-02-02

    Let M be a pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold of dimension n and signature s and denote by N the rank of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits more than (3/4)N independent Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n {identical_to} 1(mod 4) and s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k{sub +} independent Killing spinors with Killing number {lambda} and k{sub -} independent Killing spinors with Killing number -{lambda} such that k{sub +}+k{sub -}>(3/2)N, unless n {identical_to} s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). Similarly, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold with more than (3/4)N independent conformal Killing spinors is conformally locally homogeneous. For (positive or negative) definite metrics, the bounds (3/4)N and (3/2)N in the above results can be relaxed to (1/2)N and N, respectively. Furthermore, we prove that a pseudo-Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/4)N parallel spinors is flat and that (1/4)N parallel spinors suffice if the metric is definite. Similarly, a Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/8)N Killing spinors with the Killing number {lambda}(set-membership sign)R has constant curvature 4{lambda}{sup 2}. For Lorentzian or negative definite metrics the same is true with the bound (1/2)N. Finally, we give a classification of (not necessarily complete) Riemannian manifolds admitting Killing spinors, which provides an inductive construction of such manifolds.

  15. Managing Threat, Cost, and Incentive to Kill: The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Intervention in Mass Killings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathman, Jacob D.; Wood, Reed M.

    2011-01-01

    How do third-party interventions affect the severity of mass killings? The authors theorize that episodes of mass killing are the consequence of two factors: (1) the threat perceptions of the perpetrators and (2) the cost of implementing genocidal policies relative to other alternatives. To reduce genocidal hostilities, interveners must address…

  16. Psychological traits underlying different killing methods among Malaysian male murderers.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, Mohammad Rahim; Shariff, Nadiah Syariani; Nurfarliza, Siti; Othman, Azizah; Ismail, Khaidzir H; Mat Saat, Geshina Ayu

    2014-04-01

    Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or

  17. Psychological traits underlying different killing methods among Malaysian male murderers.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, Mohammad Rahim; Shariff, Nadiah Syariani; Nurfarliza, Siti; Othman, Azizah; Ismail, Khaidzir H; Mat Saat, Geshina Ayu

    2014-04-01

    Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or

  18. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct

  19. Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the

  20. Can Nanomedicines Kill Cancer Stem Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Alakhova, Daria Y.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Most tumors are heterogeneous and many cancers contain small population of highly tumorigenic and intrinsically drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Like normal stem cell, CSCs have ability to self-renew and differentiate to other tumor cell types. They are believed to be a source for drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs often overexpress drug efflux transporters, spend most of their time in non-dividing G0 cell cycle state, and therefore, can escape the conventional chemotherapies. Thus, targeting CSCs is essential for developing novel therapies to prevent cancer relapse and emerging of drug resistance. Nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (nanomedicines) have been used to achieve longer circulation times, better stability and bioavailability over current therapeutics. Recently, some groups have successfully applied nanomedicines to target CSCs to eliminate the tumor and prevent its recurrence. These approaches include 1) delivery of therapeutic agents (small molecules, siRNA, antibodies) that affect embryonic signaling pathways implicated in self-renewal and differentiation in CSCs, 2) inhibiting drug efflux transporters in an attempt to sensitize CSCs to therapy, 3) targeting metabolism in CSCs through nanoformulated chemicals and field-responsive magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, and 4) disruption of multiple pathways in drug resistant cells using combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with amphiphilic Pluronic block copolymers. Despite clear progress of these studies the challenges of targeting CSCs by nanomedicines still exist and leave plenty of room for improvement and development. This review summarizes biological processes that are related to CSCs, overviews the current state of anti-CSCs therapies, and discusses state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed to kill CSCs. PMID:24120657

  1. Gauge theories on A(dS) space and Killing vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2008-03-15

    We provide a general technique for collectively analysing a manifestly covariant formulation of non-abelian gauge theories on both anti-de Sitter as well as de Sitter spaces. This is done by stereographically projecting the corresponding theories, defined on a flat Minkowski space, onto the surface of the A(dS) hyperboloid. The gauge and matter fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors and conformal Killing spinors, respectively. A bilinear map connecting the spinors with the vector is established. Different forms of gauge fixing conditions and their equivalence are discussed. The U(1) axial anomaly as well as the non-abelian covariant and consistent chiral anomalies on A(dS) space are obtained. Electric-magnetic duality is demonstrated. The zero curvature limit is shown to yield consistent findings.

  2. 131-iodine conjugated antibody cell kill enhanced by bromodeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Morstyn, G.; Miller, R.; Russo, A.; Mitchell, J.

    1984-08-01

    /sup 131/I-conjugated monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are being administered in vivo to kill human tumor cells. Although these conjugates deliver relatively large doses of radiation to tumors (10 to 50 Gy), the rate of dose delivery is low (0.05 to 0.2 Gy/hour). To determine whether the cell kill produced by low dose rate radiation is enhanced by a radiation sensitizer (bromodeoxyuridine, BUdR) the authors studied the cell kill produced by an /sup 131/I-conjugated polyclonal antibody against Chinese hamster V79 cells. Cells not containing BUdR were also studied. The /sup 131/I-conjugated antibody produced up to 40% cell kill and BUdR increased the fraction of cells killed to 75%. These studies demonstrate that cells frozen at -196/sup 0/C are useful for the investigation of the cell kill produced by isotopes that deliver radiation at low dose rates and that the cell kill caused by /sup 131/I-conjugated antibodies can be enhanced by BUdR.

  3. Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichter, L.; Sidell N.; Hagiwara, S.

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K/sup +/) current in NK cells. The K/sup +/ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd/sup 2 +/. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard /sup 51/Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd/sup 2 +/, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K/sup +/ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K/sup +/ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process.

  4. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Panozzo, J.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  5. Killing by neutrophil extracellular traps: fact or folklore?

    PubMed

    Menegazzi, Renzo; Decleva, Eva; Dri, Pietro

    2012-02-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are DNA structures released by dying neutrophils and claimed to constitute a new microbicidal mechanism. Killing by NET-forming cells is ascribed to these structures because it is prevented by preincubation with DNase, which has been shown to dismantle NETs, before addition of the target microorganisms. Curiously, the possibility that the microorganisms ensnared in NETs are alive has not been considered. Using Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans blastospores, we demonstrate that the microorganisms captured by NETs and thought to be killed are alive because they are released and recovered in cell medium by incubation with DNase. It is concluded that NETs entrap but do not kill microbes.

  6. Grim Job Talks Are a Buzz Kill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a look at five mistakes that candidates should avoid making during their research presentations. These mistakes are the following: (1) they didn't do any research on the norms of the campus culture; (2) they presented a single, well-thought-out project that had no future; (3) they didn't use the opportunity to demonstrate their…

  7. Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.

    PubMed

    Minasyan, Hayk A

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation.

  8. Surface structure influences contact killing of bacteria by copper

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Marco; Solioz, Marc; Edongué, Hervais; Arzt, Eduard; Schneider, Andreas S

    2014-01-01

    Copper kills bacteria rapidly by a mechanism that is not yet fully resolved. The antibacterial property of copper has raised interest in its use in hospitals, in place of plastic or stainless steel. On the latter surfaces, bacteria can survive for days or even weeks. Copper surfaces could thus provide a powerful accessory measure to curb nosocomial infections. We here investigated the effect of the copper surface structure on the efficiency of contact killing of Escherichia coli, an aspect which so far has received very little attention. It was shown that electroplated copper surfaces killed bacteria more rapidly than either polished copper or native rolled copper. The release of ionic copper was also more rapid from electroplated copper compared to the other materials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria nudged into the grooves between the copper grains of deposited copper. The findings suggest that, in terms of contact killing, more efficient copper surfaces can be engineered. PMID:24740976

  9. Hidden symmetries and killing tensors on curved spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ianus, S.; Visinescu, M.; Vilcu, G. E.

    2010-11-15

    Higher-order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and nonstandard supersymmetries is pointed out. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed 3-Sasakian structures.

  10. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect.

    PubMed

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism. PMID:25906433

  11. PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

  12. Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children The nation’s emergency physicians handle tragic situations ... Emergency Physicians. “Every parent or guardian of a young child should look around their homes and imagine ...

  13. Killing superalgebra deformations of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Vercnocke, Bert

    2007-12-01

    We explore Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We prove the rigidity of the Poincaré superalgebras in types I, IIA and IIB, as well as of the Killing superalgebra of the Freund Rubin vacuum of type IIB supergravity. We also prove rigidity of the Killing superalgebras of the NS5-, D0-, D3-, D4- and D5-branes, whereas we exhibit the possible deformations of the D1-, D2-, D6- and D7-brane Killing superalgebras, as well as of that of the type II fundamental string solutions. We relate the superalgebra deformations of the D2- and D6-branes to those of the (delocalized) M2-brane and the Kaluza Klein monopole, respectively. The good behaviour under Kaluza Klein reduction suggests that the deformed superalgebras ought to have a geometric interpretation.

  14. Potassium Channels Mediate Killing by Human Natural Killer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichter, Lyanne; Sidell, Neil; Hagiwara, Susumu

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. However, no direct evidence exists for ion channels in NK cells or in their target cells. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, we found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. We tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na+ current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. We could not find any evidence of a Ca2+ current in target cells or in NK cells; therefore, our results cannot explain the Ca dependence of killing. Our findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process. In contrast, the endogenous channel type in the target cell is probably not a factor in determining target cell

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  16. Approximate Killing vectors on S{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Gregory B.; Whiting, Bernard F.

    2007-08-15

    We present a new method for computing the best approximation to a Killing vector on closed 2-surfaces that are topologically S{sup 2}. When solutions of Killing's equation do not exist, this method is shown to yield results superior to those produced by existing methods. In addition, this method appears to provide a new tool for studying the horizon geometry of distorted black holes.

  17. Moral dilemma: to kill or allow to die?

    PubMed

    Cole, J J

    1989-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that while allowing a person to die with care can be morally justified in particular cases, the option of mercy killing can never be morally defended. There is a significant moral difference between these two concepts. Furthermore, the wedge argument, the medical fallibility argument, and the medical care and trust argument provide cogent and convincing reasons for maintaining a legal distinction between mercy killing and letting a person die.

  18. Rates of CTL killing in persistent viral infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Elemans, Marjet; Florins, Arnaud; Willems, Luc; Asquith, Becca

    2014-04-01

    The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected cells are killed in vivo by the CTL response is poorly understood. To date the rate of CTL killing in vivo has been estimated for three virus infections but the estimates differ considerably, and killing of HIV-1-infected cells was unexpectedly low. This raises questions about the typical anti-viral capability of CTL and whether CTL killing is abnormally low in HIV-1. We estimated the rate of killing of infected cells by CD8+ T cells in two distinct persistent virus infections: sheep infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) and humans infected with Human T Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) which together with existing data allows us to study a total of five viruses in parallel. Although both BLV and HTLV-1 infection are characterised by large expansions of chronically activated CTL with immediate effector function ex vivo and no evidence of overt immune suppression, our estimates are at the lower end of the reported range. This enables us to put current estimates into perspective and shows that CTL killing of HIV-infected cells may not be atypically low. The estimates at the higher end of the range are obtained in more manipulated systems and may thus represent the potential rather than the realised CTL efficiency.

  19. The Lake Arthur complex, Jefferson Davis and Vermilion Parishes, Louisiana: How it fits into the regional depositional framework of the Camerina A to Miogypsinoides A interval

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, N.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The Lake Arthur Complex is one of the many normal mega-sized structural features that fit into the normal South Louisiana regional framework when completely studied and understood. To explain this mega-feature requires an understanding of the regional structure and of the stratigraphic depositional patterns of each of the major paleontological sequences from the older Bolivina mexicana through the younger Discorbis intervals, covering sediments of middle Oligocene age to the younger early Miocene age. The Lake Arthur Complex encompasses six producing field areas as recognized by the Louisiana Department of Conservation. These fields produce from multiple sands ranging in age from middle Oligocene through early Miocene. The productive areas are related to a combination of their structural relationship to the overall complex, the stratigraphic depositional patterns of the producing sands as related to regional depositional faulting, and the stratigraphic depositional patterns of the producing sands related to the growth history of this Complex. Each of these variables, or a combination of these variables, has a significant controlling effect on the individual producing areas within the Complex. One of the more significant producing intervals of the Lake Arthur Complex is the sand packages in the Camerina A to Miogypsinoides A middle Oligocene sediments. Ultimately the Lake Arthur Complex may produce in excess of 5 tcf of gas with the Camerina A to Miogypsinoides A responsible for approximately 75% of the estimated production. Each of the significant Camerina A to Miogypsinoides A producing areas in the overall complex is discussed structurally and stratigraphically, including the relationship to the overall regional depositional framework and history of the Camerina A-Miogypsinoides A stratigraphic interval.

  20. Madness and Rulers: Events in Coorg and London in 1810, as observed by the Hon. Arthur Cole, the resident at Mysore

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sanjeev; Sarin, Alok

    2015-01-01

    What happens if a King becomes mentally ill? Excerpts from the personal papers of Arthur Henry Cole, Resident to the Kingdom of Mysore in 1809, open up fascinating insights into the madness of rulers, in neighboring Coorg and faraway London, and ways in which different societies responded to this. Musings on legal capacity and restrictions imposed on account of insanity, as well as migration and ennui in imperial colonies inevitably follow. PMID:26124533

  1. Madness and Rulers: Events in Coorg and London in 1810, as observed by the Hon. Arthur Cole, the resident at Mysore.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjeev; Sarin, Alok

    2015-01-01

    What happens if a King becomes mentally ill? Excerpts from the personal papers of Arthur Henry Cole, Resident to the Kingdom of Mysore in 1809, open up fascinating insights into the madness of rulers, in neighboring Coorg and faraway London, and ways in which different societies responded to this. Musings on legal capacity and restrictions imposed on account of insanity, as well as migration and ennui in imperial colonies inevitably follow.

  2. Arthur J. Dellinger, Sr. , nomination. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, June 28, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A one-day confirmation hearing on the nomination of Arthur J. Dellinger, Sr. as DOE Deputy Inspector General (IG) focused on his ability and willingness to perform the duties and on his technical qualifications. The Deputy IG assists the IG in fraud detection and prevention, department audits to promote economy and efficiency, and policy recommendations. An informational statement covering his background, financial disclosure, and correspondence follows Mr. Dellinger's testimony. (DCK)

  3. Madness and Rulers: Events in Coorg and London in 1810, as observed by the Hon. Arthur Cole, the resident at Mysore.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjeev; Sarin, Alok

    2015-01-01

    What happens if a King becomes mentally ill? Excerpts from the personal papers of Arthur Henry Cole, Resident to the Kingdom of Mysore in 1809, open up fascinating insights into the madness of rulers, in neighboring Coorg and faraway London, and ways in which different societies responded to this. Musings on legal capacity and restrictions imposed on account of insanity, as well as migration and ennui in imperial colonies inevitably follow. PMID:26124533

  4. Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2005-07-01

    Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

  5. Symmetries and conservation laws of space-times admitting two commuting killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Balraj

    In this dissertation, we determined all first-order generalized symmetries of the vacuum Einstein equations for spacetimes admitting two commuting Killing vector fields. The field equations for the two Killing vector models, referred to as the reduced Einstein equations, were first derived using a projection formalism first developed by Geroch. In the derivation of the reduced Einstein equations, we assumed the two-dimensional distribution orthogonal to the vector spaces spanned by the Killing vector fields admits integral submanifolds. Prior to embarking on the symmetry analysis, the reduced Einstein equations were expressed in harmonic-null coordinates. A brief survey of the theory of symmetry groups of differential equations, variational symmetries, and local conservation laws preceded the generalized symmetry analysis of the reduced Einstein equation. These concepts were motivated and presented through their application to a variety of physical systems drawn from classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, classical electromagnetism, and general relativity. We obtained partial results from a preliminary analysis of kth-order generalized symmetries (for k ≥ 1) of the reduced Einstein equations. This was followed by the determination of all first-order generalized symmetries admitted by the reduced Einstein equations. We showed that all first-order generalized symmetries of the reduced Einstein equations are, in fact, prolonged point symmetries. Since the reduced Einstein equations admit a Lagrangian formulation, the variational symmetries and local conservation laws associated with the first-order symmetries were also determined and discussed.

  6. Pseudo-supersymmetry, consistent sphere reduction and Killing spinors for the bosonic string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.; Wang, Zhao-Long

    2011-08-01

    Certain supergravity theories admit a remarkable consistent dimensional reduction in which the internal space is a sphere. Examples include type IIB supergravity reduced on S5, and eleven-dimensional supergravity reduced on S4 or S7. Consistency means that any solution of the dimensionally-reduced theory lifts to give a solution in the higher dimension. Although supersymmetry seems to play a role in the consistency of these reductions, it cannot be the whole story since consistent sphere reductions of non-supersymmetric theories are also known, such as the reduction of the effective action of the bosonic string in any dimension D on either a 3-sphere or a (D - 3)-sphere, retaining the gauge bosons of SO (4) or SO (D - 2) respectively. We show that although there is no supersymmetry, there is nevertheless a natural Killing spinor equation for the D-dimensional bosonic string. A projection of the full integrability condition for these Killing spinors gives rise to the bosonic equations of motion (just as happens in the supergravity examples). Thus it appears that by extending the notion of supersymmetry to "pseudo-supersymmetry" in this way, one may be able to obtain a broader understanding of a relation between Killing spinors and consistent sphere reductions.

  7. Chemo killed the small-talk gene.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Urvashi

    2014-01-01

    Urvashi Vaid is a community organizer and writer active in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and social justice movements for over three decades. She is currently Director of the Engaging Tradition Project at the Center for Gender and Sexuality Law at Columbia University Law School. She is founder of LPAC, the first lesbian political action committee, and sits on the Board of Directors of the Gill Foundation. Vaid's past positions include Executive Director of the Arcus Foundation, Deputy Director of Governance and Civil Society Unit for the Ford Foundation, Executive Director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, and staff attorney for the ACLU National Prison Project. She is author of the books Irresistible Revolution: Confronting Race, Class and The Assumptions of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Politics, and Virtual Equality: The Mainstreaming of Gay & Lesbian Liberation, and co-editor of the book Creating Change: Public Policy, Sexuality and Civil Rights. Urvashi has had thyroid cancer and stage III breast cancer. PMID:24400627

  8. Chemo killed the small-talk gene.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Urvashi

    2014-01-01

    Urvashi Vaid is a community organizer and writer active in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and social justice movements for over three decades. She is currently Director of the Engaging Tradition Project at the Center for Gender and Sexuality Law at Columbia University Law School. She is founder of LPAC, the first lesbian political action committee, and sits on the Board of Directors of the Gill Foundation. Vaid's past positions include Executive Director of the Arcus Foundation, Deputy Director of Governance and Civil Society Unit for the Ford Foundation, Executive Director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, and staff attorney for the ACLU National Prison Project. She is author of the books Irresistible Revolution: Confronting Race, Class and The Assumptions of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Politics, and Virtual Equality: The Mainstreaming of Gay & Lesbian Liberation, and co-editor of the book Creating Change: Public Policy, Sexuality and Civil Rights. Urvashi has had thyroid cancer and stage III breast cancer.

  9. Observations of Ha Line Profiles in Be Stars Using 45 cm Cassegrain Telescope at Arthur C Clarke Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekera, S.; Adassuriya, J.; Medagangoda, N. I.

    2008-12-01

    H-alpha line profiles of 13 Be starts (mv d6.9) were observed using 45 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Arthur C Clarke Institute, Sri Lanka during the period of August 2005 to March 2006. High resolution spectra of these Be stars were obtained using 1200 lines/mm reflective grating in first order with resolution R=λ/Δλ=76800 and linear spectral dispersion 0.31 Å per pixel at 6563 Å in order to find out line parameters such as equivalent width, full width at half-maxima, V/R ratios etc. A study of the correlations between different pairs of parameters was obtained and compared with previous analysis to see the behavior of circumstellar disk. We found a good correlation (0.8) between FWHM and v sin i and strong correlation (0.96) between the Ip/Ic and the equivalent width. The drastic changes of the V/R ratio in profiles HR5941 and HR6712 imply the circumstellar disk is more likely an elliptical shape and undergoes slow apsidal motion. The inclination angles (i) were estimated for each star using the theoretical vsin i values and assuming star rotates in 0.8Vc and are matched with the structure of the line profiles.

  10. The results of the in-flight attitude sensor calibration for the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, W. S.; Eudell, A. H.; Kulp, L. S.; Lindrose, L. A.; Harman, R. R.

    1993-02-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in April 1991. This paper presents the results of the attitude sensor calibration that was performed during the early mission. The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) performed an alignment calibration of the two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and two fine Sun sensors (FSS's) on board Compton GRO. The results show a 27-arcsecond shift between the bore sights of the FHST's with respect to prelaunch measurements. The alignments of the two FSS's shifted by 0.20 and 0.05 degree. During the same time period, the Compton GRO science teams performed an alignment calibration of the science instruments with respect to the attitude reported by the on board computer (OBC). In order to preserve these science alignments, FDF adjusted the overall alignments of the FHST's and FSS's, obtained by the FDF calibration, such that when up linked to the OBC, the shift in the OBC-determined attitude is minimized. FDF also calibrated the inertial reference unit (IRU), which consists of three dual-axis gyroscopes. The observed gyro bias matched the bias that was solved for by the OBC. This bias drifted during the first 6 days after release. The results of the FDF calibration of scale factor and alignment shifts showed changes that were of the same order as their uncertainties.

  11. Arthur Simons (1877-1942) and Tonic Neck Reflexes With Hemiplegic "Mitbewegungen" (Associated Reactions): Cinematography From 1916-1919.

    PubMed

    Holdorff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Tonic neck reflexes were investigated by Rudolf Magnus and Adriaan de Kleijn in animals and men in 1912 and eventually by Arthur Simons, a neurologist in Berlin and coworker of Hermann Oppenheim. Simons studied these reflexes in hemiplegic patients, who were mainly victims of World War I. This work became his most important contribution and remained unsurpassed for many years. The film (Filmarchiv, Bundesarchiv [Film Archive, National Archive] Berlin) with Simons as an examiner shows 11 war casualties with brain lesions that occurred between 1916 and 1919. The injuries reveal asymmetric neck reflexes with "Mitbewegungen," that is, flexion or extension on the hemiplegic side. Mitbewegungen is identical with Francis Walshe's "associated reactions" caused by neck rotation and/or by cocontraction of the nonaffected extremities, for example, by closing of the fist (Walshe). The knowledge of the neck reflexes is important in acute neurology and in rehabilitation therapy of hemiplegics for antispastic positions. Simons' investigations were conducted in the early era of increasing use of cinematography in medical studies. The film had been nearly forgotten until its rediscovery in 2010. PMID:26684424

  12. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930): Physician during the typhoid epidemic in the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902).

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Vincent J

    2014-02-01

    When the Anglo-Boer War broke out in October 1899, Arthur Conan Doyle, a retired ophthalmologist, was already famous as the creator of Sherlock Holmes. Motivated by patriotism and adventure, Doyle joined the medical staff of a private field hospital endowed by philanthropist John Langman (1846-1928). Langman Hospital opened in Bloemfontein, South Africa, at the height of that city's typhoid fever epidemic which raged from April to June 1900. There were nearly 5000 cases of typhoid and 1000 deaths but official statistics do not truly reflect the magnitude of the suffering. Doyle argued that the British Army had made a major mistake by not making antityphoid inoculation compulsory. Because of the new vaccine's side effects, 95% of the soldiers refused immunization. Despite his strong opinions, Doyle failed to press the issue of compulsory inoculation when he testified before two Royal Commissions investigating the medical and military management of the war in South Africa. One can only imagine how the army might have benefited from the new idea of prophylactic vaccination in preventive medicine if Doyle had not let these opportunities slip away. As a consequence, antityphoid inoculation was still voluntary when Great Britain entered World War I in August 1914. PMID:24585840

  13. [Carl Arthur Scheunert's experiments on human nutrition, 1938-1943: boundary transgressions of a scientist under national socialism].

    PubMed

    Joost, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    Carl Arthur Scheunert (1879-1957) was a German scientist who supervised several studies with prisoners that were designed to assess the optimal vitamin and nutrient supply, and were conducted by his associate Karl-Heinz Wagner (1911-2007) from 1938 to 1943. This contribution describes the aims, results and conclusions of Scheunert's research 1923 to 1945 in comparison with the national and international vitamin research and its consequences for public health measures. Conditions and results of the human experiments are reconstructed and compared with similar studies performed in other countries. Burden as well as health risks for the study participants are assessed. In addition, it is discussed whether general rules for human experimentation were followed (e.g. informed consent and minimizing of health risks). Although the available documents support the conclusion that no deaths or lasting injuries were caused, the experiments violated ethical standards, in particular because of the conditions in the Waldheim prison including progressive deterioration of nutrition and health.

  14. Dispersal-induced synchrony, temporal stability, and clustering in a mean-field coupled Rosenzweig-MacArthur model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Ramesh; Dutta, Partha Sharathi; Banerjee, Tanmoy

    2015-10-01

    In spatial ecology, dispersal among a set of spatially separated habitats, named as metapopulation, preserves the diversity and persistence by interconnecting the local populations. Understanding the effects of several variants of dispersion in metapopulation dynamics and to identify the factors which promote population synchrony and population stability are important in ecology. In this paper, we consider the mean-field dispersion among the habitats in a network and study the collective dynamics of the spatially extended system. Using the Rosenzweig-MacArthur model for individual patches, we show that the population synchrony and temporal stability, which are believed to be of conflicting outcomes of dispersion, can be simultaneously achieved by oscillation quenching mechanisms. Particularly, we explore the more natural coupling configuration where the rates of dispersal of different habitats are disparate. We show that asymmetry in dispersal rate plays a crucial role in determining inhomogeneity in an otherwise homogeneous metapopulation. We further identify an unusual emergent state in the network, namely, a multi-branch clustered inhomogeneous steady state, which arises due to the intrinsic parameter mismatch among the patches. We believe that the present study will shed light on the cooperative behavior of spatially structured ecosystems.

  15. The results of the in-flight attitude sensor calibration for the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. S.; Eudell, A. H.; Kulp, L. S.; Lindrose, L. A.; Harman, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in April 1991. This paper presents the results of the attitude sensor calibration that was performed during the early mission. The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) performed an alignment calibration of the two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and two fine Sun sensors (FSS's) on board Compton GRO. The results show a 27-arcsecond shift between the bore sights of the FHST's with respect to prelaunch measurements. The alignments of the two FSS's shifted by 0.20 and 0.05 degree. During the same time period, the Compton GRO science teams performed an alignment calibration of the science instruments with respect to the attitude reported by the on board computer (OBC). In order to preserve these science alignments, FDF adjusted the overall alignments of the FHST's and FSS's, obtained by the FDF calibration, such that when up linked to the OBC, the shift in the OBC-determined attitude is minimized. FDF also calibrated the inertial reference unit (IRU), which consists of three dual-axis gyroscopes. The observed gyro bias matched the bias that was solved for by the OBC. This bias drifted during the first 6 days after release. The results of the FDF calibration of scale factor and alignment shifts showed changes that were of the same order as their uncertainties.

  16. Dispersal-induced synchrony, temporal stability, and clustering in a mean-field coupled Rosenzweig-MacArthur model.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ramesh; Dutta, Partha Sharathi; Banerjee, Tanmoy

    2015-10-01

    In spatial ecology, dispersal among a set of spatially separated habitats, named as metapopulation, preserves the diversity and persistence by interconnecting the local populations. Understanding the effects of several variants of dispersion in metapopulation dynamics and to identify the factors which promote population synchrony and population stability are important in ecology. In this paper, we consider the mean-field dispersion among the habitats in a network and study the collective dynamics of the spatially extended system. Using the Rosenzweig-MacArthur model for individual patches, we show that the population synchrony and temporal stability, which are believed to be of conflicting outcomes of dispersion, can be simultaneously achieved by oscillation quenching mechanisms. Particularly, we explore the more natural coupling configuration where the rates of dispersal of different habitats are disparate. We show that asymmetry in dispersal rate plays a crucial role in determining inhomogeneity in an otherwise homogeneous metapopulation. We further identify an unusual emergent state in the network, namely, a multi-branch clustered inhomogeneous steady state, which arises due to the intrinsic parameter mismatch among the patches. We believe that the present study will shed light on the cooperative behavior of spatially structured ecosystems. PMID:26520087

  17. Toward a Pragmatist Epistemology: Arthur O. Lovejoy's and H. S. Jennings's Biophilosophical Responses to Neovitalism, 1909-1914.

    PubMed

    Russell, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The sustained interdisciplinary debate about neovitalism between two Johns Hopkins University colleagues, philosopher Arthur O. Lovejoy and experimental geneticist H. S. Jennings, in the period 1911-1914, was the basis for their theoretical reconceptualization of scientific knowledge as contingent and necessarily incomplete in its account of nature. Their response to Hans Driesch's neovitalist concept of entelechy, and his challenge to the continuity between biology and the inorganic sciences, resulted in a historically significant articulation of genetics and philosophy. This study traces the debate's shift of problem-focus away from neovitalism's threat to the unity of science - "organic autonomy," as Lovejoy put it - and toward the potential for development of a nonmechanististic, nonrationalist theory of scientific knowledge. The result was a new pragmatist epistemology, based on Lovejoy's and Jennings's critiques of the inadequacy of pragmatism's account of scientific knowledge. The first intellectual move, drawing on naturalism and pragmatism, was based on a reinterpretation of science as organized experience. The second, sparked by Henri Bergson's theory of creative evolution, and drawing together elements of Dewey's and James's pragmatisms, produced a new account of the contingency and necessary incompleteness of scientific knowledge. Prompted by the neovitalists' mix of a priori concepts and, in Driesch's case, and adherence to empiricism, Lovejoy's and Jennings's developing pragmatist epistemologies of science explored the interrelation between rationalism and empiricism.

  18. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930): Physician during the typhoid epidemic in the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902).

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Vincent J

    2014-02-01

    When the Anglo-Boer War broke out in October 1899, Arthur Conan Doyle, a retired ophthalmologist, was already famous as the creator of Sherlock Holmes. Motivated by patriotism and adventure, Doyle joined the medical staff of a private field hospital endowed by philanthropist John Langman (1846-1928). Langman Hospital opened in Bloemfontein, South Africa, at the height of that city's typhoid fever epidemic which raged from April to June 1900. There were nearly 5000 cases of typhoid and 1000 deaths but official statistics do not truly reflect the magnitude of the suffering. Doyle argued that the British Army had made a major mistake by not making antityphoid inoculation compulsory. Because of the new vaccine's side effects, 95% of the soldiers refused immunization. Despite his strong opinions, Doyle failed to press the issue of compulsory inoculation when he testified before two Royal Commissions investigating the medical and military management of the war in South Africa. One can only imagine how the army might have benefited from the new idea of prophylactic vaccination in preventive medicine if Doyle had not let these opportunities slip away. As a consequence, antityphoid inoculation was still voluntary when Great Britain entered World War I in August 1914.

  19. Toward a Pragmatist Epistemology: Arthur O. Lovejoy's and H. S. Jennings's Biophilosophical Responses to Neovitalism, 1909-1914.

    PubMed

    Russell, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The sustained interdisciplinary debate about neovitalism between two Johns Hopkins University colleagues, philosopher Arthur O. Lovejoy and experimental geneticist H. S. Jennings, in the period 1911-1914, was the basis for their theoretical reconceptualization of scientific knowledge as contingent and necessarily incomplete in its account of nature. Their response to Hans Driesch's neovitalist concept of entelechy, and his challenge to the continuity between biology and the inorganic sciences, resulted in a historically significant articulation of genetics and philosophy. This study traces the debate's shift of problem-focus away from neovitalism's threat to the unity of science - "organic autonomy," as Lovejoy put it - and toward the potential for development of a nonmechanististic, nonrationalist theory of scientific knowledge. The result was a new pragmatist epistemology, based on Lovejoy's and Jennings's critiques of the inadequacy of pragmatism's account of scientific knowledge. The first intellectual move, drawing on naturalism and pragmatism, was based on a reinterpretation of science as organized experience. The second, sparked by Henri Bergson's theory of creative evolution, and drawing together elements of Dewey's and James's pragmatisms, produced a new account of the contingency and necessary incompleteness of scientific knowledge. Prompted by the neovitalists' mix of a priori concepts and, in Driesch's case, and adherence to empiricism, Lovejoy's and Jennings's developing pragmatist epistemologies of science explored the interrelation between rationalism and empiricism. PMID:25099169

  20. Characterization of UV-peroxide killing of bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Reidmiller, Jeffrey S; Baldeck, Jeremiah D; Rutherford, Glen C; Marquis, Robert E

    2003-07-01

    Advantage is taken in many sterilization processes, especially for food packaging materials, of the synergy between H2O2 and UV irradiation for spore killing. The nature of the synergy is currently not well defined in terms of targets and mechanisms. We found that under some experimental conditions, the synergistic killing of spores of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 19213 appeared to be mainly UV-enhanced peroxide killing, while under other conditions, it appeared to be mainly peroxide-enhanced UV killing. Lethal combinations of H2O2 and UV irradiation for spores resulted in only modest increases in auxotrophic mutations among survivors, indicative of little DNA damage, in contrast to higher mutation levels after dry-heat damage at 115 degrees C. However, the combination of UV light and peroxide did lead to major inactivation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that was used to monitor the damage to bacterial protein. Synergistic UV-H2O2 killing was reduced by agents such as pyruvate, thiosulfate, and iron or copper cations, which appeared to act at least in part by reacting chemically with H2O2, and was only slightly affected by the use of UV light at a wavelength of 222 nn rather than 254 nm. Hydrogen peroxide treatment can precede UV irradiation for synergistic killing by some hours with an interim of drying for spores of Bacillus subtilis A, a spore type used commonly for the validation of aseptic processes. Synergistic killing of dried spores or those in suspensions was accelerated at higher temperatures (50 degrees C) rather than at lower temperatures (25 degrees C). PMID:12870758

  1. Human milk kills Giardia lamblia by generating toxic lipolytic products.

    PubMed

    Reiner, D S; Wang, C S; Gillin, F D

    1986-11-01

    This study supports our previous hypotheses that normal human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro and that this killing is due to the release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from milk triglycerides by action of the bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSL) of human milk. Heat-stable killing of G. lamblia was generated when normal human milk was preincubated with sodium cholate, which activates BSL. Moreover, both the skim-milk (containing BSL) and cream (containing mainly triglycerides) fractions were required to kill G. lamblia. We measured the toxicity of FFA and other products of lipolysis to G. lamblia. cis-Unsaturated FFAs (LD50 less than 12 microM), three of four monoglycerides, and four of five lysophosphatidylcholines were toxic to the parasites (LD50 less than 100 microM). In contrast, the parasites were not harmed by the corresponding diglycerides, phosphatidylcholines, triolein, or glycerol. Thus, products of lipid hydrolysis in the normal digestive tract are toxic to G. lamblia. We also demonstrated that albumin and conjugated bile salts, which bind FFA, partially protected trophozoites from killing by oleic acid.

  2. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, John L; Brown, Charles R

    2016-03-30

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions.

  3. Rotating Killing horizons in generic F( R) gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2016-10-01

    We discuss various properties of rotating Killing horizons in generic F( R) theories of gravity in dimension four for spacetimes endowed with two commuting Killing vector fields. Assuming there is no curvature singularity anywhere on or outside the horizon, we construct a suitable (3+1)-foliation. We show that similar to Einstein's gravity, we must have T_{ab}k^ak^b=0 on the Killing horizon, where k^a is a null geodesic tangent to the horizon. For axisymmetric spacetimes, the effective gravitational coupling ˜ F'^{-1}(R) should usually depend upon the polar coordinate and hence need not necessarily be a constant on the Killing horizon. We prove that the surface gravity of such a Killing horizon must be a constant, irrespective of whether F'(R) is a constant there or not. We next apply these results to investigate some further basic features. In particular, we show that any hairy solution for the real massive vector field in such theories is clearly ruled out, as long as the potential of the scalar field generated in the corresponding Einstein's frame is a positive definite quantity.

  4. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, John L; Brown, Charles R

    2016-03-30

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions. PMID:27009223

  5. Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age = 14.6, SD = 0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  6. Antigen specific killing assay using CFSE labeled target cells.

    PubMed

    Durward, Marina; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2010-11-09

    Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) can be used to easily and quickly label a cell population of interest for in vivo investigation. This labeling has classically been used to study proliferation and migration. In the method presented here, we have shortened the timeline after adoptive transfer to look at survival and killing of epitope specific CFSE labeled target cells. The level of specific killing of a CD8 + T cell clone can indicate the quality of the response, as their quantity may be misleading. Specific CD8+ T cells can become functionally exhausted over time with a decline in cytokine production and killing. Also, certain CD8 + T cell clones may not kill as well as others with differing TCR specificities. For effective Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI), antigens must be identified that produce not only adequate numbers of responding T cells, but also functionally robust responding T cells. Here we assess the percent cell specific killing of two peptide specific T cell clones in BALB/c mice.

  7. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  8. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  9. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  10. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  11. Evolution of early male-killing in horizontally transmitted parasites.

    PubMed

    Bernhauerová, Veronika; Berec, Luděk; Maxin, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Early male-killing (MK) bacteria are vertically transmitted reproductive parasites which kill male offspring that inherit them. Whereas their incidence is well documented, characteristics allowing originally non-MK bacteria to gradually evolve MK ability remain unclear. We show that horizontal transmission is a mechanism enabling vertically transmitted bacteria to evolve fully efficient MK under a wide range of host and parasite characteristics, especially when the efficacy of vertical transmission is high. We also show that an almost 100% vertically transmitted and 100% effective male-killer may evolve from a purely horizontally transmitted non-MK ancestor, and that a 100% efficient male-killer can form a stable coexistence only with a non-MK bacterial strain. Our findings are in line with the empirical evidence on current MK bacteria, explain their high efficacy in killing infected male embryos and their variability within and across insect taxa, and suggest that they may have evolved independently in phylogenetically distinct species.

  12. Almost-Killing conserved currents: A general mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Milton; Palenzuela, Carlos; Bona, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A new class of conserved currents, describing nongravitational energy-momentum density, is presented. The proposed currents do not require the existence of a (timelike) Killing vector, and are not restricted to spherically symmetric spacetimes (or similar ones, in which the Kodama vector can be defined). They are based instead on almost-Killing vectors, which could in principle be defined on generic spacetimes. We provide local arguments, based on energy density profiles in highly simplified (stationary, rigidly rotating) star models, which confirm the physical interest of these almost-Killing currents. A mass function is defined in this way for the spherical case, qualitatively different from the Hernández-Misner mass function. An elliptic equation determining the new mass function is derived for the Tolman-Bondi spherically symmetric dust metrics, including a simple solution for the Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse. The equations for the nonsymmetric case are shown to be of a mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nature.

  13. DNA damage and cell killing. Cause and effect

    SciTech Connect

    Elkind, M.M.

    1985-11-15

    The evidence supporting a cause and effect relationship between DNA damage and cell killing is examined in the light of what is currently known about the organization and replication of genomic DNA in eukaryotic cells and the radio-energetics of DNA breakage. A large disparity is identified between characteristic doses for cell killing and for the production of DNA lesions (i.e., single- or double-strand breaks). In contrast, the sensitive phase of the inhibition of DNA synthesis has a dependence on dose quantitatively similar to that of cell killing. A model is developed in which single- and double-strand breaks are associated with the inhibition of replicon initiation, whereas only double-strand breaks are primarily responsible for strand elongation. Furthermore, the model points to the replisome and the region of replicated DNA just downstream from the fork as the locus of radiation action.

  14. Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, M. Farasat; Jhangeer, Adil; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkowski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries (Bokhari et al. in Int. J. Theor. Phys. 45:1063, 2006).

  15. Human platelets efficiently kill IgG-opsonized E. coli.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Anum H; Tasma, Brian E; Woodman, Michael E; Wooten, R Mark; Worth, Randall G

    2012-06-01

    Platelets are known contributors of hemostasis but have recently been shown to be important in inflammation and infectious diseases. Moreover, thrombocytopenia is often observed in patients with sepsis. We previously reported that platelets actively phagocytosed IgG-coated latex beads. In this study, the capacity of human platelets to participate in host defense against bacterial infections was determined by assessing their ability to kill Escherichia coli. Washed human platelets were incubated with unopsonized or IgG-opsonized E. coli and evaluated for binding and killing of E. coli. We found that although both unopsonized and IgG-opsonized E. coli were associated with platelets, only IgG-opsonized E. coli were efficiently killed unless platelets were activated by a potent agonist. The bactericidal activity was dependent on FcγRIIA, was sensitive to cytochalasin D, but was not due to reactive oxygen metabolites. These data suggest that platelets may play an important role in protection against infection.

  16. Role of copper oxides in contact killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hans, Michael; Erbe, Andreas; Mathews, Salima; Chen, Ying; Solioz, Marc; Mücklich, Frank

    2013-12-31

    The potential of metallic copper as an intrinsically antibacterial material is gaining increasing attention in the face of growing antibiotics resistance of bacteria. However, the mechanism of the so-called "contact killing" of bacteria by copper surfaces is poorly understood and requires further investigation. In particular, the influences of bacteria-metal interaction, media composition, and copper surface chemistry on contact killing are not fully understood. In this study, copper oxide formation on copper during standard antimicrobial testing was measured in situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry. In parallel, contact killing under these conditions was assessed with bacteria in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or Tris-Cl. For comparison, defined Cu2O and CuO layers were thermally generated and characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial properties of these copper oxides were tested under the conditions used above. Finally, copper ion release was recorded for both buffer systems by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy, and exposed copper samples were analyzed for topographical surface alterations. It was found that there was a fairly even growth of CuO under wet plating conditions, reaching 4-10 nm in 300 min, but no measurable Cu2O was formed during this time. CuO was found to significantly inhibit contact killing, compared to pure copper. In contrast, thermally generated Cu2O was essentially as effective in contact killing as pure copper. Copper ion release from the different surfaces roughly correlated with their antibacterial efficacy and was highest for pure copper, followed by Cu2O and CuO. Tris-Cl induced a 10-50-fold faster copper ion release compared to PBS. Since the Cu2O that primarily forms on copper under ambient conditions is as active in contact killing as pure copper, antimicrobial objects will retain their antimicrobial properties even after oxide formation.

  17. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare.

  18. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  19. The enigma of the Arthur's Pass, New Zealand, earthquake 1. Reconciling a variety of data for an unusual earthquake sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abercrombie, R.E.; Webb, T.H.; Robinson, R.; McGinty, P.J.; Mori, J.J.; Beavan, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1994 Arthur's Pass earthquake (Mw6.7) is the largest in a recent sequence of earthquakes in the central South Island, New Zealand. No surface rupture was observed the aftershock distribution was complex, and routine methods of obtaining the faulting orientation of this earthquake proved contradictory. We use a range of data and techniques to obtain our preferred solution, which has a centroid depth of 5 km, Mo=1.3??1019 N m, and a strike, dip, and rake of 221??, 47??, 112??, respectively. Discrepancies between this solution and the Harvard centroid moment tensor, together with the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and unusual aftershock distribution, suggest that the rupture may not have occurred on a planar fault. A second, strike slip, subevent on a more northerly striking plane is suggested by these data but neither the body wave modeling nor regional broadband recordings show any complexity or late subevents. We relocate the aftershocks using both one-dimensional and three-dimensional velocity inversions. The depth range of the aftershocks (1-10 km) agrees well with the preferred mainshock centroid depth. The aftershocks near the hypocenter suggest a structure dipping toward the NW, which we interpret to be the mainshock fault plane. This structure and the Harper fault, ???15 km to the south appear to have acted as boundaries to the extensive aftershock zone trending NNW-SSE Most of the ML???5 aftershocks, including the two largest (ML6.1 and ML5.7), clustered near the Harper fault and have strike slip mechanisms consistent with motion on this fault and its conjugates. Forward modeling of the GPS data suggests that a reverse slip mainshock, combined with strike slip aftershock faulting in the south, is able to match the observed displacements. The occurrence of this earthquake sequence implies that the level of seismic hazard in the central South Island is greater than previous estimates. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Uptake of Web-based clinical resources from the MacArthur Initiative on Depression and Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Han, Changsu; Voils, Corrine I; Williams, John W

    2013-04-01

    This study assessed the usability and desired enhancements for the MacArthur Foundation's Depression and Primary Care (MDPC) Web site to determine if resources for integrated depression care that are disseminated through the Web site are incorporated into routine clinical care. Since its launch in 2003, more than 20,000 users registered as members of the MDPC website to read and download depression care resources. Subjects were randomly selected from MDPC Web site users who had previously downloaded the depression toolkit. Web-based survey, which was administered anonymously, included the following domains: (1) socio-demographic data, (2) confidence in managing depression (3) Web site content and design features, (4) desired enhancements to Web site and content, (5) use of resources downloaded from the Web site, and (6) importance of depression care resources. Of the 3,478 randomly selected participants, 666 (19.1%) responded. Web site content was rated "good" or "excellent" for screening and diagnosis (84.3%), treatment (69.8%), patient education (66.2%), and care management (66.9%). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was rated "very useful" by 68.3%; 47.1% reported using it in at least 25% of encounters with patients who are depressed. PHQ-9 use was significantly associated with higher self-confidence in managing depression (P = 0.05). Evidence-based resources for depression care can be disseminated effectively through a dedicated Web site and may help clinicians incorporate effective care models into routine practice.

  1. Cars kill chimpanzees: case report of a wild chimpanzee killed on a road at Bulindi, Uganda.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan

  2. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

  3. Human polymorphonuclear neutrophils specifically recognize and kill cancerous cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Kloecker, Goetz; Fleming, Chris; Bousamra, Michael; Hansen, Richard; Hu, Xiaoling; Ding, Chuanlin; Cai, Yihua; Xiang, Dong; Donninger, Howard; Eaton, John W; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the main effectors of the innate immune system, have rarely been considered as an anticancer therapeutic tool. However, recent investigations using animal models and preliminary clinical studies have highlighted the potential antitumor efficacy of PMNs. In the current study, we find that PMNs from some healthy donors naturally have potent cancer-killing activity against 4 different human cancer cell lines. The killing activity appears to be cancer cell-specific since PMNs did not kill primary normal epithelial cells or an immortalized breast epithelial cell line. Transfecting the immortalized mammary cells with plasmids expressing activated forms of the rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Ras) and teratocarcinoma oncogene 21 (TC21) oncogenes was sufficient to provoke aggressive attack by PMNs. However, transfection with activated Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac1) was ineffective, suggesting specificity in PMN-targeting of neoplastic cells. Furthermore, PMNs from lung cancer patients were also found to exhibit relatively poor cancer-killing activity compared to the cytolytic activity of the average healthy donor. Taken together, our results suggest that PMN-based treatment regimens may represent a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy that may be easily introduced into the clinic to benefit a subset of patients with PMN-vulnerable tumors. PMID:25610737

  4. Neocognitron trained with winner-kill-loser rule.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kunihiko

    2010-09-01

    The neocognitron, which was proposed by Fukushima (1980), is a hierarchical multi-layered neural network capable of robust visual pattern recognition. It acquires the ability to recognize patterns through learning. This paper proposes a new rule for competitive learning, named winner-kill-loser, and apply it to the neocognitron. The winner-kill-loser rule resembles the winner-take-all rule. Every time when a training stimulus is presented, non-silent cells compete with each other. The winner, however, not only takes all, but also kills losers. In other words, the winner learns the training stimulus, and losers are removed from the network. If all cells are silent, a new cell is generated and it learns the training stimulus. Thus feature-extracting cells gradually come to distribute uniformly in the feature space. The use of winner-kill-loser rule is not limited to the neocognitron. It is useful for various types of competitive learning, in general. This paper also proposes several improvements made on the neocognitron: such as, disinhibition to the inhibitory surround in the connections to C-cells (or complex cells) from S-cells (or simple cells); and square root shaped saturation in the input-to-output characteristics of C-cells. As a result of these improvements, the recognition rate of the neocognitron has been largely increased.

  5. Male-killing Wolbachia in two species of insect

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, G. D. D.; Jiggins, F. M.; Schulenburg, J. H. G. von der; Bertrand, D.; West, S. A.; Goriacheva, I. I.; Zakharov, I. A.; Werren, J. H.; Stouthamer, R.; Majerus, M. E. N.

    1999-01-01

    The inherited bacterium Wolbachia spreads through the manipulation of host reproduction, and has been suggested to be an important factor in arthropod evolution, from host speciation to the evolution of sex-determination systems. Past work has shown that members of this group may produce cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminize genetically male hosts, and induce host parthenogenesis. Here, we report an expansion of the range of reproductive manipulations produced by members of this clade, recording Wolbachia strains that kill male hosts during embryogenesis in two host species, the ladybird Adalia bipunctata, and the butterfly Acraea encedon. Both male-killing bacteria belong to the B group of Wolbachia. However, phylogenetic analyses were unable to resolve whether the bacteria in the two species are monophyletic, or represent independent origins of male-killing among the B-group Wolbachia. We also found significant divergence within the wsp gene of Wolbachia strains found in different A. bipunctata individuals, suggesting this host species contains two Wolbachia strains, diverged in wsp sequence but monophyletic. Our observations reinforce the notion that Wolbachia may be an important agent driving arthropod evolution, and corroborates previous suggestions that male-killing behaviour is easily evolved by invertebrate symbionts.

  6. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  7. Strength in Numbers: Visualizing CTL-Mediated Killing In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Nolz, Jeffrey C; Hill, Ann B

    2016-02-16

    Cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs) have long been believed to be extremely efficient killers. Forster and colleagues (Halle et al., 2016) used in vivo imaging to tell a different story, in which each CTL killed only 2-16 targets a day, and several CTLs per target were needed to get the job done. PMID:26885849

  8. Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertozzi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

  9. 20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  10. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells. PMID:26441897

  11. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  12. Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2008-12-01

    Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies.

  13. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  14. Licence to Kill: About Accreditation Issues and James Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheele, Ko

    2004-01-01

    Accreditation has become something of a hot topic in higher education. In Europe it has been described as a 'Licence to Kill'. The James Bond metaphor is particularly illustrative when reflecting on quality assurance challenges in higher education. Publications on this subject in recent years reveal that the array of issues associated with…

  15. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  16. 22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  17. 21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  18. What Is John Dewey Doing in "To Kill a Mockingbird"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is taught in countless public schools and is beloved by many teachers and future teachers. Embedded within this novel--interestingly--is a strong criticism of an approach to education mockingly referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System." In this essay I explore Lee's criticism of…

  19. Developing a Critical Literacy Approach with "To Kill a Mockingbird."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spires, Marian

    2000-01-01

    Ponders why the novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" has held a place in the secondary school canon for 40 years. Describes a 10-week unit for year 10 English students that takes a critical literacy approach to the novel. Outlines a set of pre-reading activities, during reading activities and post-reading activities. (SR)

  20. Measurement of bacterial ingestion and killing by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P A; Canono, B P; Drevets, D A

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents fairly simple assays for measuring the binding of bacteria to macrophages, internalization of bacteria (also called ingestion or phagocytosis), and bacterial killing by macrophages. The first basic protocol describes how to measure the ability of macrophages to ingest bacteria. Because it is critical to remove residual extracellular organisms, the protocol presents two alternative steps to accomplish this: a washing procedure and a more stringent method in which cells are sedimented through sucrose. In addition, it is important to distinguish those bacteria truly ingested by a macrophage from those that are bound to, but not internalized by, the cell. A simple but effective way to do this is described in an alternate protocol. The unit also presents two ways to measure the ability of a macrophage to kill bacteria it has internalized. The first is a straightforward assay in which bacterial colonies are enumerated before and after a killing period; a subsequent colony count will indicate whether the bacteria grew within or were killed by the macrophage. The second protocol describes a way to measure bacterial viability based on bacterial metabolism, in which the ability of bacterial dehydrogenases to mediate the reduction of a tetrazolium salt to purple formazan is monitored by measuring absorbance spectrophotometrically.

  1. [Correspondence from Julio Porto-Carrero to Arthur Ramos: the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and concern over the translation of psychoanalytic terms in the 1920s and 1930s].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafael Dias de

    2015-12-01

    The article presents the correspondence that psychiatrist Julio Porto-Carrero sent to psychiatrist Arthur Ramos in 1932 to inform him about the activities of the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and about a concern over systematizing the translation of certain psychoanalytic concepts into Portuguese. This correspondence is used in conjunction with the analysis of other sources to suggest that psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in Rio de Janeiro were then endeavoring to make a place for psychoanalysis in the day's medical and scientific circles and encourage ever more specialists in Brazil to take an interest in Freud's theory. PMID:26625925

  2. [Correspondence from Julio Porto-Carrero to Arthur Ramos: the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and concern over the translation of psychoanalytic terms in the 1920s and 1930s].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafael Dias de

    2015-12-01

    The article presents the correspondence that psychiatrist Julio Porto-Carrero sent to psychiatrist Arthur Ramos in 1932 to inform him about the activities of the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and about a concern over systematizing the translation of certain psychoanalytic concepts into Portuguese. This correspondence is used in conjunction with the analysis of other sources to suggest that psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in Rio de Janeiro were then endeavoring to make a place for psychoanalysis in the day's medical and scientific circles and encourage ever more specialists in Brazil to take an interest in Freud's theory.

  3. Hidden symmetries and Lie algebra structures from geometric and supergravity Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açık, Özgür; Ertem, Ümit

    2016-08-01

    We consider geometric and supergravity Killing spinors and the spinor bilinears constructed out of them. The spinor bilinears of geometric Killing spinors correspond to the antisymmetric generalizations of Killing vector fields which are called Killing-Yano forms. They constitute a Lie superalgebra structure in constant curvature spacetimes. We show that the Dirac currents of geometric Killing spinors satisfy a Lie algebra structure up to a condition on 2-form spinor bilinears. We propose that the spinor bilinears of supergravity Killing spinors give way to different generalizations of Killing vector fields to higher degree forms. It is also shown that those supergravity Killing forms constitute a Lie algebra structure in six- and ten-dimensional cases. For five- and eleven-dimensional cases, the Lie algebra structure depends on an extra condition on supergravity Killing forms.

  4. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  5. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  6. PA-824 Kills Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Intracellular NO Release

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ramandeep; Manjunatha, Ujjini; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Ha, Young Hwan; Niyomrattanakit, Pornwaratt; Ledwidge, Richard; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Pilho; Zhang, Liang; Kang, Sunhee; Keller, Thomas H.; Jiricek, Jan; Barry, Clifton E.

    2009-01-01

    Bicyclic nitroimidazoles, including PA-824, are exciting candidates for the treatment of tuberculosis. These prodrugs require intracellular activation for their biological function. We found that Rv3547 is a deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase (Ddn) that converts PA-824 into three primary metabolites; the major one is the corresponding des-nitroimidazole (des-nitro). When derivatives of PA-824 were used, the amount of des-nitro metabolite formed was highly correlated with anaerobic killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Des-nitro metabolite formation generated reactive nitrogen species, including nitric oxide (NO), which are the major effectors of the anaerobic activity of these compounds. Furthermore, NO scavengers protected the bacilli from the lethal effects of the drug. Thus, these compounds may act as intracellular NO donors and could augment a killing mechanism intrinsic to the innate immune system. PMID:19039139

  7. Secondary Kill Effect of Deltamethrin on Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    MALONEY, KATHLEEN M.; ANCCA-JUAREZ, JENNY; SALAZAR, RENZO; BORRINI-MAYORI, KATTY; PAMO-TITO, DANITZA; KEATING, JOSEPH A.; LEVY, MICHAEL Z.

    2012-01-01

    Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, relies on the application of pyrethroid insecticides, especially deltamethrin. We performed laboratory studies to determine whether a T. infestans nymph that comes into contact with a deltamethrin-treated surface horizontally transfers the insecticide to subsequent triatomines. We found that a triatomine that walks on a deltamethrin-treated surface for a short period of time has the ability to transport the insecticide in concentrations sufficient to kill other triatomines with which it comes into contact. The effect was limited to high-density environments, and mortality as a result of secondary exposure was greater among second-instar nymphs compared with fifth-instar nymphs. Our results suggest that deltamethrin could be killing triatomines through both direct and indirect contact, although it remains unclear whether the phenomenon occurs in natural conditions. PMID:21845956

  8. Mechanisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to complement-mediated killing.

    PubMed Central

    Merino, S; Camprubí, S; Albertí, S; Benedí, V J; Tomás, J M

    1992-01-01

    The different mechanisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to complement-mediated killing were investigated by using different strains and isogenic mutants previously characterized for their surface components. We found that strains from serotypes whose K antigen masks the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules (such as serotypes K1, K10, and K16) fail to activate complement, while strains with smooth LPS exposed at the cell surface (with or without K antigen) activate complement but are resistant to complement-mediated killing. The reasons for this resistance are that C3b binds far from the cell membrane and that the lytic final complex C5b-9 (membrane attack complex) is not formed. Isogenic rough mutants (K+ or K-) are serum sensitive because they bind C3b close to the cell membrane and the lytic complex (C5b-9) is formed. Images PMID:1587619

  9. Fathers who kill their children: an analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    West, Sara G; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Resnick, Phillip J

    2009-03-01

    Roughly half of filicidal acts are committed by fathers, though the majority of the literature focuses on maternal filicide. This paper reviews the existing literature on paternal filicide with the goal of identifying characteristics common among these fathers. Fathers who killed their children were, on average, in their mid thirties. The mean age of their victims was five. They may have multiple victims. Sons and daughters were killed in equal numbers. Reasons included death related to abuse, mental illness (including psychosis and depression), and revenge against a spouse. The method often involved wounding violence. Suicide following the act occurred frequently. After being tried for their crimes, filicidal fathers were more frequently incarcerated than hospitalized. Given the range of those capable of this act, mental health professionals must be alert to the possibility of filicide in a variety of fathers. Considering this risk, clinicians should inquire about thoughts of harming children, partners, and themselves. PMID:19187457

  10. "Thou shalt not kill": some legal and linguistic problems.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2004-10-01

    Large plaques of the religious precepts generally known as the Ten Commandments were recently placed in official public spaces in several states. This practice has been successfully challenged in federal courts of appeals, and the challenge was upheld by the Supreme Court in April 2003. Yet there is another problem with such plaques, if older translations are used. "Thou shalt not kill" is actually a mistranslation of the Hebrew, "You shall not murder. The two statements are not synonymous, yet many people in the world still use archaic biblical translations, with unfortunate bioethical consequences. There is also widespread usage of a non-commandment, "Thou shalt not kill; but needst not strive officiously to keep alive." This is not a biblical injunction; it is a line from A.H. Clough's satirical poem, "The Latest Decalogue."

  11. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  12. "Thou shalt not kill": some legal and linguistic problems.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2004-10-01

    Large plaques of the religious precepts generally known as the Ten Commandments were recently placed in official public spaces in several states. This practice has been successfully challenged in federal courts of appeals, and the challenge was upheld by the Supreme Court in April 2003. Yet there is another problem with such plaques, if older translations are used. "Thou shalt not kill" is actually a mistranslation of the Hebrew, "You shall not murder. The two statements are not synonymous, yet many people in the world still use archaic biblical translations, with unfortunate bioethical consequences. There is also widespread usage of a non-commandment, "Thou shalt not kill; but needst not strive officiously to keep alive." This is not a biblical injunction; it is a line from A.H. Clough's satirical poem, "The Latest Decalogue." PMID:15543439

  13. Platelets kill intraerythrocytic malarial parasites and mediate survival to infection.

    PubMed

    McMorran, Brendan J; Marshall, Vikki M; de Graaf, Carolyn; Drysdale, Karen E; Shabbar, Meriam; Smyth, Gordon K; Corbin, Jason E; Alexander, Warren S; Foote, Simon J

    2009-02-01

    Platelets play a critical role in the pathogenesis of malarial infections by encouraging the sequestration of infected red blood cells within the cerebral vasculature. But platelets also have well-established roles in innate protection against microbial infections. We found that purified human platelets killed Plasmodium falciparum parasites cultured in red blood cells. Inhibition of platelet function by aspirin and other platelet inhibitors abrogated the lethal effect human platelets exert on P. falciparum parasites. Likewise, platelet-deficient and aspirin-treated mice were more susceptible to death during erythrocytic infection with Plasmodium chabaudi. Both mouse and human platelets bind malarial-infected red cells and kill the parasite within. These results indicate a protective function for platelets in the early stages of erythrocytic infection distinct from their role in cerebral malaria.

  14. Temporal Variability of Surface CO2 Emissions at the Horseshoe Lake Tree Kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Rogie, J. D.; Hilley, G. E.; Fischer, M. L.; Tosha, T.; Aoyagi, R.; Benson, S. M.; Yamamoto, K.

    2006-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a dacitic volcano located on the southwestern rim of Long Valley caldera in eastern California. An eleven-month-long seismic swarm occurred beneath Mammoth in 1989 and was followed in 1990 by CO2 emissions around the flanks of the volcano, resulting in the formation of large areas of tree kill associated with high soil CO2 concentrations. Carbon dioxide emissions have persisted at Mammoth to the present day, allowing Mammoth to serve as a natural analogue for short-to-long-term CO2 leakage from geologic carbon storage sites. The Horseshoe Lake tree kill is the largest on the volcano and numerous investigations have been conducted here to quantify CO2 emission rates, determine spatial and temporal variability, and understand effects on the near-surface environment. In particular, continuous monitoring of soil CO2 fluxes (accumulation chamber method) and meteorological parameters at a point location was carried out along with repeat flux measurements along a grid in the tree-kill area in 1998-2000. Results showed large temporal variations in both point CO2 fluxes and total aerial CO2 emission rates driven primarily by fluctuations in wind and atmospheric pressure, rather than deep subsurface processes. We will build on previous studies of CO2 emissions at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill and present results of an investigation of CO2 emissions using the eddy covariance and accumulation chamber methods carried out in September-October, 2006. Spatially and temporally averaged net CO2 fluxes (eddy covariance method) will be used in conjunction with repeat point measurements of soil CO2 fluxes along a grid (accumulation chamber method) to quantify present-day CO2 emission, its temporal variability on half- hour to monthly time scales, and the physical controls on this variability. Implications of CO2 emissions at Mammoth Mountain for geologic carbon storage projects will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the Ernest Lawrence Berkeley

  15. Clarke, Arthur C (1917-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Science fiction writer and space visionary, born in Minehead, Somerset, England. Worked during the second World War on radar ground controlled approach equipment, became president of the British Interplanetary Society. In 1945 he wrote a paper `Extra-terrestrial relays' which described the principle of satellites in geostationary orbits. The geostationary orbit at 42 000 kilometers has been named...

  16. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide.

    PubMed

    Roy Chowdhury, Arnab; Bakshi, Rahul; Wang, Jianyang; Yildirir, Gokben; Liu, Beiyu; Pappas-Brown, Valeria; Tolun, Gökhan; Griffith, Jack D; Shapiro, Theresa A; Jensen, Robert E; Englund, Paul T

    2010-12-16

    Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB) is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic) led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed). In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

  17. [The vegetarian appeal and killing animals. An ethical challenge].

    PubMed

    Luy, J; Hildebrandt, G; von Mickwitz, G

    2001-01-01

    The demand for renunciation of killing animals has already been discussed by mankind since ancient times. Many arguments for and against this demand have accumulated in the meantime. The reproaches of the vegetarians repeatedly forced the ones who eat meat to justify their diet. Today most of these historical justifications however have to be rejected because of lacking plausibility. Many of the vegetarian arguments on the other hand must be rejected for similar reasons as well. Remaining as morally convincing is the demand for doing the killing absolutely painless and without frightening the animals, which was already formulated for example by Kant and Schopenhauer. Arguments which consider this way of killing as still immoral belong in a broad sense to the "anthropocentric" animal ethics. They do not belong to what is called in Germany "pathocentric" animal ethics, because an animal that is killed without being frightened or tortured, has not suffered, for it hasn't consciously realized anything like danger or harm. We do even argue that these animals are not harmed at all, because it seems senseless to talk about harm without negative conscious phenomena. To push ahead a ban on animal slaughter for moral reasons could be itself morally wrong because it would disturb indirectly many people's conscious well-being without being justified by protecting an animal's conscious well-being. It is however possible to derive from a general duty not to make animals suffer (pathocentric animal ethics) a duty to boycott food of animal origin if these animals had to suffer during their lives.

  18. An El Jobo Mastodon Kill at Taima-taima, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bryan, A L; Casamiquela, R M; Cruxent, J M; Gruhn, R; Ochsenius, C

    1978-06-16

    Excavation at Taima-taima in 1976 recovered artifacts of the El Jobo complex in direct association with the butchered remains of a juvenile mastodon. Radiocarbon dates on associated wood twigs indicate a minimum age of 13,000 years before the present for the mastodon kill, a dating significantly older than that of the Clovis complex in North America. The El Jobo complex must have evolved independently in northern South America.

  19. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  20. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 μg/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 μg/mL) or lower (20 μg/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 μg/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations. PMID:24872797

  1. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  2. Charged Particles Kill Pathogens and Round Up Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To keep plants fresh longer in space, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded funding to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to develop a titanium oxide-based device that reduced the amount of decay-inducing ethylene gas in the air. Electrolux (now Dallas-based Aerus Holdings) furthered the technology by developing an air purification product that kills pathogens both in the atmosphere and on surfaces.

  3. [Belgian memorials to animals wounded and killed in war].

    PubMed

    Mammerickx, M

    2001-01-01

    Compassion is a feeling that makes man sensitive to the suffering and the death of animals. This feeling is not always shared by men and frequently they forget to recognize the merits of the animals wounded or killed while fighting side by side. In the past the horses were even more exposed to the dangers of war than men. In Belgium marks of these sufferings can be found on some monuments as well as in awards added to high military decorations.

  4. The Killing of African Trypanosomes by Ethidium Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Roy Chowdhury, Arnab; Bakshi, Rahul; Wang, Jianyang; Yildirir, Gokben; Liu, Beiyu; Pappas-Brown, Valeria; Tolun, Gökhan; Griffith, Jack D.; Shapiro, Theresa A.; Jensen, Robert E.; Englund, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB) is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic) led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed). In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing. PMID:21187912

  5. Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Reichard, K W; Lorence, R M; Cascino, C J; Peeples, M E; Walter, R J; Fernando, M B; Reyes, H M; Greager, J A

    1992-05-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain 73-T, has previously been shown to be cytolytic to mouse tumor cells. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of NDV to replicate in and kill human tumor cells in culture and in athymic mice. Plaque assays were used to determine the cytolytic activity of NDV on six human tumor cell lines, fibrosarcoma (HT1080), osteosarcoma (KHOS), cervical carcinoma (KB8-5-11), bladder carcinoma (HCV29T), neuroblastoma (IMR32), and Wilm's tumor (G104), and on nine different normal human fibroblast lines. NDV formed plaques on all tumor cells tested as well as on chick embryo cells (CEC), the native host for NDV. Plaques did not form on any of the normal fibroblast lines. To detect NDV replication, virus yield assays were performed which measured virus particles in infected cell culture supernatants. Virus yield increased 10,000-fold within 24 hr in tumor and CEC supernatants. Titers remained near zero in normal fibroblast supernatants. In vivo tumoricidal activity was evaluated in athymic nude Balb-c mice by subcutaneous injection of 9 x 10(6) tumor cells followed by intralesional injection of either live or heat-killed NDV (1.0 x 10(6) plaque forming units [PFU]), or medium. After live NDV treatment, tumor regression occurred in 10 out of 11 mice bearing KB8-5-11 tumors, 8 out of 8 with HT-1080 tumors, and 6 out of 7 with IMR-32 tumors. After treatment with heat-killed NDV no regression occurred (P less than 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Nontumor-bearing mice injected with 1.0 x 10(8) PFU of NDV remained healthy. These results indicate that NDV efficiently and selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells, but not normal cells, and that intralesional NDV causes complete tumor regression in athymic mice with a high therapeutic index.

  6. Phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thea; Porter, Adeline R; Kennedy, Adam D; Kobayashi, Scott D; DeLeo, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Although significant progress has been made, our understanding of neutrophil interactions with S. aureus remains incomplete. To provide a more comprehensive view of this process, we investigated phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils using varied assay conditions in vitro. A greater percentage of bacteria were internalized by adherent neutrophils compared to those in suspension, and, unexpectedly, uptake of S. aureus by adherent neutrophils occurred efficiently in the absence of opsonins. An antibody specific for S. aureus promoted uptake of unopsonized bacteria in suspension, but had little or no capacity to enhance phagocytosis of S. aureus opsonized with normal human serum or by adherent neutrophils. Collectively, these results indicate that assay conditions can have a significant influence on the phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by neutrophils. More importantly, the results suggest a vaccine approach directed to enhance opsonophagocytosis alone is not sufficient to promote increased killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils. With the emergence and reemergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, establishing parameters that are optimal for studying neutrophil-S. aureus interactions will pave the way towards developing immune-directed strategies for anti-staphylococcal therapies.

  7. Photoexcited quantum dots for killing multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Colleen M.; Goodman, Samuel M.; McDaniel, Jessica A.; Madinger, Nancy E.; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are an ever-growing threat because of the shrinking arsenal of efficacious antibiotics. Metal nanoparticles can induce cell death, yet the toxicity effect is typically nonspecific. Here, we show that photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) can kill a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacterial clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. The killing effect is independent of material and controlled by the redox potentials of the photogenerated charge carriers, which selectively alter the cellular redox state. We also show that the QDs can be tailored to kill 92% of bacterial cells in a monoculture, and in a co-culture of E. coli and HEK 293T cells, while leaving the mammalian cells intact, or to increase bacterial proliferation. Photoexcited QDs could be used in the study of the effect of redox states on living systems, and lead to clinical phototherapy for the treatment of infections.

  8. Surface acoustic waves enhance neutrophil killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Loike, John D; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm(2), significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria.

  9. Heat killing of bacterial spores analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Belliveau, B H; Beaman, T C; Pankratz, H S; Gerhardt, P

    1992-01-01

    Thermograms of the exosporium-lacking dormant spores of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 33729, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry, showed three major irreversible endothermic transitions with peaks at 56, 100, and 114 degrees C and a major irreversible exothermic transition with a peak at 119 degrees C. The 114 degrees C transition was identified with coat proteins, and the 56 degrees C transition was identified with heat inactivation. Thermograms of the germinated spores and vegetative cells were much alike, including an endothermic transition attributable to DNA. The ascending part of the main endothermic 100 degrees C transition in the dormant-spore thermograms corresponded to a first-order reaction and was correlated with spore death; i.e., greater than 99.9% of the spores were killed when the transition peak was reached. The maximum death rate of the dormant spores during calorimetry, calculated from separately measured D and z values, occurred at temperatures above the 73 degrees C onset of thermal denaturation and was equivalent to the maximum inactivation rate calculated for the critical target. Most of the spore killing occurred before the release of most of the dipicolinic acid and other intraprotoplast materials. The exothermic 119 degrees C transition was a consequence of the endothermic 100 degrees C transition and probably represented the aggregation of intraprotoplast spore components. Taken together with prior evidence, the results suggest that a crucial protein is the rate-limiting primary target in the heat killing of dormant bacterial spores. Images PMID:1624439

  10. Targeted cytotoxic therapy kills persisting HIV infected cells during ART.

    PubMed

    Denton, Paul W; Long, Julie M; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Sykes, Craig; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Snyder, Olivia D; Perkey, Katherine; Archin, Nancie M; Choudhary, Shailesh K; Yang, Kuo; Hudgens, Michael G; Pastan, Ira; Haase, Ashley T; Kashuba, Angela D; Berger, Edward A; Margolis, David M; Garcia, J Victor

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the development of strategies to eradicate infectious HIV from patients. Essential to a successful eradication therapy is a component capable of killing persisting HIV infected cells during ART. Therefore, we determined the in vivo efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill infected cells that persist despite long-term ART. For this purpose, we first characterized the impact of ART on HIV RNA levels in multiple organs of bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice and found that antiretroviral drug penetration and activity was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, HIV production in each tissue tested. For targeted cytotoxic killing of these persistent vRNA(+) cells, we treated BLT mice undergoing ART with an HIV-specific immunotoxin. We found that compared to ART alone, this agent profoundly depleted productively infected cells systemically. These results offer proof-of-concept that targeted cytotoxic therapies can be effective components of HIV eradication strategies.

  11. Killing, letting die and the bare difference argument.

    PubMed

    Perrett, Roy W

    1996-04-01

    I believe that there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die. That is, there is no difference that depends solely on the distinction between an act and an omission. I also believe that we can reasonably establish this thesis by appeal to the Bare Difference Argument. The form of this argument involves considering two imaginary cases in which there are no morally relevant differences present, save the bare difference that one is a case of killing and one a case of letting die. But in the pair of cases under consideration this bare difference makes no moral difference. Hence it cannot be that the bare difference between killing and letting die is in itself a morally important difference. Winston Nesbitt has recently argued that the Bare Difference Argument fails because "the examples produced typically possess a feature which makes their use in this context illegitimate, and that when modified to remove this feature, they provide support for the view which they were designed to undermine". I argue that Nesbitt misunderstands the logic of the Bare Difference Argument and that accordingly his objections are mistaken.

  12. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  13. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

  14. Amphotericin primarily kills yeast by simply binding ergosterol

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kaitlyn C.; Palacios, Daniel S.; Dailey, Ian; Endo, Matthew M.; Uno, Brice E.; Wilcock, Brandon C.; Burke, Martin D.

    2012-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is a prototypical small molecule natural product that can form ion channels in living eukaryotic cells and has remained refractory to microbial resistance despite extensive clinical utilization in the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections for more than half a century. It is now widely accepted that AmB kills yeast primarily via channel-mediated membrane permeabilization. Enabled by the iterative cross-coupling-based synthesis of a functional group deficient derivative of this natural product, we have discovered that channel formation is not required for potent fungicidal activity. Alternatively, AmB primarily kills yeast by simply binding ergosterol, a lipid that is vital for many aspects of yeast cell physiology. Membrane permeabilization via channel formation represents a second complementary mechanism that further increases drug potency and the rate of yeast killing. Collectively, these findings (i) reveal that the binding of a physiologically important microbial lipid is a powerful and clinically validated antimicrobial strategy that may be inherently refractory to resistance, (ii) illuminate a more straightforward path to an improved therapeutic index for this clinically vital but also highly toxic antifungal agent, and (iii) suggest that the capacity for AmB to form protein-like ion channels might be separable from its cytocidal effects. PMID:22308411

  15. Hidden symmetries and Lie algebra structures from geometric and supergravity Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açık, Özgür; Ertem, Ümit

    2016-08-01

    We consider geometric and supergravity Killing spinors and the spinor bilinears constructed out of them. The spinor bilinears of geometric Killing spinors correspond to the antisymmetric generalizations of Killing vector fields which are called Killing–Yano forms. They constitute a Lie superalgebra structure in constant curvature spacetimes. We show that the Dirac currents of geometric Killing spinors satisfy a Lie algebra structure up to a condition on 2-form spinor bilinears. We propose that the spinor bilinears of supergravity Killing spinors give way to different generalizations of Killing vector fields to higher degree forms. It is also shown that those supergravity Killing forms constitute a Lie algebra structure in six- and ten-dimensional cases. For five- and eleven-dimensional cases, the Lie algebra structure depends on an extra condition on supergravity Killing forms.

  16. Spacetimes with Killing tensors. [for Einstein-Maxwell fields with certain spinor indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughston, L. P.; Sommers, P.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of the Killing equation and the Killing tensor are discussed. A conformal Killing tensor is of interest inasmuch as it gives rise to a quadratic first integral for null geodesic orbits. The Einstein-Maxwell equations are considered together with the Bianchi identity and the conformal Killing tensor. Two examples for the application of the considered relations are presented, giving attention to the charged Kerr solution and the charged C-metric.

  17. 77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and... establishing a temporary security zone on the waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the East River and Bronx Kill when public...

  18. It’s Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents’ active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

  19. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  20. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  1. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  2. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  3. Mothers who kill: evolutionary underpinnings and infanticide law.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-01-01

    Women who kill their children present a profound challenge to accepted notions of motherhood and the protection offered by mothers to their children. Historically, societies have varied in the sanctions applied to perpetrators of such acts, across both time and place. Where penalties were once severe and punitive for mothers, in modern times some two dozen nations now have infanticide acts that reduce the penalties for mothers who kill their infants. Embedded within these acts are key criteria that relate (a) only to women who are (b) suffering the hormonal or mood effects of pregnancy/lactation at the time of the offence which is (c) usually restricted to within the first year after delivery. Criticisms of infanticide legislation have largely centered on inherent gender bias, misconceptions about the hormonal basis of postpartum psychiatric disorders, and the nexus and contribution of these disorders to the offending in relation to issues of culpability and sentencing. Important differences between female perpetrators relative to the age of the child victim have also highlighted problems in the implementation of infanticide legislation. For example, women who commit neonaticide (murder during the first day of life) differ substantially from mentally ill mothers who kill older children. However, despite these shortcomings, many nations have in recent years chosen to retain their infanticide acts. This article reviews the central controversies of infanticide legislation in relation to current research and fundamental fairness. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework to organize this discussion, it is argued that infanticide legislation is at best unnecessary and at worst misapplied, in that it exculpates criminal intent and fails to serve those for whom an infanticide defense might otherwise have been intended. PMID:22961624

  4. Well control equations modified for slim-hole kill operations

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, P.K. ); Cowell, E.E. )

    1993-09-27

    Conventional well control equations modified to account for high annular pressure losses can improve well control in slimhole drilling. Previous solutions to the slim-hole well kill problem depended on unpracticed dynamic techniques in which neither the position and volume of the influx nor the pressure applied to the well bore is precisely known. One of the major barriers to the introduction of slim-hole drilling technology to oil field operations was perceived to be the difficulty of maintaining safe standards of well control There are two basic problems with using conventional methods on slim holes: Because of the reduced kick tolerance in a well with a small annular capacity, the kick detection system must be able to detect a relatively small influx of approximately 1 bbl. Conventional well kill techniques, such as the wait-and-weight method, depend on the annular pressure losses being a small fraction of the total circulating system pressure loss. A small overbalance is thereby maintained without causing fluid losses in the open hole. This assumption of low friction losses in the annulus is often not valid in slim-hole wells. The forces occurring during a well kill operation were analyzed to develop the modified well control equations for slim holes. Several other well control situations unique to slim holes were considered: the effect of annular friction pressure losses that are greater than the shut-in casing pressure, the effects of these high pressures on maximum allowable anticipated surface pressure, and the behavior of surface circulating systems.

  5. Nexavar/Stivarga and viagra interact to kill tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tavallai, Mehrad; Hamed, Hossein A; Roberts, Jane L; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Chuckalovcak, John; Poklepovic, Andrew; Booth, Laurence; Dent, Paul

    2015-09-01

    We determined whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil) to kill tumor cells. PDE5 and PDGFRα/β were over-expressed in liver tumors compared to normal liver tissue. In multiple cell types in vitro sorafenib/regorafenib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death, regardless of whether cells were grown in 10 or 100% human serum. Knock down of PDE5 or of PDGFRα/β recapitulated the effects of the individual drugs. The drug combination increased ROS/RNS levels that were causal in cell killing. Inhibition of CD95/FADD/caspase 8 signaling suppressed drug combination toxicity. Knock down of ULK-1, Beclin1, or ATG5 suppressed drug combination lethality. The drug combination inactivated ERK, AKT, p70 S6K, and mTOR and activated JNK. The drug combination also reduced mTOR protein expression. Activation of ERK or AKT was modestly protective whereas re-expression of an activated mTOR protein or inhibition of JNK signaling almost abolished drug combination toxicity. Sildenafil and sorafenib/regorafenib interacted in vivo to suppress xenograft tumor growth using liver and colon cancer cells. From multiplex assays on tumor tissue and plasma, we discovered that increased FGF levels and ERBB1 and AKT phosphorylation were biomarkers that were directly associated with lower levels of cell killing by 'rafenib + sildenafil. Our data are now being translated into the clinic for further determination as to whether this drug combination is a useful anti-tumor therapy for solid tumor patients. PMID:25704960

  6. [The killing of surplus and old animals in zoos].

    PubMed

    Engel, H

    2001-03-01

    The painless killing of animals in order to avoid considerable suffering has a legal basis and is sufficiently accepted by the society. The situation is, however, different when the matter concerns zoological gardens having on some occasions to put down apparently healthy animals. Since the natural populations of many species have almost been extinguished in the wild or are already eradicated, zoos play a prominent role in the ex-situ survival-breeding of many wild animals. This means that zoos often have self-supporting populations of species rather than only single individuals, as was frequently the case in the past. Such breeding also brings with it the possibility that animals will survive without the option of transferring them to other acceptable locations. In the wild, natural environmental factors prevent excessive population growth, whereas in zoos and in other protective reservations, such regulatory mechanisms are simply not existent. Such regulation can, however, often be achieved by animal transfers and other stock regulating measures. If these measures are not available the option of putting the animals down must be considered. Preventing suffering is of course the priority, as is demanded by zoos together with recognised animal protection organisations. This is compliant with German law and takes place for obvious and sensible reasons. The scientific zoological gardens organised in the German Zoo Directors Council discussed the problem of killing animals at the 1999 conference at Rostock and drafted a paper presenting its position on the subject. The paper argues that even under optimal husbandry conditions, while alternative options of breeding, planning and stabilisation of stock must be considered, the humane killing of animals will sometimes be unavoidable.

  7. Mothers who kill: evolutionary underpinnings and infanticide law.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-01-01

    Women who kill their children present a profound challenge to accepted notions of motherhood and the protection offered by mothers to their children. Historically, societies have varied in the sanctions applied to perpetrators of such acts, across both time and place. Where penalties were once severe and punitive for mothers, in modern times some two dozen nations now have infanticide acts that reduce the penalties for mothers who kill their infants. Embedded within these acts are key criteria that relate (a) only to women who are (b) suffering the hormonal or mood effects of pregnancy/lactation at the time of the offence which is (c) usually restricted to within the first year after delivery. Criticisms of infanticide legislation have largely centered on inherent gender bias, misconceptions about the hormonal basis of postpartum psychiatric disorders, and the nexus and contribution of these disorders to the offending in relation to issues of culpability and sentencing. Important differences between female perpetrators relative to the age of the child victim have also highlighted problems in the implementation of infanticide legislation. For example, women who commit neonaticide (murder during the first day of life) differ substantially from mentally ill mothers who kill older children. However, despite these shortcomings, many nations have in recent years chosen to retain their infanticide acts. This article reviews the central controversies of infanticide legislation in relation to current research and fundamental fairness. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework to organize this discussion, it is argued that infanticide legislation is at best unnecessary and at worst misapplied, in that it exculpates criminal intent and fails to serve those for whom an infanticide defense might otherwise have been intended.

  8. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-09-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed.

  9. Nexavar/Stivarga and Viagra Interact to Kill Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tavallai, Mehrad; Hamed, Hossein A.; Roberts, Jane L.; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Chuckalovcak, John; Poklepovic, Andrew; Booth, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether the multi‐kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil) to kill tumor cells. PDE5 and PDGFRα/β were over‐expressed in liver tumors compared to normal liver tissue. In multiple cell types in vitro sorafenib/regorafenib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death, regardless of whether cells were grown in 10 or 100% human serum. Knock down of PDE5 or of PDGFRα/β recapitulated the effects of the individual drugs. The drug combination increased ROS/RNS levels that were causal in cell killing. Inhibition of CD95/FADD/caspase 8 signaling suppressed drug combination toxicity. Knock down of ULK‐1, Beclin1, or ATG5 suppressed drug combination lethality. The drug combination inactivated ERK, AKT, p70 S6K, and mTOR and activated JNK. The drug combination also reduced mTOR protein expression. Activation of ERK or AKT was modestly protective whereas re‐expression of an activated mTOR protein or inhibition of JNK signaling almost abolished drug combination toxicity. Sildenafil and sorafenib/regorafenib interacted in vivo to suppress xenograft tumor growth using liver and colon cancer cells. From multiplex assays on tumor tissue and plasma, we discovered that increased FGF levels and ERBB1 and AKT phosphorylation were biomarkers that were directly associated with lower levels of cell killing by ‘rafenib + sildenafil. Our data are now being translated into the clinic for further determination as to whether this drug combination is a useful anti‐tumor therapy for solid tumor patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2281–2298, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25704960

  10. Specifically targeting ERK1 or ERK2 kills Melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overcoming the notorious apoptotic resistance of melanoma cells remains a therapeutic challenge given dismal survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, recent clinical trials using a BRAF inhibitor revealed encouraging results for patients with advanced BRAF mutant bearing melanoma, but drug resistance accompanied by recovery of phospho-ERK (pERK) activity present challenges for this approach. While ERK1 and ERK2 are similar in amino acid composition and are frequently not distinguished in clinical reports, the possibility they regulate distinct biological functions in melanoma is largely unexplored. Methods Rather than indirectly inhibiting pERK by targeting upstream kinases such as BRAF or MEK, we directly (and near completely) reduced ERK1 and ERK2 using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to achieve sustained inhibition of pERK1 and/or pERK2. Results and discussion Using A375 melanoma cells containing activating BRAFV600E mutation, silencing ERK1 or ERK2 revealed some differences in their biological roles, but also shared roles by reduced cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar and induced apoptosis. By contrast, chemical mediated inhibition of mutant BRAF (PLX4032) or MEK (PD0325901) triggered less killing of melanoma cells, although they did inhibit proliferation. Death of melanoma cells by silencing ERK1 and/or ERK2 was caspase dependent and accompanied by increased levels of Bak, Bad and Bim, with reduction in p-Bad and detection of activated Bax levels and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Rare treatment resistant clones accompanied silencing of either ERK1 and/or ERK2. Unexpectedly, directly targeting ERK levels also led to reduction in upstream levels of BRAF, CRAF and pMEK, thereby reinforcing the importance of silencing ERK as regards killing and bypassing drug resistance. Conclusions Selectively knocking down ERK1 and/or ERK2 killed A375 melanoma cells and also increased the ability of PLX4032 to kill A375 cells

  11. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  12. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hustler, Noel; Lischewski, Andree

    2015-08-15

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ∇ + Ω in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where Ω : TM → Λ{sup ∗}(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds.

  13. Microfluidic-based Time-kill Kinetic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Nicole; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    In many environments, bacteria favor a sessile, surface-attached community lifestyle. These communities, termed biofilms, are ubiquitous among many species of bacteria. In some cases, biofilms form under flow conditions. Flow chambers, and in particular microfluidic channels, can be used to observe biofilm development and physiological effects while varying nutrient conditions, flow velocities, or introducing antimicrobials to the biofilm in real time. Here, we describe a microfluidic-based kill-kinetics assay for the observation of antimicrobial effects on biofilms under flowing conditions.

  14. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustler, Noel; Lischewski, Andree

    2015-08-01

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ∇ + Ω in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where Ω : TM → Λ∗(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds.

  15. Analysis of murine cellular receptors for tumor-killing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsawa, F.; Natori, S.

    1987-01-01

    Receptors for tumor-killing factor (TKF) on the surface of murine cells were analyzed using radioiodinated TKF. Not only sensitive cells but also insensitive cells were found to have specific receptors. Among the sensitive cells, no clear relation was observed between the number of receptors on the cell surface and sensitivity to TKF. Compounds affecting microfilaments (cytochalasin B and D) and microtubules (colchicine and Colcemid) significantly inhibited cytolysis of sensitive cells induced by receptor-bound TKF. It is concluded that internalization of receptor-bound TKF is a prerequisite for triggering cytolysis.

  16. Sabretoothed carnivores and the killing of large prey.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ki; Norman, David; Werdelin, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ∼10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than "megaherbivores" as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators

  17. Laboratory studies of pyrethroid-netting combinations to kill mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Jana-Kara, B R; Adak, T; Curtis, C F; Sharma, V P

    1994-03-01

    Bioassays of cotton or synthetic netting, impregnated with one of two formulations of deltamethrin or a formulation of lambda-cyhalothrin, showed that the order of merit of these insecticides varied significantly with the type of netting used. Washing reduced the insecticidal power of all combinations of insecticide and netting. Halving the time of exposure and doubling the dose tended to increase the mortality. Different An. stephensi strains varied significantly in susceptibility. Netting (5 to 8 mm mesh) impregnated with deltamethrin was effective in killing mosquitoes which penetrated the netting in search of an animal host.

  18. Broadening the future of value account of the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2015-11-01

    On Don Marquis's future of value account of the wrongness of killing, 'what makes it wrong to kill those individuals we all believe it is wrong to kill, is that killing them deprives them of their future of value'. Marquis has recently argued for a narrow interpretation of his future of value account of the wrongness of killing and against the broad interpretation that I had put forward in response to Carson Strong. In this article I argue that the narrow view is problematic because it violates some basic principles of equality and because it allows for some of the very killing that Marquis sets out to condemn; further, I argue that the chief reason why Marquis chooses the narrow view over the broad view-namely that the broad view would take the killing of some non-human animals to be also wrong-should rather be considered a welcome upshot of the broad view.

  19. Reducibility of valence-3 Killing tensors in Weyl's class of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes play an important role in astrophysics, particularly in the theory of neutron stars and black holes. The static vacuum subclass of these spacetimes is known as Weyl's class, and contains the Schwarzschild spacetime as its most prominent example. This paper is going to study the space of Killing tensor fields of valence 3 for spacetimes of Weyl's class. Killing tensor fields play a crucial role in physics since they are in correspondence to invariants of the geodesic motion (i.e. constants of the motion). It will be proven that in static and axially symmetric vacuum spacetimes the space of Killing tensor fields of valence 3 is generated by Killing vector fields and quadratic Killing tensor fields. Using this result, it will be proven that for the family of Zipoy-Voorhees metrics, valence-3 Killing tensor fields are always generated by Killing vector fields and the metric.

  20. A little-known aspect of Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930): the call of India and a debt to Walter Scott (1771-1832).

    PubMed

    Gardner, D L; Macnicol, M F; Endicott, P; Rayner, D R T; Geissler, P

    2009-02-01

    This paper recalls the early life of Dr Arthur Conan Doyle when his writing centred briefly on India. The significance of a young female skeleton given to the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1879 is reviewed. Morphometric and genetic evidence is provided to show that the skeleton originated in the Andaman Islands. It is suggested that Doyle saw it during his undergraduate or early postgraduate years, leading him to introduce an Andaman Islander into his novel The Sign of the Four, published in 1890. Like his inspiring predecessor Walter Scott, Doyle wrote of India but did not visit the country: both authors learned indirectly of the Indian Raj and the Indian Medical Service. Doyle knew of the convict colony established after the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 at Port Blair, capital of the Andamans, but the reason he chose an Islander to commit murder in London has, until now, remained contentious.