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Sample records for artificial ab-mountains extraction

  1. Multilingual artificial text detection and extraction from still images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Ahsen; Abidi, Ali; Siddiqi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for multilingual artificial text extraction from still images. We propose a lexicon independent, block based technique that employs a combination of spatial transforms, texture, edge and, gradient based operations to detect unconstrained textual regions from still images. Finally, some morphological and geometrical constraints are applied for fine localization of textual content. The proposed method was evaluated on two standard and three custom developed datasets comprising a wide variety of images with artificial text occurrences in five different languages namely English, Urdu, Arabic, Chinese and Hindi.

  2. Preparation of Artificial Blood from the Extract of Legume Root Nodules, and the Creation of Artificial Latent Fingermarks in Blood Using Artificial Blood().

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungwook; Kim, Chaewon; Jeon, Soyoung; Lee, Eunhye

    2017-03-07

    Distribution of homogeneous fingermarks in blood is essential for conducting proficiency tests in forensic science. Hence, the artificial blood was prepared using the root nodule extract of Glycine max plants. The reactivity of the artificial blood with widely used human blood detection reagents was tested. Artificial latent fingermarks in blood were printed using an inkjet cartridge case filled with artificial blood solution. The artificial latent fingermarks in blood were developed with amino acid-sensitive reagents and could obtain development as prominent as the image of the master fingermark saved on the computer. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the extract of legume root nodules can be used as artificial blood, and the artificial blood can be used for the preparation of artificial latent fingermarks or footmarks in blood. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Artificial terraced field extraction based on high resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jiaming; Yang, Xin; Xiong, Liyang; Tang, Guoan

    2017-04-01

    With the increase of human activities, artificial landforms become one of the main terrain features with special geographical and hydrological value. Terraced field, as the most important artificial landscapes of the loess plateau, plays an important role in conserving soil and water. With the development of digital terrain analysis (DTA), there is a current and future need in developing a robust, repeatable and cost-effective research methodology for terraced fields. In this paper, a novel method using bidirectional DEM shaded relief is proposed for terraced field identification based on high resolution DEM, taking Zhifanggou watershed, Shannxi province as the study area. Firstly, 1m DEM is obtained by low altitude aerial photogrammetry using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), and 0.1m DOM is also obtained as the test data. Then, the positive and negative terrain segmentation is done to acquire the area of terraced field. Finally, a bidirectional DEM shaded relief is simulated to extract the ridges of each terraced field stages. The method in this paper can get not only polygon feature of the terraced field areas but also line feature of terraced field ridges. The accuracy is 89.7% compared with the artificial interpretation result from DOM. And additional experiment shows that this method has a strong robustness as well as high accuracy.

  4. One-step extraction of polar drugs from plasma by parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Pilařová, Veronika; Sultani, Mumtaz; Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Nováková, Lucie; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-02-01

    The new microextraction technique named parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was introduced as an alternative approach to liquid-liquid extraction of charged analytes from aqueous samples. The concept is based on extraction of analytes across a supported liquid membrane sustained in the pores of a thin polymeric membrane, a well-known extraction principle also used in hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME). However, the new PALME technique offers a more user-friendly setup in which the supported liquid membrane is incorporated in a 96 well plate system. Thus, high-throughput is achievable, in addition to the green chemistry offered by using PALME. The consumption of organic solvent is minimized to 3-5μL per sample. With a sample volume of 250μL and acceptor solution volume of 50μL, a maximal enrichment factor of five is achievable. Based on these parameters, a new method for extraction of polar basic drugs was developed in the present work. The basic drugs hydralazine, ephedrine, metaraminol, salbutamol, and cimetidine were used as model analytes, and were extracted from alkalized human plasma into an aqueous solution via the supported liquid membrane. The extraction was promoted by a carrier dissolved in the membrane, creating a temporary ion-pair complex between the hydrophilic drug and the carrier. As the model analytes were extracted directly into an aqueous solution, there was no need for evaporation of the extract before injection into LC-MS. Hence, the sample preparation is performed in one step. With optimized conditions, the extraction recoveries were in the range 50-89% from human plasma after 45min extraction. The data from the method evaluation were satisfactory and in line with current guidelines, and revealed an extraction method with substantial potential for high throughput bioanalysis of polar basic drugs.

  5. Students' perceptions of pre-clinical endodontic training with artificial teeth compared to extracted human teeth.

    PubMed

    Al-Sudani, D I; Basudan, S O

    2016-08-06

    Artificial teeth have several advantages in pre-clinical endodontics training. This study aimed to compare artificial resin teeth with extracted human teeth, from a student's perspective, during a pre-clinical undergraduate endodontic course for three consecutive academic years (2011-2014). At the end of the course, students completed a questionnaire that included questions about their perceptions of the difficulty of artificial teeth vs. natural teeth and ranked the perceived advantages of artificial teeth. Participants expressed that all procedures, except obturation, were more difficult to perform on artificial teeth than on natural teeth, a result that was due to the hardness of the resin. They ranked the fairness and availability as the best advantages. Artificial teeth have multiple advantages but cannot replace natural teeth. The physical characteristics through the manufacturing material of artificial teeth should be enhanced to increase wider use and acceptance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Extraction of rules from artificial neural networks for nonlinear regression.

    PubMed

    Setiono, R; Leow, Wee Kheng; Zurada, J M

    2002-01-01

    Neural networks (NNs) have been successfully applied to solve a variety of application problems including classification and function approximation. They are especially useful as function approximators because they do not require prior knowledge of the input data distribution and they have been shown to be universal approximators. In many applications, it is desirable to extract knowledge that can explain how Me problems are solved by the networks. Most existing approaches have focused on extracting symbolic rules for classification. Few methods have been devised to extract rules from trained NNs for regression. This article presents an approach for extracting rules from trained NNs for regression. Each rule in the extracted rule set corresponds to a subregion of the input space and a linear function involving the relevant input attributes of the data approximates the network output for all data samples in this subregion. Extensive experimental results on 32 benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in generating accurate regression rules.

  7. Colour effects on extracted teeth after a tooth whitening regime: assessment in an artificial oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Lath, D L; Wildgoose, D G

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a digital image analysis system and to assess its suitability for quantifying the colour (including whiteness) of extracted teeth in a purpose built artificial oral cavity after a whitening regime. Extracted teeth were treated with a scale and polish and a bleaching solution. The Image analysis system showed excellent intra operator repeatability. Significant tooth colour and whiteness changes occurred after the bleaching treatment. The digital image system has been shown to be a reliable and valid method for assessing colour and whiteness changes on extracted teeth after whitening treatments.

  8. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Pijuán, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    The new sample preparation concept "Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)" was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual wells in a 96-well donor plate and diluted with HCl to protonate the acidic drugs. The acidic drugs were extracted as protonated species from the individual plasma samples, through corresponding artificial liquid membranes each comprising 2 μL of dihexyl ether, and into corresponding acceptor solutions each comprising 50 μL of 25 mM ammonia solution (pH 10). The liquid membranes and the acceptor solutions were located in a 96-well filter plate, which was sandwiched with the 96-well donor plate during extraction. Parallel extraction of several samples was performed for 15 to 60 min, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection of the individual acceptor solutions. Important PALME parameters including the chemical composition of the liquid membrane, extraction time, and sample pH were optimized, and the extraction performance was evaluated. Except for flurbiprofen, exhaustive extraction was accomplished from plasma. Linearity was obtained for all six drugs in the range 0.025-10 μg/mL, with r (2) values ranging between 0.998 and 1.000. Precision data were in the range 3-22% RSD, and accuracy data were within 72-130% with spiked plasma samples. Based on the current experiences, PALME showed substantial potential for future high-throughput bioanalysis of non-polar acidic drugs.

  9. Artificial neural network modeling and optimization of ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; Xue, Yujing; Xu, Yinxiang; Shen, Yuhong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols was modeled and optimized by a three-layer artificial neural network. A feed-forward neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was used to evaluate the effects of pressure, liquid/solid ratio and ethanol concentration on the total phenolic content of green tea extracts. The neural network coupled with genetic algorithms was also used to optimize the conditions needed to obtain the highest yield of tea polyphenols. The obtained optimal architecture of artificial neural network model involved a feed-forward neural network with three input neurons, one hidden layer with eight neurons and one output layer including single neuron. The trained network gave the minimum value in the MSE of 0.03 and the maximum value in the R(2) of 0.9571, which implied a good agreement between the predicted value and the actual value, and confirmed a good generalization of the network. Based on the combination of neural network and genetic algorithms, the optimum extraction conditions for the highest yield of green tea polyphenols were determined as follows: 498.8 MPa for pressure, 20.8 mL/g for liquid/solid ratio and 53.6% for ethanol concentration. The total phenolic content of the actual measurement under the optimum predicated extraction conditions was 582.4 ± 0.63 mg/g DW, which was well matched with the predicted value (597.2mg/g DW). This suggests that the artificial neural network model described in this work is an efficient quantitative tool to predict the extraction efficiency of green tea polyphenols. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal extraction from the artificially contaminated soil using supercritical CO2 with mixed ligands.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangheon; Lee, Jeongken; Sung, Jinhyun

    2013-04-01

    Supercritical fluids have good penetrating power with a high capacity to dissolve certain solutes in the fluid itself, making it applicable for soil cleaning. Supercritical CO2 along with mixed ligands has been used for cleaning artificially contaminated soil. The extraction of metal from the soil was successful, and the molar ratio of ligands to the extracted metal was as low as 3. Complicated structures with a large surface area of the real soil seemed to cause the lower efficiency. Reduced efficiency was also observed over time after the sample preparation, indicating the possibility of chemisorption of the metal ion onto the soil. The use of supercritical CO2 with dissolved mixed ligands was sufficient to extract metal from the soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasonically extracted β-d-glucan from artificially cultivated mushroom, characteristic properties and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Alzorqi, Ibrahim; Sudheer, Surya; Lu, Ting-Jang; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2017-03-01

    Ganoderma mushroom cultivated recently in Malaysia to produce chemically different nutritional fibers has attracted the attention of the local market. The extraction methods, molecular weight and degree of branching of (1-3; 1-6)-β-d-glucan polysaccharides is of prime importance to determine its antioxidant bioactivity. Therefore three extraction methods i.e. hot water extraction (HWE), soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (US) were employed to study the total content of (1-3; 1-6)-β-d-glucans, degree of branching, structural characteristics, monosaccharides composition, as well as the total yield of polysaccharides that could be obtained from the artificially cultivated Ganoderma. The physical characteristics by HPAEC-PAD, HPGPC and FTIR, as well as the antioxidant in vitro assays of DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing power (FRAP) indicated that (1-3; 1-6)-β-d-glucans of Malaysian mushroom have better antioxidant activity, higher molecular weight and optimal degree of branching when extracted by US in comparison with conventional methods.

  12. In vitro remineralization effects of grape seed extract on artificial root caries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D

    2008-11-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proanthocyanidins (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 h at 37 degrees C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester, polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE-treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy.

  13. In Vitro Remineralization Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Artificial Root Caries

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D.

    2008-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains Proanthocyanidin (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 hr at 37°C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester; polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of Fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy. PMID:18819742

  14. Copper extraction effectiveness and soil dissolution issues of EDTA-flushing of artificially contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhang, Weihua; Lo, Irene M C

    2007-06-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as a reference chelating agent in column experiments to investigate the effectiveness of chelant-enhanced flushing of soils artificially contaminated under various conditions (low/high Cu loading, and aging). The associated soil dissolution issues were of particular concern. Dissolution of indigenous Fe/Al oxides, Ca carbonates and organic matter was monitored over the course of flushing. Regardless of contamination condition, above 85% extraction efficiency could be accomplished by 10(-2) and 10(-3)M EDTA-flushing, but not 10(-4)M. The Cu extraction kinetics positively correlated to EDTA concentration but inversely to Cu loading in soils. In addition to extraction from weakly sorbed fractions, a large portion of Cu was extracted from oxide, organic matter and residual fractions, which appears to derive from soil dissolution. Cumulative dissolved amounts of Fe, Al, and Ca were found to reach as high as hundreds of mgkg(-1), which were comparable to Cu contamination. Soil organic matter, which is known to strongly interact with Fe and Al oxides, was also mobilized. The rate and extent of these soil dissolutions were also positively correlated to EDTA concentration. Therefore, the co-extraction of soil minerals and organic matter during chelant-enhanced flushing, which would alter both physical structure and chemical properties of the soils, is detrimental to future land use and deserves greater attention. The concentration of chelating agent is the most crucial factor for an effective soil flushing with minimal damage.

  15. Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Yambe, T; Nanka, S; Naganuma, S; Kobayashi, S; Nitta, S; Fukuju, T; Miura, M; Uchida, N; Tabayashi, K; Tanaka, A; Takayasu, M; Abe, K; Takayasu, H; Yoshizawa, M; Takeda, H

    1996-07-01

    We have studied the fluctuations of an artificial circulation for the analysis of the physiological aspects; however, the conventionally used fast Fourier transform (FFT) method cannot separate harmonic oscillations, such as respiratory and Mayer waves, from the 1/f fluctuation, which has been though to represent underlying fractal dynamics. Fractal structure was shown in the strange attractor with chaotic dynamics, which is thought to be a flexible and intelligent system. In this study, the coarse-graining spectral analyzing (CGSA) method was utilized to quantitatively evaluate the proportion of the 1/f fluctuation in the total power in the frequency domain and to analyze artificial circulation in the whole system. We implanted two pneumatically actuated ventricular assist devices as biventricular bypasses (BVBs) in chronic animal experiments using 4 healthy adult goats. To compare the natural and prosthetic circulation of each experimental animal, the BVB-type complete prosthetic circulation model with electrically induced ventricular fibrillation was adopted. All hemodynamic parameters of natural and prosthetic circulation were recorded under awake conditions and calculated with the use of a personal computer. With the use of the CGSA method, time-series data of the hemodynamics were analyzed and fractal percentages, extracting the 1/f fluctuation from a given time series, were calculated. Fractal percentages of the arterial blood pressure were 85.8 +/- 10.7% and 82.0 +/- 7.3% with natural and artificial circulation, respectively (not significant [NS]). 1/f fluctuation showed the characteristics of being fractal in a time series. The fractal structure showed robustness and error resistance in nonlinear dynamics. Therefore, our results suggest that the circulatory regulatory system of the artificial heart may have desirable characteristics such as error resistance.

  16. Improving GLOBALlAND30 Artificial Type Extraction Accuracy in Low-Density Residents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhu, Ling; Peng, Shu; Xie, Zhenlei; Chen, Xu

    2016-06-01

    GlobalLand 30 is the first 30m resolution land cover product in the world. It covers the area within 80°N and 80°S. There are ten classes including artificial cover, water bodies, woodland, lawn, bare land, cultivated land, wetland, sea area, shrub and snow,. The TM imagery from Landsat is the main data source of GlobalLand 30. In the artificial surface type, one of the omission error happened on low-density residents' part. In TM images, hash distribution is one of the typical characteristics of the low-density residents, and another one is there are a lot of cultivated lands surrounded the low-density residents. Thus made the low-density residents part being blurred with cultivated land. In order to solve this problem, nighttime light remote sensing image is used as a referenced data, and on the basis of NDBI, we add TM6 to calculate the amount of surface thermal radiation index TR-NDBI (Thermal Radiation Normalized Difference Building Index) to achieve the purpose of extracting low-density residents. The result shows that using TR-NDBI and the nighttime light remote sensing image are a feasible and effective method for extracting low-density residents' areas.

  17. Extraction and amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from ancient and artificially aged bones.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Harbeck, Michaela; Wiesbrock, Urs; Schroeder, Inge; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Oehmichen, Manfred

    2003-03-01

    An experimental design is presented that simulates an accelerated process of DNA degradation in human bone tissues and thus provides a possibility for a systematic investigation of factors hampering DNA extraction and amplification. Equal sized slices of human femoral bones were incubated in 90 degrees C water for 2 h up to 30 days. DNA was extracted and subjected to a human specific Duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and also to a Multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) PCR. Additionally 24 ancient bones representing different age periods were investigated in the same way. The results were compared to those from the artificially aged samples. After just 12 h of incubation, DNA is totally degraded, but still fully typable. After 36 h no reproducible amplification of DNA is possible. Using Multiplex PCR the DNA from artificially aged bones shows the typical STR pattern for ancient samples suggesting that the in vitro approach provides a useful and comparable method to elucidate the DNA degradation process in bones.

  18. Rule extraction of fault diagnosis based on a modified artificial immune algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiaoli; Xie, Keming

    2006-11-01

    When employed in fault diagnosis, rough set can realize attribution reduction. But it can not discrete attribution and reduct attribution simultaneously, therefore we can not say that it can automatically extract rules. To solve the problem, a new rule extraction method based on developed artificial immune algorithm is firstly proposed in the paper. At first, a new method of encoding is produced which can make the process of discretion and reduction unify. Secondly, a new definition of concentration of antibodies not only compare individuals in structure and space, but also in fitness value. Thirdly, the algorithm provide dissimilation operator and similar-taxis operator, which replace choice, expansion and mutation in traditional artificial immune algorithm. All these developments not only maintain diversity of the antibody population, but also converge faster. Finally, we apply the algorithm to fault diagnose of heat recoup system in steam turbine. Tests proved that the algorithm is feasible, and the diagnose rules acquired by the algorithm have higher accuracy rate.

  19. Optimization of extraction of linarin from Flos chrysanthemi indici by response surface methodology and artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongye; Zhang, Qing; Cui, Keke; Chen, Guoquan; Liu, Xuesong; Wang, Longhu

    2017-05-01

    The extraction of linarin from Flos chrysanthemi indici by ethanol was investigated. Two modeling techniques, response surface methodology and artificial neural network, were adopted to optimize the process parameters, such as, ethanol concentration, extraction period, extraction frequency, and solvent to material ratio. We showed that both methods provided good predictions, but artificial neural network provided a better and more accurate result. The optimum process parameters include, ethanol concentration of 74%, extraction period of 2 h, extraction three times, solvent to material ratio of 12 mL/g. The experiment yield of linarin was 90.5% that deviated less than 1.6% from that obtained by predicted result. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of new psychoactive substances in plasma and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Vårdal, Linda; Askildsen, Hilde-Merete; Gjelstad, Astrid; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Edvardsen, Hilde Marie Erøy; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2017-03-24

    Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) and the potential for screening of new psychoactive substances (NPS) was investigated for the first time. PALME was performed in 96-well format comprising a donor plate, a supported liquid membrane (SLM), and an acceptor plate. Uncharged NPS were extracted from plasma or whole blood, across an organic SLM, and into an aqueous acceptor solution, facilitated by a pH gradient. MDAI (5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane), methylone, PFA (para-fluoroamphetamine), mCPP (meta-chlorophenylpiperazine), pentedrone, methoxetamine, MDPV (methylenedioxypyrovalerone), ethylphenidate, 2C-E (2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine), bromo-dragonfly, and AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-{[1-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]methyl}benzamide) were selected as representative NPS. Optimization of operational parameters was necessary as the NPS were novel to PALME, and because PALME was performed from whole blood for the very first time. In the PALME method developed for plasma, NPS were extracted from a 250μL alkalized donor solution consisting of 125μL plasma sample, 115μL 40mM NaOH, and 10μL internal standard. In the PALME method from whole blood, the 250μL alkalized donor solution consisted of 100μL whole blood, 50μL deionized water, 75μL 80mM NaOH, and 25μL internal standard. In both methods, extraction was accomplished across an SLM of 5μL dodecyl acetate with 1% trioctylamine (w/w), and further into an acidic acceptor solution of 50μL 20mM formic acid. The extraction was promoted by agitation at 900rpm and was carried out for 120min. Method validation was performed and the following parameters were considered: linearity, limits of quantification (LOQ), intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy, extraction recoveries, carry-over, and matrix effects. The validation results were in accordance with FDA guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Genotoxicological assessment of two reactive dyes extracted from cotton fibres using artificial sweat.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Meireles, Gabriela; dos Santos, Tuane Cristina; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2014-02-01

    Human eyes have a remarkable ability to recognize hundreds of colour shades, which has stimulated the use of colorants, especially for clothing, but toxicological studies have shown that some textile dyes can be hazardous to human health. Under conditions of intense perspiration, dyes can migrate from coloured clothes and penetrate into human skin. Garments made from cotton fabrics are the most common clothing in tropical countries, due to their high temperatures. Aiming to identify safe textile dyes for dyeing cotton fabrics, the genotoxicity [in vitro Comet assay with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), Tail Intensity] and mutagenicity [Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay (30min), tester strains TA98, TA100, YG1041 and YG1042] of Reactive Blue 2 (RB2, CAS No. 12236-82-7, C.I. 61211) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19, CAS No. 61931-49-5, C.I. 205075) were evaluated both in the formulated form and as extracted from cotton fibres using different artificial sweats. Both the dyes could migrate from cotton fibres to sweat solutions, the sweat composition and pH being important factors during this extraction. However, the dye sweat solutions showed no genotoxic/mutagenic effects, whereas a weak mutagenic potential was detected by the Ames test for both dyes in their formulated form. These findings emphasize the relevance of textile dyes assessment under conditions that more closely resemble human exposure, in order to recognize any hazard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-09-10

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic solvent used as supported liquid membranes (SLMs), and into 50μL aqueous acceptor solutions. The acceptor solutions were subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using in-source fragmentation and monitoring the m/z 184→184 transition for investigation of phosphatidylcholines (PC), sphingomyelins (SM), and lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PC). In both generic methods, no phospholipids were detected in the acceptor solutions. Thus, PALME appeared to be highly efficient for phospholipid removal. To further support this, qualitative (post-column infusion) and quantitative matrix effects were investigated with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and quetiapine as model analytes. No signs of matrix effects were observed. Finally, PALME was evaluated for the aforementioned drug substances, and data were in accordance with European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  4. Oxidative stress responses in the animal model, Daphnia pulex exposed to a natural bloom extract versus artificial cyanotoxin mixtures.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; von Schnehen, Marie; Kühn, Sandra; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    In the natural environment, Daphnia spp. are constantly exposed to a complex matrix of biomolecules, especially during cyanobacterial bloom events. When cyanobacterial cells decay, not only are toxic secondary metabolites known as cyanotoxins released, but also multiple other secondary metabolites, some of which act as enzyme inhibitors. The present study examined the effects of such a natural toxin matrix (crude extract from a bloom) versus artificial toxin mixtures in terms of oxidative stress in Daphnia pulex. The results indicate that there is no significant effect on the survival of D. pulex. However, exposure to the bloom extract resulted in increased lipid peroxidation over a shorter exposure period and reduced antioxidative enzyme activities when compared to the artificial mixtures. The daphnids also needed a longer recovery time to reduce the increased cellular hydrogen peroxide concentration associated with the exposure to the crude extract than with the artificial mixtures. The results indicate a significant difference between the bloom crude extract and the two synthetic mixtures for all stress markers tested, indicating enhanced toxicity of the bloom extract.

  5. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    PubMed

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  6. A comparative study of the antacid effect of raw spinach juice and spinach extract in an artificial stomach model.

    PubMed

    Panda, Vandana Sanjeev; Shinde, Priyanka Mangesh

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundSpinacia oleracea known as spinach is a green-leafy vegetable consumed by people across the globe. It is reported to possess potent medicinal properties by virtue of its numerous antioxidant phytoconstituents, together termed as the natural antioxidant mixture (NAO). The present study compares the antacid effect of raw spinach juice with an antioxidant-rich methanolic extract of spinach (NAOE) in an artificial stomach model. MethodsThe pH of NAOE at various concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/mL) and its neutralizing effect on artificial gastric acid was determined and compared with that of raw spinach juice, water, the active control sodium bicarbonate (SB) and a marketed antacid preparation ENO. A modified model of Vatier's artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization of artificial gastric acid for the test compounds. The neutralizing capacity of test compounds was determined in vitro using the classical titration method of Fordtran. Results NAOE (50, 100 and 200 mg/mL), spinach juice, SB and ENO showed significantly better acid-neutralizing effect, consistent duration of neutralization and higher antacid capacity when compared with water. Highest antacid activity was demonstrated by ENO and SB followed by spinach juice and NAOE200. Spinach juice exhibited an effect comparable to NAOE (200 mg/mL). ConclusionsThus, it may be concluded that spinach displays significant antacid activity be it in the raw juice form or as an extract in methanol.

  7. Promise of embedded system with GPU in artificial leg control: enabling time-frequency feature extraction from electromyography.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weijun; Huang, He; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Applying electromyographic (EMG) signal pattern recognition to artificial leg control is challenging because leg EMGs are non-stationary. Time-frequency features are suitable for representing non-stationary signals; however, the computational complexity to extract time-frequency features is too high and current embedded systems used for artificial limb control are inadequate for real-time computing. The aim of this study was to quantify the computational speed of a novel embedded system, the Graphic Processor Unit (GPU), on EMG time-frequency feature extraction. The computational time derived from a GPU was compared to that derived from a general purpose CPU. The results indicated that the GPU significantly increased the computational speed. When the size of EMG analysis window was set to 100 ms, the GPU extracted EMG time-frequency features over 50 times faster than the CPU setting. Therefore, high performance GPU shows a great promise for EMG-controlled artificial legs and other medical applications that need high-speed and real-time computation.

  8. Determination of artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge samples using pressurised liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2013-12-13

    An analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge has been developed. The procedure is based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with water followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. After optimisation of the different PLE parameters, extraction with aqueous 500mM formate buffer (pH 3.5) at 80°C during a single static cycle of 21min proved to be best conditions. After a subsequent SPE, quantification limits, referred to dry weight (dw) of sewage sludge, ranged from 0.3ng/g for acesulfame (ACE) to 16ng/g for saccharin (SAC) and neohespiridine dihydrochalcone. The trueness, expressed as recovery, ranged between 72% and 105% and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was lower than 16%. Moreover, the method proved its linearity up to the 2μg/g range. Finally, the described method was applied to the determination of the artificial sweeteners in primary and secondary sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Four of the six studied artificial sweeteners (ACE, cyclamate, SAC and sucralose) were found in the samples at concentrations ranging from 17 to 628ng/g dw.

  9. Anthelmintic effects of Prosopis laevigata n-hexanic extract against Haemonchus contortus in artificially infected gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    De Jesús-Gabino, A F; Mendoza-de Gives, P; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; López-Arellano, M E; Liébano-Hernández, E; Hernández-Velázquez, V M; Valladares-Cisneros, G

    2010-03-01

    The anthelmintic effect of Prosopis laevigata (mezquite) n-hexanic extract was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus endoparasitic stages in artificially infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Prosopis laevigata leaves were collected from the Sierra de Huautla, Ecological Reserve of the Biosphere, in Morelos State, Mexico; dehydrated under shade and macerated with n-hexane for 3 days, followed by distillation for 8 h. This procedure was repeated three times and the final extract was kept at 4 degrees C. The in vivo effect of the plant extract was evaluated in gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus. Plant extract concentration was 40 mg/ml. Three groups of gerbils were as follows: group 1 (n = 7), P. laevigata extract at 100 microl intraperitoneally (IP); group 2 (n = 6), control--Tween 20 in water at a single dose of 100 microl IP; group 3 (n = 8) also served as a control, receiving water only, to determine the mortality due to causes other than the plant extract. An additional group of seven gerbils (group 4) was administered fenbendazole, as a positive control. Five days later the animals were euthanized and stomach and mucosa removed to quantify the nematodes. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test to compare the mean of nematodes obtained in groups 1, 2 and 3. The parasite population in the plant extract treated group 1 was reduced by 42.5% (P < 0.05) with respect to the control group 2; and when control group 3 was used for comparison the parasitic reduction was estimated as 53.11%. This study shows the in vivo anthelmintic effect of P. laevigata n-hexane extract for the first time, using gerbils as an in vivo model, with potential use in sheep.

  10. Possible underestimation of nitrosatable amine levels in artificial saliva extracts of children's rubber pacifiers and baby-bottle teats.

    PubMed

    Castegnaro, M; Pollock, J R; Friesen, M

    1987-01-01

    Children's pacifiers and baby-bottle nipples from various countries were analysed for their content of N-nitrosamines and nitrosatable amines. Using a method involving extraction with artificial saliva, several nitrosamines including N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were detected in addition to the three nitrosatable amines dibutylamine (DBA), diethylamine (DEA) and dimethylamine (DMA). Upon nitrosation in artificial saliva, these amines produced not only the related N-nitrosamines but also relatively high levels of the corresponding nitramines--N-nitrodibutylamine (NTDBA), N-nitrodiethylamine (NTDEA) and N-nitrodimethylamine (NTDMA). Thus, both N-nitramines and N-nitrosamines should be measured after nitrosation; otherwise, the method probably underestimates the quantities of nitrosatable amines present in artificial saliva extracts. Whether N-nitramines, some of which have been shown to be both mutagenic and carcinogenic, are formed in the saliva of babies exposed to these products remains to be confirmed.

  11. Effect of humidity during artificial extraction on the subsequent vigor of pine pollen

    Treesearch

    Russell A. Ryker

    1963-01-01

    Controlled pollination of pines generally has been disappointing because cones contain too few seeds. We need to develop better techniques for collecting, extracting, and storing pollen, as well as better bagging procedures. A logical first step is to learn more about collecting and extracting pollen. In a recent study I found that extracting pollen of jack pine (Pinus...

  12. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for the phenolic compounds extraction from artificial textile industrial waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hermawan, Sari, Lelita Sakina

    2017-03-01

    Liquid waste in textile industry contains large amounts of dyes and chemicals which are capable of harming the environment and human health. It is due to liquid waste characteristics which have high BOD, COD, temperature, dissolved and suspended solid. One of chemical compound which might be harmful for environment when disposed in high concentration is phenol. Currently, Phenol compound in textile industrial waste has reached 10 ppm meanwhile maximum allowable phenol concentration is not more than 0.2 ppm. Otherwise, Phenol also has economic value as feedstock of plastic, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Furthermore, suitable method to separate phenol from waste water is needed. In this research, liquid - liquid extraction method was used with extraction time for 70 minutes. Waste water sample was then separated into two layers which are extract and raffinate. Thereafter, extract and raffinate were then tested by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to obtained liquid - liquid equilibrium data. Aim of this research is to study the effect of temperature, stirring speed and type of solvent to obtain distribution coefficient (Kd), phenol yield and correlation of Three-Suffix Margules model for the liquid - liquid extraction data equilibrium. The highest extraction yield at 80.43 % was found by using 70% methanol as solvent at extraction temperature 50 °C with stirring speed 300 rpm, coefficient distribution was found 216.334. From this research it can be concluded that Three-Suffix Margules Model is suitable to predict liquid - liquid equilibrium data for phenol system.

  13. Phenolics extraction from sweet potato peels: modelling and optimization by response surface modelling and artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, Ana; Silva, Rúben; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2016-12-01

    Sweet potato peels (SPP) are a major waste generated during root processing and currently have little commercial value. Phenolics with free radical scavenging activity from SPP may represent a possible added-value product for the food industry. The aqueous extraction of phenolics from SPP was studied using a Central Composite Design with solvent to solid ratio (30-60 mL g(-1)), time (30-90 min) and temperature (25-75 °C) as independent variables. The comparison of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis on extraction modelling and optimising was performed. Temperature and solvent to solid ratio, alone and in interaction, presented a positive effect in TPC, ABTS and DPPH assays. Time was only significant for ABTS assay with a negative influence both as main effect and in interaction with other independent variables. RSM and ANN models predicted the same optimal extraction conditions as 60 mL g(-1) for solvent to solid ratio, 30 min for time and 75 °C for temperature. The obtained responses in the optimized conditions were as follow: 11.87 ± 0.69 mg GAE g(-1) DM for TPC, 12.91 ± 0.42 mg TE g(-1) DM for ABTS assay and 46.35 ± 3.08 mg TE g(-1) DM for DPPH assay. SPP presented similar optimum extraction conditions and phenolic content than peels of potato, tea fruit and bambangan. Predictive models and the optimized extraction conditions offers an opportunity for food processors to generate products with high potential health benefits.

  14. Land subsidence and uplift due to long-term groundwater extraction and artificial recharge in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Xue, Yuqun; Wang, Zhecheng; Yao, Yiguang; Yan, Xuexin; Wang, Hanmei

    2015-12-01

    Increasing artificial water recharge and restriction on groundwater pumpage have caused land displacements in Shanghai (China) to shift from subsidence to uplift. On the basis of field and laboratory data, the characteristics and mechanism of land subsidence and uplift are analyzed and discussed. Under the condition of long-term groundwater extraction, the deformation of aquifer and aquitard units consists of elastic, plastic, visco-elastic, and visco-plastic components. The recoverable elastic and visco-elastic deformation is only a small portion of the total deformation for both aquitard and aquifer units, especially when the groundwater level in the units is lower than the historically lowest values. When the groundwater level in aquifer and aquitard units rises, whether their expansion occurs immediately or not, depends on the changing modes of groundwater level they have experienced. Even aquifer units do not always rebound closely following the rise of groundwater level in them. The lagging of the occurrence of arrested land subsidence and uplift, clearly behind the rise of groundwater level in aquifer units, can be attributed to the visco-plastic deformation of all units and the consolidation deformation of aquitard units. Artificial recharge and limitation of pumpage are efficient measures for controlling land subsidence, but earlier actions are necessary to keep groundwater levels in all aquifer units above their historically lowest values all the time, if a more effective outcome is expected.

  15. Self-organization of microtubules into bipolar spindles around artificial chromosomes in Xenopus egg extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, Rebecca; Tournebize, Régis; Blank, Thiemo; Sandaltzopoulos, Raphael; Becker, Peter; Hyman, Anthony; Karsenti, Eric

    1996-08-01

    Functional nuclei and mitotic spindles are shown to assemble around DNA-coated beads incubated in Xenopus egg extracts. Bipolar spindles assemble in the absence of centrosomes and kinetochores, indicating that bipolarity is an intrinsic property of microtubules assembling around chromatin in a mitotic cytoplasm. Microtubules nucleated at dispersed sites with random polarity rearrange into two arrays of uniform polarity. Spindle-pole formation requires cytoplasmic dynein-dependent translocation of microtubules across one another. It is proposed that spindles form in the absence of centrosomes by motor-dependent sorting of microtubules according to their polarity.

  16. Determination of artificial sweeteners in water samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2012-09-21

    The development and performance evaluation of an analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in environmental waters using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry are presented. To this end, different SPE alternatives have been evaluated: polymeric reversed-phase (Oasis HLB, Env+, Plexa and Strata X), and mixed-mode with either weak (Oasis WAX) or strong anionic-exchange (Oasis MAX and Plexa PAX) sorbents. Among them, reversed-phase sorbents, particularly Oasis HLB and Strata X, showed the best performance. Oasis HLB provided good trueness (recoveries: 73-112%), precision (RSD<10%) and limits of quantification (LOQ: 0.01-0.5 μg/L). Moreover, two LC separation mechanisms were evaluated: reversed-phase (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction (HILIC), with RPLC providing better performance than HILIC. The final application of the method showed the presence of acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose in the wastewater and surface water samples analyzed at concentrations up to 54 μg/L.

  17. Vortex-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for assessment of chromium species in artificial saliva extract of different chewing tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Asma; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Talpur, Farah Naz; Khan, Noman; Bilal, Muhammad; Khan, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ILDLLμE) method using an extracting solvent (ionic liquid) and dispersant (Triton X-114) was developed for the separation and preconcentration of hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) in artificial saliva extract (ASE) of chewing tobacco products, gutkha, and mainpuri (n = 23). In the proposed method, the extraction of Cr(6+) was accomplished by using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) as complexing agent and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM] [PF6] as extracting solvent. The tiny droplet of metal chelate was then dispersed into TX-114 emulsion, using vortex mixer. Various parameters such as concentration of APDC, pH of the solution, volume of [C4MIM] [PF6], and TX-114 as well as extraction time were studied. Under the most favorable conditions, the limit of detection was found to be 0.068 μg/L with the relative standard deviation <5 %. The enrichment factor of developed method was found as 62.5, and method has been effectively applied for the analysis of Cr species in artificial saliva extract of gutkha and mainpuri products. The Cr(6+) was quantitatively recovered (<97 %) under optimal conditions, while the recovery of trivalent specie (Cr(3+)), at the same experimental conditions, was observed to be <5 %. The Cr(3+) was determined by the difference of total Cr and Cr(6+) in artificial saliva extract of selected STP. Health risks associated with the intake of total Cr in gutkha and mainpuri were assessed in terms of estimated daily intake, such as carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks. Estimated daily intake of Cr via chewing 10 g/day of gutkha and mainpuri was found to be below the maximum tolerable daily intake, whereas the calculated risk of cancer for Cr was observed in the acceptable range of 10E(-6)-10E(-4), except some brands of gutkha. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Effect of artificial musk aqueous extract on the expressions of inflammatory mediators released from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yu; Zou, Qin-Wen; Bai, Jin-Ye; Cheng, Gui-Fang; Xiao, Xuan; Zhang, Shu; Zhu, Xiu-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2014-12-01

    To identify the anti-inflammatory effects of artificial musk aqueous extract(AME)on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokines secreted or released by RAW264.7 cells. Cytokines including interleukin(IL)-6,IL-10,and tumor necrosis factor Α were determined using cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Compared with model group,the levels of major cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor Α,IL-6,and IL-10 significantly decreased in different AME groups in a dose-dependent manner. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages,AME can remarkably inhibit the release of inflammatory cytokines and thus exerts its anti-inflammatory effects.

  19. Comparison of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and artificial neural networks for estimation of oxidation parameters of sunflower oil added with some natural byproduct extracts.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Ozturk, Ismet; Yalcin, Hasan; Kayacier, Ahmed; Sagdic, Osman

    2012-01-15

    Apple pomace, orange peel and potato peel, which have important antioxidative compounds in their structures, are byproducts obtained from fruit or vegetable processing. Use of vegetable extracts is popular and a common technique in the preservation of vegetable oils. Utilization of apple pomace, orange peel and potato peel extracts as natural antioxidant agents in refined sunflower oil during storage in order to reduce or retard oxidation was investigated. All byproduct extracts were added at 3000 ppm to sunflower oil and different nonlinear models were constructed for the estimation of oxidation parameters. Peroxide values of sunflower oil samples containing different natural extracts were found to be lower compared to control sample. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for the construction of models that could predict the oxidation parameters and were compared to multiple linear regression (MLR) for the determination of the best model with high accuracy. It was shown that the ANFIS model with high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.999) performed better compared to ANN (R(2) = 0.899) and MLR (R(2) = 0.636) for the prediction of oxidation parameters Incorporation of different natural byproduct extracts into sunflower oil provided an important retardation in oxidation during storage. Effective predictive models were constructed for the estimation of oxidation parameters using ANFIS and ANN modeling techniques. These models can be used to predict oxidative parameter values. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Rational design of artificial riboswitches based on ligand-dependent modulation of internal ribosome entry in wheat germ extract and their applications as label-free biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Atsushi

    2011-03-01

    Riboswitches are RNA elements in mRNA that control gene expression in cis in response to their specific ligands. Because artificial riboswitches make it possible to regulate any gene with an arbitrary molecule, they are expected to function as biosensors, in which the output is easily detectable protein expression. I report herein a fully rational design strategy for artificially constructing novel riboswitches that work in a eukaryotic cell-free translation system (wheat germ extract). In these riboswitches, translation mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is promoted only in the presence of a specific ligand (ON), while it is inhibited in the absence of the ligand (OFF). The first rationally designed riboswitch, which is regulated by theophylline, showed a high switching efficiency and dependency on theophylline. In addition, based on the design of the theophylline-dependent riboswitch, other three kinds of riboswitches controlled by FMN, tetracycline, and sulforhodamine B, were constructed only by calculating the ΔG value of one stem-loop structure. The rational design strategy described herein is therefore useful for easily producing various ligand-dependent riboswitches, which are available as biosensors for detecting their ligands.

  1. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles-chitosan for extraction of methyl orange from water samples: Cuckoo optimization algorithm-artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Golzary, Ali Reza

    2014-10-01

    In this work, zinc nanoparticles-chitosan based solid phase extraction has been developed for separation and preconcentration of trace amount of methyl orange from water samples. Artificial neural network-cuckoo optimization algorithm has been employed to develop the model for simulation and optimization of this method. The pH, volume of elution solvent, mass of zinc oxide nanoparticles-chitosan, flow rate of sample and elution solvent were the input variables, while recovery of methyl orange was the output. The optimum conditions were obtained by cuckoo optimization algorithm. At the optimum conditions, the limit of detections of 0.7 μg L-1was obtained for the methyl orange. The developed procedure was then applied to the separation and preconcentration of methyl orange from water samples.

  2. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles-chitosan for extraction of methyl orange from water samples: cuckoo optimization algorithm-artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Golzary, Ali Reza

    2014-10-15

    In this work, zinc nanoparticles-chitosan based solid phase extraction has been developed for separation and preconcentration of trace amount of methyl orange from water samples. Artificial neural network-cuckoo optimization algorithm has been employed to develop the model for simulation and optimization of this method. The pH, volume of elution solvent, mass of zinc oxide nanoparticles-chitosan, flow rate of sample and elution solvent were the input variables, while recovery of methyl orange was the output. The optimum conditions were obtained by cuckoo optimization algorithm. At the optimum conditions, the limit of detections of 0.7μgL(-1)was obtained for the methyl orange. The developed procedure was then applied to the separation and preconcentration of methyl orange from water samples.

  3. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of total extract, stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) leaves, using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling.

    PubMed

    Ameer, Kashif; Bae, Seong-Woo; Jo, Yunhee; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Ameer, Asif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-08-15

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) consists of stevioside and rebaudioside-A (Reb-A). We compared response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling for their estimation and predictive capabilities in building effective models with maximum responses. A 5-level 3-factor central composite design was used to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain maximum yield of target responses as a function of extraction time (X1: 1-5min), ethanol concentration, (X2: 0-100%) and microwave power (X3: 40-200W). Maximum values of the three output parameters: 7.67% total extract yield, 19.58mg/g stevioside yield, and 15.3mg/g Reb-A yield, were obtained under optimum extraction conditions of 4min X1, 75% X2, and 160W X3. The ANN model demonstrated higher efficiency than did the RSM model. Hence, RSM can demonstrate interaction effects of inherent MAE parameters on target responses, whereas ANN can reliably model the MAE process with better predictive and estimation capabilities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effect of Carob Pod Extract on Cellulolysis, Proteolysis, Deamination, and Protein Biosynthesis in an Artificial Rumen1

    PubMed Central

    Tagari, H.; Henis, Y.; Tamir, Musha; Volcani, R.

    1965-01-01

    Carob pod extract and its tannin and sugar fractions were compared with gallotannic acid and sucrose for their effect on the cellulolytic, proteolytic, protein biosynthetic, and deaminative activities of rumen microorganisms. The inhibitory effects of carob pod extract upon the cellulolysis and deamination were correlated mainly with its sugar, rather than its tannin components. On the other hand, proteolytic activity and protein biosynthesis were more significantly affected by the tannin fraction. In contrast to the tannin fraction of carob pod extract, gallotannic acid inhibited cellulolytic activity. The harmful effect of a low concentration of tannins on protein biosynthesis could be prevented by the addition of carbohydrates to the reaction mixture. At high tannin concentration (40 μg/ml), however, the addition of carbohydrates did not prevent the inhibition. PMID:14325284

  5. Comparison of conventional and plant-extract disinfectant solutions on the hardness and color stability of a maxillofacial elastomer after artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Guiotti, Aimée Maria; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José; Cunha, Bruno Guandalini; Paulini, Marcela Borghi; Moreno, Amália; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo

    2016-04-01

    Silicone elastomers undergo physical and chemical degradation with disinfecting solutions. Phytotherapy may be a suitable solution for disinfection. However, its effect on the properties of the silicone material is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection with conventional and plant-extract solutions and of artificial aging on the hardness and color stability of a facial silicone associated with pigments and an opacifier. Four hundred specimens of silicone (MDX4-4210) were fabricated (5×6 mm). Two pigment shades and 1 dry opacifier were combined in the tested material, and 4 groups (n=10) were obtained: colorless (GI), colorless with opacifier (GII), medium pigment with opacifier (GIII), and black pigment with opacifier (GIV). Specimens were subjected to disinfection (30 days) using saline solution, water, and neutral soap (digital friction, 30 seconds), chlorhexidine 4%, Hydrastis canadensis, and Cymbopogon nardus extracts (immersion, 10 minutes). Shore A hardness (ASTM D2240) and color analyses were performed before and after disinfection. Specimens were then exposed to 1008 hours of artificial aging (ASTM 53) and subjected to final hardness and color readings. The results were analyzed with ANOVA and the Tukey significant difference test (α=.05). The opacifier increased the hardness (GII). For GII, the H. canadensis solution and the friction with water and soap promoted significantly reduced hardness; the friction also promoted a reduction in this property for GIV. The GIII was not affected after disinfection. A significant difference was found between the ΔE values of the specimens disinfected with H. canadensis, C. nardus, and chlorhexidine, and specimens subjected to saline solution and neutral soap. The hardness of MDX4-4210 after the experimental procedure was considered clinically acceptable for facial prostheses. All groups showed clinically unacceptable color alterations regardless of the disinfecting

  6. Artificial neural network modelling of pharmaceutical residue retention times in wastewater extracts using gradient liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Munro, Kelly; Miller, Thomas H; Martins, Claudia P B; Edge, Anthony M; Cowan, David A; Barron, Leon P

    2015-05-29

    The modelling and prediction of reversed-phase chromatographic retention time (tR) under gradient elution conditions for 166 pharmaceuticals in wastewater extracts is presented using artificial neural networks for the first time. Radial basis function, multilayer perceptron and generalised regression neural networks were investigated and a comparison of their predictive ability for model solutions discussed. For real world application, the effect of matrix complexity on tR measurements is presented. Measured tR for some compounds in influent wastewater varied by >1min in comparison to tR in model solutions. Similarly, matrix impact on artificial neural network predictive ability was addressed towards developing a more robust approach for routine screening applications. Overall, the best neural network had a predictive accuracy of <1.3min at the 75th percentile of all measured tR data in wastewater samples (<10% of the total runtime). Coefficients of determination for 30 blind test compounds in wastewater matrices lay at or above R(2)=0.92. Finally, the model was evaluated for application to the semi-targeted identification of pharmaceutical residues during a weeklong wastewater sampling campaign. The model successfully identified native compounds at a rate of 83±4% and 73±5% in influent and effluent extracts, respectively. The use of an HRMS database and the optimised ANN model was also applied to shortlisting of 37 additional compounds in wastewater. Ultimately, this research will potentially enable faster identification of emerging contaminants in the environment through more efficient post-acquisition data mining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Crustal Rock Fracture Mechanics for Design and Control of Artificial Subsurface Cracks in Geothermal Energy Extraction Engineering ({Gamma}-Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Hideaki

    1983-12-15

    Recently a significant role of artificial and/or natural cracks in the geothermal reservoir has been demonstrated in the literatures (Abe, H., et al., 1983, Nielson, D.L. and Hullen, J.B., 1983), where the cracks behave as fluid paths and/or heat exchanging surfaces. Until now, however, there are several problems such as a design procedure of hydraulic fracturing, and a quantitative estimate of fluid and heat transfer for reservoir design. In order to develop a design methodology of geothermal reservoir cracks, a special distinguished research project, named as ''{Lambda}-Project'', started at Tohoku University (5 years project, 1983-1988). In this project a basic fracture mechanics model of geothermal reservoir cracks is being demonstrated and its validation is being discussed both theoretically and experimentally. This paper descibes an outline of ''{Lambda}-Project''.

  8. Transmission Risks of Schistosomiasis Japonica: Extraction from Back-propagation Artificial Neural Network and Logistic Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun-Fang; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-Zhu; Jia, Tia-Wu; Huang, Xi-Bao; Zhang, Hua-Ming; Chen, Mei; Yang, Guo-Jing; Gao, Shu-Jing; Wang, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Background The transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in a local setting is still poorly understood in the lake regions of the People's Republic of China (P. R. China), and its transmission patterns are closely related to human, social and economic factors. Methodology/Principal Findings We aimed to apply the integrated approach of artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression model in assessment of transmission risks of Schistosoma japonicum with epidemiological data collected from 2339 villagers from 1247 households in six villages of Jiangling County, P.R. China. By using the back-propagation (BP) of the ANN model, 16 factors out of 27 factors were screened, and the top five factors ranked by the absolute value of mean impact value (MIV) were mainly related to human behavior, i.e. integration of water contact history and infection history, family with past infection, history of water contact, infection history, and infection times. The top five factors screened by the logistic regression model were mainly related to the social economics, i.e. village level, economic conditions of family, age group, education level, and infection times. The risk of human infection with S. japonicum is higher in the population who are at age 15 or younger, or with lower education, or with the higher infection rate of the village, or with poor family, and in the population with more than one time to be infected. Conclusion/Significance Both BP artificial neural network and logistic regression model established in a small scale suggested that individual behavior and socioeconomic status are the most important risk factors in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica. It was reviewed that the young population (≤15) in higher-risk areas was the main target to be intervened for the disease transmission control. PMID:23556015

  9. Artificial intelligence expert systems with neural network machine learning may assist decision-making for extractions in orthodontic treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    New approach for the diagnosis of extractions with neural network machine learning. Seok-Ki Jung and Tae-Woo Kim. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2016;149:127-33. Not reported. Mathematical modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling of solid-phase tea waste extraction for the removal of manganese from food samples by using artificial neural network approach.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Barkhordar, Afsaneh

    2013-11-15

    In this study, a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was employed to develop prediction model for removal of manganese from food samples using tea waste as a low cost adsorbent. After removal of manganese from food samples with acetic acid (5molL(-1)), manganese was adsorbed to a small amount of tea waste, desorbed with nitric acid as a eluent solvent, and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The input parameters chosen of the model was pH, amount of tea waste, extraction time and eluent concentration. After backpropagation (BP) training, the ANN model was able to predict extraction efficiency of manganese with a tangent sigmoid transfer function at hidden layer and a linear transfer function at output layer. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit was 0.6ngg(-1). The method was applied to the separation, pre-concentration and determination of manganese in food samples and one reference material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus by Extraction of Morphological Features of Red Blood Cells Using an Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Vinupritha; Mariamichael, Anburajan

    2016-10-01

    Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by varying hyperglycemias either due to insufficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas or improper utilization of glucose. The study was aimed to investigate the association of morphological features of erythrocytes among normal and diabetic subjects and its gender-based changes and thereby to develop a computer aided tool to diagnose diabetes using features extracted from RBC. Materials and Methods: The study involved 138 normal and 144 diabetic subjects. The blood was drawn from the subjects and the blood smear prepared was digitized using Zeiss fluorescent microscope. The digitized images were pre-processed and texture segmentation was performed to extract the various morphological features. The Pearson correlation test was performed and subsequently, classification of subjects as normal and diabetes was carried out by a neural network classifier based on the features that demonstrated significance at the level of P<0.05. Result: The proposed system demonstrated an overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 93.3, 93.71, 92.8, 93.1 and 93.5% respectively. Conclusion: The morphological features exhibited a statistically significant difference (P<0.01) between the normal and diabetic cells, suggesting that it could be helpful in the diagnosis of Diabetes mellitus using a computer aided system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. An artificial intelligence based improved classification of two-phase flow patterns with feature extracted from acquired images.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, C; Pappa, N

    2017-02-13

    Flow pattern recognition is necessary to select design equations for finding operating details of the process and to perform computational simulations. Visual image processing can be used to automate the interpretation of patterns in two-phase flow. In this paper, an attempt has been made to improve the classification accuracy of the flow pattern of gas/ liquid two- phase flow using fuzzy logic and Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The videos of six different types of flow patterns namely, annular flow, bubble flow, churn flow, plug flow, slug flow and stratified flow are recorded for a period and converted to 2D images for processing. The textural and shape features extracted using image processing are applied as inputs to various classification schemes namely fuzzy logic, SVM and SVM with PCA in order to identify the type of flow pattern. The results obtained are compared and it is observed that SVM with features reduced using PCA gives the better classification accuracy and computationally less intensive than other two existing schemes. This study results cover industrial application needs including oil and gas and any other gas-liquid two-phase flows.

  13. Selective solid-phase extraction of artificial chemicals from milk samples using multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Yan-li; Wang, Ling-ling; Ma, Jin-qin; Zhang, Zhi-qi

    2015-08-01

    A novel multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymer (MTMIP) was synthesized using ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol as templates and modified monodispersed poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (PGMA/EDMA ) beads as the support material. Static adsorption, solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography were performed to investigate the adsorption properties and selective recognition characteristics of the polymer templates and their structural analogs. The maximum binding capacities of ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol on the MTMIP were 9.0 and 6.6 mg/g, respectively. Compared with the corresponding nonimprinted polymer, the MTMIP exhibited a much higher adsorption performance and selectivity toward three quinolones and three estrogens, which are common drug residues in food. The MTMIP served as a simple and effective pretreatment method and could be successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of multiple target components in complex samples. Furthermore, the MTMIP may find useful applications as a solid-phase absorbent in the simultaneous determination of trace quinolones and estrogens in milk samples, as the recoveries were in the range 77.6-98.0%.

  14. Artificial Limbs

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as before.

  15. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  16. Trace determination of safranin O dye using ultrasound assisted dispersive solid-phase micro extraction: Artificial neural network-genetic algorithm and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Dil, Ebrahim Alipanahpour; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asfaram, Arash; Mehrabi, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Ali Akbar; Ghaedi, Abdol Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    In this study, ultrasound assisted dispersive solid-phase micro extraction combined with spectrophotometry (USA-DSPME-UV) method based on activated carbon modified with Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs-AC) was developed for pre-concentration and determination of safranin O (SO). It is known that the efficiency of USA-DSPME-UV method may be affected by pH, amount of adsorbent, ultrasound time and eluent volume and the extent and magnitude of their contribution on response (in term of main and interaction part) was studied by using central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network-genetic algorithms (ANN-GA). Accordingly by adjustment of experimental conditions suggested by ANN-GA at pH 6.5, 1.1mg of adsorbent, 10min ultrasound and 150μL of eluent volume led to achievement of best operation performance like low LOD (6.3ngmL(-1)) and LOQ (17.5ngmL(-1)) in the range of 25-3500ngmL(-1). In following stage, the SO content in real water and wastewater samples with recoveries between 93.27-99.41% with RSD lower than 3% was successfully determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  18. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  19. Combination of counterpropagation artificial neural networks and antioxidant activities for comprehensive evaluation of associated-extraction efficiency of various cyclodextrins in the traditional Chinese formula Xue-Zhi-Ning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Yang, Jianwen; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Yanan; Ren, Xiaoliang; Qi, Aidi

    2015-11-10

    Xue-Zhi-Ning (XZN) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine formula to treat hyperlipidemia. Recently, cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively used to minimize problems relative to medicine bioavailability, such as low solubility and poor stability. The objective of this study was to determine the associated-extraction efficiency of various CDs in XZN. Three various type CDs were evaluated, including native CDs (α-CD, β-CD), hydrophilic CD derivatives (HP-β-CD and Me-β-CD), and ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD). An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) fingerprint was applied to determine the components in CD extracts and original aqueous extract (OAE). A counterpropagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) was used to analyze the components in different extracts and compare the selective extraction of various CDs. Extraction efficiencies of the various CDs in terms of extracted components follow the ranking, ionic CD derivatives>hydrophilic CD derivatives>native CDs>OAE. Besides, different types of CDs have their own selective extraction and ionic CD derivatives present the strongest associated-extraction efficiency. Antioxidant potentials of various extracts were evaluated by determining the inhibition of spontaneous, H2O2-induced, CCl4-induced and Fe(2+)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and analyzing the scavenging capacity for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The order of extraction efficiencies of the various CDs relative to antioxidant activities is as follows: SBE-β-CD>CM-β-CD>HP-β-CD>Me-β-CD>β-CD>α-CD. It can be demonstrated that all of the CDs studied increase the extraction efficiency and that ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD) present the highest extraction capability in terms of amount extracted and antioxidant activities of extracts.

  20. A flow-injection mass spectrometry fingerprinting scaffold for feature selection and quantitation of Cordyceps and Ganoderma extracts in beverage: a predictive artificial neural network modelling strategy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Flow-injection mass spectrometry (FI/MS) represents a powerful analytical tool for the quality assessment of herbal formula in dietary supplements. In this study, we described a scaffold (proof-of-concept) adapted from spectroscopy to quantify Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum in a popular Cordyceps sinensis /Ganoderma lucidum -enriched health beverage by utilizing flow-injection/mass spectrometry/artificial neural network (FI/MS/ANN) model fingerprinting method with feature selection capability. Equal proportion of 0.1% formic acid and methanol (v/v) were used to convert extracts of Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum into their respective ions under positive MS polarity condition. No chromatographic separation was performed. The principal m/z values of Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum were identified as: 104.2, 116.2, 120.2, 175.2, 236.3, 248.3, 266.3, 366.6 and 498.6; 439.7, 469.7, 511.7, 551.6, 623.6, 637.7 and 653.6, respectively. ANN models representing Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum were individually trained and validated using three independent sets of matrix-free and matrix-matched calibration curves at concentration levels of 2, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg mL-1. Five repeat analyses provided a total of 180 spectra for herbal extracts of Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum. Root-mean-square-deviation (RMSE) were highly satisfactory at <4% for both training and validation models. Correlation coefficient (r2) values of between 0.9994 and 0.9997 were reported. Matrix blanks comprised of complex mixture of Lingzhi fermentation solution and collagen. Recovery assessment was performed over two days using six sets of matrix blank (n = 6) spiked at three concentration levels of approximately 83, 166 and 333 mg kg-1. Extraction using acetonitrile provided good overall recovery range of 92-118%. A quantitation limit of 0.2 mg L-1 was reported for both Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum. Intra-day and inter-day RMSE

  1. Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhiqiang; Wu, Mianbin; Lin, Yijun; Yang, Lirong; Lin, Jianping; Cen, Peilin

    2014-07-15

    Butanol is an industrial commodity and also considered to be a more promising gasoline substitute compared to ethanol. Renewed attention has been paid to solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) production from the renewable and inexpensive substrates, for example, lignocellulose, on account of the depletion of oil resources, increasing gasoline prices and deteriorating environment. Limited to current tools for genetic manipulation, it is difficult to develop a genetically engineered microorganism with combined ability of lignocellulose utilization and solvents production. Mixed culture of cellulolytic microorganisms and solventogenic bacteria provides a more convenient and feasible approach for ABE fermentation due to the potential for synergistic utilization of the metabolic pathways of two organisms. But few bacteria pairs succeeded in producing biobutanol of high titer or high productivity without adding butyrate. The aim of this work was to use Clostridium cellulovorans 743B to saccharify lignocellulose and produce butyric acid, instead of adding cellulase and butyric acid to the medium, so that the soluble sugars and butyric acid generated can be subsequently utilized by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to produce butanol in one pot reaction. A stable artificial symbiotic system was constructed by co-culturing a celluloytic, anaerobic, butyrate-producing mesophile (C. cellulovorans 743B) and a non-celluloytic, solventogenic bacterium (C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052) to produce solvents by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) with alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs (AECC), a low-cost renewable feedstock, as the sole carbon source. Under optimized conditions, the co-culture degraded 68.6 g/L AECC and produced 11.8 g/L solvents (2.64 g/L acetone, 8.30 g/L butanol and 0.87 g/L ethanol) in less than 80 h. Besides, a real-time PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence was performed to study the dynamics of the abundance of each strain during the co

  2. Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butanol is an industrial commodity and also considered to be a more promising gasoline substitute compared to ethanol. Renewed attention has been paid to solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) production from the renewable and inexpensive substrates, for example, lignocellulose, on account of the depletion of oil resources, increasing gasoline prices and deteriorating environment. Limited to current tools for genetic manipulation, it is difficult to develop a genetically engineered microorganism with combined ability of lignocellulose utilization and solvents production. Mixed culture of cellulolytic microorganisms and solventogenic bacteria provides a more convenient and feasible approach for ABE fermentation due to the potential for synergistic utilization of the metabolic pathways of two organisms. But few bacteria pairs succeeded in producing biobutanol of high titer or high productivity without adding butyrate. The aim of this work was to use Clostridium cellulovorans 743B to saccharify lignocellulose and produce butyric acid, instead of adding cellulase and butyric acid to the medium, so that the soluble sugars and butyric acid generated can be subsequently utilized by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to produce butanol in one pot reaction. Results A stable artificial symbiotic system was constructed by co-culturing a celluloytic, anaerobic, butyrate-producing mesophile (C. cellulovorans 743B) and a non-celluloytic, solventogenic bacterium (C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052) to produce solvents by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) with alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs (AECC), a low-cost renewable feedstock, as the sole carbon source. Under optimized conditions, the co-culture degraded 68.6 g/L AECC and produced 11.8 g/L solvents (2.64 g/L acetone, 8.30 g/L butanol and 0.87 g/L ethanol) in less than 80 h. Besides, a real-time PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence was performed to study the dynamics of the abundance of each strain

  3. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model.

  4. Artificial Intelligence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PATTERN RECOGNITION, * ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , *TEXTBOOKS, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, ROBOTS, PROBLEM SOLVING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, GAME THEORY, NATURAL LANGUAGE, SELF ORGANIZING SYSTEMS.

  5. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-10-04

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  6. Temperature-controlled ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted microextraction for preconcentration of trace quantity of cadmium and nickel by using organic ligand in artificial saliva extract of smokeless tobacco products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Asma Jabeen; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Arain, Salma Aslam

    2015-03-01

    A new approach was developed for the preconcentration of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in artificial saliva extract of dry snuff (brown and black) products using temperature-controlled ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TIL-UDLLμE) followed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The Cd and Ni were complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), extracted in ionic liquid drops, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM][PF6]. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables influence the % recovery of analytes by TIL-UDLLμE method. At optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s) were 0.05 and 0.14 μg L-1 while relative standard deviations (% RSD) were 3.97 and 3.55 for Cd and Ni respectively. After extraction, the enhancement factors (EF) were 87 and 79 for Cd and Ni, respectively. The RSD for six replicates of 10 μg L-1 Cd and Ni were 3.97% and 3.55% respectively. To validate the proposed method, certified reference material (CRM) of Virginia tobacco leaves was analyzed, and the determined values of Cd and Ni were in good agreement with the certified values. The concentration of Cd and Ni in artificial saliva extracts corresponds to 39-52% and 21-32%, respectively, of the total contents of both elements in dry brown and black snuff products.

  7. Temperature-controlled ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted microextraction for preconcentration of trace quantity of cadmium and nickel by using organic ligand in artificial saliva extract of smokeless tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Asma Jabeen; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Arain, Salma Aslam

    2015-03-05

    A new approach was developed for the preconcentration of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in artificial saliva extract of dry snuff (brown and black) products using temperature-controlled ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TIL-UDLLμE) followed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The Cd and Ni were complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), extracted in ionic liquid drops, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM][PF6]. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables influence the % recovery of analytes by TIL-UDLLμE method. At optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s) were 0.05 and 0.14μgL(-1) while relative standard deviations (% RSD) were 3.97 and 3.55 for Cd and Ni respectively. After extraction, the enhancement factors (EF) were 87 and 79 for Cd and Ni, respectively. The RSD for six replicates of 10μgL(-1) Cd and Ni were 3.97% and 3.55% respectively. To validate the proposed method, certified reference material (CRM) of Virginia tobacco leaves was analyzed, and the determined values of Cd and Ni were in good agreement with the certified values. The concentration of Cd and Ni in artificial saliva extracts corresponds to 39-52% and 21-32%, respectively, of the total contents of both elements in dry brown and black snuff products.

  8. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  9. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A series of articles focuses on artificial intelligence research and development to enhance information systems and services. Topics discussed include knowledge base designs, expert system development tools, natural language processing, expert systems for reference services, and the role that artificial intelligence concepts should have in…

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  11. [Artificial organs].

    PubMed

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  12. Artificial blood.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  13. Artificial vision workbench.

    PubMed

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  14. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  15. Development of artificial gametes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt Peter; Kerkis, Irina; Chang, Ching-Chien

    2008-04-01

    Virtually all normal cells can reproduce themselves. The germ cells, however, can initiate reproduction of the entire organism. A special sequence of events, meiosis, is responsible for generating mature germ cells bearing a haploid genome. The basic features of meiosis, i.e. two cell divisions with no intervening DNA replication, resulting in a halving of the chromosome complement, are evident throughout evolution. The idea of generating an artificial gamete was recently put forward to provide an ultimate solution for the treatment of infertility. Currently, there are different strategies to create artificial gametes in vitro, such as converting somatic cells from mitotic division to meiotic division directly (somatic cell haploidization), or dedifferentiating somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES) cells and re-differentiating ES cells into gametes, or extracting adult stem cells and re-differentiating them into gametes.

  16. Artificial ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J R

    1994-01-01

    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  17. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  18. Artificial Rheotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anais; Hanson, Kasey; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul; CSMR, NYU Team

    2013-11-01

    Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

  19. Artificial Rheotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Hanson, Kasey; Vatchinsky, Adrian; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul; CSMR Team

    2013-03-01

    Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

  20. Artificial vision.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  1. Analysis of plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) medical devices for infusion and artificial nutrition: comparison and optimization of the extraction procedures, a pre-migration test step.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Lise; Cueff, Régis; Bourdeaux, Daniel; Breysse, Colette; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Medical devices (MDs) for infusion and enteral and parenteral nutrition are essentially made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The first step in assessing patient exposure to these plasticizers, as well as ensuring that the MDs are free from di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), consists of identifying and quantifying the plasticizers present and, consequently, determining which ones are likely to migrate into the patient's body. We compared three different extraction methods using 0.1 g of plasticized PVC: Soxhlet extraction in diethyl ether and ethyl acetate, polymer dissolution, and room temperature extraction in different solvents. It was found that simple room temperature chloroform extraction under optimized conditions (30 min, 50 mL) gave the best separation of plasticizers from the PVC matrix, with extraction yields ranging from 92 to 100% for all plasticizers. This result was confirmed by supplemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and gravimetric analyses. The technique was used on eight marketed medical devices and showed that they contained different amounts of plasticizers, ranging from 25 to 36% of the PVC weight. These yields, associated with the individual physicochemical properties of each plasticizer, highlight the need for further migration studies.

  2. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  3. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  4. Electrokinetic extraction on artificial liquid membranes of amphetamine-type stimulants from urine samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Seidi, Shahram; Yamini, Yadollah; Baheri, Tahmineh; Feizbakhsh, Rouhollah

    2011-07-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection was developed for determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in human urine samples. Amphetamines migrated from 3 mL of different human urine matrices, through a thin layer of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) containing 15% tris-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) immobilized in the pores of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 15 μL acidic aqueous acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the fiber. Equilibrium extraction conditions were obtained after 7 min of operation. Experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used for optimization of EME parameters. Under optimal conditions, amphetamines were effectively extracted with recoveries in the range of 54-70%, which corresponded to preconcentration factors in the range of 108-140. The calibration curves were investigated in the range of 0-7 μg mL(-1) and good linearity was achieved with a coefficient of estimation better than 0.991. Detection limits and inter-day precision (n=3) were less than 0.01 μg mL(-1) and 11.2%, respectively.

  5. Artificial rheotaxis.

    PubMed

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anaïs; Barral, Jérémie; Hanson, Kasey; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Pine, David J; Chaikin, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes.

  6. Artificial Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Bryan E.; Olsen, Matthew T.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of biophysical study on the hydrogenase (H2ase) enzymes have yielded sufficient information to guide the synthesis of analogues of their active sites. Three families of enzymes serve as inspiration for this work: the [FeFe]-, [NiFe]-, and [Fe]-H2ases, all of which feature iron centers bound to both CO and thiolate. Artificial H2ases effect the oxidation of H2 of H2 and the reverse reaction, the reduction of protons. These reactions occur via the intermediacy of metal hydrides. The inclusion of amine bases within the catalysts is an important design feature that is emulated in related bioinspired catalysts. Continuing challenges are the low reactivity of H2 towards biomimetic H2ases. PMID:20356731

  7. Artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Scott, William B

    2005-04-25

    NASA's Artificial Gravity program consists of a team of researchers from Wyle Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). The short-radius centrifuge (SRC), built by Wyle Laboratories, will be integrated with UTMB's conducted bedrest studies, which mimic the detrimental effects of weightlessness (or microgravity). Bedrest subjects will be spun on the SRC at various accelerations and for various time periods, while being monitored medically. Parameters such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, balance control, and oxygen consumption will then be compared in order to research ways of mitigating the impact on astronauts' physiology. Other potential benefits from these studies extend to population groups on Earth, such as bedridden patients.

  8. On the occurrence of polymers of H1, H1(0) and H5 in extracts of whole tissues. Artificial production during protein preparation.

    PubMed

    Smith, B J; Harris, M R; Sigournay, C M; Wood, J N

    1984-11-23

    Inspection of preparations of H1, H1(0) and H5 histones made by extraction of whole tissues has shown that dimers and higher polymers of all three of these proteins are present. They may be formed by the cross-linking action of poly(ADP-ribose) chains which are linked to some of the protein molecules. Putative dimers and higher polymers were noted in preparations from various tissues and species. However, evidence is presented which suggests that production of these polymers is an artifact of precipitation during the preparation of the proteins, so the significance of the polymers is questionable.

  9. [Direct measurement of nitric oxide levels in aqueous humor with selective iso-NO electrode under physiologic conditions and after extracapsular cataract extraction and artificial lens implantation with PMMA in experiments with rabbits].

    PubMed

    Jurowski, P; Goś, R

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the level of the nitric oxide (NO) within the aqueous humor of the rabbit eye after ECCE and PMMA artificial lens implantation using selective, nitric oxide sensitive electrode Iso-NO. We analysed the NO level during early postoperative period between the 1st and the 5th day. We examined 30 gray rabbits (weighing 3.0-3.5 kg). Just before surgery, samples of aqueous humor were aspirated to control the NO level in physiological condition. Lens was extracted with ECCE (envelope) technique. In 15 eyes PMMA IOL were implanted and 15 eyes were left aphacic. The aqueous samples were also collected 1, 3, 5 days after surgery. Nitric oxide in each sample was estimated directly with selective, nitric oxide sensitive electrode Iso-NO. Changing values of the NO concentration during the examination were expressed using evaluation of field under curve in the absolute values. Such results were compared with control group. During physiological conditions the mean value of the field under curve of the NO concentration was estimated as 4987.29 +/- 895.89. After ECCE with or without PMMA artificial lens implantation the levels of the NO were higher as compared to the control group. After ECCE and PMMA artificial lens implantation the highest level of NO was estimated on the 3rd postoperative day (7978.98 +/- 949.77). During the examinations the fields under curve of NO concentration were estimated as 6626.30 +/- 1176.53 and 6288.19 +/- 604.90 (on the 1st and the 5th days, respectively). On all postoperative days, values of the field under curve of NO were significantly higher as compared to the control group. In contrast, after ECCE without lens implantation the highest value of NO field under curve, was estimated on the 1st postoperative day as 11727.83 +/- 1032.44. During the examinations, the fields under curve of NO concentration were estimated as 9841.52 +/- 698.06 and 5446.96 +/- 568.47 (on the 3rd and the 5th postoperative days, respectively). Moreover, on all days

  10. Artificial Respiration and Artificial Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Joseph; Brook, Morris H.; Lopez, Jose F.

    1965-01-01

    A training program in the newer methods of treatment of acute cardiopulmonary emergencies which was developed at the University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, is reported. Artificial respiration by the chance rescuer, primary and secondary resuscitation, and post-resuscitation measures involving the use of special drugs and equipment by trained personnel are described. Figures and tables designed for wall-mounting and ready reference in an emergency situation are presented. Firstaid ventilatory adjuncts for use by trained personnel are classified and critically appraised, and the propriety of their use is emphasized. A plea is made to the medical profession and allied agencies to assume the responsibility of spreading knowledge of the new techniques more widely. Unless effective treatment is instituted early enough to prevent death or permanent anoxic damage to heart and brain, follow-through therapy will often be fruitless. PMID:14339303

  11. Artificial gametes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt Peter; Chang, Ching-Chien

    2007-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) has been an efficient medical treatment for infertility in the past decades. However, conventional IVF approaches may be insufficient when gametes are lacking or non-viable thus precluding a significant number of patients from treatment. Ultimately, creation of artificial gametes may provide an universal solution for all indications. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has provided successful cloning in different animal species indicating that a derived technology may be applicable in infertility treatment procedures. Attempts to produce functional male or female gamete through nuclear transfer have been described through the process called haploidization. Initial successes have been observed, however, significant alterations at spindle construction and chromosomal segregation were also described. Stem cell technology may provide an alternative route to obtain fully functional gametes. Both sperm cells and oocytes were obtained using specific culture conditions for embryo originated stem cell. These two mainstream approaches are presented in the current review. Both of these techniques are involving sophisticated methods and consequently both of them demonstrate technical and ethical challenges. Related questions on (mitotic/meiotic) cell division, genetic/epigenetic alterations and cell renewal are needed to be addressed before clinical application.

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  13. Artificial life and Piaget.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  14. Artificial Behavior: An Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Gene D.; Peden, Blaine F.

    1985-01-01

    Contrasts artificial behavior with artificial intelligence, traces Law of Effect's development from a verbal statement into a mathematical model providing algorithms for artificial behavior programs, and describes an attempt to use computer graphics and animation to simulate behavior and teach abstract concepts. (MBR)

  15. Advances in artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kei

    2010-04-01

    Artificial lungs have already been developed as complete artificial organs, and results of many investigations based on innovative concepts have been reported continuously. In open-heart surgery, artificial lungs are used for extracorporeal circulation to maintain gas exchange, and the commercial products currently available perform adequately, including providing for antithrombogenicity. However, patients after cardiopulmonary arrest or severe respiratory/circulatory failure have required long-term assist with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The number of artificial lungs used for ECMO in those cases has shown significant growth in recent years. Therefore, it is expected that durability and antithrombogenicity will ensure the prolonged use of an artificial lung for several weeks or months. Furthermore, interests in research are shifting to use of oxygenators as a bridge to lung transplantation and an implantable artificial lung. This paper discusses recent advances in artificial lungs, focusing on the current state and on trends in research and development.

  16. Feature Extraction Without Edge Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    feature? A.I. Memo 1356, MIT Artificial Intellegence Lab, April 1992. [65] W. A. Richards, B. Dawson, and D. Whittington. Encoding contour shape by...AD-A279 842 . " Technical Report 1434 --Feature Extraction Without Edge Detection Ronald D. Chane MIT Artificial .Intelligencc Laboratory ",, 𔃾•d...Chaney 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial

  17. Psychometric Measurement Models and Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sese, Albert; Palmer, Alfonso L.; Montano, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    The study of measurement models in psychometrics by means of dimensionality reduction techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a very common practice. In recent times, an upsurge of interest in the study of artificial neural networks apt to computing a principal component extraction has been observed. Despite this interest, the…

  18. Psychometric Measurement Models and Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sese, Albert; Palmer, Alfonso L.; Montano, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    The study of measurement models in psychometrics by means of dimensionality reduction techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a very common practice. In recent times, an upsurge of interest in the study of artificial neural networks apt to computing a principal component extraction has been observed. Despite this interest, the…

  19. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  20. The artificial womb.

    PubMed

    Bulletti, Carlo; Palagiano, Antonio; Pace, Caterina; Cerni, Angelica; Borini, Andrea; de Ziegler, Dominique

    2011-03-01

    The availability of computer-controlled artificial hearts, kidneys, and lungs, as well as the possibility of implanting human embryos in ex vivo uterus models or an artificial endometrium, presents new perspectives for creating an artificial uterus. Survival rates have also improved, with fetuses surviving from as early as 24 weeks of gestation. These advances bring new opportunities for complete or partial ectogenesis through the creation of an artificial womb, one that could sustain the growth and development of fetuses outside of the human body.

  1. Artificial insemination in poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  2. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  3. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  4. [Implantable artificial heart].

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Chisato

    2005-11-01

    Heart transplants have been decreasing globally due to the lack of available donor hearts. As a result, the increased use of artificial hearts is anticipated as an alternative therapy. Although biocompatibility issues, such as thrombus formation/thromboembolism and infection, are still the main cause of mortality associated with artificial hearts, more than 20 different types are now clinically available after a half-century of development and experimental trials. These devices range from extracorporeal pneumatic to implantable battery-powered artificial hearts. The early development of artificial hearts logically focused on volumetric pump designs incorporating functions similar to the natural heart. Today, development has shifted toward designs that are significantly different from the natural heart. These pumps utilize axial or centrifugal flow allowing for a much simpler design, which is smaller in size and has very few moving parts. With rapid advances in technology, this new generation of artificial heart pumps is beginning to emerge as an alternative to heart transplants.

  5. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  6. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, A N; Kambhampati, C; Monson, J R T; Drew, P J

    2004-09-01

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting.

  7. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-20

    8217’AD-A122 414 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (.) ARMY SCIENCE 1/j 13OARD WA SH INGTON Od I C PEDEN ET AL. 20 SEP 82 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 15/3 NL LEE...AND ACQUISITION WASHINGTON, D. C. 20310 A RMY CIENCE BOARD AD HOC SUBGROUP REPORT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS SEPTEMBER 1982 DTIC DEC 1 5...TITLE (aid Subtitle) S TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Army Science Board AHSG Report Final Artificial Intelligence and Robotics S. PERFORMING ORG

  8. Artificial intelligence and statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores the possible applications of artificial intelligence in statistics and conversely, statistics in artificial intelligence. It is a collection of seventeen papers written by leaders in the field. Most of the papers were prepared for the Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics held in April 1985 and sponsored by ATandT Bell Laboratories. The book is divided into six parts: uncertainly propagation, clustering and learning, expert systems, environments for supporting statistical strategy, knowledge acquisition, and strategy. The editor ties the collection together in the first chapter by providing an overview of AI and statistics, discussing the Workshop, and exploring future research in the field.

  9. [Total artificial heart].

    PubMed

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  10. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  11. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  12. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  13. Artificial upwelling and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The authors present results related to artificial upwelling and coastal mariculture using deep ocean water and mixing in coastal waters. They discuss the application of research results for marine waste disposal.

  14. Inflatable artificial sphincter - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100115.htm Inflatable artificial sphincter - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  15. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  16. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  17. Artificial consciousness, artificial emotions, and autonomous robots.

    PubMed

    Cardon, Alain

    2006-12-01

    Nowadays for robots, the notion of behavior is reduced to a simple factual concept at the level of the movements. On another hand, consciousness is a very cultural concept, founding the main property of human beings, according to themselves. We propose to develop a computable transposition of the consciousness concepts into artificial brains, able to express emotions and consciousness facts. The production of such artificial brains allows the intentional and really adaptive behavior for the autonomous robots. Such a system managing the robot's behavior will be made of two parts: the first one computes and generates, in a constructivist manner, a representation for the robot moving in its environment, and using symbols and concepts. The other part achieves the representation of the previous one using morphologies in a dynamic geometrical way. The robot's body will be seen for itself as the morphologic apprehension of its material substrata. The model goes strictly by the notion of massive multi-agent's organizations with a morphologic control.

  18. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  19. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  20. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.

    1985-01-01

    The vast underground reservoirs formed by aquifers constitute invaluable water supply sources as well as water storage facilities. Because natural replenishment of the supply occurs very slowly, continued excessive exploitation of it causes groundwater levels to decline with time. If not corrected this leads to an eventual depletion of a valuable natural resource. To prevent mining and groundwater pollution, the artificial recharge of groundwater basins is becoming increasingly important in groundwater management as a way to increase this natural supply of water. Artificial recharge can reduce, stop, and even reverse declining levels of groundwater. In addition, it can protect underground freshwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion from the ocean, and can be used to store surface and reclaimed water for future use. This book is a treatise of the artificial recharge of groundwater, with particular emphasis on recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater.

  1. An artificial molecular pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R.; Schneebeli, Severin T.; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A.; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-06-01

    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration.

  2. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  3. Artificial Photosynthesis: Hybrid Systems.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan; Hollmann, Frank

    Oxidoreductases are promising catalysts for organic synthesis. To sustain their catalytic cycles they require efficient supply with redox equivalents. Today classical biomimetic approaches utilizing natural electron supply chains prevail but artificial regeneration approaches bear the promise of simpler and more robust reaction schemes. Utilizing visible light can accelerate such artificial electron transport chains and even enable thermodynamically unfeasible reactions such as the use of water as reductant.This contribution critically summarizes the current state of the art in photoredoxbiocatalysis (i.e. light-driven biocatalytic oxidation and reduction reactions).

  4. Artificial molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S; Wilson, Miriam R; Feringa, Ben L; Leigh, David A

    2017-05-09

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new development, significant advances have been made. In this review an overview is given of the principal designs of artificial molecular motors and their modes of operation. Although synthetic molecular motors have also found widespread application as (multistate) switches, we focus on the control of directional movement, both at the molecular scale and at larger magnitudes. We identify some key challenges remaining in the field.

  5. Invitation to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    D'heedene, R.N.

    1983-02-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence displayed by non-living objects, that is, machines. The possibility of creating intelligent machines has been a motivating force behind a great deal of computing machine development. The methods of AI are not only of historical interest, but are powerful in themselves. Artificial intelligence therefore deserves a prominent place in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. This paper discusses the pedagogical advantages of emphasizing AI in upper level courses, reasons for its present neglect, and the importance of introducing ai study. 5 references.

  6. Harvesting sperm and artificial insemination of mice.

    PubMed

    Duselis, Amanda R; Vrana, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Rodents of the genus Peromyscus (deer mice) are the most prevalent native North American mammals. Peromyscus species are used in a wide range of research including toxicology, epidemiology, ecology, behavioral, and genetic studies. Here they provide a useful model for demonstrations of artificial insemination. Methods similar to those displayed here have previously been used in several deer mouse studies, yet no detailed protocol has been published. Here we demonstrate the basic method of artificial insemination. This method entails extracting the testes from the rodent, then isolating the sperm from the epididymis and vas deferens. The mature sperm, now in a milk mixture, are placed in the female's reproductive tract at the time of ovulation. Fertilization is counted as day 0 for timing of embryo development. Embryos can then be retrieved at the desired time-point and manipulated.Artificial insemination can be used in a variety of rodent species where exact embryo timing is crucial or hard to obtain. This technique is vital for species or strains (including most Peromyscus) which may not mate immediately and/or where mating is hard to assess. In addition, artificial insemination provides exact timing for embryo development either in mapping developmental progress and/or transgenic work. Reduced numbers of animals can be used since fertilization is guaranteed. This method has been vital to furthering the Peromyscus system, and will hopefully benefit others as well.

  7. Artificial limb connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

  8. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  9. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  10. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  11. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  12. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...system: The synergy between discrete-event simulation and the approaches that programmers take to develop artifical - intelligence software took some...dated 28 October 1986 Subject: Army Artifical Intelligence Training Available at Fort Gordon) has indicated the availability of the following training

  13. The Artificial Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, D. R.

    An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

  14. Artificial Intelligence Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Computer Science, New Delhi, India , December 1986. (Also University of Texas, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AITR-41, August 1987). Kumar, V. and...the Tenth ICAI ) A187-55 Expert Systems for Monitoring and Control, D. Dvorak, May 1987. Many large-scale industrial processes and services are

  15. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  16. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  17. Artificial intelligence. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of the field of artificial intelligence. It contains material covering the latest advances in control, representation, language, vision, and problem solving. Problem solving in design and analysis systems is addressed. Mitcell's version-space learning procedure, Morevec's reduced-images stereo procedure, and the Strips problem solver are covered.

  18. Artificial intelligence and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, I.C.; Braddock, J.V.; Brown, W.; Langendorf, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report examines the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and robotics technologies and their potential in terms of Army needs. Assessment includes battlefield technology, research and technology insertions, management considerations and recommendations related to research and development personnel, and recommendations regarding the Army's involvement in the automated plant.

  19. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  20. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  1. Quality Control by Artificial Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Edmond Y.; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Niel, Kurt S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational technology has fundamentally changed many aspects of our lives. One clear evidence is the development of artificial-vision systems, which have effectively automated many manual tasks ranging from quality inspection to quantitative assessment. In many cases, these machine-vision systems are even preferred over manual ones due to their repeatability and high precision. Such advantages come from significant research efforts in advancing sensor technology, illumination, computational hardware, and image-processing algorithms. Similar to the Special Section on Quality Control by Artificial Vision published two years ago in Volume 17, Issue 3 of the Journal of Electronic Imaging, the present one invited papers relevant to fundamental technology improvements to foster quality control by artificial vision, and fine-tuned the technology for specific applications. We aim to balance both theoretical and applied work pertinent to this special section theme. Consequently, we have seven high-quality papers resulting from the stringent peer-reviewing process in place at the Journal of Electronic Imaging. Some of the papers contain extended treatment of the authors work presented at the SPIE Image Processing: Machine Vision Applications conference and the International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision. On the broad application side, Liu et al. propose an unsupervised texture image segmentation scheme. Using a multilayer data condensation spectral clustering algorithm together with wavelet transform, they demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach on both texture and synthetic aperture radar images. A problem related to image segmentation is image extraction. For this, O'Leary et al. investigate the theory of polynomial moments and show how these moments can be compared to classical filters. They also show how to use the discrete polynomial-basis functions for the extraction of 3-D embossed digits, demonstrating superiority over Fourier

  2. Researchers Create Artificial Mouse 'Embryo'

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163881.html Researchers Create Artificial Mouse 'Embryo' Experiment used two types of gene-modified stem ... they've created a kind of artificial mouse embryo using stem cells, which can be coaxed to ...

  3. Artificial neural networks in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Parisa; Mohammadi, Hasan Reza; Benzel, Edward C; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) effectively analyze non-linear data sets. The aimed was A review of the relevant published articles that focused on the application of ANNs as a tool for assisting clinical decision-making in neurosurgery. A literature review of all full publications in English biomedical journals (1993-2013) was undertaken. The strategy included a combination of key words 'artificial neural networks', 'prognostic', 'brain', 'tumor tracking', 'head', 'tumor', 'spine', 'classification' and 'back pain' in the title and abstract of the manuscripts using the PubMed search engine. The major findings are summarized, with a focus on the application of ANNs for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Finally, the future of ANNs in neurosurgery is explored. A total of 1093 citations were identified and screened. In all, 57 citations were found to be relevant. Of these, 50 articles were eligible for inclusion in this review. The synthesis of the data showed several applications of ANN in neurosurgery, including: (1) diagnosis and assessment of disease progression in low back pain, brain tumours and primary epilepsy; (2) enhancing clinically relevant information extraction from radiographic images, intracranial pressure processing, low back pain and real-time tumour tracking; (3) outcome prediction in epilepsy, brain metastases, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar disc herniation, childhood hydrocephalus, trauma mortality, and the occurrence of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage; (4) the use in the biomechanical assessments of spinal disease. ANNs can be effectively employed for diagnosis, prognosis and outcome prediction in neurosurgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Research advances in artificial musk.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing

    2014-12-01

    Based on the milestone events in the research and development of artificial musk,this artilce elucidates the applications of the musk as traditional Chinese medicine,the protection of the musk deer,the research and development principles and strategies of artificial musk. Artificial musk is a major breakthrough in research on substitutes for medicinal raw materials derived from rare animals.

  5. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  6. Artificial intelligence at CSM

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.E.

    1985-08-01

    The recent developments in artificial intelligence have been cited as being the most significant technological advancement in computer science in the twentieth century. Machines that can mimic human reasoning will have a great impact upon our civilization. The way we think, learn, and work will be changed in a profound way. It is for these reasons that the Colorado School of Mines, in order to maintain its reputation of quality engineering education, has entered the AI field. CSM presently is evaluating artificial intelligence for applications in the mineral industries; decision support systems, process control, machine vision, data acquisition and analysis, etc. Future plans are to move AI out of the research laboratories and into the curriculum. An understanding of the concepts and unlimited power of the application of AI will enhance the engineering methods of Mines graduates. 6 references.

  7. Artificially structured magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, C.M.

    1990-09-28

    This document reports the progress made during the first six months of the current three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Magnetic Materials.'' However, because some of the results of our previous three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Superconductors'' continue to emerge, both topics are addressed in this Progress Report. This report describes progress with DOE funding during the current calendar year; description of the research to be conducted during the remaining six months of the current grant year; a description of the status of the graduate students working on this research; lists of the invited talks, seminars and colloquia, of other recognition of our research, and of the publications crediting DOE sponsorship; and a summary of current and pending federal support. Since the research proposed to be conducted during the next 2 1/2 years is described in detail in our DOE proposal, it is only briefly reviewed here.

  8. Artificial perception and consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John; Johnson, John L.

    2000-06-01

    Perception has both unconscious and conscious aspects. In all cases, however, what we perceive is a model of reality. By brain construction through evolution, we divide the world into two parts--our body and the outside world. But the process is the same in both cases. We perceive a construct usually governed by sensed data but always involving memory, goals, fears, expectations, etc. As a first step toward Artificial Perception in man-made systems, we examine perception in general here.

  9. Economics and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This volume gives a overview of artificial intelligence and the use of computers in economics. Areas covered include statistics and macro economic forecasting, the use of automated techniques for economic studies and decision-making processes. The book looks at how much computers are used in business, and how far they will affect the design of markets and the structure of organizations in the future.

  10. Whither Artificial Reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Percival-Smith, Robin

    1985-01-01

    Artificial reproduction now offers sub fertile couples a number of options which raise scientific and ethical questions. This article discusses the Canadian and British experiences in formulating regulations and legislation in this important field. Current work on mammalian embryo research foretells the direction which human research will take. This article stresses the need for family physicians' participation in the ethical decisions that accompany these new developments. PMID:21274181

  11. Artificial gravity Mars spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1989-01-01

    Experience gained in the study of artificial gravity for a manned trip to Mars is reviewed, and a snowflake-configured interplanetary vehicle cluster of habitat modules, descent vehicles, and propulsion systems is presented. An evolutionary design is described which permits sequential upgrading from five to nine crew members, an increase of landers from one to as many a three per mission, and an orderly, phased incorporation of advanced technologies as they become available.

  12. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  13. Introducing artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the field of artificial intelligence. The volume sets Al in a broad context of historical attitudes, imaginative insights, and ideas about intelligence in general. The author offers a wide-ranging survey of Al concerns, including cognition, knowledge engineering, problem inference, speech understanding, and perception. He also discusses expert systems, LISP, smart robots, and other Al products, and provides a listing of all major Al systems.

  14. Applications Of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Mohan M.; Gilmore, John F.

    1986-03-01

    Intelligence evolves out of matter, so said the Sankhya philosophers of ancient India. The discipline of artificial intelligence (Al), which was established some 30 years ago, has confirmed the validity of the above assertion. Recently, a number of AI applications have been successfully demonstrated, generating a great deal of excitement and interest in scientific and technical circles. In this special issue of Optical Engineering a representative set of applications that incorporate Al principles is presented.

  15. Embryogenesis of Artificial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashlock, Daniel; Gent, Stephen; Bryden, Kenneth

    This chapter examines the artificial embryogeny of landscapes intended for use with virtual reality which consist of collections of polygons encoded using L-systems. Artificial Embryogeny is the study of indirect representations. A recent survey that attempts to classify different types of artificial embryogeny appears in [18]. A representation is a way of encoding a model or a solution to a problem for use in computation. For example, an array of n real numbers is a representation of the value of a function in n variables. A representation is indirect if it gives a set of directions for constructing the thing it specifies rather than encoding the object directly. The process of following the directions given in the indirect representation to obtain the final object is called expression. Indirect representations require an interpreter to express them and, because of this, are more difficult to understand at the specification or genetic level. There are number of advantages to indirect representations that more than balance this genetic obscurity in many situations. The most general of these advantages is that the transformation from the indirect specification to the final model or solution can incorporate heuristics and domain knowledge. This permits a search of a genetic space that is far smaller than the space in which the expressed objects reside and has a much higher average quality. Another advantage, showcased in this chapter, is compactness of representation. The indirect representations we evolve in this chapter use a few hundred bytes to specify megabyte-sized collections of polygons.

  16. Production of Artificial Lesions for Teaching Cavity Preparation in the Phantom Head.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treasure, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    To teach the modern concepts of cavity preparation, it is desirable to have a supply of natural teeth exhibiting suitable carious lesions. This paper describes a simple method for producing consistent artificial lesions in extracted natural teeth. (MLW)

  17. Production of Artificial Lesions for Teaching Cavity Preparation in the Phantom Head.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treasure, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    To teach the modern concepts of cavity preparation, it is desirable to have a supply of natural teeth exhibiting suitable carious lesions. This paper describes a simple method for producing consistent artificial lesions in extracted natural teeth. (MLW)

  18. Application of artificial intelligence to risk analysis for forested ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2001-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances that extract a penalty from human population values. Such value losses (undesirable effects) combined with their likelihoods of occurrence constitute risk. Assessment or prediction of risk for various events is an important aid to forest management. Artificial intelligence (AI)...

  19. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    PubMed

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  20. Artificial cell division.

    PubMed

    Mange, Daniel; Stauffer, André; Petraglio, Enrico; Tempesti, Gianluca

    2004-01-01

    After a survey of the theory and some realizations of self-replicating machines, this paper presents a novel self-replicating loop endowed with universal construction and computation properties. Based on the hardware implementation of the so-called Tom Thumb algorithm, the design of this loop leads to a new kind of cellular automaton made of a processing and a control units. The self-replication of the Swiss flag serves as an artificial cell division example of the loop which, according to autopoietic evaluation criteria, corresponds to a cell showing the phenomenology of a living system.

  1. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  2. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  3. Cognitive and artificial representations in handwriting recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaghan, Andrew P.; Malyan, Ron

    1996-03-01

    Both cognitive processes and artificial recognition systems may be characterized by the forms of representation they build and manipulate. This paper looks at how handwriting is represented in current recognition systems and the psychological evidence for its representation in the cognitive processes responsible for reading. Empirical psychological work on feature extraction in early visual processing is surveyed to show that a sound psychological basis for feature extraction exists and to describe the features this approach leads to. The first stage of the development of an architecture for a handwriting recognition system which has been strongly influenced by the psychological evidence for the cognitive processes and representations used in early visual processing, is reported. This architecture builds a number of parallel low level feature maps from raw data. These feature maps are thresholded and a region labeling algorithm is used to generate sets of features. Fuzzy logic is used to quantify the uncertainty in the presence of individual features.

  4. THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS

  5. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María

    2011-11-01

    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  6. Artificial Blood for Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain “blood” for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin–albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA3), was synthesized as an artificial O2-carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O2-binding affinity was high (P50 = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations. PMID:27830776

  7. Artificial lung: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Go, T; Macchiarini, P

    2008-10-01

    While the number of the patients suffering from end-stage pulmonary disease has been increasing, the most common treatment for this entity remains mechanical ventilation that entails the risks of lung damage by itself. Although the lung protective strategy for the prevention of further damage to the lung tissue has been elucidated and performed, mechanical ventilation alone as the management tactic coping with the patients of acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic respiratory failure and lung transplantations has been a frustrated scenario. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or extracorporeal lung assist have been applied to these patients with occasional success, but it always accompanies difficulties such as multiple blood transfusion, labor intensity, technically complexity and tendency to infection. In contrast to advances in the development of cardiac or renal support systems for adults, the development of extra-, para- and intracorporeal mechanical systems for acute or chronic lung respiratory failure has logged far behind. It has been mostly due to the lack of the capable technologies. Entering 21st century with advent of new technology especially invention of the low resistance oxygenator, the developments of artificial lungs have entered the new stage. In this report current status of the artificial lungs will be reviewed.

  8. Microscopic artificial swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A; Bibette, Jérôme

    2005-10-06

    Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.

  9. The artificial catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, W.; Gerwin, W.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Zeyer, J.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    The artificial catchment ´Chicken Creeḱ is the main research site of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center SFB/TRR 38. Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the SFB/TRR 38 has gathered more than 50 scientists from BTU Cottbus, TU Munich and ETH Zurich to study the patterns and processes - and their interaction - of the initial phase of ecosystem development in an artificial catchment. The catchment was constructed in 2003 to 2005 in the Lusatian lignite-mining area close to Cottbus, Germany. It has an area of 6 ha including a small lake and is mainly composed of a 2-4 m layer of sandy to loamy Quaternary overburden sediments above a 1-2 m clay layer that seals the total catchment area at the bottom. No restoration, planting or other reclamation measures were carried out. Main research objectives are: Which abiotic and biotic patterns and processes are regulating the initial phase of ecosystem development? How do processes interact with abiotic and biotic patterns? Which patterns and processes can be used to define development stages? Which parameters are suitable for generalization and application to other initial ecosystems? The presentation will present the research concept of the SFB/TRR 38, the construction process of the catchment and first results.

  10. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  11. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  12. Development of artificial empathy.

    PubMed

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  13. Microscopic artificial swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L.; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A.; Bibette, Jérôme

    2005-10-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.

  14. Artificial Blood for Dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-11-10

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain "blood" for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin-albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA3), was synthesized as an artificial O2-carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O2-binding affinity was high (P50 = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations.

  15. Wet Artificial Life: The Construction of Artificial Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellermann, Harold

    The creation of artificial cell-like entities - chemical systems that are able to self-replicate and evolve - requires the integration of containers, metabolism, and information. In this chapter, we present possible candidates for these subsystems and the experimental achievements made toward their replication. The discussion focuses on several suggested designs to create artificial cells from nonliving material that are currently being pursued both experimentally and theoretically in several laboratories around the world. One particular approach toward wet artificial life is presented in detail. Finally, the evolutionary advantage of cellular aggregates over naked replicator systems and the evolutionary potential of the various approaches are discussed. The enormous progress toward man-made artificial cells nourishes the hope that wet artificial life might be achieved within the next several years.

  16. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    PubMed

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas.

  17. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  18. Artificial modification meeting reminder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, W. E.

    A symposium on artificial modification of the ionosphere by high-powered radio waves (V. V. Migulin, Honorary Chairman) will be held September 19-23, 1988, at the Scandic Hotel, Tromso, Norway. The symposium, sponsored by Union Radio Scientifique Internationale Commissions (URSI) G and H, is in the URSI series which started at Suzdal in 1983. Information on the scientific program is available from V.V. Migulin, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 103907, Moscow Center, Marx Avl8, U.S.S.R.; Peter Stubbe, Max- Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomy, D-3411 Katlenburg- Lindau 3, Federal Republic of Germany; or W.E. Gordon, Rice University, Space Physics and Astronomy Dept., Houston, TX 77251. For local arrangements information, contact Asgeir Brekke, Institute Matematisk Realfag, Aurora Observatory, Box 953, N-9001, Tromso, Norway.

  19. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities.

  20. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  1. Molecular artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Serena; Drouet, Samuel; Francàs, Laia; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Guttentag, Miguel; Richmond, Craig; Stoll, Thibaut; Llobet, Antoni

    2014-11-21

    The replacement of fossil fuels by a clean and renewable energy source is one of the most urgent and challenging issues our society is facing today, which is why intense research has been devoted to this topic recently. Nature has been using sunlight as the primary energy input to oxidise water and generate carbohydrates (solar fuel) for over a billion years. Inspired, but not constrained, by nature, artificial systems can be designed to capture light and oxidise water and reduce protons or other organic compounds to generate useful chemical fuels. This tutorial review covers the primary topics that need to be understood and mastered in order to come up with practical solutions for the generation of solar fuels. These topics are: the fundamentals of light capturing and conversion, water oxidation catalysis, proton and CO2 reduction catalysis and the combination of all of these for the construction of complete cells for the generation of solar fuels.

  2. Artificial Quantum Thermal Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Alireza; Neven, Hartmut

    In this talk, we present a theory for engineering the temperature of a quantum system different from its ambient temperature, that is basically an analog version of the quantum metropolis algorithm. We define criteria for an engineered quantum bath that, when couples to a quantum system with Hamiltonian H, drives the system to the equilibrium state e/- H / T Tr (e - H / T) with a tunable parameter T. For a system of superconducting qubits, we propose a circuit-QED approximate realization of such an engineered thermal bath consisting of driven lossy resonators. We consider an artificial thermal bath as a simulator for many-body physics or a controllable temperature knob for a hybrid quantum-thermal annealer.

  3. Artificial heart transplants.

    PubMed

    Dunning, J

    1997-01-01

    The use of a mechanical device to support a failing heart is one of the greatest challenges in cardiothoracic practice. Many different approaches are being considered, but they share the use of many advanced engineering principles. Power supplies and the interface between artificial surfaces and the blood remain areas of difficulty. The accent is moving from console driven devices with drive lines which must cross the body wall to reach the pump, towards smaller control packs, with inductive coupling to fully contained pumps. More attention is focused on the use of axial pumps lying within the lumena of the great vessels and the ventricles. Despite the wideheld belief that mechanical pumps must confer survival advantage to the recipients, there has been no prospective study demonstrating any advantage over medical management of the failing heart. Economic considerations must be taken into account if the technology is to be available to everyone with heart failure.

  4. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Kristina K.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. PMID:28009851

  5. Compact artificial hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

  6. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  7. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  8. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  9. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  10. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  11. Miracle of an Artificial Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetes, the realization of a successful, fully automated artificial pancreas is a dearly held dream. It signifies a life freer from nightly wake-up calls to check blood glucose or deliver insulin, a life freer from ... successful artificial pancreas would mark another huge step toward better ...

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

    The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

  13. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  14. In Pursuit of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watstein, Sarah; Kesselman, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence and reviews current research in natural language processing, expert systems, and robotics and sensory systems. Discussion covers current commercial applications of artificial intelligence and projections of uses and limitations in library technical and public services, e.g., in cataloging and online information and…

  15. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  16. Artificial insemination in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  17. Anisotropic Artificial Impedance Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfoth, Ryan Gordon

    Anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces are a group of planar materials that can be modeled by the tensor impedance boundary condition. This boundary condition relates the electric and magnetic field components on a surface using a 2x2 tensor. The advantage of using the tensor impedance boundary condition, and by extension anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces, is that the method allows large and complex structures to be modeled quickly and accurately using a planar boundary condition. This thesis presents the theory of anisotropic impedance surfaces and multiple applications. Anisotropic impedance surfaces are a generalization of scalar impedance surfaces. Unlike the scalar version, anisotropic impedance surfaces have material properties that are dependent on the polarization and wave vector of electromagnetic radiation that interacts with the surface. This allows anisotropic impedance surfaces to be used for applications that scalar surfaces cannot achieve. Three of these applications are presented in this thesis. The first is an anisotropic surface wave waveguide which allows propagation in one direction, but passes radiation in the orthogonal direction without reflection. The second application is a surface wave beam shifter which splits a surface wave beam in two directions and reduces the scattering from an object placed on the surface. The third application is a patterned surface which can alter the scattered radiation pattern of a rectangular shape. For each application, anisotropic impedance surfaces are constructed using periodic unit cells. These unit cells are designed to give the desired surface impedance characteristics by modifying a patterned metallic patch on a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple unit cell geometries are analyzed in order to find the setup with the best performance in terms of impedance characteristics and frequency bandwidth.

  18. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  19. The artificial leaf.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  20. Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L.; Liu, Chang

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

  1. Artificial polarization components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescato, L.; Gluch, Ekkehard; Stork, Wilhelm; Streibl, Norbert

    1990-07-01

    High frequency surface relief structures are optically anisotropic and show interesting polarisation properties 1 . These properties can be used to produce polarizations components such as wave plates polarizers. polarizing beamsplitters etc. Our experimental results show that even gratings with relatively low spatial frequency ( periods A ) exhibit a strong phase retardation and can be used as quarter-wave plates. k INTRODUC11ON The artificial birefringence exhibited by ultrahigh frequency gratings of dielectric materials can be used to produce various polarization components2 . Such components have applications in integrated optics as well as in free space optics. In order to produce the high spatial frequencies complex processes such as electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching are needed. We show in this paper that sinusoidal holographic gratings in photoresist exhibit also a strong phase ret even at relatively long periods. L EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS To obtain the phase retardation of a lower frequency ( period A ) grating a simple setup as used by Enger and 2 can be applied. In our case however there are three measurements necessary to obtain the phase retardation because transmission of the two perpendicularly polarized beams is different from each other. I GRATING PRODUCTION grating 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 period (pmj 0. 74 0. 74 0. 61 0. 54 0. 46 0. 32 0. 54 0. 54 0. 54 ne (sec) 60

  2. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao

    2016-12-01

    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  4. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  5. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

  6. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer.

    PubMed

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao

    2016-12-01

    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  7. BioArtificial polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  8. A Hybrid Neural Network and Feature Extraction Technique for Target Recognition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    target features are extracted, the extracted data being evaluated in an artificial neural network to identify a target at a location within the image scene from which the different viewing angles extend.

  9. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-03-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth's surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

  10. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

  11. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  12. Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail.

  13. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  14. Artificial regeneration of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; John C. Brissette; William C. Carlson

    1986-01-01

    The artificial means for establishing stands of shortleaf pine seedlings are reviewed. In addition to the relative merits of direct seeding and planting of bare-root and container seedlings, techniques that should help ensure successful stand establishment are discussed.

  15. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    PubMed

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  16. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

  17. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2004-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  18. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  19. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  20. Artificial atoms on semiconductor surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tisdale, W. A.; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are called artificial atoms because of their atom-like discrete electronic structure resulting from quantum confinement. Artificial atoms can also be assembled into artificial molecules or solids, thus, extending the toolbox for material design. We address the interaction of artificial atoms with bulk semiconductor surfaces. These interfaces are model systems for understanding the coupling between localized and delocalized electronic structures. In many perceived applications, such as nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and solar energy conversion, interfacing semiconductor nanocrystals to bulk materials is a key ingredient. Here, we apply the well established theories of chemisorption and interfacial electron transfer as conceptual frameworks for understanding the adsorption of semiconductor nanocrystals on surfaces, paying particular attention to instances when the nonadiabatic Marcus picture breaks down. We illustrate these issues using recent examples from our laboratory. PMID:21097704

  1. An artificial gravity demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, C.; Lemke, L.; Penzo, P.

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gravity experiment which is tethered to a Delta second stage and which uses the Small Expendable Deployer System is proposed. Following tether deployment, the Delta vehicle performs the required spin-up maneuver and can then be passivated. A surplus reentry vehicle houses the artificial gravity life science experiments. When the experiments are completed, the reentry phase of the experiment is initiated by synchronizing the spin of the configuration with the required deorbit impulse.

  2. Interdisciplinary Study on Artificial Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    systems, uiophysics of information processing, cognitive science, and traditional artificial intelligence. The objective behi d this objective was to...information processing, cognitive science, and traditional * artificial intelligence. The objective behind this objective was to provide a vehicle for reviewing...Another departure from ’classical’ neurodynamics must be sought in the strong coupling between the micro and macroscopic scales. No other physical mechanism

  3. An artificial gravity demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, C.; Lemke, L.; Penzo, P.

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gravity experiment which is tethered to a Delta second stage and which uses the Small Expendable Deployer System is proposed. Following tether deployment, the Delta vehicle performs the required spin-up maneuver and can then be passivated. A surplus reentry vehicle houses the artificial gravity life science experiments. When the experiments are completed, the reentry phase of the experiment is initiated by synchronizing the spin of the configuration with the required deorbit impulse.

  4. Actuator device for artificial leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An actuator device is described for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes a first articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly carried by the prosthesis whereby energy from the movement of the natural leg is transferred by a compressible fluid from the first hip joint assembly to the second hip joint assembly for moving the artificial leg.

  5. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Slaughter, M

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, cardiac surgeons and biomedical engineers pioneered the development of total artificial hearts (TAH) for the treatment of left and right heart failure. As we mark the 10th anniversary of the first implantation of the AbioCor device, the use of TAH has been limited, having failed to reach its envisioned potential and promise as an alternative therapy to heart transplantation. The Syncardia/CardioWest device, originally developed 30 years ago as the Jarvik TAH and later renamed the CardioWest TAH, continues to be used clinically in over 50 centers within the US and Europe having supported over 900 patients worldwide. Syncardia continues to develop TAH technology as evidenced by their recent introduction of a new portable pneumatic driver that enables patients to be discharged from the hospital. In contrast to TAH devices, continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VAD) have made tremendous technological strides and are rapidly gaining widespread clinical acceptance. The VAD technology has demonstrated extraordinary safety and reliability records through evolving technologies, advanced biocompatible materials, and improved patient management. Subsequently, the number of TAH implantations remains low compared to the growth in LVAD implants. Nonetheless, the Syncardia/CardioWest TAH remains an important and viable option for patients with severe biventricular failure and end organ dysfunction. Overall, a 79% survival rate has been achieved in patients supported with a Syncardia/CardioWest TAH as bridge-to-transplantation. In this review article, a brief history on the evolution of TAH devices, their current use and emerging use of evolving continuous flow VAD technology as chronic biventricular and TAH device systems are presented.

  6. Artificial intelligence for analyzing orthopedic trauma radiographs.

    PubMed

    Olczak, Jakub; Fahlberg, Niklas; Maki, Atsuto; Razavian, Ali Sharif; Jilert, Anthony; Stark, André; Sköldenberg, Olof; Gordon, Max

    2017-07-06

    Background and purpose - Recent advances in artificial intelligence (deep learning) have shown remarkable performance in classifying non-medical images, and the technology is believed to be the next technological revolution. So far it has never been applied in an orthopedic setting, and in this study we sought to determine the feasibility of using deep learning for skeletal radiographs. Methods - We extracted 256,000 wrist, hand, and ankle radiographs from Danderyd's Hospital and identified 4 classes: fracture, laterality, body part, and exam view. We then selected 5 openly available deep learning networks that were adapted for these images. The most accurate network was benchmarked against a gold standard for fractures. We furthermore compared the network's performance with 2 senior orthopedic surgeons who reviewed images at the same resolution as the network. Results - All networks exhibited an accuracy of at least 90% when identifying laterality, body part, and exam view. The final accuracy for fractures was estimated at 83% for the best performing network. The network performed similarly to senior orthopedic surgeons when presented with images at the same resolution as the network. The 2 reviewer Cohen's kappa under these conditions was 0.76. Interpretation - This study supports the use for orthopedic radiographs of artificial intelligence, which can perform at a human level. While current implementation lacks important features that surgeons require, e.g. risk of dislocation, classifications, measurements, and combining multiple exam views, these problems have technical solutions that are waiting to be implemented for orthopedics.

  7. Automated Defect Classification Using AN Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chady, T.; Caryk, M.; Piekarczyk, B.

    2009-03-01

    The automated defect classification algorithm based on artificial neural network with multilayer backpropagation structure was utilized. The selected features of flaws were used as input data. In order to train the neural network it is necessary to prepare learning data which is representative database of defects. Database preparation requires the following steps: image acquisition and pre-processing, image enhancement, defect detection and feature extraction. The real digital radiographs of welded parts of a ship were used for this purpose.

  8. AUTOMATED DEFECT CLASSIFICATION USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Chady, T.; Caryk, M.; Piekarczyk, B.

    2009-03-03

    The automated defect classification algorithm based on artificial neural network with multilayer backpropagation structure was utilized. The selected features of flaws were used as input data. In order to train the neural network it is necessary to prepare learning data which is representative database of defects. Database preparation requires the following steps: image acquisition and pre-processing, image enhancement, defect detection and feature extraction. The real digital radiographs of welded parts of a ship were used for this purpose.

  9. A Novel Higher Order Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuxiang

    2010-05-01

    In this paper a new Higher Order Neural Network (HONN) model is introduced and applied in several data mining tasks. Data Mining extracts hidden patterns and valuable information from large databases. A hyperbolic tangent function is used as the neuron activation function for the new HONN model. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of the new HONN model, when compared with several conventional Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models: Feedforward ANN with the sigmoid activation function; Feedforward ANN with the hyperbolic tangent activation function; and Radial Basis Function (RBF) ANN with the Gaussian activation function. The experimental results seem to suggest that the new HONN holds higher generalization capability as well as abilities in handling missing data.

  10. Parallel multi-computers and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Uhr, L.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the present state and future direction of multicomputer parallel architectures for artificial intelligence research and development of artificial intelligence applications. The book provides a survey of the large variety of parallel architectures, describing the current state of the art and suggesting promising architectures to produce artificial intelligence systems such as intelligence systems such as intelligent robots. This book integrates artificial intelligence and parallel processing research areas and discusses parallel processing from the viewpoint of artificial intelligence.

  11. Weaning from artificial ventilation.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, J

    1998-06-01

    Every intubated and mechanically-ventilated patient should be clinically evaluated, at least on a daily basis, by a skilled team in order to speed up the weaning process as much as possible. Again, it should be emphasized that the adoption of an active clinical strategy when faced with "difficult" to wean patients is of paramount importance. In one study, performed in Spain, analysing the prevalence of mechanical ventilation in intensive care units [3], reported the mean number of days that patients spent on mechanical ventilation was 27. In a more recent intervention study, in which a specific protocol was followed each day [2], the mean number of days on mechanical ventilation was only 12. These data have been confirmed by several authors [4, 40], and it has also been reported that a protocol-directed weaning strategy leads not only to a significant reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation but also to a significant decrease in the number of complications and cost [4]. However, even following a protocol-directed weaning strategy, it is possible that weaning duration can be further reduced. In a prospective study performed in our institution [41] during 32 months, we reported that, following an episode of unplanned extubation, the only independent variables associated with the need for reintubation were the number of days of mechanical ventilation and the type of ventilatory support at the time of autoextubation. Indeed, when patients were in the weaning period only 16% (5 out of 32) needed reintubation, whereas reintubation was needed in 82% (22 out of 27) of patients who had an unplanned extubation during full mechanical ventilatory support. These data suggest that there are still some patients being on mechanical ventilation for a longer than necessary period of time. Finally, very recent advances in technological areas such as artificial intelligence, are proving to be useful in the management of the weaning process. When such systems are applied to

  12. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  13. Artificial gametes from stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel; Simón, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn.

  14. Artificial Surfaces in Phyllosphere Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Doan, Hung K; Leveau, Johan H J

    2015-08-01

    The study of microorganisms that reside on plant leaf surfaces, or phyllosphere microbiology, greatly benefits from the availability of artificial surfaces that mimic in one or more ways the complexity of foliage as a microbial habitat. These leaf surface proxies range from very simple, such as nutrient agars that can reveal the metabolic versatility or antagonistic properties of leaf-associated microorganisms, to the very complex, such as silicon-based casts that replicate leaf surface topography down to nanometer resolution. In this review, we summarize the various uses of artificial surfaces in experimental phyllosphere microbiology and discuss how these have advanced our understanding of the biology of leaf-associated microorganisms and the habitat they live in. We also provide an outlook into future uses of artificial leaf surfaces, foretelling a greater role for microfluidics to introduce biological and chemical gradients into artificial leaf environments, stressing the importance of artificial surfaces to generate quantitative data that support computational models of microbial life on real leaves, and rethinking the leaf surface ('phyllosphere') as a habitat that features two intimately connected but very different compartments, i.e., the leaf surface landscape ('phylloplane') and the leaf surface waterscape ('phyllotelma').

  15. Artificial evolution: a new path for artificial intelligence?

    PubMed

    Husbands, P; Harvey, I; Cliff, D; Miller, G

    1997-06-01

    Recently there have been a number of proposals for the use of artificial evolution as a radically new approach to the development of control systems for autonomous robots. This paper explains the artificial evolution approach, using work at Sussex to illustrate it. The paper revolves around a case study on the concurrent evolution of control networks and visual sensor morphologies for a mobile robot. Wider intellectual issues surrounding the work are discussed, as is the use of more abstract evolutionary simulations as a new potentially useful tool in theoretical biology.

  16. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  17. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  18. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles

    PubMed Central

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W. H.

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices. PMID:28138542

  19. Doped colloidal artificial spin ice

    DOE PAGES

    Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-10-07

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Conversely, magnetic artificial spin ices, unlike colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations, allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is raised. In contrast, the kagome ice ground state can absorb the doping charge without generating non-ground-state excitations, while at elevated temperatures the hopping of individual colloidsmore » is suppressed near the doping sites. Our results indicate that in the square ice, doping adds degeneracy to the ordered ground state and creates local weak spots, while in the kagome ice, which has a highly degenerate ground state, doping locally decreases the degeneracy and creates local hard regions.« less

  20. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  1. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  2. Artificial sensory organs: latest progress.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuo; Inada, Yuji; Shigeno, Keiji

    2017-09-21

    This study introduces the latest progress on the study of artificial sensory organs, with a special emphasis on the clinical results of artificial nerves and the concept of in situ tissue engineering. Peripheral nerves have a strong potential for regeneration. An artificial nerve uses this potential to recover a damaged peripheral nerve. The polyglycolic acid collagen tube (PGA-C tube) is a bio-absorbable tube stuffed with collagen of multi-chamber structure that consists of thin collagen films. The clinical application of the PGA-C tube began in 2002 in Japan. The number of PGA-C tubes used is now beyond 300, and satisfactory results have been reported on peripheral nerve repairs. This PGA-C tube is also effective for patients suffering from neuropathic pain.

  3. Nanobiocatalytic assemblies for artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hong; Nam, Dong Heon; Park, Chan Beum

    2014-08-01

    Natural photosynthesis, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion process, occurs through a series of photo-induced electron transfer reactions in nanoscale architectures that contain light-harvesting complexes, protein-metal clusters, and many redox biocatalysts. Artificial photosynthesis in nanobiocatalytic assemblies aims to reconstruct man-made photosensitizers, electron mediators, electron donors, and redox enzymes for solar synthesis of valuable chemicals through visible light-driven cofactor regeneration. The key requirement in the design of biocatalyzed artificial photosynthetic process is an efficient and forward electron transfer between each photosynthetic component. This review describes basic principles in combining redox biocatalysis with photocatalysis, and highlights recent research outcomes in the development of nanobiocatalytic assemblies that can mimic natural photosystems I and II, respectively. Current issues in biocatalyzed artificial photosynthesis and future perspectives will be briefly discussed.

  4. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    PubMed

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives.

  5. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Nosenko, M. A.; Drutskaya, M. S.; Moisenovich, M. M.; Nedospasov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  6. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W H

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind's oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices.

  7. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  8. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  9. Training Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    nearifest tLer,sclvCs in ELO r operatii.L costs in the life C’VclE Of the ef’uijjteft. E F re\\ lously rcntione6 ey~ arrle of usingF the 1lirefineer...Ibid., p. 35. 4. Avron Barr and Edward Feigenbaum, The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 1, p. 2. 5. Wissam W. Ahmed, "Theories of Artificial...Barr, Avron and Geigenbaum, Edward A. ed. The Handbook of Arti- ficial Intelligence. Vol. 1. Stanford: heuristech Press. 1981. Gevartner, William B

  10. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies. PMID:26853918

  11. Artificial cells: prospects for biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David

    2002-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nanoscale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  12. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-05-19

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  13. Artificial cells: prospects for biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David

    2002-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nanoscale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  14. Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis

    ScienceCinema

    Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

    2016-07-12

    The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

  15. Artificial Cells: Prospects for Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they also have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nano-scale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  16. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-20

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. Here, we designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  17. In Defense of Artificial Replacement.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Derek

    2017-02-03

    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives.

  18. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-08

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  19. Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

    2013-12-10

    The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

  20. Artificial heartbeat: design and fabrication of a biologically inspired pump.

    PubMed

    Walters, Peter; Lewis, Amy; Stinchcombe, Andrew; Stephenson, Robert; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2013-12-01

    We present a biologically inspired actuator exhibiting a novel pumping action. The design of the 'artificial heartbeat' actuator is inspired by physical principles derived from the structure and function of the human heart. The actuator employs NiTi artificial muscles and is powered by electrical energy generated by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We describe the design and fabrication of the actuator and report the results of tests conducted to characterize its performance. This is the first artificial muscle-driven pump to be powered by MFCs fed on human urine. Results are presented in terms of the peak pumping pressure generated by the actuator, as well as for the volume of fluid transferred, when the actuator was powered by energy stored in a capacitor bank, which was charged by 24 MFCs fed on urine. The results demonstrate the potential for the artificial heartbeat actuator to be employed as a fluid circulation pump in future generations of MFC-powered robots ('EcoBots') that extract energy from organic waste. We also envisage that the actuator could in the future form part of a bio-robotic artwork or 'bio-automaton' that could help increase public awareness of research in robotics, bio-energy and biologically inspired design.

  1. Increasing your artificial intelligence quotient

    SciTech Connect

    Hickingbottom-brown, B.

    1984-01-01

    Practical applications of artificial intelligence technology are now beginning to surface. They will change the way HRD professionals do their work and, in fact, may determine what work they do. The most notable features of AI are discussed, with particular reference to the impact of expert systems. 10 references.

  2. Research and applications: Artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaitin, L. J.; Duda, R. O.; Johanson, P. A.; Raphael, B.; Rosen, C. A.; Yates, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    The program is reported for developing techniques in artificial intelligence and their application to the control of mobile automatons for carrying out tasks autonomously. Visual scene analysis, short-term problem solving, and long-term problem solving are discussed along with the PDP-15 simulator, LISP-FORTRAN-MACRO interface, resolution strategies, and cost effectiveness.

  3. Hybrid Applications Of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, Gary C.

    1988-01-01

    STAR, Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning, is interactive, interpreted programming language for development and operation of artificial-intelligence application systems. Couples symbolic processing with compiled-language functions and data structures. Written in C language and currently available in UNIX version (NPO-16832), and VMS version (NPO-16965).

  4. Artificial Ripening of Sweetgum Seeds

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1969-01-01

    Untrained collectors of hardwood seeds often start picking the seeds too early in the year. The immature seeds germinate poorly, if at all, and nursery production suffers. In the study reported here, sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seeds collected in central Mississippi in mid-August were ripe. Seeds collected as early as July 19 were artificially ripened by...

  5. Artificial Intelligence: The Expert Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems focuses on their use in education. Characteristics of good expert systems are explained; computer software programs that contain applications of AI are described, highlighting one used to help educators identify learning-disabled students; and the future of AI is discussed. (LRW)

  6. What Is Artificial Intelligence Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzweil, Raymond

    1985-01-01

    Examines the past, present, and future status of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Acknowledges the limitations of AI but proposes possible areas of application and further development. Urges a concentration on the unique strengths of machine intelligence rather than a copying of human intelligence. (ML)

  7. What Is Artificial Intelligence Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzweil, Raymond

    1985-01-01

    Examines the past, present, and future status of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Acknowledges the limitations of AI but proposes possible areas of application and further development. Urges a concentration on the unique strengths of machine intelligence rather than a copying of human intelligence. (ML)

  8. Artificial Intelligence: The Expert Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems focuses on their use in education. Characteristics of good expert systems are explained; computer software programs that contain applications of AI are described, highlighting one used to help educators identify learning-disabled students; and the future of AI is discussed. (LRW)

  9. Parellel processing and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on parallel processing and artificial intelligence. Topics covered include: Myths and realities about neural computing architectures; Bulk-synchronous parallel computers; Information management in Linda; Information-driven parallel pattern recognition through communicating processes - a case study of classification of wallpaper groups; and Fault tolerant transputer network for image processing.

  10. Worldwide variations in artificial skyglow.

    PubMed

    Kyba, Christopher C M; Tong, Kai Pong; Bennie, Jonathan; Birriel, Ignacio; Birriel, Jennifer J; Cool, Andrew; Danielsen, Arne; Davies, Thomas W; Outer, Peter N den; Edwards, William; Ehlert, Rainer; Falchi, Fabio; Fischer, Jürgen; Giacomelli, Andrea; Giubbilini, Francesco; Haaima, Marty; Hesse, Claudia; Heygster, Georg; Hölker, Franz; Inger, Richard; Jensen, Linsey J; Kuechly, Helga U; Kuehn, John; Langill, Phil; Lolkema, Dorien E; Nagy, Matthew; Nievas, Miguel; Ochi, Nobuaki; Popow, Emil; Posch, Thomas; Puschnig, Johannes; Ruhtz, Thomas; Schmidt, Wim; Schwarz, Robert; Schwope, Axel; Spoelstra, Henk; Tekatch, Anthony; Trueblood, Mark; Walker, Constance E; Weber, Michael; Welch, Douglas L; Zamorano, Jaime; Gaston, Kevin J

    2015-02-12

    Despite constituting a widespread and significant environmental change, understanding of artificial nighttime skyglow is extremely limited. Until now, published monitoring studies have been local or regional in scope, and typically of short duration. In this first major international compilation of monitoring data we answer several key questions about skyglow properties. Skyglow is observed to vary over four orders of magnitude, a range hundreds of times larger than was the case before artificial light. Nearly all of the study sites were polluted by artificial light. A non-linear relationship is observed between the sky brightness on clear and overcast nights, with a change in behavior near the rural to urban landuse transition. Overcast skies ranged from a third darker to almost 18 times brighter than clear. Clear sky radiances estimated by the World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness were found to be overestimated by ~25%; our dataset will play an important role in the calibration and ground truthing of future skyglow models. Most of the brightly lit sites darkened as the night progressed, typically by ~5% per hour. The great variation in skyglow radiance observed from site-to-site and with changing meteorological conditions underlines the need for a long-term international monitoring program.

  11. Artificial Video for Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallis, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…

  12. Multidirectional Artificial Muscles from Nylon.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Hunter, Ian W

    2017-01-01

    Multidirectional artificial muscles are made from highly oriented nylon filaments. Thanks to the low thermal conductivity of nylon and its anisotropic thermal expansion, bending occurs when a nylon beam is differentially heated. This heat can be generated via a Joule heating mechanism or high power laser pulses.

  13. Thinking, Creativity, and Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSiano, Michael; DeSiano, Salvatore

    This document provides an introduction to the relationship between the current knowledge of focused and creative thinking and artificial intelligence. A model for stages of focused and creative thinking gives: problem encounter/setting, preparation, concentration/incubation, clarification/generation and evaluation/judgment. While a computer can…

  14. Theories of Artificial Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothos, Emmanuel M.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) is one of the most commonly used paradigms for the study of implicit learning and the contrast between rules, similarity, and associative learning. Despite five decades of extensive research, however, a satisfactory theoretical consensus has not been forthcoming. Theoretical accounts of AGL are reviewed, together…

  15. Applications of artificial intelligence III

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on expert systems and artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included an expert system for computer performance management, real-time image understanding, knowledge-based systems, textured image segmentation, knowledge representation, pattern recognition, robotics, and the computer-aided design of integrated circuits.

  16. Artificial Video for Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallis, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…

  17. Worldwide variations in artificial skyglow

    PubMed Central

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Tong, Kai Pong; Bennie, Jonathan; Birriel, Ignacio; Birriel, Jennifer J.; Cool, Andrew; Danielsen, Arne; Davies, Thomas W.; Outer, Peter N. den; Edwards, William; Ehlert, Rainer; Falchi, Fabio; Fischer, Jürgen; Giacomelli, Andrea; Giubbilini, Francesco; Haaima, Marty; Hesse, Claudia; Heygster, Georg; Hölker, Franz; Inger, Richard; Jensen, Linsey J.; Kuechly, Helga U.; Kuehn, John; Langill, Phil; Lolkema, Dorien E.; Nagy, Matthew; Nievas, Miguel; Ochi, Nobuaki; Popow, Emil; Posch, Thomas; Puschnig, Johannes; Ruhtz, Thomas; Schmidt, Wim; Schwarz, Robert; Schwope, Axel; Spoelstra, Henk; Tekatch, Anthony; Trueblood, Mark; Walker, Constance E.; Weber, Michael; Welch, Douglas L.; Zamorano, Jaime; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite constituting a widespread and significant environmental change, understanding of artificial nighttime skyglow is extremely limited. Until now, published monitoring studies have been local or regional in scope, and typically of short duration. In this first major international compilation of monitoring data we answer several key questions about skyglow properties. Skyglow is observed to vary over four orders of magnitude, a range hundreds of times larger than was the case before artificial light. Nearly all of the study sites were polluted by artificial light. A non-linear relationship is observed between the sky brightness on clear and overcast nights, with a change in behavior near the rural to urban landuse transition. Overcast skies ranged from a third darker to almost 18 times brighter than clear. Clear sky radiances estimated by the World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness were found to be overestimated by ~25%; our dataset will play an important role in the calibration and ground truthing of future skyglow models. Most of the brightly lit sites darkened as the night progressed, typically by ~5% per hour. The great variation in skyglow radiance observed from site-to-site and with changing meteorological conditions underlines the need for a long-term international monitoring program. PMID:25673335

  18. Open problems in artificial life.

    PubMed

    Bedau, M A; McCaskill, J S; Packard, N H; Rasmussen, S; Adami, C; Green, D G; Ikegami, T; Kaneko, K; Ray, T S

    2000-01-01

    This article lists fourteen open problems in artificial life, each of which is a grand challenge requiring a major advance on a fundamental issue for its solution. Each problem is briefly explained, and, where deemed helpful, some promising paths to its solution are indicated.

  19. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Joseph

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

  20. Artificial neural networks in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.

  1. Artificial gametes: a systematic review of biological progress towards clinical application.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Saskia; Dancet, Eline A F; van Pelt, Ans M M; Hamer, Geert; Repping, Sjoerd

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the formation of artificial gametes, i.e. gametes generated by manipulation of their progenitors or of somatic cells, has led to scientific and societal discussion about their use in medically assisted reproduction (MAR). Artificial gametes could potentially help infertile men and women but also post-menopausal women and gay couples conceive genetically related children. This systematic review aimed to provide insight in the progress of biological research towards clinical application of artificial gametes. The electronic database 'Medline/Pubmed' was systematically searched with medical subject heading (MesH) terms, and reference lists of eligible studies were hand searched. Studies in English between January 1970 and December 2013 were selected based on meeting a priori defined starting- and end-points of gamete development, including gamete formation, fertilization and the birth of offspring. For each biologically plausible method to form artificial gametes, data were extracted on the potential to generate artificial gametes that might be used to achieve fertilization and to result in the birth of offspring in animals and humans. The systematic search yielded 2424 articles, and 70 studies were included after screening. In animals, artificial sperm and artificial oocytes generated from germline stem cells (GSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have resulted in the birth of viable offspring. Also in animals, artificial sperm and artificial oocytes have been generated from somatic cells directly, i.e. without documentation of intermediate stages of stem- or germ cell development or (epi)genetic status. Finally, although the subsequent embryos showed hampered development, haploidization by transplantation of a somatic cell nucleus into an enucleated donor oocyte has led to fertilized artificial oocytes. In humans, artificial sperm has been generated from ESCs and iPSCs. Artificial human oocytes have been

  2. "Artificial But Better Than Nothing".

    PubMed

    Blaschke, Sarah; O'Callaghan, Clare C; Schofield, Penelope

    2017-04-01

    To investigate patient, staff, and carer responses to an environmental intervention in an oncology clinic waiting room and evaluate the acceptability of artificial plant materials. Design Postintervention: Cross-sectional survey study. Oncology outpatient clinic waiting room located in a metropolitan comprehensive cancer center in Australia. Observer ratings of perceived qualities and effects of lifelike (fake) plants while spending time in the waiting room. Convenience sample ( N = 143) consisted of 73 cancer patients, 13 staff, 52 carers, and 5 "others" aged between 24 and 89 years ( M = 56, SD = 14.5). Artificial plant arrangements, hanging installations, two movable green walls, and one rock garden on wheels placed throughout the outpatients' clinic waiting room. Eighty-one percent (115/142) of respondents noticed the green features when first entering the waiting room and 67% (90/134) noticed they were artificial. Eighty-one percent (115/142) indicated "like/like a lot" when reporting their first reaction to the green features. Forty-eight percent (68/143) were positively affected and 23% (33/143) were very positively affected. Eighty-one percent (110/135) agreed/strongly agreed that "The greenery brightens the waiting room," 62% (80/130) agreed/strongly agreed that they "prefer living plants," and 76% (101/133) agreed/strongly agreed that "'lifelike' plants are better than no plants." Comments included mostly positive appraisals and occasional adverse reactions to artificial plants. No significant differences were found between patients', staff, and carers' reactions. The environmental intervention positively impacted patients', staff, and carers' perceptions of the oncology waiting room environment. Patients, staff, and carers mostly accepted artificial plants as an alternative design solution to real plants.

  3. [Current state and development of artificial lungs].

    PubMed

    Mei, Zaoxian; Sun, Xin; Wu, Qi

    2010-12-01

    The artificial lung is a technical device for providing life support; it will be put in use when the natural lungs are failing and are not able to maintain sufficient oxygenation of the body's organ systems. From the viewpoint of long-term development, the artificial lung should be permanently implanted in the body, so that it will substitute for the human pulmonary function partially or completely. In this paper, four artificial lung technologies were expounded with reference to the development and research process of artificial lung. They were extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, intravascular artificial lung, implantable artificial lung, and pumpless extracorporeal lung assist. In this paper were described the structure of the four kinds of artificial lung, the working principle, and their advantages, disadvantages and indications. The prospect of artificial lung was evaluated in the light of the data from the existing animal experiments and from the clinical experience of the centers.

  4. Artificial Intelligence Databases: A Survey and Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David

    1990-01-01

    Identifies and describes online databases containing references to materials on artificial intelligence, robotics, and expert systems, and compares them in terms of scope and usage. Recommendations for conducting online searches on artificial intelligence and related fields are offered. (CLB)

  5. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  6. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  7. The artificial heart's threat to others.

    PubMed

    Jonsen, A R

    1986-02-01

    A member of the two federal advisory panels on artificial hearts reflects that the nuclear-powered artificial heart, had it been developed, would have posed a physical threat to others. Today's artificial heart poses a different threat. Because of the high costs, many people may be deprived of access to other forms of medical care and other social goods.

  8. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Its Importance in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilmann, Martha J.

    Artificial intelligence, or the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent, is discussed in terms of what it is, what it has done, what it can do, and how it may affect the teaching of tomorrow. An extensive overview of artificial intelligence examines its goals and applications and types of artificial intelligence including (1) expert…

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Its Importance in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilmann, Martha J.

    Artificial intelligence, or the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent, is discussed in terms of what it is, what it has done, what it can do, and how it may affect the teaching of tomorrow. An extensive overview of artificial intelligence examines its goals and applications and types of artificial intelligence including (1) expert…

  14. Solar fuels via artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2009-12-21

    Because sunlight is diffuse and intermittent, substantial use of solar energy to meet humanity's needs will probably require energy storage in dense, transportable media via chemical bonds. Practical, cost effective technologies for conversion of sunlight directly into useful fuels do not currently exist, and will require new basic science. Photosynthesis provides a blueprint for solar energy storage in fuels. Indeed, all of the fossil-fuel-based energy consumed today derives from sunlight harvested by photosynthetic organisms. Artificial photosynthesis research applies the fundamental scientific principles of the natural process to the design of solar energy conversion systems. These constructs use different materials, and researchers tune them to produce energy efficiently and in forms useful to humans. Fuel production via natural or artificial photosynthesis requires three main components. First, antenna/reaction center complexes absorb sunlight and convert the excitation energy to electrochemical energy (redox equivalents). Then, a water oxidation complex uses this redox potential to catalyze conversion of water to hydrogen ions, electrons stored as reducing equivalents, and oxygen. A second catalytic system uses the reducing equivalents to make fuels such as carbohydrates, lipids, or hydrogen gas. In this Account, we review a few general approaches to artificial photosynthetic fuel production that may be useful for eventually overcoming the energy problem. A variety of research groups have prepared artificial reaction center molecules. These systems contain a chromophore, such as a porphyrin, covalently linked to one or more electron acceptors, such as fullerenes or quinones, and secondary electron donors. Following the excitation of the chromophore, photoinduced electron transfer generates a primary charge-separated state. Electron transfer chains spatially separate the redox equivalents and reduce electronic coupling, slowing recombination of the charge

  15. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E; Crabtree, George W; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-20

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; ...

    2016-05-20

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. Here, we designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the propertiesmore » of other two-dimensional materials.« less

  17. Fuel-Powered Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebron, Von Howard; Yang, Zhiwei; Seyer, Daniel J.; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Oh, Jiyoung; Xie, Hui; Razal, Joselito; Hall, Lee J.; Ferraris, John P.; MacDiarmid, Alan G.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2006-03-01

    Artificial muscles and electric motors found in autonomous robots and prosthetic limbs are typically battery-powered, which severely restricts the duration of their performance and can necessitate long inactivity during battery recharge. To help solve these problems, we demonstrated two types of artificial muscles that convert the chemical energy of high-energy-density fuels to mechanical energy. The first type stores electrical charge and uses changes in stored charge for mechanical actuation. In contrast with electrically powered electrochemical muscles, only half of the actuator cycle is electrochemical. The second type of fuel-powered muscle provides a demonstrated actuator stroke and power density comparable to those of natural skeletal muscle and generated stresses that are over a hundred times higher.

  18. Fuel-powered artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Ebron, Von Howard; Yang, Zhiwei; Seyer, Daniel J; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Oh, Jiyoung; Xie, Hui; Razal, Joselito; Hall, Lee J; Ferraris, John P; Macdiarmid, Alan G; Baughman, Ray H

    2006-03-17

    Artificial muscles and electric motors found in autonomous robots and prosthetic limbs are typically battery-powered, which severely restricts the duration of their performance and can necessitate long inactivity during battery recharge. To help solve these problems, we demonstrated two types of artificial muscles that convert the chemical energy of high-energy-density fuels to mechanical energy. The first type stores electrical charge and uses changes in stored charge for mechanical actuation. In contrast with electrically powered electrochemical muscles, only half of the actuator cycle is electrochemical. The second type of fuel-powered muscle provides a demonstrated actuator stroke and power density comparable to those of natural skeletal muscle and generated stresses that are over a hundred times higher.

  19. Torsional carbon nanotube artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Wallace, Gordon G; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D W; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-10-28

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  20. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-10-01

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  1. Rule extraction by successive regularization.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M

    2000-12-01

    Knowledge acquisition is, needless to say, important, because it is a key to the solution to one of the bottlenecks in artificial intelligence. Recently, knowledge acquisition using neural networks, called rule extraction, is attracting wide attention because of its computational simplicity and ability to generalize. Proposed in this paper is a novel approach to rule extraction named successive regularization. It generates a small number of dominant rules at an earlier stage and less dominant rules or exceptions at later stages. It has various advantages such as robustness of computation, better understanding, and similarity to child development. It is applied to the classification of mushrooms, the recognition of promoters in DNA sequences and the classification of irises. Empirical results indicate superior performance of rule extraction in terms of the number and the size of rules for explaining data.

  2. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  3. Development of Artificial Haircell Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    generation artificial haircell sensor has been combined with hotwire anemometers to form a sensor pixel, which is directly integrated on top of semiconductor...integrated circuit substrates with existing signal processing units. In fact, the hot wire anemometer offers better sensitivity than the haircell...shown in Figure 9. The dashed line shows the size of a single die. Two types of sensors were fabricated in the same process, the hot-wire anemometer and

  4. Intelligent Assistance without Artificial Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Software Objects 4 Ponur 2: Expeftmntal and Pub~c Databases 9 If -𔄁-7~~,- 5 - bnitefignit Assisftanc without Artficial Intel~lgencO ’WIL Kaiseirl...production-qlualty software eng**"eeringevimnmen that provide seemin~gly Intelligent assistance without equirling new breakthoughs In Al research. Themre...8217.cance of SMILF as an example of Intelligent assistance without artificial intelligence . * 2 . ~2 Aichlbtscmr S 1BEi Utended for use by small torns

  5. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  6. Programming methodology of artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the non-numerical methods developed in the branch of computer science known as artificial intelligence (AI) have been designed specifically for the task of encoding empirical rules of good judgment into a form suitable for machine reasoning. This article summarizes the production-rule technique, one of the principal AI programming techniqes currently used in the knowledge engineering area of AI. An illustrative application involving the interpretation of protein electron-density maps is also described. 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2003-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, laminar and turbulent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared in this work. Each method is described in detail along with appropriate physical and numerical boundary conditions. Analysis of well-posedness and numerical solutions to test problems for each method are provided. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, stability and robustness is used to establish the relative positive and negative characteristics of each method.

  8. New twist on artificial muscles

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Carter S.; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Aliev, Ali E.; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy. PMID:27671626

  9. Bioinspired artificial single ion pump.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Hou, Xu; Zeng, Lu; Yang, Fu; Li, Lin; Yan, Dadong; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-10-30

    Bioinspired artificial functional nanochannels for intelligent molecular and ionic transport control at the nanoscale have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Although various smart passive ion transport properties of ion channels have been artificially realized, it is still hugely challenging to achieve high level intelligent ion transport features in biological ion pumps. Here we show a unique bioinspired single ion pump based on a cooperative pH response double-gate nanochannel, whose gates could be opened and closed alternately/simultaneously under symmetric/asymmetric pH environments. With the stimulation of the double-gate nanochannel by continuous switching of the symmetric/asymmetric pH stimuli, the bioinspired system systematically realized three key ionic transport features of biological ion pumps, including an alternating gates ion pumping process under symmetric pH stimuli, transformation of the ion pump into an ion channel under asymmetric pH stimuli, and a fail-safe ion pumping feature under both symmetric and asymmetric pH stimuli. The ion pumping processes could well be reproduced under a concentration gradient. With the advantages of the extraordinary ionic transport functions of biological ion pumps, the bioinspired ion pump should find widespread applicability in active transportation-controlling smart nanofluidic devices, efficient energy conversions, and seawater desalinization, and open the way to design and develop novel bioinspired intelligent artificial nanochannel materials.

  10. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-04

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  11. Artificial proprioception for myoelectric control.

    PubMed

    Pistohl, Tobias; Jackson, Andrew; Gowrishankar, Ganesh; Joshi, Deepak; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2013-01-01

    The typical control of myoelectric interfaces, be it in real-life prosthetic applications or laboratory settings, largely relies on visual feedback, while proprioceptive feedback from controlling muscles is not very informative about the task carried out. If proprioceptive feedback were artificially provided to a non-controlling limb, could it be effectively integrated into myoelectric control? In a two-dimensional myoelectric-controlled centre-out task, we aimed to restore proprioception by guiding subjects' right hands along the trajectory of a visual cursor they were controlling with isometric muscle contractions in their left hand. Overall task success was equally high with vision alone as it was with the additional proprioceptive signal, indicating that visual feedback was already sufficient. Still, presence of artificial proprioception did enhance control when visual feedback was not available. Interestingly, sensory integration of the proprioceptive information was established while it appeared to be redundant to existing visual feedback. However, utilization of the artificial proprioceptive signal was severely impaired when it was vertically mirrored with respect to visual feedback, outlining the importance of congruence of sensory modalities for implicit multi-sensory integration.

  12. Philosophical foundations of artificial consciousness.

    PubMed

    Chrisley, Ron

    2008-10-01

    Consciousness is often thought to be that aspect of mind that is least amenable to being understood or replicated by artificial intelligence (AI). The first-personal, subjective, what-it-is-like-to-be-something nature of consciousness is thought to be untouchable by the computations, algorithms, processing and functions of AI method. Since AI is the most promising avenue toward artificial consciousness (AC), the conclusion many draw is that AC is even more doomed than AI supposedly is. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the soundness of this inference. The results are achieved by means of conceptual analysis and argumentation. It is shown that pessimism concerning the theoretical possibility of artificial consciousness is unfounded, based as it is on misunderstandings of AI, and a lack of awareness of the possible roles AI might play in accounting for or reproducing consciousness. This is done by making some foundational distinctions relevant to AC, and using them to show that some common reasons given for AC scepticism do not touch some of the (usually neglected) possibilities for AC, such as prosthetic, discriminative, practically necessary, and lagom (necessary-but-not-sufficient) AC. Along the way three strands of the author's work in AC--interactive empiricism, synthetic phenomenology, and ontologically conservative heterophenomenology--are used to illustrate and motivate the distinctions and the defences of AC they make possible.

  13. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D. Santa Fe Inst., NM ); Belin, A.d'A. )

    1990-01-01

    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  14. New twist on artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-10-18

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.

  15. Artificial multilayers and nanomagnetic materials

    PubMed Central

    SHINJO, Teruya

    2013-01-01

    The author has been actively engaged in research on nanomagnetic materials for about 50 years. Nanomagnetic materials are comprised of ferromagnetic systems for which the size and shape are controlled on a nanometer scale. Typical examples are ultrafine particles, ultrathin films, multilayered films and nano-patterned films. In this article, the following four areas of the author’s studies are described. (1) Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of nanomagnetic materials and interface magnetism. (2) Preparation and characterization of metallic multilayers with artificial superstructures. (3) Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers. (4) Novel properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic thin films (dots and wires). A subject of particular interest in the author’s research was the artificially prepared multilayers consisting of metallic elements. The motivation to initiate the multilayer investigation is described and the physical properties observed in the artificial multilayers are introduced. The author’s research was initially in the field of pure physical science and gradually extended into applied science. His achievements are highly regarded not only from the fundamental point of view but also from the technological viewpoint. PMID:23391605

  16. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today’s common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  17. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones.

  18. Development of artificial articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Oka, M; Ushio, K; Kumar, P; Ikeuchi, K; Hyon, S H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, H

    2000-01-01

    Attempts have been made to develop an artificial articular cartilage on the basis of a new viewpoint of joint biomechanics in which the lubrication and load-bearing mechanisms of natural and artificial joints are compared. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H), 'a rubber-like gel', was investigated as an artificial articular cartilage and the mechanical properties of this gel were improved through a new synthetic process. In this article the biocompatibility and various mechanical properties of the new improved PVA-H is reported from the perspective of its usefulness as an artificial articular cartilage. As regards lubrication, the changes in thickness and fluid pressure of the gap formed between a glass plate and the specimen under loading were measured and it was found that PVA-H had a thicker fluid film under higher pressures than polyethylene (PE) did. The momentary stress transmitted through the specimen revealed that PVA-H had a lower peak stress and a longer duration of sustained stress than PE, suggesting a better damping effect. The wear factor of PVA-H was approximately five times that of PE. Histological studies of the articular cartilage and synovial membranes around PVA-H implanted for 8-52 weeks showed neither inflammation nor degenerative changes. The artificial articular cartilage made from PVA-H could be attached to the underlying bone using a composite osteochondral device made from titanium fibre mesh. In the second phase of this work, the damage to the tibial articular surface after replacement of the femoral surface in dogs was studied. Pairs of implants made of alumina, titanium or PVA-H on titanium fibre mesh were inserted into the femoral condyles. The two hard materials caused marked pathological changes in the articular cartilage and menisci, but the hydrogel composite replacement caused minimal damage. The composite osteochondral device became rapidly attached to host bone by ingrowth into the supporting mesh. The clinical implications of

  19. Electrically controllable artificial PAN muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran

    1996-02-01

    Artificial muscles made with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are traditionally activated in electrolytic solution by changing the pH of the solution by the addition of acids and/or bases. This usually consumes a considerable amount of weak acids or bases. Furthermore, the synthetic muscle (PAN) itself has to be impregnated with an acid or a base and must have an appropriate enclosure or provision for waste collection after actuation. This work introduces a method by which the PAN muscle may be elongated or contracted in an electric field. We believe this is the first time that this has been achieved with PAN fibers as artificial muscles. In this new development the PAN muscle is first put in close contact with one of the two platinum wires (electrodes) immersed in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Applying an electric voltage between the two wires changes the local acidity of the solution in the regions close to the platinum wires. This is because of the ionization of sodium chloride molecules and the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions at the negative and positive electrode sites, respectively. This ion accumulation, in turn, is accompanied by a sharp increase and decrease of the local acidity in regions close to either of the platinum wires, respectively. An artificial muscle, in close contact with the platinum wire, because of the change in the local acidity will contract or expand depending on the polarity of the electric field. This scheme allows the experimenter to use a fixed flexible container of an electrolytic solution whose local pH can be modulated by an imposed electric field while the produced ions are basically trapped to stay in the neighborhood of a given electrode. This method of artificial muscle activation has several advantages. First, the need to use a large quantity of acidic or alkaline solutions is eliminated. Second, the use of a compact PAN muscular system is facilitated for applications in active musculoskeletal structures. Third, the

  20. Sleep and wake phase of heart beat dynamics by artificial insymmetrised patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowska, A.; Makowiec, D.

    2004-05-01

    In order to determine differences between healthy patients and patients with congestive heart failure we apply the artificial insymmetrised pattern (AIP) method. The AIP method by exploring a human eye ability to extract regularities and read symmetries in a dot pattern, serves a tool for qualitative discrimination of heart rate states.

  1. Vaccine-enhanced artificial immune system for multimodal function optimization.

    PubMed

    Woldemariam, Kumlachew M; Yen, Gary G

    2010-02-01

    This paper emulates a biological notion in vaccines to promote exploration in the search space for solving multimodal function optimization problems using artificial immune systems (AISs). In this method, we first divide the decision space into equal subspaces. The vaccine is then randomly extracted from each subspace. A few of these vaccines, in the form of weakened antigens, are then injected into the algorithm to enhance the exploration of global and local optima. The goal of this process is to lead the antibodies to unexplored areas. Using this biologically motivated notion, we design the vaccine-enhanced AIS for multimodal function optimization, achieving promising performance.

  2. Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising one production well and one injection well, representing an enhanced geothermal system. The effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the geothermal reservoir, the flow rate, and the size of the production casing are considered in the study. Besides submersible pumps, the possibility of using lineshaft pumps is also discussed.

  3. Automated Wildfire Detection Through Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jerry; Borne, Kirk; Thomas, Brian; Huang, Zhenping; Chi, Yuechen

    2005-01-01

    We have tested and deployed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) data mining techniques to analyze remotely sensed multi-channel imaging data from MODIS, GOES, and AVHRR. The goal is to train the ANN to learn the signatures of wildfires in remotely sensed data in order to automate the detection process. We train the ANN using the set of human-detected wildfires in the U.S., which are provided by the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) wildfire detection group at NOAA/NESDIS. The ANN is trained to mimic the behavior of fire detection algorithms and the subjective decision- making by N O M HMS Fire Analysts. We use a local extremum search in order to isolate fire pixels, and then we extract a 7x7 pixel array around that location in 3 spectral channels. The corresponding 147 pixel values are used to populate a 147-dimensional input vector that is fed into the ANN. The ANN accuracy is tested and overfitting is avoided by using a subset of the training data that is set aside as a test data set. We have achieved an automated fire detection accuracy of 80-92%, depending on a variety of ANN parameters and for different instrument channels among the 3 satellites. We believe that this system can be deployed worldwide or for any region to detect wildfires automatically in satellite imagery of those regions. These detections can ultimately be used to provide thermal inputs to climate models.

  4. Internet advertising of artificial tanning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica

    2006-08-01

    Artificial tanning, defined as deliberate exposure to ultraviolet rays produced by artificial tanning devices, is a new and emerging public health issue in Australia and globally. Epidemiological research suggests that artificial tanning may contribute to the incidence of melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer as well as other health problems. Given that Australia has a high incidence of skin cancer, we have undertaken a study to explore how artificial tanning has been promoted to its users. The aim was to analyze the completeness and accuracy of information about artificial tanning. A content analysis of web sites of tanning salons and distributors of tanning equipment in Australia was conducted. A total of 22 web sites were analyzed. None of the solarium operators or distributors of equipment provided full information about the risks of artificial tanning. Fifty-nine percent of web advertisements had no information and 41% provided only partial information regarding the risks of artificial tanning. Pictures with the image of bronze-tanned bodies, predominantly women, were used by all web advertisers. In light of the success of sun-safety campaigns in Australia, the findings of future epidemiological research on the prevalence of artificial tanning and sociological and anthropological research on why people utilize artificial tanning should be a basis for developing effective targeted health promotion on the elimination of artificial tanning in the country.

  5. EXEIS Expert Screening and Optimal Extraction/Injection Pumping Systems for Short-Term Plume Immobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    problems in their fields of expertise. Interest in expert systems has grown rapidly with the emerging availability of artificial intelligence-based...immediate site. Methods of modification include construction of artificial barriers to groundwater flow and/or extraction/injection of water from/to the...aquifer. Cost of installing and maintaining the different types of artificial barriers varies greatly, as does their reliability. This 2 study

  6. EXEIS - Expert Screening and Optimal Extraction/Injection Pumping Systems for Short-Term Plume Immobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    on Artificial Intellegence , Vol. I, pp. 246-249. 7. Johnston, D.M., 1985, Diagnosis of Wastewater Treatment Processes, Computer Applications in Water...Interest in expert systems has grown rapidly with the emerging availability of artificial intelligence-based techniques and tools. By emulating human...modification include construction of artificial barriers to groundwater flow and/or extraction/injection of water from/to the aquifer. Cost of installing and

  7. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  8. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  9. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments

    PubMed Central

    O'Keeffe, Derek T.; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  11. Laboratory robotics and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Isenhour, T L; Marshall, J C

    1990-09-01

    Intelligent robots, which incorporate artificial intelligence in their controlling software, are the next step in bringing the laboratory robot to its full potential. The areas currently under study in our laboratory are improved user interfaces for laboratory robotics, the integration of object-oriented databases into robot control programs, and strategies to optimize multi-step procedures. The ultimate goal of this work is the Standard Robotics Method. The Standard Robotics Method we envision would allow a robotic method to be transferred from one laboratory to another.

  12. Research and applications: Artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, B.; Duda, R. O.; Fikes, R. E.; Hart, P. E.; Nilsson, N. J.; Thorndyke, P. W.; Wilber, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    Research in the field of artificial intelligence is discussed. The focus of recent work has been the design, implementation, and integration of a completely new system for the control of a robot that plans, learns, and carries out tasks autonomously in a real laboratory environment. The computer implementation of low-level and intermediate-level actions; routines for automated vision; and the planning, generalization, and execution mechanisms are reported. A scenario that demonstrates the approximate capabilities of the current version of the entire robot system is presented.

  13. Epistasis analysis using artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jason H; Hill, Doug P

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce artificial intelligence (AI) methodology for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. The ultimate goal of our AI strategy is to analyze genome-wide genetics data as a human would using sources of expert knowledge as a guide. The methodology presented here is based on computational evolution, which is a type of genetic programming. The ability to generate interesting solutions while at the same time learning how to solve the problem at hand distinguishes computational evolution from other genetic programming approaches. We provide a general overview of this approach and then present a few examples of its application to real data.

  14. Method of adaptive artificial viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, I. V.; Fryazinov, I. V.

    2011-09-01

    A new finite-difference method for the numerical solution of gas dynamics equations is proposed. This method is a uniform monotonous finite-difference scheme of second-order approximation on time and space outside of domains of shock and compression waves. This method is based on inputting adaptive artificial viscosity (AAV) into gas dynamics equations. In this paper, this method is analyzed for 2D geometry. The testing computations of the movement of contact discontinuities and shock waves and the breakup of discontinuities are demonstrated.

  15. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity.

  16. Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

    2011-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

  17. Slope protection for artificial island

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, M.T.; Collins, J.I.; Shak, A.T.

    1981-08-01

    The technology under development to protect artificial-island production platforms from Arctic sea and ice damage involves three major considerations: (1) sea conditions during the ice-free season, (2) ice conditions during winter, and (3) construction constraints imposed by material availability, transportation problems, and length of the construction season. So far, researchers have evaluated 15 different slope-protection systems on the basis of reliability, construction-cost, and maintenance-cost factors, choosing 8 candidates for wave and ice model testing. The cases of interest involve exploration and production islands in shallow and deeper water applications.

  18. Natural and artificially initiated lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uman, Martin A.; Krider, E. Philip

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the development status of theories and experimental results concerning both natural and artificially triggered lightning, with a view to prospective research efforts able to deepen understanding of these phenomena. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in methods for identifying and locating natural cloud-to-ground lightning; nationwide lightning-sensor networks employing wideband magnetic direction-finding technology to yield lightning locations in real time are currently operational in the U.S., France, Japan, and Sweden. Triggered lightning, which is the primary atmospheric electricity hazard to aircraft and launch vehicles, research must be done on meteorological and electrical environments associated with the threat.

  19. Natural and artificially initiated lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uman, Martin A.; Krider, E. Philip

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the development status of theories and experimental results concerning both natural and artificially triggered lightning, with a view to prospective research efforts able to deepen understanding of these phenomena. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in methods for identifying and locating natural cloud-to-ground lightning; nationwide lightning-sensor networks employing wideband magnetic direction-finding technology to yield lightning locations in real time are currently operational in the U.S., France, Japan, and Sweden. Triggered lightning, which is the primary atmospheric electricity hazard to aircraft and launch vehicles, research must be done on meteorological and electrical environments associated with the threat.

  20. Will artificial gametes end infertility?

    PubMed

    Smajdor, Anna; Cutas, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we will look at the various ways in which infertility can be understood and at how need for reproductive therapies can be construed. We will do this against the background of research with artificial gametes (AGs). Having explored these questions we will attempt to establish the degree to which technologies such as AGs could expand the array of choices that people have to reproduce and/or become parents. Finally, we will examine whether and in what ways the most promising developments of such technologies are likely to bring about the "end of infertility".

  1. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  2. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  3. Ten Problems in Artificial Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    REPORT NUMBER -9 dVT ACCES~iIVN NO𔃻 3 RCCIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMGER 4. TITLE (and Subtile) S YEOF REPORT A PERIOO COvEREC Ten ~ .i in Arti’Ficiz1...7 AD-F1183 552 TEN PROBLEMS IN RTIFICIL INTELLIGENCE(U) VLE UNIV j’ N UN HVEN CT DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE RSCHANK ET AL. JAN 8? VALEU/CSD/RR-514...IET VI Ten Problems in Artificial Intelligence Roger C. Schank Christopher C. Owens YALEU/CSD/RR #514 January 1987 I~~~. -- ’ -.... e"- . .I YALE

  4. Artificial plasma membrane models based on lipidomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Essaid, Donia; Rosilio, Véronique; Daghildjian, Katia; Solgadi, Audrey; Vergnaud, Juliette; Kasselouri, Athena; Chaminade, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Phospholipid monolayers are often described as membrane models for analyzing drug-lipid interactions. In many works, a single phosphatidylcholine is chosen, sometimes with one or two additional components. Drug penetration is studied at 30mN/m, a surface pressure considered as corresponding to the pressure in bilayers, independently of the density of lipid molecular packing. In this work, we have extracted, identified, and quantified the major lipids constituting the lipidome of plasma and mitochondrial membranes of retinoblastoma (Y79) and retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19), using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results obtained from this lipidomic analysis were used in an attempt to build an artificial lipid monolayer with a composition mimicking that of the plasma membrane of Y79 cells, better than a single phospholipid. The variety and number of lipid classes and species in cell extracts monolayers exceeding by far those of the phospholipids chosen to mimic them, the π-A isotherms of model monolayers differed from those of lipid extracts in shape and apparent packing density. We propose a model monolayer based on the most abundant species identified in the extracts, with a surface compressional modulus at 30mN/m close to the one of the lipid extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.; Östman, E.; Stein, A.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kapaklis, V.

    2016-11-24

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here in this paper, we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system $-$ square artificial spin ice $-$ we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.

  6. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice

    DOE PAGES

    Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.; ...

    2016-11-24

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here in this paper, we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system $-$ square artificial spin ice $-$ we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Usingmore » time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.« less

  7. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.; Östman, E.; Stein, A.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kapaklis, V.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice – we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.

  8. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M S; Pappas, S D; Stopfel, H; Östman, E; Stein, A; Nordblad, P; Mathieu, R; Hjörvarsson, B; Kapaklis, V

    2016-11-24

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice - we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.

  9. Reactive underwater object inspection based on artificial electric sense.

    PubMed

    Lebastard, Vincent; Boyer, Frédéric; Lanneau, Sylvain

    2016-07-26

    Weakly electric fish can perform complex cognitive tasks based on extracting information from blurry electric images projected from their immediate environment onto their electro-sensitive skin. In particular they can be trained to recognize the intrinsic properties of objects such as their shape, size and electric nature. They do this by means of novel perceptual strategies that exploit the relations between the physics of a self-generated electric field, their body morphology and the ability to perform specific movement termed probing motor acts (PMAs). In this article we artificially reproduce and combine these PMAs to build an autonomous control strategy that allows an artificial electric sensor to find electrically contrasted objects, and to orbit around them based on a minimum set of measurements and simple reactive feedback control laws of the probe's motion. The approach does not require any simulation models and could be implemented on an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with artificial electric sense. The AUV has only to satisfy certain simple geometric properties, such as bi-laterally (left/right) symmetrical electrodes and possess a reasonably high aspect (length/width) ratio.

  10. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.; Östman, E.; Stein, A.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kapaklis, V.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice – we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations. PMID:27883013

  11. MEMS Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-03

    5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University,Department of Electrical and...aspects of the work . I would like to thank Mr. Sitaraman Iyer and Ms. Qi Jing who helped by providing necessary models for the lumped parameter simulator...extraction of functional elements such as springs, and electromechanical comb sensors and actuators. Comb drives are extracted using similarity in shape

  12. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  13. [Artificial crowns influence upon edge parodontium status].

    PubMed

    Zhulev, E N; Serov, A B

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of prosthetic treatment efficacy increase study of edge parodontium tissue reaction upon different types of artificial crowns was done and methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention were developed. Changes of the main gingival fluid characteristics (amount, acidity, interleukine-1beta concentration) and indicators of microcirculation in edge parodontium of the teeth under the artificial crowns influence were disclosed. There were developed methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention produced by artificial crowns edge.

  14. Automatic segmentation of cerebral MR images using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Alirezaie, J.; Jernigan, M.E.; Nahmias, C.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present an unsupervised clustering technique for multispectral segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain. Our scheme utilizes the Self Organizing Feature Map (SOFM) artificial neural network for feature mapping and generates a set of codebook vectors. By extending the network with an additional layer the map will be classified and each tissue class will be labelled. An algorithm has been developed for extracting the cerebrum from the head scan prior to the segmentation. Extracting the cerebrum is performed by stripping away the skull pixels from the T2 image. Three tissue types of the brain: white matter, gray matter and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are segmented accurately. To compare the results with other conventional approaches we applied the c-means algorithm to the problem.

  15. Interpretation of artificial neural networks by means of fuzzy rules.

    PubMed

    Castro, J L; Mantas, C J; Benitez, J M

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the method presented by Benitez et al (1997) for extracting fuzzy rules from an artificial neural network (ANN) that express exactly its behavior. The extraction process provides an interpretation of the ANN in terms of fuzzy rules. The fuzzy rules presented are in accordance with the domain of the input variables. These rules use a new operator in the antecedent. The properties and intuitive meaning of this operator are studied. Next, the role of the biases in the fuzzy rule-based systems is analyzed. Several examples are presented to comment on the obtained fuzzy rule-based systems. Finally, the interpretation of ANNs with two or more hidden layers is also studied.

  16. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Artificial muscle: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Marcus C

    2011-12-19

    Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings.

  18. Artificial vision: principles and prospects.

    PubMed

    Gilhooley, Michael J; Acheson, James

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this article is to give an overview of the strategies and technologies currently under development to return vision to blind patients and will answer the question: What options exist for artificial vision in patients blind from retinal disease; how close are these to clinical practice? Retinal approaches will be the focus of this review as they are most advanced in terms not only of development, but entry into the imagination of the general public; they are technologies patients ask about, but may be less familiar to practicing neurologists.The prerequisites for retinal survivor cell stimulation are discussed, followed by consideration of the state of the art of four promising methods making use of this principle: electronic prostheses, stem cells, gene therapy and the developing field of ophthalmic optogenetics. Human applications of artificial vision by survivor cell stimulation are certainly with us in the research clinic and very close to commercialization and general use. This, together with their place in the public consciousness, makes the overview provided by this review particularly helpful to practicing neurologists.

  19. Artificial kinesthetic systems for telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, D; Lorussi, F; Scilingo, E P; Carpi, F; Tognetti, A; Tesconi, M

    2004-01-01

    Artificial sensory motor systems are now under development in a truly wearable form using an innovative technology based on electroactive polymers. The integration of electroactive polymeric materials into wearable garments endorses them with strain sensing and mechanical actuation properties. The methodology underlying the design of haptic garments has necessarily to rely on knowledge of biological perceptual and motor processes which is, however, scattered and fragmented. Notwithstanding, the combined use of new polymeric electroactive materials in the form of fibers and fabrics with emerging concepts of biomimetic nature in sensor data analysis, pseudomuscular actuator control and biomechanical design may not only provide new avenues toward the realization of truly wearable kinesthetic and haptic interfaces, but also clues and instruments to better comprehend human manipulative and gestual functions. In this talk the conception, early stage implementation and preliminary testing of a fabric-based wearable interface endowed with spatially redundant strain sensing and distributed actuation are illustrated with reference to a wearable upper limb artificial kinesthesia system, intended to be used in telerehabilitation of post stroke patient.

  20. Artificial Organisms with Human Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Domenico

    If artificial organisms are constructed with the goal to better understand the behaviour of real organisms, artificial organisms that resemble human beings should possess a communication system with the same properties of human language. This chapter tries to identify nine such properties and for each of them to describe what has been done and what has to be done. Human language: (1) is made up of signals which are arbitrarily connected to their meanings, (2) has syntax and, more generally, its signals are made up of smaller signals, (3) is culturally transmitted and culturally evolved, (4) is used to communicate with oneself and not only with others, (5) is particularly sophisticated for communicating information about the external environment, (6) uses displaced signals, (7) is intentional and requires recognition of intentions in others, (8) is the product of a complex nervous system, (9) influences human cognition. Communication presupposes a shared worldview which depends on the brain, body, and adaptive pattern of the organisms that want to communicate, and this represents a critical challenge also for communication between robots and us.

  1. Computational Hemodynamics Involving Artificial Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Feiereisen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the progress being made towards developing complete blood flow simulation capability in human, especially, in the presence of artificial devices such as valves and ventricular assist devices. Devices modeling poses unique challenges different from computing the blood flow in natural hearts and arteries. There are many elements needed such as flow solvers, geometry modeling including flexible walls, moving boundary procedures and physiological characterization of blood. As a first step, computational technology developed for aerospace applications was extended in the recent past to the analysis and development of mechanical devices. The blood flow in these devices is practically incompressible and Newtonian, and thus various incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedures can be selected depending on the choice of formulations, variables and numerical schemes. Two primitive variable formulations used are discussed as well as the overset grid approach to handle complex moving geometry. This procedure has been applied to several artificial devices. Among these, recent progress made in developing DeBakey axial flow blood pump will be presented from computational point of view. Computational and clinical issues will be discussed in detail as well as additional work needed.

  2. Artificial pigs in space: using artificial intelligence and artificial life techniques to design animal housing.

    PubMed

    Stricklin, W R; de Bourcier, P; Zhou, J Z; Gonyou, H W

    1998-10-01

    Computer simulations have been used by us since the early 1970s to gain an understanding of the spacing and movement patterns of confined animals. The work has progressed from the early stages, in which we used randomly positioned points, to current investigations of animats (computer-simulated animals), which show low levels of learning via artificial neural networks. We have determined that 1) pens of equal floor area but of different shape result in different spatial and movement patterns for randomly positioned and moving animats; 2) when group size increases under constant density, freedom of movement approaches an asymptote at approximately six animats; 3) matching the number of animats with the number of corners results in optimal freedom of movement for small groups of animats; and 4) perimeter positioning occurs in groups of animats that maximize their distance to first- and second-nearest neighbors. Recently, we developed animats that move, compete for social dominance, and are motivated to obtain resources (food, resting sites, etc.). We are currently developing an animat that learns its behavior from the spatial and movement data collected on live pigs. The animat model is then used to pretest pen designs, followed by new pig spatial data fed into the animat model, resulting in a new pen design to be tested, and the steps are repeated. We believe that methodologies from artificial-life and artificial intelligence can contribute to the understanding of basic animal behavior principles, as well as to the solving of problems in production agriculture in areas such as animal housing design.

  3. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  4. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  5. Comparison of artificial graft versus autograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Chen; Cao, Shi-Qi; Xue, Chen-Chen; Liu, Tian-Ze; Huang, Xuan; Xu, Wei-Dong

    2017-07-19

    Critically evaluation and summarization for the outcomes between autografts and artificial grafts using in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have not been performed currently. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes between artificial ligaments and autografts at a short- to mid-term follow-up. A computerized search of the databases was conducted including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library. Only prospective or retrospective comparative studies with a minimum 2-year follow-up and a minimum sample size of 15 for each group were considered for inclusion. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction and methodological quality assessment. A Mantel-Haenszel analysis was used for pooling of results. Sensitivity analysis was performed in order to maintain the stability of results. Seven studies were included in this study. The total sample size was 403 (autograft group: 206 patients; synthetic graft group: 197 patients). Four studies were randomized controlled trials. Two studies were retrospective comparative studies and one study was non-randomized prospective comparative study. In terms of instrumented laxity, patient-oriented outcomes and complications, no significant difference was occurred between new artificial ligaments and autografts. But the results of IKDC grades and instrumented laxity were worsen in early artificial ligaments compared to autografts. The outcomes of new generation of artificial ligaments are similar to autografts at a short- to mid-term follow-up. However, the early artificial ligaments are not suggested for ACL reconstruction compared to autografts.

  6. Differences in predators of artificial and real songbirds nests: Evidence of bias in artificial nest studies

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Thompson; Dirk E. Burhans

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, many researchers have used artificial nest to measure relative rates of nest predation. Recent comparisons show that real and artificial nests may not be depredated at the same rate, but no one has examined the mechanisms underlying these patterns. We determined differences in predator-specific predation rates of real and artificial nests. we...

  7. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  8. Optical observations of the AMPTE artificial comet from the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, D.; Halinan, T. J.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J.

    1986-01-01

    The AMPTE artificial comet of Dec. 27, 1984, developed a well-defined core (maximum size about 160 x 100 km) of cold barium ions, surrounded by a diffuse coma, 500 km in diameter, consisting of ions extracted from the core. A plasma tail extended from the core, mainly directed away from the sun. The plasma tail and diffuse coma consisted of energetic ions (above 200 eV). Confounding predictions, the artificial comet survived for barely five minutes, and the core of the comet moved southward, rather than in the direction of the solar wind.

  9. An artificial elementary eye with optic flow detection and compositional properties.

    PubMed

    Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Dobrzynski, Michal K; Juston, Raphaël; Viollet, Stéphane; Leitel, Robert; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Floreano, Dario

    2015-08-06

    We describe a 2 mg artificial elementary eye whose structure and functionality is inspired by compound eye ommatidia. Its optical sensitivity and electronic architecture are sufficient to generate the required signals for the measurement of local optic flow vectors in multiple directions. Multiple elementary eyes can be assembled to create a compound vision system of desired shape and curvature spanning large fields of view. The system configurability is validated with the fabrication of a flexible linear array of artificial elementary eyes capable of extracting optic flow over multiple visual directions.

  10. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  11. Innovative applications of artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorr, Herbert; Rappaport, Alain

    Papers concerning applications of artificial intelligence are presented, covering applications in aerospace technology, banking and finance, biotechnology, emergency services, law, media planning, music, the military, operations management, personnel management, retail packaging, and manufacturing assembly and design. Specific topics include Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring, an intelligent training system for Space Shuttle flight controllers, an expert system for the diagnostics of manufacturing equipment, a logistics management system, a cooling systems design assistant, and a knowledge-based integrated circuit design critic. Additional topics include a hydraulic circuit design assistant, the use of a connector assembly specification expert system to harness detailed assembly process knowledge, a mixed initiative approach to airlift planning, naval battle management decision aids, an inventory simulation tool, a peptide synthesis expert system, and a system for planning the discharging and loading of container ships.

  12. Biomedical aspects of artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Vil-Viliams, I F; Kotovskaya, A R; Shipov, A A

    1997-07-01

    Artificial gravity (AG) is the basic challenge for space biology and medicine. The importance of this problem is associated with the fact that duration of the space missions will become progressively longer, but the presently available countermeasures do not provide reason enough to predict the human health safety during space missions of any duration. The creation of AG could be an efficient method for removing the negative effects of microgravity. Two principle methods of generating AG, rotation of space system (SS) and building of short arm centrifuge (SAC), have been proposed. The purpose of the present work is to review the biomedical aspects of AG in the context of its use in long-term space missions.

  13. Artificial Wombs and Abortion Rights.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2017-07-01

    In a study published in late April in Nature Communications, the authors were able to sustain 105- to 115-day-old premature lamb fetuses-whose level of development was comparable to that of a twenty-three-week-old human fetus-for four weeks in an artificial womb, enabling the lambs to develop in a way that paralleled age-matched controls. The oldest lamb of the set, more than a year old at the time the paper came out, appeared completely normal. This kind of research brings us one step closer to providing excellent quality of life for premature newborns, but it also portends major legal and ethical questions, especially for abortion rights in America. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  14. Artificial intelligence for subject interviewing

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.; Arrowood, L.; Hake, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper has two goals: to discuss, in general terms, issues related to applying artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to computerized interviewing; and to describe two AI-based interviewing systems developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With respect to the former, AI techniques can be used effectively to collect data of complex representation, provide flexibility in collecting data, and improve data validity through real-time reviews. One AI system, ARK, elicits subjects' beliefs on an open-ended range of issues and topics through menu-driven, dialogue-based interactions. The other system, LES, elicits, uncertainty assessments related to events, statements and propositions and tailors questions for subjects to explore their uncertainty processing heuristics.

  15. Artificial meteor ablation studies: Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Cunningham, G. G.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial meteor ablation was performed on a Mg-rich olivine sample using an arc-heated plasma of ionized air. Experimental conditions simulated a meteor traveling about 12 km/sec at an altitude of 70 km. The mineral content of the original olivine sample was 98% olivine (including traces of olivine alteration products) and 2% chromite. Forsterite content of the original olivine was Fo-89. After ablation, the forsterite content had increased to Fo-94 in the recrystallized olivine. In addition, lamella-like intergrowths of magnetite were prevalent constituents. Wherever magnetite occurred, there was an increase in Mg and a corresponding decrease in Fe for the recrystallized olivine. The Allende fusion crust consisted of a recrystallized olivine, which was more Mg-rich and Fe-deficient than the original meteorite's olivine, and abundant magnetite grains. Although troilite and pentlandite were the common opaque mineral constituents in this meteorite, magnetite was the principal opaque mineral found in the fusion crust.

  16. Glucagon in the Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of glucagon, in conjunction with insulin, in a dual chamber pump (artificial pancreas, AP) is a working goal for multiple companies and researchers. However, capital investment to create, operate, and maintain facilities with sufficient scale to produce enough glucagon to treat millions of patients, at a level of profit that makes it feasible, will be substantial. It can be assumed that the marketplace will expect the daily cost of glucagon (to the consumer) to be similar to the daily cost of insulin. After one subtracts wholesaler and pharmacy markup, there may be very few dollars remaining for the drug company to cover profit, capital expenditures, marketing, burden, and other costs. Without the potential for adequate margins, manufacturers may not be willing to take the risk. Assuming that the projections discussed in this article are in the right ballpark, advance planning for the supply for glucagon needs to start today and not wait for the AP to come to market. PMID:25139825

  17. MEMS technologies for artificial retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokwa, Wilfried

    2010-02-01

    The mostly cause of blindness in the developed countries is a degeneration of the retina. For restoring this loss of vision one possible approach is the substitution of the lost functions by means of an electronic implant. This approach is based on MEMS technologies. It has been shown that electrical stimulation of retinal ganglion cells yield visual sensations1. Therefore, an artificial retina for blind humans based on this concept seems to be feasible. Besides electrical stimulation of retinal ganglion cells also the direct electrical stimulation of the optic nerve2 and the visual cortex3 have been under investigation. This paper wants to give an overview about the activities on the retinal ganglion cell stimulation.

  18. Hydrodynamic characteristics of artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, P W; De Somer, F; De Wachter, D S; Van Nooten, G; Verdonck, P R

    2000-01-01

    An artificial lung is used during cardiopulmonary bypass to oxygenate blood and to control blood temperature. The pressure drop-flow rate characteristics of the membrane compartment in three hollow fiber membrane oxygenators were determined in vitro to characterize design features. Results are presented in a unique dimensionless relationship between Euler number, N(Eu) (ratio of pressure drop to kinetic energy), and Reynolds number, N(Re) (ratio of inertial to viscous forces), and are a function of the device porosity, epsilon, and a characteristic device length, xi, defined as the ratio of the mean blood path and manifold length: [equation in text]. This dimensionless approach allows us (1) to compare oxygenators independently, and (2) to relate water tests to blood.

  19. Homologous artificial insemination and oligospermia.

    PubMed

    Speichinger, J P; Mattox, J H

    1976-02-01

    Of approximately 339 patients evaluated at a private infertility service over a 5-year period, 24 couples underwent homologous artificial insemination (AIH). Nineteen of these were performed to circumvent the problem of oligospermia, and only one pregancy was achieved in this group; conceivably this pregnancy could have occurred by chance. The difficulty in controlling the numerous variables in a clinical fertility study and the limitations of the present methodology are also discussed. It would appear that the use of AIH to circumvent oligospermia has not been successful. However, the present series is rather small. AIH should continue to be offered to couples who have a well-defined indication such as impotence, premature ejaculation, or any anatomical defect which prevents successful intromission. The use of AIH for patients with mild oligospermia but excellent sperm motility probably deserves a limited trial, since it is less expensive and may offer some chance for success.

  20. [Chronic pain and artificial diseases].

    PubMed

    Roch, C; Knöchlein, C; Albrecht, J

    2014-10-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with a complex pain disorder and a previous diagnosis of the rare Gitelman syndrome but with a negative genetic test. The patient was admitted to a routine ward for treatment of the pain but was transferred to the intensive care unit after suffering severe hypokalemia and a narcoleptic attack. In the period of intensive care all blood parameters were stable but on release to the normal ward severe hypokalemia immediately reoccurred. With consent the patient's belongings were inspected and many diuretics and laxatives were found. The patient admitted to uncontrolled self-medication so that the diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome also appeared to be an artificial disorder.

  1. Artificial intelligence and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Ron

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined and related to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Modeling the student, the teacher, and the natural environment are discussed as important parts of ICAI and the concept of microworlds as a powerful tool for science education is presented. Optimistic predictions about ICAI are tempered with the complex, persistent problems of: 1) teaching and learning as a soft or fuzzy knowledge base, 2) natural language processing, and 3) machine learning. The importance of accurate diagnosis of a student's learning state, including misconceptions and naive theories about nature, is stressed and related to the importance of accurate diagnosis by a physician. Based on the cognitive science/AI paradigm, a revised model of the well-known Karplus/Renner learning cycle is proposed.

  2. Ion specificities of artificial macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lvdan; Kou, Ran; Liu, Guangming

    2016-12-21

    Artificial macromolecules are well-defined synthetic polymers, with a relatively simple structure as compared to naturally occurring macromolecules. This review focuses on the ion specificities of artifical macromolecules. Ion specificities are influenced by solvent-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions and also by direct ion-macromolecule interactions. In aqueous solutions, the role of water-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions will be discussed. The addition of organic solvents to aqueous solutions significantly changes the ion specificities due to the formation of water-organic solvent complexes. For direct ion-macromolecule interactions, we will discuss specific ion-pairing interactions for charged macromolecules and specific ion-neutral site interactions for uncharged macromolecules. When the medium conditions change from dilute solutions to crowded environments, the ion specificities can be modified by either the volume exclusion effect, the variation of dielectric constant, or the interactions between ions, macromolecules, and crowding agents.

  3. Research and applications: Artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, B.; Fikes, R. E.; Chaitin, L. J.; Hart, P. E.; Duda, R. O.; Nilsson, N. J.

    1971-01-01

    A program of research in the field of artificial intelligence is presented. The research areas discussed include automatic theorem proving, representations of real-world environments, problem-solving methods, the design of a programming system for problem-solving research, techniques for general scene analysis based upon television data, and the problems of assembling an integrated robot system. Major accomplishments include the development of a new problem-solving system that uses both formal logical inference and informal heuristic methods, the development of a method of automatic learning by generalization, and the design of the overall structure of a new complete robot system. Eight appendices to the report contain extensive technical details of the work described.

  4. Tribology of total artificial joints.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Dowson, D

    1991-01-01

    The tribology of total artificial replacement joints is reviewed. The majority of prosthesis currently implanted comprise a hard metallic component which articulates on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene surface. These relatively hard bearing surfaces operate with a mixed or boundary lubrication regime, which results in wear and wear debris from the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene surface. This debris can contribute to loosening and ultimate failure of the prostheses. The tribological performance of these joints has been considered and a number of factors which may contribute to increased wear rates have been identified. Cushion bearing surfaces consisting of low elastic modulus materials which can articulate with full fluid film lubrication are also described. These bearing surfaces have shown the potential for greatly reducing wear debris.

  5. Innovative applications of artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, H.; Rappaport, A.

    1989-01-01

    Papers concerning applications of artificial intelligence are presented, covering applications in aerospace technology, banking and finance, biotechnology, emergency services, law, media planning, music, the military, operations management, personnel management, retail packaging, and manufacturing assembly and design. Specific topics include Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring, an intelligent training system for Space Shuttle flight controllers, an expert system for the diagnostics of manufacturing equipment, a logistics management system, a cooling systems design assistant, and a knowledge-based integrated circuit design critic. Additional topics include a hydraulic circuit design assistant, the use of a connector assembly specification expert system to harness detailed assembly process knowledge, a mixed initiative approach to airlift planning, naval battle management decision aids, an inventory simulation tool, a peptide synthesis expert system, and a system for planning the discharging and loading of container ships.

  6. Artificial gauge field for a light ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei

    2017-06-01

    An optical ray equation is derived for a trajectory in a medium with directional birefringence. The birefringence is described as an artificial gauge field for light that gives an effective magnetic field and a Lorentz force on light. The gauge invariance is also confirmed. This paper opens a door to realize an artificial gauge field for a light ray in a nonreciprocal medium.

  7. Creativity in design and artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Neocleous, C.C.; Esat, I.I.; Schizas, C.N.

    1996-12-31

    The creativity phase is identified as an integral part of the design phase. The characteristics of creative persons which are relevant to designing artificial neural networks manifesting aspects of creativity, are identified. Based on these identifications, a general framework of artificial neural network characteristics to implement such a goal are proposed.

  8. Artificial Reefs--A Coastal Classroom Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindo, John J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the construction of artificial reefs for such uses as commercial fishing and recreational boating. Describes a class project in which students construct a small artificial reef and observe the changes over time in terms of temperature, salinity, flora and fauna. (TW)

  9. Airway Complications of Total Artificial Heart

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Vikas; Donovan, Colin; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    The total artificial heart is the mechanical device which is used as a bridge to the heart transplant in patients with biventricular failure. Due to the mechanical nature of the device, patients receiving total artificial heart (TAH) require to be on anticoagulation therapy. Hemorrhage and coagulopathy are few of the known complications of TAH. PMID:28250605

  10. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

  11. Artificial Reefs--A Coastal Classroom Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindo, John J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the construction of artificial reefs for such uses as commercial fishing and recreational boating. Describes a class project in which students construct a small artificial reef and observe the changes over time in terms of temperature, salinity, flora and fauna. (TW)

  12. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.73 Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of a spotlight or other...

  13. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.73 Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of a spotlight or other...

  14. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.73 Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of a spotlight or other...

  15. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light and Sound Equipment § 27.73 Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of...

  16. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light and Sound Equipment § 27.73 Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of...

  17. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  18. Recommended Research on Artificial Gravity. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Paloski, William; Fuller, Charles; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    Based on the summaries presented in the above sections of what is still to be learned on the effects of artificial gravity on human functions, this chapter will discuss the short- and long-term steps of research required to understand fundamentals and to validate operational aspects of using artificial gravity as an effective countermeasure for long-duration space travel.

  19. Artificial Astrocytes Improve Neural Network Performance

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B.; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

  20. Isolated Speech Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    In this project Artificial Neural Networks are used as research tool to accomplish Automated Speech Recognition of normal speech. A small size...the first stage of this work are satisfactory and thus the application of artificial neural networks in conjunction with cepstral analysis in isolated word recognition holds promise.

  1. Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…

  2. [Artificial insemination from a Catholic viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Kluth, W

    1991-04-01

    The Roman Catholic Church understands the human propagation as a common act of body and soul, which should not be destroyed either by contraception or artificial insemination. This thesis is based on the natural order and meaning of the unity of man and woman. Within its demands on the state, the church differentiates between artificial insemination of married persons and others.

  3. The Artificial Intelligence Applications to Learning Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Noel

    1992-01-01

    Explains the Artificial Intelligence Applications to Learning Programme, which was developed in the United Kingdom to explore and accelerate the use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies in learning in both the educational and industrial sectors. Highlights include program evaluation, marketing, ownership of information, consortia, and cost…

  4. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  5. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  6. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  7. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  8. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  9. Airway Complications of Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vikas; Donovan, Colin; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2017-02-01

    The total artificial heart is the mechanical device which is used as a bridge to the heart transplant in patients with biventricular failure. Due to the mechanical nature of the device, patients receiving total artificial heart (TAH) require to be on anticoagulation therapy. Hemorrhage and coagulopathy are few of the known complications of TAH.

  10. Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…

  11. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  12. Artificial Intelligence in Education: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    Gives a brief outline of the development of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) which includes psychology, education, cognitive science, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Highlights include learning environments; learner modeling; a situated approach to learning; and current examples of AIED research. (LRW)

  13. Artificial Intelligence in Education: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    Gives a brief outline of the development of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) which includes psychology, education, cognitive science, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Highlights include learning environments; learner modeling; a situated approach to learning; and current examples of AIED research. (LRW)

  14. Artificial Intelligence--Applications in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirot, James L.; Norris, Cathleen A.

    1987-01-01

    This first in a projected series of five articles discusses artificial intelligence and its impact on education. Highlights include the history of artificial intelligence and the impact of microcomputers; learning processes; human factors and interfaces; computer assisted instruction and intelligent tutoring systems; logic programing; and expert…

  15. Generation of artificial helioseismic time-series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schou, J.; Brown, T. M.

    1993-01-01

    We present an outline of an algorithm to generate artificial helioseismic time-series, taking into account as much as possible of the knowledge we have on solar oscillations. The hope is that it will be possible to find the causes of some of the systematic errors in analysis algorithms by testing them with such artificial time-series.

  16. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    PubMed

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-04-19

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function.

  17. Towards an Artificial Space Object Taxonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    such as stars, planets , and other astronomical phenomena. We will not discuss this natural-object taxonomy in detail here; however, there are a...artificial object is orbiting. To that end, the artificial object (AO) “Kingdoms” are broken down by central body: Sun orbiting, Mercury orbiting, Venus

  18. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Alice Mae

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are

  19. Artificial intelligence and the future.

    PubMed

    Clocksin, William F

    2003-08-15

    We consider some of the ideas influencing current artificial-intelligence research and outline an alternative conceptual framework that gives priority to social relationships as a key component and constructor of intelligent behaviour. The framework starts from Weizenbaum's observation that intelligence manifests itself only relative to specific social and cultural contexts. This is in contrast to a prevailing view, which sees intelligence as an abstract capability of the individual mind based on a mechanism for rational thought. The new approach is not based on the conventional idea that the mind is a rational processor of symbolic information, nor does it require the idea that thought is a kind of abstract problem solving with a semantics that is independent of its embodiment. Instead, priority is given to affective and social responses that serve to engage the whole agent in the life of the communities in which it participates. Intelligence is seen not as the deployment of capabilities for problem solving, but as constructed by the continual, ever-changing and unfinished engagement with the social group within the environment. The construction of the identity of the intelligent agent involves the appropriation or 'taking up' of positions within the conversations and narratives in which it participates. Thus, the new approach argues that the intelligent agent is shaped by the meaning ascribed to experience, by its situation in the social matrix, and by practices of self and of relationship into which intelligent life is recruited. This has implications for the technology of the future, as, for example, classic artificial intelligence models such as goal-directed problem solving are seen as special cases of narrative practices instead of as ontological foundations.

  20. Model individualization for artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Messori, Mirko; Toffanin, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Cobelli, Claudio; Magni, Lalo

    2016-07-05

    The inter-subject variability characterizing the patients affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus makes automatic blood glucose control very challenging. Different patients have different insulin responses, and a control law based on a non-individualized model could be ineffective. The definition of an individualized control law in the context of artificial pancreas is currently an open research topic. In this work we consider two novel identification approaches that can be used for individualizing linear glucose-insulin models to a specific patient. The first approach belongs to the class of black-box identification and is based on a novel kernel-based nonparametric approach, whereas the second is a gray-box identification technique which relies on a constrained optimization and requires to postulate a model structure as prior knowledge. The latter is derived from the linearization of the average nonlinear adult virtual patient of the UVA/Padova simulator. Model identification and validation are based on in silico data collected during simulations of clinical protocols designed to produce a sufficient signal excitation without compromising patient safety. The identified models are evaluated in terms of prediction performance by means of the coefficient of determination, fit, positive and negative max errors, and root mean square error. Both identification approaches were used to identify a linear individualized glucose-insulin model for each adult virtual patient of the UVA/Padova simulator. The resulting model simulation performance is significantly improved with respect to the performance achieved by a linear average model. The approaches proposed in this work have shown a good potential to identify glucose-insulin models for designing individualized control laws for artificial pancreas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Advances in controllable artificial anus device].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Cui, Long

    2014-12-01

    Artificial anus is the important surgical treatment for low colorectal cancer. However, fecal incontinence caused by artificial anus has significant influence on quality of life of patients. A series of novel therapy devices have been invented to solve the problem. According to the different applying methods, these devices can be divided into artificial sphincter and occluder. Artificial sphincter is implanted surgically and more automatic but its complicated design increased risk of complications such as infection and gastrointestinal symptoms. By comparison, occluder is less automatic and needs daily cleaning or replacement, but more comfortable, concealed and safer. For most of occluder are disposable or replaced frequently, advanced devices will greatly increase the economic burden on patients. With the progress of science and technology, artificial anal devices will become more intelligent, automatic and miniaturization.

  2. Reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier.

    PubMed

    Karakose, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  3. Artificial Lipid Membranes: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Siontorou, Christina G; Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi; Nikolelis, Dimitrios P; Karapetis, Stefanos K

    2017-07-26

    The multifaceted role of biological membranes prompted early the development of artificial lipid-based models with a primary view of reconstituting the natural functions in vitro so as to study and exploit chemoreception for sensor engineering. Over the years, a fair amount of knowledge on the artificial lipid membranes, as both, suspended or supported lipid films and liposomes, has been disseminated and has helped to diversify and expand initial scopes. Artificial lipid membranes can be constructed by several methods, stabilized by various means, functionalized in a variety of ways, experimented upon intensively, and broadly utilized in sensor development, drug testing, drug discovery or as molecular tools and research probes for elucidating the mechanics and the mechanisms of biological membranes. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art, discusses the diversity of applications, and presents future perspectives. The newly-introduced field of artificial cells further broadens the applicability of artificial membranes in studying the evolution of life.

  4. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  5. 7 CFR 51.2542 - U.S. Artificially Opened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2542 U.S. Artificially Opened. “U.S. Artificially Opened” consists of artificially opened pistachio nuts in the shell which...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2542 - U.S. Artificially Opened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2542 U.S. Artificially Opened. “U.S. Artificially Opened” consists of artificially opened pistachio nuts in the shell which...

  7. EyE: Enhance Your Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, Emmanuel; Marmo, Chiara

    2010-10-01

    In EyE (Enhance Your Extraction) an artificial neural network connected to pixels of a moving window (retina) is trained to associate these input stimuli to the corresponding response in one or several output image(s). The resulting filter can be loaded in SExtractor to operate complex, wildly non-linear filters on astronomical images. Typical applications of EyE include adaptive filtering, feature detection and cosmetic corrections.

  8. Artificial intelligence techniques for embryo and oocyte classification.

    PubMed

    Manna, Claudio; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra; Pappalardo, Sebastiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in the capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. This work concentrates the efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology, starting from their images. The artificial intelligence system proposed in this work is based on a set of Levenberg-Marquardt neural networks trained using textural descriptors (the local binary patterns). The proposed system was tested on two data sets of 269 oocytes and 269 corresponding embryos from 104 women and compared with other machine learning methods already proposed in the past for similar classification problems. Although the results are only preliminary, they show an interesting classification performance. This technique may be of particular interest in those countries where legislation restricts embryo selection. One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in our capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. In this work, we concentrate our efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology

  9. Impact of Regulatory Interventions to Reduce Intake of Artificial Trans–Fatty Acids: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Almíron-Roig, Eva; Monsivais, Pablo; Jebb, Susan A.; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Griffin, Simon J.; Ogilvie, David B.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of regulatory action to reduce levels of artificial trans–fatty acids (TFAs) in food. We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and EconLit (January 1980 to December 2012) for studies related to government regulation of food- or diet-related health behaviors from which we extracted the subsample of legislative initiatives to reduce artificial TFAs in food. We screened 38 162 articles and identified 14 studies that examined artificial TFA controls limiting permitted levels or mandating labeling. These measures achieved good compliance, with evidence of appropriate reformulation. Regulations grounded on maximum limits and mandated labeling can lead to reductions in actual and reported TFAs in food and appear to encourage food producers to reformulate their products. PMID:25602897

  10. Impact of regulatory interventions to reduce intake of artificial trans-fatty acids: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Vivien L; Almíron-Roig, Eva; Monsivais, Pablo; Jebb, Susan A; Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David B

    2015-03-01

    We examined the impact of regulatory action to reduce levels of artificial trans-fatty acids (TFAs) in food. We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and EconLit (January 1980 to December 2012) for studies related to government regulation of food- or diet-related health behaviors from which we extracted the subsample of legislative initiatives to reduce artificial TFAs in food. We screened 38 162 articles and identified 14 studies that examined artificial TFA controls limiting permitted levels or mandating labeling. These measures achieved good compliance, with evidence of appropriate reformulation. Regulations grounded on maximum limits and mandated labeling can lead to reductions in actual and reported TFAs in food and appear to encourage food producers to reformulate their products.

  11. Engineering a Light-Attenuating Artificial Iris.

    PubMed

    Shareef, Farah J; Sun, Shan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Kassem, Iris; Azar, Dimitri; Cho, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Discomfort from light exposure leads to photophobia, glare, and poor vision in patients with congenital or trauma-induced iris damage. Commercial artificial iris lenses are static in nature to provide aesthetics without restoring the natural iris's dynamic response to light. A new photo-responsive artificial iris was therefore developed using a photochromic material with self-adaptive light transmission properties and encased in a transparent biocompatible polymer matrix. The implantable artificial iris was designed and engineered using Photopia, a class of photo-responsive materials (termed naphthopyrans) embedded in polyethylene. Photopia was reshaped into annular disks that were spin-coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form our artificial iris lens of controlled thickness. Activated by UV and blue light in approximately 5 seconds with complete reversal in less than 1 minute, the artificial iris demonstrates graded attenuation of up to 40% of visible and 60% of UV light. There optical characteristics are suitable to reversibly regulate the incident light intensity. In vitro cell culture experiments showed up to 60% cell death within 10 days of exposure to Photopia, but no significant cell death observed when cultured with the artificial iris with protective encapsulation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed these results as there was no apparent leakage of potentially toxic photochromic material from the ophthalmic device. Our artificial iris lens mimics the functionality of the natural iris by attenuating light intensity entering the eye with its rapid reversible change in opacity and thus potentially providing an improved treatment option for patients with iris damage.

  12. Artificial Organs 2012: a year in review.

    PubMed

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2013-03-01

    In this editor's review, articles published in 2012 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected, and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years.

  13. Artificial organs 2011: a year in review.

    PubMed

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2012-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2011 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal would not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely well-received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years.

  14. [Artificial heart and heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Moosdorf, R

    2012-12-01

    The advances in the treatment of many different heart diseases have on the one side led to a significant prolongation of life expectancy but have also contributed to an increase of patients with heart failure. This tendency is supported even more so by the demographic development of our population. The replacement of insufficient organs has always been in the focus of medical research. In the 1960's Shumway and Lower developed the technique of cardiac transplantation and also worked intensively on the treatment and diagnosis of rejection. However, it was Barnard who, in 1967 performed the first human cardiac transplantation. Other centers followed worldwide but the mortality was high and the new therapy was controversially discussed in many journals. By the introduction of cyclosporin as a new immunosuppressive agent in 1978, results improved rapidly and cardiac transplantation became an accepted therapeutic option for patients with end stage heart failure and also for children and newborns with congenital heart defects. Today, with newer immunosuppressive regimens and improved techniques, cardiac transplantation offers excellent results with a long-term survival of nearly 50% of patients after 15 years and among the pediatric population even after 20 years. However, the donor organ shortage as well as the increasing number of elderly patients with end stage heart failure has necessitated work on other alternatives. Neither stem cell transplantation nor xenotransplantation of animal organs are yet an option and there are still some obstacles to be overcome. In contrast, the development of so-called artificial hearts has made significant progress. While the first implants of totally artificial hearts were associated with many comorbidities and patients were seriously debilitated, new devices today offer a reasonable quality of life and long-term survival. Most of these systems are no longer replacing but mainly assisting the heart, which remains in place. These

  15. From natural to artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D

    2013-04-06

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO(2) levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an 'artificial leaf' able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  16. From natural to artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO2 levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an ‘artificial leaf’ able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  17. Artificial insemination in dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, J A; Morton, K M; Billah, M

    2013-01-10

    Artificial insemination (AI) is an important technique in all domestic species to ensure rapid genetic progress. The use of AI has been reported in camelids although insemination trials are rare. This could be because of the difficulties involved in collecting as well as handling the semen due to the gelatinous nature of the seminal plasma. In addition, as all camelids are induced ovulators, the females need to be induced to ovulate before being inseminated. This paper discusses the different methods for collection of camel semen and describes how the semen concentration and morphology are analyzed. It also examines the use of different buffers for liquid storage of fresh and chilled semen, the ideal number of live sperm to inseminate and whether pregnancy rates are improved if the animal is inseminated at the tip of the uterine horn verses in the uterine body. Various methods to induce ovulation in the female camels are also described as well as the timing of insemination in relation to ovulation. Results show that collection of semen is best achieved using an artificial vagina, and the highest pregnancy rates are obtained if a minimum of 150×10(6) live spermatozoa (diluted in Green Buffer, lactose (11%), or I.N.R.A. 96) are inseminated into the body of the uterus 24h after the GnRH injection, given to the female camel to induce ovulation. Deep freezing of camel semen is proving to be a great challenge but the use of various freezing protocols, different diluents and different packaging methods (straws verses pellets) will be discussed. Preliminary results indicate that Green and Clear Buffer for Camel Semen is the best diluent to use for freezing dromedary semen and that freezing in pellets rather than straws result in higher post-thaw motility. Preservation of semen by deep-freezing is very important in camelids as it prevents the need to transport animals between farms and it extends the reproductive life span of the male, therefore further work needs to be

  18. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  19. Designing Artificial Enzymes by Intuition and Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Vikas; Koder, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    The rational design of artificial enzymes either by applying physio-chemical intuition of protein structure and function or with the aid of computation methods is a promising area of research with the potential to tremendously impact medicine, industrial chemistry and energy production. Designed proteins also provide a powerful platform for dissecting enzyme mechanisms of natural systems. Artificial enzymes have come a long way, from simple α-helical peptide catalysts to proteins that facilitate multi-step chemical reactions designed by state-of-the-art computational methods. Looking forward, we examine strategies employed by natural enzymes which could be used to improve the speed and selectivity of artificial catalysts. PMID:21124375

  20. Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stewart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses computations of blood flow through prosthetic tilting disk valve. Computational procedure developed in simulation used to design better artificial hearts and valves by reducing or eliminating following adverse flow characteristics: large pressure losses, which prevent hearts from working efficiently; separated and secondary flows, which causes clotting; and high turbulent shear stresses, which damages red blood cells. Report reiterates and expands upon part of NASA technical memorandum "Computed Flow Through an Artificial Heart and Valve" (ARC-12983). Also based partly on research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478).

  1. Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stewart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses computations of blood flow through prosthetic tilting disk valve. Computational procedure developed in simulation used to design better artificial hearts and valves by reducing or eliminating following adverse flow characteristics: large pressure losses, which prevent hearts from working efficiently; separated and secondary flows, which causes clotting; and high turbulent shear stresses, which damages red blood cells. Report reiterates and expands upon part of NASA technical memorandum "Computed Flow Through an Artificial Heart and Valve" (ARC-12983). Also based partly on research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478).

  2. Natural and Artificial Antifreeze Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Soichi; Hirao, Noriko

    In the blood of winter polar fish an antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) occurs which acts to protect the fish from freezing to death. The AFGP has a unique hydrophilic hydrophobic conformation, involved in non-colligative depression of the freezing temperature of water without altering the melting point of ice. This phenomenon is reportedly a reflection of the ice crystal growth inhibition by the adsorption of the AFGP onto a-axial surfaces of the ice crystal. The authors, on the other hand, have developed an enzymatically modified protein (EMG-12) by covalent attachment of leucine dodecyl ester to the C-terminal position of gelation with the aid of a reverse reaction catalyzed by a protease. EMG-12, having a hydrophilic-hydrophobic structure, is highly surface-active and acts to stabilize a supercooling state of water by antinucleation. Discussions are made on similarities and dissimilarities of structure-function relationships of these natural and artificial antifreeze proteins. The significance of using them as antifreeze agents is also discussed.

  3. Artificial Intelligence and Information Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Teruo

    After reviewing the recent popularization of the information transmission and processing technologies, which are supported by the progress of electronics, the authors describe that by the introduction of the opto-electronics into the information technology, the possibility of applying the artificial intelligence (AI) technique to the mechanization of the information management has emerged. It is pointed out that althuogh AI deals with problems in the mental world, its basic methodology relies upon the verification by evidence, so the experiment on computers become indispensable for the study of AI. The authors also describe that as computers operate by the program, the basic intelligence which is concerned in AI is that expressed by languages. This results in the fact that the main tool of AI is the logical proof and it involves an intrinsic limitation. To answer a question “Why do you employ AI in your problem solving”, one must have ill-structured problems and intend to conduct deep studies on the thinking and the inference, and the memory and the knowledge-representation. Finally the authors discuss the application of AI technique to the information management. The possibility of the expert-system, processing of the query, and the necessity of document knowledge-base are stated.

  4. The Discovery of Artificial Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    We reconstruct Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie's discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 based in part on documents preserved in the Joliot-Curie Archives in Paris, France. We argue that their discovery followed from the convergence of two parallel lines of research, on the neutron and on the positron, that were focused on a well-defined experimental problem, the nuclear transmutation of aluminum and other light elements. We suggest that a key role was played by a suggestion that Francis Perrin made at the seventh Solvay Conference at the end of October 1933, that the alpha-particle bombardment of aluminum produces an intermediate unstable isotope of phosphorus, which then decays by positron emission. We also suggest that a further idea that Perrin published in December 1933, and the pioneering theory of beta decay that Enrico Fermi also first published in December 1933, established a new theoretical framework that stimulated Joliot to resume the researches that he and Curie had interrupted after the Solvay Conference, now for the first time using a Geiger-Müller counter to detect the positrons emitted when he bombarded aluminum with polonium alpha particles.

  5. Polarimetric imaging of artificial satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippets, Roger

    Partial Stokes imagery using a four channel simultaneous polarimeter was collected on May 15, 2004 of the International Space Station (ISS) during a pass over Colorado Springs, Colorado. This is the first time simultaneous Stokes imaging polarimetry has been collected on an artificial satellite in earth orbit. Imagery was collected using a 317.5 mm TORUS Cassegrain telescope in an F10 configuration. A Takahashi NJP 160 mount modified with high torque motors in a direct drive configuration was used as the tracking mount. This polarimetric imagery demonstrated that small aperture telescopes matched to the Fried parameter and coupled with a camera framing at 30 fps collect good quality polarimetric satellite imagery. The frequency of the good images corresponds to a Fried parameter of 60 mm. The DOLP values on the spacecraft are in the range of 20-45%, more than a factor of five above the NeDOLP uncertainty providing confidence that the DOLP values are derived from actual polarization present in the reflected intensities. In the case of the ISS significant polarization is present and persists through a column of air 386-480 km in depth. If these results can be extended to other spacecraft then polarimetry may provide an additional modality for exploitation.

  6. Exploration of Artificial Frustrated Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter; Crespi, Vincent

    2015-02-17

    This program encompasses experimental and theoretical studies of arrays of nanometer-scale magnets known as “artificial frustrated magnets”. These magnets are small and closely spaced, so that their behavior as a collective group is complex and reveals insights into how such collections of interacting objects behave as a group. In particular, the placement of the magnets is such that the interactions between them are “frustrated”, in that they compete with each other. These systems are analogs to a class of magnetic materials in which the lattice geometry frustrates interactions between individual atomic moments, and in which a wide range of novel physical phenomena have been recently observed. The advantage to studying the arrays is that they are both designable and resolvable: i.e., the experiments can control all aspects of the array geometry, and can also observe how individual elements of the arrays behave. This research program demonstrated a number of phenomena including the role of multiple collective interactions, the feasibility of using systems with their magnetism aligned perpendicular to the plane of the array, the importance of disorder in the arrays, and the possibility of using high temperatures to adjust the magnet orientations. All of these phenomena, and others explored in this program, add to the body of knowledge around collective magnetic behavior and magnetism in general. Aside from building scientific knowledge in an important technological area, with relevance to computing and memory, the program also gave critical support to the education of students working on the experiments.

  7. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected.

  8. Learning in Artificial Neural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.

  9. Toward a hybrid artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A

    1989-06-01

    Management of insulinopenic diabetic individuals centers on administration of insulin by means of multiple injections, a wearable or implantable insulin-infusion pump, or a whole-organ or segmental-pancreas transplant. Preliminary trials indicate that surgical implantation of a hybrid device containing living insulin-secreting tissue may function as a combined glucose sensor and insulin-infusion pump. By means of a chamber composed of a semipermeable membrane shaped into hollow fibers or a box surrounding endocrine tissue, pilot studies have shown that isolated islets of Langerhans, fragments of insulinoma, or a fetal pancreas retains function for days to weeks, as judged by the ability to sustain euglycemic conditions in chemically induced diabetic rats. Lacking clear proof that normalizing blood glucose levels will prevent vascular complications of diabetes in humans, the case for further development of a hybrid (tissue plus fabricated components) device rests mainly on optimistic extrapolation of results attained in the chemically induced diabetic rat and dog. For the minority of diabetic patients who have insulin-dependent diabetes, the benefit afforded by a bionic device establishing internal insulin release regulated by silently sensed blood glucose level is more than enough payoff for the discomfort and surgery involved in its implantation. Further trials of a hybrid artificial pancreas in the dog appear warranted as a logical extension of preliminary studies with this species.

  10. Current advances in artificial gametes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt Peter; Chang, Ching-Chien

    2005-09-01

    The birth of Louise Brown, the first IVF baby, in 1978 marked a breakthrough in infertility treatment. In recent decades, several important new techniques have been introduced. One limiting factor has been the requirement to use reproductive cells (gametes) for fertilization and for embryonic development. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) has been successful in mammals, opening a potential new approach for the treatment of human infertility. In addition, nuclear transfer to achieve embryo development starting from somatic cells instead of gametes, and the creation of artificial oocytes/spermatozoa has been attempted. The present paper reviews the various alternative approaches to haploidization of somatic cells. It has been observed that chromosome segregation (of the donor somatic nucleus) may take place; however, this process is largely random, thus leading to major cytogenetic abnormalities. An alternative approach is related to stem cell technology, to be further explored in the future. Culture conditions may be adjusted so that the totipotent embryonic stem cells will differentiate to specific gametes, sperm cells or egg cells. Injecting spermatozoa produced in this manner into recipient oocytes has led to pronuclear formation and early cleavage stages in some embryos. Finally, the birth of parthenogenetic mice indicates that some of these epigenetic problems can be overcome, and that some of the embryos may survive to birth.

  11. Artificial neural network and medicine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Z H; Mohapatra, S K; Khodiar, P K; Ragu Kumar, S N

    1998-07-01

    The introduction of human brain functions such as perception and cognition into the computer has been made possible by the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). ANN are computer models inspired by the structure and behavior of neurons. Like the brain, ANN can recognize patterns, manage data and most significantly, learn. This learning ability, not seen in other computer models simulating human intelligence, constantly improves its functional accuracy as it keeps on performing. Experience is as important for an ANN as it is for man. It is being increasingly used to supplement and even (may be) replace experts, in medicine. However, there is still scope for improvement in some areas. Its ability to classify and interpret various forms of medical data comes as a helping hand to clinical decision making in both diagnosis and treatment. Treatment planning in medicine, radiotherapy, rehabilitation, etc. is being done using ANN. Morbidity and mortality prediction by ANN in different medical situations can be very helpful for hospital management. ANN has a promising future in fundamental research, medical education and surgical robotics.

  12. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia. The most important feature of this system is that both sides of a strontium titanate single-crystal substrate are used without an electrochemical apparatus. Plasmon-induced water splitting occurred even with a minimum chemical bias of 0.23 V owing to the plasmonic effects based on the efficient oxidation of water and the use of platinum as a co-catalyst for reduction. Photocurrent measurements were performed to determine the electron transfer between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide semiconductor. The efficiency of water oxidation was determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments aimed at elucidating the electron density in the gold nanoparticles. A set-up similar to the water-splitting system was used to synthesize ammonia via nitrogen fixation using ruthenium instead of platinum as a co-catalyst. PMID:26052419

  13. Electrochemically modulated liquid-liquid extraction of ionized drugs under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Collins, Courtney J; Berduque, Alfonso; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2008-11-01

    Electrochemically modulated liquid-liquid extraction (EMLLE) enables the selective extraction and separation of ions from mixtures by choice of an applied interfacial potential difference. The extraction of ionized drugs from artificial urine is reported in this paper. The artificial urine matrix was characterized by cyclic voltammetry at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES), showing that components of that aqueous phase truncate the available potential window at the ITIES. The transfer of three cationic drugs from aqueous artificial urine to the 1,2-dichloroethane organic electrolyte phase was examined. Both propranolol and timolol were found to transfer across the artificial urine-organic interface. However, sotalol transfer was not possible within the available potential window. Extraction of propranolol and timolol from artificial urine into an organogel phase, by electrochemically modulated liquid-liquid extraction, was examined. The application of potentials positive of the drugs' formal transfer potentials enabled the selective extraction of both propranolol and timolol, with a higher potential being required for timolol. This work demonstrates the practical utility of EMLLE for the selective extraction of target compounds from a complex sample matrix.

  14. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  15. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  16. The development of an artificial stool usable for the surveillance of faecal haemoglobin testing.

    PubMed

    Miike, Akira; Ogawa, Zensuke; Sakurabayashi, Ikunosuke

    2017-01-01

    Background Faecal occult blood testing is an important diagnostic tool for the detection of colorectal cancer. However, it has not been standardized due to the absence of suitable specimens for surveillance. Methods We developed a ready-to-use artificial stool made from rice flour. This new artificial stool homogeneously contains not only human haemoglobin A0 (HbA0) but also glycerol as an internal standard material. After the collection of the artificial stool into a buffer, the haemoglobin concentration in dispersed solution was measured using a method based on the peroxidase like activity of haemoglobin. The glycerol concentration was measured using a commercially available triglyceride measurement kit. Results With regard to the haemoglobin stability, the decrease in the level of human haemoglobin in the artificial stool was <2% when it was stored at -80℃ for four months, -20℃ for two weeks, and 5℃ for two days. The artificial stool was easily collected with the collecting tubes of a commercially available faecal haemoglobin test kit. The weight of the collected artificial stool could be calculated by measuring the concentration of glycerol in the extracting solution of the collected stool sample. The haemoglobin concentrations could be adjusted based on their collection weights. Conclusions The artificial stool has a paste-like consistency and contains both haemoglobin and glycerol homogeneously. Furthermore, the measured haemoglobin concentration could be determined based on the collected stool weight, which was directly related to the glycerol concentration. These features make it a useful material for the surveillance of faecal occult blood testing.

  17. Total artificial hearts: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cohn, William E; Timms, Daniel L; Frazier, O H

    2015-10-01

    A practical artificial heart has been sought for >50 years. An increasing number of people succumb to heart disease each year, but the number of hearts available for transplantation remains small. Early total artificial hearts mimicked the pumping action of the native heart. These positive-displacement pumps could provide adequate haemodynamic support and maintain the human circulation for short periods, but large size and limited durability adversely affected recipients' quality of life. Subsequent research into left ventricular assist devices led to the use of continuous-flow blood pumps with rotating impellers. Researchers have attempted to integrate this technology into modern total artificial hearts with moderate clinical success. The importance of pulsatile circulation remains unclear. Future research is, therefore, needed into positive-displacement and rotary total artificial hearts.

  18. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons; 2012: ... cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/artificial-sweeteners. Accessed July 23, 2015. How sweet it is: All about ...

  19. Apple Fool! An Introduction to Artificial Flavors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents a science activity on consumer chemistry in which students explore artificial flavors that are commonly used in foods, such as isoamyl acetate and methyl salicylate. Includes instructor information and a student worksheet. (YDS)

  20. Competing interactions in artificial spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, V.-D.; Perrin, Y.; Le Denmat, S.; Canals, B.; Rougemaille, N.

    2017-07-01

    The low-energy magnetic configurations of artificial, frustrated classical spin chains are investigated using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations. Contrary to most studies on two-dimensional artificial spin systems in which frustration arises from the lattice geometry, here magnetic frustration originates from competing interactions between neighboring spins. By tuning continuously the strength and sign of these interactions, we show that different magnetic phases can be stabilized. Comparison between our experimental findings and predictions from the one-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest-neighbor Ising model reveals that artificial frustrated spin chains have a richer phase diagram than initially expected. In addition to the observation of several magnetic orders and the potential extension of this work to highly degenerated artificial spin chains, our results suggest that the micromagnetic nature of the individual magnetic elements allows for the observation of metastable spin configurations.

  1. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  2. Artificial Intelligence and the Future Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John O.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how the power and potential of the computer may shape the classroom of the future by presenting a scenario of a classroom in the year 2001. The role of artificial intelligence in this environment is considered. (JN)

  3. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  4. Artificial Intelligence and the Future Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John O.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how the power and potential of the computer may shape the classroom of the future by presenting a scenario of a classroom in the year 2001. The role of artificial intelligence in this environment is considered. (JN)

  5. Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.

  6. Microfabricated artificial-muscle-based microvalve array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, KeQin; Peteu, Serban F.; Madou, Marc J.

    2001-09-01

    Artificial muscle is defined herein as a blend of a hydrogel and a redox polymer, which dramatically swells and shrinks under environmental stimuli. This actuator can be applied to micro fabricating valves for controlled delivery systems. Previous work in our group has shown that a blend of poly(2- hydroxy ethyl)methacrylate (polyHEMA) and polyaniline displayed significant swelling and shrinking upon application of an electrochemical bias. In this type of artificial muscle, polyaniline, a redox polymer, acts as the 'electronic backbone' for transferring for most of the swelling and shrinking. However, polyHEMA showed only weak swelling an shrinking in a chemimechanical system, thus purpose of the current study is to enhance the artificial muscle actuating properties. An optimized hydrogel swelled up to 1000 percent in alkaline solution and contracted 70 percent in acid solution. An artificial muscle microvalve array was also micro fabricated and tested. These results could lead to a smart wireless drug delivery implanted system.

  7. Organic electronics: Battery-like artificial synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. Joshua; Xia, Qiangfei

    2017-04-01

    Borrowing the operating principles of a battery, a three-terminal organic switch has been developed on a flexible plastic substrate. The device consumes very little power and can be used as an artificial synapse for brain-inspired computing.

  8. What Artificial Intelligence Is Doing for Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirrane, Peter R.; Kirrane, Diane E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the three areas of research and application of artificial intelligence: (1) robotics, (2) natural language processing, and (3) knowledge-based or expert systems. Focuses on what expert systems can do, especially in the area of training. (JOW)

  9. Building artificial humans to understand humans.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    If we could build an android as a very humanlike robot, how would we humans distinguish a real human from an android? The answer to this question is not so easy. In human-android interaction, we cannot see the internal mechanism of the android, and thus we may simply believe that it is a human. This means that a human can be defined from two perspectives: one by organic mechanism and the other by appearance. Further, the current rapid progress in artificial organs makes this distinction confusing. The approach discussed in this article is to create artificial humans with humanlike appearances. The developed artificial humans, an android and a geminoid, can be used to improve understanding of humans through psychological and cognitive tests conducted using the artificial humans. We call this new approach to understanding humans android science.

  10. What Artificial Intelligence Is Doing for Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirrane, Peter R.; Kirrane, Diane E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the three areas of research and application of artificial intelligence: (1) robotics, (2) natural language processing, and (3) knowledge-based or expert systems. Focuses on what expert systems can do, especially in the area of training. (JOW)

  11. Artificial Intelligence, Robots and Education: Selected Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Pat

    1987-01-01

    This annotated bibliography describes 12 books, 10 ERIC publications, and 7 periodical articles about artificial intelligence and robotics that were selected by the author as resources for educators. (CLB)

  12. Artificial intelligence: Learning to see and act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    An artificial-intelligence system uses machine learning from massive training sets to teach itself to play 49 classic computer games, demonstrating that it can adapt to a variety of tasks. See Letter p.529

  13. Apple Fool! An Introduction to Artificial Flavors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents a science activity on consumer chemistry in which students explore artificial flavors that are commonly used in foods, such as isoamyl acetate and methyl salicylate. Includes instructor information and a student worksheet. (YDS)

  14. No cheers for temporary artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1985-10-01

    The author continues his argument against the temporary artificial heart ("The Phoenix heart: what we have to lose," Hastings Center Report 1985 Jun; 15(3): 15-16) with an account of recipient Michael Drummond's experience at the University of Arizona in August 1985. Annas faults the University's informed consent procedure and labels its consent form "misleading, rudimentary, and confusing." He also questions why Drummond was assigned top priority for a human heart after he had received a temporary artificial one. Annas urges a moratorium on permanent artificial hearts because of their devastating effects on recipients, and on temporary devices because they may become permanent. He also argues that there is, as yet, no ethically acceptable way of allocating human hearts to those with artificial hearts, and that the expensive bridge-to-transplant procedure fails to increase the total number of lives saved by heart transplants.

  15. Societal and ethical considerations of artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Paquin, M

    1986-07-01

    The present state of artificial heart research and development is analyzed in light of public perceptions affected by accounts of the experiences of those who received the Jarvik-7. On the assumption that research will continue, it is argued that the therapeutic goals of the artificial heart can be realized, and funding be obtained, only in an atmosphere of positive publicity. To this end, formation of an association of companies involved in artificial heart R & D is recommended. Such a group would articulate voluntary standards and produce reports of advances in the field. Artificial hearts, it is noted in conclusion, have been effective as temporary assist devices in patients destined to receive heart transplants.

  16. Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.

  17. Exploring frustrated magnetism with artificial spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Ian; Ilic, B. Robert

    2016-10-01

    Nanomagnet arrays known as artificial spin ice provide insight into the microscopic details of frustrated magnetism because, unlike natural frustrated magnets, the individual moments can be experimentally resolved and the lattice geometry can be easily tuned. Most studies of artificial spin ice focus on two lattice geometries, the square and the kagome lattices, due to their direct correspondence to natural spin ice materials such as Dy2Ti2O7. In this work, we review experiments on these more unusual lattice geometries and introduce a new type of nanomagnet array, artificial spin glass. Artificial spin glass is a two-dimensional array of nanomagnets with random locations and orientations and is designed to elucidate the more complex frustration found in spin glass materials.

  18. An Examination of a Music Appreciation Method Incorporating Tactile Sensations from Artificial Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Ryujyu; Ooshima, Keita

    We examined how test subject impressions of music changed when artificial vibrations were incorporated as constituent elements of a musical composition. In this study, test subjects listened to several music samples in which different types of artificial vibration had been incorporated and then subjectively evaluated any resulting changes to their impressions of the music. The following results were obtained: i) Even if rhythm vibration is added to a silent component of a musical composition, it can effectively enhance musical fitness. This could be readily accomplished when actual sounds that had been synchronized with the vibration components were provided beforehand. ii) The music could be listened to more comfortably by adding not only a natural vibration extracted from percussion instruments but also artificial vibration as tactile stimulation according to intentional timing. Furthermore, it was found that the test subjects' impression of the music was affected by a characteristic of the artificial vibration. iii) Adding vibration to high-frequency areas can offer an effective and practical way of enhancing the appeal of a musical composition. iv) The movement sensations of sound and vibration could be experienced when the strength of the sound and vibration are modified in turn. These results suggest that the intentional application of artificial vibration could result in a sensitivity amplification factor on the part of a listener.

  19. Development of haptic based piezoresistive artificial fingertip: Toward efficient tactile sensing systems for humanoids.

    PubMed

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Azhari, Saman; Khajeh, Amin; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2017-08-01

    Haptic sensors are essential devices that facilitate human-like sensing systems such as implantable medical devices and humanoid robots. The availability of conducting thin films with haptic properties could lead to the development of tactile sensing systems that stretch reversibly, sense pressure (not just touch), and integrate with collapsible. In this study, a nanocomposite based hemispherical artificial fingertip fabricated to enhance the tactile sensing systems of humanoid robots. To validate the hypothesis, proposed method was used in the robot-like finger system to classify the ripe and unripe tomato by recording the metabolic growth of the tomato as a function of resistivity change during a controlled indention force. Prior to fabrication, a finite element modeling (FEM) was investigated for tomato to obtain the stress distribution and failure point of tomato by applying different external loads. Then, the extracted computational analysis information was utilized to design and fabricate nanocomposite based artificial fingertip to examine the maturity analysis of tomato. The obtained results demonstrate that the fabricated conformable and scalable artificial fingertip shows different electrical property for ripe and unripe tomato. The artificial fingertip is compatible with the development of brain-like systems for artificial skin by obtaining periodic response during an applied load. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Extractant composition

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Jarvihen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes an organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. It comprises: primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoly-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  1. Artificial intelligence in sports on the example of weight training.

    PubMed

    Novatchkov, Hristo; Baca, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the present study was to illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in sports on the example of weight training. The research focused in particular on the implementation of pattern recognition methods for the evaluation of performed exercises on training machines. The data acquisition was carried out using way and cable force sensors attached to various weight machines, thereby enabling the measurement of essential displacement and force determinants during training. On the basis of the gathered data, it was consequently possible to deduce other significant characteristics like time periods or movement velocities. These parameters were applied for the development of intelligent methods adapted from conventional machine learning concepts, allowing an automatic assessment of the exercise technique and providing individuals with appropriate feedback. In practice, the implementation of such techniques could be crucial for the investigation of the quality of the execution, the assistance of athletes but also coaches, the training optimization and for prevention purposes. For the current study, the data was based on measurements from 15 rather inexperienced participants, performing 3-5 sets of 10-12 repetitions on a leg press machine. The initially preprocessed data was used for the extraction of significant features, on which supervised modeling methods were applied. Professional trainers were involved in the assessment and classification processes by analyzing the video recorded executions. The so far obtained modeling results showed good performance and prediction outcomes, indicating the feasibility and potency of AI techniques in assessing performances on weight training equipment automatically and providing sportsmen with prompt advice. Key pointsArtificial intelligence is a promising field for sport-related analysis.Implementations integrating pattern recognition techniques enable the automatic evaluation of data

  2. Artificial Intelligence in Sports on the Example of Weight Training

    PubMed Central

    Novatchkov, Hristo; Baca, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the present study was to illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in sports on the example of weight training. The research focused in particular on the implementation of pattern recognition methods for the evaluation of performed exercises on training machines. The data acquisition was carried out using way and cable force sensors attached to various weight machines, thereby enabling the measurement of essential displacement and force determinants during training. On the basis of the gathered data, it was consequently possible to deduce other significant characteristics like time periods or movement velocities. These parameters were applied for the development of intelligent methods adapted from conventional machine learning concepts, allowing an automatic assessment of the exercise technique and providing individuals with appropriate feedback. In practice, the implementation of such techniques could be crucial for the investigation of the quality of the execution, the assistance of athletes but also coaches, the training optimization and for prevention purposes. For the current study, the data was based on measurements from 15 rather inexperienced participants, performing 3-5 sets of 10-12 repetitions on a leg press machine. The initially preprocessed data was used for the extraction of significant features, on which supervised modeling methods were applied. Professional trainers were involved in the assessment and classification processes by analyzing the video recorded executions. The so far obtained modeling results showed good performance and prediction outcomes, indicating the feasibility and potency of AI techniques in assessing performances on weight training equipment automatically and providing sportsmen with prompt advice. Key points Artificial intelligence is a promising field for sport-related analysis. Implementations integrating pattern recognition techniques enable the automatic evaluation of data

  3. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  4. Implementation of artificial neural networks with optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.

    1999-04-01

    Optical implementation of artificial neural nets (ANNs) with electronically addressable liquid crystal televisions (LCTVs) are presented. The major advantages of the proposed ANNs must be the low cost and the flexibility to operate. To test the performance, several artificial neural net models have been implemented in the LCTV ANNs. These models include the Hopfield, Interpattern Association, Hetero-association, and Unsupervised ANNs. System design considerations and experimental demonstrates are provided.

  5. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  6. Who needs an artificial pancreas? (?).

    PubMed

    Winikoff, Janet; Drexler, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The development of a closed-loop "artificial pancreas" would be a welcome advance for both endocrinologists and diabetic patients struggling to attain near normal glycemic control. While great strides in automatically controlling blood sugar in the fasting, sedentary state have been made through complex mathematical modeling, management of blood sugar excursions due to food and exercise have been more problematic. An artificial pancreas is not feasible at this time because of limitations inherent in the currently available technology.

  7. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  8. Artificial Organs 2015: A Year in Review.

    PubMed

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2015 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for providing their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of their time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Artificial Organs 2013: a year in review.

    PubMed

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2013 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level". Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide so meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  10. A New Data Mining Scheme Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kamruzzaman, S. M.; Jehad Sarkar, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Classification is one of the data mining problems receiving enormous attention in the database community. Although artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been successfully applied in a wide range of machine learning applications, they are however often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions cannot be explained. To enhance the explanation of ANNs, a novel algorithm to extract symbolic rules from ANNs has been proposed in this paper. ANN methods have not been effectively utilized for data mining tasks because how the classifications were made is not explicitly stated as symbolic rules that are suitable for verification or interpretation by human experts. With the proposed approach, concise symbolic rules with high accuracy, that are easily explainable, can be extracted from the trained ANNs. Extracted rules are comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and the accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is clearly demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of benchmark data mining classification problems. PMID:22163866

  11. A new data mining scheme using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, S M; Jehad Sarkar, A M

    2011-01-01

    Classification is one of the data mining problems receiving enormous attention in the database community. Although artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been successfully applied in a wide range of machine learning applications, they are however often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions cannot be explained. To enhance the explanation of ANNs, a novel algorithm to extract symbolic rules from ANNs has been proposed in this paper. ANN methods have not been effectively utilized for data mining tasks because how the classifications were made is not explicitly stated as symbolic rules that are suitable for verification or interpretation by human experts. With the proposed approach, concise symbolic rules with high accuracy, that are easily explainable, can be extracted from the trained ANNs. Extracted rules are comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and the accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is clearly demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of benchmark data mining classification problems.

  12. Information-driven trade and price-volume relationship in artificial stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinghua; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaobei

    2015-07-01

    The positive relation between stock price changes and trading volume (price-volume relationship) as a stylized fact has attracted significant interest among finance researchers and investment practitioners. However, until now, consensus has not been reached regarding the causes of the relationship based on real market data because extracting valuable variables (such as information-driven trade volume) from real data is difficult. This lack of general consensus motivates us to develop a simple agent-based computational artificial stock market where extracting the necessary variables is easy. Based on this model and its artificial data, our tests have found that the aggressive trading style of informed agents can produce a price-volume relationship. Therefore, the information spreading process is not a necessary condition for producing price-volume relationship.

  13. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part C: Basic AI topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Readily understandable overviews of search oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic are provided. Mechanization, automation and artificial intelligence are discussed as well as how they interrelate.

  14. Artificial lung: progress and prototypes.

    PubMed

    Zwischenberger, Brittany A; Clemson, Lindsey A; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2006-07-01

    Lung disease is the fourth leading cause of death (one in seven deaths) in the USA. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) affects approximately 150,000 patients a year in the USA, and an estimated 16 million Americans are afflicted with chronic lung disease, accounting for 100,000 deaths per year. Medical management is the standard of care for initial therapy, but is limited by the progression of disease. Chronic mechanical ventilation is readily available, but is cumbersome, expensive and often requires tracheotomy with loss of upper airway defense mechanisms and normal speech. Lung transplantation is an option for less than 1100 patients per year since demand has steadily outgrown supply. For the last 15 years, the authors' group has studied ARDS in order to develop viable alternative treatments. Both extracorporeal gas exchange techniques, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, extracorporeal and arteriovenous CO(2) removal, and intravenous oxygenation, aim to allow for a less injurious ventilatory strategy during lung recovery while maintaining near-normal arterial blood gases, but precludes ambulation. The paracorporeal artificial lung (PAL), however, redefines the treatment of both acute and chronic respiratory failure with the goal of ambulatory total respiratory support. PAL prototypes tested on both normal sheep and the absolute lethal dose smoke/burn-induced ARDS sheep model have demonstrated initial success in achieving total gas exchange. Still, clinical trials cannot begin until bio- and hemodynamic compatibility challenges are reconciled. The PAL initial design goals are for a short-term (weeks) bridge to recovery or transplant, but eventually, for long-term support (months).

  15. A two dimensional artificial reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Myron W.

    1991-01-01

    The current presumption is that it is necessary to don goggles, gloves and a data suit to experience artificial reality. However, there is another technology that offers an alternative or complement to the encumbering techniques associated with NASA. In VIDEOPLACE, your image appears in a 2D graphic world created by a computer. The VIDEOPLACE computer can analyze a person's image in 1/30 second and can detect when an object is touched. Thus, it can generate a graphic or auditory response to an illusory contact. VIDEOPLACE technology exists in two formats: the VIDEODESK and the VIDEOPLACE. In the VIDEODESK environment, the image of your hands can be used to perform the normal mouse functions, such as menuing and drawing. In addition, you have the advantage of multipoint control. For instance, you can use the thumbs and forefingers of each hand as control points for a spline curve. Perhaps most important, the image of your hands can be compressed and transmitted to a colleague over an ISDN voice channel to appear on the remote screen superimposed over identical information. Likewise, the image of your colleague's hands can appear on both screens. The result is that the two of you can use your hands to point to features on your respective screens as you speak, exactly as you would if you were sitting together. In the VIDEOPLACE environment, you can interact with graphic creatures and the images of other people in other locations in a graphic world. Your whole body can be moved, scaled and rotated in real-time without regard to the laws of physics. Thus, VIDEOPLACE can be used to create a fantasy world in which the laws of cause and effect are composed by an artist.

  16. Anaphylactic reaction after artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Orta, Marta; Ordoqui, Elena; Aranzábal, Ascensión; Fernández, Cristina; Bartolomé, Borja; Sanz, Maria Luisa

    2003-04-01

    Bovine seroalbumin is known as an allergen for human beings, but reactions to it in an artificial insemination procedure are much rarer. We report a case of anaphylaxis after intrauterine insemination (IUI) in which sensitization to bovine serum albumin (BSA) is demonstrated. Report the allergy evaluation performed in a patient who suffered a severe reaction immediately after an IUI procedure. A 33-year-old woman was referred because of an anaphylactic reaction after a second trial of IUI. She developed pruritus, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, bronchospasm, and generalized urticaria. She had an atopic medical history of pollen allergy and sensitization to cat epithelium. She had never had trouble with minor surgery and she usually uses latex material. She had never received heterologous sera before. Her husband's semen for the IUI was processed in a standard fluid medium called upgraded INRA B 2 (Laboratoires CCD, Paris, France), which contains amino acids, lipids, vitamins, BSA, penicillin, and streptomycin in addition to inorganic salts. Skin prick tests with the medium and BSA 10 mg/mL were positive. In vitro studies demonstrated an immunoglobulin E binding protein of 60 to 65 kDa and mast cells and basophil activation (CD63 expression) against BSA contained in the medium. Cutaneous and challenge tests with penicillin and streptomycin were negative. We consider the BSA in the semen culture medium to be the factor which triggered the anaphylactic reaction. This case supports the authors who state that media free from heterologous proteins should be used for human application, especially on atopic patients, to avoid sensitization.

  17. Biotribology of artificial hip joints

    PubMed Central

    Di Puccio, Francesca; Mattei, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Hip arthroplasty can be considered one of the major successes of orthopedic surgery, with more than 350000 replacements performed every year in the United States with a constantly increasing rate. The main limitations to the lifespan of these devices are due to tribological aspects, in particular the wear of mating surfaces, which implies a loss of matter and modification of surface geometry. However, wear is a complex phenomenon, also involving lubrication and friction. The present paper deals with the tribological performance of hip implants and is organized in to three main sections. Firstly, the basic elements of tribology are presented, from contact mechanics of ball-in-socket joints to ultra high molecular weight polyethylene wear laws. Some fundamental equations are also reported, with the aim of providing the reader with some simple tools for tribological investigations. In the second section, the focus moves to artificial hip joints, defining materials and geometrical properties and discussing their friction, lubrication and wear characteristics. In particular, the features of different couplings, from metal-on-plastic to metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic, are discussed as well as the role of the head radius and clearance. How friction, lubrication and wear are interconnected and most of all how they are specific for each loading and kinematic condition is highlighted. Thus, the significant differences in patients and their lifestyles account for the high dispersion of clinical data. Furthermore, such consideration has raised a new discussion on the most suitable in vitro tests for hip implants as simplified gait cycles can be too far from effective implant working conditions. In the third section, the trends of hip implants in the years from 2003 to 2012 provided by the National Joint Registry of England, Wales and Northern Ireland are summarized and commented on in a discussion. PMID:25621213

  18. Artificial faces are harder to remember.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to "out-groups" defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the "in-group." Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an "out-group" in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing.

  19. Artificial faces are harder to remember

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to “out-groups” defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the “in-group.” Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an “out-group” in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing. PMID:26195852

  20. Honeycomb artificial spin ice at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeissler, Katharina; Chadha, Megha; Cohen, Lesley; Branford, Will

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice is a macroscopic playground for magnetically frustrated systems. It consists of a geometrically ordered but magnetically frustrated arrangement of ferromagnetic macros spins, e.g. an arrangement of single domain ferromagnetic nanowires on a honeycomb lattice. Permalloy and cobalt which have critical temperature scales far above 290 K, are commonly used in the construction of such systems. Previous measurements have shown unusual features in the magnetotransport signature of cobalt honeycomb artificial spin ice at temperatures below 50 K which are due to changes in the artificial spin ice's magnetic reversal. In that case, the artificial spin ice bars were 1 micron long, 100 nm wide and 20 nm thick. Here we explore the low temperature magnetic behavior of honeycomb artificial spin ice structures with a variety of bar dimensions, indirectly via electrical transport, as well as, directly using low temperature magnetic imaging techniques. We discuss the extent to which this change in the magnetic reversal at low temperatures is generic to the honeycomb artificial spin ice geometry and whether the bar dimensions have an influence on its onset temperature. The EPSRC (Grant No. EP/G004765/1; Grant No. EP/L504786/1) and the Leverhulme Trust (Grant No. RPG 2012-692) funded this scientific work.