Science.gov

Sample records for artificial immune system

  1. Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune system to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of as a robust, adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. Biological immune systems use a finite number of discrete "building blocks" to achieve this adaptiveness. These building blocks can be thought of as pieces of a puzzle which must be put together in a specific way-to neutralize, remove, or destroy each unique disturbance the system encounters. In this paper, we outline AIS models that are immediately applicable to aerospace problems and identify application areas that need further investigation.

  2. Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

  3. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  4. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  5. Generating compact classifier systems using a simple artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kevin; Cheong, France; Cheong, Christopher

    2007-10-01

    Current artificial immune system (AIS) classifiers have two major problems: 1) their populations of B-cells can grow to huge proportions, and 2) optimizing one B-cell (part of the classifier) at a time does not necessarily guarantee that the B-cell pool (the whole classifier) will be optimized. In this paper, the design of a new AIS algorithm and classifier system called simple AIS is described. It is different from traditional AIS classifiers in that it takes only one B-cell, instead of a B-cell pool, to represent the classifier. This approach ensures global optimization of the whole system, and in addition, no population control mechanism is needed. The classifier was tested on seven benchmark data sets using different classification techniques and was found to be very competitive when compared to other classifiers.

  6. Recognising promoter sequences using an artificial immune system

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, D.E.; Hunt, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed an artificial immune system (AIS) which is based on the human immune system. The AIS possesses an adaptive learning mechanism which enables antibodies to emerge which can be used for classification tasks. In this paper, we describe how the AIS has been used to evolve antibodies which can classify promoter containing and promoter negative DNA sequences. The DNA sequences used for teaching were 57 nucleotides in length and contained procaryotic promoters. The system classified previously unseen DNA sequences with an accuracy of approximately 90%.

  7. Simulation of HIV infection in artificial immune systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieburg, Hans B.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Clay, Oliver K.; Cabalerro, Lisa; Ostlund, James J.

    1990-09-01

    Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a multi-faceted disease process which ultimately leads to severe degenerative conditions in the immune and nervous systems. The complexity of the virus/host-system interaction has brought into sharp focus the need for alternative efforts by which to overcome the limitations of available animal models. This article reports on the dynamics of HIV infection in an artificial immune system (AIS), a novel in silico tool for bio-medical research. Using a method of graphical programming, the HIV/AIS interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of an asynchronous cellular automaton simulation. A specific problem in HIV pathogenesis is addressed: To determine the extent by which the physiological connectivity of a normal B-cell, T-cell, macrophage immune system supports persistence of infection and disease progression to AIDS. Several observations are discussed which will be presented in four categories: (a) the major known manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS; (b) the predictability of latency and sudden progression to disease; (c) the predictability of HIV-dependent alterations of cytokine secretion patterns, and (d) secondary infections, which are found to be a critical element in establishing and maintaining a progressive disease dynamics. The effects of exogenously applied cytokine Interleukin 2 are considered. All results are summarized in a phase-graph model of the global HIV/AIS dynamical system.

  8. Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Edwin L.

    2010-03-01

    self/not self model. The review will end with certain perspectives on artificial immune systems new on the scene and the product of computational immunologists. The tentative view is to question if the immune systems of invertebrates might be amenable to such an analysis? This would offer more credence to the innate system, often pushed aside thus favoring the adaptive responses.

  9. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted. PMID:24790549

  10. A survey of artificial immune system based intrusion detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted. PMID:24790549

  11. Impact detection using ultrasonic waves based on artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Keisuke; Mita, Akira

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a structural health monitoring system for judging structural condition of metallic plates by analyzing ultrasonic waves. Many critical accidents of structures like buildings and aircrafts are caused by small structural errors; cracks and loosened bolts etc. This is a reason why we need to detect little errors at an early stage. Moreover, to improve precision and to reduce cost for damage detection, it is necessary to build and update the database corresponding to environmental change. This study focuses our attention on the automatable structures, specifically, applying artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm to determine the structure safe or not. The AIS is a novelty computational detection algorithm inspired from biological defense system, which discriminates between self and non-self to reject nonself cells. Here, self is defined to be normal data patterns and non-self is abnormal data patterns. Furthermore, it is not only pattern recognition but also it has a storage function. In this study, a number of impact resistance experiments of duralumin plates, with normal structural condition and abnormal structural condition, are examined and ultrasonic waves are acquired by AE sensors on the surface of the aluminum plates. By accumulating several feature vectors of ultrasonic waves, a judging method, which can determine an abnormal wave as nonself, inspired from immune system is created. The results of the experiments show good performance of this method.

  12. Damage detection based on acceleration data using artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Sandra; Mita, Akira

    2009-03-01

    Nowadays, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is essential in order to prevent damages occurrence in civil structures. This is a particularly important issue as the number of aged structures is increasing. Damage detection algorithms are often based on changes in the modal properties like natural frequencies, modal shapes and modal damping. In this paper, damage detection is completed by using Artificial Immune System (AIS) theory directly on acceleration data. Inspired from the biological immune system, AIS is composed of several models like negative selection which has a great potential for this study. The negative selection process relies on the fact that T-cells, after their maturation, are sensitive to non self cells and can not detect self cells. Acceleration data were provided by using the numerical model of a 3-story frame structure. Damages were introduced, at particular times, by reduction of story's stiffness. Based on these acceleration data, undamaged data (equivalent to self data) and damaged data (equivalent to non self data) can be obtained and represented in the Hamming shape-space with a binary representation. From the undamaged encoded data, detectors (equivalent to T-cells) are derived and are able to detect damaged encoded data really efficiently by using the rcontiguous bits matching rule. Indeed, more than 95% of detection can be reached when efficient combinations of parameters are used. According to the number of detected data, the localization of damages can even be determined by using the differences between story's relative accelerations. Thus, the difference which presents the highest detection rate, generally up to 89%, is directly linked to the location of damage.

  13. Security framework for networked storage system based on artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianzhong; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Chengfeng; Zhan, Ling

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical framework for the networked storage system addressing the storage security. The immune system is an adaptive learning system, which can recognize, classify and eliminate 'non-self' such as foreign pathogens. Thus, we introduced the artificial immune technique to the storage security research, and proposed a full theoretical framework for storage security system. Under this framework, it is possible to carry out the quantitative evaluation for the storage security system using modeling language of artificial immune system (AIS), and the evaluation can offer security consideration for the deployment of networked storage system. Meanwhile, it is potential to obtain the active defense technique suitable for networked storage system via exploring the principle of AIS and achieve a highly secure storage system with immune characteristic.

  14. Creating a two-layered augmented artificial immune system for application to computer network intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Matthew G.; Lamont, Gary B.

    2009-05-01

    Computer network security has become a very serious concern of commercial, industrial, and military organizations due to the increasing number of network threats such as outsider intrusions and insider covert activities. An important security element of course is network intrusion detection which is a difficult real world problem that has been addressed through many different solution attempts. Using an artificial immune system has been shown to be one of the most promising results. By enhancing jREMISA, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm inspired artificial immune system, with a secondary defense layer; we produce improved accuracy of intrusion classification and a flexibility in responsiveness. This responsiveness can be leveraged to provide a much more powerful and accurate system, through the use of increased processing time and dedicated hardware which has the flexibility of being located out of band.

  15. Artificial Immune System Approach for Airborne Vehicle Maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and system for control of a first aircraft relative to a second aircraft. A desired location and desired orientation are estimated for the first aircraft, relative to the second aircraft, at a subsequent time, t=t2, subsequent to the present time, t=t1, where the second aircraft continues its present velocity during a subsequent time interval, t1.ltoreq.t.ltoreq.t2, or takes evasive action. Action command sequences are examined, and an optimal sequence is chosen to bring the first aircraft to the desired location and desired orientation relative to the second aircraft at time t=t2. The method applies to control of combat aircraft and/or of aircraft in a congested airspace.

  16. Artificial immune system via Euclidean Distance Minimization for anomaly detection in bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montechiesi, L.; Cocconcelli, M.; Rubini, R.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years new diagnostics methodologies have emerged, with particular interest into machinery operating in non-stationary conditions. In fact continuous speed changes and variable loads make non-trivial the spectrum analysis. A variable speed means a variable characteristic fault frequency related to the damage that is no more recognizable in the spectrum. To overcome this problem the scientific community proposed different approaches listed in two main categories: model-based approaches and expert systems. In this context the paper aims to present a simple expert system derived from the mechanisms of the immune system called Euclidean Distance Minimization, and its application in a real case of bearing faults recognition. The proposed method is a simplification of the original process, adapted by the class of Artificial Immune Systems, which proved to be useful and promising in different application fields. Comparative results are provided, with a complete explanation of the algorithm and its functioning aspects.

  17. AITSO: A Tool for Spatial Optimization Based on Artificial Immune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Dianfeng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    A great challenge facing geocomputation and spatial analysis is spatial optimization, given that it involves various high-dimensional, nonlinear, and complicated relationships. Many efforts have been made with regard to this specific issue, and the strong ability of artificial immune system algorithms has been proven in previous studies. However, user-friendly professional software is still unavailable, which is a great impediment to the popularity of artificial immune systems. This paper describes a free, universal tool, named AITSO, which is capable of solving various optimization problems. It provides a series of standard application programming interfaces (APIs) which can (1) assist researchers in the development of their own problem-specific application plugins to solve practical problems and (2) allow the implementation of some advanced immune operators into the platform to improve the performance of an algorithm. As an integrated, flexible, and convenient tool, AITSO contributes to knowledge sharing and practical problem solving. It is therefore believed that it will advance the development and popularity of spatial optimization in geocomputation and spatial analysis. PMID:25678911

  18. Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish; Crusian, Brian; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of EBV and CMV was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in plasma cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 10(exp 6) PBMCs. These data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

  19. Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian; Pierson, Duane L.; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity (AG) as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system, and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of Epstein barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Varicella zoster virus (VZV) was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 106 PBMCs. Overall, these data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

  20. A robust damage detection method developed for offshore jacket platforms using modified artificial immune system algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahedi, A.; Lotfollahi Yaghin, M. A.; Hassanzadeh, Y.; Abbasidoust, F.; Ettefagh, M. M.; Aminfar, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    Steel jacket-type platforms are the common kind of the offshore structures and health monitoring is an important issue in their safety assessment. In the present study, a new damage detection method is adopted for this kind of structures and inspected experimentally by use of a laboratory model. The method is investigated for developing the robust damage detection technique which is less sensitive to both measurement and analytical model uncertainties. For this purpose, incorporation of the artificial immune system with weighted attributes (AISWA) method into finite element (FE) model updating is proposed and compared with other methods for exploring its effectiveness in damage identification. Based on mimicking immune recognition, noise simulation and attributes weighting, the method offers important advantages and has high success rates. Therefore, it is proposed as a suitable method for the detection of the failures in the large civil engineering structures with complicated structural geometry, such as the considered case study.

  1. An artificial immune system approach with secondary response for misbehavior detection in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Sarafijanović, Slavisa; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2005-09-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, nodes act both as terminals and information relays, and they participate in a common routing protocol, such as dynamic source routing (DSR). The network is vulnerable to routing misbehavior, due to faulty or malicious nodes. Misbehavior detection systems aim at removing this vulnerability. In this paper, we investigate the use of an artificial immune system (AIS) to detect node misbehavior in a mobile ad hoc network using DSR. The system is inspired by the natural immune system (IS) of vertebrates. Our goal is to build a system that, like its natural counterpart, automatically learns, and detects new misbehavior. We describe our solution for the classification task of the AIS; it employs negative selection and clonal selection, the algorithms for learning and adaptation used by the natural IS. We define how we map the natural IS concepts such as self, antigen, and antibody to a mobile ad hoc network and give the resulting algorithm for classifying nodes as misbehaving. We implemented the system in the network simulator Glomosim; we present detection results and discuss how the system parameters affect the performance of primary and secondary response. Further steps will extend the design by using an analogy to the innate system, danger signal, and memory cells.

  2. Fault diagnosis using noise modeling and a new artificial immune system based algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Farshid; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    A new fault classification/diagnosis method based on artificial immune system (AIS) algorithms for the structural systems is proposed. In order to improve the accuracy of the proposed method, i.e., higher success rate, Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise generating models are applied to simulate environmental noise. The identification of noise model, known as training process, is based on the estimation of the noise model parameters by genetic algorithms (GA) utilizing real experimental features. The proposed fault classification/diagnosis algorithm is applied to the noise contaminated features. Then, the results are compared to that obtained without noise modeling. The performance of the proposed method is examined using three laboratory case studies in two healthy and damaged conditions. Finally three different types of noise models are studied and it is shown experimentally that the proposed algorithm with non-Gaussian noise modeling leads to more accurate clustering of memory cells as the major part of the fault classification procedure.

  3. Minimum Variance Distortionless Response Beamformer with Enhanced Nulling Level Control via Dynamic Mutated Artificial Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Salem, S. Balasem; Paw, Johnny Koh Siaw; Sankar, K. Prajindra

    2014-01-01

    In smart antenna applications, the adaptive beamforming technique is used to cancel interfering signals (placing nulls) and produce or steer a strong beam toward the target signal according to the calculated weight vectors. Minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming is capable of determining the weight vectors for beam steering; however, its nulling level on the interference sources remains unsatisfactory. Beamforming can be considered as an optimization problem, such that optimal weight vector should be obtained through computation. Hence, in this paper, a new dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS) is proposed to enhance MVDR beamforming for controlling the null steering of interference and increase the signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) for wanted signals. PMID:25003136

  4. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  5. An artificial immune system for securing mobile ad hoc networks against intrusion attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2003-08-01

    operation of the route discovery and selection process in the presence of intrusive or malicious nodes. Furthermore, this pattern detection approach is suitable for the difficult problem of passive or hidden security threats. Based on the SRP features of the state vector, an artificial immune system (AIS) is constructed as a hierarchy of rules to detect different types of intrusive activity within the MANET. The pattern detection rules in the complement (nonself) space are generated in an evolutionary manner using a genetic search algorithm. The effect of the genetic search is to discern the varying levels of abnormal behavior in the MANET protocol transactions. The efficacy of the AIS technique is compared to the positive characterization method based on nearest-neighbor classification. Initial evaluations of the detection scheme are performed to validate the AIS-based method using training and test data sets, generated from intrusion scenarios simulated from various threat models and security-aware modifications to reactive MANET routing protocols. These results are reported along with a performance analysis comparing the AIS approach with competing techniques. Conclusions about the AIS application to MANETs using the SRP are discussed.

  6. A modified artificial immune system based pattern recognition approach -- an application to clinic diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weixiang; Davis, Cristina E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This paper introduces a modified artificial immune system (AIS)-based pattern recognition method to enhance the recognition ability of the existing conventional AIS-based classification approach and demonstrates the superiority of the proposed new AIS-based method via two case studies of breast cancer diagnosis. Methods and materials Conventionally, the AIS approach is often coupled with the k nearest neighbor (k-NN) algorithm to form a classification method called AIS-kNN. In this paper we discuss the basic principle and possible problems of this conventional approach, and propose a new approach where AIS is integrated with the radial basis function – partial least square regression (AIS-RBFPLS). Additionally, both the two AIS-based approaches are compared with two classical and powerful machine learning methods, back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and orthogonal radial basis function network (Ortho-RBF network). Results The diagnosis results show that: (1) both the AIS-kNN and the AIS-RBFPLS proved to be a good machine leaning method for clinical diagnosis, but the proposed AIS-RBFPLS generated an even lower misclassification ratio, especially in the cases where the conventional AIS-kNN approach generated poor classification results because of possible improper AIS parameters. For example, based upon the AIS memory cells of “replacement threshold = 0.3”, the average misclassification ratios of two approaches for study 1 are 3.36% (AIS-RBFPLS) and 9.07% (AIS-kNN), and the misclassification ratios for study 2 are 19.18% (AIS-RBFPLS) and 28.36% (AIS-kNN); (2) the proposed AIS-RBFPLS presented its robustness in terms of the AIS-created memory cells, showing a smaller standard deviation of the results from the multiple trials than AIS-kNN. For example, using the result from the first set of AIS memory cells as an example, the standard deviations of the misclassification ratios for study 1 are 0.45% (AIS-RBFPLS) and 8.71% (AIS-kNN) and those for

  7. Web-based e-learning and virtual lab of human-artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Ding, Yongsheng; Xiong, Qin

    2014-05-01

    Human immune system is as important in keeping the body healthy as the brain in supporting the intelligence. However, the traditional models of the human immune system are built on the mathematics equations, which are not easy for students to understand. To help the students to understand the immune systems, a web-based e-learning approach with virtual lab is designed for the intelligent system control course by using new intelligent educational technology. Comparing the traditional graduate educational model within the classroom, the web-based e-learning with the virtual lab shows the higher inspiration in guiding the graduate students to think independently and innovatively, as the students said. It has been found that this web-based immune e-learning system with the online virtual lab is useful for teaching the graduate students to understand the immune systems in an easier way and design their simulations more creatively and cooperatively. The teaching practice shows that the optimum web-based e-learning system can be used to increase the learning effectiveness of the students.

  8. Web-based e-learning and virtual lab of human-artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Ding, Yongsheng; Xiong, Qin

    2014-05-01

    Human immune system is as important in keeping the body healthy as the brain in supporting the intelligence. However, the traditional models of the human immune system are built on the mathematics equations, which are not easy for students to understand. To help the students to understand the immune systems, a web-based e-learning approach with virtual lab is designed for the intelligent system control course by using new intelligent educational technology. Comparing the traditional graduate educational model within the classroom, the web-based e-learning with the virtual lab shows the higher inspiration in guiding the graduate students to think independently and innovatively, as the students said. It has been found that this web-based immune e-learning system with the online virtual lab is useful for teaching the graduate students to understand the immune systems in an easier way and design their simulations more creatively and cooperatively. The teaching practice shows that the optimum web-based e-learning system can be used to increase the learning effectiveness of the students. PMID:24816704

  9. A radial basis function neural network based on artificial immune systems for remote sensing image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qin; Zhong, Yanfei

    2008-12-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) neural network is a powerful method for remote sensing image classification. It has a simple architecture and the learning algorithm corresponds to the solution of a linear regression problem, resulting in a fast training process. The main drawback of this strategy is the requirement of an efficient algorithm to determine the number, position, and dispersion of the RBF. Traditional methods to determine the centers are: randomly choose input vectors from the training data set; vectors obtained from unsupervised clustering algorithms, such as k-means, applied to the input data. These conduce that traditional RBF neural network is sensitive to the center initialization. In this paper, the artificial immune network (aiNet) model, a new computational intelligence based on artificial immune networks (AIN), is applied to obtain appropriate centers for remote sensing image classification. In the aiNet-RBF algorihtm, each input pattern corresonds to an antigenic stimulus, while each RBF candidate center is considered to be an element, or cell, of the immune network model. The steps are as follows: A set of candidate centers is initialized at random, where the initial number of candidates and their positions is not crucial to the performance. Then, the clonal selection principle will control which candidates will be selected and how they will be upadated. Note that the clonal selection principle will be responsible for how the centers will represent the training data set. Finally, the immune network will identify and eliminate or suppress self-recognizing individuals to control the number of candidate centers. After the above learning phase, the aiNet network centers represent internal images of the inuput patterns presented to it. The algorithm output is taken to be the matrix of memory cells' coordinates that represent the final centers to be adopted by the RBF network. The stopping criterion of the proposed algorithm is given by a pre

  10. The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, F; Pool, E J

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10 ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10 ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P < 0.001). Exposure of blood cells to sucralose-containing sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat. PMID:24063614

  11. The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, F; Pool, E J

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10 ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10 ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P < 0.001). Exposure of blood cells to sucralose-containing sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat.

  12. Artificial immune system based on adaptive clonal selection for feature selection and parameters optimisation of support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Hashemipour, Maryam; Soleimani, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm based on clonal selection method can be defined as a soft computing method inspired by theoretical immune system in order to solve science and engineering problems. Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular pattern classification method with many diverse applications. Kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure along with the feature selection significantly impacts on the classification accuracy rate. In this study, AIS based on Adaptive Clonal Selection (AISACS) algorithm has been used to optimise the SVM parameters and feature subset selection without degrading the SVM classification accuracy. Several public datasets of University of California Irvine machine learning (UCI) repository are employed to calculate the classification accuracy rate in order to evaluate the AISACS approach then it was compared with grid search algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental results show that the feature reduction rate and running time of the AISACS approach are better than the GA approach.

  13. Improvement in magnetic field immunity of externally-coupled transcutaneous energy transmission system for a totally implantable artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji; Homma, Akihiko; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) that uses electromagnetic induction between the external and internal coils of a transformer is the most promising method to supply driving energy to a totally implantable artificial heart without invasion. Induction-heating (IH) cookers generate magnetic flux, and if a cooker is operated near a transcutaneous transformer, the magnetic flux generated will link with the external and internal coils of the transcutaneous transformer. This will affect the performance of the TET and the artificial heart system. Hence, it is necessary to improve the magnetic field immunity of the TET system. During operation of the system, if the transcutaneous transformer is in close proximity to an IH cooker, the electric power generated by the cooker and coupled to the transformer can drive the artificial heart system. To prevent this coupling, the external coil was shielded with a conductive shield that had a slit in it. This reduces the coupling between the transformer and the magnetic field generated by the induction cooker. However, the temperature of the shield increased due to heating by eddy currents. The temperature of the shield can be reduced by separating the IH cooker and the shield.

  14. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  15. An efficient two-objective automatic SAR image segmentation framework using artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongdong; Niu, Ruican; Fei, Rong; Jiang, Qiaoyong; Li, Hongye; Cao, Zijian

    2015-12-01

    Here, an efficient multi-objective automatic segmentation framework (MASF) is formulated and applied to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image unsupervised classification. In the framework, three important issues are presented: 1) two reasonable image preprocessing techniques, including spatial filtering and watershed operator, are discussed at the initial stage of the framework; 2)then, an efficient immune multi-objective optimization algorithm with uniform clone, adaptive selection by online nondominated solutions, and dynamic deletion in diversity maintenance is proposed; 3 two very simple, but very efficient conflicting clustering validity indices are incorporated into the framework and simultaneously optimized. Two simulated SAR data and two complicated real images are used to quantitatively validate its effectiveness. In addition, four other state-of-the-art image segmentation methods are employed for comparison.

  16. Immune System Involvement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips" to find out more! Email * Zipcode The Immune System and Psoriatic Disease What is an autoimmune disease? ... swollen and painful joints and tendons. Treating the immune system The immune system is not only the key ...

  17. Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling

    2008-10-01

    In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.

  18. RAIRS2 a new expert system for diagnosing tuberculosis with real-world tournament selection mechanism inside artificial immune recognition system.

    PubMed

    Saybani, Mahmoud Reza; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Golzari, Shahram; Wah, Teh Ying; Saeed, Aghabozorgi; Mat Kiah, Miss Laiha; Balas, Valentina Emilia

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a major global health problem that has been ranked as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide, after the human immunodeficiency virus. Diagnosis based on cultured specimens is the reference standard; however, results take weeks to obtain. Slow and insensitive diagnostic methods hampered the global control of tuberculosis, and scientists are looking for early detection strategies, which remain the foundation of tuberculosis control. Consequently, there is a need to develop an expert system that helps medical professionals to accurately diagnose the disease. The objective of this study is to diagnose tuberculosis using a machine learning method. Artificial immune recognition system (AIRS) has been used successfully for diagnosing various diseases. However, little effort has been undertaken to improve its classification accuracy. In order to increase the classification accuracy, this study introduces a new hybrid system that incorporates real tournament selection mechanism into the AIRS. This mechanism is used to control the population size of the model and to overcome the existing selection pressure. Patient epacris reports obtained from the Pasteur laboratory in northern Iran were used as the benchmark data set. The sample consisted of 175 records, from which 114 (65 %) were positive for TB, and the remaining 61 (35 %) were negative. The classification performance was measured through tenfold cross-validation, root-mean-square error, sensitivity, and specificity. With an accuracy of 100 %, RMSE of 0, sensitivity of 100 %, and specificity of 100 %, the proposed method was able to successfully classify tuberculosis cases. In addition, the proposed method is comparable with top classifiers used in this research.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Artificial Immune Algorithms for Primary Headaches.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ufuk; Yurtay, Nilüfer; Koç, Emine Rabia; Tepe, Nermin; Güllüoğlu, Halil; Ertaş, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of immune system algorithms with the aim of classifying the primary types of headache that are not related to any organic etiology. They are divided into four types: migraine, tension, cluster, and other primary headaches. After we took this main objective into consideration, three different neurologists were required to fill in the medical records of 850 patients into our web-based expert system hosted on our project web site. In the evaluation process, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) were used as the classification algorithms. The AIS are classification algorithms that are inspired by the biological immune system mechanism that involves significant and distinct capabilities. These algorithms simulate the specialties of the immune system such as discrimination, learning, and the memorizing process in order to be used for classification, optimization, or pattern recognition. According to the results, the accuracy level of the classifier used in this study reached a success continuum ranging from 95% to 99%, except for the inconvenient one that yielded 71% accuracy.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Artificial Immune Algorithms for Primary Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Ufuk; Yurtay, Nilüfer; Koç, Emine Rabia; Tepe, Nermin; Güllüoğlu, Halil; Ertaş, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of immune system algorithms with the aim of classifying the primary types of headache that are not related to any organic etiology. They are divided into four types: migraine, tension, cluster, and other primary headaches. After we took this main objective into consideration, three different neurologists were required to fill in the medical records of 850 patients into our web-based expert system hosted on our project web site. In the evaluation process, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) were used as the classification algorithms. The AIS are classification algorithms that are inspired by the biological immune system mechanism that involves significant and distinct capabilities. These algorithms simulate the specialties of the immune system such as discrimination, learning, and the memorizing process in order to be used for classification, optimization, or pattern recognition. According to the results, the accuracy level of the classifier used in this study reached a success continuum ranging from 95% to 99%, except for the inconvenient one that yielded 71% accuracy. PMID:26075014

  1. Null Steering of Adaptive Beamforming Using Linear Constraint Minimum Variance Assisted by Particle Swarm Optimization, Dynamic Mutated Artificial Immune System, and Gravitational Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Sieh Kiong, Tiong; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad; Ismail, Mahamod; Salem, Balasem

    2014-01-01

    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. PMID:25147859

  2. Null steering of adaptive beamforming using linear constraint minimum variance assisted by particle swarm optimization, dynamic mutated artificial immune system, and gravitational search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ismail, Mahamod; Kibria, Salehin; Salem, Balasem

    2014-01-01

    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program.

  3. How simple autonomous decisions evolve into robust behaviours? A review from neurorobotics, cognitive, self-organized and artificial immune systems fields.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A; Acosta, Gerardo G; Rozenfeld, Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Researchers in diverse fields, such as in neuroscience, systems biology and autonomous robotics, have been intrigued by the origin and mechanisms for biological robustness. Darwinian evolution, in general, has suggested that adaptive mechanisms as a way of reaching robustness, could evolve by natural selection acting successively on numerous heritable variations. However, is this understanding enough for realizing how biological systems remain robust during their interactions with the surroundings? Here, we describe selected studies of bio-inspired systems that show behavioral robustness. From neurorobotics, cognitive, self-organizing and artificial immune system perspectives, our discussions focus mainly on how robust behaviors evolve or emerge in these systems, having the capacity of interacting with their surroundings. These descriptions are twofold. Initially, we introduce examples from autonomous robotics to illustrate how the process of designing robust control can be idealized in complex environments for autonomous navigation in terrain and underwater vehicles. We also include descriptions of bio-inspired self-organizing systems. Then, we introduce other studies that contextualize experimental evolution with simulated organisms and physical robots to exemplify how the process of natural selection can lead to the evolution of robustness by means of adaptive behaviors.

  4. Our Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note ... who are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  5. Immune System and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  6. Immune System Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A Text Size How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! View Survey ...

  7. Artificial frustrated spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Y.; Chioar, I. A.; Nguyen, V. D.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Rougemaille, N.

    2015-09-01

    Complex architectures of nanostructures are routinely elaborated using bottom-up or nanofabrication processes. This technological capability allows scientists to engineer materials with properties that do not exist in nature, but also to manufacture model systems to explore fundamental issues in condensed matter physics. Two-dimensional frustrated arrays of magnetic nanostructures are one class of systems for which theoretical predictions can be tested experimentally. These systems have been the subject of intense research in the last few years and allowed the investigation of a rich physics and fascinating phenomena, such as the exploration of the extensively degenerate ground-state manifolds of spin ice systems, the evidence of new magnetic phases in purely two-dimensional lattices, and the observation of pseudoexcitations involving classical analogues of magnetic monopoles. We show here, experimentally and theoretically, that simple magnetic geometries can lead to unconventional, non-collinear spin textures. For example, kagome arrays of inplane magnetized nano-islands do not show magnetic order. Instead, these systems are characterized by spin textures with intriguing properties, such as chirality, coexistence of magnetic order and disorder, and charge crystallization. Magnetic frustration effects in lithographically patterned kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization also lead to an unusal, and still unknown, magnetic ground state manifold. Besides the influence of the lattice geometry, the micromagnetic nature of the elements constituting the arrays introduce the concept of chiral magnetic monopoles, bringing additional complexity into the physics of artificial frustrated spin systems.

  8. [The ageing immune system].

    PubMed

    Djukic, M; Nau, R; Sieber, C

    2014-10-01

    The aging of the immune system, also called immunosenescence, contributes to the increased morbidity and mortality from infections, autoimmune diseases and cancer as well as to the low efficacy of vaccination in elderly persons. Immunosenescence is characterized by a decrease in cell-mediated immune function and by reduced humoral immune responses caused by age-related changes in the innate immune system and age-dependent defects in T-and B-cell function. This paper gives an overview of the most important modifications in the different compartments of the immune system during the ageing process.

  9. [The ageing immune system].

    PubMed

    Djukic, M; Nau, R; Sieber, C

    2014-10-01

    The aging of the immune system, also called immunosenescence, contributes to the increased morbidity and mortality from infections, autoimmune diseases and cancer as well as to the low efficacy of vaccination in elderly persons. Immunosenescence is characterized by a decrease in cell-mediated immune function and by reduced humoral immune responses caused by age-related changes in the innate immune system and age-dependent defects in T-and B-cell function. This paper gives an overview of the most important modifications in the different compartments of the immune system during the ageing process. PMID:25254392

  10. The Immune System Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  11. Typogenetics: an artificial genetic system.

    PubMed

    Varetto, L

    1993-01-21

    Cellular automata are now used to model various natural phenomena. In particular, they provide a logical universe in which artificial cells can be embedded in the form of propagating virtual automata. In this paper, we propose a molecular automaton which is an attempt to implement the "molecular logic of the living state" in an artificial biochemistry. This automaton is an artificial genetic system composed of two classes of interacting artificial molecules. It was shown to be self-replicating and to possess features that are analogous to those of the postulated prebiotic molecular systems. PMID:8474250

  12. Swine immune system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probably no area of veterinary medicine has seen a greater explosion in knowledge then the immune system and its implications in disease and vaccination. In this chapter on the Swine Immune System for the 10th Edition of Diseases of Swine we expand on the information provided in past editions by in...

  13. Feeding the immune system.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    A well-functioning immune system is key to providing good defence against pathogenic organisms and to providing tolerance to non-threatening organisms, to food components and to self. The immune system works by providing an exclusion barrier, by identifying and eliminating pathogens and by identifying and tolerating non-threatening sources of antigens, and by maintaining a memory of immunological encounters. The immune system is complex involving many different cell types distributed throughout the body and many different chemical mediators some of which are involved directly in defence while others have a regulatory role. Babies are born with an immature immune system that fully develops in the first few years of life. Immune competence can decline with ageing. The sub-optimal immune competence that occurs early and late in life increases susceptibility to infection. Undernutrition decreases immune defences, making an individual more susceptible to infection. However, the immune response to an infection can itself impair nutritional status and alter body composition. Practically all forms of immunity are affected by protein-energy malnutrition, but non-specific defences and cell-mediated immunity are most severely affected. Micronutrient deficiencies impair immune function. Here, vitamins A, D and E, and Zn, Fe and Se are discussed. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is especially important in health and well-being because of its close proximity to a large and diverse population of organisms in the gastrointestinal tract and its exposure to food constituents. Certain probiotic bacteria which modify the gut microbiota enhance immune function in laboratory animals and may do so in human subjects.

  14. Immune System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lock onto them. T cells are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has ... can't be prevented, you can help your child's immune system stay stronger and fight illnesses by ...

  15. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    MedlinePlus

    If you have a weakened immune system, you may receive daily antibiotics to prevent some types of pneumonia. Ask your provider if you should receive the influenza (flu) and pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccines. Practice ...

  16. Immune System 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... your healthy cells. How HIV Affects This Complex Process HIV disrupts this process by directly infecting the helper T-cells. Your ... T-cells are destroyed in the HIV replication process. For more information, see NIAID's The Immune System . ...

  17. The immune system, adaptation, and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. Doyne; Packard, Norman H.; Perelson, Alan S.

    1986-10-01

    The immune system is capable of learning, memory, and pattern recognition. By employing genetic operators on a time scale fast enough to observe experimentally, the immune system is able to recognize novel shapes without preprogramming. Here we describe a dynamical model for the immune system that is based on the network hypothesis of Jerne, and is simple enough to simulate on a computer. This model has a strong similarity to an approach to learning and artificial intelligence introduced by Holland, called the classifier system. We demonstrate that simple versions of the classifier system can be cast as a nonlinear dynamical system, and explore the analogy between the immune and classifier systems in detail. Through this comparison we hope to gain insight into the way they perform specific tasks, and to suggest new approaches that might be of value in learning systems.

  18. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Joseph

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

  19. Wet Artificial Life: The Construction of Artificial Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellermann, Harold

    The creation of artificial cell-like entities - chemical systems that are able to self-replicate and evolve - requires the integration of containers, metabolism, and information. In this chapter, we present possible candidates for these subsystems and the experimental achievements made toward their replication. The discussion focuses on several suggested designs to create artificial cells from nonliving material that are currently being pursued both experimentally and theoretically in several laboratories around the world. One particular approach toward wet artificial life is presented in detail. Finally, the evolutionary advantage of cellular aggregates over naked replicator systems and the evolutionary potential of the various approaches are discussed. The enormous progress toward man-made artificial cells nourishes the hope that wet artificial life might be achieved within the next several years.

  20. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  1. Beller Lecture: Artificial Ferroic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyderman, Laura

    In artificial ferroic systems, novel functionality is engineered through the combination of structured ferroic materials and the control of the interactions between the different components. I will present two classes of these systems, beginning with hybrid mesoscopic structures incorporating two different ferromagnetic layers whose static and dynamic behaviour result from the mutual imprint of the magnetic domain configurations. Here we have demonstrated a new vortex core reversal mechanism, which occurs when it is displaced across domain boundaries with a magnetic field. I will then describe our progress on artificial spin ice, consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged in frustrated geometries. We have employed photoemission electron microscopy to observe the behaviour of emergent magnetic monopoles in an array of nanomagnets placed on the kagome lattice. We have also created artificial spin ice with fluctuating magnetic moments and observed the evolution of magnetic configurations with time. This has provided a means to study relaxation processes with a controlled route to the lowest-energy state. Recently, we have demonstrated with muon spin relaxation that these magnetic metamaterials can support thermodynamic phase transitions, and future directions include the incorporation of novel magnetic materials such as ultrathin magnetic films, the investigation of 3D structures, as well as the implementation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering to study magnetic correlations in smaller nanomagnets and at faster timescales

  2. Ubiquitin in the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Zinngrebe, Julia; Montinaro, Antonella; Peltzer, Nieves; Walczak, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process that has been implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. There is increasing evidence that both ubiquitination and its reversal, deubiquitination, play crucial roles not only during the development of the immune system but also in the orchestration of an immune response by ensuring the proper functioning of the different cell types that constitute the immune system. Here, we provide an overview of the latest discoveries in this field and discuss how they impact our understanding of the ubiquitin system in host defence mechanisms as well as self-tolerance. PMID:24375678

  3. Ubiquitin in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Zinngrebe, Julia; Montinaro, Antonella; Peltzer, Nieves; Walczak, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process that has been implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. There is increasing evidence that both ubiquitination and its reversal, deubiquitination, play crucial roles not only during the development of the immune system but also in the orchestration of an immune response by ensuring the proper functioning of the different cell types that constitute the immune system. Here, we provide an overview of the latest discoveries in this field and discuss how they impact our understanding of the ubiquitin system in host defence mechanisms as well as self-tolerance.

  4. Comparative immune systems in animals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaochun; Tao, Xin; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-02-01

    Animal immune systems can be classified into those of innate immunity and those of adaptive immunity. It is generally thought that the former are universal for all animals and depend on germline-encoded receptors that recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), whereas the latter are vertebrate specific and are mediated primarily by lymphocytes bearing a unique antigen receptor. However, novel adaptive or adaptive-like immunities have been found in invertebrates and jawless vertebrates, and extraordinarily complex innate immunities, created through huge expansions of many innate gene families, have recently been found in the cephalochordate amphioxus and the echinoderm sea urchin. These studies not only inspire immunologists to seek novel immune mechanisms in invertebrates but also raise questions about the origin and evolution of vertebrate immunities.

  5. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  6. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  7. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  8. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD. PMID:26900473

  9. Systems Biology and immune aging.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, José-Enrique; Herrera, Guadalupe; Martínez-Romero, Alicia; de Oyanguren, Francisco Sala; Díaz, Laura; Gomes, Angela; Balaguer, Susana; Callaghan, Robert C

    2014-11-01

    Many alterations of innate and adaptive immunity are common in the aging population, which reflect a deterioration of the immune system, and have lead to the terms "immune aging" or "immunosenescence". Systems Biology aims to the comprehensive knowledge of the structure, dynamics, control and design that define a given biological system. Systems Biology benefits from the continuous advances in the omics sciences, based on high-throughput and high-content technologies, as well as on bioinformatic tools for data mining and integration. The Systems Biology approach is becoming gradually used to propose and to test comprehensive models of aging, both at the level of the immune system and the whole organism. In this way, immune aging may be described by a dynamic view of the states and interactions of every individual cell and molecule of the immune system and their role in the context of aging and longevity. This mini-review presents a panoramics of the current strategies, tools and challenges for applying Systems Biology to immune aging.

  10. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  11. Learning in Artificial Neural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.

  12. A novel artificial immune algorithm for spatial clustering with obstacle constraint and its applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Luo, Yonglong; Ding, Xintao; Zhang, Ji

    2014-01-01

    An important component of a spatial clustering algorithm is the distance measure between sample points in object space. In this paper, the traditional Euclidean distance measure is replaced with innovative obstacle distance measure for spatial clustering under obstacle constraints. Firstly, we present a path searching algorithm to approximate the obstacle distance between two points for dealing with obstacles and facilitators. Taking obstacle distance as similarity metric, we subsequently propose the artificial immune clustering with obstacle entity (AICOE) algorithm for clustering spatial point data in the presence of obstacles and facilitators. Finally, the paper presents a comparative analysis of AICOE algorithm and the classical clustering algorithms. Our clustering model based on artificial immune system is also applied to the case of public facility location problem in order to establish the practical applicability of our approach. By using the clone selection principle and updating the cluster centers based on the elite antibodies, the AICOE algorithm is able to achieve the global optimum and better clustering effect.

  13. Overview of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Medina, Kay L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is designed to execute rapid, specific, and protective responses against foreign pathogens. To protect against the potentially harmful effects of autoreactive escapees that might arise during the course of the immune response, multiple tolerance checkpoints exist in both the primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Regardless, autoantibodies targeting neural antigens exist in multiple neurologic diseases. The goal of this introductory chapter is to provide a foundation of the major principles and components of the immune system as a framework to understanding autoimmunity and autoimmune neurologic disorders. A broad overview of: (1) innate mechanisms of immunity and their contribution in demyelinating diseases; (2) B and T lymphocytes as effector arms of the adaptive immune response and their contribution to the pathophysiology of neurologic diseases; and (3) emerging therapeutic modalities for treatment of autoimmune disease is provided.

  14. The immune system and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhu V; Chapleau, Mark W; Harwani, Sailesh C; Abboud, Francois M

    2014-08-01

    A powerful interaction between the autonomic and the immune systems plays a prominent role in the initiation and maintenance of hypertension and significantly contributes to cardiovascular pathology, end-organ damage and mortality. Studies have shown consistent association between hypertension, proinflammatory cytokines and the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The sympathetic nervous system, a major determinant of hypertension, innervates the bone marrow, spleen and peripheral lymphatic system and is proinflammatory, whereas the parasympathetic nerve activity dampens the inflammatory response through α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The neuro-immune synapse is bidirectional as cytokines may enhance the sympathetic activity through their central nervous system action that in turn increases the mobilization, migration and infiltration of immune cells in the end organs. Kidneys may be infiltrated by immune cells and mesangial cells that may originate in the bone marrow and release inflammatory cytokines that cause renal damage. Hypertension is also accompanied by infiltration of the adventitia and perivascular adipose tissue by inflammatory immune cells including macrophages. Increased cytokine production induces myogenic and structural changes in the resistance vessels, causing elevated blood pressure. Cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension may result from the mechanical afterload and the inflammatory response to resident or migratory immune cells. Toll-like receptors on innate immune cells function as sterile injury detectors and initiate the inflammatory pathway. Finally, abnormalities of innate immune cells and the molecular determinants of their activation that include toll-like receptor, adrenergic, cholinergic and AT1 receptors can define the severity of inflammation in hypertension. These receptors are putative therapeutic targets.

  15. Portable Immune-Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Mishra, Saroj K.

    1995-01-01

    Portable immune-assessment system developed for use in rapidly identifying infections or contaminated environment. System combines few specific fluorescent reagents for identifying immune-cell dysfunction, toxic substances, buildup of microbial antigens or microbial growth, and potential identification of pathogenic microorganisms using fluorescent microplate reader linked to laptop computer. By using few specific dyes for cell metabolism, DNA/RNA conjugation, specific enzyme activity, or cell constituents, one makes immediate, onsite determination of person's health or of contamination of environment.

  16. Cystatins in immune system.

    PubMed

    Magister, Spela; Kos, Janko

    2013-01-01

    Cystatins comprise a large superfamily of related proteins with diverse biological activities. They were initially characterised as inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteases, however, in recent years some alternative functions for cystatins have been proposed. Cystatins possessing inhibitory function are members of three families, family I (stefins), family II (cystatins) and family III (kininogens). Stefin A is often linked to neoplastic changes in epithelium while another family I cystatin, stefin B is supposed to have a specific role in neuredegenerative diseases. Cystatin C, a typical type II cystatin, is expressed in a variety of human tissues and cells. On the other hand, expression of other type II cystatins is more specific. Cystatin F is an endo/lysosome targeted protease inhibitor, selectively expressed in immune cells, suggesting its role in processes related to immune response. Our recent work points on its role in regulation of dendritic cell maturation and in natural killer cells functional inactivation that may enhance tumor survival. Cystatin E/M expression is mainly restricted to the epithelia of the skin which emphasizes its prominent role in cutaneous biology. Here, we review the current knowledge on type I (stefins A and B) and type II cystatins (cystatins C, F and E/M) in pathologies, with particular emphasis on their suppressive vs. promotional function in the tumorigenesis and metastasis. We proposed that an imbalance between cathepsins and cystatins may attenuate immune cell functions and facilitate tumor cell invasion.

  17. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  18. Enhancing artificial bee colony algorithm with self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators for global optimization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  19. Enhancing Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Self-Adaptive Searching Strategy and Artificial Immune Network Operators for Global Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  20. Optimizing production with artificial lift systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, L.D. )

    1989-07-01

    There are four basic artificial lift systems in use today; gas-lift (GL), sucker rod pumping (SRP), electric subsurface centrifugal pumps (ESP), and subsurface hydraulic (SSHP). All of these systems are time proven and will satisfactorily perform the task for which they were designed. Once the factors that will influence the operation of a lift system have been defined, the design engineer must consider the advantages of the basic systems. The more common oil field problems which affect artificial lift are listed. The {ital relative} merits of each system with these problems are noted; however, the severity of any one of the adverse conditions may dictate the optimum system.

  1. The immune system in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Trott, Daniel W; Harrison, David G

    2014-03-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely contribute to end-organ damage. We and others have shown that mice lacking adaptive immune cells, including recombinase-activating gene-deficient mice and rats and mice with severe combined immunodeficiency have blunted hypertension to stimuli such as ANG II, high salt, and norepinephrine. Adoptive transfer of T cells restores the blood pressure response to these stimuli. Agonistic antibodies to the ANG II receptor, produced by B cells, contribute to hypertension in experimental models of preeclampsia. The central nervous system seems important in immune cell activation, because lesions in the anteroventral third ventricle block hypertension and T cell activation in response to ANG II. Likewise, genetic manipulation of reactive oxygen species in the subfornical organ modulates both hypertension and immune cell activation. Current evidence indicates that the production of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17, and interleukin-6, contribute to hypertension, likely via effects on both the kidney and vasculature. In addition, the innate immune system also appears to contribute to hypertension. We propose a working hypothesis linking the sympathetic nervous system, immune cells, production of cytokines, and, ultimately, vascular and renal dysfunction, leading to the augmentation of hypertension. Studies of immune cell activation will clearly be useful in understanding this common yet complex disease.

  2. TOR in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Araki, Koichi; Ellebedy, Ali H; Ahmed, Rafi

    2011-12-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a crucial intracellular regulator of the immune system. Recent studies have suggested that immunosuppression by TOR inhibition may be mediated by modulating differentiation of both effector and regulatory CD4 T cell subsets. However, it was paradoxically shown that inhibiting TOR signaling has immunostimulatory effects on the generation of long-lived memory CD8 T cells. Beneficial effects of TOR inhibition have also been observed with dendritic cells and hematopoietic stem cells. This immune modulation may contribute to lifespan extension seen in mice with mTOR inhibition. Here, we review recent findings on TOR modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, and discuss potential applications of regulating TOR to provide longer and healthier immunity.

  3. The Immune System in Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.

    2014-01-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  4. miRNA-124 in Immune System and Immune Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, miR-124 has emerged as a critical modulator of immunity and inflammation. Here, we summarize studies on the function and mechanism of miR-124 in the immune system and immunity-related diseases. They indicated that miR-124 exerts a crucial role in the development of immune system, regulation of immune responses, and inflammatory disorders. It is evident that miR-124 may serve as an informative diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target in the future. PMID:27757114

  5. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Artificial stall barrier system. 23.691... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall... pitching motion. (d) Each system must be designed so that the artificial stall barrier can be quickly...

  7. Gel-Trapped Lymphorganogenic Chemokines Trigger Artificial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs and Mount Adaptive Immune Responses In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs) in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases, including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies, including immune-senescence during aging.

  8. Gel-Trapped Lymphorganogenic Chemokines Trigger Artificial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs and Mount Adaptive Immune Responses In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs) in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases, including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies, including immune-senescence during aging. PMID:27597851

  9. Gel-Trapped Lymphorganogenic Chemokines Trigger Artificial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs and Mount Adaptive Immune Responses In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs) in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases, including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies, including immune-senescence during aging. PMID:27597851

  10. Gel-Trapped Lymphorganogenic Chemokines Trigger Artificial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs and Mount Adaptive Immune Responses In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs) in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases, including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies, including immune-senescence during aging.

  11. It's the immune system, stupid.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    A presentation by Dr. Franco Lori at the 6th CROI suggested that early implementation of HAART and strategic treatment interruptions may control HIV by bolstering the immune system. The case study of the "Berlin patient" inspired clinical tests of this theory. Another researcher, Bruce Walker, noted that HAART therapy administered within three months after the onset of HIV can preserve a dynamic immune response. Unfortunately, interrupting HAART can result in surges of HIV levels and an increased risk of developing resistant strains of HIV, regardless of when HAART is begun. The concept behind intermittent breaks in HAART is that the immune system needs to be exposed to small amounts of HIV to continue building a response. Other means of stimulating CD4 cell activity are discussed.

  12. Neurotrophins and the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Vega, José A; García-Suárez, Olivia; Hannestad, Jonas; Pérez-Pérez, Marta; Germanà, Antonino

    2003-01-01

    The neurotrophins are a family of polypeptide growth factors that are essential for the development and maintenance of the vertebrate nervous system. In recent years, data have emerged indicating that neurotrophins could have a broader role than their name might suggest. In particular, the putative role of NGF and its receptor TrkA in immune system homeostasis has become a much studied topic, whereas information on the other neurotrophins is scarce in this regard. This paper reviews what is known about the expression and possible functions of neurotrophins and their receptors in different immune tissues and cells, as well as recent data obtained from studies of transgenic mice in our laboratory. Results from studies to date support the idea that neurotrophins may regulate some immune functions. They also play an important role in the development of the thymus and in the survival of thymocytes. PMID:12892403

  13. Autonomic nervous system and immune system interactions.

    PubMed

    Kenney, M J; Ganta, C K

    2014-07-01

    The present review assesses the current state of literature defining integrative autonomic-immune physiological processing, focusing on studies that have employed electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and central nervous system experimental approaches. Central autonomic neural networks are informed of peripheral immune status via numerous communicating pathways, including neural and non-neural. Cytokines and other immune factors affect the level of activity and responsivity of discharges in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervating diverse targets. Multiple levels of the neuraxis contribute to cytokine-induced changes in efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve outflows, leading to modulation of peripheral immune responses. The functionality of local sympathoimmune interactions depends on the microenvironment created by diverse signaling mechanisms involving integration between sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; specific adrenergic receptors; and the presence or absence of immune cells, cytokines, and bacteria. Functional mechanisms contributing to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway likely involve novel cholinergic-adrenergic interactions at peripheral sites, including autonomic ganglion and lymphoid targets. Immune cells express adrenergic and nicotinic receptors. Neurotransmitters released by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve endings bind to their respective receptors located on the surface of immune cells and initiate immune-modulatory responses. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system are instrumental in orchestrating neuroimmune processes, although additional studies are required to understand dynamic and complex adrenergic-cholinergic interactions. Further understanding of regulatory mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous, parasympathetic nervous, and immune systems is critical for understanding relationships between chronic disease

  14. Bone and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, H E

    1991-07-01

    There are several lines of evidence which provide support for an important relationship between immune cells and bone. Clinical studies of immunodeficiency syndromes have shown that abnormalities in bone shape are evident on x-rays, and peculiarities in the structure of the growth plate have been identified by histopathology. Studies of bone histology, and quantitation of cellular abnormalities, are scarce. Abnormalities in bone turnover, have, however, been identified in the nude mouse model. Many lines of evidence derived from in vitro bone studies have shown that lymphokines and monokines can influence bone formation and bone resorption. Some clinical studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis have indicated the possible presence of immune cell changes in this condition. Although several hypotheses have been formed regarding the exact mechanisms of the effect of immune cytokine on bone, this is clearly a very large area of study and there is a need for additional carefully controlled experiments with special emphasis on bone cells and bone matrix, especially in the human. As knowledge progresses regarding immunology and hematology, a clearer understanding of the lineages of the osteoblast and osteoclast will emerge and we will better understand how specialized bone cells interact with and react to their immune cell neighbors in the bone marrow and to immune system signals. These findings will have especially important implications for the local bone loss seen in rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease, and chronic osteomyelitis. PMID:2068116

  15. Systems biology of innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Daniel E.; Aderem, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Summary Systems biology is the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the interactions between all of the components of biological systems over time. Systems biology involves an iterative cycle, in which emerging biological problems drive the development of new technologies and computational tools. These technologies and tools then open new frontiers that revolutionize biology. Innate immunity is well suited for systems analysis, because the relevant cells can be isolated in various functional states and their interactions can be reconstituted in a biologically meaningful manner. Application of the tools of systems biology to the innate immune system will enable comprehensive analysis of the complex interactions that maintain the difficult balance between host defense and inflammatory disease. In this review, we discuss innate immunity in the context of the systems biology concepts, emergence, robustness, and modularity, and we describe emerging technologies we are applying in our systems-level analyses. These technologies include genomics, proteomics, computational analysis, forward genetics screens, and analyses that link human genetic polymorphisms to disease resistance. PMID:19120490

  16. Nonuniversality of artificial frustrated spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioar, I. A.; Rougemaille, N.; Grimm, A.; Fruchart, O.; Wagner, E.; Hehn, M.; Lacour, D.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic frustration effects in artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization are investigated using magnetic force microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Experimental and theoretical results are compared to those found for the artificial kagome spin ice in which the nanomagnets have in-plane magnetization. In contrast with what has been recently reported, we demonstrate that long-range (i.e., beyond nearest-neighbor) dipolar interactions between the nanomagnets cannot be neglected when describing the magnetic configurations observed after demagnetizing the arrays using a field protocol. As a consequence, there are clear limits to any universality in the behavior of these two artificial frustrated spin systems. We provide arguments to explain why these two systems show striking similarities at first sight in the development of pairwise spin correlations.

  17. Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wang, Lin; Glazebrook, Jane; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2009-01-01

    Upon local infection, plants possess inducible systemic defense responses against their natural enemies. Bacterial infection results in the accumulation to high levels of the mobile metabolite C9-dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis. Azelaic acid confers local and systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae. The compound primes plants to strongly accumulate salicylic acid (SA), a known defense signal, upon infection. Mutation of a gene induced by azelaic acid (AZI1) results in the specific loss in plants of systemic immunity triggered by pathogen or azelaic acid and of the priming of SA induction. AZI1, a predicted secreted protein, is also important for generating vascular sap that confers disease resistance. Thus, azelaic acid and AZI1 comprise novel components of plant systemic immunity involved in priming defenses.

  18. Vaccination and heterologous immunity: educating the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Anna; Kenney, Laurie L.; Mishra, Rabinarayan; Watkin, Levi B.; Aslan, Nuray; Selin, Liisa K.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses three inter-related topics: (1) the immaturity of the neonatal and infant immune response; (2) heterologous immunity, where prior infection history with unrelated pathogens alters disease outcome resulting in either enhanced protective immunity or increased immunopathology to new infections, and (3) epidemiological human vaccine studies that demonstrate vaccines can have beneficial or detrimental effects on subsequent unrelated infections. The results from the epidemiological and heterologous immunity studies suggest that the immune system has tremendous plasticity and that each new infection or vaccine that an individual is exposed to during a lifetime will potentially alter the dynamics of their immune system. It also suggests that each new infection or vaccine that an infant receives is not only perturbing the immune system but is educating the immune system and laying down the foundation for all subsequent responses. This leads to the question, is there an optimum way to educate the immune system? Should this be taken into consideration in our vaccination protocols? PMID:25573110

  19. Immunity-Based Aircraft Fault Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, D.; KrishnaKumar, K.; Wong, D.; Berry, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the study reported in this paper, we have developed and applied an Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for aircraft fault detection, as an extension to a previous work on intelligent flight control (IFC). Though the prior studies had established the benefits of IFC, one area of weakness that needed to be strengthened was the control dead band induced by commanding a failed surface. Since the IFC approach uses fault accommodation with no detection, the dead band, although it reduces over time due to learning, is present and causes degradation in handling qualities. If the failure can be identified, this dead band can be further A ed to ensure rapid fault accommodation and better handling qualities. The paper describes the application of an immunity-based approach that can detect a broad spectrum of known and unforeseen failures. The approach incorporates the knowledge of the normal operational behavior of the aircraft from sensory data, and probabilistically generates a set of pattern detectors that can detect any abnormalities (including faults) in the behavior pattern indicating unsafe in-flight operation. We developed a tool called MILD (Multi-level Immune Learning Detection) based on a real-valued negative selection algorithm that can generate a small number of specialized detectors (as signatures of known failure conditions) and a larger set of generalized detectors for unknown (or possible) fault conditions. Once the fault is detected and identified, an adaptive control system would use this detection information to stabilize the aircraft by utilizing available resources (control surfaces). We experimented with data sets collected under normal and various simulated failure conditions using a piloted motion-base simulation facility. The reported results are from a collection of test cases that reflect the performance of the proposed immunity-based fault detection algorithm.

  20. Synthetic immunology: modulating the human immune system.

    PubMed

    Geering, Barbara; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Humans have manipulated the immune system to dampen or boost the immune response for thousands of years. As our understanding of fundamental immunology and biotechnological methodology accumulates, we can capitalize on this combined knowledge to engineer biological devices with the aim of rationally manipulating the immune response. We address therapeutic approaches based on the principles of synthetic immunology that either ameliorate disorders of the immune system by interfering with the immune response, or improve diverse pathogenic conditions by exploiting immune cell effector functions. We specifically highlight synthetic proteins investigated in preclinical and clinical trials, summarize studies that have used engineered immune cells, and finish with a discussion of possible future therapeutic concepts.

  1. An Integrated Multivariable Artificial Pancreas Control System

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T.; Littlejohn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system. PMID:24876613

  2. An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.

  3. Missileborne Artificial Vision System (MAVIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andes, David K.; Witham, James C.; Miles, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Several years ago when INTEL and China Lake designed the ETANN chip, analog VLSI appeared to be the only way to do high density neural computing. In the last five years, however, digital parallel processing chips capable of performing neural computation functions have evolved to the point of rough equality with analog chips in system level computational density. The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, has developed a real time, hardware and software system designed to implement and evaluate biologically inspired retinal and cortical models. The hardware is based on the Adaptive Solutions Inc. massively parallel CNAPS system COHO boards. Each COHO board is a standard size 6U VME card featuring 256 fixed point, RISC processors running at 20 MHz in a SIMD configuration. Each COHO board has a companion board built to support a real time VSB interface to an imaging seeker, a NTSC camera, and to other COHO boards. The system is designed to have multiple SIMD machines each performing different corticomorphic functions. The system level software has been developed which allows a high level description of corticomorphic structures to be translated into the native microcode of the CNAPS chips. Corticomorphic structures are those neural structures with a form similar to that of the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, or the visual cortex. This real time hardware system is designed to be shrunk into a volume compatible with air launched tactical missiles. Initial versions of the software and hardware have been completed and are in the early stages of integration with a missile seeker.

  4. Oscillations in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Stark, Jaroslav; Chan, Cliburn; George, Andrew J T

    2007-04-01

    Oscillations are surprisingly common in the immune system, both in its healthy state and in disease. The most famous example is that of periodic fevers caused by the malaria parasite. A number of hereditary disorders, which also cause periodic fevers, have also been known for a long time. Various reports of oscillations in cytokine concentrations following antigen challenge have been published over at least the past three decades. Oscillations can also occur at the intracellular level. Calcium oscillations following T-cell activation are familiar to all immunologists, and metabolic and reactive oxygen species oscillations in neutrophils have been well documented. More recently, oscillations in nuclear factor kappaB activity following stimulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha have received considerable publicity. However, despite all of these examples, oscillations in the immune system still tend to be considered mainly as pathological aberrations, and their causes and significance remained largely unknown. This is partly because of a lack of awareness within the immunological community of the appropriate theoretical frameworks for describing and analyzing such behavior. We provide an introduction to these frameworks and give a survey of the currently known oscillations that occur within the immune system. PMID:17367345

  5. Hypo-gravity and immune system effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Paul D.; Barnes, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies on the effects of hypo-gravity on astronauts have shown depressed response of the immune system component cells (e.g. T-lymphocytes activity) and associated bone-mass loss due to demineralization. The widespread use of various electrical stimulation techniques in fracture repair and bone growth make use of the inherent piezoelectric and streaming potentials in Ca(2++) depositation. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments were designed to determine if these potentials, absent or greatly reduced in space, could be artificially enhanced to advantageously effect the bone marrow and, consequently, immune system cells. The bone marrow plays an extremely important role in the development and maturation of all blood cells and, specifically, T- and B-lymphocytes. It is our belief that simulated E-fields will enhance this development when 'ambient' physiological fields are absent during spaceflight or extended bedrest. Our investigation began with a look at the component immune system cells and their growth patterns in vitro. The first chamber will induce E-fields by current densities produced from an agar-bridge electrode arrangement. The cells are immersed in a nutrient agar and isolated from the electrodes by an agar bridge to prevent electrolytic contamination. The second chamber induces current densities by mutual induction from a magnetic field produced by a solenoid coil. Cells are isolated in a small radial area to reduce (1/r) effects and for accurate field calculations. We anticipate inducing currents in the nano- and microampere range as indicated by our calculations of physiological fields.

  6. Immune System Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Hazard Identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to chemicals may alter immune system health, increasing the risk of infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. The chapter provides a concise overview of the immune system, host factors that affect immune system heal, and the effects that xenobiotic exposure may have ...

  7. A Dynamic Health Assessment Approach for Shearer Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongbin; Xu, Xihua; Si, Lei; Ji, Rui; Liu, Xinhua; Tan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In order to accurately identify the dynamic health of shearer, reducing operating trouble and production accident of shearer and improving coal production efficiency further, a dynamic health assessment approach for shearer based on artificial immune algorithm was proposed. The key technologies such as system framework, selecting the indicators for shearer dynamic health assessment, and health assessment model were provided, and the flowchart of the proposed approach was designed. A simulation example, with an accuracy of 96%, based on the collected data from industrial production scene was provided. Furthermore, the comparison demonstrated that the proposed method exhibited higher classification accuracy than the classifiers based on back propagation-neural network (BP-NN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods. Finally, the proposed approach was applied in an engineering problem of shearer dynamic health assessment. The industrial application results showed that the paper research achievements could be used combining with shearer automation control system in fully mechanized coal face. The simulation and the application results indicated that the proposed method was feasible and outperforming others. PMID:27123002

  8. A Dynamic Health Assessment Approach for Shearer Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongbin; Xu, Xihua; Si, Lei; Ji, Rui; Liu, Xinhua; Tan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In order to accurately identify the dynamic health of shearer, reducing operating trouble and production accident of shearer and improving coal production efficiency further, a dynamic health assessment approach for shearer based on artificial immune algorithm was proposed. The key technologies such as system framework, selecting the indicators for shearer dynamic health assessment, and health assessment model were provided, and the flowchart of the proposed approach was designed. A simulation example, with an accuracy of 96%, based on the collected data from industrial production scene was provided. Furthermore, the comparison demonstrated that the proposed method exhibited higher classification accuracy than the classifiers based on back propagation-neural network (BP-NN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods. Finally, the proposed approach was applied in an engineering problem of shearer dynamic health assessment. The industrial application results showed that the paper research achievements could be used combining with shearer automation control system in fully mechanized coal face. The simulation and the application results indicated that the proposed method was feasible and outperforming others.

  9. A Dynamic Health Assessment Approach for Shearer Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongbin; Xu, Xihua; Si, Lei; Ji, Rui; Liu, Xinhua; Tan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In order to accurately identify the dynamic health of shearer, reducing operating trouble and production accident of shearer and improving coal production efficiency further, a dynamic health assessment approach for shearer based on artificial immune algorithm was proposed. The key technologies such as system framework, selecting the indicators for shearer dynamic health assessment, and health assessment model were provided, and the flowchart of the proposed approach was designed. A simulation example, with an accuracy of 96%, based on the collected data from industrial production scene was provided. Furthermore, the comparison demonstrated that the proposed method exhibited higher classification accuracy than the classifiers based on back propagation-neural network (BP-NN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods. Finally, the proposed approach was applied in an engineering problem of shearer dynamic health assessment. The industrial application results showed that the paper research achievements could be used combining with shearer automation control system in fully mechanized coal face. The simulation and the application results indicated that the proposed method was feasible and outperforming others. PMID:27123002

  10. Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H.; Evers, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This “reverse engineering” of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems.

  11. Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H; Evers, Jörg

    2016-03-24

    Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This "reverse engineering" of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems.

  12. Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H; Evers, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This "reverse engineering" of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems. PMID:27009604

  13. Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H.; Evers, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This “reverse engineering” of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems. PMID:27009604

  14. Powering the Immune System: Mitochondria in Immune Function and Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Melissa A.; Sims, Katherine B.; Walter, Jolan E.; Traggiai, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are critical subcellular organelles that are required for several metabolic processes, including oxidative phosphorylation, as well as signaling and tissue-specific processes. Current understanding of the role of mitochondria in both the innate and adaptive immune systems is expanding. Concurrently, immunodeficiencies arising from perturbation of mitochondrial elements are increasingly recognized. Recent observations of immune dysfunction and increased incidence of infection in patients with primary mitochondrial disorders further support an important role for mitochondria in the proper function of the immune system. Here we review current findings. PMID:25309931

  15. Powering the immune system: mitochondria in immune function and deficiency.

    PubMed

    Walker, Melissa A; Volpi, Stefano; Sims, Katherine B; Walter, Jolan E; Traggiai, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are critical subcellular organelles that are required for several metabolic processes, including oxidative phosphorylation, as well as signaling and tissue-specific processes. Current understanding of the role of mitochondria in both the innate and adaptive immune systems is expanding. Concurrently, immunodeficiencies arising from perturbation of mitochondrial elements are increasingly recognized. Recent observations of immune dysfunction and increased incidence of infection in patients with primary mitochondrial disorders further support an important role for mitochondria in the proper function of the immune system. Here we review current findings.

  16. Artificial intelligence and space power systems automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Various applications of artificial intelligence to space electrical power systems are discussed. An overview is given of completed, on-going, and planned knowledge-based system activities. These applications include the Nickel-Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) (the expert system interfaced with the Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system test bed); the early work with the Space Station Experiment Scheduler (SSES); the three expert systems under development in the space station advanced development effort in the core module power management and distribution system test bed; planned cooperation of expert systems in the Core Module Power Management and Distribution (CM/PMAD) system breadboard with expert systems for the space station at other research centers; and the intelligent data reduction expert system under development.

  17. Visual computing model for immune system and medical system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Cao, Xinxue; Xiong, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Natural immune system is an intelligent self-organizing and adaptive system, which has a variety of immune cells with different types of immune mechanisms. The mutual cooperation between the immune cells shows the intelligence of this immune system, and modeling this immune system has an important significance in medical science and engineering. In order to build a comprehensible model of this immune system for better understanding with the visualization method than the traditional mathematic model, a visual computing model of this immune system was proposed and also used to design a medical system with the immune system, in this paper. Some visual simulations of the immune system were made to test the visual effect. The experimental results of the simulations show that the visual modeling approach can provide a more effective way for analyzing this immune system than only the traditional mathematic equations.

  18. Immunological memory within the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Joseph C; Ugolini, Sophie; Vivier, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Immune memory has traditionally been the domain of the adaptive immune system, present only in antigen-specific T and B cells. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for immunological memory in lower organisms (which are not thought to possess adaptive immunity) and within specific cell subsets of the innate immune system. A special focus will be given to recent findings in both mouse and humans for specificity and memory in natural killer (NK) cells, which have resided under the umbrella of innate immunity for decades. The surprising longevity and enhanced responses of previously primed NK cells will be discussed in the context of several immunization settings. PMID:24674969

  19. Artificial intelligence and intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livergood, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    As a species we have evolved by increasing our mental and physical powers through the deliberate development and use of instruments that amplify our inherent capabilities. Whereas hereditarily given instincts predetermine the actions of lower animal forms, human existence begins with freedom. As humans we can choose what actions we will perform. We have invented a technology called education to prepare ourselves for life. At present, our educational structures and procedures are failing to prepare us efficiently for the demands of modern life. One of the most important new technologies, in relation to human development, is the digital computer. This dissertation proposes that artificial intelligence maintain a highly critical technological awareness. Artificial intelligence, because of its origin as a politically sponsored field of investigation, must strive for constant awareness of its place within the larger political-economic world and its possible misuse by factions intent on manipulation and control. Computerized models of the human mind could be used in developing progressively more sophisticated brainwashing systems. Intelligent tutoring systems comprise an important new technology within the field of artificial intelligence. This dissertation explores specification and design procedures, functions and issues in developing intelligent tutoring systems.

  20. A brief outline of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Namrata; De, Rajat K

    2014-01-01

    The various cells and proteins responsible for immunity constitute the immune system, and their orchestrated response to defend foreign/non-self substances (antigen) is known as the immune response. When an antigen attacks the host system, two distinct, yet interrelated, branches of the immune system are active-the nonspecific/innate and specific/adaptive immune response. Both of these systems have certain physiological mechanisms, which enable the host to recognize foreign materials to itself and to neutralize, eliminate, or metabolize them. Innate immunity represents the earliest development of protection against antigens. Adaptive immunity has again two branches-humoral and cell mediated. It should be noted that both innate and adaptive immunities do not work independently. Moreover, most of the immune responses involve the activity and interplay of both the humoral and the cell-mediated immune branches of the immune system. We have described these branches in detail along with the mechanism of antigen recognition. This chapter also describes the disorders of immune system in brief.

  1. Immune System and Its Link to Rheumatic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Immune System & Its Link to Rheumatic Disease The Immune System and Its Link to Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts ... of a vessel of the body). What’s the immune system? The immune system allows us to identify and ...

  2. Dynamic artificial neural networks with affective systems.

    PubMed

    Schuman, Catherine D; Birdwell, J Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance.

  3. Learning and Memory... and the Immune System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Ioana; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system and the immune system are two main regulators of homeostasis in the body. Communication between them ensures normal functioning of the organism. Immune cells and molecules are required for sculpting the circuitry and determining the activity of the nervous system. Within the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS),…

  4. Development of artificial bionic baroreflex system.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    The baroreflex system is the fastest mechanism in the body to regulate arterial pressure. Because the neural system (i.e., autonomic nervous system) mediates the baroreflex and the system operates under the closed-loop condition, the quantitative dynamic characteristics of the baroreflex system remained unknown until recently despite the fact that a countless number of observational and qualitative studies had been conducted. In order to develop the artificial baroreflex system, i.e., the bionic baroreflex system, we first anatomically isolated the carotid sinuses to open the baroreflex loop and identified the open-loop transfer function of the baroreflex system using white noise pressure perturbations. We found that the baroreflex system is basically a lowpass filter and remarkably linear. As an actuator to implement the bionic baroreflex system, we then stimulated the sympathetic efferent nerves at various parts of the baroreflex loop and identified the transfer functions from the stimulation sites to systemic arterial pressure. We found that the actuator responses can be described remarkably well with linear transfer functions. Since transfer functions of the native baroreflex and of the actuator were identified, the controller that is required to reproduce the native baroreflex transfer function can be easily derived from those transfer functions. To examine the performance of bionic baroreflex system, we implemented it animal models of baroreflex failure. The bionic baroreflex system restored normal arterial pressure regulation against orthostatic stresses that is indistinguishable from the native baroreflex system.

  5. Proactive learning for artificial cognitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2010-04-01

    The Artificial Cognitive Systems (ACS) will be developed for human-like functions such as vision, auditory, inference, and behavior. Especially, computational models and artificial HW/SW systems will be devised for Proactive Learning (PL) and Self-Identity (SI). The PL model provides bilateral interactions between robot and unknown environment (people, other robots, cyberspace). For the situation awareness in unknown environment it is required to receive audiovisual signals and to accumulate knowledge. If the knowledge is not enough, the PL should improve by itself though internet and others. For human-oriented decision making it is also required for the robot to have self-identify and emotion. Finally, the developed models and system will be mounted on a robot for the human-robot co-existing society. The developed ACS will be tested against the new Turing Test for the situation awareness. The Test problems will consist of several video clips, and the performance of the ACSs will be compared against those of human with several levels of cognitive ability.

  6. Curcumin and tumor immune-editing: resurrecting the immune system.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sayantan; Panda, Abir Kumar; Mukherjee, Shravanti; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has long been known to posses medicinal properties and recent scientific studies have shown its efficacy in treating cancer. Curcumin is now considered to be a promising anti-cancer agent and studies continue on its molecular mechanism of action. Curcumin has been shown to act in a multi-faceted manner by targeting the classical hallmarks of cancer like sustained proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, sustained angiogenesis, insensitivity to growth inhibitors, tissue invasion and metastasis etc. However, one of the emerging hallmarks of cancer is the avoidance of immune system by tumors. Growing tumors adopt several strategies to escape immune surveillance and successfully develop in the body. In this review we highlight the recent studies that show that curcumin also targets this process and helps restore the immune activity against cancer. Curcumin mediates several processes like restoration of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell populations, reversal of type-2 cytokine bias, reduction of Treg cell population and suppression of T cell apoptosis; all these help to resurrect tumor immune surveillance that leads to tumor regression. Thus interaction of curcumin with the immune system is also an important feature of its multi-faceted modes of action against cancer. Finally, we also point out the drawbacks of and difficulties in curcumin administration and indicate the use of nano-formulations of curcumin for better therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26464579

  7. The Microbiome, Systemic Immune Function, and Allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Anoma; Fishman, Jay A

    2016-01-01

    Diverse effects of the microbiome on solid organ transplantation are beginning to be recognized. In allograft recipients, microbial networks are disrupted by immunosuppression, nosocomial and community-based infectious exposures, antimicrobial therapies, surgery, and immune processes. Shifting microbial patterns, including acute infectious exposures, have dynamic and reciprocal interactions with local and systemic immune systems. Both individual microbial species and microbial networks have central roles in the induction and control of innate and adaptive immune responses, in graft rejection, and in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Understanding the diverse interactions between the microbiome and the immune system of allograft recipients may facilitate clinical management in the future.

  8. An Artificial Ising System with Phononic Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Hamed; Griffith, W. Ashley; Benson, Philip; Nasseri, M. H. B.; Young, R. Paul

    Many intractable systems and problems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we report mapping collective phononic excitations from different sources of crystal vibrations to spin systems. The phononic excitations in our experiments are due to micro and nano cracking (yielding crackling noises due to lattice distortion). We develop real time mapping of the multi-array senores to a network-space and then mapping the excitation- networks to spin-like systems. We show that new mapped system satisfies the quench (impulsive) characteristics of the Ising model in 2D classical spin systems. In particular, we show that our artificial Ising system transits between two ground states and approaching the critical point accompanies with a very short time frozen regime, inducing formation of domains separated by kinks. For a cubic-test under a true triaxial test (3D case), we map the system to a 6-spin ring under a transversal-driving field where using functional multiplex networks, the vector components of the spin are inferred (i.e., XY model). By visualization of spin patterns of the ring per each event, we demonstrate that ``kinks'' (as defects) proliferate when system approach from above to its critical point. We support our observations with employing recorded acoustic excitations during distortion of crystal lattices in nano-indentation tests on different crystals (silicon and graphite), triaxial loading test on rock (poly-crystal) samples and a true 3D triaxial test.

  9. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall... (emergency) control that meets the requirements of § 23.1329(b). (e) A preflight check of the complete system... flight characteristics if the system was not provided, and the hazard that may result from...

  10. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall... (emergency) control that meets the requirements of § 23.1329(b). (e) A preflight check of the complete system... flight characteristics if the system was not provided, and the hazard that may result from...

  11. The immune system, bone and RANKL.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Matteo M; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Bone and immune systems are tightly linked. In the past years, many molecules originally believed to belong to the immune system were found to function in bone cells. It is now evident that the two systems are coregulated by many shared cytokines and signaling molecules. Here we exemplify the complex interaction between bone metabolism and immune response focusing on the multifaceted role of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). RANKL is expressed by cells of both systems, is an essential regulator of bone degradation and exerts either pro or anti-inflammatory effects on the immune response. In the present review, we summarize the multiple functions of RANKL in bone and in the immune systems, aiming to provide an overview of the field of osteoimmunology.

  12. Feeding our immune system: impact on metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Verwaerde, Claudie; Viltart, Odile; Delanoye, Anne; Delacre, Myriam; Pot, Bruno; Grangette, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Endogenous intestinal microflora and environmental factors, such as diet, play a central role in immune homeostasis and reactivity. In addition, microflora and diet both influence body weight and insulin-resistance, notably through an action on adipose cells. Moreover, it is known since a long time that any disturbance in metabolism, like obesity, is associated with immune alteration, for example, inflammation. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on how nutrients-derived factors (mostly focusing on fatty acids and glucose) impact the innate and acquired immune systems, including the gut immune system and its associated bacterial flora. We will try to show the reader how the highly energy-demanding immune cells use glucose as a main source of fuel in a way similar to that of insulin-responsive adipose tissue and how Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system, which are found on immune cells, intestinal cells, and adipocytes, are presently viewed as essential actors in the complex balance ensuring bodily immune and metabolic health. Understanding more about these links will surely help to study and understand in a more fundamental way the common observation that eating healthy will keep you and your immune system healthy. PMID:18350123

  13. Metronidazole and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Shakir, L; Javeed, A; Ashraf, M; Riaz, A

    2011-06-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ) is a nitroimidazole antibiotic used mainly for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms, particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Distinct from its antibiotic, amoebicidal, and antiprotozoal effects, MTZ displays immunopharmacological behaviour. This review outlines multiple effects of MTZ on different aspects of immunity, including innate and acquired immunity, and also highlights the immunopharmacological behaviour of MTZ in terms of its relevance to inflammation, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and graft versus host disease (GVHD).

  14. Fault tolerant architecture for artificial olfactory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfivand, Nasser; Nizar Hamidon, Mohd; Abdolzadeh, Vida

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, to cover and mask the faults that occur in the sensing unit of an artificial olfactory system, a novel architecture is offered. The proposed architecture is able to tolerate failures in the sensors of the array and the faults that occur are masked. The proposed architecture for extracting the correct results from the output of the sensors can provide the quality of service for generated data from the sensor array. The results of various evaluations and analysis proved that the proposed architecture has acceptable performance in comparison with the classic form of the sensor array in gas identification. According to the results, achieving a high odor discrimination based on the suggested architecture is possible.

  15. Laparoscopic surgery and the systemic immune response.

    PubMed Central

    Vittimberga, F J; Foley, D P; Meyers, W C; Callery, M P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors review studies relating to the immune responses evoked by laparoscopic surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopic surgery has gained rapid acceptance based on clinical grounds. Patients benefit from faster recovery, decreased pain, and quicker return to normal activities. Only more recently have attempts been made to identify the metabolic and immune responses that may underlie this clinical success. The immune responses to laparoscopy are now being evaluated in relation to the present knowledge of immune responses to traditional laparotomy and surgery in general. METHODS: A review of the published literature of the immune and metabolic responses to laparoscopy was performed. Laparoscopic surgery is compared with the traditional laparotomy on the basis of local and systemic immune responses and patterns of tumor growth. The impact of pneumoperitoneum and insufflation gases on the immune response is also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The systemic immune responses for surgery in general may not apply to laparoscopic surgery. The body's response to laparoscopy is one of lesser immune activation as opposed to immunosuppression. PMID:9527054

  16. The Molecules of the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonegawa, Susumu

    1985-01-01

    The immune system includes the most diverse proteins known because they are encoded by hundreds of scattered gene fragments which can be combined in millions or billions of ways. Events of immune response, binding of antigens, antibody structure, T-cell receptors, and other immunologically-oriented topics are discussed. (DH)

  17. Physical Theory of the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael

    2012-10-01

    I will discuss to theories of the immune system and describe a theory of the immune response to vaccines. I will illustrate this theory by application to design of the annual influenza vaccine. I will use this theory to explain limitations in the vaccine for dengue fever and to suggest a transport-inspired amelioration of these limitations.

  18. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AND BONE

    PubMed Central

    Pacifici, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    T cells and B cells produce large amounts of cytokines which regulate bone resorption and bone formation. These factors play a critical role in the regulation of bone turnover in health and disease. In addition, immune cells of the bone marrow regulate bone homeostasis by cross-talking with bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblastic cells via cell surface molecules. These regulatory mechanisms are particularly relevant for postmenopausal osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism, two common forms of bone loss caused primarily by an expansion of the osteoclastic pool only partially compensated by a stimulation of bone formation. This article describes the cytokines and immune factors that regulate bone cells, the immune cells relevant to bone, examines the connection between T cells and bone in health and disease, and reviews the evidence in favor of a link between T cells and the mechanism of action of estrogen and PTH in bone. PMID:20599675

  19. How phototherapy affects the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Mary

    2008-03-01

    The immune system is a complex group of cells, tissues and organs that recognize and attack foreign substances, pathogenic organisms and cancer cells. It also responds to injury by producing inflammation. The immune system has peripheral components that include skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), located where pathogens and other harmful substances gain access to the body. Phototherapy, delivered at appropriate treatment parameters, exerts direct actions on the cellular elements of the peripheral part of the immune system since it is readily accessible to photons.

  20. Neural control of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Sundman, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Neural reflexes support homeostasis by modulating the function of organ systems. Recent advances in neuroscience and immunology have revealed that neural reflexes also regulate the immune system. Activation of the vagus nerve modulates leukocyte cytokine production and alleviates experimental shock and autoimmune disease, and recent data have suggested that vagus nerve stimulation can improve symptoms in human rheumatoid arthritis. These discoveries have generated an increased interest in bioelectronic medicine, i.e., therapeutic delivery of electrical impulses that activate nerves to regulate immune system function. Here, we discuss the physiology and potential therapeutic implications of neural immune control. PMID:25039084

  1. [CRISPR adaptive immunity systems of procaryotes].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is a newly identified prokaryotic immunity system against foreign genetic elements. In contrast to other cellular defense mechanisms (e.g. restriction-modification) CRISPR-mediated immunity is adaptive and can be programmed to protect cells against a particular bacteriophage or conjugative plasmid. In this review we describe general principles of CRISPR systems action and summarize known details of CRISPR systems from different microorganisms.

  2. A brief journey through the immune system.

    PubMed

    Yatim, Karim M; Lakkis, Fadi G

    2015-07-01

    This review serves as an introduction to an Immunology Series for the Nephrologist published in CJASN. It provides a brief overview of the immune system, how it works, and why it matters to kidneys. This review describes in broad terms the main divisions of the immune system (innate and adaptive), their cellular and tissue components, and the ways by which they function and are regulated. The story is told through the prism of evolution in order to relay to the reader why the immune system does what it does and why imperfections in the system can lead to renal disease. Detailed descriptions of cell types, molecules, and other immunologic curiosities are avoided as much as possible in an effort to not detract from the importance of the broader concepts that define the immune system and its relationship to the kidney.

  3. A Brief Journey through the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Yatim, Karim M.

    2015-01-01

    This review serves as an introduction to an Immunology Series for the Nephrologist published in CJASN. It provides a brief overview of the immune system, how it works, and why it matters to kidneys. This review describes in broad terms the main divisions of the immune system (innate and adaptive), their cellular and tissue components, and the ways by which they function and are regulated. The story is told through the prism of evolution in order to relay to the reader why the immune system does what it does and why imperfections in the system can lead to renal disease. Detailed descriptions of cell types, molecules, and other immunologic curiosities are avoided as much as possible in an effort to not detract from the importance of the broader concepts that define the immune system and its relationship to the kidney. PMID:25845377

  4. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall... downward pitching control will be provided must be established. (b) Considering the plus and minus...

  5. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  6. Exploration technology surface systems: Artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, Murray

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: technical issues; current, state-of-the-art, and future programs; and Mars direct tether application for artificial gravity.

  7. Learning Effective Connectivity Network Structure from fMRI Data Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junzhong; Liu, Jinduo; Liang, Peipeng; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-01-01

    Many approaches have been designed to extract brain effective connectivity from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, few of them can effectively identify the connectivity network structure due to different defects. In this paper, a new algorithm is developed to infer the effective connectivity between different brain regions by combining artificial immune algorithm (AIA) with the Bayes net method, named as AIAEC. In the proposed algorithm, a brain effective connectivity network is mapped onto an antibody, and four immune operators are employed to perform the optimization process of antibodies, including clonal selection operator, crossover operator, mutation operator and suppression operator, and finally gets an antibody with the highest K2 score as the solution. AIAEC is then tested on Smith's simulated datasets, and the effect of the different factors on AIAEC is evaluated, including the node number, session length, as well as the other potential confounding factors of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. It was revealed that, as contrast to other existing methods, AIAEC got the best performance on the majority of the datasets. It was also found that AIAEC could attain a relative better solution under the influence of many factors, although AIAEC was differently affected by the aforementioned factors. AIAEC is thus demonstrated to be an effective method for detecting the brain effective connectivity. PMID:27045295

  8. Learning Effective Connectivity Network Structure from fMRI Data Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Junzhong; Liu, Jinduo; Liang, Peipeng; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-01-01

    Many approaches have been designed to extract brain effective connectivity from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, few of them can effectively identify the connectivity network structure due to different defects. In this paper, a new algorithm is developed to infer the effective connectivity between different brain regions by combining artificial immune algorithm (AIA) with the Bayes net method, named as AIAEC. In the proposed algorithm, a brain effective connectivity network is mapped onto an antibody, and four immune operators are employed to perform the optimization process of antibodies, including clonal selection operator, crossover operator, mutation operator and suppression operator, and finally gets an antibody with the highest K2 score as the solution. AIAEC is then tested on Smith’s simulated datasets, and the effect of the different factors on AIAEC is evaluated, including the node number, session length, as well as the other potential confounding factors of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. It was revealed that, as contrast to other existing methods, AIAEC got the best performance on the majority of the datasets. It was also found that AIAEC could attain a relative better solution under the influence of many factors, although AIAEC was differently affected by the aforementioned factors. AIAEC is thus demonstrated to be an effective method for detecting the brain effective connectivity. PMID:27045295

  9. Immunoendocrinology: faulty hormonal imprinting in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2014-06-01

    Hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process which is taking place perinatally at the first encounter between the developing hormone receptors and their target hormones. The hormonal imprinting influences the binding capacity of receptors, the hormone synthesis of the cells, and other hormonally regulated functions, as sexual behavior, aggressivity, empathy, etc. However, during the critical period, when the window for imprinting is open, molecules similar to the physiological imprinters as synthetic hormone analogs, other members of the hormone families, environmental pollutants, etc. can cause faulty imprinting with life-long consequences. The developing immune system, the cells of which also have receptors for hormones, is very sensitive to faulty imprinting, which causes alterations in the antibody and cytokine production, in the ratio of immune cells, in the defense against bacterial and viral infections as well as against malignant tumors. Immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells) are also producing hormones which are secreted into the blood circulation as well as are transported locally (packed transport). This process is also disturbed by faulty imprinting. As immune cells are differentiating during the whole life, faulty imprinting could develop any time, however, the most decisive is the perinatal imprinting. The faulty imprinting is inherited to the progenies in general and especially in the case of immune system. In our modern world the number and amount of artificial imprinters (e.g. endocrine disruptors and drugs) are enormously increasing. The effects of the faulty imprinters most dangerous to the immune system are shown in the paper. The present and future consequences of the flood of faulty imprintings are unpredictable however, it is discussed.

  10. Network representations of immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Naeha; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Gottschalk, Rachel A; Germain, Ronald N; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a dynamic multiscale system composed of a hierarchically organized set of molecular, cellular, and organismal networks that act in concert to promote effective host defense. These networks range from those involving gene regulatory and protein-protein interactions underlying intracellular signaling pathways and single-cell responses to increasingly complex networks of in vivo cellular interaction, positioning, and migration that determine the overall immune response of an organism. Immunity is thus not the product of simple signaling events but rather nonlinear behaviors arising from dynamic, feedback-regulated interactions among many components. One of the major goals of systems immunology is to quantitatively measure these complex multiscale spatial and temporal interactions, permitting development of computational models that can be used to predict responses to perturbation. Recent technological advances permit collection of comprehensive datasets at multiple molecular and cellular levels, while advances in network biology support representation of the relationships of components at each level as physical or functional interaction networks. The latter facilitate effective visualization of patterns and recognition of emergent properties arising from the many interactions of genes, molecules, and cells of the immune system. We illustrate the power of integrating 'omics' and network modeling approaches for unbiased reconstruction of signaling and transcriptional networks with a focus on applications involving the innate immune system. We further discuss future possibilities for reconstruction of increasingly complex cellular- and organism-level networks and development of sophisticated computational tools for prediction of emergent immune behavior arising from the concerted action of these networks.

  11. The immune system in space and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Space flight and models that created conditions similar to those that occur during space flight have been shown to affect a variety of immunological responses. These have primarily been cell-mediated immune responses including leukocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and leukocyte subset distribution. The mechanisms and biomedical consequences of these changes remain to be established. Among the possible causes of space flight-induced alterations in immune responses are exposure to microgravity, exposure to stress, exposure to radiation, and many more as yet undetermined causes. This review chronicles the known effects of space flight on the immune system and explores the possible role of stress in contributing to these changes.

  12. The Innate Immune System and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Conrad A.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Sacks, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    The sensitive and broadly reactive character of the innate immune system makes it liable to activation by stress factors other than infection. Thermal and metabolic stresses experienced during the transplantation procedure are sufficient to trigger the innate immune response and also augment adaptive immunity in the presence of foreign antigen on the donor organ. The resulting inflammatory and immune reactions combine to form a potent effector response that can lead to graft rejection. Here we examine the evidence that the complement and toll-like receptor systems are central to these pathways of injury and present a formidable barrier to transplantation. We review extensive information about the effector mechanisms that are mediated by these pathways, and bring together what is known about the damage-associated molecular patterns that initiate this sequence of events. Finally, we refer to two ongoing therapeutic trials that are evaluating the validity of these concepts in man. PMID:24086066

  13. Circadian Clocks in the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Labrecque, Nathalie; Cermakian, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The immune system is a complex set of physiological mechanisms whose general aim is to defend the organism against non-self-bodies, such as pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites), as well as cancer cells. Circadian rhythms are endogenous 24-h variations found in virtually all physiological processes. These circadian rhythms are generated by circadian clocks, located in most cell types, including cells of the immune system. This review presents an overview of the clocks in the immune system and of the circadian regulation of the function of immune cells. Most immune cells express circadian clock genes and present a wide array of genes expressed with a 24-h rhythm. This has profound impacts on cellular functions, including a daily rhythm in the synthesis and release of cytokines, chemokines and cytolytic factors, the daily gating of the response occurring through pattern recognition receptors, circadian rhythms of cellular functions such as phagocytosis, migration to inflamed or infected tissue, cytolytic activity, and proliferative response to antigens. Consequently, alterations of circadian rhythms (e.g., clock gene mutation in mice or environmental disruption similar to shift work) lead to disturbed immune responses. We discuss the implications of these data for human health and the areas that future research should aim to address.

  14. Immune system stimulation by probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. This review is presented to provide detailed informations about how probiotics stimulate our immune system. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Bifidobacterium lactis DR10, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii are the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties. Probiotics can enhance nonspecific cellular immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. Mixture and type (gram-positive and gram-negative) of probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotic organisms in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood, whereas their intervention in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters, such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Probiotics that can be delivered via fermented milk or yogurt could improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine.

  15. Building Artificial Vision Systems with Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    LeCun, Yann

    2011-02-23

    Three questions pose the next challenge for Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and neuroscience. How do we learn perception (e.g. vision)? How do we learn representations of the perceptual world? How do we learn visual categories from just a few examples?

  16. Immune System to Brain Signaling: Neuropsychopharmacological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Capuron, Lucile; Miller, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an explosion in our knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms by which the immune system can influence the brain and behavior. In the context of inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines can access the central nervous system and interact with a cytokine network in the brain to influence virtually every aspect of brain function relevant to behavior including neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, and neurocircuits that regulate mood, motor activity, motivation, anxiety and alarm. Behavioral consequences of these effects of the immune system on the brain include depression, anxiety, fatigue, psychomotor slowing, anorexia, cognitive dysfunction and sleep impairment; symptoms that overlap with those which characterize neuropsychiatric disorders, especially depression. Pathways that appear to be especially important in immune system effects on the brain include the cytokine signaling molecules, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and nuclear factor kappa B; indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and its down stream metabolites, kynurenine, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid; the neurotransmitters, serotonin, dopamine and glutamate; and neurocircuits involving the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex. A series of vulnerability factors including aging and obesity as well as chronic stress also appear to interact with immune to brain signaling to exacerbate immunologic contributions to neuropsychiatric disease. The elucidation of the mechanisms by which the immune system influences behavior yields a host of targets for potential therapeutic development as well as informing strategies for the prevention of neuropsychiatric disease in at risk populations. PMID:21334376

  17. Systems vaccinology: probing humanity's diverse immune systems with vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pulendran, Bali

    2014-08-26

    Homo sapiens are genetically diverse, but dramatic demographic and socioeconomic changes during the past century have created further diversification with respect to age, nutritional status, and the incidence of associated chronic inflammatory disorders and chronic infections. These shifting demographics pose new challenges for vaccination, as emerging evidence suggests that age, the metabolic state, and chronic infections can exert major influences on the immune system. Thus, a key public health challenge is learning how to reprogram suboptimal immune systems to induce effective vaccine immunity. Recent advances have applied systems biological analysis to define molecular signatures induced early after vaccination that correlate with and predict the later adaptive immune responses in humans. Such "systems vaccinology" approaches offer an integrated picture of the molecular networks driving vaccine immunity, and are beginning to yield novel insights about the immune system. Here we discuss the promise of systems vaccinology in probing humanity's diverse immune systems, and in delineating the impact of genes, the environment, and the microbiome on protective immunity induced by vaccination. Such insights will be critical in reengineering suboptimal immune systems in immunocompromised populations. PMID:25136102

  18. Colloidal carrier systems for transcutaneous immunization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prem N; Vyas, Suresh P

    2011-04-01

    Recently, the skin has emerged as a potential alternative route for non-invasive delivery of vaccine. It has been recognized as a highly immune-reactive tissue containing an abundance of antigen presenting cells, especially within the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunization, introduction of antigen through topical application onto the intact skin, has many practical merits compared to injectable routes of administration. It combines the advantages of needle-free delivery while targeting the immunologically rich milieu of the skin. This simple and non-invasive immunization procedure elicits systemic and cell mediated immune responses and therefore, it provides a viable and cost-effective strategy for disease prevention. Various strategies i.e physical, chemical and novel carrier systems can be explored for trancutaneous immunization. Specially designed vaccine carrier systems are attracting immense attention and these could be potential module for non-invasive antigen delivery. The review covers topical delivery consideration in brief followed by an insight into various novel delivery systems for transcutaneous vaccine delivery.

  19. Neural Control of the Immune System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundman, Eva; Olofsson, Peder S.

    2014-01-01

    Neural reflexes support homeostasis by modulating the function of organ systems. Recent advances in neuroscience and immunology have revealed that neural reflexes also regulate the immune system. Activation of the vagus nerve modulates leukocyte cytokine production and alleviates experimental shock and autoimmune disease, and recent data have…

  20. Effects of microgravity on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Taylor, Gerald R.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in resistance to bacterial and viral infections in Apollo crew members has stimulated interest in the study of immunity and space flight. Results of studies from several laboratories in both humans and rodents have indicated alterations after space flight that include the following immunological parameters: thymus size, lymphocyte blastogenesis, interferon and interleukin production, natural killer cell activity, cytotoxic T-cell activity, leukocyte subset population distribution, response of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factors, and delayed hypersensitivity skin test reactivity. The interactions of the immune system with other physiological systems, including muscle, bone, and the nervous system, may play a major role in the development of these immunological parameters during and after flight. There may also be direct effects of space flight on immune responses.

  1. [A method of hyperspectral quantificational identification of minerals based on infrared spectral artificial immune calculation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Jie; Jing, Lin-Hai; Li, Xin-Wu; Bi, Jian-Tao; Wang, Meng-Fei; Lin, Qi-Zhong

    2013-04-01

    Rapid identification of minerals based on near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectra is vital to remote sensing mine exploration, remote sensing minerals mapping and field geological documentation of drill core, and have leaded to many identification methods including spectral angle mapping (SAM), spectral distance mapping (SDM), spectral feature fitting(SFF), linear spectral mixture model (LSMM), mathematical combination feature spectral linear inversion model(CFSLIM) etc. However, limitations of these methods affect their actual applications. The present paper firstly gives a unified minerals components spectral inversion (MCSI) model based on target sample spectrum and standard endmember spectral library evaluated by spectral similarity indexes. Then taking LSMM and SAM evaluation index for example, a specific formulation of unified MCSI model is presented in the form of a kind of combinatorial optimization. And then, an artificial immune colonial selection algorithm is used for solving minerals feature spectral linear inversion model optimization problem, which is named ICSFSLIM. Finally, an experiment was performed to use ICSFSLIM and CFSLIM to identify the contained minerals of 22 rock samples selected in Baogutu in Xinjiang China. The mean value of correctness and validness identification of ICSFSLIM are 34.22% and 54.08% respectively, which is better than that of CFSLIM 31.97% and 37.38%; the correctness and validness variance of ICSFSLIM are 0.11 and 0.13 smaller than that of CFSLIM, 0.15 and 0.25, indicating better identification stability.

  2. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  3. Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Danger Theory-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  4. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  5. Network representations of immune system complexity

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Naeha; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Gottschalk, Rachel A.; Germain, Ronald N.; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a dynamic multi-scale system composed of a hierarchically organized set of molecular, cellular and organismal networks that act in concert to promote effective host defense. These networks range from those involving gene regulatory and protein-protein interactions underlying intracellular signaling pathways and single cell responses to increasingly complex networks of in vivo cellular interaction, positioning and migration that determine the overall immune response of an organism. Immunity is thus not the product of simple signaling events but rather non-linear behaviors arising from dynamic, feedback-regulated interactions among many components. One of the major goals of systems immunology is to quantitatively measure these complex multi-scale spatial and temporal interactions, permitting development of computational models that can be used to predict responses to perturbation. Recent technological advances permit collection of comprehensive datasets at multiple molecular and cellular levels while advances in network biology support representation of the relationships of components at each level as physical or functional interaction networks. The latter facilitate effective visualization of patterns and recognition of emergent properties arising from the many interactions of genes, molecules, and cells of the immune system. We illustrate the power of integrating ‘omics’ and network modeling approaches for unbiased reconstruction of signaling and transcriptional networks with a focus on applications involving the innate immune system. We further discuss future possibilities for reconstruction of increasingly complex cellular and organism-level networks and development of sophisticated computational tools for prediction of emergent immune behavior arising from the concerted action of these networks. PMID:25625853

  6. Network representations of immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Naeha; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Gottschalk, Rachel A; Germain, Ronald N; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a dynamic multiscale system composed of a hierarchically organized set of molecular, cellular, and organismal networks that act in concert to promote effective host defense. These networks range from those involving gene regulatory and protein-protein interactions underlying intracellular signaling pathways and single-cell responses to increasingly complex networks of in vivo cellular interaction, positioning, and migration that determine the overall immune response of an organism. Immunity is thus not the product of simple signaling events but rather nonlinear behaviors arising from dynamic, feedback-regulated interactions among many components. One of the major goals of systems immunology is to quantitatively measure these complex multiscale spatial and temporal interactions, permitting development of computational models that can be used to predict responses to perturbation. Recent technological advances permit collection of comprehensive datasets at multiple molecular and cellular levels, while advances in network biology support representation of the relationships of components at each level as physical or functional interaction networks. The latter facilitate effective visualization of patterns and recognition of emergent properties arising from the many interactions of genes, molecules, and cells of the immune system. We illustrate the power of integrating 'omics' and network modeling approaches for unbiased reconstruction of signaling and transcriptional networks with a focus on applications involving the innate immune system. We further discuss future possibilities for reconstruction of increasingly complex cellular- and organism-level networks and development of sophisticated computational tools for prediction of emergent immune behavior arising from the concerted action of these networks. PMID:25625853

  7. Challenges and Perspectives in Designing Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Yan, Runyu; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-07-11

    The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting and CO2 reduction on a large scale for practical applications is the ultimate goal towards worldwide sustainability. This Concept highlights the state-of-the-art research trends of artificial photosynthesis concepts and designs from some new perspectives. Particularly, it is focused on five important aspects for the design of promising artificial photosynthetic systems: 1) catalyst development, 2) architecture design, 3) device buildup 4) mechanism exploration, and 5) theoretical investigations. Some typical progress and challenges, the most significant milestones achieved to date, as well as possible future directions are illustrated and discussed. This Concept article presents a selection of new developments to highlight new trends and possibilities, main barriers, or challenges; with this, we hope to inspire more advances in the field of artificial photosynthesis.

  8. Reactions of immune system to physical exercises.

    PubMed

    Pershin, Boris B; Geliev, Anatoly B; Tolstov, Dmitry V; Kovalchuk, Leonid V; Medvedev, Vladimir Ya

    2002-04-01

    The great attention to reactions of immune system to the physical exercises in sportsmen is linked to the growth of training volumes, to the increase of competition numbers and to the elevation of morbidity. Immune deficiency may be considered as the detonator of pathological processes among which acute respiratory diseases (ARD) are investigated most completely in sports medicine. Other pathologies require long-term observations, but it is not so simple to do due to the frequent renewal of sports groups. Besides ARD, there are reports about the growth of cases of poliomyelitis, endotoxemia, allergic and autoimmune disorders. Immune reactions in sportsmen are developed at the background of fever, impaired balance of ergotrophic hormone activity and in a number of cases under conditions of systemic endotoxemia. We have described the extreme type of immune deficiency in sportsmen, in which we could not determine different isotypes of Ig. The phenomenon of Ig disappearance is reproduced under the experimental conditions that opened the way to study its mechanisms. Physical exercises decrease function of immunocompetent cells, their antiviral resistance, antigen presentation and expression of class II MHC molecules. With the involvement of macrophages hyperproduction of IL-6 is developed in muscle tissues. After physical exercises other cytokines also change the state of immunity. Also, neuropeptides getting in touch the links between endocrine and immune systems may make a contribution to immunosuppression. The immunosuppression may be prevented by use of special carbohydrate diets and by administration of complexed preparations. The prophylaxis is capable to control the morbidity, profoundly to increase the training volumes and to enhance the labor efficiency.

  9. How the codfish changed its immune system.

    PubMed

    Parham, Peter

    2016-09-28

    A common ancestor of the modern codfish acquired a set of mutations that eliminated a major arm of the adaptive immune system-the MHC II pathway of antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells. Subsequent to this event, there was a radiation of these fish in which the number and diversity of MHC I genes increased in species-specific ways. PMID:27681288

  10. Systems integration of innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Zak, Daniel E; Aderem, Alan

    2015-09-29

    The pathogens causing AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis have proven too complex to be overcome by classical approaches to vaccination. The complexities of human immunology and pathogen-induced modulation of the immune system mandate new approaches to vaccine discovery and design. A new field, systems vaccinology, weds holistic analysis of innate and adaptive immunity within a quantitative framework to enable rational design of new vaccines that elicit tailored protective immune responses. A key step in the approach is to discover relationships between the earliest innate inflammatory responses to vaccination and the subsequent vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses and efficacy. Analysis of these responses in clinical studies is complicated by the inaccessibility of relevant tissue compartments (such as the lymph node), necessitating reliance upon peripheral blood responses as surrogates. Blood transcriptomes, although indirect to vaccine mechanisms, have proven very informative in systems vaccinology studies. The approach is most powerful when innate and adaptive immune responses are integrated with vaccine efficacy, which is possible for malaria with the advent of a robust human challenge model. This is more difficult for AIDS and tuberculosis, given that human challenge models are lacking and efficacy observed in clinical trials has been low or highly variable. This challenge can be met by appropriate clinical trial design for partially efficacious vaccines and by analysis of natural infection cohorts. Ultimately, systems vaccinology is an iterative approach in which mechanistic hypotheses-derived from analysis of clinical studies-are evaluated in model systems, and then used to guide the development of new vaccine strategies. In this review, we will illustrate the above facets of the systems vaccinology approach with case studies.

  11. [The liver and the immune system].

    PubMed

    Jakab, Lajos

    2015-07-26

    The liver is known to be the metabolic centre of the organism and is under the control of the central nervous system. It has a peculiar tissue structure and its anatomic localisation defines it as part of the immune system having an individual role in the defence of the organism. The determinant of its particular tissue build-up is the sinusoid system. In addition to hepatocytes, one cell row "endothelium", stellate cells close to the external surface, Kupffer cells tightly to its inner surface, as well as dendritic cells and other cell types (T and B lymphocytes, natural killer and natural killer T-cells, mast cells, granulocytes) are present. The multitudes and variety of cells make it possible to carry out the tasks according to the assignment of the organism. The liver is a member of the immune system having immune cells largely in an activated state. Its principal tasks are the assurance of the peripheral immune tolerance of the organism with the help of the haemopoetic cells and transforming growth factor-β. The liver takes part in the determination of the manner of the non-specific immune response of the organism. In addition to acute phase reaction of the organism, the liver has a role in the adaptive/specific immune response. These functions include retardation of the T and B lymphocytes and the defence against harmful pathogens. With the collaboration of transforming growth factor-β, immunoglobulins and their subclasses are inhibited just as the response of the T lymphocytes. The only exception is the undisturbed immunoglobulin A production. Particularly important is the intensive participation of the liver in the acute phase reaction of the organism, which is organised and guided by the coordinated functions of the cortico-hypothalamo-hypophysis-adrenal axis. Beside cellular elements, hormones, adhesion molecules, chemokines and cytokines are also involved in the cooperation with the organs. Acute phase reactants play a central role in these processes

  12. CRISPR-Based Adaptive Immune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Terns, Michael P.; Terns, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems are recently discovered, RNA-based immune systems that control invasions of viruses and plasmids in archaea and bacteria. Prokaryotes with CRISPR-Cas immune systems capture short invader sequences within the CRISPR loci in their genomes, and small RNAs produced from the CRISPR loci (CRISPR (cr)RNAs) guide Cas proteins to recognize and degrade (or otherwise silence) the invading nucleic acids. There are multiple variations of the pathway found among prokaryotes, each mediated by largely distinct components and mechanisms that we are only beginning to delineate. Here we will review our current understanding of the remarkable CRISPR-Cas pathways with particular attention to studies relevant to systems found in the archaea. PMID:21531607

  13. Development of actuation system for artificial cilia with magnetic elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumori, Fujio; Saijou, Akinori; Osada, Toshiko; Miura, Hideshi

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of magnetically actuated artificial cilia. Natural cilia are a highly efficient device that produces flow under a small-Reynolds-number state. There are two important characteristics of natural cilia; one is asymmetric movement, which is composed of effective and recovery strokes, and the other is the phase difference of a stroke in each cilium in an array that will produce a metachronal wave. In this paper, we propose an actuation system for artificial cilia composed of a silicone elastomer and multiparticle chains of a magnetic material. The applied magnetic field is controlled by rotation of a permanent magnet. This rotating magnetic field induced an asymmetric movement similar to that of a natural cilium. We also changed the orientation angle of multiparticle chains to control the phase difference of a stroke in each artificial cilium. This technique would help to realize metachronal waves of artificial cilia.

  14. The Mucosal Immune System of Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish possess an adaptive immune system associated with each of their mucosal body surfaces. Evidence obtained from mucosal vaccination and mucosal infection studies reveal that adaptive immune responses take place at the different mucosal surfaces of teleost. The main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) of teleosts are the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT) and the recently discovered nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Teleost MALT includes diffuse B cells and T cells with specific phenotypes different from their systemic counterparts that have co-evolved to defend the microbe-rich mucosal environment. Both B and T cells respond to mucosal infection or vaccination. Specific antibody responses can be measured in the gills, gut and skin mucosal secretions of teleost fish following mucosal infection or vaccination. Rainbow trout studies have shown that IgT antibodies and IgT+ B cells are the predominant B cell subset in all MALT and respond in a compartmentalized manner to mucosal infection. Our current knowledge on adaptive immunity in teleosts is limited compared to the mammalian literature. New research tools and in vivo models are currently being developed in order to help reveal the great intricacy of teleost mucosal adaptive immunity and help improve mucosal vaccination protocols for use in aquaculture. PMID:26274978

  15. An Immunized Aircraft Maneuver Selection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project, as stated in the original proposal, was to develop an immunized aircraft maneuver selection (IAMS) system. The IAMS system was to be composed of computational and informational building blocks that resemble structures in natural immune systems. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a software package that could be flight tested on aircraft models. This report describes the work performed in the first year of what was to have been a two year project. This report also describes efforts that would have been made in the final year to have completed the project, had it been continued for the final year. After introductory material is provided in Section 2, the end-of-year-one status of the effort is discussed in Section 3. The remainder of the report provides an accounting of first year efforts. Section 4 provides background information on natural immune systems while Section 5 describes a generic ar&itecture developed for use in the IAMS. Section 6 describes the application of the architecture to a system identification problem. Finally, Section 7 describes steps necessary for completing the project.

  16. Systems in Science: Modeling Using Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)

  17. Hybrid systems for use in the dynamics of artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozai, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of adopting either an inertial or a noninertial reference system for computing the orbital elements of artificial satellites. The effects of precession and nutation are examined, and determination of disturbing functions is explained for both an inertial and a noninertial system.

  18. The porcine innate immune system: an update.

    PubMed

    Mair, K H; Sedlak, C; Käser, T; Pasternak, A; Levast, B; Gerner, W; Saalmüller, A; Summerfield, A; Gerdts, V; Wilson, H L; Meurens, F

    2014-08-01

    Over the last few years, we have seen an increasing interest and demand for pigs in biomedical research. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) are closely related to humans in terms of their anatomy, genetics, and physiology, and often are the model of choice for the assessment of novel vaccines and therapeutics in a preclinical stage. However, the pig as a model has much more to offer, and can serve as a model for many biomedical applications including aging research, medical imaging, and pharmaceutical studies to name a few. In this review, we will provide an overview of the innate immune system in pigs, describe its anatomical and physiological key features, and discuss the key players involved. In particular, we compare the porcine innate immune system to that of humans, and emphasize on the importance of the pig as model for human disease.

  19. Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... They are most common among people with weak immune systems. People with certain health conditions may need to ...

  20. Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, Jonathan G.; Friedman, Peter S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

  1. Exploring the Homeostatic and Sensory Roles of the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rafael Elias; Marques, Pedro Elias; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-01-01

    Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens. Recently, the discovery of interactions with commensal microbiota that are essential to human health initiated a change in this old paradigm. Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host. Immune and inflammatory responses share the core property of sensing, defining the immune system also as a sensory system. The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection.

  2. Exploring the Homeostatic and Sensory Roles of the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Rafael Elias; Marques, Pedro Elias; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-01-01

    Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens. Recently, the discovery of interactions with commensal microbiota that are essential to human health initiated a change in this old paradigm. Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host. Immune and inflammatory responses share the core property of sensing, defining the immune system also as a sensory system. The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection. PMID:27065209

  3. Interactions between the immune and nervous systems in pain

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Immune cells and glia interact with neurons to alter pain sensitivity and to mediate the transition from acute to chronic pain. In response to injury, resident immune cells are activated and blood-borne immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. Immune cells not only contribute to immune protection but also initiate the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors. Through the synthesis and release of inflammatory mediators and interactions with neurotransmitters and their receptors, the immune cells, glia and neurons form an integrated network that coordinates immune responses and modulates the excitability of pain pathways. The immune system also reduces sensitization by producing immune-derived analgesic and anti-inflammatory or proresolution agents. A greater understanding of the role of the immune system in pain processing and modulation reveals potential targets for analgesic drug development and new therapeutic opportunities for managing chronic pain. PMID:20948535

  4. Transcutaneous immunization with Intercell's vaccine delivery system.

    PubMed

    Seid, Robert C; Look, Jee Loon; Ruiz, Christian; Frolov, Vladimir; Flyer, David; Schafer, Jason; Ellingsworth, Larry

    2012-06-19

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) has become an attractive alternate route of immunization due to increase understanding of the skin immune system and to recent technical innovations in skin patch delivery systems. Basic principles of TCI have been demonstrated in animal and human studies, covering a variety of bacterial, viral, and cancer diseases. At Intercell, we have advanced two major platforms of TCI: 1) a needle-free vaccine delivery patch (VDP) and 2) a vaccine enhancement patch (VEP). Simplified, the VDP contains an antigen with or without an adjuvant that is administered on the skin; while the VEP contains only the adjuvant and is used in combination with an injected vaccine. In many of our TCI studies, the VDP or VEP is routinely applied on pretreated skin, in which the stratum corneum has been partially removed by mild abrasion. Recently, we have achieved technical breakthroughs in formulating and stabilizing vaccines in a dry patch format. For instance, a microplate-based screening process has been implemented to rapidly identify excipients, singularly or in combination, to stabilize biological macromolecules in patch blend formulations. A second technical innovation is our nonwoven (patch) disc matrix-supported drying technology, which allows efficient drying of our patch formulation blend to produce dry stable dosage forms of VDP or VEP. The low cost and the facileness in the manufacturing of VDP (or VEP) combined with the development of thermostable dry patches should improve the supply chain efficiency and reduce the dependence on cold chain.

  5. Glucose Synthesis in a Protein-Based Artificial Photosynthesis System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Zhou, Jack; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand glucose synthesis of a protein-based artificial photosynthesis system affected by operating conditions, including the concentrations of reactants, reaction temperature, and illumination. Results from non-vesicle-based glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and glucose synthesis showed that the initial concentrations of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lighting source, and temperature significantly affected glucose synthesis. Higher initial concentrations of RuBP and ATP significantly enhanced GAP synthesis, which was linearly correlated to glucose synthesis, confirming the proper functions of all catalyzing enzymes in the system. White fluorescent light inhibited artificial photosynthesis and reduced glucose synthesis by 79.2 % compared to in the dark. The reaction temperature of 40 °C was optimum, whereas lower or higher temperature reduced glucose synthesis. Glucose synthesis in the vesicle-based artificial photosynthesis system reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin, F 0 F 1 ATP synthase, and polydimethylsiloxane-methyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer was successfully demonstrated. This system efficiently utilized light-induced ATP to drive glucose synthesis, and 5.2 μg ml(-1) glucose was synthesized in 0.78-ml reaction buffer in 7 h. Light-dependent reactions were found to be the bottleneck of the studied artificial photosynthesis system. PMID:26170084

  6. Glucose Synthesis in a Protein-Based Artificial Photosynthesis System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Zhou, Jack; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand glucose synthesis of a protein-based artificial photosynthesis system affected by operating conditions, including the concentrations of reactants, reaction temperature, and illumination. Results from non-vesicle-based glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and glucose synthesis showed that the initial concentrations of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lighting source, and temperature significantly affected glucose synthesis. Higher initial concentrations of RuBP and ATP significantly enhanced GAP synthesis, which was linearly correlated to glucose synthesis, confirming the proper functions of all catalyzing enzymes in the system. White fluorescent light inhibited artificial photosynthesis and reduced glucose synthesis by 79.2 % compared to in the dark. The reaction temperature of 40 °C was optimum, whereas lower or higher temperature reduced glucose synthesis. Glucose synthesis in the vesicle-based artificial photosynthesis system reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin, F 0 F 1 ATP synthase, and polydimethylsiloxane-methyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer was successfully demonstrated. This system efficiently utilized light-induced ATP to drive glucose synthesis, and 5.2 μg ml(-1) glucose was synthesized in 0.78-ml reaction buffer in 7 h. Light-dependent reactions were found to be the bottleneck of the studied artificial photosynthesis system.

  7. Evaluating neural networks and artificial intelligence systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberts, David S.

    1994-02-01

    Systems have no intrinsic value in and of themselves, but rather derive value from the contributions they make to the missions, decisions, and tasks they are intended to support. The estimation of the cost-effectiveness of systems is a prerequisite for rational planning, budgeting, and investment documents. Neural network and expert system applications, although similar in their incorporation of a significant amount of decision-making capability, differ from each other in ways that affect the manner in which they can be evaluated. Both these types of systems are, by definition, evolutionary systems, which also impacts their evaluation. This paper discusses key aspects of neural network and expert system applications and their impact on the evaluation process. A practical approach or methodology for evaluating a certain class of expert systems that are particularly difficult to measure using traditional evaluation approaches is presented.

  8. How the innate immune system trains immunity: lessons from studying atopic dermatitis and cutaneous bacteria.

    PubMed

    Skabytska, Yuliya; Kaesler, Susanne; Volz, Thomas; Biedermann, Tilo

    2016-02-01

    The skin is the largest organ at the interface between environment and host. It plays a major protective role against pathogens as physical barrier, as site of first recognition, and as orchestrator of consecutive immune responses. In this process, immunological crosstalk between skin-resident and immune cells is required, and fixed innate immune responses were previously believed to orchestrate adaptive immunity of B and T lymphocytes. Today, we understand that diverse qualities of immune responses to different microbes need to be regulated by also varying responses at the level of first microbe recognition through receptors of the innate immune system. Only fine-tuning of the innate immune system allows for the orchestration of immune responses to the microbiota in the absence of inflammation as well as to pathogens in the context of protective responses including inflammation. Understanding how innate immunity precisely adapts is also important for diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD) with chronic inflammation. In this review, we present data on how the innate immune system actually fine-tunes its responses with special focus on the immunological consequences of cutaneous innate immune sensing through TLR2. These new insights are highly relevant for understanding microbiota-associated state of health, immune defense, and the pathogenesis underlying chronic cutaneous inflammation as seen in AD.

  9. An overview of expert systems. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An expert system is defined and its basic structure is discussed. The knowledge base, the inference engine, and uses of expert systems are discussed. Architecture is considered, including choice of solution direction, reasoning in the presence of uncertainty, searching small and large search spaces, handling large search spaces by transforming them and by developing alternative or additional spaces, and dealing with time. Existing expert systems are reviewed. Tools for building such systems, construction, and knowledge acquisition and learning are discussed. Centers of research and funding sources are listed. The state-of-the-art, current problems, required research, and future trends are summarized.

  10. An Artificial Intelligence-Based Distance Education System: Artimat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabiyev, Vasif; Karal, Hasan; Arslan, Selahattin; Erumit, Ali Kursat; Cebi, Ayca

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the artificial intelligence-based distance education system called ARTIMAT, which has been prepared in order to improve mathematical problem solving skills of the students, in terms of conceptual proficiency and ease of use with the opinions of teachers and students. The implementation has been performed…

  11. Artificial synapse network on inorganic proton conductor for neuromorphic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Guo, Li Qiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The basic units in our brain are neurons, and each neuron has more than 1,000 synapse connections. Synapse is the basic structure for information transfer in an ever-changing manner, and short-term plasticity allows synapses to perform critical computational functions in neural circuits. Therefore, the major challenge for the hardware implementation of neuromorphic computation is to develop artificial synapse network. Here in-plane lateral-coupled oxide-based artificial synapse network coupled by proton neurotransmitters are self-assembled on glass substrates at room-temperature. A strong lateral modulation is observed due to the proton-related electrical-double-layer effect. Short-term plasticity behaviours, including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering and spatiotemporally correlated signal processing are mimicked. Such laterally coupled oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid artificial synapse network proposed here is interesting for building future neuromorphic systems.

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: A Paradigm for Molecular Logistics in Artificial Systems.

    PubMed

    Vujica, Suncica; Zelmer, Christina; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2016-01-01

    Artificial organelles, molecular factories and nanoreactors are membrane-bound systems envisaged to exhibit cell-like functionality. These constitute liposomes, polymersomes or hybrid lipo-polymersomes that display different membrane-spanning channels and/or enclose molecular modules. To achieve more complex functionality, an artificial organelle should ideally sustain a continuous influx of essential macromolecular modules (i.e. cargoes) and metabolites against an outflow of reaction products. This would benefit from the incorporation of selective nanopores as well as specific trafficking factors that facilitate cargo selectivity, translocation efficiency, and directionality. Towards this goal, we describe how proteinaceous cargoes are transported between the nucleus and cytoplasm by nuclear pore complexes and the biological trafficking machinery in living cells (i.e. nucleocytoplasmic transport). On this basis, we discuss how biomimetic control may be implemented to selectively import, compartmentalize and accumulate diverse macromolecular modules against concentration gradients in artificial organelles. PMID:27363369

  13. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: A Paradigm for Molecular Logistics in Artificial Systems.

    PubMed

    Vujica, Suncica; Zelmer, Christina; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2016-01-01

    Artificial organelles, molecular factories and nanoreactors are membrane-bound systems envisaged to exhibit cell-like functionality. These constitute liposomes, polymersomes or hybrid lipo-polymersomes that display different membrane-spanning channels and/or enclose molecular modules. To achieve more complex functionality, an artificial organelle should ideally sustain a continuous influx of essential macromolecular modules (i.e. cargoes) and metabolites against an outflow of reaction products. This would benefit from the incorporation of selective nanopores as well as specific trafficking factors that facilitate cargo selectivity, translocation efficiency, and directionality. Towards this goal, we describe how proteinaceous cargoes are transported between the nucleus and cytoplasm by nuclear pore complexes and the biological trafficking machinery in living cells (i.e. nucleocytoplasmic transport). On this basis, we discuss how biomimetic control may be implemented to selectively import, compartmentalize and accumulate diverse macromolecular modules against concentration gradients in artificial organelles.

  14. Issues in the Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence Systems in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Perry L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the underlying issues in the evaluation of computer systems which apply artificial intelligence in medicine (AIM). Three different levels of evaluation are described: 1) the subjective evaluation of the research contribution of a developmental prototype, 2) the validation of a system's knowledge and performance, 3) the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of an operational system. The paper outlines a number of evaluation issues at each level, and discusses how previous AIM evaluations fit into this framework.

  15. Complement System Part II: Role in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Nicolas S.; Noe, Remi; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been considered for a long time as a simple lytic cascade, aimed to kill bacteria infecting the host organism. Nowadays, this vision has changed and it is well accepted that complement is a complex innate immune surveillance system, playing a key role in host homeostasis, inflammation, and in the defense against pathogens. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of complement in physiology and pathology. It starts with a description of complement contribution to the normal physiology (homeostasis) of a healthy organism, including the silent clearance of apoptotic cells and maintenance of cell survival. In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing opsonization and a direct killing by C5b–9 membrane attack complex and by triggering inflammatory responses with the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Opsonization plays also a major role in the mounting of an adaptive immune response, involving antigen presenting cells, T-, and B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it can be also an enemy, when pathogens hijack complement regulators to protect themselves from the immune system. Inadequate complement activation becomes a disease cause, as in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Age-related macular degeneration and cancer will be described as examples showing that complement contributes to a large variety of conditions, far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Finally, we discuss complement as a therapeutic target. PMID:26074922

  16. IMMUNE SYSTEM MATURITY AND SENSITIVITY TO CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well established that human diseases associated with abnormal immune function, including some common infectious diseases and asthma, are considerably more prevalent at younger ages. The immune system continues to mature after birth, and functional immaturity accounts for m...

  17. Immuno-epidemiology of a population structured by immune status: a mathematical study of waning immunity and immune system boosting.

    PubMed

    Barbarossa, M V; Röst, G

    2015-12-01

    When the body gets infected by a pathogen the immune system develops pathogen-specific immunity. Induced immunity decays in time and years after recovery the host might become susceptible again. Exposure to the pathogen in the environment boosts the immune system thus prolonging the time in which a recovered individual is immune. Such an interplay of within host processes and population dynamics poses significant challenges in rigorous mathematical modeling of immuno-epidemiology. We propose a framework to model SIRS dynamics, monitoring the immune status of individuals and including both waning immunity and immune system boosting. Our model is formulated as a system of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs) coupled with a PDE. After showing existence and uniqueness of a classical solution, we investigate the local and the global asymptotic stability of the unique disease-free stationary solution. Under particular assumptions on the general model, we can recover known examples such as large systems of ODEs for SIRWS dynamics, as well as SIRS with constant delay.

  18. HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system

    PubMed Central

    Brenchley, JM; Douek, DC

    2009-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the gastrointestinal pathology observed in patients infected with HIV. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication, which results in massive depletion of lamina propria CD4 T cells during acute infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy leads to incomplete suppression of viral replication and substantially delayed and only partial restoration of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells. The gastrointestinal pathology associated with HIV infection comprises significant enteropathy with increased levels of inflammation and decreased levels of mucosal repair and regeneration. Assessment of gut mucosal immune system has provided novel directions for therapeutic interventions that modify the consequences of acute HIV infection. PMID:19079157

  19. Ginseng, the 'Immunity Boost': The Effects of Panax ginseng on Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soowon; Min, Hyeyoung

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of literatures have described the diverse role of ginseng in physiological processes such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, insulin resistance, and hypertension. In particular, ginseng has been extensively reported to maintain homeostasis of the immune system and to enhance resistance to illness or microbial attacks through the regulation of immune system. Immune system comprises of different types of cells fulfilling their own specialized functions, and each type of the immune cells is differentially influenced and may be simultaneously controlled by ginseng treatment. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the effects of ginseng on immune system. We discuss how ginseng regulates each type of immune cells including macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells. We also describe how ginseng exhibits beneficial effects on controlling inflammatory diseases and microbial infections. PMID:23717137

  20. Measuring the immune system: a comprehensive approach for the analysis of immune functions in humans.

    PubMed

    Claus, Maren; Dychus, Nicole; Ebel, Melanie; Damaschke, Jürgen; Maydych, Viktoriya; Wolf, Oliver T; Kleinsorge, Thomas; Watzl, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    The immune system is essential to provide protection from infections and cancer. Disturbances in immune function can therefore directly affect the health of the affected individual. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as exposure to chemicals, stress, nutrition and age have been reported to influence the immune system. These influences can affect various components of the immune system, and we are just beginning to understand the causalities of these changes. To investigate such disturbances, it is therefore essential to analyze the different components of the immune system in a comprehensive fashion. Here, we demonstrate such an approach which provides information about total number of leukocytes, detailed quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of lymphocyte subsets, cytokine levels in serum and functional properties of T cells, NK cells and monocytes. Using samples from a cohort of 24 healthy volunteers, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach to detect changes in immune functions.

  1. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.

  2. Systemic and central immunity in Alzheimer's disease: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Butchart, Joseph; Holmes, Clive

    2012-01-01

    Clinical pharmaceutical trials aimed at modulating the immune system in Alzheimer's Disease have largely focused on either dampening down central proinflammatory innate immunity or have manipulated adaptive immunity to facilitate the removal of centrally deposited beta amyloid. To date, these trials have had mixed clinical therapeutic effects. However, a number of clinical studies have demonstrated disturbances of both systemic and central innate immunity in Alzheimer's Disease and attention has been drawn to the close communication pathways between central and systemic immunity. This paper highlights the need to take into account the potential systemic effects of drugs aimed at modulating central immunity and the possibility of developing novel therapeutic approaches based on the manipulation of systemic immunity and its communication with the central nervous system.

  3. The intriguing mission of neuropeptide Y in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava

    2013-07-01

    For many years, the central nervous system and the immune system were considered two autonomous entities. However, extensive research in the field of neuroimmunomodulation during the past decades has demonstrated the presence of different neuropeptides and their respective receptors in the immune cells. More importantly, it has provided evidence for the direct effects of neuropeptides on the immune cell functions. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is generally considered the most abundant peptide in the central and peripheral nervous system. However, it is also distinguished by exhibiting pleiotropic functions in many other physiological systems, including the immune system. NPY affects the functions of the cells of the adaptive and innate immunity. In this respect, NPY is known to modulate immune cell trafficking, T helper cell differentiation, cytokine secretion, natural killer cell activity, phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species. The specific Y receptors have been found in immune cells, and their expression is amplified upon immune stimulation. Different Y receptor subtypes may mediate an opposite effect of NPY on the particular function, thus underlining its regulatory role. Since the immune cells are capable of producing NPY upon appropriate stimulation, this peptide can regulate immune cell functions in an autocrine/paracrine manner. NPY also has important implications in several immune-mediated disorders, which affirms the clear need for further investigation of its role in either the mechanisms of the disease development or its possible therapeutic capacity. This review summarises the key points of NPY's mission throughout the immune system.

  4. Opioid System Modulates the Immune Function: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xuan; Liu, Renyu; Chen, Chunhua; Ji, Fang; Li, Tianzuo

    2016-01-01

    Opioid receptors and their ligands produce powerful analgesia that is effective in perioperative period and chronic pain managements accompanied with various side effects including respiratory depression, constipation and addiction etc. Opioids can also interfere with the immune system, not only participating in the function of the immune cells, but also modulating innate and acquired immune responses. The traditional notion of opioids is immunosuppressive. Recent studies indicate that the role of opioid receptors on immune function is complicated, working through various different mechanisms. Different opioids or opioids administrations show various effects on the immune system: immunosuppressive, immunostimulatory, or dual effect. It is important to elucidate the relationship between opioids and immune function, since immune system plays critical role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including the inflammation, tumor growth and metastasis, drug abuse, and so on. This review article tends to have an overview of the recent work and perspectives on opioids and the immune function. PMID:26985446

  5. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system ...

  6. An artificial neural network controller for intelligent transportation systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vitela, J.E.; Hanebutte, U.R.; Reifman, J.

    1996-04-01

    An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems applications. The AICC is based on a simple nonlinear model of the vehicle dynamics. A Neural Network Controller (NNC) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to control discrete dynamical systems was used for this purpose. In order to test the NNC, an AICC-simulator containing graphical displays was developed for a system of two vehicles driving in a single lane. Two simulation cases are shown, one involving a lead vehicle with constant velocity and the other a lead vehicle with varying acceleration. More realistic vehicle dynamic models will be considered in future work.

  7. The Immune System in Cancer Prevention, Development and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Candeias, Serge M; Gaipl, Udo S

    2016-01-01

    The immune system plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the integrity of an organism. Besides the protection against pathogens, it is strongly involved in cancer prevention, development and defense. This review focuses on how the immune system protects against infections and trauma and on its role in cancer development and disease. Focus is set on the interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system and tumors. The role of IFN-γ as a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a very important role at the interface of innate and adaptive immune systems in tumor development and induction of anti-tumor immune responses is outlined. Further, immune cells as prognostic and predictive markers of cancer will be discussed. Data are provided that even the brain as immune privileged organ is subjected to immune surveillance and consequently also brain tumors. Immune therapeutic approaches for glioblastoma multiforme, the most frequent and malignant brain tumor, based on vaccination with dendritic cells are outlined and application of hyperthermia in form of magnetic nanoparticles is discussed. We conclude that the immune system and developing tumors are intimately intertwined. Anti-tumor immune responses can be prominently boosted by multimodal therapies aiming on the one hand to induce immunogenic tumor cell death forms and on the other hand to actively counteract the immune suppressive microenvironment based on the tumor itself.

  8. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  9. Extracellular Adenosine Mediates a Systemic Metabolic Switch during Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bajgar, Adam; Kucerova, Katerina; Jonatova, Lucie; Tomcala, Ales; Schneedorferova, Ivana; Okrouhlik, Jan; Dolezal, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Immune defense is energetically costly, and thus an effective response requires metabolic adaptation of the organism to reallocate energy from storage, growth, and development towards the immune system. We employ the natural infection of Drosophila with a parasitoid wasp to study energy regulation during immune response. To combat the invasion, the host must produce specialized immune cells (lamellocytes) that destroy the parasitoid egg. We show that a significant portion of nutrients are allocated to differentiating lamellocytes when they would otherwise be used for development. This systemic metabolic switch is mediated by extracellular adenosine released from immune cells. The switch is crucial for an effective immune response. Preventing adenosine transport from immune cells or blocking adenosine receptor precludes the metabolic switch and the deceleration of development, dramatically reducing host resistance. Adenosine thus serves as a signal that the “selfish” immune cells send during infection to secure more energy at the expense of other tissues. PMID:25915062

  10. Reciprocal Interactions of the Intestinal Microbiota and Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Craig L.; Elson, Charles O.; Hatton, Robin D.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2013-01-01

    Preface Emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates set the stage for evolution of an advanced symbiotic relationship with the intestinal microbiota. The defining features of specificity and memory that characterize adaptive immunity have afforded vertebrates mechanisms for efficiently tailoring immune responses to diverse types of microbes, whether to promote mutualism or host defense. These same attributes carry risk for immune-mediated diseases that are increasingly linked to the intestinal microbiota. Understanding how the adaptive immune system copes with the remarkable number and diversity of microbes that colonize the digestive tract, and how it integrates with more primitive innate immune mechanisms to maintain immune homeostasis, holds considerable promise for new approaches to modulate immune networks in order to treat and prevent disease. PMID:22972296

  11. Cross-talk between probiotic lactobacilli and host immune system.

    PubMed

    Kemgang, T S; Kapila, S; Shanmugam, V P; Kapila, R

    2014-08-01

    The mechanism by which probiotic lactobacilli affect the immune system is strain specific. As the immune system is a multicompartmental system, each strain has its way to interact with it and induce a visible and quantifiable effect. This review summarizes the interplay existing between the host immune system and probiotic lactobacilli, that is, with emphasis on lactobacilli as a prototype probiotic genus. Several aspects including the bacterial-host cross-talk with the mucosal and systemic immune system are presented, as well as short sections on the competing effect towards pathogenic bacteria and their uses as delivery vehicle for antigens.

  12. Artificial olfactory system with fault-tolerant sensor array.

    PubMed

    Lotfivand, Nasser; Abdolzadeh, Vida; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2016-07-01

    Numerous applications of artificial olfaction resulting from research in many branches of sciences have caused considerable interest in the enhancement of these systems. In this paper, we offer an architecture which is suitable for critical applications, such as medical diagnosis, where reliability and precision are deemed important. The proposed architecture is able to tolerate failures in the sensors of the array. In this study, the discriminating ability of the proposed architecture in detecting complex odors, as well as the performance of the proposed architecture in encountering sensor failure, were investigated and compared with the generic architecture. The results demonstrated that by applying the proposed architecture in the artificial olfactory system, the performance of system in the healthy mode was identical to the classic structure. However, in the faulty situation, the proposed architecture implied high identification ability of odor samples, while the generic architecture showed very poor performance in the same situation. Based on the results, it was possible to achieve high odor identification through the developed artificial olfactory system using the proposed architecture.

  13. Present and future of the artificial heart driving system.

    PubMed

    Shumakov, V I; Itkin, G P; Sumin, A V; Mordashov, V M; Kiselev, U M; Zimin, N K; Drobyshev, A A

    1991-10-01

    The totally artificial heart (TAH) is now in development in two trends. First, there is the development of a bridge system for temporary support of cardiac function. The TAH with the extracorporeal pneumatic driving system Sinus-IS is more efficient and safer. Parallel with this, a portable pneumatic driving system has been developed. That can be considered a stage in the development of the second trend: a totally implantable TAH. This article reviews problems of building of the Micron energy system to be used in implantable TAH designs.

  14. Intercellular Communication in the Adaptive Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Arup

    2004-03-01

    Higher organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that can respond to pathogens that have not been encountered before. T lymphocytes (T cells) are the orchestrators of the adaptive immune response. They interact with cells, called antigen presenting cells (APC), that display molecular signatures of pathogens. Recently, video microscopy experiments have revealed that when T cells detect antigen on APC surfaces, a spatially patterned supramolecular assembly of different types of molecules forms in the junction between cell membranes. This recognition motif is implicated in information transfer between APC and T cells, and so, is labeled the immunological synapse. The observation of synapse formation sparked two broad questions: How does the synapse form? Why does the synapse form? I will describe progress made in answering these fundamental questions in biology by synergistic use of statistical mechanical theory/computation, chemical engineering principles, and genetic and biochemical experiments. The talk will also touch upon mechanisms that may underlie the extreme sensitivity with which T cells discriminate between self and non-self.

  15. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  16. Immunizing digital systems against electromagnetic interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, P. D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria applicable to the immunization of digital systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI). The work is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed as a result of the application of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic level voltages, thereby leading to potentially greater susceptibility of spurious interference being misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria to apply to these digital systems centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant's electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and thereby their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Secondly, a test and evaluation program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate test limits to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Test and evaluation should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related instrumentation problems associated with EMI will be greatly reduced.

  17. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    PubMed

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment.

  18. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  19. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power system stability applications of artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, N.; Kirkham, Harold

    1994-01-01

    This report investigates the application of artificial neural networks to the problem of power system stability. The field of artificial intelligence, expert systems, and neural networks is reviewed. Power system operation is discussed with emphasis on stability considerations. Real-time system control has only recently been considered as applicable to stability, using conventional control methods. The report considers the use of artificial neural networks to improve the stability of the power system. The networks are considered as adjuncts and as replacements for existing controllers. The optimal kind of network to use as an adjunct to a generator exciter is discussed.

  20. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power system stability applications of artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Toomarian, N.; Kirkham, H.

    1993-12-01

    This report investigates the application of artificial neural networks to the problem of power system stability. The field of artificial intelligence, expert systems and neural networks is reviewed. Power system operation is discussed with emphasis on stability considerations. Real-time system control has only recently been considered as applicable to stability, using conventional control methods. The report considers the use of artificial neural networks to improve the stability of the power system. The networks are considered as adjuncts and as replacements for existing controllers. The optimal kind of network to use as an adjunct to a generator exciter is discussed.

  1. Evolution of adaptive immunity from transposable elements combined with innate immune systems.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart

    2015-03-01

    Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes and animals give rise to long-term memory through modification of specific genomic loci, such as by insertion of foreign (viral or plasmid) DNA fragments into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci in prokaryotes and by V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin genes in vertebrates. Strikingly, recombinases derived from unrelated mobile genetic elements have essential roles in both prokaryotic and vertebrate adaptive immune systems. Mobile elements, which are ubiquitous in cellular life forms, provide the only known, naturally evolved tools for genome engineering that are successfully adopted by both innate immune systems and genome-editing technologies. In this Opinion article, we present a general scenario for the origin of adaptive immunity from mobile elements and innate immune systems.

  2. Artificial antigen-presenting cells as a tool to exploit the immune 'synapse'.

    PubMed

    Prakken, B; Wauben, M; Genini, D; Samodal, R; Barnett, J; Mendivil, A; Leoni, L; Albani, S

    2000-12-01

    Recent progress in molecular medicine has provided important tools to identify antigen-specific T cells. In most cases, the approach is based on oligomeric combinations of recombinant major histocompatibility complex-peptide complexes fixed to various rigid supports available for binding by the T-cell receptor. These tools have greatly increased our insight into mechanisms of immune responses mediated by CD8+ T cells. Examples of the diverse fields of application for this technology include immunization, viral infections and oral tolerance induction. PMID:11100129

  3. Neuroendocrine and immune system responses with spaceflights.

    PubMed

    Tipton, C M; Greenleaf, J E; Jackson, C G

    1996-08-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldosterone, and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flights data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  4. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  5. Generation of Individual Diversity: A Too Neglected Fundamental Property of Adaptive Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Muraille, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The fitness gains resulting from development of the adaptive immune system (AIS) during evolution are still the subject of hot debate. A large random repertoire of antigenic receptors is costly to develop and could be the source of autoimmune reactions. And yet, despite their drawbacks, AIS-like systems seem to have been independently acquired in several phyla of metazoans with very different anatomies, longevities, and lifestyles. This article is a speculative attempt to explore the selective pressures, which favored this striking convergent evolution. It is well known that the AIS enables an organism to produce a specific immune response against all natural or artificial antigenic structures. However, it is frequently neglected that this response is highly variable among individuals. In practice, each individual possesses a “private” adaptive immune repertoire. This individualization of immune defenses implies that invasion and escape immune mechanisms developed by pathogens will certainly not always be successful as the specific targets and organization of the immune response are somewhat unpredictable. In a population, where individuals display heterogeneous immune responses to infection, the probability that a pathogen is able to infect all individuals could be reduced compared to a homogeneous population. This suggests that the individual diversity of the immune repertoire is not a by-product of the AIS but of its fundamental properties and could be in part responsible for repeated selection and conservation of the AIS during metazoan evolution. The capacity of the AIS to improve the management of cooperative or parasitic symbiotic relationships at the individual level could be a secondary development due to its progressive integration into the innate immune system. This hypothesis constitutes a new scenario for AIS emergence and explains the selection of MHC restriction and MHC diversification. PMID:24860570

  6. Trauma equals danger—damage control by the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Stoecklein, Veit M.; Osuka, Akinori; Lederer, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic injuries induce a complex host response that disrupts immune system homeostasis and predisposes patients to opportunistic infections and inflammatory complications. The response to injuries varies considerably by type and severity, as well as by individual variables, such as age, sex, and genetics. These variables make studying the impact of trauma on the immune system challenging. Nevertheless, advances have been made in understanding how injuries influence immune system function as well as the immune cells and pathways involved in regulating the response to injuries. This review provides an overview of current knowledge about how traumatic injuries affect immune system phenotype and function. We discuss the current ideas that traumatic injuries induce a unique type of a response that may be triggered by a combination of endogenous danger signals, including alarmins, DAMPs, self-antigens, and cytokines. Additionally, we review and propose strategies for redirecting injury responses to help restore immune system homeostasis. PMID:22654121

  7. Mass Cytometry of the Human Mucosal Immune System Identifies Tissue- and Disease-Associated Immune Subsets.

    PubMed

    van Unen, Vincent; Li, Na; Molendijk, Ilse; Temurhan, Mine; Höllt, Thomas; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Verspaget, Hein W; Mearin, M Luisa; Mulder, Chris J; van Bergen, Jeroen; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Koning, Frits

    2016-05-17

    Inflammatory intestinal diseases are characterized by abnormal immune responses and affect distinct locations of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the role of several immune subsets in driving intestinal pathology has been studied, a system-wide approach that simultaneously interrogates all major lineages on a single-cell basis is lacking. We used high-dimensional mass cytometry to generate a system-wide view of the human mucosal immune system in health and disease. We distinguished 142 immune subsets and through computational applications found distinct immune subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal biopsies that distinguished patients from controls. In addition, mucosal lymphoid malignancies were readily detected as well as precursors from which these likely derived. These findings indicate that an integrated high-dimensional analysis of the entire immune system can identify immune subsets associated with the pathogenesis of complex intestinal disorders. This might have implications for diagnostic procedures, immune-monitoring, and treatment of intestinal diseases and mucosal malignancies.

  8. Artificial ferroic systems: novel functionality from structure, interactions and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyderman, L. J.; Stamps, R. L.

    2013-09-01

    Lithographic processing and film growth technologies are continuing to advance, so that it is now possible to create patterned ferroic materials consisting of arrays of sub-1 μm elements with high definition. Some of the most fascinating behaviour of these arrays can be realised by exploiting interactions between the individual elements to create new functionality. The properties of these artificial ferroic systems differ strikingly from those of their constituent components, with novel emergent behaviour arising from the collective dynamics of the interacting elements, which are arranged in specific designs and can be activated by applying magnetic or electric fields. We first focus on artificial spin systems consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets and, in particular, review the field of artificial spin ice, which demonstrates a wide range of fascinating phenomena arising from the frustration inherent in particular arrangements of nanomagnets, including emergent magnetic monopoles, domains of ordered macrospins, and novel avalanche behaviour. We outline how demagnetisation protocols have been employed as an effective thermal anneal in an attempt to reach the ground state, comment on phenomena that arise in thermally activated systems and discuss strategies for selectively generating specific configurations using applied magnetic fields. We then move on from slow field and temperature driven dynamics to high frequency phenomena, discussing spinwave excitations in the context of magnonic crystals constructed from arrays of patterned magnetic elements. At high frequencies, these arrays are studied in terms of potential applications including magnetic logic, linear and non-linear microwave optics, and fast, efficient switching, and we consider the possibility to create tunable magnonic crystals with artificial spin ice. Finally, we discuss how functional ferroic composites can be incorporated to realise magnetoelectric effects. Specifically, we discuss

  9. Artificial ferroic systems: novel functionality from structure, interactions and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Heyderman, L J; Stamps, R L

    2013-09-11

    Lithographic processing and film growth technologies are continuing to advance, so that it is now possible to create patterned ferroic materials consisting of arrays of sub-1 μm elements with high definition. Some of the most fascinating behaviour of these arrays can be realised by exploiting interactions between the individual elements to create new functionality. The properties of these artificial ferroic systems differ strikingly from those of their constituent components, with novel emergent behaviour arising from the collective dynamics of the interacting elements, which are arranged in specific designs and can be activated by applying magnetic or electric fields. We first focus on artificial spin systems consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets and, in particular, review the field of artificial spin ice, which demonstrates a wide range of fascinating phenomena arising from the frustration inherent in particular arrangements of nanomagnets, including emergent magnetic monopoles, domains of ordered macrospins, and novel avalanche behaviour. We outline how demagnetisation protocols have been employed as an effective thermal anneal in an attempt to reach the ground state, comment on phenomena that arise in thermally activated systems and discuss strategies for selectively generating specific configurations using applied magnetic fields. We then move on from slow field and temperature driven dynamics to high frequency phenomena, discussing spinwave excitations in the context of magnonic crystals constructed from arrays of patterned magnetic elements. At high frequencies, these arrays are studied in terms of potential applications including magnetic logic, linear and non-linear microwave optics, and fast, efficient switching, and we consider the possibility to create tunable magnonic crystals with artificial spin ice. Finally, we discuss how functional ferroic composites can be incorporated to realise magnetoelectric effects. Specifically, we discuss

  10. How the Innate Immune System Senses Trouble and Causes Trouble.

    PubMed

    Hato, Takashi; Dagher, Pierre C

    2015-08-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense in response to nonself and danger signals from microbial invasion or tissue injury. It is increasingly recognized that each organ uses unique sets of cells and molecules that orchestrate regional innate immunity. The cells that execute the task of innate immunity are many and consist of not only "professional" immune cells but also nonimmune cells, such as renal epithelial cells. Despite a high level of sophistication, deregulated innate immunity is common and contributes to a wide range of renal diseases, such as sepsis-induced kidney injury, GN, and allograft dysfunction. This review discusses how the innate immune system recognizes and responds to nonself and danger signals. In particular, the roles of renal epithelial cells that make them an integral part of the innate immune apparatus of the kidney are highlighted.

  11. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  12. The immune system and cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.

    2008-01-01

    role of the immune system in cardiac repair is necessary in order to design optimal strategies for cardiac regeneration. PMID:18620057

  13. Network Intrusion Detection Based on a General Regression Neural Network Optimized by an Improved Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianfa; Peng, Dahao; Li, Zhuping; Zhao, Li; Ling, Huanzhang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively and accurately detect and classify network intrusion data, this paper introduces a general regression neural network (GRNN) based on the artificial immune algorithm with elitist strategies (AIAE). The elitist archive and elitist crossover were combined with the artificial immune algorithm (AIA) to produce the AIAE-GRNN algorithm, with the aim of improving its adaptivity and accuracy. In this paper, the mean square errors (MSEs) were considered the affinity function. The AIAE was used to optimize the smooth factors of the GRNN; then, the optimal smooth factor was solved and substituted into the trained GRNN. Thus, the intrusive data were classified. The paper selected a GRNN that was separately optimized using a genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and fuzzy C-mean clustering (FCM) to enable a comparison of these approaches. As shown in the results, the AIAE-GRNN achieves a higher classification accuracy than PSO-GRNN, but the running time of AIAE-GRNN is long, which was proved first. FCM and GA-GRNN were eliminated because of their deficiencies in terms of accuracy and convergence. To improve the running speed, the paper adopted principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensions of the intrusive data. With the reduction in dimensionality, the PCA-AIAE-GRNN decreases in accuracy less and has better convergence than the PCA-PSO-GRNN, and the running speed of the PCA-AIAE-GRNN was relatively improved. The experimental results show that the AIAE-GRNN has a higher robustness and accuracy than the other algorithms considered and can thus be used to classify the intrusive data. PMID:25807466

  14. Development of a Safeguard System Using an Episomal Mammalian Artificial Chromosome for Gene and Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Narumi; Uno, Katsuhiro; Komoto, Shinya; Suzuki, Teruhiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a safeguard system to remove tumorigenic cells would allow safer clinical applications of stem cells for the treatment of patients with an intractable disease including genetic disorders. Such safeguard systems should not disrupt the host genome and should have long-term stability. Here, we attempted to develop a tumor-suppressing mammalian artificial chromosome containing a safeguard system that uses the immune rejection system against allogeneic tissue from the host. For proof-of-concept of the safeguard system, B16F10 mouse melanoma cells expressing the introduced H2-K(d) major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I)-allogenic haplotype were transplanted into recipient C57BL/6J mice expressing MHC H2-K(b). Subcutaneous implantation of B16F10 cells into C57BL/6J mice resulted in high tumorigenicity. The volume of tumors derived from B16F10 cells expressing allogenic MHC H2-K(d) was decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Suppression of MHC H2-K(d)-expressing tumors in C57BL/6J mice was enhanced by immunization with MHC H2-K(d)-expressing splenocytes (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the safeguard system is capable of suppressing tumor formation by the transplanted cells. PMID:26670279

  15. [Psychoneuroimmunology--regulation of immunity at the systemic level].

    PubMed

    Boranić, Milivoj; Sabioncello, Ante; Gabrilovac, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Innate and acquired immune reactions are controlled by their intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, ie. by an array of cytokines that mediate communication among cells of the immune system itself and with other cells and tissues, e. g. in areas of inflammation. In addition, the immune system is also subjected to systemic regulation by the vegetative and endocrine systems since immune cells express receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones. Neuroendocrine signals may enhance or suppress the immune reaction, accelerate or slow it, but do not affect specificity. Various stressful factors, including the psychosocial ones, affect immunity. In turn, cytokines generated by the immune system influence hormonal secretion and central nervous system, producing specific behavioral changes (the "sickness behavior") accompanying infectious and inflammatory diseases. That includes somnolence, loss of apetite, depression or anxiety and decrease of cognitive abilities, attention and memory. Local immune systems in skin and mucosa are also subjected to systemic neuroendocrine regulation and possess intrinsic neuroregulatory networks as well. These mechanisms render skin and respiratory and digestive tracts responsive to various forms of stress. Examples are neurodermitis, asthma and ulcerative colitis. In children, the immune and the neuroendocrine systems are still developing, particularly in fetal, neonatal and early infant periods, and exposure to stressful experiences at that time may result in late consequences in the form of deficient immunity or greater risks for allergic or autoimmune reactions. Recognition of the participation of neuroendocrine mechanisms in regulation of immunity helps us understand alterations and disturbances of immune reactions under the influence of stressful factors but so far has not produced reliable therapeutic implications. Psychosocial interventions involving the child and its family may be useful. PMID:18592962

  16. An artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.E.; Hurd, J.W.; Brown, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms.

  17. Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Sauzé, Colin; Neal, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels.

  18. Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Sauzé, Colin; Neal, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels. PMID:24805216

  19. Is central nervous system an immune-privileged site?

    PubMed

    Shrestha, R; Millington, O; Brewer, J; Bushell, T

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) was once considered to be an immune-privileged area. However, increasing evidence shows that the central nervous system is not an immune-privileged but is an active surveillance site. There is a bi-directional communication between the central nervous system and immune system. Normally, immune cells migrate into the central nervous system microenvironment through choroid plexus and interact with the central nervous system resident cells through either through neuromediators or immunomediators. This finding has led to a significant interest in neuroimmunological interactions and investigation onto the role of the immune system in the pathology of various neurological disorders and examine whether it can be targeted to produce novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23774427

  20. Invited essay: Cognitive influences on the psychological immune system.

    PubMed

    Rachman, S J

    2016-12-01

    The construct of the psychological immune system is described and analysed. The direct and indirect cognitive influences on the system are discussed, and the implications of adding a cognitive construal to the influential model of a behavioural immune system are considered. The psychological immune system has two main properties: defensive and healing. It encompasses a good amount of health-related phenomena that is outside the scope of the behavioural model or the biological immune system. Evidence pertaining to the psychological immune system includes meta-analyses of the associations between psychological variables such as positive affect/wellbeing and diseases and mortality, and associations between wellbeing and positive health. The results of long-term prospective studies are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the meta-analyses. Laboratory investigations of the effects of psychological variables on the biological immune system show that negative affect can slow wound-healing, and positive affect can enhance resistance to infections, for example in experiments involving the introduction of the rhinovirus and the influenza A virus. A number of problems concerning the assessment of the functioning of the psychological immune system are considered, and the need to develop techniques for determining when the system is active or not, is emphasized. This problem is particularly challenging when trying to assess the effects of the psychological immune system during a prolonged psychological intervention, such as a course of resilience training. PMID:27664815

  1. Invited essay: Cognitive influences on the psychological immune system.

    PubMed

    Rachman, S J

    2016-12-01

    The construct of the psychological immune system is described and analysed. The direct and indirect cognitive influences on the system are discussed, and the implications of adding a cognitive construal to the influential model of a behavioural immune system are considered. The psychological immune system has two main properties: defensive and healing. It encompasses a good amount of health-related phenomena that is outside the scope of the behavioural model or the biological immune system. Evidence pertaining to the psychological immune system includes meta-analyses of the associations between psychological variables such as positive affect/wellbeing and diseases and mortality, and associations between wellbeing and positive health. The results of long-term prospective studies are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the meta-analyses. Laboratory investigations of the effects of psychological variables on the biological immune system show that negative affect can slow wound-healing, and positive affect can enhance resistance to infections, for example in experiments involving the introduction of the rhinovirus and the influenza A virus. A number of problems concerning the assessment of the functioning of the psychological immune system are considered, and the need to develop techniques for determining when the system is active or not, is emphasized. This problem is particularly challenging when trying to assess the effects of the psychological immune system during a prolonged psychological intervention, such as a course of resilience training.

  2. Role of the immune system in pancreatic cancer progression and immune modulating treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Sideras, K; Braat, H; Kwekkeboom, J; van Eijck, C H; Peppelenbosch, M P; Sleijfer, S; Bruno, M

    2014-05-01

    Traditional chemotherapeutics have largely failed to date to produce significant improvements in pancreatic cancer survival. One of the reasons for the resilience of pancreatic cancer towards intensive treatment is that the cancer is capable of high jacking the immune system: during disease progression the immune system is converted from a system that attacks tumor cells into a support structure for the cancer, exerting trophic actions on the cancer cells. This turn-around of immune system action is achieved through mobilization and activation of regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts, all of which suppress CD8 T cells and NK cells. This immune suppression occurs both through the expression of tolerance-inducing cell surface molecules, such as PD-L1, as well as through the production of "tolerogenic" cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. Based on the accumulating insight into the importance of the immune system for the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients multiple new immunotherapeutic approaches against pancreatic cancer are being currently tested in clinical trials. In this review we give an overview of both the immune escaping mechanisms of pancreatic cancer as well as the new immune related therapeutic strategies currently being tested in pancreatic cancer clinical trials.

  3. Mapping the effects of drugs on the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Brian A; Wroblewska, Aleksandra; Boland, Mary R; Agudo, Judith; Merad, Miriam; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Brown, Brian D; Dudley, Joel T

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how drugs affect the immune system has consequences for treating disease and minimizing unwanted side effects. Here we present an integrative computational approach for predicting interactions between drugs and immune cells in a system-wide manner. The approach matches gene sets between transcriptional signatures to determine their similarity. We apply the method to model the interactions between 1,309 drugs and 221 immune cell types and predict 69,995 known and novel interactions. The resulting immune-cell pharmacology map is used to predict how 5 drugs influence 4 immune cell types in humans and mice. To validate the predictions, we analyzed patient records and examined cell population changes from in vivo experiments. Our method offers a tool for screening thousands of interactions to identify relationships between drugs and the immune system. PMID:26619012

  4. Mapping the effects of drugs on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Brian A; Wroblewska, Aleksandra; Boland, Mary R; Agudo, Judith; Merad, Miriam; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Brown, Brian D; Dudley, Joel T

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how drugs affect the immune system has consequences for treating disease and minimizing unwanted side effects. Here we present an integrative computational approach for predicting interactions between drugs and immune cells in a system-wide manner. The approach matches gene sets between transcriptional signatures to determine their similarity. We apply the method to model the interactions between 1,309 drugs and 221 immune cell types and predict 69,995 interactions. The resulting immune-cell pharmacology map is used to predict how five drugs influence four immune cell types in humans and mice. To validate the predictions, we analyzed patient records and examined cell population changes from in vivo experiments. Our method offers a tool for screening thousands of interactions to identify relationships between drugs and the immune system. PMID:26619012

  5. Mapping the effects of drugs on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Brian A; Wroblewska, Aleksandra; Boland, Mary R; Agudo, Judith; Merad, Miriam; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Brown, Brian D; Dudley, Joel T

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how drugs affect the immune system has consequences for treating disease and minimizing unwanted side effects. Here we present an integrative computational approach for predicting interactions between drugs and immune cells in a system-wide manner. The approach matches gene sets between transcriptional signatures to determine their similarity. We apply the method to model the interactions between 1,309 drugs and 221 immune cell types and predict 69,995 interactions. The resulting immune-cell pharmacology map is used to predict how five drugs influence four immune cell types in humans and mice. To validate the predictions, we analyzed patient records and examined cell population changes from in vivo experiments. Our method offers a tool for screening thousands of interactions to identify relationships between drugs and the immune system.

  6. The Immune System in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Bridget; Goode, Ellen L.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Knutson, Keith L.; DeRycke, Melissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer are heterogeneous even when considering common features such as stage, response to therapy, and grade. This disparity in outcomes warrants further exploration into tumor and host characteristics. One compelling host characteristic is the immune response to ovarian cancer. While several studies have confirmed a prominent role for the immune system in modifying the clinical course of the disease, recent genetic and protein analyses also suggest a role in disease incidence. Recent studies also show that anti-tumor immunity is often negated by immune suppressive cells present in the tumor microenvironment. These suppressive immune cells also directly enhance the pathogenesis through the release of various cytokines and chemokines, which together form an integrated pathologic network. Thus, future research into immunotherapy targeting ovarian cancer will likely become increasingly focused on combination approaches that simultaneously augment immunity while preventing local immune suppression or by disrupting critical cytokine networks. PMID:23582060

  7. Psychoneuroimmunology--cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Kern, Simone

    2007-05-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively new field of study that investigates interactions between behaviour and the immune system, mediated by the endocrine and nervous systems. The immune and central nervous system (CNS) maintain extensive communication. On the one hand, the brain modulates the immune system by hardwiring sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves (autonomic nervous system) to lymphoid organs. On the other hand, neuroendocrine hormones such as corticotrophin-releasing hormone or substance P regulate cytokine balance. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and immune system-mediated disease.

  8. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  9. Overview of fish immune system and infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the fish immune system and the emerging or re-emerging bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal diseases considered to currently have a negative impact on aquaculture is presented. The fish immune system has evolved with both innate (natural resistance) and adaptive (acquired) immu...

  10. Interactions between the gonadal steroids and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Grossman, C J

    1985-01-18

    The immune system is regulated by the gonadal steroids estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, but the circulating levels of these steroids can also be affected by immune system function. Such interactions appear to be mediated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-thymic axis and depend on pituitary luteinizing hormone released by thymic factors under the control of the gonadal steroids.

  11. The University Immune System: Overcoming Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Ann; Godek, Marisha; Gilley, Jerry W.

    2009-01-01

    A university, similar to any other organization, has an immune system that erects a powerful barrier against change. This article discusses the university immune system and what can be done to counteract its negative effects and thereby allow change to occur.

  12. Natural evolution, disease, and localization in the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Adaptive vertebrate immune system is a wonder of modern evolution. Under most circumstances, the dynamics of the immune system is well-matched to the dynamics of pathogen growth during a typical infection. Some pathogens, however, have evolved escape mechanisms that interact in subtle ways with the immune system dynamics. In addition, negative interactions the immune system, which has evolved over 400 000 000 years, and vaccination,which has been practiced for only 200 years, are possible. For example,vaccination against the flu can actually increase susceptibility to the flu in the next year. As another example, vaccination against one of the four strains of dengue fever typically increases susceptibility against the other three strains. Immunodominance also arises in the immune system control of nascent tumors--the immune system recognizes only a small subset of the tumor specific antigens, and the rest are free to grow and cause tumor growth. In this talk, I present a physical theory of original antigenic sin and immunodominance. How localization in the immune system leads to the observed phenomena is discussed. 1) M. W. Deem and H. Y. Lee, ``Sequence Space Localization in the Immune System Response to Vaccination and Disease,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 068101

  13. Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising one production well and one injection well, representing an enhanced geothermal system. The effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the geothermal reservoir, the flow rate, and the size of the production casing are considered in the study. Besides submersible pumps, the possibility of using lineshaft pumps is also discussed.

  14. Water oxidation reaction in natural and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal

    2013-12-10

    Understanding the structure and mechanism of water oxidation catalysts is an essential component for developing artificial photosynthetic devices. In the natural water oxidation catalyst, the geometric and electronic structure of its inorganic core, the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5} cluster, has been studied by spectroscopic and diffraction measurements. In inorganic systems, metal oxides seem to be good candidates for water oxidation catalysts. Understanding the reaction mechanism in both natural and oxide-based catalysts will helpin further developing efficient and robust water oxidation catalysts.

  15. The application of artificial intelligence technology to aeronautical system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, E. E.; Kidwell, G. H.; Rogan, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the automation of one class of aeronautical design activity using artificial intelligence and advanced software techniques. Its purpose is to suggest concepts, terminology, and approaches that may be useful in enhancing design automation. By understanding the basic concepts and tasks in design, and the technologies that are available, it will be possible to produce, in the future, systems whose capabilities far exceed those of today's methods. Some of the tasks that will be discussed have already been automated and are in production use, resulting in significant productivity benefits. The concepts and techniques discussed are applicable to all design activity, though aeronautical applications are specifically presented.

  16. The role of artificial intelligence techniques in scheduling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geoffroy, Amy L.; Britt, Daniel L.; Gohring, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques provide good solutions for many of the problems which are characteristic of scheduling applications. However, scheduling is a large, complex heterogeneous problem. Different applications will require different solutions. Any individual application will require the use of a variety of techniques, including both AI and conventional software methods. The operational context of the scheduling system will also play a large role in design considerations. The key is to identify those places where a specific AI technique is in fact the preferable solution, and to integrate that technique into the overall architecture.

  17. Adaptive conventional power system stabilizer based on artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, M.L.; Segal, R.; Ghodki, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with an artificial neural network (ANN) based adaptive conventional power system stabilizer (PSS). The ANN comprises an input layer, a hidden layer and an output layer. The input vector to the ANN comprises real power (P) and reactive power (Q), while the output vector comprises optimum PSS parameters. A systematic approach for generating training set covering wide range of operating conditions, is presented. The ANN has been trained using back-propagation training algorithm. Investigations reveal that the dynamic performance of ANN based adaptive conventional PSS is quite insensitive to wide variations in loading conditions.

  18. Immune system responses and fitness costs associated with consumption of bacteria in larvae of Trichoplusia ni

    PubMed Central

    Freitak, Dalial; Wheat, Christopher W; Heckel, David G; Vogel, Heiko

    2007-01-01

    Background Insects helped pioneer, and persist as model organisms for, the study of specific aspects of immunity. Although they lack an adaptive immune system, insects possess an innate immune system that recognizes and destroys intruding microorganisms. Its operation under natural conditions has not been well studied, as most studies have introduced microbes to laboratory-reared insects via artificial mechanical wounding. One of the most common routes of natural exposure and infection, however, is via food; thus, the role of dietary microbial communities in herbivorous insect immune system evolution invites study. Here, we examine the immune system response and consequences of exposing a lepidopteran agricultural pest to non-infectious microorganisms via simple oral consumption. Results Immune system response was compared between Trichoplusia ni larvae reared on diets with or without non-pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). Two major immune response-related enzymatic activities responded to diets differently – phenoloxidase activity was inhibited in the bacteria-fed larvae, whereas general antibacterial activity was enhanced. Eight proteins were highly expressed in the hemolymph of the bacteria fed larvae, among them immune response related proteins arylphorin, apolipophorin III and gloverin. Expression response among 25 putative immune response-related genes were assayed via RT-qPCR. Seven showed more than fivefold up regulation in the presence of bacterial diet, with 22 in total being differentially expressed, among them apolipophorin III, cecropin, gallerimycin, gloverin, lysozyme, and phenoloxidase inhibiting enzyme. Finally, potential life-history trade-offs were studied, with pupation time and pupal mass being negatively affected in bacteria fed larvae. Conclusion The presence of bacteria in food, even if non-pathogenic, can trigger an immune response cascade with life history tradeoffs. Trichoplusia ni larvae are able to detect

  19. Central Nervous System Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R.; Marais, Suzaan; Scriven, James; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Meintjes, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CNS-IRIS) develops in 9 %–47 % of persons with HIV infection and a CNS opportunistic infection who start antiretroviral therapy and is associated with a mortality rate of 13 %–75 %. These rates vary according to the causative pathogen. Common CNS-IRIS events occur in relation to Cryptococcus, tuberculosis (TB), and JC virus, but several other mycobacteria, fungi, and viruses have been associated with IRIS. IRIS symptoms often mimic the original infection, and diagnosis necessitates consideration of treatment failure, microbial resistance, and an additional neurological infection. These diagnostic challenges often delay IRIS diagnosis and treatment. Corticosteroids have been used to treat CNS-IRIS, with variable responses; the best supportive evidence exists for the treatment of TB-IRIS. Pathogenic mechanisms vary: Cryptococcal IRIS is characterized by a paucity of cerebrospinal inflammation prior to antiretroviral therapy, whereas higher levels of inflammatory markers at baseline predispose to TB meningitis IRIS. This review focuses on advances in the understanding of CNS-IRIS over the past 2 years. PMID:24173584

  20. Modulation of inflammatory pathways by the immune cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Nizri, Eran; Brenner, Talma

    2013-07-01

    Research done in the past years pointed to a novel function of cholinergic transmission. It has been shown that cholinergic transmission can modulate various aspects of the immune function, whether innate or adaptive. Cholinergic transmission affects immune cell proliferation, cytokine production, T helper differentiation and antigen presentation. Theses effects are mediated by cholinergic muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and other cholinergic components present in immune cells, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cholineacetyltransferase. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was designated anti-inflammatory activity and has shown promise in pre-clinical models of inflammatory disorders. We herein describe the various components of the immune cholinergic system, and specifically the immune suppressive effects of α7 activation. This activation can be accomplished either by direct stimulation or indirectly, by inhibition of AChE. Thus, the presence of the immune cholinergic system can pave the way for novel immunomodulatory agents, or to the broadening of use of known cholinergic agents.

  1. Evidence for a common mucosal immune system in the pig.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Heather L; Obradovic, Milan R

    2015-07-01

    The majority of lymphocytes activated at mucosal sites receive instructions to home back to the local mucosa, but a portion also seed distal mucosa sites. By seeding distal sites with antigen-specific effector or memory lymphocytes, the foundation is laid for the animal's mucosal immune system to respond with a secondary response should to this antigen be encountered at this site in the future. The common mucosal immune system has been studied quite extensively in rodent models but less so in large animal models such as the pig. Reasons for this paucity of reported induction of the common mucosal immune system in this species may be that distal mucosal sites were examined but no induction was observed and therefore it was not reported. However, we suspect that the majority of investigators simply did not sample distal mucosal sites and therefore there is little evidence of immune response induction in the literature. It is our hope that more pig immunologists and infectious disease experts who perform mucosal immunizations or inoculations on pigs will sample distal mucosal sites and report their findings, whether results are positive or negative. In this review, we highlight papers that show that immunization/inoculation using one route triggers mucosal immune system induction locally, systemically, and within at least one distal mucosal site. Only by understanding whether immunizations at one site triggers immunity throughout the common mucosal immune system can we rationally develop vaccines for the pig, and through these works we can gather evidence about the mucosal immune system that may be extrapolated to other livestock species or humans.

  2. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    literature ɛN values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

  3. CNS Remyelination and the Innate Immune System.

    PubMed

    McMurran, Christopher E; Jones, Clare A; Fitzgerald, Denise C; Franklin, Robin J M

    2016-01-01

    A misguided inflammatory response is frequently implicated in myelin damage. Particularly prominent among myelin diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition, with immune-mediated damage central to its etiology. Nevertheless, a robust inflammatory response is also essential for the efficient regeneration of myelin sheaths after such injury. Here, we discuss the functions of inflammation that promote remyelination, and how these have been experimentally disentangled from the pathological facets of the immune response. We focus on the contributions that resident microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages make to remyelination and compare the roles of these two populations of innate immune cells. Finally, the current literature is framed in the context of developing therapies that manipulate the innate immune response to promote remyelination in clinical myelin disease.

  4. Dust events, pulmonary diseases and immune system

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Nafiseh; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Rezaei, Abbas; Grunig, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Incidences of sand storms have increased in recent years and there is evidence that these dusts can move across long distances. Sand dusts have different adverse effects on health, but one of the most important of them is pulmonary disease. After inhalation of dust, many dust particles are moved to the airways. Dust particles can be sensed by airways epithelial cells, activate macrophages, dendritic cells and innate immune cells and then initiate responses in various populations of specific immune cells such as T helper cells subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17), T cytotoxic cells and B cells. Initiation of inflammatory immune responses, activation of immune cells and releases of many cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory molecules, have variable pathologic affects on lung in different respiratory diseases. Unfortunately control of desert dusts is more difficult than control of air pollution. For prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases that are caused by desert dusts, researchers need well-designed epidemiological studies, combined with analysis of the precise composition of sand dusts, and the precise mechanisms of the immune responses. Recognizing the exact cellular and molecular immune mechanisms would be very useful to find new approaches for treatment of desert dust associated pulmonary diseases. PMID:24660118

  5. Autopolyreactivity Confers a Holistic Role in the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Avrameas, S

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we summarize and discuss some key findings from the study of naturally occurring autoantibodies. The B-cell compartment of the immune system appears to recognize almost all endogenous and environmental antigens. This ability is accomplished principally through autopolyreactive humoral and cellular immune receptors. This extended autopolyreactivity (1) along immunoglobulin gene recombination contributes to the immune system's ability to recognize a very large number of self and non-self constituents; and (2) generates a vast immune network that creates communication channels between the organism's interior and exterior. Thus, the immune system continuously evolves depending on the internal and external stimuli it encounters. Furthermore, this far-reaching network's existence implies activities resembling those of classical biological factors or activities that modulate the function of other classical biological factors. A few such antibodies have already been found. Another important concept is that natural autoantibodies are highly dependent on the presence or absence of commensal microbes in the organism. These results are in line with past and recent findings showing the fundamental influence of the microbiota on proper immune system development, and necessitate the existence of a host-microbe homeostasis. This homeostasis requires that the participating humoral and cellular receptors are able to recognize self-antigens and commensal microbes without damaging them. Autopolyreactive immune receptors expressing low affinity for both types of antigens fulfil this role. The immune system appears to play a holistic role similar to that of the nervous system.

  6. Recognition of bacterial plant pathogens: local, systemic and transgenerational immunity.

    PubMed

    Henry, Elizabeth; Yadeta, Koste A; Coaker, Gitta

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial pathogens can cause multiple plant diseases and plants rely on their innate immune system to recognize and actively respond to these microbes. The plant innate immune system comprises extracellular pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved microbial patterns and intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize specific bacterial effectors delivered into host cells. Plants lack the adaptive immune branch present in animals, but still afford flexibility to pathogen attack through systemic and transgenerational resistance. Here, we focus on current research in plant immune responses against bacterial pathogens. Recent studies shed light onto the activation and inactivation of pattern recognition receptors and systemic acquired resistance. New research has also uncovered additional layers of complexity surrounding NLR immune receptor activation, cooperation and sub-cellular localizations. Taken together, these recent advances bring us closer to understanding the web of molecular interactions responsible for coordinating defense responses and ultimately resistance.

  7. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations. PMID:27142278

  8. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations.

  9. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  10. Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A ... That Shot? en español Las vacunas Why Are Vaccinations Important? Measles, mumps, and whooping cough may seem ...

  11. An Immunity-Based Anomaly Detection System with Sensor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user's command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems. PMID:22291560

  12. Taenia solium: immune response against oral or systemic immunization with purified recombinant calreticulin in mice.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Ruiz-Tovar, Karina; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Flisser, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant functional Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) confers different degrees of protection in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response induced after oral or systemic immunization with an electroeluted rTsCRT in BALB/c mice. Oral immunization elicited high fecal IgA and the production of IL-4 and IL-5 by mesenteric lymph node cells after in vitro stimulation with rTSCRT, indicating a Th2 response. Mice subcutaneously immunized produced high amounts of serum IgG, being IgG1 (Th2-related) the predominant isotype, while in vitro stimulated spleen cells synthesized IL-4, IL-5 and also IFN-γ, indicating a mixed Th1/Th2 cellular response after systemic immunization. Our data show that purified rTsCRT induces polarized Th2 responses after oral immunization of mice, a common characteristic of protective immunity against helminths and, consequently, a desirable hallmark in the search for a vaccine.

  13. Ultrathin Alvarez lens system actuated by artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Petsch, S; Grewe, A; Köbele, L; Sinzinger, S; Zappe, H

    2016-04-01

    A key feature of Alvarez lenses is that they may be tuned in focal length using lateral rather than axial translation, thus reducing the overall length of a focus-tunable optical system. Nevertheless the bulk of classical microsystems actuators limits further miniaturization. We present here a new, ultrathin focus-tunable Alvarez lens fabricated using molding techniques and actuated using liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) artificial muscle actuators. The large deformation generated by the LCE actuators permits the integration of the actuators in-plane with the mechanical and optical system and thus reduces the device thickness to only 1.6 mm. Movement of the Alvarez lens pair of 178 μm results in a focal length change of 3.3 mm, based on an initial focal length of 28.4 mm. This design is of considerable interest for realization of ultraflat focus-tunable and zoom systems. PMID:27139677

  14. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  15. New insights into innate immune control of systemic candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Lionakis, Michail S

    2014-08-01

    Systemic infection caused by Candida species is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in modern hospitals and carries high morbidity and mortality despite antifungal therapy. A recent surge of immunological studies in the mouse models of systemic candidiasis and the parallel discovery and phenotypic characterization of inherited genetic disorders in antifungal immune factors that are associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to the infection have provided new insights into the cellular and molecular basis of protective innate immune responses against Candida. In this review, the new developments in our understanding of how the mammalian immune system responds to systemic Candida challenge are synthesized and important future research directions are highlighted.

  16. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early

  17. Dynamic evolution of the innate immune system in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sackton, Timothy B; Lazzaro, Brian P; Schlenke, Todd A; Evans, Jay D; Hultmark, Dan; Clark, Andrew G

    2007-12-01

    The availability of complete genome sequence from 12 Drosophila species presents the opportunity to examine how natural selection has affected patterns of gene family evolution and sequence divergence among different components of the innate immune system. We have identified orthologs and paralogs of 245 Drosophila melanogaster immune-related genes in these recently sequenced genomes. Genes encoding effector proteins, and to a lesser extent genes encoding recognition proteins, are much more likely to vary in copy number across species than genes encoding signaling proteins. Furthermore, we can trace the apparent recent origination of several evolutionarily novel immune-related genes and gene families. Using codon-based likelihood methods, we show that immune-system genes, and especially those encoding recognition proteins, evolve under positive darwinian selection. Positively selected sites within recognition proteins cluster in domains involved in recognition of microorganisms, suggesting that molecular interactions between hosts and pathogens may drive adaptive evolution in the Drosophila immune system.

  18. Nociception and role of immune system in pain.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Ahmed, Ahad S

    2015-09-01

    Both pain and inflammation are protective responses. However, these self-limiting conditions (with well-established negative feedback loops) become pathological if left uncontrolled. Both pain and inflammation can interact with each other in a multi-dimensional manner. These interactions are known to create an array of 'difficult to manage' pathologies. This review explains in detail the role of immune system and the related cells in peripheral sensitization and neurogenic inflammation. Various neuro-immune interactions are analyzed at peripheral, sensory and central nervous system levels. Innate immunity plays a critical role in central sensitization and in establishing acute pain as chronic condition. Moreover, inflammatory mediators also exhibit psychological effects, thus contributing towards the emotional elements associated with pain. However, there is also a considerable anti-inflammatory and analgesic role of immune system. This review also attempts to enlist various novel pharmacological approaches that exhibit their actions through modification of neuro-immune interface.

  19. The immune system and cancer evasion strategies: therapeutic concepts.

    PubMed

    Muenst, S; Läubli, H; Soysal, S D; Zippelius, A; Tzankov, A; Hoeller, S

    2016-06-01

    The complicated interplay between cancer and the host immune system has been studied for decades. New insights into the human immune system as well as the mechanisms by which tumours evade immune control have led to the new and innovative therapeutic strategies that are considered amongst the medical breakthroughs of the last few years. Here, we will review the current understanding of cancer immunology in general, including immune surveillance and immunoediting, with a detailed look at immune cells (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, macrophages and dendritic cells), immune checkpoints and regulators, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) and other mechanisms. We will also present examples of new immune therapies able to reverse immune evasion strategies of tumour cells. Finally, we will focus on therapies that are already used in daily oncological practice such as the blockade of immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) in patients with metastatic melanoma or advanced lung cancer, or therapies currently being tested in clinical trials such as adoptive T-cell transfer.

  20. Blowing on embers: commensal microbiota and our immune system.

    PubMed

    Spasova, Darina S; Surh, Charles D

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates have co-evolved with microorganisms resulting in a symbiotic relationship, which plays an important role in health and disease. Skin and mucosal surfaces are colonized with a diverse population of commensal microbiota, over 1000 species, outnumbering the host cells by 10-fold. In the past 40 years, studies have built on the idea that commensal microbiota is in constant contact with the host immune system and thus influence immune function. Recent studies, focusing on mutualism in the gut, have shown that commensal microbiota seems to play a critical role in the development and homeostasis of the host immune system. In particular, the gut microbiota appears to direct the organization and maturation of lymphoid tissues and acts both locally and systemically to regulate the recruitment, differentiation, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. While the pace of research in the area of the mucosal-immune interface has certainly intensified over the last 10 years, we are still in the early days of this field. Illuminating the mechanisms of how gut microbes shape host immunity will enhance our understanding of the causes of immune-mediated pathologies and improve the design of next-generation vaccines. This review discusses the recent advances in this field, focusing on the close relationship between the adaptive immune system and commensal microbiota, a constant and abundant source of foreign antigens.

  1. Natural selection on the Drosophila antimicrobial immune system.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Brian P

    2008-06-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of immune defenses have long attracted interest because of the special role the immune system plays in mediating the antagonistic interaction between hosts and pathogens. The antimicrobial immune system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is genetically well characterized and serves as a valuable model for studying insect and human innate immune defenses. I review here evolutionary and comparative genomic analyses of insect antimicrobial immune genes, with an emphasis on Drosophila. Core signal transduction pathways in the immune system are orthologously conserved across long evolutionary distances, but genes in these pathways evolve rapidly and adaptively at the amino acid sequence level. By contrast, families of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides are remarkably dynamic in genomic duplication and deletion, yet individual genes show little indication of adaptive sequence evolution. Pattern recognition receptors that trigger humoral immunity are evolutionarily rather static, but receptors required for phagocytosis show considerable genomic rearrangement and adaptive sequence divergence. The distinct evolutionary patterns exhibited by these various classes of immune system genes can be logically connected to the functions of the proteins they encode.

  2. A cognitive computational model inspired by the immune system response.

    PubMed

    Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim

    2014-01-01

    The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective.

  3. A Cognitive Computational Model Inspired by the Immune System Response

    PubMed Central

    Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim

    2014-01-01

    The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective. PMID:25003131

  4. Design of speaker recognition system based on artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanhong; Wang, Li; Lin, Han; Li, Jinlong

    2012-10-01

    Speaker recognition is to recognize speaker's identity from its voice which contains physiological and behavioral characteristics unique to each individual. In this paper, the artificial neural network model, which has very good capacity of non-linear division in characteristic space, is used for pattern matching. The speaker's sample characteristic domain is built for his mixed voice characteristic signals based on Kmeanlbg algorithm. Then the dimension of the inputting eigenvector is reduced, and the redundant information is got rid of. On this basis, BP neural network is used to divide capacity area for characteristic space nonlinearly, and the BP neural network acts as a classifier for the speaker. Finally, a speaker recognition system based on the neural network is realized and the experiment results validate the recognition performance and robustness of the system.

  5. Artificial neural networks to model and diagnose cardiovascular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Allen, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and. the actual variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  6. A Bio-Inspired Electromechanical System: Artificial Hair Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kang-Hun

    Inspired by recent biophysical study on the auditory sensory organs, we study electromechanical system which functions similar to the hair cell of the ear. One of the important mechanisms of hair cells, adaptation, is mimicked by an electromechanical feedback loop. The proposed artificial hair cell functions similar to a living sensory organ in the sense that it senses input force signal in spite of the relatively strong noise. Numerical simulation of the proposed system shows otoacoustic sound emission, which was observed in the experiments on the hair cells of the bullfrog. This spontaneous motion is noise-induced periodic motion which is controlled by the time scale of adaptation process and the mechanical damping.

  7. Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

  8. Unbalanced Immune System: Immunodeficiencies and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Giardino, Giuliana; Gallo, Vera; Prencipe, Rosaria; Gaudino, Giovanni; Romano, Roberta; De Cataldis, Marco; Lorello, Paola; Palamaro, Loredana; Di Giacomo, Chiara; Capalbo, Donatella; Cirillo, Emilia; D’Assante, Roberta; Pignata, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Increased risk of developing autoimmune manifestations has been identified in different primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). In such conditions, autoimmunity and immune deficiency represent intertwined phenomena that reflect inadequate immune function. Autoimmunity in PIDs may be caused by different mechanisms, including defects of tolerance to self-antigens and persistent stimulation as a result of the inability to eradicate antigens. This general immune dysregulation leads to compensatory and exaggerated chronic inflammatory responses that lead to tissue damage and autoimmunity. Each PID may be characterized by distinct, peculiar autoimmune manifestations. Moreover, different pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie autoimmunity in PID. In this review, the main autoimmune manifestations observed in different PID, including humoral immunodeficiencies, combined immunodeficiencies, and syndromes with immunodeficiencies, are summarized. When possible, the pathogenetic mechanism underlying autoimmunity in a specific PID has been explained. PMID:27766253

  9. CNS Remyelination and the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    McMurran, Christopher E.; Jones, Clare A.; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A misguided inflammatory response is frequently implicated in myelin damage. Particularly prominent among myelin diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition, with immune–mediated damage central to its etiology. Nevertheless, a robust inflammatory response is also essential for the efficient regeneration of myelin sheaths after such injury. Here, we discuss the functions of inflammation that promote remyelination, and how these have been experimentally disentangled from the pathological facets of the immune response. We focus on the contributions that resident microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages make to remyelination and compare the roles of these two populations of innate immune cells. Finally, the current literature is framed in the context of developing therapies that manipulate the innate immune response to promote remyelination in clinical myelin disease. PMID:27200350

  10. Artificial intelligence methods in deregulated power systems operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Jovan

    With the introduction of the power systems deregulation, many classical power transmission and distribution optimization tools became inadequate. Optimal Power Flow and Unit Commitment are common computer programs used in the regulated power industry. This work is addressing the Optimal Power Flow and Unit Commitment in the new deregulated environment. Optimal Power Flow is a high dimensional, non-linear, and non-convex optimization problem. As such, it is even now, after forty years since its introduction, a research topic without a widely accepted solution able to encompass all areas of interest. Unit Commitment is a high dimensional, combinatorial problem which should ideally include the Optimal Power Flow in its solution. The dimensionality of a typical Unit Commitment problem is so great that even the enumeration of all the combinations would take too much time for any practical purposes. This dissertation attacks the Optimal Power Flow problem using non-traditional tools from the Artificial Intelligence arena. Artificial Intelligence optimization methods are based on stochastic principles. Usually, stochastic optimization methods are successful where all other classical approaches fail. We will use Genetic Programming optimization for both Optimal Power Flow and Unit Commitment. Long processing times will also be addressed through supervised machine learning.

  11. Inorganic nanoparticles and the immune system: detection, selective activation and tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastús, Neus G.; Sánchez-Tilló, Ester; Pujals, Silvia; Comenge, Joan; Giralt, Ernest; Celada, Antonio; Lloberas, Jorge; Puntes, Victor F.

    2012-03-01

    The immune system is the responsible for body integrity and prevention of external invasion. On one side, nanoparticles are no triggers that the immune system is prepared to detect, on the other side it is known that foreign bodies, not only bacteria, viruses and parasites, but also inorganic matter, can cause various pathologies such as silicosis, asbestosis or inflammatory reactions. Therefore, nanoparticles entering the body, after interaction with proteins, will be either recognized as self-agents or detected by the immune system, encompassing immunostimulation or immunosuppression responses. The nature of these interactions seems to be dictated not specially by the composition of the material but by modifications of NP coating (composition, surface charge and structure). Herein, we explore the use of gold nanoparticles as substrates to carry multifunctional ligands to manipulate the immune system in a controlled manner, from undetection to immunostimulation. Murine bone marrow macrophages can be activated with artificial nanometric objects consisting of a gold nanoparticle functionalized with peptides. In the presence of some conjugates, macrophage proliferation was stopped and pro-inflammatory cytokines were induced. The biochemical type of response depended on the type of conjugated peptide and was correlated with the degree of ordering in the peptide coating. These findings help to illustrate the basic requirements involved in medical NP conjugate design to either activate the immune system or hide from it, in order to reach their targets before being removed by phagocytes. Additionally, it opens up the possibility to modulate the immune response in order to suppress unwanted responses resulting from autoimmunity, or allergy or to stimulate protective responses against pathogens.

  12. [Cellular immunotherapy: complexity of immune system and industrial development].

    PubMed

    Abastado, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Cell immunotherapy aims at treating patients by stimulating their own immune system using appropriate cells. This approach is one of the most promising therapeutic strategy against cancer. The use of cells, the mobilization of a system, the targeting of interactions between the immune system and the tumor constitute the hallmarks of complexity, an area of intense academic and industrial research during the past twenty years. The present article reviews some unique characteristics of the industrial development of these cell drugs.

  13. Autophagy as a Stress Response Pathway in the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Abhisek; Eissa, N Tony

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy, hereafter, referred to as autophagy, has long been regarded as a housekeeping pathway involved in intracellular degradation and energy recycling. These housekeeping and homeostatic functions are especially important during cellular stress, such as periods of nutrient deprivation. However, importance of autophagy extends far beyond its degradative functions. Recent evidence shows that autophagy plays an essential role in development, organization and functions of the immune system, and defects in autophagy lead to several diseases, including cancer and autoimmunity. In the immune system, autophagy is important in regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. This review focuses on the roles of autophagy in the adaptive immune system. We first introduce the autophagy pathway and provide a brief description of the major molecular players involved in autophagy. We then discuss the importance of autophagy as a stress integrator mechanism and provide relevant examples of this role of autophagy in adaptive immune cells. Then we proceed to describe how autophagy regulates development, activation and functions of different adaptive immune cells. In these contexts, we mention both degradative and non-degradative roles of autophagy, and illustrate their importance. We also discuss role of autophagy in antigen presenting cells, which play critical roles in the activation of adaptive immune cells. Further, we describe how autophagy regulates functions of different adaptive immune cells during infection, inflammation and autoimmunity.

  14. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system.

    PubMed

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh

    2016-02-01

    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system.

  15. Multi-System Effects of Daily Artificial Gravity Exposures in Humans Deconditioned by Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2007-01-01

    We have begun to explore the utility of intermittent artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure to the untoward health and performance effects of adaptation to decreased gravity during prolonged space flight. The first study in this exploration was jointly designed by an international, multi-disciplinary team of scientists interested in standardizing an approach so that comparable data could be obtained from follow-on studies performed in multiple international locations. Fifteen rigorously screened male volunteers participated in the study after providing written informed consent. All were subjected to 21 days of 6deg head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple observations were made of dependent measures in the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immune, and behavioral systems during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period. Comparisons between the treatment and control subjects demonstrated salutary effects of the AG exposure on aspects of the muscle and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Bone deconditioning was similar between the treatment and control groups, suggesting that the loading provided by this specific AG paradigm was insufficient to protect that system from deconditioning. Future work will be devoted to varying the loading duty cycle and/or coupling the AG loading with exercise to provide maximum physiological protection across all systems. Testing will also be extended to female subjects. The results of this study suggest that intermittent AG could be an effective multi-system countermeasure.

  16. Ageing and the immune system: focus on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Linehan, E; Fitzgerald, D C

    2015-03-01

    A fully functioning immune system is essential in order to maintain good health. However, the immune system deteriorates with advancing age, and this contributes to increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmunity, and cancer in the older population. Progress has been made in identifying age-related defects in the adaptive immune system. In contrast, relatively little research has been carried out on the impact of ageing on the innate immune response. This area requires further research as the innate immune system plays a crucial role in protection against infection and represents a first line of defence. Macrophages are central effector cells of the innate immune system and have many diverse functions. As a result, age-related impairments in macrophage function are likely to have important consequences for the health of the older population. It has been reported that ageing in macrophages impacts on many processes including toll-like receptor signalling, polarisation, phagocytosis, and wound repair. A detailed understanding of the impact of ageing on macrophages is required in order to develop therapeutics that will boost immune responses in the older population.

  17. The echinoderm immune system. Characters shared with vertebrate immune systems and characters arising later in deuterostome phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Smith, L C; Davidson, E H

    1994-04-15

    In summary, the characters of the echinoderm immune system that we review here can be considered to illuminate the baseline nonadaptive immune systems that were our original deuterostome heritage. We still retain--and greatly rely upon--similarly functioning, nonadaptive cellular defense systems. It is worth stressing that sea urchins are long lived, normally healthy animals that display remarkable abilities to heal wounds and combat major infections. From an external point of view, their immune systems obviously work very well. Thus, their cellular defense systems are extremely sensitive, and they respond rapidly to minor perturbations, all without any specific adaptive capabilities. These systems probably function through the transduction of signals conveying information on injury and infection, just as do the equivalent systems that underlie and back up our own adaptive immune systems, and that provide the initial series of defenses against pathogenic invasions. Many extremely interesting questions remain regarding the evolution of the deuterostome immune response. Are the echinoderm and tunicate systems the same, or have the protochordates augmented the basic phagocyte system with an as yet unidentified chordate-like character? Do the jawless fishes produce Igs that would make them similar to the sharks, or are they vertebrates without an Ig system that essentially rely on an invertebrate-like, nonspecific, activated phagocyte type of immune system? How do sharks regulate their immune system without T cells and MHC class I? How do they avoid producing autoantibodies? Future research will not only answer these questions, but those answers will also be enlightening with regard to the origins of the mammalian immune system in which ancient functions and subsystems remain. PMID:8192333

  18. Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

  19. Biomaterials-based modulation of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Austin B; Lee, Simon K C; Woods, Elliot C; Acharya, Abhinav P

    2013-01-01

    The immune system is traditionally considered from the perspective of defending against bacterial or viral infections. However, foreign materials like implants can also illicit immune responses. These immune responses are mediated by a large number of molecular signals, including cytokines, antibodies and reactive radical species, and cell types, including macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, T-cells, B-cells, and dendritic cells. Most often, these molecular signals lead to the generation of fibrous encapsulation of the biomaterials, thereby shielding the body from these biomaterials. In this review we will focus on two different types of biomaterials: those that actively modulate the immune response, as seen in antigen delivery vehicles for vaccines, and those that illicit relatively small immune response, which are important for implantable materials. The first serves to actively influence the immune response by co-opting certain immune pathways, while the second tries to mimic the properties of the host in an attempt to remain undetected by the immune system. As these are two very different end points, each type of biomaterial has been studied and developed separately and in recent years, many advances have been made in each respective area, which will be highlighted in this review. PMID:24171170

  20. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries.

  1. Visual system based on artificial retina for motion detection.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Francisco; Díaz, Javier; Ros, Eduardo; del Pino, Begoña

    2009-06-01

    We present a bioinspired model for detecting spatiotemporal features based on artificial retina response models. Event-driven processing is implemented using four kinds of cells encoding image contrast and temporal information. We have evaluated how the accuracy of motion processing depends on local contrast by using a multiscale and rank-order coding scheme to select the most important cues from retinal inputs. We have also developed some alternatives by integrating temporal feature results and obtained a new improved bioinspired matching algorithm with high stability, low error and low cost. Finally, we define a dynamic and versatile multimodal attention operator with which the system is driven to focus on different target features such as motion, colors, and textures.

  2. Variable selection for QSAR by artificial ant colony systems.

    PubMed

    Izrailev, S; Agrafiotis, D K

    2002-01-01

    Derivation of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) usually involves computational models that relate a set of input variables describing the structural properties of the molecules for which the activity has been measured to the output variable representing activity. Many of the input variables may be correlated, and it is therefore often desirable to select an optimal subset of the input variables that results in the most predictive model. In this paper we describe an optimization technique for variable selection based on artificial ant colony systems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of real ants, which are able to find the shortest path between a food source and their nest using deposits of pheromone as a communication agent. The underlying basic self-organizing principle is exploited for the construction of parsimonious QSAR models based on neural networks for several classical QSAR data sets. PMID:12184383

  3. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries. PMID:24111159

  4. Artificial Neural Network for Location Estimation in Wireless Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    In a wireless communication system, wireless location is the technique used to estimate the location of a mobile station (MS). To enhance the accuracy of MS location prediction, we propose a novel algorithm that utilizes time of arrival (TOA) measurements and the angle of arrival (AOA) information to locate MS when three base stations (BSs) are available. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are widely used techniques in various areas to overcome the problem of exclusive and nonlinear relationships. When the MS is heard by only three BSs, the proposed algorithm utilizes the intersections of three TOA circles (and the AOA line), based on various neural networks, to estimate the MS location in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm for different NLOS error distributions. The numerical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can obtain more precise location estimation under different NLOS environments. PMID:22736978

  5. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    KIYONO, Hiroshi; AZEGAMI, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer’s patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases. PMID:26460320

  6. Prenatal triclosan exposure and cord blood immune system biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Marshall, Jean

    2016-07-01

    Triclosan is widely used as an antimicrobial agent and preservative that has been hypothesized to play a role in asthma and allergic disease. The limited body of literature regarding the allergenicity of triclosan has not evaluated prenatal exposure and subsequent potential effects on the developing immune system. The objective of the present study was to determine the association between prenatal urinary triclosan concentrations and cord blood immune system biomarker concentrations. Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Biobank and were tested for three immune system biomarkers: immunoglobulin E (IgE), thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33). Triclosan concentrations were measured in urine at 6-13 weeks gestation. No statistically significant associations were observed between prenatal triclosan concentrations and elevated concentrations of any immune system biomarker (n=1219 participants). Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine how the observed findings at birth translate into childhood.

  7. The CRISPR-Cas immune system: biology, mechanisms and applications.

    PubMed

    Rath, Devashish; Amlinger, Lina; Rath, Archana; Lundgren, Magnus

    2015-10-01

    Viruses are a common threat to cellular life, not the least to bacteria and archaea who constitute the majority of life on Earth. Consequently, a variety of mechanisms to resist virus infection has evolved. A recent discovery is the adaptive immune system in prokaryotes, a type of system previously thought to be present only in vertebrates. The system, called CRISPR-Cas, provide sequence-specific adaptive immunity and fundamentally affect our understanding of virus-host interaction. CRISPR-based immunity acts by integrating short virus sequences in the cell's CRISPR locus, allowing the cell to remember, recognize and clear infections. There has been rapid advancement in our understanding of this immune system and its applications, but there are many aspects that await elucidation making the field an exciting area of research. This review provides an overview of the field and highlights unresolved issues.

  8. ALLERGIC ASTHMA AND THE DEVELOPING IMMUNE SYSTEM: A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: The predisposition towards atopic disease begins early in life, and that the risk of developing asthma is heightened following prenatal exposure to some compounds. Nonetheless, the effect of gestational aeroallergen exposure on the developing immune system is unclear....

  9. ISS Update: Space Flight and the Immune System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Brian Crucian, NASA immunologist, about the issues with space flight and the immune system. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and inc...

  10. The sense of place in the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Cahalan, Michael D; Gutman, George A

    2009-01-01

    This series of reviews examines the effect of differing tissue environments on the activity and functional capacity of cells in the immune system. From their origins as hematopoietic stem cells, throughout their development and as mature cells, cells of the immune system find themselves in distinct and highly specialized niches, and contact with antigen or inflammatory signals changes their phenotype, activity and trafficking. Two-photon microscopy has provided the first direct observations of living cells and their activation choreography in the tissue environment and will no doubt continue to provide greater understanding of cellular dynamics and immune function. PMID:16550194

  11. Ion-exchange polymer artificial muscle and actuating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Dominique; Tondu, Bertrand; Lopez, Pierre; Aurelle, Yves; Ricard, Alain

    1996-04-01

    Chemomechanical transformations are used to produce a mechanical force from a reversible chemical reaction in order to generate artificial muscular contraction, on the model of the biological muscle. The design and experimentation of an original artificial muscle using an ion-exchange polymer which reacts inside a soft envelope, derived from research on pneumatic artificial McKibben muscle, is presented. Then a chemomechanical actuator constituted of two artificial muscles has been conceived: first results are shown on position control in open-loop mode.

  12. Human immune system mice immunized with Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induce protective human humoral immunity against malaria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Li, Xiangming; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G A; Zhang, Min; Mitchell, Robert; Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Tsao, Tiffany; Noe, Amy R; Ayala, Ramses; Sahi, Vincent; Gutierrez, Gabriel M; Nussenzweig, Victor; Wilson, James M; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we developed human immune system (HIS) mice that possess functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, named HIS-CD4/B mice. HIS-CD4/B mice were generated by first introducing HLA class II genes, including DR1 and DR4, along with genes encoding various human cytokines and human B cell activation factor (BAFF) to NSG mice by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HIS-CD4/B mice, in which the reconstitution of human CD4+ T and B cells resembles to that of humans, produced a significant level of human IgG against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (PfCS) protein upon immunization. CD4+ T cells in HIS-CD4/B mice, which possess central and effector memory phenotypes like those in humans, are functional, since PfCS protein-specific human CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected in immunized HIS-CD4/B mice. Lastly, PfCS protein-immunized HIS-CD4/B mice were protected from in vivo challenge with transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein. The immune sera collected from protected HIS-CD4/B mice reacted against transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein and also inhibited the parasite invasion into hepatocytes in vitro. Taken together, these studies show that our HIS-CD4/B mice could mount protective human anti-malaria immunity, consisting of human IgG and human CD4+ T cell responses both specific for a human malaria antigen.

  13. Human immune system mice immunized with Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induce protective human humoral immunity against malaria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Li, Xiangming; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G A; Zhang, Min; Mitchell, Robert; Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Tsao, Tiffany; Noe, Amy R; Ayala, Ramses; Sahi, Vincent; Gutierrez, Gabriel M; Nussenzweig, Victor; Wilson, James M; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we developed human immune system (HIS) mice that possess functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, named HIS-CD4/B mice. HIS-CD4/B mice were generated by first introducing HLA class II genes, including DR1 and DR4, along with genes encoding various human cytokines and human B cell activation factor (BAFF) to NSG mice by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HIS-CD4/B mice, in which the reconstitution of human CD4+ T and B cells resembles to that of humans, produced a significant level of human IgG against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (PfCS) protein upon immunization. CD4+ T cells in HIS-CD4/B mice, which possess central and effector memory phenotypes like those in humans, are functional, since PfCS protein-specific human CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected in immunized HIS-CD4/B mice. Lastly, PfCS protein-immunized HIS-CD4/B mice were protected from in vivo challenge with transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein. The immune sera collected from protected HIS-CD4/B mice reacted against transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein and also inhibited the parasite invasion into hepatocytes in vitro. Taken together, these studies show that our HIS-CD4/B mice could mount protective human anti-malaria immunity, consisting of human IgG and human CD4+ T cell responses both specific for a human malaria antigen. PMID:26410104

  14. Assessing the human immune system through blood transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Blood is the pipeline of the immune system. Assessing changes in transcript abundance in blood on a genome-wide scale affords a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system in health and disease. This review summarizes the work that has used this approach to identify therapeutic targets and biomarker signatures in the field of autoimmunity and infectious disease. Recent technological and methodological advances that will carry the blood transcriptome research field forward are also discussed. PMID:20619006

  15. Evasion of the human innate immune system by dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Pagni, Sarah; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus is a worldwide health problem, with billions of people at risk annually. Dengue virus causes a spectrum of diseases, namely dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome with the latter two being linked to death. Understanding how dengue is able to evade the immune system and cause enhanced severity of disease is the main topics of interest in the Fernandez-Sesma laboratory at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Using primary human immune cells, our group investigates the contribution of dengue virus-specific proteins to the evasion of innate immunity by this virus and the host factors that the virus interacts with in order to evade immune recognition and to establish infection in humans. Here, we review recent findings from our group as well as published data from other groups regarding immune modulation by dengue virus. PMID:22569913

  16. [Design and construction of artificial biological systems for complex natural products biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfeng; Meng, Hailin; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Natural products (NPs) are important drug pools for human disease prevention and treatment. The great advances in synthetic biology have greatly revolutionized the strategies of NPs development and production. This review entitled with design and construction of artificial biological systems for complex NPs biosynthesis, mainly introduced the progresses in artificial design of synthetic biological parts, naturally mining novel synthetic parts of NPs, the assembly & adaption of the artificial biological modules & systems.

  17. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  18. The immune system and its modulation mechanism in scallop.

    PubMed

    Song, Linsheng; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Mengqiang

    2015-09-01

    Scallops are a cosmopolitan family of bivalves, and some of them are highly prized as dominant aquaculture species. In the past decades, there have been increasing studies on the basic biology and immunology of scallops, and this review summarizes the research progresses of immune system and its modulation mechanism in scallop. As invertebrate, scallops lack adaptive immunity and they have evolved an array of sophisticated strategies to recognize and eliminate various invaders by employing a set of molecules and cells. It is evident that basic immune reactions such as immune recognition, signal transduction, and effector synthesis involved in immune response are accomplished in a variety of ways. They rely upon an extensive repertoire of phagocytosis, apoptosis and encapsulation of the circulating hemocytes for eliminating invasive pathogens, as well as the production of immune effectors that are active against a large range of pathogens or sensitive for the environmental stress. Furthermore, the molecular constitutions, metabolic pathways and immunomodulation mechanisms of the primitive catecholaminergic, cholinergic, enkephalinergic system and NO system in scallop are also discussed, which can be taken as an entrance to better understand the origin and evolution of the neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in lower invertebrates.

  19. Traumatic spinal cord injury in mice with human immune systems

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Randall S.; Kigerl, Kristina A.; Marbourg, Jessica M.; Gaudet, Andrew D.; Huey, Devra; Niewiesk, Stefan; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have provided key insight into the cellular and molecular control of human immune system function. However, recent data indicate that extrapolating the functional capabilities of the murine immune system into humans can be misleading. Since immune cells significantly affect neuron survival and axon growth and also are required to defend the body against infection, it is important to determine the pathophysiological significance of spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced changes in human immune system function. Research projects using monkeys or humans would be ideal; however, logistical and ethical barriers preclude detailed mechanistic studies in either species. Humanized mice, i.e., immunocompromised mice reconstituted with human immune cells, can help overcome these barriers and can be applied in various experimental conditions that are of interest to the SCI community. Specifically, newborn NOD-SCID-IL2rgnull (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells develop normally without neurological impairment. In this report, new data show that when mice with human immune systems receive a clinically-relevant spinal contusion injury, spontaneous functional recovery is indistinguishable from that achieved after SCI using conventional inbred mouse strains. Moreover, using routine immunohistochemical and flow cytometry techniques, one can easily phenotype circulating human immune cells and document the composition and distribution of these cells in the injured spinal cord. Lesion pathology in humanized mice is typical of mouse contusion injuries, producing a centralized lesion epicenter that becomes occupied by phagocytic macrophages and lymphocytes and enclosed by a dense astrocytic scar. Specific human immune cell types, including three distinct subsets of human monocytes, were readily detected in blood, spleen and liver. Future studies that aim to understand the functional consequences of manipulating the neuro-immune axis after SCI should

  20. Traumatic spinal cord injury in mice with human immune systems.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Randall S; Kigerl, Kristina A; Marbourg, Jessica M; Gaudet, Andrew D; Huey, Devra; Niewiesk, Stefan; Popovich, Phillip G

    2015-09-01

    Mouse models have provided key insight into the cellular and molecular control of human immune system function. However, recent data indicate that extrapolating the functional capabilities of the murine immune system into humans can be misleading. Since immune cells significantly affect neuron survival and axon growth and also are required to defend the body against infection, it is important to determine the pathophysiological significance of spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced changes in human immune system function. Research projects using monkeys or humans would be ideal; however, logistical and ethical barriers preclude detailed mechanistic studies in either species. Humanized mice, i.e., immunocompromised mice reconstituted with human immune cells, can help overcome these barriers and can be applied in various experimental conditions that are of interest to the SCI community. Specifically, newborn NOD-SCID-IL2rg(null) (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells develop normally without neurological impairment. In this report, new data show that when mice with human immune systems receive a clinically-relevant spinal contusion injury, spontaneous functional recovery is indistinguishable from that achieved after SCI using conventional inbred mouse strains. Moreover, using routine immunohistochemical and flow cytometry techniques, one can easily phenotype circulating human immune cells and document the composition and distribution of these cells in the injured spinal cord. Lesion pathology in humanized mice is typical of mouse contusion injuries, producing a centralized lesion epicenter that becomes occupied by phagocytic macrophages and lymphocytes and enclosed by a dense astrocytic scar. Specific human immune cell types, including three distinct subsets of human monocytes, were readily detected in the blood, spleen and liver. Future studies that aim to understand the functional consequences of manipulating the neuro-immune axis after SCI

  1. Traumatic spinal cord injury in mice with human immune systems.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Randall S; Kigerl, Kristina A; Marbourg, Jessica M; Gaudet, Andrew D; Huey, Devra; Niewiesk, Stefan; Popovich, Phillip G

    2015-09-01

    Mouse models have provided key insight into the cellular and molecular control of human immune system function. However, recent data indicate that extrapolating the functional capabilities of the murine immune system into humans can be misleading. Since immune cells significantly affect neuron survival and axon growth and also are required to defend the body against infection, it is important to determine the pathophysiological significance of spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced changes in human immune system function. Research projects using monkeys or humans would be ideal; however, logistical and ethical barriers preclude detailed mechanistic studies in either species. Humanized mice, i.e., immunocompromised mice reconstituted with human immune cells, can help overcome these barriers and can be applied in various experimental conditions that are of interest to the SCI community. Specifically, newborn NOD-SCID-IL2rg(null) (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells develop normally without neurological impairment. In this report, new data show that when mice with human immune systems receive a clinically-relevant spinal contusion injury, spontaneous functional recovery is indistinguishable from that achieved after SCI using conventional inbred mouse strains. Moreover, using routine immunohistochemical and flow cytometry techniques, one can easily phenotype circulating human immune cells and document the composition and distribution of these cells in the injured spinal cord. Lesion pathology in humanized mice is typical of mouse contusion injuries, producing a centralized lesion epicenter that becomes occupied by phagocytic macrophages and lymphocytes and enclosed by a dense astrocytic scar. Specific human immune cell types, including three distinct subsets of human monocytes, were readily detected in the blood, spleen and liver. Future studies that aim to understand the functional consequences of manipulating the neuro-immune axis after SCI

  2. The Mucosal Immune System and Its Regulation by Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kabat, Agnieszka M.; Pott, Johanna; Maloy, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract presents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system, which has to constantly monitor the vast surface for the presence of pathogens, while at the same time maintaining tolerance to beneficial or innocuous antigens. In the intestinal mucosa, specialized innate and adaptive immune components participate in directing appropriate immune responses toward these diverse challenges. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that the process of autophagy influences several aspects of mucosal immune responses. Initially described as a “self-eating” survival pathway that enables nutrient recycling during starvation, autophagy has now been connected to multiple cellular responses, including several aspects of immunity. Initial links between autophagy and host immunity came from the observations that autophagy can target intracellular bacteria for degradation. However, subsequent studies indicated that autophagy plays a much broader role in immune responses, as it can impact antigen processing, thymic selection, lymphocyte homeostasis, and the regulation of immunoglobulin and cytokine secretion. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of mucosal immune cells and discuss how autophagy influences many aspects of their physiology and function. We focus on cell type-specific roles of autophagy in the gut, with a particular emphasis on the effects of autophagy on the intestinal T cell compartment. We also provide a perspective on how manipulation of autophagy may potentially be used to treat mucosal inflammatory disorders. PMID:27446072

  3. The Mucosal Immune System and Its Regulation by Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Agnieszka M; Pott, Johanna; Maloy, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract presents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system, which has to constantly monitor the vast surface for the presence of pathogens, while at the same time maintaining tolerance to beneficial or innocuous antigens. In the intestinal mucosa, specialized innate and adaptive immune components participate in directing appropriate immune responses toward these diverse challenges. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that the process of autophagy influences several aspects of mucosal immune responses. Initially described as a "self-eating" survival pathway that enables nutrient recycling during starvation, autophagy has now been connected to multiple cellular responses, including several aspects of immunity. Initial links between autophagy and host immunity came from the observations that autophagy can target intracellular bacteria for degradation. However, subsequent studies indicated that autophagy plays a much broader role in immune responses, as it can impact antigen processing, thymic selection, lymphocyte homeostasis, and the regulation of immunoglobulin and cytokine secretion. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of mucosal immune cells and discuss how autophagy influences many aspects of their physiology and function. We focus on cell type-specific roles of autophagy in the gut, with a particular emphasis on the effects of autophagy on the intestinal T cell compartment. We also provide a perspective on how manipulation of autophagy may potentially be used to treat mucosal inflammatory disorders. PMID:27446072

  4. The Mucosal Immune System and Its Regulation by Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Agnieszka M; Pott, Johanna; Maloy, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract presents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system, which has to constantly monitor the vast surface for the presence of pathogens, while at the same time maintaining tolerance to beneficial or innocuous antigens. In the intestinal mucosa, specialized innate and adaptive immune components participate in directing appropriate immune responses toward these diverse challenges. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that the process of autophagy influences several aspects of mucosal immune responses. Initially described as a "self-eating" survival pathway that enables nutrient recycling during starvation, autophagy has now been connected to multiple cellular responses, including several aspects of immunity. Initial links between autophagy and host immunity came from the observations that autophagy can target intracellular bacteria for degradation. However, subsequent studies indicated that autophagy plays a much broader role in immune responses, as it can impact antigen processing, thymic selection, lymphocyte homeostasis, and the regulation of immunoglobulin and cytokine secretion. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of mucosal immune cells and discuss how autophagy influences many aspects of their physiology and function. We focus on cell type-specific roles of autophagy in the gut, with a particular emphasis on the effects of autophagy on the intestinal T cell compartment. We also provide a perspective on how manipulation of autophagy may potentially be used to treat mucosal inflammatory disorders.

  5. Multifaceted interactions between adaptive immunity and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-19

    Neuroimmunologists seek to understand the interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system, both under homeostatic conditions and in diseases. Unanswered questions include those relating to the diversity and specificity of the meningeal T cell repertoire; the routes taken by immune cells that patrol the meninges under healthy conditions and invade the parenchyma during pathology; the opposing effects (beneficial or detrimental) of these cells on CNS function; the role of immune cells after CNS injury; and the evolutionary link between the two systems, resulting in their tight interaction and interdependence. This Review summarizes the current standing of and challenging questions related to interactions between adaptive immunity and the CNS and considers the possible directions in which these aspects of neuroimmunology will be heading over the next decade. PMID:27540163

  6. Nanoparticle-Based Modulation of the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ronnie H; Zhang, Liangfang

    2016-06-01

    The immune system is an incredibly complex biological network that plays a significant role in almost all disease pathogenesis. With an increased understanding of how this vital system operates, there has been a great emphasis on leveraging, manipulating, and/or supplementing endogenous immunity to better prevent or treat different disease states. More recently, the advent of nanotechnology has ushered in a plethora of new nanoparticle-based platforms that can be used to improve existing immunomodulation modalities. As the ability to engineer at the nanoscale becomes increasingly sophisticated, nanoparticles can be finely tuned to effect the desired immune responses, leading to exciting new avenues for addressing pressing issues in public health. In this review, we give an overview of the different areas in which nanoparticle technology has been applied toward modulating the immune system and highlight the recent advances within each.

  7. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Shurin, Michael; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure-activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle-immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials.

  8. Metabolites: messengers between the microbiota and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Levy, Maayan; Thaiss, Christoph A; Elinav, Eran

    2016-07-15

    The mammalian intestine harbors one of the largest microbial densities on Earth, necessitating the implementation of control mechanisms by which the host evaluates the state of microbial colonization and reacts to deviations from homeostasis. While microbial recognition by the innate immune system has been firmly established as an efficient means by which the host evaluates microbial presence, recent work has uncovered a central role for bacterial metabolites in the orchestration of the host immune response. In this review, we highlight examples of how microbiota-modulated metabolites control the development, differentiation, and activity of the immune system and classify them into functional categories that illustrate the spectrum of ways by which microbial metabolites influence host physiology. A comprehensive understanding of how microbiota-derived metabolites shape the human immune system is critical for the rational design of therapies for microbiota-driven diseases.

  9. Trauma: the role of the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Hietbrink, F; Koenderman, L; Rijkers, GT; Leenen, LPH

    2006-01-01

    Immune dysfunction can provoke (multiple) organ failure in severely injured patients. This dysfunction manifests in two forms, which follow a biphasic pattern. During the first phase, in addition to the injury by trauma, organ damage is caused by the immune system during a systemic inflammatory response. During the second phase the patient is more susceptible for sepsis due to host defence failure (immune paralysis). The pathophysiological model outlined in this review encompasses etiological factors and the contribution of the innate immune system in the end organ damage. The etiological factors can be divided into intrinsic (genetic predisposition and physiological status) and extrinsic components (type of injury or "traumaload" and surgery or "intervention load"). Of all the factors, the intervention load is the only one which, can be altered by the attending emergency physician. Adjustment of the therapeutic approach and choice of the most appropriate treatment strategy can minimize the damage caused by the immune response and prevent the development of immunological paralysis. This review provides a pathophysiological basis for the damage control concept, in which a staged approach of surgery and post-traumatic immunomonitoring have become important aspects of the treatment protocol. The innate immune system is the main objective of immunomonitoring as it has the most prominent role in organ failure after trauma. Polymorphonuclear phagocytes and monocytes are the main effector-cells of the innate immune system in the processes that lead to organ failure. These cells are controlled by cytokines, chemokines, complement factors and specific tissue signals. The contribution of tissue barrier integrity and its interaction with the innate immune system is further evaluated. PMID:16759367

  10. Systemic immune system alterations in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongzhen; Miller, Robert G; Madison, Catherine; Jin, Xia; Honrada, Ronald; Harris, Will; Katz, Jonathan; Forshew, Dallas A; McGrath, Michael S

    2013-03-15

    Immune activation and inflammation play significant roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test whether AD patients showed systemic manifestations of inflammation, blood from 41 patients with early stages of AD and 31 aged-match elderly controls were evaluated. Cellular markers for monocyte/macrophage (MO) activation and CD8 T lymphocyte were increased in early AD patients. Expression of monocyte CCR2, the receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), was decreased; however, plasma MCP-1 levels were significantly increased and were related to the degree of MO activation in AD. These findings suggest that AD pathogenesis may be influenced by systemic immunologic dysfunction and provides potential immunologic targets for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Postreplication targeting of transformants by bacterial immune systems?

    PubMed

    Johnston, Calum; Martin, Bernard; Polard, Patrice; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Bacteria are constantly challenged by foreign genetic elements such as bacteriophages and plasmids. Several defense systems provide immunity against such attackers, including restriction-modification (R-M) systems and clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). These systems target attacking DNA and thus antagonize natural transformation, which relies on uptake of exogenous DNA to promote acquisition of new genetic traits. It is unclear how this antagonization occurs, because transforming DNA is single stranded, and thus resistant to these immune systems. Here, we propose a simple model whereby these systems limit transformation by attack of transformed chromosomes once double strandedness is restored by chromosomal replication.

  12. Modeling Systems-Level Regulation of Host Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Thakar, Juilee; Pilione, Mylisa; Kirimanjeswara, Girish; Harvill, Eric T; Albert, Réka

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens are able to manipulate the signaling pathways responsible for the generation of host immune responses. Here we examine and model a respiratory infection system in which disruption of host immune functions or of bacterial factors changes the dynamics of the infection. We synthesize the network of interactions between host immune components and two closely related bacteria in the genus Bordetellae. We incorporate existing experimental information on the timing of immune regulatory events into a discrete dynamic model, and verify the model by comparing the effects of simulated disruptions to the experimental outcome of knockout mutations. Our model indicates that the infection time course of both Bordetellae can be separated into three distinct phases based on the most active immune processes. We compare and discuss the effect of the species-specific virulence factors on disrupting the immune response during their infection of naive, antibody-treated, diseased, or convalescent hosts. Our model offers predictions regarding cytokine regulation, key immune components, and clearance of secondary infections; we experimentally validate two of these predictions. This type of modeling provides new insights into the virulence, pathogenesis, and host adaptation of disease-causing microorganisms and allows systems-level analysis that is not always possible using traditional methods. PMID:17559300

  13. Melanoma: oncogenic drivers and the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; González-Cao, María; Riso, Aldo; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Molina, Miguel Angel; Chaib, Imane; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Richardet, Eduardo; Bria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma over the past 30 years have contributed to a change in the consideration of melanoma as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. The finding that oncogenic BRAF mutations drive tumor growth in up to 50% of melanomas led to a molecular therapy revolution for unresectable and metastatic disease. Moving beyond BRAF, inactivation of immune regulatory checkpoints that limit T cell responses to melanoma has provided targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the molecular biology of melanoma and we focus on the recent advances of molecularly targeted and immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:26605311

  14. β-arrestins in the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ting; Liang, Jiurong

    2015-01-01

    Summary β-arrestins regulate G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) through receptor desensitization while also acting as signaling scaffolds to facilitate numerous effector pathways. Recent studies have provided evidence that β-arrestins play a key role in inflammatory responses. We here summarize these advances on the roles of β-arrestins in immune regulation and inflammatory responses under physiological and pathological conditions, with an emphasis on translational implications of β-arrestins on human diseases. PMID:23764061

  15. The immunization data quality audit: verifying the quality and consistency of immunization monitoring systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ronveaux, O.; Rickert, D.; Hadler, S.; Groom, H.; Lloyd, J.; Bchir, A.; Birmingham, M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring systems in 27 countries during 2002-03 using standardized data quality audits (DQAs) that had been launched within the framework of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. METHODS: The consistency of reporting systems was estimated by determining the proportion of third doses of diphtheria-tetanuspertussis (DTP-3) vaccine reported as being administered that could be verified by written documentation at health facilities and districts. The quality of monitoring systems was measured using quality indices for different components of the monitoring systems. These indices were applied to each level of the health service (health unit, district and national). FINDINGS: The proportion of verified DTP-3 doses was lower than 85% in 16 countries. Difficulties in verifying the doses administered often arose at the peripheral level of the health service, usually as the result of discrepancies in information between health units and their corresponding districts or because completed recording forms were not available from health units. All countries had weaknesses in their monitoring systems; these included the inconsistent use of monitoring charts; inadequate monitoring of vaccine stocks, injection supplies and adverse events; unsafe computer practices; and poor monitoring of completeness and timeliness of reporting. CONCLUSION: Inconsistencies in immunization data occur in many countries, hampering their ability to manage their immunization programmes. Countries should use these findings to strengthen monitoring systems so that data can reliably guide programme activities. The DQA is an innovative tool that provides a way to independently assess the quality of immunization monitoring systems at all levels of a health service and serves as a point of entry to make improvements. It provides a useful example for other global health initiatives. PMID:16175824

  16. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  17. The Thoratec system implanted as a modified total artificial heart: the Bad Oeynhausen technique.

    PubMed

    Arusoglu, Latif; Reiss, Nils; Morshuis, Michiel; Schoenbrodt, Michael; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Gummert, Jan

    2010-12-01

    The CardioWest™ total artificial heart (SynCardia Systems, Tuscon, AZ, USA) is the only FDA-approved total artificial heart determined as a bridge to human heart transplantation for patients dying of biventricular heart failure. Implantation provides immediate hemodynamic restoration and clinical stabilization, leading to end-organ recovery and thus eventually allowing cardiac transplantation. Occasionally, implantation of a total artificial heart is not feasible for anatomical reasons. For this patient group, we have developed an alternative technique using the paracorporeal Thoratec biventricular support system (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA, USA) as a modified total artificial heart. A detailed description of the implantation technique is presented.

  18. Sex hormones and glucocorticoids: interactions with the immune system.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, J A

    1999-06-22

    Gender and sex hormones exert powerful effects in the susceptibility and progression of numerous human and experimental autoimmune diseases. This has been attributed to direct immunological effects of sex hormones that impact a clear gender dimorphism on the immune system. Globally, estrogens depress T cell-dependent immune function and diseases, but enhance antibody production and aggravate B cell-dependent diseases. Androgens suppress both T-cell and B-cell immune responses and virtually always result in the suppression of disease expression. Defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Glucocorticoid response to stress, including immune challenge, is strongly inhibited by androgens and enhanced by estrogens. Complex three-way interactions between these systems appear to be involved in gender dimorphism of the immune system. This paper reviews the mechanisms involved in interactions between sex steroids and the HPA axis, addresses the possibility of similar interactions on immunocompetent cells, and explores an integrated perspective of the impact of these interplays on the immune system.

  19. Electronic immunization data collection systems: application of an evaluation framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluating the features and performance of health information systems can serve to strengthen the systems themselves as well as to guide other organizations in the process of designing and implementing surveillance tools. We adapted an evaluation framework in order to assess electronic immunization data collection systems, and applied it in two Ontario public health units. Methods The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems are broad in nature and serve as an organizational tool to guide the development of comprehensive evaluation materials. Based on these Guidelines, and informed by other evaluation resources and input from stakeholders in the public health community, we applied an evaluation framework to two examples of immunization data collection and examined several system attributes: simplicity, flexibility, data quality, timeliness, and acceptability. Data collection approaches included key informant interviews, logic and completeness assessments, client surveys, and on-site observations. Results Both evaluated systems allow high-quality immunization data to be collected, analyzed, and applied in a rapid fashion. However, neither system is currently able to link to other providers’ immunization data or provincial data sources, limiting the comprehensiveness of coverage assessments. We recommended that both organizations explore possibilities for external data linkage and collaborate with other jurisdictions to promote a provincial immunization repository or data sharing platform. Conclusions Electronic systems such as the ones described in this paper allow immunization data to be collected, analyzed, and applied in a rapid fashion, and represent the infostructure required to establish a population-based immunization registry, critical for comprehensively assessing vaccine coverage. PMID:24423014

  20. Artificial Intelligence Measurement System, Overview and Lessons Learned. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; Butler, Frances A.

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Artificial Intelligence Measurement System (AIMS) Project which was undertaken as an exploration of methodology to consider how the effects of artificial intelligence systems could be compared to human performance. The research covered four areas of inquiry: (1) natural language processing and…

  1. CRISPR-Cas systems: Prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2014-04-24

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control.

  2. Countermeasure for space flight effects on immune system: nutritional nucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, A. D.; Yamauchi, K.; Sundaresan, A.; Ramesh, G. T.; Pellis, N. R.

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993). In ground-based mouse models for some of the microgravity effects on the human body, hindlimb unloading (HU) has been reported to cause abnormal cell proliferation and cytokine production (Armstrong et al., 1993, Chapes et al. 1993). In this report, we document that a nutritional nucleotide supplementation as studied in ground-based microgravity analogs, has potential to serve as a countermeasure for the immune dysfunction observed in space travel.

  3. Countermeasure for space flight effects on immune system: nutritional nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, A D; Yamauchi, K; Sundaresan, A; Ramesh, G T; Pellis, N R

    2005-06-01

    Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993). In ground-based mouse models for some of the microgravity effects on the human body, hindlimb unloading (HU) has been reported to cause abnormal cell proliferation and cytokine production (Armstrong et al., 1993, Chapes et al. 1993). In this report, we document that a nutritional nucleotide supplementation as studied in ground-based microgravity analogs, has potential to serve as a countermeasure for the immune dysfunction observed in space travel.

  4. CRISPR-Cas systems: prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing, and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control. PMID:24766887

  5. An Interactive Reference Framework for Modeling a Dynamic Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Matthew H.; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K.; Bhattacharya, Nupur; Yuan, Robert T.; Hotson, Andrew N.; Finck, Rachel; Carmi, Yaron; Zunder, Eli R.; Fantl, Wendy J.; Bendall, Sean C.; Engleman, Edgar G.; Nolan, Garry P.

    2015-01-01

    Immune cells function in an interacting hierarchy that coordinates activities of various cell types according to genetic and environmental contexts. We developed graphical approaches to construct an extensible immune reference map from mass cytometry data of cells from different organs, incorporating landmark cell populations as flags on the map to compare cells from distinct samples. The maps recapitulated canonical cellular phenotypes and revealed reproducible, tissue-specific deviations. The approach revealed influences of genetic variation and circadian rhythms on immune system structure, enabled direct comparisons of murine and human blood cell phenotypes, and even enabled archival fluorescence-based flow cytometry data to be mapped onto the reference framework. This foundational reference map provides a working definition of systemic immune organization to which new data can be integrated to reveal deviations driven by genetics, environment, or pathology. PMID:26160952

  6. Comparative and Developmental Study of the Immune System in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jacques; Ohta, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    Xenopus laevis is the model of choice for evolutionary, comparative, and developmental studies of immunity, and invaluable research tools including MHC-defined clones, inbred strains, cell lines, and monoclonal antibodies are available for these studies. Recent efforts to use Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis for genetic analyses have led to the sequencing of the whole genome. Ongoing genome mapping and mutagenesis studies will provide a new dimension to the study of immunity. Here we review what is known about the immune system of X. laevis integrated with available genomic information from S. tropicalis. This review provides compelling evidence for the high degree of similarity and evolutionary conservation between Xenopus and mammalian immune systems. We propose to build a powerful and innovative comparative biomedical model based on modern genetic technologies that takes take advantage of X. laevis and S. tropicalis, as well as the whole Xenopus genus. PMID:19253402

  7. Localization and Glassy Dynamics in the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Earl, David J.; Deem, Michael W.

    We discuss use of the generalized NK model to examine evolutionary dynamics within the immune system. We describe how randomness and diversity play key roles in the immune response and how their effects are captured by this hierarchical spin glass model. We discuss analytical aspects of the model as well as practical applications to design of the annual influenza vaccine. We discuss the subtle role that the glassy evolutionary dynamics plays in suppressing autoimmune disease.

  8. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored. PMID:27733852

  9. Network modeling of membrane-based artificial cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Eric C.; Philen, Michael K.; Leo, Donald J.

    2013-04-01

    Computational models are derived for predicting the behavior of artificial cellular networks for engineering applications. The systems simulated involve the use of a biomolecular unit cell, a multiphase material that incorporates a lipid bilayer between two hydrophilic compartments. These unit cells may be considered building blocks that enable the fabrication of complex electrochemical networks. These networks can incorporate a variety of stimuli-responsive biomolecules to enable a diverse range of multifunctional behavior. Through the collective properties of these biomolecules, the system demonstrates abilities that recreate natural cellular phenomena such as mechanotransduction, optoelectronic response, and response to chemical gradients. A crucial step to increase the utility of these biomolecular networks is to develop mathematical models of their stimuli-responsive behavior. While models have been constructed deriving from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model focusing on describing the system as a combination of traditional electrical components (capacitors and resistors), these electrical elements do not sufficiently describe the phenomena seen in experiment as they are not linked to the molecular scale processes. From this realization an advanced model is proposed that links the traditional unit cell parameters such as conductance and capacitance to the molecular structure of the system. Rather than approaching the membrane as an isolated parallel plate capacitor, the model seeks to link the electrical properties to the underlying chemical characteristics. This model is then applied towards experimental cases in order that a more complete picture of the underlying phenomena responsible for the desired sensing mechanisms may be constructed. In this way the stimuli-responsive characteristics may be understood and optimized.

  10. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S.

  11. Space flight and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Cogoli, A

    1993-01-01

    Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon.

  12. Space flight and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Cogoli, A

    1993-01-01

    Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon. PMID:8488698

  13. Space flight and the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.

    1993-01-01

    Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon.

  14. Nutritionally Mediated Programming of the Developing Immune System12

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of a mother’s nutrition from preconception through lactation in programming the emerging organ systems and homeostatic pathways of her offspring. The developing immune system may be particularly vulnerable. Indeed, examples of nutrition-mediated immune programming can be found in the literature on intra-uterine growth retardation, maternal micronutrient deficiencies, and infant feeding. Current models of immune ontogeny depict a “layered” expansion of increasingly complex defenses, which may be permanently altered by maternal malnutrition. One programming mechanism involves activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to nutritional stress. Fetal or neonatal exposure to elevated stress hormones is linked in animal studies to permanent changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, with diverse manifestations such as an attenuated inflammatory response or reduced resistance to tumor colonization. Maternal malnutrition may also have a direct influence, as evidenced by nutrient-driven epigenetic changes to developing T regulatory cells and subsequent risk of allergy or asthma. A 3rd programming pathway involves placental or breast milk transfer of maternal immune factors with immunomodulatory functions (e.g. cytokines). Maternal malnutrition can directly affect transfer mechanisms or influence the quality or quantity of transferred factors. The public health implications of nutrition-mediated immune programming are of particular importance in the developing world, where prevalent maternal undernutrition is coupled with persistent infectious challenges. However, early alterations to the immune system, resulting from either nutritional deficiencies or excesses, have broad relevance for immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma, and chronic inflammatory conditions like cardiovascular disease. PMID:22332080

  15. Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

  16. Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems.

    PubMed

    Volkov, A G; Gugeshashvili, M I; Deamer, D W

    1995-01-01

    This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

  17. Peripheral education of the immune system by the colonic microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Kristine A.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the effects of host-microbial interactions on host physiologic processes. Much of the work in this arena is logically focused on the interaction at mucosal surfaces as this is a primary site of interaction. However, there is ample evidence to suggest that the effects of the microbiota have a much farther reach including the systemic immune system. While there are some similarities to effects at mucosal surfaces (i.e. reduced numbers of adaptive immune cells, diminished innate responses), there are some important differences that we highlight such as the response to immunogens and bacterial antigens. We propose that understanding the details of how specific components of the microbiota influence the systemic immune system likely will have significant impact on our understanding the pathophysiology of a variety of autoimmune diseases. PMID:24169518

  18. “Health system approach” for improving immunization program performance

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Immunization programs are one of the most well-recognized and successful public health programs across the world. The immunization programs have achieved significant successes in a number of countries; however, the coverage with available vaccines remains sub-optimal in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This article, based upon extensive review of literature and using universal immunization program (UIP) in India as a case study, summarizes the latest developments and initiatives in the area of vaccination and immunization in the last few years. The article analyzes initiatives under UIP in India from the “health system approach” and argues that it is possible to increase coverage with available vaccines and overall program performance by focused attention on various functions of health systems. It also discusses the emerging evidence that health systems could be strengthened prior to the introduction of new interventions (vaccines included) and the introduction of new interventions (including vaccines) could be planned in a way to strengthen the health systems. It concludes that immunization programs could be one of the entry points for strengthening health systems in the countries and lessons from vaccine introduction could pave pathway for scaling up other health interventions and therefore, could contribute to advancing Universal Health Coverage (UHC). PMID:26985404

  19. "Health system approach" for improving immunization program performance.

    PubMed

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Immunization programs are one of the most well-recognized and successful public health programs across the world. The immunization programs have achieved significant successes in a number of countries; however, the coverage with available vaccines remains sub-optimal in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This article, based upon extensive review of literature and using universal immunization program (UIP) in India as a case study, summarizes the latest developments and initiatives in the area of vaccination and immunization in the last few years. The article analyzes initiatives under UIP in India from the "health system approach" and argues that it is possible to increase coverage with available vaccines and overall program performance by focused attention on various functions of health systems. It also discusses the emerging evidence that health systems could be strengthened prior to the introduction of new interventions (vaccines included) and the introduction of new interventions (including vaccines) could be planned in a way to strengthen the health systems. It concludes that immunization programs could be one of the entry points for strengthening health systems in the countries and lessons from vaccine introduction could pave pathway for scaling up other health interventions and therefore, could contribute to advancing Universal Health Coverage (UHC). PMID:26985404

  20. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-03-01

    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination.

  1. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-03-01

    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination. PMID:27349114

  2. Programmed cell death in the plant immune system

    PubMed Central

    Coll, N S; Epple, P; Dangl, J L

    2011-01-01

    Cell death has a central role in innate immune responses in both plants and animals. Besides sharing striking convergences and similarities in the overall evolutionary organization of their innate immune systems, both plants and animals can respond to infection and pathogen recognition with programmed cell death. The fact that plant and animal pathogens have evolved strategies to subvert specific cell death modalities emphasizes the essential role of cell death during immune responses. The hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in plants displays morphological features, molecular architectures and mechanisms reminiscent of different inflammatory cell death types in animals (pyroptosis and necroptosis). In this review, we describe the molecular pathways leading to cell death during innate immune responses. Additionally, we present recently discovered caspase and caspase-like networks regulating cell death that have revealed fascinating analogies between cell death control across both kingdoms. PMID:21475301

  3. Embodied artificial evolution: Artificial evolutionary systems in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Eiben, A E; Kernbach, S; Haasdijk, Evert

    2012-12-01

    Evolution is one of the major omnipresent powers in the universe that has been studied for about two centuries. Recent scientific and technical developments make it possible to make the transition from passively understanding to actively using evolutionary processes. Today this is possible in Evolutionary Computing, where human experimenters can design and manipulate all components of evolutionary processes in digital spaces. We argue that in the near future it will be possible to implement artificial evolutionary processes outside such imaginary spaces and make them physically embodied. In other words, we envision the "Evolution of Things", rather than just the evolution of digital objects, leading to a new field of Embodied Artificial Evolution (EAE). The main objective of this paper is to present a unifying vision in order to aid the development of this high potential research area. To this end, we introduce the notion of EAE, discuss a few examples and applications, and elaborate on the expected benefits as well as the grand challenges this developing field will have to address.

  4. Embodied artificial evolution: Artificial evolutionary systems in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Eiben, A E; Kernbach, S; Haasdijk, Evert

    2012-12-01

    Evolution is one of the major omnipresent powers in the universe that has been studied for about two centuries. Recent scientific and technical developments make it possible to make the transition from passively understanding to actively using evolutionary processes. Today this is possible in Evolutionary Computing, where human experimenters can design and manipulate all components of evolutionary processes in digital spaces. We argue that in the near future it will be possible to implement artificial evolutionary processes outside such imaginary spaces and make them physically embodied. In other words, we envision the "Evolution of Things", rather than just the evolution of digital objects, leading to a new field of Embodied Artificial Evolution (EAE). The main objective of this paper is to present a unifying vision in order to aid the development of this high potential research area. To this end, we introduce the notion of EAE, discuss a few examples and applications, and elaborate on the expected benefits as well as the grand challenges this developing field will have to address. PMID:23144668

  5. The Interplay between the Bone and the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Giorgio; D'Amelio, Patrizia; Faccio, Roberta; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, numerous scientists have highlighted the interactions between bone and immune cells as well as their overlapping regulatory mechanisms. For example, osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, are derived from the same myeloid precursor cells that give rise to macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. On the other hand, osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, regulate hematopoietic stem cell niches from which all blood and immune cells are derived. Furthermore, many of the soluble mediators of immune cells, including cytokines and growth factors, regulate the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This increased recognition of the complex interactions between the immune system and bone led to the development of the interdisciplinary osteoimmunology field. Research in this field has great potential to provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several diseases affecting both the bone and immune systems, thus providing the molecular basis for novel therapeutic strategies. In these review, we reported the latest findings about the reciprocal regulation of bone and immune cells. PMID:23935650

  6. Strategies to discover regulatory circuits of the mammalian immune system.

    PubMed

    Amit, Ido; Regev, Aviv; Hacohen, Nir

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in technologies for genome- and proteome-scale measurements and perturbations promise to accelerate discovery in every aspect of biology and medicine. Although such rapid technological progress provides a tremendous opportunity, it also demands that we learn how to use these tools effectively. One application with great potential to enhance our understanding of biological systems is the unbiased reconstruction of genetic and molecular networks. Cells of the immune system provide a particularly useful model for developing and applying such approaches. Here, we review approaches for the reconstruction of signalling and transcriptional networks, with a focus on applications in the mammalian innate immune system.

  7. Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System.

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F

    2011-01-01

    Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System.

  8. A Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) for support of on orbit experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, Thomas M., III

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) support tool that would provide health and status monitoring, cognitive replanning, analysis and support of on-orbit Space Station, Spacelab experiments and systems.

  9. Environmentally related disorders of the hematologic and immune systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luster, M.I.; Wierda, D.; Rosenthal, G.J. )

    1990-03-01

    From observations in rodents and, to a lesser extent, in humans inadvertently or occupationally exposed, it appears that a number of xenobiotics adversely affect immune homeostatic systems, either through acting as a hapten and resulting in hypersensitivity reactions or through altering hematopoietic or immune functions. At present, however, there is no evidence that the immune or hematopoietic systems of the general population have been compromised by xenobiotics via environmental exposure. Nonetheless, these examples and our current knowledge about the pathogenesis of disease support the possibility that chemical-induced damage to the immune system may be associated with potential pathological conditions, some of which may become detectable only after a long latency. Likewise, exposure to immunotoxic xenobiotics might represent additional risk to individuals with already fragile immune systems (e.g., in malnutrition, infancy, old age). However, it is important to be cautious when attempting to extrapolate meaningful conclusions from experimental data or isolated epidemiologic studies to risk assessment for low-level human exposure.65 references.

  10. Effects of the space flight environment on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Space flight conditions have a dramatic effect on a variety of physiologic functions of mammals, including muscle, bone, and neurovestibular function. Among the physiological functions that are affected when humans or animals are exposed to space flight conditions is the immune response. The focus of this review is on the function of the immune system in space flight conditions during actual space flights, as well as in models of space flight conditions on the earth. The experiments were carried out in tissue culture systems, in animal models, and in human subjects. The results indicate that space flight conditions alter cell-mediated immune responses, including lymphocyte proliferation and subset distribution, and cytokine production. The mechanism(s) of space flight-induced alterations in immune system function remain(s) to be established. It is likely, however, that multiple factors, including microgravity, stress, neuroendocrine factors, sleep disruption, and nutritional factors, are involved in altering certain functions of the immune system. Such alterations could lead to compromised defenses against infections and tumors.

  11. ImmunoScenarios: A Game for the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark F.; Jackson, Sally W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a board game, ImmunoScenarios, which was developed to reinforce the ideas about the immune system discussed in lecture classes. Emphasizes important characteristics of the body's specific defense system including specificity, cooperation among various cells, and memory. Includes directions for playing, student handouts, and scenarios.…

  12. The Neuro-Immune Pathophysiology of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in Systemic Immune-Inflammatory and Neuro-Immune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Galecki, Piotr; Walder, Ken; Maes, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many patients with systemic immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, including depression, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's disease, cancer, cardiovascular disorder, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, endure pathological levels of fatigue. The aim of this narrative review is to delineate the wide array of pathways that may underpin the incapacitating fatigue occurring in systemic and neuro-inflammatory disorders. A wide array of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), bioenergetic, and neurophysiological abnormalities are involved in the etiopathology of these disease states and may underpin the incapacitating fatigue that accompanies these disorders. This range of abnormalities comprises: increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interferon (IFN) α; O&NS-induced muscle fatigue; activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Cycle through pathogen-associated (PAMPs) and damage-associated (DAMPs) molecular patterns, including heat shock proteins; altered glutaminergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission; mitochondrial dysfunctions; and O&NS-induced defects in the sodium-potassium pump. Fatigue is also associated with altered activities in specific brain regions and muscle pathology, such as reductions in maximum voluntary muscle force, downregulation of the mitochondrial biogenesis master gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, a shift to glycolysis and buildup of toxic metabolites within myocytes. As such, both mental and physical fatigue, which frequently accompany immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, are the consequence of interactions between multiple systemic and central pathways.

  13. [Immune system and rheumatic diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Impairments of the immune system play an important role in all immun-mediated rheumatic diseases. Recently, the following news were reported: · Early aging of the immune system with thymus insufficiency has now been reported for both patients with rheumatoid arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis, without prethymic lack of progenitors at least in rheumatoid arthritis.. · For giant cell arteritis, the most frequent vasculitis in the elderly, an increased expression of IL-17A in temporal artery biopsies coincides with good prognosis and reponse to glucocorticoids.. · Concerning immunosenescence in systemic lupus erythematosus, BAFF appears to have an important role for relapses after B-cell depletion.. For the future it can be anticipated that the use of unified classification criteria for rheumatic diseases (as with the new 2012 EULAR / ACR classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica) will ensure better comparability of immunological studies also in the elderly. PMID:27254630

  14. Opposing effects of alcohol on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have described a dose-dependent effect of alcohol on human health with light to moderate drinkers having a lower risk of all-cause mortality than abstainers, while heavy drinkers are at the highest risk. In the case of the immune system, moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced inflammation and improved responses to vaccination, while chronic heavy drinking is associated with a decreased frequency of lymphocytes and increased risk of both bacterial and viral infections. However, the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts a dose-dependent effect on the immune system remain poorly understood due to a lack of systematic studies that examine the effect of multiple doses and different time courses. This review will summarize our current understanding of the impact of moderate versus excessive alcohol consumption on the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system derived from both in vitro as well as in vivo studies carried out in humans and animal model studies.

  15. Interactions of cnidarian toxins with the immune system.

    PubMed

    Suput, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Cnidarians comprise four classes of toxic marine animals: Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa. They are the largest and probably the oldest phylum of toxic marine animals. Any contact with a cnidarian, especially the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), can be fatal, but most cnidarians do not possess sufficiently strong venomous apparatus to penetrate the human skin, whereas others rarely come into contact with human beings. Only a small, almost negligible percentage of the vast wealth of cnidarian toxins has been studied in detail. Many polypeptide cnidarian toxins are immunogenic, and cross-reactivity between several jellyfish venoms has been reported. Cnidarians also possess components of innate immunity, and some of those components have been preserved in evolution. On the other hand, cnidarian toxins have already been used for the design of immunotoxins to treat cancer, whereas other cnidarian toxins can modulate the immune system in mammals, including man. This review will focus on a short overview of cnidarian toxins, on the innate immunity of cnidarians, and on the mode of action of cnidarian toxins which can modulate the immune system in mammals. Emphasis is palced on those toxins which block voltage activated potassium channels in the cells of the immune system. PMID:21824078

  16. Lymphatic system: an active pathway for immune protection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shan; von der Weid, P Y

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic vessels are well known to participate in the immune response by providing the structural and functional support for the delivery of antigens and antigen presenting cells to draining lymph nodes. Recent advances have improved our understanding of how the lymphatic system works and how it participates to the development of immune responses. New findings suggest that the lymphatic system may control the ultimate immune response through a number of ways which may include guiding antigen/dendritic cells (DC) entry into initial lymphatics at the periphery; promoting antigen/DC trafficking through afferent lymphatic vessels by actively facilitating lymph and cell movement; enabling antigen presentation in lymph nodes via a network of lymphatic endothelial cells and lymph node stroma cell and finally by direct lymphocytes exit from lymph nodes. The same mechanisms are likely also important to maintain peripheral tolerance. In this review we will discuss how the morphology and gene expression profile of the lymphatic endothelial cells in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes provides a highly efficient pathway to initiate immune responses. The fundamental understanding of how lymphatic system participates in immune regulation will guide the research on lymphatic function in various diseases.

  17. Primitive immune systems: are your ways my ways?

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Baruch

    2004-04-01

    Although vertebrate immune systems have been commonly conceived as exquisitely developed to combat pervasiveness by pathogens, they are not infallible. The enigmatic expression of histocompatibility in vertebrates, the manifestation of natural chimerism, autoimmunity, malignancy, and other puzzling outcomes hint that immunity did not arise in evolution to fight infections and that this capacity is a late evolutionary appendage, owing its appearance to the redeployment of a system developed for other reasons. Allorecognition in the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri serves here as a platform for a contending paradigm, advocating that immunity has developed as a surveillance machinery against and for purging of nascent selfish cells (stemmed from a kin organism or from transformed cells within the organism of origin). Defense against pathogens (always representing xenogeneic aliens) appeared later, revealing the multiplicity of newly developed phenomena. Allorecognition events characteristic of the Botryllus primitive immune system, such as fusion versus rejection, the morphological resorption with its expressed hierarchy, and the somatic/germ-cell parasitic outcomes, provide clues to the evolutionary basis of allorecognition. Recent work on Botryllus immunity that highlights the cost of littering individuality by somatic variants/allogeneic cells is discussed.

  18. Impact of the immune system and immunotherapy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markman, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    The development of cancer is a multi-step process involving the gradual loss of regulation over the growth and functional capabilities of normal cells. Much research has been focused on the numerous cell intrinsic factors that govern this process; however, recent attention has turned to understanding the cell extrinsic factors in the tumor microenvironment that appear equally critical to the progression and treatment of cancer. One critical component of the tumor microenvironment is the immune system and it has become increasingly evident that the immune system plays an integral role in preventing and promoting the development of cancer. Understanding the immune cell types and pathways involved in this process has enabled the development of novel biomarkers for prognosis and accelerated the development of immune-based therapeutics, both of which have the potential to forever change the treatment paradigms for colorectal cancer (CRC). In this review, we discuss the impact of the immune system on the initiation, progression and treatment of cancer, specifically focusing on CRC. PMID:25830040

  19. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

  20. Stress, opioid peptides, the immune system, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Y; Terman, G W; Martin, F C; Lewis, J W; Liebeskind, J C; Gale, R P

    1985-08-01

    Our results indicate that a particular form of footshock stress can suppress immune function in rats and decrease their resistance to tumor challenge. These effects appear to be mediated by opioid peptides released by stress, and they can be mimicked by high doses of morphine given systemically or by a vastly smaller dose delivered intracerebroventricularly. Such findings fit well into the emerging field of behavioral neuroimmunology and reinforce continuing efforts to elucidate the neural and neurohumoral mechanisms by which the environment can affect the organism's immune system.

  1. [State of neuroendocrine systems and immunity in patients with burns].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, I P; Popov, A A; Mal'tseva, M A; Osetrov, I V; Kokaulina, G D; Popova, E A

    1994-01-01

    The study of hormonal shifts and immunity in 95 patients with burns has revealed hyperergic reaction of the neuroendocrine system in the early period after trauma, accompanied by a marked and prolonged inhibition of cellular and humoral immunity. The use of antistress agents (clofelin, pentamine) and intravenous laser blood irradiation leads to a more prompt arrest of hyperergic reaction of the neuroendocrine system and to the reduction of immunosuppressing effect of burn trauma, which decreases the number of pyoseptic complications from 26.4 to 16% and total lethality from 16 to 3.8%.

  2. Effect of simulated weightlessness on the immune system in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caren, L. D.; Mandel, A. D.; Nunes, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rats suspended in a model system designed to simulate many aspects of weightlessness were immunized with sheep red blood cells. Parameters measured on these and control rats included titers of anti-sheep red blood cell antibodies, serum immunoglobulin levels, spleen and thymus weights, hematocrits, and leukocyte differential counts on peripheral blood. No significant differences were found between test and weight-bearing, harnessed controls; however, the thymuses of animals in both these groups were significantly smaller than untreated cage controls. The lack of an effect of simulated weightlessness on the immune system is an interesting result, and its significance is discussed.

  3. The evolution of secondary organization in immune system gene libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, R.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1993-02-01

    A binary model of the immune system is used to study the effects of evolution on the genetic encoding for antibody molecules. We report experiments which show that the evolution of immune system genes, simulated by the genetic algorithm, can induce a high degree of genetic organization even though that organization is not explicitly required by the fitness function. This secondary organization is related to the true fitness of an individual, in contrast to the sampled fitness which is the explicit fitness measure used to drive the process of evolution.

  4. The evolution of secondary organization in immune system gene libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, R.; Forrest, S. . Dept. of Computer Science); Perelson, A.S. )

    1993-01-01

    A binary model of the immune system is used to study the effects of evolution on the genetic encoding for antibody molecules. We report experiments which show that the evolution of immune system genes, simulated by the genetic algorithm, can induce a high degree of genetic organization even though that organization is not explicitly required by the fitness function. This secondary organization is related to the true fitness of an individual, in contrast to the sampled fitness which is the explicit fitness measure used to drive the process of evolution.

  5. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  6. Taking advantage of the systemic immune system to cure brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Yong, V Wee; Rivest, Serge

    2009-10-15

    The systemic immune system has the ability to modulate multiple brain functions, including autonomic responses, glial reactivity following neural injuries, and neuronal excitability. Immune stimuli also influence microglia subpopulations originating from blood progenitors, and neuroprotective and reparative capacities of blood-derived microglia were recently described in mouse models of spinal cord injury and brain disorders. Furthermore, reparative roles for various immune subsets have been recognized, such as in inducing myelin repair. Nonetheless, uncontrolled and excessive activation of immune responses can be detrimental. The development of strategies to stimulate the systemic immune system safely to protect or repair brain disorders remains a major challenge ahead, but important inroads have been made. We discuss here some of the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and reparative effects of the systemic immune system and the most promising immunotherapies tested in mouse models of injuries and diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis.

  7. Small and Long Regulatory RNAs in the Immune System and Immune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stachurska, Anna; Zorro, Maria M.; van der Sijde, Marijke R.; Withoff, Sebo

    2014-01-01

    Cellular differentiation is regulated on the level of gene expression, and it is known that dysregulation of gene expression can lead to deficiencies in differentiation that contribute to a variety of diseases, particularly of the immune system. Until recently, it was thought that the dysregulation was governed by changes in the binding or activity of a class of proteins called transcription factors. However, the discovery of micro-RNAs and recent descriptions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have given enormous momentum to a whole new field of biology: the regulatory RNAs. In this review, we describe these two classes of regulatory RNAs and summarize what is known about how they regulate aspects of the adaptive and innate immune systems. Finally, we describe what is known about the involvement of micro-RNAs and lncRNAs in three different autoimmune diseases (celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis). PMID:25368617

  8. Effect of age and maternal antibodies on the systemic and mucosal immune response after neonatal immunization in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Bautista, Edgar R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carlos E; Gama-Espinosa, Alicia L; Ramirez-Estudillo, Carmen; Rojas-Gomez, Oscar I; Vega-Lopez, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Newborn mammals are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Although maternal antibodies (MatAb) offer them some protection, they may also interfere with their systemic immune response to vaccination. However, the impact of MatAb on the neonatal mucosal immune response remains incompletely described. This study was performed to determine the effect of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific MatAb on the anti-OVA antibody response in sera, nasal secretions and saliva from specific pathogen-free Vietnamese miniature piglets immunized at 7 or 14 days of age. Our results demonstrated that MatAb increased antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in sera, and transiently enhanced an early secretory IgA response in nasal secretions of piglets immunized at 7 days of age. In contrast, we detected a lower mucosal (nasal secretion and saliva) anti-OVA IgG response in piglets with MatAb immunized at 14 days of age, compared with piglets with no MatAb, suggesting a modulatory effect of antigen-specific maternal factors on the isotype transfer to the mucosal immune exclusion system. In our porcine model, we demonstrated that passive maternal immunity positively modulated the systemic and nasal immune responses of animals immunized early in life. Our results, therefore, open the possibility of inducing systemic and respiratory mucosal immunity in the presence of MatAb through early vaccination. PMID:24754050

  9. Explosives and landmine detection using an artificial olfactory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Kauer, John S.

    2004-09-01

    We are developing a portable, artificial olfactory system based on multiple attributes of the sense of smell to identify air-borne odors, including those associated with buried landmines. Brief (1-2 sec) air samples are drawn over an array of optically-interrogated, cross-reactive chemical sensors. These consist of polymers with high sensitivity and relatively narrow specificity for nitroaromatics (Timothy Swager, MIT), as well as those with broader responses, thus permitting discrimination among substances that may be confused for nitroaromatics. Biologically-based pattern matching algorithms automatically identify odors as one of several to which the device has been trained. In discrimination tests, after training to one concentration of 6 odors, the device gave 95% correct identification when tested at the original plus three different concentrations. Thus, as required in real world applications, the device can identify odors at multiple concentrations without explicitly training on each. In sensitivity tests, the device showed 100% detection and no false alarms for the landmine-related compound DNT at concentrations as low as 500 pp-trillion (quantified by GC/MS) - 10 times lower than average canine behavioral thresholds. To investigate landmine detection capabilities, field studies were conducted at Ft. Leonard Wood, MO. In calibration tests, signals from buried PMA1A anti-personnel landmines were clearly discriminated from background. In a limited 9 site "blind" test, PMA1A detection was 100% with false alarms of 40%. Although requiring further development, these data indicate that a device with appropriate sensors and exploiting olfactory principles can detect and discriminate low concentration vapor signatures, including those of buried landmines.

  10. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than

  11. The role of neutrophils in the immune system: an overview.

    PubMed

    Malech, Harry L; Deleo, Frank R; Quinn, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils, also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), have long been considered as the short-lived, nonspecific white cells that form pus-and also happen to kill invading microbes. Indeed, neutrophils were often neglected (and largely not considered) as immune cells. This historic view of neutrophils has changed considerably over the past several decades, and we know now that, in addition to playing the predominant role in the clearance of bacteria and fungi, they play a major role in shaping the host response to infection and immune system homeostasis. The change in our view of the role of neutrophils in the immune system has been due in large part to the study of these cells in vitro. Such work has been made possible by new and/or improved methods and approaches used to investigate neutrophils. These methods are the focus of this volume.

  12. Overview of integrin signaling in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been well established that integrins mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and play crucial roles in the immune system such as leukocyte-endothelium interactions, immune synapse formation, and effector functions. Since the discovery that integrins undergo dynamic changes of adhesive activities in response to external stimuli, intensive studies have been conducted to elucidate the signaling events that control the activation of integrins (inside-out signaling) and signaling events from the induced integrin-dependent adhesion (outside-in signaling). The molecular characterization of these signaling pathways highlights the importance of integrins as bidirectional signaling receptors. The characteristics of integrin signaling are best exemplified in the immune system. This chapter highlights the recent studies of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate integrins in immunological contexts.

  13. Complement - a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized we have come to realize that its versatile functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Indeed, complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses, and sending `danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it may also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure, and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its dual role in homeostasis and disease. PMID:20720586

  14. The immune system as a sensor of the metabolic state

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Justin I.; Chawla, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Mammals possess a remarkable ability to maintain and defend a constant internal milieu against diverse environmental threats. Unsurprisingly, the two systems tasked with these duties, metabolism and immunity, have evolved to share a common modular architecture that allows extensive bidirectional communication and coordination. Indeed, recent observations have highlighted numerous, functionally critical immune regulatory modules located within diverse metabolic circuits. In this Review, we discuss the architectural commonality between immunity and metabolism, and highlight how these two primordially disparate systems leverage shared regulatory axes to coordinate metabolic physiology under conditions of normality and chronic overnutrition. Such an integrated perspective both advances our understanding of basic physiology and highlights potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention in metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23601683

  15. The Innate Immune System in Acute and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Amanda S.; Mansbridge, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: This review article provides an overview of the critical roles of the innate immune system to wound healing. It explores aspects of dysregulation of individual innate immune elements known to compromise wound repair and promote nonhealing wounds. Understanding the key mechanisms whereby wound healing fails will provide seed concepts for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Recent Advances: Our understanding of the complex interactions of the innate immune system in wound healing has significantly improved, particularly in our understanding of the role of antimicrobials and peptides and the nature of the switch from inflammatory to reparative processes. This takes place against an emerging understanding of the relationship between human cells and commensal bacteria in the skin. Critical Issues: It is well established and accepted that early local inflammatory mediators in the wound bed function as an immunological vehicle to facilitate immune cell infiltration and microbial clearance upon injury to the skin barrier. Both impaired and excessive innate immune responses can promote nonhealing wounds. It appears that the switch from the inflammatory to the proliferative phase is tightly regulated and mediated, at least in part, by a change in macrophages. Defining the factors that initiate the switch in such macrophage phenotypes and functions is the subject of multiple investigations. Future Directions: The review highlights processes that may be useful targets for further investigation, particularly the switch from M1 to M2 macrophages that appears to be critical as dysregulation of this switch occurs during defective wound healing. PMID:26862464

  16. An artificial neural network system for diagnosing gas turbine engine fuel faults

    SciTech Connect

    Illi, O.J. Jr.; Greitzer, F.L.; Kangas, L.J.; Reeve, T.

    1994-04-01

    The US Army Ordnance Center & School and Pacific Northwest Laboratories are developing a turbine engine diagnostic system for the M1A1 Abrams tank. This system employs Artificial Neural Network (AN) technology to perform diagnosis and prognosis of the tank`s AGT-1500 gas turbine engine. This paper describes the design and prototype development of the ANN component of the diagnostic system, which we refer to as ``TEDANN`` for Turbine Engine Diagnostic Artificial Neural Networks.

  17. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  18. The nervous and the immune systems: conspicuous physiological analogies.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Julio

    2015-02-01

    From all biological constituents of complex organisms, two are highly sophisticated: the nervous and the immune systems. Interestingly, their goals and processes appear to be distant from each other; however, their physiological mechanisms keep notorious similarities. Both construct intelligence, learn from experience, and keep memory. Their precise responses to innumerable stimuli are delicately modulated, and the exposure of the individual to thousands of potential challenges integrates their functionality; they use a large part of their constituents not in excitatory activities but in the maintenance of inhibitory mechanisms to keep silent vast intrinsic potentialities. The nervous and immune systems are integrated by a basic cell lineage (neurons and lymphocytes, respectively) but each embodies countless cell subgroups with different and specialized deeds which, in contrast with cells from other organs, labyrinthine molecular arrangements conduct to "one cell, one function". Also, nervous and immune actions confer identity that differentiates every individual from countless others in the same species. Both systems regulate and potentiate their responses aided by countless biological resources of variable intensity: hormones, peptides, cytokines, pro-inflammatory molecules, etc. How the immune and the nervous systems buildup memory, learning capability, and exquisite control of excitatory/inhibitory mechanisms constitute major intellectual challenges for contemporary research.

  19. Ready-to-use colloidal adjuvant systems for intranasal immunization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Shim, Aeri; Lee, Song Yi; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Kim, Seong Ryeol; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-04-01

    Adjuvant systems based on oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsions (MEs) for vaccination via intranasal administration were prepared and evaluated. A ready-to-use blank ME system composed of mineral oil (oil), Labrasol (surfactant), Tween 80 (cosurfactant), and water was prepared and blended with antigen (Ag) solution prior to use. The o/w ME system developed exhibited nano-size droplets within the tested range of Ag concentrations and dilution factors. The maintenance of primary, secondary, and tertiary structural stability of ovalbumin (OVA) in ME, compared with OVA in solution, was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence intensity measurements, respectively. The uptake efficiency in RAW 264.7 cells, evaluated by flow cytometry, of OVA in the ME group was significantly higher than that of the OVA solution group (p<0.05). In an intranasal immunization study with OVA ME in mice, elevated adjuvant effects in terms of mucosal immunization and Th1-dominant cell-mediated immune responses were identified. Given the convenience of use (simply mixing with Ag solution prior to use) and the adjuvant effects after intranasal immunization, the new o/w ME may be a practical and efficient adjuvant system for intranasal vaccination. PMID:26775242

  20. TV synchronization system features stability and noise immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landauer, F. P.

    1967-01-01

    Horizontal jitter in the video presentation in television systems is prevented by using an additional sync level. This circuitry uses simultaneous signals at both sync and porch frequencies, providing a sync identification from which a coincidence circuit can generate pulses having the required stability and noise immunity.

  1. Diversity of CRISPR-Cas immune systems and molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adaptive immunity hinges on CRISPR-Cas systems that provide DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated targeting of exogenous nucleic acids. A plethora of CRISPR molecular machines occur broadly in prokaryotic genomes, with a diversity of Cas nucleases that can be repurposed for various applications.

  2. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments using mouse immune-precursor cells, and observed that bioreactor culturing results in the loss of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function. The reason for the abrogation of CTL function is microgravity conditions in the bioreactor, but not the antigen per se or its MHC restriction. Similarly, we observed that allostimulation of human PBMC in the bioreactor, but not in the T flask, resulted in the blunting of both allo-CTL function and the NK activity, indicating that the microgravity-associated functional defects are not unique to the mouse system. These results provide further confirmation to the microgravity-associated immune dysfunction, and constitute ground-based confirmatory data for those related to space-travel.

  3. Control of commensal microbiota by the adaptive immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Husen; Luo, Xin M

    2015-01-01

    The symbiotic relationship between the mammalian host and gut microbes has fascinated many researchers in recent years. Use of germ-free animals has contributed to our understanding of how commensal microbes affect the host. Immunodeficiency animals lacking specific components of the mammalian immune system, on the other hand, enable studying of the reciprocal function-how the host controls which microbes to allow for symbiosis. Here we review the recent advances and discuss our perspectives of how to better understand the latter, with an emphasis on the effects of adaptive immunity on the composition and diversity of gut commensal bacteria. PMID:25901893

  4. Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses to Cryptosporidium—Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Ludington, Jacob G.; Ward, Honorine D.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, particularly in malnourished children and untreated AIDS patients in developing countries in whom it can cause severe, chronic and debilitating disease. Unfortunately, there is no consistently effective drug for these vulnerable populations and no vaccine, partly due to a limited understanding of both the parasite and the host immune response. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of the systemic and mucosal immune responses to Cryptosporidium infection, discuss the feasibility of developing a Cryptosporidium vaccine and evaluate recent advances in Cryptosporidium vaccine development strategies PMID:26279971

  5. [THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNE ENZYME AND IMMUNE CHROMATOGRAPHIC MONOCLONAL TEST-SYSTEM FOR DETECTING TULAREMIA AGENT].

    PubMed

    Eremkin, A V; Elagin, G D; Petchenkin, D V; Fomenkov, O O; Bogatcheva, N V; Kitmanov, A A; Kuklina, G V; Tikhvinskaya, O V

    2016-03-01

    The immune enzyme and immunochromatographic test-systems for detecting tularemia agent were developed on the basis of selected set of monoclonal antibodies having immunochemical activity to antigens Francisella tularensis. The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of developed test-systems demonstrated that samples provided detection of strains of F. tularensis in concentration from 5.0 x 105 mkxcm-3 to 1.0 x 106 mkxcm-3 and gave no false positive results in analysis of heterologous microorganisms in concentration of 1.0 x 108 mkxcm-3. PMID:27506111

  6. [THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNE ENZYME AND IMMUNE CHROMATOGRAPHIC MONOCLONAL TEST-SYSTEM FOR DETECTING TULAREMIA AGENT].

    PubMed

    Eremkin, A V; Elagin, G D; Petchenkin, D V; Fomenkov, O O; Bogatcheva, N V; Kitmanov, A A; Kuklina, G V; Tikhvinskaya, O V

    2016-03-01

    The immune enzyme and immunochromatographic test-systems for detecting tularemia agent were developed on the basis of selected set of monoclonal antibodies having immunochemical activity to antigens Francisella tularensis. The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of developed test-systems demonstrated that samples provided detection of strains of F. tularensis in concentration from 5.0 x 105 mkxcm-3 to 1.0 x 106 mkxcm-3 and gave no false positive results in analysis of heterologous microorganisms in concentration of 1.0 x 108 mkxcm-3.

  7. Effects of chalcone derivatives on players of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jian Sian; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Fauzi, Norsyahida Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is the defense mechanism in living organisms that protects against the invasion of foreign materials, microorganisms, and pathogens. It involves multiple organs and tissues in human body, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. However, the execution of immune activities depends on a number of specific cell types, such as B cells, T cells, macrophages, and granulocytes, which provide various immune responses against pathogens. In addition to normal physiological functions, abnormal proliferation, migration, and differentiation of these cells (in response to various chemical stimuli produced by invading pathogens) have been associated with several pathological disorders. The unwanted conditions related to these cells have made them prominent targets in the development of new therapeutic interventions against various pathological implications, such as atherosclerosis and autoimmune diseases. Chalcone derivatives exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, as well as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties. Many studies have been conducted to determine their inhibitory or stimulatory activities in immune cells, and the findings are of significance to provide a new direction for subsequent research. This review highlights the effects of chalcone derivatives in different types of immune cells.

  8. Multifunctional antimicrobial proteins and peptides: natural activators of immune systems.

    PubMed

    Niyonsaba, François; Nagaoka, Isao; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the physical barrier of the stratum corneum, cutaneous innate immunity also includes the release of various humoral mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, recruitment and activation of phagocytes, and the production of antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs). AMPs form an innate epithelial chemical shield, which provides a front-line component in innate immunity to inhibit microbial invasion; however, this might be an oversimplification of the diverse functions of these molecules. In fact, apart from exhibiting a broad spectrum of microbicidal properties, it is increasingly evident that AMPs display additional activities that are related to the stimulation and modulation of the cutaneous immune system. These diverse functions include chemoattraction and activation of immune and/or inflammatory cells, the production and release of cytokines and chemokines, acceleration of angiogenesis, promotion of wound healing, neutralization of harmful microbial products, and bridging of both innate and adaptive immunity. Thus, better understanding of the functions of AMPs in skin and identification of their signaling mechanisms may offer new strategies for the development of potential therapeutics for the treatment of infection- and/or inflammation-related skin diseases. Here, we briefly outline the structure, regulation of expression, and multifunctional roles of principal skin-derived AMPs.

  9. Endocannabinoids and the Immune System in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Guy A; Ferreira, Gabriela A; Jamerson, Melissa J

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids that have the potential to signal through cannabinoid receptors to modulate the functional activities of a variety of immune cells. Their activation of these seven-transmembranal, G protein-coupled receptors sets in motion a series of signal transductional events that converge at the transcriptional level to regulate cell migration and the production of cytokines and chemokines. There is a large body of data that supports a functional relevance for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as acting through the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) to inhibit migratory activities for a diverse array of immune cell types. However, unequivocal data that supports a functional linkage of anandamide (AEA) to a cannabinoid receptor in immune modulation remains to be obtained. Endocannabinoids, as typical bioactive lipids, have a short half-life and appear to act in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Their immediate effective action on immune function may be at localized sites in the periphery and within the central nervous system. It is speculated that endocannabinoids play an important role in maintaining the overall "fine-tuning" of the immune homeostatic balance within the host. PMID:26408161

  10. Effects of chalcone derivatives on players of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jian Sian; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Fauzi, Norsyahida Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is the defense mechanism in living organisms that protects against the invasion of foreign materials, microorganisms, and pathogens. It involves multiple organs and tissues in human body, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. However, the execution of immune activities depends on a number of specific cell types, such as B cells, T cells, macrophages, and granulocytes, which provide various immune responses against pathogens. In addition to normal physiological functions, abnormal proliferation, migration, and differentiation of these cells (in response to various chemical stimuli produced by invading pathogens) have been associated with several pathological disorders. The unwanted conditions related to these cells have made them prominent targets in the development of new therapeutic interventions against various pathological implications, such as atherosclerosis and autoimmune diseases. Chalcone derivatives exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, as well as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties. Many studies have been conducted to determine their inhibitory or stimulatory activities in immune cells, and the findings are of significance to provide a new direction for subsequent research. This review highlights the effects of chalcone derivatives in different types of immune cells. PMID:26316713

  11. Links between the innate immune system and sleep.

    PubMed

    Majde, Jeannine A; Krueger, James M

    2005-12-01

    Sleep is a fundamental physiologic process with unknown functions. It is divided into 2 distinct states: non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep. After acute infection with nonneurotropic agents, there are stereotypic changes in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, particularly increased time spent in slow-wave sleep, and often a reduction of time spent in rapid-eye-movement sleep. It is now recognized that both infection-associated sleep and spontaneous sleep are regulated, in part, by immune mediators called cytokines. This review provides brief tutorials on the elements of the innate immune system that detect infection, how sleep is characterized in the laboratory, issues regarding the interpretation of sleep effects on immune function, the interaction of sleep with circadian rhythms and stress, and some of the microbial products, cytokines, and neuropeptides associated with sleep regulation. We also summarize our current understanding of the role of sleep in host defense and asthma exacerbation.

  12. The interaction between cytomegalovirus and the human immune system.

    PubMed

    ten Berge, Ineke J M; van Lier, René A W

    2014-12-01

    Studies on antiviral immunity in man are hampered by the impossibility to standardize the infection as is done in experimental animal studies. An exception is the occurrence of cytomegalovirus infection transmitted by a donor organ into a transplant-recipient, where the time-point of infection is exactly known. Moreover, its strong interaction with the human immune system during evolution and the strong immunogenic properties of this persistent virus, as well as the need for intervention e.g. by vaccine development, all make studies towards the immune response against just this virus very attractive and relevant. In this work, we will present an overview of the studies on this topic that were performed in the departments of Experimental and Clinical Immunology in the AMC and Sanquin in Amsterdam.

  13. [Cytokines. Transmittor substances of the immune system].

    PubMed

    Pisa, P; Söder, O

    1995-07-12

    Cytokines are hormone-like proteins and peptides whose principal function is that of signalling substances within the immunoinflammatory and haematopoietic systems. Since the first cytokines were characterised 15 years ago, over 50 cytokines have been strictly defined and characterised. Cytokines are classified mainly on the basis of functional criteria into families--e.g, interleukins, interferons, colony stimulating factors, and chemokines. The article provides a broad review of cytokine physiology and pathophysiology with an emphasis on recent findings of their involvement in various diseases such as infections, autoimmune and haematological disorders, and cancer. Different treatment modalities that affect cytokine activity are discussed.

  14. Platelets--an important element of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Deptuła, W

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate cells derived from the megakaryocyte series, and have long been considered only as cells responsible for coagulation and the fibrinolysis process. However, recently more data shows that they are also effector cells in the inflammatory response and important elements of the immunological response. Platelets store and release many biologically active substances, including growth factors, cytokines and chemokines (tab. 1), which actively affect i.a. elements of the immune system, and thus become regulators of immunity and mediators of inflammatory response. Their impact on the immune system cells is also associated with the induction of leucocytes and progenitor cells to the site of pathogen permeation or vascular injury inflow, as well as endothelial cells. Interacting with neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, they not only activate them, but also form platelet-leukocyte aggregates that immobilise pathogens and prevent their spreading. Furthermore, platelets are capable of absorbing pathogens, affecting anti-infection immunity of the system. It is also assumed that the presence of receptors on their surface, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), affects their initiation and activity of the immunological response.

  15. Signal transduction in cells of the immune system in microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Oliver; Huber, Kathrin; Lang, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Life on Earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Gravity has been present during the entire evolution, from the first organic molecule to mammals and humans. Modern research revealed clearly that gravity is important, probably indispensable for the function of living systems, from unicellular organisms to men. Thus, gravity research is no more or less a fundamental question about the conditions of life on Earth. Since the first space missions and supported thereafter by a multitude of space and ground-based experiments, it is well known that immune cell function is severely suppressed in microgravity, which renders the cells of the immune system an ideal model organism to investigate the influence of gravity on the cellular and molecular level. Here we review the current knowledge about the question, if and how cellular signal transduction depends on the existence of gravity, with special focus on cells of the immune system. Since immune cell function is fundamental to keep the organism under imnological surveillance during the defence against pathogens, to investigate the effects and possible molecular mechanisms of altered gravity is indispensable for long-term space flights to Earth Moon or Mars. Thus, understanding the impact of gravity on cellular functions on Earth will provide not only important informations about the development of life on Earth, but also for therapeutic and preventive strategies to cope successfully with medical problems during space exploration. PMID:18957108

  16. The role of artificial intelligence and expert systems in increasing STS operations productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, C.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is discussed. A number of the computer technologies pioneered in the AI world can make significant contributions to increasing STS operations productivity. Application of expert systems, natural language, speech recognition, and other key technologies can reduce manpower while raising productivity. Many aspects of STS support lend themselves to this type of automation. The artificial intelligence section of the mission planning and analysis division has developed a number of functioning prototype systems which demonstrate the potential gains of applying AI technology.

  17. Chemical inducers of systemic immunity in plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2014-04-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a highly desirable form of resistance that protects against a broad-spectrum of related or unrelated pathogens. SAR involves the generation of multiple signals at the site of primary infection, which arms distal portions against subsequent secondary infections. The last decade has witnessed considerable progress, and a number of chemical signals contributing to SAR have been isolated and characterized. The diverse chemical nature of these chemicals had led to the growing belief that SAR might involve interplay of multiple diverse and independent signals. However, recent results suggest that coordinated signalling from diverse signalling components facilitates SAR in plants. This review mainly discusses organized signalling by two such chemicals, glycerol-3-phoshphate and azelaic acid, and the role of basal salicylic acid levels in G3P-conferred SAR.

  18. Development of failure detection system based on vibration signal for smart artificial heart: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Takashi; Koguchi, Harutoshi; Yamane, Takashi; Tsutsui, Tatsuo; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    To realize safe and effective medical treatment for patients with implantable artificial hearts, we have developed a smart artificial heart (SAH). The SAH can grasp the mechanical condition of the artificial heart and the physiological condition of the patient. The purpose of this study is to develop a failure detection system based on the vibration signal from artificial heart in order to enhance the ability of failure detection for the SAH. We suppose this vibration signal reflects not only the mechanical condition of the artificial heart but also a part of the physiological condition of the patient. The developed failure detection system is composed of a vibration sensor unit and a failure detection algorithm. The algorithm has a standard frequency pattern, which is made from the vibration signal of good condition of both the artificial heart and patient. Observing the difference from the standard frequency pattern, the algorithm detects failure conditions. Therefore, this algorithm does not need prior knowledge of vibration characteristics corresponding to failures. After confirming that the vibration signal are affected by pump speed and pulsation in two kinds of mock circulatory loops, we performed thrombogenesis detection by using the failure detection system in mock circulatory loop with sheep blood. As a result, this system indicated a possibility of detecting the initial sign of thrombogenesis earlier than current signal. In conclusion, we think that this failure detection system can cooperate with other sensor systems of the SAH and enhance the ability of failure detection for the SAH.

  19. The use of an immunization information system to establish baseline childhood immunization rates and measure contract objectives.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Stephanie L; Maerz, Thomas R; Hurie, Marjorie B; Gabor, Gerald W; Flynn, John M; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2009-01-01

    Measuring progress toward national immunization objectives at the local level, although difficult, is becoming more feasible owing to statewide immunization information systems. This article describes how a state immunization program expanded the scope of immunization service contracts with local health departments (LHDs) to address the immunization rates among children living within their jurisdictions using the Wisconsin Immunization Registry (WIR) to measure achievement of population-based objectives. By contract year (CY) 2008, 99 percent of Wisconsin LHDs selected population-based contract objectives. In late 2008, the Wisconsin Immunization Program assessed all children at 24 months of age for completeness of the 4:3:1:3:3:1 (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/poliovirus/measles-containing vaccine/Haemophilus influenzae type b/hepatitis B/varicella) series by county for each of four CYs, using the WIR. From CY 2005 to CY 2008, LHDs in 61 (86%) of the 71 counties demonstrated increased series completeness rates for the series, and the overall statewide series completeness increased from 58 percent to 64 percent. However, the increases we observed cannot be attributed solely to LHDs' acceptance of population-based objectives because controlling for other factors known to influence immunization coverage levels was outside the scope of this case study. We found the WIR to be a powerful tool that can measure immunization coverage among local populations independent of the immunization provider, assess improvement toward contract objectives, and target resources toward pockets of need. PMID:19704303

  20. Neuroendocrine mechanisms for immune system regulation during stress in fish.

    PubMed

    Nardocci, Gino; Navarro, Cristina; Cortés, Paula P; Imarai, Mónica; Montoya, Margarita; Valenzuela, Beatriz; Jara, Pablo; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Fernández, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    In the last years, the aquaculture crops have experienced an explosive and intensive growth, because of the high demand for protein. This growth has increased fish susceptibility to diseases and subsequent death. The constant biotic and abiotic changes experienced by fish species in culture are challenges that induce physiological, endocrine and immunological responses. These changes mitigate stress effects at the cellular level to maintain homeostasis. The effects of stress on the immune system have been studied for many years. While acute stress can have beneficial effects, chronic stress inhibits the immune response in mammals and teleost fish. In response to stress, a signaling cascade is triggered by the activation of neural circuits in the central nervous system because the hypothalamus is the central modulator of stress. This leads to the production of catecholamines, corticosteroid-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and glucocorticoids, which are the essential neuroendocrine mediators for this activation. Because stress situations are energetically demanding, the neuroendocrine signals are involved in metabolic support and will suppress the "less important" immune function. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of the neuroendocrine regulation of immunity in fish will allow the development of new pharmaceutical strategies and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of diseases triggered by stress at all stages of fish cultures for commercial production. PMID:25123831

  1. The Microbiota, the Immune System and the Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Maria-Luisa; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Mannon, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota represents the complex collections of microbial communities that colonize a host. In health, the microbiota is essential for metabolism, protection against pathogens and maturation of the immune system. In return, the immune system determines the composition of the microbiota. Altered microbial composition (dysbiosis) has been correlated with a number of diseases in humans. The tight reciprocal immune/microbial interactions complicate determining whether dysbiosis is a cause and/or a consequence of immune dysregulation and disease initiation or progression. However, a number of studies in germ-free and antibiotic-treated animal models support causal roles for intestinal bacteria in disease susceptibility. The role of the microbiota in transplant recipients is only starting to be investigated and its study is further complicated by putative contributions of both recipient and donor microbiota. Moreover, both flora may be affected directly or indirectly by immunosuppressive drugs and anti-microbial prophylaxis taken by transplant patients, as well as by inflammatory processes secondary to ischemia/reperfusion and allorecognition, and the underlying cause of end-organ failure. Whether the ensuing dysbiosis affects alloresponses and whether therapies aimed at correcting dysbiosis should be considered in transplant patients constitutes an exciting new field of research. PMID:24840316

  2. The role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kato, Lucia M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-07-01

    The gut nourishes rich bacterial communities that affect profoundly the functions of the immune system. The relationship between gut microbiota and the immune system is one of reciprocity. The microbiota contributes to nutrient processing and the development, maturation, and function of the immune system. Conversely, the immune system, particularly the adaptive immune system, plays a key role in shaping the repertoire of gut microbiota. The fitness of host immune system is reflected in the gut microbiota, and deficiencies in either innate or adaptive immunity impact on diversity and structures of bacterial communities in the gut. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that underlie this reciprocity and emphasize how the adaptive immune system via immunoglobulins (i.e. IgA) contributes to diversification and balance of gut microbiota required for immune homeostasis.

  3. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates.

    PubMed

    Inman, C F; Haverson, K; Konstantinov, S R; Jones, P H; Harris, C; Smidt, H; Miller, B; Bailey, M; Stokes, C

    2010-06-01

    Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect the direction of immune responses in later life. There is a need for a manipulable animal model of environmental influences on the development of microbiota and the immune system during early life. We assessed the effects of rearing under low- (farm, sow) and high-hygiene (isolator, milk formula) conditions on intestinal microbiota and immune development in neonatal piglets, because they can be removed from the mother in the first 24 h for rearing under controlled conditions and, due to placental structure, neither antibody nor antigen is transferred in utero. Microbiota in both groups was similar between 2 and 5 days. However, by 12-28 days, piglets reared on the mother had more diverse flora than siblings reared in isolators. Dendritic cells accumulated in the intestinal mucosa in both groups, but more rapidly in isolator piglets. Importantly, the minority of 2-5-day-old farm piglets whose microbiota resembled that of an older (12-28-day-old) pig also accumulated dendritic cells earlier than the other farm-reared piglets. Consistent with dendritic cell control of T cell function, the effects on T cells occurred at later time-points, and mucosal T cells from high-hygiene, isolator pigs made less interleukin (IL)-4 while systemic T cells made more IL-2. Neonatal piglets may be a valuable model for studies of the effects of interaction between microbiota and immune development on allergy.

  4. Mucosal and systemic immunity in mice after intranasal immunization with recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing ORF6 of PRRSV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-hua; Cao, Xiao-han; Du, Xiao-gang; Feng, Hai-bo; Di-Wang; He-Song; Zeng, Xian-yin

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to construct mucosal vaccine of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing PRRSV ORF6 gene and evaluate mucosal and systemic immune response against PRRSV in mice after intranasal immunization. The result show that the vaccine can stimulate mice to produce specific IgG in serum and remarkable special s-IgA in lung lavage fluid, at the same time, the contents of cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ of the experimental group were significant higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01), however, the contents of cytokines IL-4 was not different to the all groups. In summary, the constructed mucosal vaccine can significantly induce mucosal immune, humoral immunity and cellular immunity involved Th1 type cytokines, which will lay a theoretical foundation on immune mechanism and new efficient vaccines for PRRSV. PMID:24423464

  5. Mucosal and systemic immunity in mice after intranasal immunization with recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing ORF6 of PRRSV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-hua; Cao, Xiao-han; Du, Xiao-gang; Feng, Hai-bo; Di-Wang; He-Song; Zeng, Xian-yin

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to construct mucosal vaccine of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing PRRSV ORF6 gene and evaluate mucosal and systemic immune response against PRRSV in mice after intranasal immunization. The result show that the vaccine can stimulate mice to produce specific IgG in serum and remarkable special s-IgA in lung lavage fluid, at the same time, the contents of cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ of the experimental group were significant higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01), however, the contents of cytokines IL-4 was not different to the all groups. In summary, the constructed mucosal vaccine can significantly induce mucosal immune, humoral immunity and cellular immunity involved Th1 type cytokines, which will lay a theoretical foundation on immune mechanism and new efficient vaccines for PRRSV.

  6. Designing neuroclassifier fusion system by immune genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jimin; Zhao, Heng; Yang, Wanhai

    2001-09-01

    A multiple neural network classifier fusion system design method using immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed. The IGA is modeled after the mechanics of human immunity. By using vaccination and immune selection in the evolution procedures, the IGA outperforms the traditional genetic algorithms in restraining the degenerate phenomenon and increasing the converging speed. The fusion system consists of N neural network classifiers that work independently and in parallel to classify a given input pattern. The classifiers' outputs are aggregated by a fusion scheme to decide the collective classification results. The goal of the system design is to obtain a fusion system with both good generalization and efficiency in space and time. Two kinds of measures, the accuracy of classification and the size of the neural networks, are used by IGA to evaluate the fusion system. The vaccines are abstracted by a self-adaptive scheme during the evolutionary process. A numerical experiment on the 'alternate labels' problem is implemented and the comparisons of IGA with traditional genetic algorithm are presented.

  7. How photons modulate wound healing via the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Mary

    2009-02-01

    The immune system is a diverse group of cells that recognize and attack foreign substances, pathogenic organisms and cancer cells. It also produces inflammation, an essential component of the wound healing process and, following the resolution of inflammation, plays a crucial role in the control of granulation tissue formation. Granulation tissue is the precursor of scar tissue. Injured skin and mucous membranes generally heal rapidly. However, some wounds are either slow to heal or fail to heal while in others overgrowth of scar tissue occurs, resulting in the production of either hypertophic or keloid scars. The modulation of wound healing in such conditions is clinically important and may even be vital. Evidence will be presented that phototherapy can modulate wound healing, and that changes induced in the immune system, in particular the secretion of soluble protein mediators including cytokines, may be involved in this modulation. The immune system has peripheral and deep components. The former, being located mainly in the skin and mucous membranes, are readily accessible to photons, which can affect them directly. The components of the immune system are linked by lymphatic vessels and blood vessels, which include many capillaries located in the sub-epithelial connective tissues of the skin and mucous membranes. The superficial location of these capillaries provides the immune cells and molecules in transit through them with ready access to photons. When these cells and molecules, some modified by exposure to photons, reach susceptible cells such as lymphocytes in the deeper parts of the immune system and cells of injured tissues, they can modify their activity. In addition to having direct effects on peripheral cells, photons can thus also produce indirect effects on cells too distant for the photons to reach them. For example, cytokines released from peripheral macrophages in response to the direct action of photons can be transported to and affect other

  8. Systemic PPARgamma ligation inhibits allergic immune response in the skin.

    PubMed

    Dahten, Anja; Koch, Christin; Ernst, Dennis; Schnöller, Corinna; Hartmann, Susanne; Worm, Margitta

    2008-09-01

    We have shown previously that specific ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibit the systemic allergic immune response. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of PPARgamma-ligand treatment on the local allergic immune response. We established a murine model exhibiting clinical and histological features of AD-like skin lesions with high reproducibility. In this model, the PPARgamma ligand was applied in an either preventive or therapeutic manner via systemic and local routes. The affected skin areas were assessed by standardized skin score, histological analyses, and immunohistochemical examinations. Our data show that systemic application of PPARgamma ligand by a preventive protocol led to significantly reduced onset of eczematous skin lesions. This was confirmed by histology, showing decreased skin thickness accompanied by significantly reduced infiltrations of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes but also mast cells. Additionally, early allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 responses were reduced (day 21/35), whereas IgG2a levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PPARgamma-ligand treatment inhibits not only systemic allergic immune response, but also local allergen-mediated dermatitis. Our findings point to therapeutic strategies, including a PPARgamma-ligand-based treatment. PMID:18401424

  9. The immune system as a self-centered network of lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Santori, Fabio R

    2015-08-01

    This essay makes a brief historical and comparative review of selective and network theories of the immune system which is presented as a chemical sensory system with immune and non-immune functions. The ontogeny of immune networks is the result of both positive and negative selection of lymphocytes to self-epitopes that serve as a "template" for the recognition of foreign antigens. The development of immune networks progresses from single individual clones in early ontogeny into complex "information processing networks" in which lymphocytes are linked to inhibitory and stimulatory immune cells. The results of these regulatory interactions modulate immune responses and tolerance.

  10. The immune system as a self-centered network of lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Santori, Fabio R.

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes a brief historical and comparative review of selective and network theories of the immune system which is presented as a chemical sensory system with immune and non-immune functions. The ontogeny of immune networks is the result of both positive and negative selection of lymphocytes to self-epitopes that serve as a “template” for the recognition of foreign antigens. The development of immune networks progresses from single individual clones in early ontogeny into complex “information processing networks” in which lymphocytes are linked to inhibitory and stimulatory immune cells. The results of these regulatory interactions modulate immune responses and tolerance. PMID:26092524

  11. Maternal Immune Activation Disrupts Dopamine System in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Lecca, Salvatore; Melis, Miriam; De Felice, Marta; Cadeddu, Francesca; Frau, Roberto; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Fadda, Paola; Devoto, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure to maternal viral infections is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders with a supposed neurodevelopmental origin, including schizophrenia. Hence, immune response factors exert a negative impact on brain maturation that predisposes the offspring to the emergence of pathological phenotypes later in life. Although ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and their target regions play essential roles in the pathophysiology of psychoses, it remains to be fully elucidated how dopamine activity and functionality are disrupted in maternal immune activation models of schizophrenia. Methods: Here, we used an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model based on prenatal administration of the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid in rats, which mimics a viral infection and recapitulates behavioral abnormalities relevant to psychiatric disorders in the offspring. Extracellular dopamine levels were measured by brain microdialysis in both the nucleus accumbens shell and the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area were studied by in vivo electrophysiology. Results: Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid-treated animals, at adulthood, displayed deficits in sensorimotor gating, memory, and social interaction and increased baseline extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the prefrontal cortex. In polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid rats, dopamine neurons showed reduced spontaneously firing rate and population activity. Conclusions: These results confirm that maternal immune activation severely impairs dopamine system and that the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid model can be considered a proper animal model of a psychiatric condition that fulfills a multidimensional set of validity criteria predictive of a human pathology. PMID:26819283

  12. Harnessing the immune system to improve cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Nikos E.; Beniata, Ourania V.; Vitsos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy uses the immune system and its components to mount an anti-tumor response. During the last decade, it has evolved from a promising therapy option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic modalities are already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating cancer patients and many others are in the pipeline for approval as standalone or combinatorial therapeutic interventions, several also combined with standard treatments in clinical studies. The two main axes of cancer immunotherapeutics refer to passive and active treatments. Prominent examples of passive immunotherapy include administration of monoclonal antibodies and cytokines and adoptive cell transfer of ex vivo “educated” immune cells. Active immunotherapy refers, among others, to anti-cancer vaccines [peptide, dendritic cell (DC)-based and allogeneic whole cell vaccines], immune checkpoint inhibitors and oncolytic viruses, whereas new approaches that can further enhance anti-cancer immune responses are also widely explored. Herein, we present the most popular cancer immunotherapy approaches and discuss their clinical relevance referring to data acquired from clinical trials. To date, clinical experience and efficacy suggest that combining more than one immunotherapy interventions, in conjunction with other treatment options like chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted or epigenetic therapy, should guide the way to cancer cure. PMID:27563648

  13. Harnessing the immune system to improve cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Nikos E; Beniata, Ourania V; Vitsos, Panagiotis; Tsitsilonis, Ourania; Samara, Pinelopi

    2016-07-01

    Cancer immunotherapy uses the immune system and its components to mount an anti-tumor response. During the last decade, it has evolved from a promising therapy option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic modalities are already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating cancer patients and many others are in the pipeline for approval as standalone or combinatorial therapeutic interventions, several also combined with standard treatments in clinical studies. The two main axes of cancer immunotherapeutics refer to passive and active treatments. Prominent examples of passive immunotherapy include administration of monoclonal antibodies and cytokines and adoptive cell transfer of ex vivo "educated" immune cells. Active immunotherapy refers, among others, to anti-cancer vaccines [peptide, dendritic cell (DC)-based and allogeneic whole cell vaccines], immune checkpoint inhibitors and oncolytic viruses, whereas new approaches that can further enhance anti-cancer immune responses are also widely explored. Herein, we present the most popular cancer immunotherapy approaches and discuss their clinical relevance referring to data acquired from clinical trials. To date, clinical experience and efficacy suggest that combining more than one immunotherapy interventions, in conjunction with other treatment options like chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted or epigenetic therapy, should guide the way to cancer cure. PMID:27563648

  14. Regulation of metabolism by the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Denise E; Olefsky, Jerrold M

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade tissue inflammation induced by obesity can result in insulin resistance, which in turn is a key cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cells of the innate immune system produce cytokines and other factors that impair insulin signalling, which contributes to the connection between obesity and the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we review the innate immune cells involved in secreting inflammatory factors in the obese state. In the adipose tissue, these cells include proinflammatory adipose tissue macrophages and natural killer cells. We also discuss the role of innate immune cells, such as anti-inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages, eosinophils, group 2 innate lymphoid cells and invariant natural killer T cells, in maintaining an anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitive environment in the lean state. In the liver, both Kupffer cells and recruited hepatic macrophages can contribute to decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity. Proinflammatory macrophages might also adversely affect insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle and pancreatic β-cell function. Finally, this Review provides an overview of the mechanisms for regulating proinflammatory immune responses that could lead to future therapeutic opportunities to improve insulin sensitivity.

  15. A New Rule-Based System for the Construction and Structural Characterization of Artificial Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štambuk, Nikola; Konjevoda, Paško; Gotovac, Nikola

    In this paper, we present a new rule-based system for an artificial protein design incorporating ternary amino acid polarity (polar, nonpolar, and neutral). It may be used to design de novo α and β protein fold structures and mixed class proteins. The targeted molecules are artificial proteins with important industrial and biomedical applications, related to the development of diagnostic-therapeutic peptide pharmaceuticals, antibody mimetics, peptide vaccines, new nanobiomaterials and engineered protein scaffolds.

  16. The role of immune system exhaustion on cancer cell escape and anti-tumor immune induction after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fernando; Domingues, Cátia; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Estrela, Jéssica; Encarnação, João; Pires, Ana Salomé; Laranjo, Mafalda; Alves, Vera; Teixo, Ricardo; Sarmento, Ana Bela; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Rosa, Manuel Santos

    2016-04-01

    Immune surveillance seems to represent an effective tumor suppressor mechanism. However, some cancer cells survive and become variants, being poorly immunogenic and able to enter a steady-state phase. These cells become functionally dormant or remain hidden clinically throughout. Neoplastic cells seem to be able to instruct immune cells to undergo changes promoting malignancy. Radiotherapy may act as a trigger of the immune response. After radiotherapy a sequence of reactions occurs, starting in the damage of oncogenic cells by multiple mechanisms, leading to the immune system positive feedback against the tumor. The link between radiotherapy and the immune system is evident. T cells, macrophages, Natural Killer cells and other immune cells seem to have a key role in controlling the tumor. T cells may be dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell exhaustion, nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, being able to be mobilized to become highly functional. The lack of clinical trials on a large scale makes data a little robust, in spite of promising information, there are still many variables in the studies relating to radiation and immune system. The clarification of the mechanisms underlying immune response to radiation exposure may contribute to treatment improvement, gain of life quality and span of patients.

  17. The effect of induced hyperthermia on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Dieing, Annette; Ahlers, Olaf; Hildebrandt, Bert; Kerner, Thoralf; Tamm, Ingo; Possinger, Kurt; Wust, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Therapeutical hyperthermia has been considered for cancer therapy since William Coley observed tumour remission after induction of fever by bacterial toxins at the end of the 19th century. Because fever is associated with a variety of immunological reactions, it has been suspected, that therapeutical hyperthermia might also activate the immune system in a reproducible manner and thereby positively influence the course of the disease. During the last decade, new insight has been gained regarding the immunological changes taking place during therapeutic hyperthermia. In this chapter, we review the most relevant data known about the effect of hyperthermia on the immune system with special focus on alterations induced by therapeutical whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) in cancer patients.

  18. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: the role of immune system cells.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Marzano, Flaviana; Cavallo, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, new evidences of the relationship between immune system and bone have been accumulated both in animal models and in humans affected by bone disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastasis, periodontitis, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a subsequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. The combined effects of estrogen deprivation and raising of FSH production occurring in menopause cause a marked stimulation of bone resorption and a rapid bone loss which is central for the onset of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This review focuses on the role of immune system in postmenopausal osteoporosis and on therapeutic strategies targeting osteoimmunology pathways.

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis When Your Immune System Attacks Your Body | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid Arthritis When Your Immune System Attacks Your Body Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... disease, which means the arthritis results from your immune system attacking your body's own tissues. The course of ...

  20. Rheumatoid Arthritis When Your Immune System Attacks Your Body | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... In an autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system turns against parts of the body it is ... In an autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system turns against parts of the body it is ...

  1. Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Kau, Andrew L; Ahern, Philip P; Griffin, Nicholas W; Goodman, Andrew L; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2011-06-16

    Marked changes in socio-economic status, cultural traditions, population growth and agriculture are affecting diets worldwide. Understanding how our diet and nutritional status influence the composition and dynamic operations of our gut microbial communities, and the innate and adaptive arms of our immune system, represents an area of scientific need, opportunity and challenge. The insights gleaned should help to address several pressing global health problems.

  2. Investigation of man's immune system (M112), part B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritzmann, S. E.; Levin, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Fifty-six days of residence in a Skylab-type environment produce essentially no change in the reactivity of the human immune system, as typified by the rate of RNA or DNA synthesis in small lymphocytes. The one point of divergence between the Skylab simulation crew and previous Apollo crews, a marked depression in synthesis rates on the fourteenth day after the chamber study, may be due to some technical difficulty in the experiment. Lymphocyte morphology changes paralleled functional changes.

  3. Using systems biology to simplify complex disease: immune cartography.

    PubMed

    Polpitiya, Ashoka D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Burykin, Anton; Ghosh, Bijoy K; Cobb, J Perren

    2009-01-01

    What if there was a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate blood diagnostic that could determine which patients were infected, identify the organism(s) responsible, and identify patients who were not responding to therapy? We hypothesized that systems analysis of the transcriptional activity of circulating immune effector cells could be used to identify conserved elements in the host response to systemic inflammation, and furthermore, to discriminate between sterile and infectious etiologies. We review herein a validated, systems biology approach demonstrating that 1) abdominal and pulmonary sepsis diagnoses can be made in mouse models using microarray (RNA) data from circulating blood, 2) blood microarray data can be used to differentiate between the host response to Gram-negative and Gram-positive pneumonia, 3) the endotoxin response of normal human volunteers can be mapped at the level of gene expression, and 4) a similar strategy can be used in the critically ill to follow septic patients and quantitatively determine immune recovery. These findings provide the foundation of immune cartography and demonstrate the potential of this approach for rapidly diagnosing sepsis and identifying pathogens. Further, our data suggest a new approach to determine how specific pathogens perturb the physiology of circulating leukocytes in a cell-specific manner. Large, prospective clinical trails are needed to validate the clinical utility of leukocyte RNA diagnostics (e.g., the riboleukogram).

  4. Using artificial systems to explore the ecology and evolution of symbioses.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Babak; Chen, Chi-Chun; Hillesland, Kristina L; Waite, Adam; Shou, Wenying

    2011-04-01

    The web of life is weaved from diverse symbiotic interactions between species. Symbioses vary from antagonistic interactions such as competition and predation to beneficial interactions such as mutualism. What are the bases for the origin and persistence of symbiosis? What affects the ecology and evolution of symbioses? How do symbiotic interactions generate ecological patterns? How do symbiotic partners evolve and coevolve? Many of these questions are difficult to address in natural systems. Artificial systems, from abstract to living, have been constructed to capture essential features of natural symbioses and to address these key questions. With reduced complexity and increased controllability, artificial systems can serve as useful models for natural systems. We review how artificial systems have contributed to our understanding of symbioses.

  5. New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

  6. Artificial neural-network based feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction in distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyong Kim; Yunseok Ko; Kyunghee Jung . Dept. of Distribution System)

    1993-07-01

    Neural networks have the capability to map the complex and extremely non-linear relationship between the load levels of zone and system topologies, which is required for feeder reconfiguration in distribution systems. This study is intended to propose the strategies to reconfigure the feeder, by using artificial neural networks with mapping ability. Artificial neural networks determine the appropriate system topology that reduces the power loss according to the variation of load pattern. The control strategy can be easily obtained from the system topology which is provided by artificial neural networks. Artificial neural networks are in groups. The first group estimates the proper load level from the load data of each zone, and the second determines the appropriate system topology from the input load level. In addition, several programs with the training set builder are developed for the design, the training and the accuracy test of artificial neural networks. The authors also evaluate the performance of neural networks designed here, on the test distribution system. Neural networks are implemented in FORTRAN language, and trained on the personal computer COMPAQ 386.

  7. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Pilot Study Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient, effective, multi-system countermeasures will likely be required to protect the health, safety, and performance of crews aboard planned exploration-class space flight missions to Mars and beyond. To that end, NASA, DLR, and IMBP initiated a multi-center international project to begin systematically exploring the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure in ground based venues using test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. The goal of this project is to explore the efficacy of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensory-motor adaptations to hypogravity. This session reports the results from a pilot study commissioned to validate a standardized protocol to be used by all centers involved in the project. Subject selection criteria, medical monitoring requirements, medical care procedures, experiment control procedures, and standardized dependent measures were established jointly. Testing was performed on 15 rigorously screened male volunteers subjected to 21 days of 6deg HDT bed rest. (All provided written consent to volunteer after the nature of the study and its hazards were clearly explained to them.) Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple tests of multiple dependent measures were made in each of the primary physiological systems of interest during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period was complete. Analyses of these data (presented in other papers in this session) suggest the AG prescription had salutary effects on aspects of the bone, muscle, and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Furthermore, treatment subjects were able to tolerate 153/160 centrifuge sessions over

  8. Coordinate actions of innate immune responses oppose those of the adaptive immune system during Salmonella infection of mice.

    PubMed

    Hotson, Andrew N; Gopinath, Smita; Nicolau, Monica; Khasanova, Anna; Finck, Rachel; Monack, Denise; Nolan, Garry P

    2016-01-12

    The immune system enacts a coordinated response when faced with complex environmental and pathogenic perturbations. We used the heterogeneous responses of mice to persistent Salmonella infection to model system-wide coordination of the immune response to bacterial burden. We hypothesized that the variability in outcomes of bacterial growth and immune response across genetically identical mice could be used to identify immune elements that serve as integrators enabling co-regulation and interconnectedness of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Correlation analysis of immune response variation to Salmonella infection linked bacterial load with at least four discrete, interacting functional immune response "cassettes." One of these, the innate cassette, in the chronically infected mice included features of the innate immune system, systemic neutrophilia, and high serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. Compared with mice with a moderate bacterial load, mice with the highest bacterial burden exhibited high activity of this innate cassette, which was associated with a dampened activity of the adaptive T cell cassette-with fewer plasma cells and CD4(+) T helper 1 cells and increased numbers of regulatory T cells-and with a dampened activity of the cytokine signaling cassette. System-wide manipulation of neutrophil numbers revealed that neutrophils regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling in B cells during infection. Thus, a network-level approach demonstrated unappreciated interconnections that balanced innate and adaptive immune responses during the dynamic course of disease and identified signals associated with pathogen transmission status, as well as a regulatory role for neutrophils in cytokine signaling.

  9. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems Research and Their Possible Impact on Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borko, Harold

    1985-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems; describes library applications utilizing AI to automate creation of document representations, request formulations, and design and modify search strategies for information retrieval systems; discusses expert system development for information services; and reviews impact of these…

  10. Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, Natural Language Interfaces, Knowledge Engineering and the Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Jim

    This paper begins by examining concepts of artificial intelligence (AI) and discusses various definitions of the concept that have been suggested in the literature. The nesting relationship of expert systems within the broader framework of AI is described, and expert systems are characterized as knowledge-based systems (KBS) which attempt to solve…

  11. Immune systems are not just for making you feel better: they are for controlling autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Mark

    2005-05-01

    The typical algorithm for robot autonomous navigation in off-road complex environments involves building a 3D map of the robot's surrounding environment using a 3D sensing modality such as stereo vision or active laser scanning, and generating an instantaneous plan to navigate around hazards. Although there has been steady progress using these methods, these systems suffer from several limitations that cannot be overcome with 3D sensing and planning alone. Geometric sensing alone has no ability to distinguish between compressible and non-compressible materials. As a result, these systems have difficulty in heavily vegetated environments and require sensitivity adjustments across different terrain types. On the planning side, these systems have no ability to learn from their mistakes and avoid problematic environmental situations on subsequent encounters. We have implemented an adaptive terrain classification system based on the Artificial Immune System (AIS) computational model, which is loosely based on the biological immune system, that combines various forms of imaging sensor inputs to produce a "feature labeled" image of the scene categorizing areas as benign or detrimental for autonomous robot navigation. Because of the qualities of the AIS computation model, the resulting system will be able to learn and adapt on its own through interaction with the environment by modifying its interpretation of the sensor data. The feature labeled results from the AIS analysis are inserted into a map and can then be used by a planner to generate a safe route to a goal point. The coupling of diverse visual cues with the malleable AIS computational model will lead to autonomous robotic ground vehicles that require less human intervention for deployment in novel environments and more robust operation as a result of the system's ability to improve its performance through interaction with the environment.

  12. Building a National Immunization System: A Guide to Immunization Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Paula; And Others

    Over the past several years, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have drawn greater attention to the problem of low immunization rates in the U.S. In response to this problem, the federal government created the Vaccines for Children program as a foundation for a new national immunization policy to ensure proper and timely immunizations for…

  13. Regenerative function of immune system: Modulation of muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Saini, Jasdeep; McPhee, Jamie S; Al-Dabbagh, Sarah; Stewart, Claire E; Al-Shanti, Nasser

    2016-05-01

    Ageing is characterised by progressive deterioration of physiological systems and the loss of skeletal muscle mass is one of the most recognisable, leading to muscle weakness and mobility impairments. This review highlights interactions between the immune system and skeletal muscle stem cells (widely termed satellite cells or myoblasts) to influence satellite cell behaviour during muscle regeneration after injury, and outlines deficits associated with ageing. Resident neutrophils and macrophages in skeletal muscle become activated when muscle fibres are damaged via stimuli (e.g. contusions, strains, avulsions, hyperextensions, ruptures) and release high concentrations of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors into the microenvironment. These localised responses serve to attract additional immune cells which can reach in excess of 1×10(5) immune cell/mm(3) of skeletal muscle in order to orchestrate the repair process. T-cells have a delayed response, reaching peak activation roughly 4 days after the initial damage. The cytokines and growth factors released by activated T-cells play a key role in muscle satellite cell proliferation and migration, although the precise mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. T-cells in older people display limited ability to activate satellite cell proliferation and migration which is likely to contribute to insufficient muscle repair and, consequently, muscle wasting and weakness. If the factors released by T-cells to activate satellite cells can be identified, it may be possible to develop therapeutic agents to enhance muscle regeneration and reduce the impact of muscle wasting during ageing and disease. PMID:27039885

  14. Joint replacement surgery and the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Stuart B; Konttinen, Yrjo T; Takagi, Michiaki

    2014-01-01

    Total joint replacement is a highly successful, cost-effective surgical procedure that relieves pain and improves function for patients with end-stage arthritis. The most commonly used materials for modern joint replacements include metal alloys such as cobalt chrome and titanium alloys, polymers including polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene, and ceramics. Implantation of a joint prosthesis incites an acute inflammatory reaction that is regulated by the innate immune system, a preprogrammed non-antigen specific biological response composed of cells, proteins, and other factors. This "frontline" immune mechanism was originally designed to combat invading microorganisms, but now responds to both pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPS (by-products from microorganisms), and damage associated molecular patterns or DAMPS (molecular by-products from cells), via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this way, potentially injurious stimuli that might disrupt the normal homeostatic regulatory mechanisms of the organism are efficiently dealt with, ensuring the survival of the host. Initial surgical implantation of the joint replacement, as well as ongoing generation of wear debris and byproducts during usage of the joint, activates the innate immune system. Understanding and potentially modulating these events may lead to improved function and increased longevity of joint replacements in the future. PMID:25747028

  15. Regenerative function of immune system: Modulation of muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Saini, Jasdeep; McPhee, Jamie S; Al-Dabbagh, Sarah; Stewart, Claire E; Al-Shanti, Nasser

    2016-05-01

    Ageing is characterised by progressive deterioration of physiological systems and the loss of skeletal muscle mass is one of the most recognisable, leading to muscle weakness and mobility impairments. This review highlights interactions between the immune system and skeletal muscle stem cells (widely termed satellite cells or myoblasts) to influence satellite cell behaviour during muscle regeneration after injury, and outlines deficits associated with ageing. Resident neutrophils and macrophages in skeletal muscle become activated when muscle fibres are damaged via stimuli (e.g. contusions, strains, avulsions, hyperextensions, ruptures) and release high concentrations of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors into the microenvironment. These localised responses serve to attract additional immune cells which can reach in excess of 1×10(5) immune cell/mm(3) of skeletal muscle in order to orchestrate the repair process. T-cells have a delayed response, reaching peak activation roughly 4 days after the initial damage. The cytokines and growth factors released by activated T-cells play a key role in muscle satellite cell proliferation and migration, although the precise mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. T-cells in older people display limited ability to activate satellite cell proliferation and migration which is likely to contribute to insufficient muscle repair and, consequently, muscle wasting and weakness. If the factors released by T-cells to activate satellite cells can be identified, it may be possible to develop therapeutic agents to enhance muscle regeneration and reduce the impact of muscle wasting during ageing and disease.

  16. Extracellular RNAs: A Secret Arm of Immune System Regulation.

    PubMed

    de Candia, Paola; De Rosa, Veronica; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The immune system has evolved to protect multicellular organisms from the attack of a variety of pathogens. To exert this function efficiently, the system has developed the capacity to coordinate the function of different cell types and the ability to down-modulate the response when the foreign attack is over. For decades, immunologists believed that these two characteristics were primarily related to cytokine/chemokine-based communication and cell-to-cell direct contact. More recently, it has been shown that immune cells also communicate by transferring regulatory RNAs, microRNAs in particular, from one cell to the other. Several studies have suggested a functional role of extracellular regulatory RNAs in cell-to-cell communication in different cellular contexts. This minireview focuses on the potential role of extracellular RNA transfer in the regulation of adaptive immune response, also contextualizing it in a broader field of what is known of cell-free RNAs in communication among different organisms in the evolutionary scale.

  17. Suppression of systemic autoimmunity by the innate immune adaptor STING

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Campbell, Allison M.; Chan, Jennie; Schattgen, Stefan A.; Orlowski, Gregory M.; Nayar, Ribhu; Huyler, Annie H.; Nündel, Kerstin; Mohan, Chandra; Berg, Leslie J.; Shlomchik, Mark J.; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways that signal via Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) mediate immunity to pathogens and also promote autoimmune pathology in DNaseII- and DNaseIII-deficient mice. In contrast, we report here that STING potently suppresses inflammation in a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lymphoid hypertrophy, autoantibody production, serum cytokine levels, and other indicators of immune activation were markedly increased in STING-deficient autoimmune-prone mice compared with STING-sufficient littermates. As a result, STING-deficient autoimmune-prone mice had significantly shorter lifespans than controls. Importantly, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent systemic inflammation during 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD)-mediated peritonitis was similarly aggravated in STING-deficient mice. Mechanistically, STING-deficient macrophages failed to express negative regulators of immune activation and thus were hyperresponsive to TLR ligands, producing abnormally high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This hyperreactivity corresponds to dramatically elevated numbers of inflammatory macrophages and granulocytes in vivo. Collectively these findings reveal an unexpected negative regulatory role for STING, having important implications for STING-directed therapies. PMID:25646421

  18. Endosymbiotic bacteria in insects: guardians of the immune system?

    PubMed

    Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Atri, Jaishri; Accetta, Julia; Castillo, Julio C

    2013-01-01

    Insects have evolved obligate, mutualistic interactions with bacteria without further transmission to other eukaryotic organisms. Such long-term obligate partnerships between insects and bacteria have a profound effect on various physiological functions of the host. Here we provide an overview of the effects of endosymbiotic bacteria on the insect immune system as well as on the immune response of insects to pathogenic infections. Potential mechanisms through which endosymbionts can affect the ability of their host to resist an infection are discussed in the light of recent findings. We finally point out unresolved questions for future research and speculate how the current knowledge can be employed to design and implement measures for the effective control of agricultural insect pests and vectors of diseases.

  19. Compartmentalized and systemic control of tissue immunity by commensals

    PubMed Central

    Belkaid, Yasmine; Naik, Shruti

    2013-01-01

    The body is composed of various tissue microenvironments with finely tuned local immunosurveillance systems, many of which are in close apposition with distinct commensal niches. Mammals have formed an evolutionary partnership with the microbiota that is critical for metabolism, tissue development and host defense. Despite our growing understanding of the impact of this host-microbe alliance on immunity in the gastrointestinal tract, the extent to which individual microenvironments are controlled by resident microbiota remains unclear. In this Perspective we discuss how resident commensals outside the gastrointestinal tract can control unique physiological niches and the potential implications of the dialog between these commensals and the host for the establishment of immune homeostasis, protective responses and tissue pathology. PMID:23778791

  20. The behavioural immune system and the psychology of human sociality

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Because immunological defence against pathogens is costly and merely reactive, human anti-pathogen defence is also characterized by proactive behavioural mechanisms that inhibit contact with pathogens in the first place. This behavioural immune system comprises psychological processes that infer infection risk from perceptual cues, and that respond to these perceptual cues through the activation of aversive emotions, cognitions and behavioural impulses. These processes are engaged flexibly, producing context–contingent variation in the nature and magnitude of aversive responses. These processes have important implications for human social cognition and social behaviour—including implications for social gregariousness, person perception, intergroup prejudice, mate preferences, sexual behaviour and conformity. Empirical evidence bearing on these many implications is reviewed and discussed. This review also identifies important directions for future research on the human behavioural immune system—including the need for enquiry into underlying mechanisms, additional behavioural consequences and implications for human health and well-being. PMID:22042918

  1. Endosymbiotic bacteria in insects: guardians of the immune system?

    PubMed Central

    Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Atri, Jaishri; Accetta, Julia; Castillo, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    Insects have evolved obligate, mutualistic interactions with bacteria without further transmission to other eukaryotic organisms. Such long-term obligate partnerships between insects and bacteria have a profound effect on various physiological functions of the host. Here we provide an overview of the effects of endosymbiotic bacteria on the insect immune system as well as on the immune response of insects to pathogenic infections. Potential mechanisms through which endosymbionts can affect the ability of their host to resist an infection are discussed in the light of recent findings. We finally point out unresolved questions for future research and speculate how the current knowledge can be employed to design and implement measures for the effective control of agricultural insect pests and vectors of diseases. PMID:23508299

  2. Single-cell technologies for monitoring immune systems

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Pratip K; Gierahn, Todd M; Roederer, Mario; Love, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The complex heterogeneity of cells, and their interconnectedness with each other, are major challenges to identifying clinically relevant measurements that reflect the state and capability of the immune system. Highly multiplexed, single-cell technologies may be critical for identifying correlates of disease or immunological interventions as well as for elucidating the underlying mechanisms of immunity. Here we review limitations of bulk measurements and explore advances in single-cell technologies that overcome these problems by expanding the depth and breadth of functional and phenotypic analysis in space and time. The geometric increases in complexity of data make formidable hurdles for exploring, analyzing and presenting results. We summarize recent approaches to making such computations tractable and discuss challenges for integrating heterogeneous data obtained using these single-cell technologies. PMID:24448570

  3. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also briefly…

  5. A comparative study of artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain Mutlag, Ammar; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-03-01

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is normally required to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking (AI-MPPT) by considering three artificial intelligent techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven triangular fuzzy sets (7-tri), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven gbell fuzzy sets. The AI-MPPT is designed for the 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV panels, with the capacity of 3 kW peak. A complete PV system is modelled using 300,000 data samples and simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The AI-MPPT has been tested under real environmental conditions for two days from 8 am to 18 pm. The results showed that the ANN based MPPT gives the most accurate performance and then followed by the 7-tri-based MPPT.

  6. Immune Restoration

    MedlinePlus

    ... marrow cells immune to HIV infection. Letting the immune system repair itself: CD4 counts have increased for many ... have taken ART. Some scientists believe that the immune system might be able to heal and repair itself ...

  7. The coagulation system and its function in early immune defense.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, Tom; Herwald, Heiko

    2014-10-01

    Blood coagulation has a Janus-faced role in infectious diseases. When systemically activated, it can cause serious complications associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, coagulation is also part of the innate immune system and its local activation has been found to play an important role in the early host response to infection. Though the latter aspect has been less investigated, phylogenetic studies have shown that many factors involved in coagulation have ancestral origins which are often combined with anti-microbial features. This review gives a general overview about the most recent advances in this area of research also referred to as immunothrombosis.

  8. Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

    2013-11-19

    Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the

  9. A Paradigmatic Example of an Artificially Intelligent Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Burton, Richard R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the philosophy of intelligent instructional systems and presents an example of such a system, BLOCKS. The notion of BLOCKS as a paradigmatic system is explicated from both the system development and educational points of view. (Author/VT)

  10. ANCA negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with systemic involvement.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, K; Ramakrishnan, M; Sah, A K; Gowtham, S; Ajeshkumar, R N

    2010-01-01

    Systemic vasculitides (SV) are a group of diseases with multi system involvement and varied clinical presentation. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing has high sensitivity and specificity for SV. We describe the clinical course of four patients who had pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with systemic involvement without serological ANCA positivity; they were followed up for a cumulative 55 patient months. The mean Birmingham vasculitis score score was 23. All four had systemic symptoms with arthralgias and fever (100%). Neurological manifestations were seen in two patients (66%). Accelerated hypertension was seen in one. One patient had pulmonary renal syndrome. Renal manifestation was characterized by nephrotic range of proteinuria with glomerular hematuria in all (100%) and severe renal failure requiring dialysis in three (66%). At admission the mean blood urea was 146 +/- 19 mg% and mean serum creatinine was 5.6 +/- 1.9 mg%. Renal biopsy revealed focal proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescents only in 20-30% of glomeruli. There was significant chronic interstitial involvement in two patients (66%). Therapy with pulse steroids, cyclophosphamide, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was effective in three patients while one died with lung hemorrhage. In conclusion, majority of patients with ANCA negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis have multi-system involvement at admission. Renal biopsy is characterized by focal proliferative lesions with crescents and significant chronic interstitial fibrosis. Immunosuppressive drugs in the form of corticosteroids, MMF and cyclophosphamide bring about marked renal recovery in most patients. PMID:20535271

  11. Cell mechanics and immune system link up to fight infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Andrew; Man, Si Ming; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Guck, Jochen; Bryant, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases, in which pathogens invade and colonize host cells, are responsible for one third of all mortality worldwide. Host cells use special proteins (immunoproteins) and other molecules to fight viral and bacterial invaders. The mechanisms by which immunoproteins enable cells to reduce bacterial loads and survive infections remain unclear. Moreover, during infections, some immunoproteins are known to alter the cytoskeleton, the structure that largely determines cellular mechanical properties. We therefore used an optical stretcher to measure the mechanical properties of primary immune cells (bone marrow derived macrophages) during bacterial infection. We found that macrophages become stiffer upon infection. Remarkably, macrophages lacking the immunoprotein, NLR-C4, lost the stiffening response to infection. This in vitro result correlates with our in vivo data whereby mice lacking NLR-C4 have more lesions and hence increased bacterial distribution and spread. Thus, the immune-protein-dependent increase in cell stiffness in response to bacterial infection (in vitro result) seems to have a functional role in the system level fight against pathogens (in vivo result). We will discuss how this functional link between cell mechanical properties and innate immunity, effected by actin polymerization, reduces the spread of infection.

  12. Innate immune recognition of flagellin limits systemic persistence of Brucella

    PubMed Central

    Terwagne, Matthieu; Ferooz, Jonathan; Rolán, Hortensia G.; Sun, Yao-Hui; Atluri, Vidya; Xavier, Mariana N.; Franchi, Luigi; Núñez, Gabriel; Legrand, Thomas; Flavell, Richard A.; De Bolle, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Brucella are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause chronic infections by limiting innate immune recognition. It is currently unknown whether Brucella FliC flagellin, the monomeric subunit of flagellar filament, is sensed by the host during infection. Here, we used two mutants of Brucella melitensis, either lacking or overexpressing flagellin to show that FliC hinders bacterial replication in vivo. The use of cells and mice genetically deficient for different components of inflammasomes suggested that FliC was a target of the cytosolic innate immune receptor NLRC4 in vivo but not in macrophages in vitro where the response to FliC was nevertheless dependent on the cytosolic adaptor ASC, therefore suggesting a new pathway of cytosolic flagellin sensing. However, our work also suggested that the lack of TLR5 activity of Brucella flagellin and the regulation of its synthesis and/or delivery into host cells are both part of the stealthy strategy of Brucella towards the innate immune system. Nevertheless, since a flagellin-deficient mutant of B. melitensis was found to cause histologically demonstrable injuries in the spleen of infected mice, we suggested that recognition of FliC plays a role in the immunologic standoff between Brucella and its host, which is characterized by a persistent infection with limited inflammatory pathology. PMID:23227931

  13. Dynamics of Coevolution and Branching in the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, Kimberly; Stromberg, Sean; Carlson, Jean

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of coevolution between two coupled populations, in the context of the interaction between mutating pathogen and the adaptive immune response. Our model represents the binding affinities between antigen epitopes and lymphocyte receptors which mediate the interactions of the two populations, and which may change with pathogen mutation. We see diverse possible outcomes of infection, including early pathogen clearance, early pathogen escape from immune control, and an intermediate state of chronic infection, in which pathogen strains coexist with lymphocytes at relatively stable levels. The coevolutionary dynamics within this chronic infection state display emergent structure, including evolutionary branching that is fundamentally driven by the coevolutionary interaction and that results in the clustering of the pathogen population into distinct and independently evolving clusters. The increased fragility of the immune system as it distributes its resources to control a growing number of clusters can lead to the sudden out-of-control growth of the pathogen after months or years of chronic infection. This work was supported by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Office of Naval Research MURI grants, the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies, and the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program (Grant No. DGE-1144085).

  14. [Design of an artificial sphincter system with bio-feedback function based on MSP430].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-kan; Yan, De-tian

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we advance a new treating method for rectectomy postoperative anus incontinence, which is called "artificial sphincter system with biofeedback-function". The system simulates the function of human's sphincter and has entered into a stage of simulation experiments on animals. PMID:16494055

  15. Monitoring of space station life support systems with miniature mass spectrometry and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Richard A.; Johnson, Jodie V.; Wong, Carla M.

    1987-01-01

    The combination of quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectroscopy with artificial intelligence is a promising approach for monitoring the performance of the life support systems in the space station. Such an analytical system can provide the selectivity, sensitivity, speed, small size, and decision making intelligence to detect, identify, and quantify trace toxic compounds which may accumulate in the space station habitat.

  16. Terrestrial stress analogs for spaceflight associated immune system dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Crucian, Brian; Simpson, Richard J; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Chouker, Alexander; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K; Salam, Alex P; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2014-07-01

    Recent data indicates that dysregulation of the immune system occurs and persists during spaceflight. Impairment of immunity, especially in conjunction with elevated radiation exposure and limited clinical care, may increase certain health risks during exploration-class deep space missions (i.e. to an asteroid or Mars). Research must thoroughly characterize immune dysregulation in astronauts to enable development of a monitoring strategy and validate any necessary countermeasures. Although the International Space Station affords an excellent platform for on-orbit research, access may be constrained by technical, logistical vehicle or funding limitations. Therefore, terrestrial spaceflight analogs will continue to serve as lower cost, easier access platforms to enable basic human physiology studies. Analog work can triage potential in-flight experiments and thus result in more focused on-orbit studies, enhancing overall research efficiency. Terrestrial space analogs generally replicate some of the physiological or psychological stress responses associated with spaceflight. These include the use of human test subjects in a laboratory setting (i.e. exercise, bed rest, confinement, circadian misalignment) and human remote deployment analogs (Antarctica winterover, undersea, etc.) that incorporate confinement, isolation, extreme environment, physiological mission stress and disrupted circadian rhythms. While bed rest has been used to examine the effects of physical deconditioning, radiation and microgravity may only be simulated in animal or microgravity cell culture (clinorotation) analogs. This article will characterize the array of terrestrial analogs for spaceflight immune dysregulation, the current evidence base for each, and interpret the analog catalog in the context of acute and chronic stress. PMID:24462949

  17. Teaching artificial neural systems to drive: Manual training techniques for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepanski, J. F.; Macy, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology was developed for manually training autonomous control systems based on artificial neural systems (ANS). In applications where the rule set governing an expert's decisions is difficult to formulate, ANS can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken. Properly constructed networks imitate rules of behavior that permits them to function autonomously when they are trained on the spanning set of possible situations. This training can be provided manually, either under the direct supervision of a system trainer, or indirectly using a background mode where the networks assimilates training data as the expert performs its day-to-day tasks. To demonstrate these methods, an ANS network was trained to drive a vehicle through simulated freeway traffic.

  18. Signal processing using artificial neural network for BOTDA sensor system.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Wang, Liang; Guo, Nan; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Lu, Chao

    2016-03-21

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of artificial neural network (ANN) to process sensing signals obtained from Brillouin optical time domain analyzer (BOTDA). The distributed temperature information is extracted directly from the local Brillouin gain spectra (BGSs) along the fiber under test without the process of determination of Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) and hence conversion from BFS to temperature. Unlike our previous work for short sensing distance where ANN is trained by measured BGSs, here we employ ideal BGSs with different linewidths to train the ANN in order to take the linewidth variation due to different conditions from the training and testing phases into account, making it feasible for long distance sensing. Moreover, the performance of ANN is compared with other two techniques, Lorentzian curve fitting and cross-correlation method, and our results show that ANN has higher accuracy and larger tolerance to measurement error, especially at large frequency scanning step. We also show that the temperature extraction from BOTDA measurements employing ANN is significantly faster than the other two approaches. Hence ANN can be an excellent alternative tool to process BGSs measured by BOTDA and obtain temperature distribution along the fiber, especially when large frequency scanning step is adopted to significantly reduce the measurement time but without sacrifice of sensing accuracy. PMID:27136863

  19. Signal processing using artificial neural network for BOTDA sensor system.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Wang, Liang; Guo, Nan; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Lu, Chao

    2016-03-21

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of artificial neural network (ANN) to process sensing signals obtained from Brillouin optical time domain analyzer (BOTDA). The distributed temperature information is extracted directly from the local Brillouin gain spectra (BGSs) along the fiber under test without the process of determination of Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) and hence conversion from BFS to temperature. Unlike our previous work for short sensing distance where ANN is trained by measured BGSs, here we employ ideal BGSs with different linewidths to train the ANN in order to take the linewidth variation due to different conditions from the training and testing phases into account, making it feasible for long distance sensing. Moreover, the performance of ANN is compared with other two techniques, Lorentzian curve fitting and cross-correlation method, and our results show that ANN has higher accuracy and larger tolerance to measurement error, especially at large frequency scanning step. We also show that the temperature extraction from BOTDA measurements employing ANN is significantly faster than the other two approaches. Hence ANN can be an excellent alternative tool to process BGSs measured by BOTDA and obtain temperature distribution along the fiber, especially when large frequency scanning step is adopted to significantly reduce the measurement time but without sacrifice of sensing accuracy.

  20. Central nervous system and peripheral immune functions and the sleep-wake system.

    PubMed Central

    Moldofsky, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationship of aspects of the immune system to the sleep-wake system in animals and humans. In addition to the influence of certain cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) on the sleeping-waking brain, circadian measures of plasma IL-1 and peripheral immune cellular functions, for example, natural killer cell activities and cortisol are related to the sleep-wake system in humans. Changes in the circadian patterns of immune functions over the menstrual cycle are associated with the amount of progesterone and slow wave sleep. The harmonious inter-relationship of the circadian pattern of the immune, endocrine and sleep-wake systems may be important in the cause and functions of sleep. PMID:7803370

  1. How Psychological States Affect the Immune System: Implications for Interventions in the Context of HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Jill

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the psychological states associated with enhanced immune system functioning and those associated with suppressed immune functioning. Reviews studies of psychological and behavioral interventions to boost the immune systems of people who are HIV positive. Suggests that group interventions can enhance psychological states associated with…

  2. UV-B and the immune system. A review with special emphasis on T cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Goettsch, W; Garssen, J; de Gruijl, F R; van Loveren, H

    1993-03-01

    The immunosuppressive activity of ultraviolet light-B (UV-B) has become a major topic of interest, especially now that there are indications of an increased exposure to UV-B on the earth's surface, caused by a decreased thickness of the ozone layer. This review indicates that the thymus-dependent immune system is a prime target for damage by UV-B. Especially the systemic effects of UV-B on T cell mediated immunity are described and analyzed with respect to the mode of action. In summary, this review demonstrated that UV-B can alter T cell mediated immune responses by different pathways in which cytokines (e.g. TNF-alpha) and other soluble mediators (e.g. cis-urocanic acid) may play a role. Effects of UV-B on the location and morphology of different cells in the skin affect functionality of the immune system. Thus, UV-B may suppress local immunity against skin tumours and skin-associated infections as well as systemic immunity against non skin-associated infectious diseases and tumours.

  3. Immune system dysregulation in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Klein, Rachel G.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Babb, James S.; Nishawala, Melissa; De Jesus, Georgette; Hirsch, Glenn S.; Hottinger-Blanc, Pauline M.Z.; Gonzalez, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence suggests that immune system dysregulation is associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults. This study extends this work to adolescent MDD to examine the hypotheses of immune system dysregulation in adolescents with MDD, as manifested by significantly: (i) elevated plasma levels of cytokines (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and IL-4); and (ii) Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance shifted toward Th1 as indexed by increased IFN-γ/IL-4. Method Thirty adolescents with MDD (19 females; 13 medication-free/naïve; ages 12–19) of at least 6 weeks duration and a minimum severity score of 40 on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale—Revised, and 15 healthy comparisons (8 females), group-matched for age, were enrolled. Plasma cytokines were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mann–Whitney test was used to compare subjects with MDD and controls. Results Adolescents with MDD had significantly elevated plasma IFN-γ levels (3.38 ± 11.8 pg/ml versus 0.37 ± 0.64 pg/ml; p<0.003), and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (16.6 ± 56.5 versus 1.76 ± 2.28; p = 0.007). A trend for IL-6 to be elevated in the MDD group was also observed (1.52 ± 2.88 pg/ml versus 0.49 ± 0.90 pg/ml; p=0.09). Importantly, findings remained evident when medicated subjects were excluded. Conclusions Findings suggest that immune system dysregulation may be associated with adolescent MDD, with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 shifted toward Th1, as documented in adult MDD. Larger studies with medication-free adolescents should follow. PMID:18790541

  4. Toward an objective classification of cells in the immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Lefkovits, I; Kuhn, L; Valiron, O; Merle, A; Kettman, J

    1988-01-01

    The relative abundance of individual proteins shared among clones of lymphocytes provides a meaningful basis for cellular classification. Twelve clones of T cells (obtained by limiting dilution) were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for polypeptide content and then evaluated by the computational technique known as principal component analysis. As a result, relatedness of the clones was established and expressed in terms of taxonomic distances. The data show that a comprehensive and objective classification of the cells involved in the immune system can be approached. Images PMID:3259320

  5. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  6. A multiuser detector based on artificial bee colony algorithm for DS-UWB systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2013-01-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD) is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB) systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD) while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity. PMID:23983638

  7. Detection Technique for Artificially Illuminated Objects in the Outer Solar System and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10−3. Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope α ≡ (d log F/d log D)=−4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit α=−2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of α for thousands of KBOs. If objects with α=−2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars. Key Words: Astrobiology—SETI—Kuiper belt objects—Artificial illumination. Astrobiology 12, 290–294. PMID:22490065

  8. Tissue communication in a systemic immune response of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hairu; Hultmark, Dan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several signaling pathways, including the JAK/STAT and Toll pathways, are known to activate blood cells (hemocytes) in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. They are believed to regulate the immune response against infections by parasitoid wasps, such as Leptopilina boulardi, but how these pathways control the hemocytes is not well understood. Here, we discuss the recent discovery that both muscles and fat body take an active part in this response. Parasitoid wasp infection induces Upd2 and Upd3 secretion from hemocytes, leading to JAK/STAT activation mainly in hemocytes and in skeletal muscles. JAK/STAT activation in muscles, but not in hemocytes, is required for an efficient encapsulation of wasp eggs. This suggests that Upd2 and Upd3 are important cytokines, coordinating different tissues for the cellular immune response in Drosophila. In the fat body, Toll signaling initiates a systemic response in which hemocytes are mobilized and activated hemocytes (lamellocytes) are generated. However, the contribution of Toll signaling to the defense against wasps is limited, probably because the wasps inject inhibitors that prevent the activation of the Toll pathway. In conclusion, parasite infection induces a systemic response in Drosophila larvae involving major organ systems and probably the physiology of the entire organism. PMID:27116253

  9. Tissue communication in a systemic immune response of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hairu; Hultmark, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Several signaling pathways, including the JAK/STAT and Toll pathways, are known to activate blood cells (hemocytes) in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. They are believed to regulate the immune response against infections by parasitoid wasps, such as Leptopilina boulardi, but how these pathways control the hemocytes is not well understood. Here, we discuss the recent discovery that both muscles and fat body take an active part in this response. Parasitoid wasp infection induces Upd2 and Upd3 secretion from hemocytes, leading to JAK/STAT activation mainly in hemocytes and in skeletal muscles. JAK/STAT activation in muscles, but not in hemocytes, is required for an efficient encapsulation of wasp eggs. This suggests that Upd2 and Upd3 are important cytokines, coordinating different tissues for the cellular immune response in Drosophila. In the fat body, Toll signaling initiates a systemic response in which hemocytes are mobilized and activated hemocytes (lamellocytes) are generated. However, the contribution of Toll signaling to the defense against wasps is limited, probably because the wasps inject inhibitors that prevent the activation of the Toll pathway. In conclusion, parasite infection induces a systemic response in Drosophila larvae involving major organ systems and probably the physiology of the entire organism. PMID:27116253

  10. The effects of cocoa on the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of T helper type 2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions. PMID:23759861

  11. Artificial feel system using magneto-rheological fluid on aircraft control stick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, Vignesh; Kim, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    The conventional feel system in aircraft occupies large space in the cockpit and has complicated designs. The primary objective of this research is to develop an artificial feel force system that can overcome some drawbacks of the current system. A novel feel system using magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is constructed to precisely control the shear stress under the magnetic field. To validate the functionality of the MR artificial feel system, the final system is fabricated and multiple tests are performed to acquire force-velocity characteristics that are compared to the mathematical model derived. In addition, the PID closed loop control algorithm is developed to simulate the dynamic system model. Both experimental and simulation results are compared to validate the derived system model. The system response time and sampling rates are evaluated and compared to the conventional system at the end. It is concluded that the developed artificial feel system can precisely control and acts as a fail proof system when incorporated with a modern fly-by-wire aircraft system.

  12. Development of a control system for artificially rehabilitated limbs: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M S H; Choudhury, I A; Dahari, M

    2015-04-01

    Development of an advanced control system for prostheses (artificial limbs) is necessary to provide functionality, effectiveness, and preferably the feeling of a sound living limb. The development of the control system has introduced varieties of control strategies depending on the application. This paper reviews some control systems used for prosthetics, orthotics, and exoskeletons. The advantages and limitations of different control systems for particular applications have been discussed and presented in a comparative manner to help in deciding the appropriate method for pertinent application.

  13. Reconfiguration of the immune system network during food limitation in the caterpillar Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Davies, Gillian; Easy, Russell; Kovalko, Ilya; Turnbull, Kurtis F

    2016-03-01

    Dwindling resources might be expected to induce a gradual decline in immune function. However, food limitation has complex and seemingly paradoxical effects on the immune system. Examining these changes from an immune system network perspective may help illuminate the purpose of these fluctuations. We found that food limitation lowered long-term (i.e. lipid) and short-term (i.e. sugars) energy stores in the caterpillar Manduca sexta. Food limitation also: altered immune gene expression, changed the activity of key immune enzymes, depressed the concentration of a major antioxidant (glutathione), reduced resistance to oxidative stress, reduced resistance to bacteria (Gram-positive and -negative bacteria) but appeared to have less effect on resistance to a fungus. These results provide evidence that food limitation led to a restructuring of the immune system network. In severely food-limited caterpillars, some immune functions were enhanced. As resources dwindled within the caterpillar, the immune response shifted its emphasis away from inducible immune defenses (i.e. those responses that are activated during an immune challenge) and increased emphasis on constitutive defenses (i.e. immune components that are produced consistently). We also found changes suggesting that the activation threshold for some immune responses (e.g. phenoloxidase) was lowered. Changes in the configuration of the immune system network will lead to different immunological strengths and vulnerabilities for the organism.

  14. Reconfiguration of the immune system network during food limitation in the caterpillar Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Davies, Gillian; Easy, Russell; Kovalko, Ilya; Turnbull, Kurtis F

    2016-03-01

    Dwindling resources might be expected to induce a gradual decline in immune function. However, food limitation has complex and seemingly paradoxical effects on the immune system. Examining these changes from an immune system network perspective may help illuminate the purpose of these fluctuations. We found that food limitation lowered long-term (i.e. lipid) and short-term (i.e. sugars) energy stores in the caterpillar Manduca sexta. Food limitation also: altered immune gene expression, changed the activity of key immune enzymes, depressed the concentration of a major antioxidant (glutathione), reduced resistance to oxidative stress, reduced resistance to bacteria (Gram-positive and -negative bacteria) but appeared to have less effect on resistance to a fungus. These results provide evidence that food limitation led to a restructuring of the immune system network. In severely food-limited caterpillars, some immune functions were enhanced. As resources dwindled within the caterpillar, the immune response shifted its emphasis away from inducible immune defenses (i.e. those responses that are activated during an immune challenge) and increased emphasis on constitutive defenses (i.e. immune components that are produced consistently). We also found changes suggesting that the activation threshold for some immune responses (e.g. phenoloxidase) was lowered. Changes in the configuration of the immune system network will lead to different immunological strengths and vulnerabilities for the organism. PMID:26747906

  15. Effect of intranasal immunization with inactivated avian influenza virus on local and systemic immune responses in ducks.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Wang, H; Yu, Q; Yang, Q

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of co-administration of inactivated avian influenza H9N2 virus and adjuvants in waterfowls, 10-d-old ducks were immunized intranasally with inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) combined with CpG DNA and sodium cholate. Immunoglobulin A and IgG antibody levels in throat and tracheal tissues increased significantly, as did specific IgA and IgG antibody levels in the serum after intranasal immunization with IAIV combined with CpG DNA and sodium cholate, compared with immunization with IAIV only. Furthermore, enhanced hemagglutination inhibition titers were also detected in serum samples taken between the third and seventh weeks after immunization with IAIV and both adjuvants compared with IAIV alone. The expression of IL-2 and IL-6 in tracheal and lung tissues increased significantly in the early period after booster immunization. However, the enhancement induced by a single adjuvant was insignificant, and no significant change was detected in the antibody titers or cytokine levels between the ducks that received IAIV alone or saline. In the viral challenge study, prior administration of both CpG DNA and sodium cholate with IAIV reduced the viral titers in the oropharynx and cloaca swabs. Our study suggests that the combination of CpG DNA and sodium cholate could be beneficial to immunization with inactivated H9N2 virus by enhancing the local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22499863

  16. Innate immune system and tissue regeneration in planarians: an area ripe for exploration.

    PubMed

    Peiris, T Harshani; Hoyer, Katrina K; Oviedo, Néstor J

    2014-08-01

    The immune system has been implicated as an important modulator of tissue regeneration. However, the mechanisms driving injury-induced immune response and tissue repair remain poorly understood. For over 200 years, planarians have been a classical model for studies on tissue regeneration, but the planarian immune system and its potential role in repair is largely unknown. We found through comparative genomic analysis and data mining that planarians contain many potential homologs of the innate immune system that are activated during injury and repair of adult tissues. These findings support the notion that the relationship between adult tissue repair and the immune system is an ancient feature of basal Bilateria. Further analysis of the planarian immune system during regeneration could potentially add to our understanding of how the innate immune system and inflammatory responses interplay with regenerative signals to induce scar-less tissue repair in the context of the adult organism.

  17. Composition on the Computer: Simple Systems and Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gerald M.; Erlwein, Bradley R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the orderly process of rhetorical composition and inquires whether that system can be implemented as an expert system on a computer or word processor, in order to expand our understanding of the human composition process. (SR)

  18. Progress in cybernetics and systems research. Vol. XI. Data base design. International Information Systems. Semiotic Systems. Artificial Intelligence. Cybernetics and Philosophy. Special aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Trappl, R.; Findler, N.V.; Horn, W.

    1982-01-01

    This book covers current research topics in six areas. These are data base design, international information systems, semiotic systems, artificial intelligence, cybernetics and philosophy, and special aspects of systems research. 1326 references.

  19. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-03-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  20. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.